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Sample records for gall bladder carcinoma

  1. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: differentiation from associated gall bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, R V Raghavendra; Kumar, Ashok; Sikora, Sadiq S; Saxena, Rajan; Kapoor, Vinay K

    2005-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a destructive form of chronic cholecystitis. In some patients it coexists with gall bladder carcinoma (GBC) and is often difficult to differentiate between the two. Present study was performed with an aim to identify differentiating features of XGC and those of XGC with associated Gall bladder carcinoma (XGC ass. GBC). A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data of 4800 cholecystectomies performed from January 1988 to December 2003 was carried out. On histopathology 453 cholecystectomy specimens revealed XGC. These patients were divided into two groups, those with associated GBC (n=26) and those without GBC (n=427). Clinical, radiological and operative findings were compared in these two groups. P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The incidence of associated GBC in present series was 6%. XGC patients with associated GBC, at presentation were older than those with XGC alone and there was male preponderance. XGC patients with associated GBC were more likely to present with anorexia, weight loss, palpable lump and jaundice. Gall stones were present in majority of patients in both the groups. GB wall thickening, GB mass, enlarged abdominal lymph nodes may be found on imaging in both the groups but more so in patients with associated GBC. Both preoperative FNAC and peroperative FNAC/imprint cytology failed to reveal the associated GBC with XGC in some patients.

  2. Incidental gall bladder carcinoma in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a report of 6 cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sujata, Jetley; S, Rana; Sabina, Khan; Mj, Hassan; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim

    2013-01-01

    Gall bladder carcinoma accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and it is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. The incidence of incidental gall bladder carcinoma which is diagnosed during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is reported to be around 0.19-3.3% in the literature. This study was aimed at detecting the incidence of gall bladder carcinomas which were diagnosed incidentally during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomies which were done for gall stone disease and cholecystitis. We analyzed the medical records of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and acute or chronic cholecystitis, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2012. A total of 622 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our institute during the study period of five and a half years. In 6 (0.96%) cases, incidental carcinomas of the gallbladder were discovered. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is performed for benign gall bladder disease rarely results in a diagnosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer. The microscopic examination of the specimens, with special attention to the depth of invasion, range of the mucosal spread and the lymphovascular involvement, is critical in diagnosing the incidental malignancies as well as for the subsequent management of the cases.

  3. Incidental Gall Bladder Carcinoma in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Report of 6 Cases and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sujata, Jetley; S, Rana; Sabina, Khan; MJ, Hassan; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gall bladder carcinoma accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and it is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. The incidence of incidental gall bladder carcinoma which is diagnosed during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is reported to be around 0.19-3.3% in the literature. Aim: This study was aimed at detecting the incidence of gall bladder carcinomas which were diagnosed incidentally during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomies which were done for gall stone disease and cholecystitis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the medical records of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and acute or chronic cholecystitis, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2012. Results: A total of 622 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our institute during the study period of five and a half years. In 6 (0.96%) cases, incidental carcinomas of the gallbladder were discovered. Conclusion: A laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is performed for benign gall bladder disease rarely results in a diagnosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer. The microscopic examination of the specimens, with special attention to the depth of invasion, range of the mucosal spread and the lymphovascular involvement, is critical in diagnosing the incidental malignancies as well as for the subsequent management of the cases. PMID:23449518

  4. Orbital Metastasis: Rare Initial Presentation of an Occult Gall Bladder Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Parihar, Ashwin Singh; Sood, Ashwani; Basher, Rajender Kumar; Bollampally, Neeraja; Shekhawat, Amit Singh; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2018-03-01

    Orbital metastases are known to arise from primary breast carcinoma followed by prostate, malignant melanoma, and lung carcinoma. We report a case of orbital metastasis as the initial presentation of an occult primary gall bladder carcinoma. The FDG PET/CT helped in localizing the occult distant primary site, which previously escaped detection, and also enabled the evaluation of orbital metastasis.

  5. Carcinoma transverse colon masquerading as carcinoma gall bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Harnam; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Bimaljot; Chauhan, Mahak

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer worldwide .Its incidence is reported to be increasing in developing countries. It commonly presents with weight loss, anaemia, lump abdomen, change of bowel habit, obstruction or fresh rectal bleeding. Beside these common modes of presentations, there are some rare manifestations which masqueraded as different disease like obstructive jaundice, empyema gall bladder or cholecystitis. A 60-year-old male presented to hospital with right sided pain abdomen. On abdominal examination mild tenderness was present in right hypochondrium. Intra operatively gall bladder was separated from the adjoining gut, peritoneum and liver bed and was removed. On further exploration, there was a large mass in the vicinity of the gall bladder related to transverse colon. Extended right hemicolectomy was done. Histopathological examination of gut mass revealed adenocarcinoma of transverse colon with free margins and gall bladder showed cholecystitis with no evidence of malignancy. We present an interesting case of colon cancer colon that caused diagnostic confusion by mimicking as cholecystitis. Colorectal cancer constitutes a major public health issue globally. Therefore, public awareness, screening of high-risk populations, early diagnosis and effective treatment and follow-up will help to reduce its occurance and further complications. PMID:24772345

  6. Carcinoma transverse colon masquerading as carcinoma gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Munghate, Anand; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Harnam; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Bimaljot; Chauhan, Mahak

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer worldwide .Its incidence is reported to be increasing in developing countries. It commonly presents with weight loss, anaemia, lump abdomen, change of bowel habit, obstruction or fresh rectal bleeding. Beside these common modes of presentations, there are some rare manifestations which masqueraded as different disease like obstructive jaundice, empyema gall bladder or cholecystitis. A 60-year-old male presented to hospital with right sided pain abdomen. On abdominal examination mild tenderness was present in right hypochondrium. Intra operatively gall bladder was separated from the adjoining gut, peritoneum and liver bed and was removed. On further exploration, there was a large mass in the vicinity of the gall bladder related to transverse colon. Extended right hemicolectomy was done. Histopathological examination of gut mass revealed adenocarcinoma of transverse colon with free margins and gall bladder showed cholecystitis with no evidence of malignancy. We present an interesting case of colon cancer colon that caused diagnostic confusion by mimicking as cholecystitis. Colorectal cancer constitutes a major public health issue globally. Therefore, public awareness, screening of high-risk populations, early diagnosis and effective treatment and follow-up will help to reduce its occurance and further complications.

  7. Duplex gall bladder: bystander or culprit.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jogender; Yadav, Arushi

    2017-08-30

    Gall bladder (GB) duplication is a rare anatomical malformation, which can be detected by preoperative imaging study. We present a case of duplex gall bladder in a 14-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain. On ultrasound, he had right nephrolithiasis and duplex gall bladder. Duplex gall bladder was confirmed on MR cholangiopancreatography. There was a dilemma for surgical management of duplex gall bladder; however, he became asymptomatic after conservative treatment. Prophylactic surgery is not recommended for asymptomatic incidentally detected duplex gall bladder. Radiologists and paediatric surgeons should be sensitised about the exact anatomy of this entity. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Molecular diagnostics in the neoplasms of the pancreas, liver, gall bladder, and extrahepatic biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Weindel, Michael; Zulfiqar, Muhammad; Bhalla, Amarpreet; Shidham, Vinod B

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms, including ductal adenocarcinoma, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, pancreatic endocrine neoplasms, acinar cell carcinoma, and ampullary carcinoma, are associated with different genetic abnormalities. Liver neoplasms, including hepatic adenomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, and cholangiocarcinomas, are associated with identifiable risk factors and genetic changes. Gall bladder adenomas and adenocarcinomas arise from distinct molecular pathways. The molecular abnormalities seen in these tumors are not used routinely in the molecular diagnostic laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute gall bladder perforation--a dilemma in early diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C L; Wong, T H; Rauff, A

    1991-01-01

    Gall bladder perforation is a rare complication of cholecystitis. A definitive diagnosis is uncommon before surgery and the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition are high. We report six patients with gall bladder perforation to show the difficulty of making an early diagnosis. The history and the clinical findings of these patients are reviewed to highlight diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:1885081

  10. [Correlation of infection with the physical and chemical characteristics of gall bladder contents].

    PubMed

    Sulaberidze, G T; Rachvelishvili, B Kh; Gelbakhiani, G P; Barbakadze, G G; Kapanadze, A G

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate pH and viscosity (h) of gall bladder contents during cholelithiasis and establishment of their correlation with bacterial and HBV infections. Seventy-eight patients undergone the planned cholecystectomy were investigated. 5 healthy persons (control group) were also involved into the study. In all cases the markers of HBV (Anti-HB core IgG, Anti-HB core IgM, HBsAg) in blood were detected, also bacteriological analysis of gall bladder tissue was performed. In 78 cases (I group) pH of gall bladder contents was measured, in 29 cases (II group), also viscosity of gall was studied. In the control group pH and viscosity were detected. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA method. Bacteriological study revealed presence of bacterial infection in gall bladder tissue in 34 cases (43,6%), in 30 patients Anti-HB core antibodies were found in the blood, in 13 cases (16,7%) coincidence of bacterial and HBV infection was documented. Mean indexes of pH and viscosity appeared to be significantly higher in the operated group (pH--7,30, h 2,1 mm(2)/sec), then in the control group (pH--6,74, h--1,34 mm(2)/sec); this indexes were highest in the infected patients. Thus, according to results of the study, changes of pH and viscosity of gall bladder contents could be considered as the useful indexes of initial stage of cholelithiasis and their values depend on the presence of bacterial or HBV infection of gall bladder.

  11. Gall bladder rupture associated with cholecystitis in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M; Guillaumot, P; Hernandez, J; Ragetly, G

    2014-09-01

    A six-year-old neutered female albino ferret was presented with an acute episode of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed marked cranial abdominal pain. A severe neutrophilic leukocytosis was present. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with a diffuse peritonitis and severe bile duct inflammation. Cytology of the abdominal effusion revealed bile peritonitis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the gall bladder appeared inflamed with multiple perforations. A cholecystectomy was performed. The ferret recovered without complication. Bacteriological culture of the bile and gall bladder yielded a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Histopathological analysis of the gall bladder and liver was consistent with a marked cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. On the basis of sensitivity testing, the ferret was treated with marbofloxacin for one month. No complications or reoccurrence were seen up to 1 year after the diagnosis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of bile peritonitis secondary to gall bladder rupture in a ferret. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Skeletotopy of the gall bladder in American mink (Mustela vision (Brisson, 1756)).

    PubMed

    Gościcka, D; Flisiński, P

    1994-01-01

    Using anatomical and radiological methods, the projection of the gall bladder was studied in relation to the vertebral column in fifty adult minks of both sexes. The gall bladder was found to be in three positions when in relation to: 1) the longitudinal axis of the vertebral column, 2) the numerical order of the vertebrae.

  13. Gall bladder mucoceles and their association with endocrinopathies in dogs: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mesich, M L L; Mayhew, P D; Paek, M; Holt, D E; Brown, D C

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between endocrinopathies and diagnosis of gall bladder mucocele in dogs via a retrospective case-control study. Records of 78 dogs with a surgical or ultrasonographic diagnosis of gall bladder mucocele were examined for the presence or absence of hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. Two age- and breed-matched controls for each gall bladder mucocele dog (156 total control dogs) were examined for the same concurrent diseases. A matched case-control analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. The odds of mucocele in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism were 29 times that of dogs without hyperadrenocorticism (P=0.001; 95 per cent CI 3.8, 219.9). No difference was found between dogs with and without diabetes mellitus. Although a significant association was found between gall bladder mucocele and hypothyroidism, potential observation bias was also identifi ed. Hyperadrenocorticoid dogs that were presented for acute illness with laboratory evidence of hepatobiliary disease should undergo evaluation for the presence of a biliary mucocele. Dogs diagnosed with a gall bladder mucocele should be screened for concurrent hyperadrenocorticism if clinical suspicion exists.

  14. Nucleation time of gall bladder bile in gall stone patients: influence of bile acid treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, S; Ahlberg, J; Angelin, B; Reihnér, E; Einarsson, K

    1991-01-01

    The time required for precipitation of cholesterol crystals (nucleation time, NT) was determined and related to the cholesterol saturation in gall bladder bile of gall stone free subjects (n = 11), patients with pigment stones (n = 3), and patients with cholesterol gall stones (n = 30) undergoing cholecystectomy. Seven of the gall stone patients had been treated with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and nine with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 15 mg/kg/day for three weeks before operation. NT was longer in gall stone free subjects (mean, 20 days), patients with pigment stones (14 days) and patients treated with CDCA (24 days) and UDCA (17 days) compared with untreated patients with cholesterol gall stones (1.5 days). In spite of low cholesterol saturation and prolonged NT, and in contrast to those treated with CDCA, four of the nine patients treated with UDCA had cholesterol crystals in their bile. These observations give further support to the concept that the mechanism for inducing gall stone dissolution may be different for CDCA and UDCA. PMID:1773966

  15. Looking for gall bladder disease in the patient's iris.

    PubMed Central

    Knipschild, P.

    1988-01-01

    In alternative health care iridology is used as a diagnostic aid. The diagnosis of gall bladder disease was used to study its validity and interperformer consistency. The presence of an inflamed gall bladder containing gall stones is said to be easily recognised by certain signs in the lower lateral part of the iris of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye of 39 patients with this disease and 39 control subjects of the same sex and age. The slides were presented in a random order to five leading iridologists without supplementary information. The prevalence of the disease was estimated at 56%. The median validity was 51% with 54% sensitivity and 52% specificity. These results were close to chance validity (iota = 0.03). None of the iridologists reached a high validity. The median interperformer consistency was 60%. This was only slightly higher than chance consistency (kappa = 0.18). This study showed that iridology is not a useful diagnostic aid. PMID:3147081

  16. Looking for gall bladder disease in the patient's iris.

    PubMed

    Knipschild, P

    1988-12-17

    In alternative health care iridology is used as a diagnostic aid. The diagnosis of gall bladder disease was used to study its validity and interperformer consistency. The presence of an inflamed gall bladder containing gall stones is said to be easily recognised by certain signs in the lower lateral part of the iris of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye of 39 patients with this disease and 39 control subjects of the same sex and age. The slides were presented in a random order to five leading iridologists without supplementary information. The prevalence of the disease was estimated at 56%. The median validity was 51% with 54% sensitivity and 52% specificity. These results were close to chance validity (iota = 0.03). None of the iridologists reached a high validity. The median interperformer consistency was 60%. This was only slightly higher than chance consistency (kappa = 0.18). This study showed that iridology is not a useful diagnostic aid.

  17. Absorption of Bile Pigments by the Gall Bladder*

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, J. Donald

    1967-01-01

    A technique is described for preparation in the guinea pig of an in situ, isolated, vascularized gall bladder that exhibits normal absorptive functions. Absorption of labeled bile pigments from the gall bladder was determined by the subsequent excretion of radioactivity in hepatic bile. Over a wide range of concentrations, unconjugated bilirubin-14C was well absorbed, whereas transfer of conjugated bilirubin proceeded slowly. Mesobilirubinogen-3H was absorbed poorly from whole bile, but was absorbed as rapidly as unconjugated bilirubin from a solution of pure conjugated bile salt. Bilirubin absorption was not impaired by iodoacetamide, 1.5 mM, or dinitrophenol, 1.0 mM, even though water transport was affected. This indicated that absorption of bilirubin was not dependent upon water transport, nor upon energy-dependent processes. The linear relationship between absorption and concentration of pigment at low concentrations in bile salt solutions suggested that pigment was transferred by passive diffusion. At higher pigment concentrations or in whole bile, this simple relationship was modified by interactions of pigment with bile salts and other constituents of bile. These interactions did not necessarily involve binding of bilirubin in micelles. The slow absorption of the more polar conjugates and photo-oxidative derivatives of bilirubin suggested that bilirubin was absorbed principally by nonionic, and partially, by ionic diffusion. Concentrations of pure conjugated bile salts above 3.5 mM were found to be injurious to the gall bladder mucosa. This mucosal injury did not affect the kinetics of bilirubin absorption. During in vitro incubation of bile at 37°C, decay of bilirubin and hydrolysis of the conjugate proceeded as first-order reactions. The effects of these processes on the kinetics of bilirubin absorption, and their possible role in the formation of “white bile” and in the demonstrated appearance of unconjugated bilirubin in hepatic bile, are discussed

  18. Characterization of the bile and gall bladder microbiota of healthy pigs.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Esther; Sánchez, Borja; Farina, Annarita; Margolles, Abelardo; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2014-12-01

    Bile is a biological fluid synthesized in the liver, stored and concentrated in the gall bladder (interdigestive), and released into the duodenum after food intake. The microbial populations of different parts of mammal's gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small and large intestine) have been extensively studied; however, the characterization of bile microbiota had not been tackled until now. We have studied, by culture-dependent techniques and a 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, the microbiota present in the bile, gall bladder mucus, and biopsies of healthy sows. Also, we have identified the most abundant bacterial proteins in the bile samples. Our data show that the gall bladder ecosystem is mainly populated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowed us to visualize the presence of individual bacteria of different morphological types, in close association with either the epithelium or the erythrocytes, or inside the epithelial cells. Our work has generated new knowledge of bile microbial profiles and functions and might provide the basis for future studies on the relationship between bile microbiota, gut microbiota, and health. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. High-speed photography during laser-based gall bladder stone lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaj, Jahja O.

    2001-04-01

    Shadowgraphy of gall bladder stone, which is held by a basket and immersed in a civete is performed. The exposure time is determined by the time of a N-Dye laser pulse used as a lightening source for photography. The shadowgram is projected in the objective of a camera which is connected to a microscope. The light coming from the laser, illuminates the civete collecting optical information of the stone and physical phenomena appearing above the stone. On top of the stone a tip of optical fiber is fixed, which is used for transmitting Ho:Yag laser power to the stone. Using a computer and time delay the laser pulses used for destruction and illumination are synchronized. Since the N-Dye laser pulse is pico-second range and the Ho:Yag laser pulse is in the range of micro-second, many image frames are obtained within the time of one pulse applied during the destruction. It is known that in the process of stone destruction several phenomena like plume, plasma, shock wave and bubble formation take place. However, the physical mechanism of the stone destruction is not yet completely understood. From the obtained results the above phenomena are studied which gives new information and clue for understanding some of the mentioned phenomena. The laser power which is guided by an optical fiber into the gall bladder or kidney of the human body can damage the living tissue and cause some serious health problems. For this reason the fiber needs to be oriented properly during the action of the laser power.

  20. A redox-based mechanism for the contractile and relaxing effects of NO in the guinea-pig gall bladder

    PubMed Central

    Alcón, Soledad; Morales, Sara; Camello, Pedro J; Hemming, Jason M; Jennings, Lee; Mawe, Gary M; Pozo, María J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), 2,2′-(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine (DETA/NO) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), NO donors which yield different NO reactive species (NO+, NO. and peroxynitrite, respectively), as well as exogenous peroxynitrite, on gall bladder contractility. Under resting tone conditions, SNP induced a dose-dependent contraction with a maximal effect (10.3 ± 0.7 mN, s.e.m.) at 1 mm. Consistent with these findings, SNP caused a concentration-dependent depolarization of gall bladder smooth muscle. The excitatory effects of SNP were dependent on extracellular calcium entry through L-type Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, the contraction and depolarization were sensitive to tyrosine kinase blockade, and an associated increase in tyrosine phosphorylation was detected in Western blot studies. DETA/NO induced dose-dependent relaxing effects. These relaxations were sensitive to the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxidiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ, 2 μm) but they were not altered by treatment with the potassium channel blockers tetraethylammoniun (TEA, 5 mm) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 5 mm). When tested in a reducing environment (created by 2.5 mm 1,4-dithiothreitol, DTT), SNP caused a relaxation of gall bladder muscle strips. Similarly, the SNP-induced contraction was converted to a relaxation, and associated hyperpolarization, when DTT was added during the steady state of an SNP-induced response. SIN-1 (0.1 mm), which has been shown to release peroxynitrite, induced relaxing effects that were enhanced by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 50 U ml−1). The relaxations induced by either SIN-1 alone or SIN-1 in the presence of SOD were strengthened by catalase (1000 U ml−1) and abolished by ODQ pretreatment. However, exogenous peroxynitrite induced a concentration-dependent contraction, which was dependent on activation of leukotriene (LT) metabolism and extracellular calcium. The

  1. Financial cost to institutions on patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Qasmi, Shahzad Ahmed; Kiani, Faran; Raza, Ahmed; Khan, Khizar Ishtiaque; Manzoor, Shazia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the financial costs to institution on patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery and suggest measures to reduce them. This multi-centre prospective descriptive survey was performed on all patients who underwent an elective cholecystectomy by three consultants at secondary care hospitals in Pakistan between Jan 2010 to Jan 2012. Data was collected on demographics, the duration of mean waiting time, specific indications and nature of disease for including the patients in the waiting list, details of emergency re-admissions while awaiting surgery, investigations done, treatment given and expenditures incurred on them during these episodes. A total of 185 patients underwent elective open cholecystectomy. The indications for listing the patients for surgery were biliary colic in 128 patients (69%), acute cholecystitis in 43 patients (23%), obstructive jaundice in 8 patients (4.5%) and acute pancreatitis in 6 patients (3.2%). 146 (78.9%) and 39 (21.1%) of patients were listed as outdoor electives and indoor emergencies respectively. Of the 185 patients, 54 patients (29.2%) were re-admitted. Financial costs in Pakistani rupees per episode of readmission were 23050 per episode in total and total money spent on all readmissions was Rs. 17,05,700/-. Financial costs on health care institutions due to readmissions in patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery are high. Identifying patients at risk for these readmissions and offering them early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is very important.

  2. Trends in cancer of the liver, gall bladder, bile duct, and pancreas in elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Pfeiffer, Per

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the liver, bile duct, gall bladder and pancreas (HPB-c) are a heterogeneous group, united almost exclusively by a poor prognosis. As the number of elderly in the Western world continues to rise and HPB-c are associated with age, we wanted to examine changes in incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival for these cancers. HBP-c was defined as ICD-10 codes C22 (liver), C23-24 (gall bladder), and C25 (pancreas). Data derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data were delivered from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013. The incidence and mortality rates of cancer of the liver and pancreas increased over time while the rates of cancer of the gall bladder and bile duct decreased. All HBP-c were more frequent in persons over the age of 70 than in younger persons. The relative one- and five-year survival rose in most HPB-c, but mainly occurring in the younger population of 0-69 years with only small to no gains in the 80 + group. As the number of persons aged 80 years or more will increase dramatically in the following years, and our results show a gap in relative survival, it is important to continue to study this population in order to improve management and outcome.

  3. Psorinum Therapy in Treating Stomach, Gall Bladder, Pancreatic, and Liver Cancers: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aradeep; Biswas, Jaydip; Chatterjee, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Mukhopadhyay, Bishnu; Mandal, Syamsundar

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively studied the clinical efficacy of an alternative cancer treatment “Psorinum Therapy” in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic and liver cancers. Our study was observational, open level and single arm. The participants' eligibility criteria included histopathology/cytopathology confirmation of malignancy, inoperable tumor, and no prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The primary outcome measures of the study were (i) to assess the radiological tumor response (ii) to find out how many participants survived at least 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and finally 5 years after the beginning of the study considering each type of cancer. Psorinum-6x was administered orally to all the participants up to 0.02 ml/Kg body weight as a single dose in empty stomach per day for 2 years along with allopathic and homeopathic supportive cares. 158 participants (42 of stomach, 40 of gall bladder, 44 of pancreatic, 32 of liver) were included in the final analysis of the study. Complete tumor response occurred in 28 (17.72%) cases and partial tumor response occurred in 56 (35.44%) cases. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial should be conducted for further scientific exploration of this alternative cancer treatment. PMID:21197093

  4. Innervation of Extrahepatic Biliary Tract, With Special Reference to the Direct Bidirectional Neural Connections of the Gall Bladder, Sphincter of Oddi and Duodenum in Suncus murinus, in Whole-Mount Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Yi, S-Q; Ren, K; Kinoshita, M; Takano, N; Itoh, M; Ozaki, N

    2016-06-01

    Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is one of the most important symptoms in post-cholecystectomy syndrome. Using either electrical or mechanical stimulation and retrogradely transported neuronal dyes, it has been demonstrated that there are direct neural pathways connecting gall bladder and the sphincter of Oddi in the Australian opossum and the golden hamster. In the present study, we employed whole-mount immunohistochemistry staining to observe and verify that there are two different plexuses of the extrahepatic biliary tract in Suncus murinus. One, named Pathway One, showed a fine, irregular but dense network plexus that ran adhesively and resided on/in the extrahepatic biliary tract wall, and the plexus extended into the intrahepatic area. On the other hand, named Pathway Two, exhibiting simple, thicker and straight neural bundles, ran parallel to the surface of the extrahepatic biliary tract and passed between the gall bladder and duodenum, but did not give off any branches to the liver. Pathway Two was considered to involve direct bidirectional neural connections between the duodenum and the biliary tract system. For the first time, morphologically, we demonstrated direct neural connections between gall bladder and duodenum in S. murinus. Malfunction of the sphincter of Oddi may be caused by injury of the direct neural pathways between gall bladder and duodenum by cholecystectomy. From the viewpoint of preserving the function of the major duodenal papilla and common bile duct, we emphasize the importance of avoiding kocherization of the common bile duct so as to preserve the direct neural connections between gall bladder and sphincter of Oddi. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Talimogene Laherparepvec in Treating Patients With Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-15

    Stage 0 Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage 0a Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage 0is Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7

  6. The Phantom Strikes: The Use of Simulation to Teach the Radiologic Technology Student to Radiograph the Gall Bladder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reibling, Louis Albert

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the extent to which an actual vocational setting is simulated in teaching and the competency of students in performing radiographic technique. The research design randomly placed the students, after a lecture on gall bladder technique, into one of three simulation treatments,…

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma in exstrophy of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Pandey, Praveen Kumar; Vijay, Mukesh Kumar; Bera, Malay Kumar; Singh, Jitendra Pratap; Saha, Kaushik

    2013-08-01

    Exstrophy of the bladder is a rare congenital anomaly with an incidence of about 1 per 50,000 newborns. The malignant potential of the exstrophied bladder mucosa is well known; 95% are adenocarcinomas, and 3% to 5% are squamous cell carcinomas. Most of the malignant tumors (60%) associated with an exstrophy of the bladder occur during the fourth and fifth decades of life. Of the remaining, about 20% each occur after 60 years and before 40 years. Here we present a case in which squamous cell carcinoma developed in an unrepaired exstrophy of the bladder. We present the management of the case and a brief review of the literature.

  8. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Exstrophy of the Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Praveen Kumar; Vijay, Mukesh Kumar; Bera, Malay Kumar; Singh, Jitendra Pratap; Saha, Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Exstrophy of the bladder is a rare congenital anomaly with an incidence of about 1 per 50,000 newborns. The malignant potential of the exstrophied bladder mucosa is well known; 95% are adenocarcinomas, and 3% to 5% are squamous cell carcinomas. Most of the malignant tumors (60%) associated with an exstrophy of the bladder occur during the fourth and fifth decades of life. Of the remaining, about 20% each occur after 60 years and before 40 years. Here we present a case in which squamous cell carcinoma developed in an unrepaired exstrophy of the bladder. We present the management of the case and a brief review of the literature. PMID:23956833

  9. Chromium in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Golabek, Tomasz; Socha, Katarzyna; Kudelski, Jacek; Darewicz, Barbara; Markiewicz-Zukowska, Renata; Chlosta, Piotr; Borawska, Maria

    2017-12-23

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies report a strong role of chemical carcinogens in the etiology of bladder cancer. However, the involvement of heavy metals in tumourigenesis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chromium (Cr) and bladder cancer. Chromium concentration in two 36-sample series of bladder cancer tissue and sera from patients with this neoplasm were matched with those of a control group. The amount of trace elements in every tissue sample was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. This was correlated with tumour stage. While the median chromium concentration levels reached statistically higher values in the bladder cancer tissue, compared with the non-cancer tissue (99.632ng/g and 33.144ng/g, respectively; p<0.001), the median Cr levels in the sera of the patients with this carcinoma showed no statistical difference when compared to those of the control group (0.511μg/l and 0.710μg/l, respectively; p=0.408). The median levels of Cr in the bladder tissue, depending on the stage of the tumour, compared with the tissue without the neoplasm, observed the same relationship for both non-muscle invasive and muscle-invasive tumours (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). This study shows that patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder had higher tissue Cr levels than people without tumour, while no difference was found in the Cr serum levels between the two groups of patients under investigation.

  10. Pure Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma Originating from the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takashi; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Iida, Keitaro; Etani, Toshiki; Ando, Ryosuke; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Sugiyama, Yosuke; Okada, Atsushi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder (LELCB) is a rare variant of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of LELCB in a 43-year-old man. Ultrasonography and cystoscopy revealed two bladder tumors, one on the left side of the trigone and the other on the right side of the trigone. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumors was performed and pathological analysis revealed undifferentiated carcinoma. We therefore performed radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, but negative for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization as found for previous cases of LELCB. The final pathological diagnosis was a lymphoepithelioma-like variant of urothelial carcinoma with perivesical soft tissue invasion. For adjuvant systemic chemotherapy, three courses of cisplatin were administered. The patient subsequently became free of cancer 72 months postoperatively. Based on the literature, pure or predominant LELCB types show favorable prognoses due to their sensitivity to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. An analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of bladder tumors examined in our institution revealed that the ADC value measured for this LELCB was relatively low compared to conventional urothelial carcinomas. This suggests that measuring the ADC value of a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma prior to operation may be helpful in predicting LELCB. PMID:27099604

  11. Gall-bladder and colonic retention of SeHCAT: a re-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Merrick, M V

    1994-09-01

    A number of suggested alternatives and emendations to the 7-day SeHCAT retention test have been compared with whole-body counting. It was found that correction for colonic retention is an unnecessary complication in patients with diarrhoea and that imaging either of the gall-bladder or of the distribution of activity in the intestines at 24 h does not add useful information to the standard 7-day retention measurement. Neither could the patterns of colonic uptake identified in patients following extensive ideal resection or radiotherapy be reproduced in patients with idiopathic diarrhoea. Sadly it must be concluded that neither of these shortened techniques is of clinical value in patients with intact small bowel and that there remains no reliable alternative to the 7-day Se HCAT retention test. The simplest technique the best.

  12. Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and the upper tract: disparate twins.

    PubMed

    Green, David A; Rink, Michael; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Matin, Surena F; Stenzl, Arnulf; Roupret, Morgan; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Scherr, Douglas S; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2013-04-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is the 4th most common malignancy in men and the 8th most common cause of male cancer death in the United States. Conversely, upper tract urothelial carcinoma accounts for only 5% to 10% of all urothelial carcinoma. Due to the relative preponderance of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, much of the clinical decision making regarding upper tract urothelial carcinoma is extrapolated from evidence that is based on urothelial carcinoma of the bladder cohorts. In fact, only 1 major urological organization has treatment guidelines specific for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. While significant similarities exist between these 2 diseases, ignoring the important differences may be preventing us from optimizing therapy in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Therefore, we explored these dissimilarities, including the differential importance of gender, anatomy, staging, intracavitary therapy, surgical lymphadenectomy and perioperative systemic chemotherapy on the behavior of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and upper tract urothelial carcinoma. A nonsystematic literature search using the MEDLINE/PubMed® database was conducted to identify original articles, review articles and editorials. Searches were limited to the English language and studies in humans and in adults, and used the key words urothelial carcinoma, upper tract urothelial carcinoma or transitional cell carcinoma combined with several different sets of key words to identify appropriate publications for each section of the manuscript. The key words, broken down by section, were 1) epidemiology, sex, gender; 2) location, tumor location; 3) staging, stage; 4) intracavitary, intravesical, topical therapy; 5) lymphadenectomy, lymph node, lymph node dissection and 6) adjuvant, neoadjuvant, chemotherapy. Women who present with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder do so with less favorable tumor characteristics and have worse survival than men. However, gender does

  13. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare; only several studies have been reported in the English literature. A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Bladder endoscopy revealed a large polypoid tumor at the bladder base. Transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. Many TUR-BT specimens were obtained. Histologically, the bladder tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK8, CK18, neurone-specific enolase, chromogranin, NCAM (CD56), synaptophysin, Ki-67 (labeling=100%), p53, KIT (CD117), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRA). The tumor cells were negative for CK5/6, CK 34BE12, CK7, CK14, CK19, CK20, p63, CD45, and TTF-1. A molecular genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing showed no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. No metastases were found by various imaging techniques. The patient is now treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  14. [Glandular squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder].

    PubMed

    Kovylina, M V; Pushkar', D Iu; Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Rasner, P I

    2006-01-01

    The paper gives a clinical observation of a 52 year-old male with a rare histological urinary bladder tumor primary grandular-squamous-cell carcinoma (pT3N IM0). The tumor is represented by two components large acinic-cell adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma with keratinization, which smoothly pass one into another; the tumor has grown through all layers of the urinary bladder wall but it has failed to grow into the peritoneum. A microscopic study has indicated that the urachus is intact. Metastases were found in 3 of 8 lymph nodes: one showed high-grade adenocarcinoma and two others displayed average-grade squamous-cell carcinoma.

  15. Effect of bombesin on pancreatic secretion and gall bladder motility of the chicken.

    PubMed

    Linari, G; Linari, M B

    1975-12-01

    Bombesin strongly stimulated the chicken pancreatic secretion. When given by i.v. infusion, the threshold dose was of the order of 7.5-45.0 ng/kg/min and maximum enzyme output was obtained at a rate of 60 ng/kg/min. In addition to total enzyme output, enzyme concentration was also increased. Caerulein displayed a more potent stimulant effect, but composition of juice produced by the two polypeptides was similar. Tachyphylaxis occurred only with bombesin. Neither atropine nor gastric acidification affected the response to bombesin. Bombesin was totally ineffective in promoting gall bladder emptying. It is suggested that in the chicken, bombesin acts on the exocrine pancreas indirectly through release of an endogenous pancreozymin possibly devoid of cholecystokinetic activity.

  16. Pure Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Amel; Abdelkrim, Soumaya Ben; Tebra, Samah; Gharbi, Olfa; Jaidane, Lilia; Bouaouina, Noureddine; Abbassi, Dajla Bakir; Mokni, Moncef

    2010-06-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an uncommon tumor that has been described in case reports or small series. We report a new case in a 67-year-old male who presented with gross hematuria and irritative symptoms. Cystoscopy revealed an extensive mass of the bladder and computed tomography scan showed an important thickening of the bladder wall. Diagnosis of small cell carcinoma was established after radical cystectomy and microscopic examination. The patient received pelvic hemostatic radiotherapy and platinium-based chemotherapy. Three months after the diagnosis, he developed bone, renal and adrenal metastases.

  17. Persistent bacteraemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus in the gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Yu, Alexander Tin Han; Cun, Tony; Benamu, Esther; Renault, Cybele

    2017-11-08

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) remains a complex disease with a high associated morbidity and mortality, especially when it is able to establish an occult nidus safe from antimicrobial eradication. Without rapid identification and intervention, the nidus can cause persistent relapse of disease, morbidity and mortality. Having a high clinical suspicion for the foci of occult S. aureus is important, and awareness of potential sites of infection is critical and can be life-saving.We present a unique case of a 65-year-old man with end-stage renal disease receiving haemodialysis who developed septic shock from SAB. Despite 18 days of appropriate antibiotics, the patient had persistent high-grade bacteraemia until his gall bladder was ultimately percutaneously drained. The day after drainage, he cleared his blood cultures, although he ultimately passed away as he decided to transition his care to focus on comfort measures. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. p16 expression is not associated with human papillomavirus in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Riley E; Hu, Yingchuan; Kum, Jennifer B; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Maclennan, Gregory T; Idrees, Muhammad T; Emerson, Robert E; Ulbright, Thomas M; Grignon, David G; Eble, John N; Cheng, Liang

    2012-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is unusual and of unknown etiology. There is a well-established association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical and head/neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is uncertain. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible role of HPV in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to determine if p16 expression could serve as a surrogate marker for HPV in this malignancy. In all, 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation were investigated. HPV infection was analyzed by both in situ hybridization at the DNA level and immunohistochemistry at the protein level. p16 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA and protein were not detected in 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (0%, 0/42) or 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation (0%, 0/15). p16 expression was detected in 13 cases (31%, 13/42) of squamous cell carcinoma and 9 cases (33%, 9/27) of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. There was no correlation between p16 expression and the presence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Our data suggest that HPV does not play a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. p16 expression should not be used as a surrogate marker for evidence of HVP infection in either squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation as neither HVP DNA nor protein is detectable in these neoplasms.

  19. Modeling and simulation of a low-grade urinary bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky, Svetlana; Pisarev, Vladimir; Kashdan, Eugene

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present a mathematical model of the initiation and progression of a low-grade urinary bladder carcinoma. We simulate the crucial processes affecting tumor growth, such as oxygen diffusion, carcinogen penetration, and angiogenesis, within the framework of the urothelial cell dynamics. The cell dynamics are modeled using the discrete technique of cellular automata, while the continuous processes of carcinogen penetration and oxygen diffusion are described by nonlinear diffusion-absorption equations. As the availability of oxygen is necessary for tumor progression, processes of oxygen transport to the tumor growth site seem most important. Our model yields a theoretical insight into the main stages of development and growth of urinary bladder carcinoma with emphasis on the two most common types: bladder polyps and carcinoma in situ. Analysis of histological structure of bladder tumor is important to avoid misdiagnosis and wrong treatment. We expect our model to be a valuable tool in the study of bladder cancer progression due to the exposure to carcinogens and the oxygen dependent expression of genes promoting tumor growth. Our numerical simulations have good qualitative agreement with in vivo results reported in the corresponding medical literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pure Small Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Trabelsi, Amel; Abdelkrim, Soumaya Ben; Tebra, Samah; Gharbi, Olfa; Jaidane, Lilia; Bouaouina, Noureddine; Abbassi, Dajla Bakir; Mokni, Moncef

    2010-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an uncommon tumor that has been described in case reports or small series. We report a new case in a 67-year-old male who presented with gross hematuria and irritative symptoms. Cystoscopy revealed an extensive mass of the bladder and computed tomography scan showed an important thickening of the bladder wall. Diagnosis of small cell carcinoma was established after radical cystectomy and microscopic examination. The patient received pelvic hemostatic radiotherapy and platinium-based chemotherapy. Three months after the diagnosis, he developed bone, renal and adrenal metastases. PMID:29147197

  1. Concurrent gall bladder, liver lobe torsion, and bile peritonitis in a German shepherd dog 2 months after gastric dilatation/volvulus gastropexy and splenectomy.

    PubMed

    Tubby, Kurtis G

    2013-08-01

    Postmortem examination of a 7-year-old German shepherd dog which had gastric dilatation/volvulus and splenectomy 2 months earlier revealed that the right middle and quadrate liver lobes were diffusely congested and torsed. The gall bladder was grossly distended and torsed along its long axis and there was evidence of bile peritonitis.

  2. Concurrent gall bladder, liver lobe torsion, and bile peritonitis in a German shepherd dog 2 months after gastric dilatation/volvulus gastropexy and splenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tubby, Kurtis G.

    2013-01-01

    Postmortem examination of a 7-year-old German shepherd dog which had gastric dilatation/volvulus and splenectomy 2 months earlier revealed that the right middle and quadrate liver lobes were diffusely congested and torsed. The gall bladder was grossly distended and torsed along its long axis and there was evidence of bile peritonitis. PMID:24155480

  3. LYMPHOEPITHELIOMA-LIKE CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER ASSOCIATED WITH SCHISTOSOMIASIS: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE.

    PubMed

    Mina, Samir N; Antonios, Sanaa N

    2015-08-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is an undifferentiated carcinoma with histological features similar to undifferentiated, non-keratinizing carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder is uncommon with a reported. incidence of 0.4% -1.3% of all bladder cancers. This case describes an 80 years old Egyptian male patient presented with recurrent hematuria and necroturia. Cystoscopy revealed a tumor involving the left lateral and the posterior wall of the urinary bladder. The patient underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor. Pathological examination showed muscle invasive lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma associated with schistosomiasis of the urinary bladder. To the best of our knowledge the association of schistosomiasis with lymphoepithelioma-like bladder cancer was not described in the literature before this case report.

  4. Atezolizumab in urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hamilou, Zineb; Lavaud, Pernelle; Loriot, Yohann

    2018-02-01

    Metastatic bladder cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis when presenting with advanced stage. Cisplatin-based therapy has been the mainstay of first-line treatment but therapy in second-line setting has been an unmet medical need for decades. Moreover, many patients are unable to receive cisplatin-based therapy. Recently, immune-checkpoint inhibitors transformed the management and prognosis of many malignancies and will certainly redefine the standard of care for bladder cancer. Atezolizumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, was the first immune-checkpoint inhibitor to be approved by the US FDA in May 2016 for patients with urothelial carcinoma. In this review, we discuss the evidence behind this promising drug.

  5. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report.

    PubMed

    Laforga, Juan B; Gasent, Joan M

    We report a case of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder in an elderly female patient. A 97-year old woman presented with hematuria, and an ultrasonographic urinary study showed a localized tumor in the trigone region of the urinary bladder. A transurethral resection revealed a mixed tumor formed by high-grade transitional carcinoma and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma that had infiltrated into the muscular propria. We describe the clinicopathological, morphological and immunohistochemical features of this tumor and briefly discuss its differential diagnosis and biological behavior. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Adenoviral receptor expression of normal bladder and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Buscarini, Maurizio; Quek, Marcus L; Gilliam-Hegarich, Susan; Kasahara, Nori; Bochner, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The insertion of absent or underexpressed genes into cancer cells to alter their malignant phenotype is an important potential application of available gene therapy technology. One of the more common viral vector systems that has been extensively studied for this purpose are the replication-deficient adenoviruses (Ad). Adenoviral infection of cells is mediated through a complex pathway, initiated following viral-cell attachment. Adenoviral-cell attachment occurs following interactions with a 46-kDa transmembrane protein with high affinity for both the Coxsackie and adenovirus, designated the CAR (Coxsackie and adenoviral receptor). Additional important cell-viral interactions that occur involve the alpha(v)-based integrins, specifically alpha(v)beta3 and alpha(v)beta5. The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent of expression and localization of the known Ad receptor proteins (CAR, alpha(v)beta3, and alpha(v)beta5) in normal and cancerous human bladders. Frozen tissue samples of normal bladder and invasive transitional cell cancers of the bladder were evaluated. Tissue blocks containing muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) were obtained following radical cystectomy, which were performed at our institution. Thirty-two invasive transitional cell bladder tumors were evaluated, each with a matched sample of histologically normal-appearing bladder used as a control. Four additional samples of normal bladder were obtained from patients with no evidence of disease of the bladder and served as further controls. Three additional cases of invasive bladder cancer with no matching normal tissue were also evaluated. Identification of the CAR receptor was performed using the anti-CAR mouse monoclonal antibody designated RmBC. The integrins alpha(v)beta3 and alpha(v)beta5 were identified using the mouse monoclonal antibodies designated LM609 and P1F6 respectively. All slides were evaluated by two of the authors (M.B., B.B.) without knowledge of the

  7. Cutaneous metastasis of transitional cell bladder carcinoma: a rare presentation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Gakis, Christos; Zografidis, Andreas; Gourgiotis, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis from transitional cell bladder carcinoma is a rare clinical entity associated with poor prognosis. We present a case of cutaneous metastasis arising from a transitional cell bladder carcinoma in a male patient who had undergone a radical cystectomy and bilateral ureterostomy 17 months previously. The cutaneous metastasis became evident 3 months before the manifestations of generalized recurrent disease. An awareness of this rare clinical entity and high index of suspicion is needed to rule out metastatic spread in patients with a previous history of transitional cell bladder carcinoma presenting with cutaneous nodules. Definitive diagnosis requires a histological confirmation, but prognosis is generally poor.

  8. Role of laser therapy in bladder carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Brent A.; de Riese, Werner T.

    2001-05-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is most common genitourinary tract cancer and its treatment comprises a large number of surgical procedures in urological oncology. Seventy-five percent (75%) of cases recur within two years and the recurrence rate is correlated with the grade of the initial tumor. While Transurethral Resection of the Bladder (TURB) is the current standard of care, the use of laser offers a proven alternative. Sufficient evidence is available that laser treatment of superficial bladder cancer is as effective as TURB. Laser treatment offers several advantages such as decreased incidence of bladder perforation, a near bloodless procedure, catheter-free procedure, and the possibility of outpatient therapy. It has been reported that laser treatment may reduce the recurrence rate of TCC as compared to electrocautery resection. Furthermore, some studies suggest seeding can be avoided with laser resection; however, both items remain highly controversial.

  9. Sixteen-slice multidetector computed tomographic virtual cystoscopy in the evaluation of a patient with suspected bladder tumor and history of bladder carcinoma operation.

    PubMed

    Basak, Muzaffer; Ozkurt, Huseyin; Tanriverdi, Orhan; Cay, Esra; Aydin, Mustafa; Miroglu, Cengiz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of virtual cystoscopy performed with multidetector computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected bladder tumors and histories of bladder carcinoma operation. Thirty-six patients (29 men and 7 women) with a mean age of 66 years (range, 24-88 years) with suspected bladder tumors and histories of bladder carcinoma operation were included in this prospective study. Virtual cystoscopy was performed by 16-slice multidetector CT scanner. The bladder was filled with diluted contrast material solution through a Foley catheter. Then, all patients underwent conventional cystoscopy examination. Two reviewers found 18 lesions detected by virtual cystoscopy by consensus, whereas 19 lesions were depicted by conventional cystoscopy. At virtual and conventional cystoscopies, the conditions of 3 patients, 2 with chronic inflammations and 1 with foreign body reaction, were wrongly diagnosed as tumors. At conventional cystoscopy, one patient's result was wrongly interpreted as normal. In pathologic evaluation, all tumors were diagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma. Bladder tumor can be noninvasively diagnosed using virtual cystoscopy. Use of virtual cystoscopy should be considered inpatients who present with hematuria or have histories of bladder carcinoma operation and are for follow-up because of its lesser complication risk and its being a less invasive, easily applied procedure without need of anesthesia. In the future, owing to the development of the CT technology and image processing technique, virtual cystoscopy may have a part in the detection of bladder cancer.

  10. A flowgraph model for bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Superficial bladder cancer has been the subject of numerous studies for many years, but the evolution of the disease still remains not well understood. After the tumor has been surgically removed, it may reappear at a similar level of malignancy or progress to a higher level. The process may be reasonably modeled by means of a Markov process. However, in order to more completely model the evolution of the disease, this approach is insufficient. The semi-Markov framework allows a more realistic approach, but calculations become frequently intractable. In this context, flowgraph models provide an efficient approach to successfully manage the evolution of superficial bladder carcinoma. Our aim is to test this methodology in this particular case. Results We have built a successful model for a simple but representative case. Conclusion The flowgraph approach is suitable for modeling of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:25080066

  11. [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A case report].

    PubMed

    Aragón-Tovar, Anel Rogelio; Pineda-Rodríguez, Marco Elí; Puente-Gallegos, Francisco Edgardo; Zavala-Pompa, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an infrequent lesion. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who arrived at the emergency room with a history of 24-h gross hematuria. Imaging studies show a urinary bladder tumor with a 218 cc volume that during a 20-day period increased to 426 cc. Histopathological images with hematoxylin-eosin show an infiltrating solid mass with uneven borders. It is composed of neoplastic cells with evident nuclei predominance and scant cytoplasm (small cells). Chromogranin immunohistochemical staining shows a diffusely positive cytoplasmic granular pattern on neoplastic cells. High molecular weight cytokeratin staining shows a negative pattern on neoplastic cells along with a positive pattern on reporsurrounding normal urothelium. Tumoral mass is positive for synaptophysin and CD-56 and negative for CK-7 and CK-20. Patient therapy was based on radiation plus chemotherapy. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represents 0.35-0.70% of urinary bladder tumors. Histological and immunohistochemical identification are key elements in the diagnosis. Treatment approach is based on cisplatin-based chemotherapy plus radical cystectomy, except when metastatic disease is present.

  12. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in dogs.

    PubMed

    Khan, K N; Knapp, D W; Denicola, D B; Harris, R K

    2000-05-01

    To evaluate expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 in the urinary bladder epithelium of clinically normal dogs and in transitional cell carcinoma cells of dogs. 21 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 8 dogs with clinically normal urinary bladders. COX-1 and COX-2 were evaluated by use of isoform-specific antibodies with standard immunohistochemical methods. COX-1, but not COX-2, was constitutively expressed in normal urinary bladder epithelium; however, COX-2 was expressed in neoplastic epithelium in primary tumors and in metastatic lesions of all 21 dogs and in new proliferating blood vessels in 3 dogs. Also, COX-1 was expressed in the neoplastic cells. Lack of expression of COX-2 in normal bladder epithelium and its substantial expression in transitional cell carcinoma cells suggest that this isoform may be involved in tumor cell growth. Inhibition of COX-2 is a likely mechanism of the antineoplastic effects of non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs.

  13. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma.The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement.The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma.This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement.

  14. Molecular Genetic Evidence for a Common Clonal Origin of Urinary Bladder Small Cell Carcinoma and Coexisting Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Jones, Timothy D.; McCarthy, Ryan P.; Eble, John N.; Wang, Mingsheng; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Yang, Ximing J.; Koch, Michael O.; Zhang, Shaobo; Pan, Chong-Xian; Baldridge, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    In most cases, small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is admixed with other histological types of bladder carcinoma. To understand the pathogenetic relationship between the two tumor types, we analyzed histologically distinct tumor cell populations from the same patient for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and X chromosome inactivation (in female patients). We examined five polymorphic microsatellite markers located on chromosome 3p25-26 (D3S3050), chromosome 9p21 (IFNA and D9S171), chromosome 9q32-33 (D9S177), and chromosome 17p13 (TP53) in 20 patients with small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and concurrent urothelial carcinoma. DNA samples were prepared from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections using laser-assisted microdissection. A nearly identical pattern of allelic loss was observed in the two tumor types in all cases, with an overall frequency of allelic loss of 90% (18 of 20 cases). Three patients showed different allelic loss patterns in the two tumor types at a single locus; however, the LOH patterns at the remaining loci were identical. Similarly, the same pattern of nonrandom X chromosome inactivation was present in both carcinoma components in the four cases analyzed. Concordant genetic alterations and X chromosome inactivation between small-cell carcinoma and coexisting urothelial carcinoma suggest that both tumor components originate from the same cells in the urothelium. PMID:15855652

  15. Sonography of tumors and tumor-like lesions that mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Szopiński, Tomasz; Gołąbek, Tomasz; Ostasz, Oksana; Bojko, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    One of the basic abdominal organs that is assessed during transabdominal ultrasound examination for urological reasons is the urinary bladder. The bladder must be filled with urine. This is a prerequisite for a reliable assessment and, at the same time, an acoustic window in examining adjacent structures and organs, for instance the prostate gland. In some cases, doubts occur with respect to the nature of lesions detected. The paper presents anatomic lesions, defects and pathologies which might be erroneously interpreted as tumors of the urinary bladder, i.e. transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The following lesions are discussed: 1) anatomic defects (including urachus remnants, ligaments that stabilize the bladder or cyst in the opening of the ureter into the bladder – ureterocele); 2) tumor- like lesions in the lumen of the urinary bladder (such as blood clots, fungus balls, stones or foreign bodies); 3) bladder wall pathologies (i.e. cystitis or endometriosis), focal decidual transformation of stromal cells or inflammatory pseudotumor; 4) lesions impressing on the bladder from the outside (the mesentery of the sigmoid colon, the bowel, pathological lesions in organs adjacent to the urinary bladder, inflammatory infiltration, vasogenic compression of the bladder, pelvic lipomatosis, pathological lesions of the pubic symphysis); 5) postoperative lesions. All these lesions may mimic carcinoma of the urinary bladder in sonography. Bearing this fact in mind is significant in establishing a diagnosis. Due to the malignant character of carcinoma of the urinary bladder and the need for aggressive surgical treatment, a correct diagnosis of this disease is essential for patients, particularly because the lack of adequate treatment and delayed treatment considerably affect prognosis. PMID:26672732

  16. Paget's disease of the urethral meatus following transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, J E; Korat, O C; LiVolsi, V A; Connor, A M; Wein, A

    1986-02-01

    Pagetoid extension of transitional cell carcinoma onto the urethral meatus following cystectomy is a rare complication of bladder carcinoma. We report 2 cases associated with severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ of the periurethral glands.

  17. Cellular origin of bladder neoplasia and tissue dynamics of its progression to invasive carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kunyoo; Lim, Agnes; Odegaard, Justin I.; Honeycutt, Jared D.; Kawano, Sally; Hsieh, Michael H.; Beachy, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how malignancies arise within normal tissues requires identification of the cancer cell of origin and knowledge of the cellular and tissue dynamics of tumor progression. Here we examine bladder cancer in a chemical carcinogenesis model that mimics muscle-invasive human bladder cancer. With no prior bias regarding genetic pathways or cell types, we prospectively mark or ablate cells to show that muscle-invasive bladder carcinomas arise exclusively from Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-expressing stem cells in basal urothelium. These carcinomas arise clonally from a single cell whose progeny aggressively colonize a major portion of the urothelium to generate a lesion with histological features identical to human carcinoma-in-situ. Shh-expressing basal cells within this precursor lesion become tumor-initiating cells, although Shh expression is lost in subsequent carcinomas. We thus find that invasive carcinoma is initiated from basal urothelial stem cells but that tumor cell phenotype can diverge significantly from that of the cancer cell-of-origin. PMID:24747439

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency after irradiation for bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kinn, A.C.; Lantz, B.

    1984-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 10 of 41 patients who underwent radiotherapy before cystectomy with Bricker urinary diversion for carcinoma of the bladder. Of 13 patients given full irradiation because of inoperable bladder cancer 5 had malabsorption of vitamin B12. Serum folic acid was normal in these patients, indicating predominantly ileal irradiation sequelae. Routine evaluation of serum vitamin B12 after radiotherapy is recommended so that appropriate medication can be given, if possible before neurological symptoms appear.

  19. Bladder urothelial carcinoma extending to rectal mucosa and presenting with rectal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Aneese, Andrew M; Manuballa, Vinayata; Amin, Mitual; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2017-01-01

    An 87-year-old-man with prostate-cancer-stage-T1c-Gleason-6 treated with radiotherapy in 1996, recurrent prostate cancer treated with leuprolide hormonal therapy in 2009, and bladder-urothelial-carcinoma in situ treated with Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin and adriamycin in 2010, presented in 2015 with painless, bright red blood per rectum coating stools daily for 5 mo. Rectal examination revealed bright red blood per rectum; and a hard, fixed, 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm mass at the normal prostate location. The hemoglobin was 7.6 g/dL (iron saturation = 8.4%, indicating iron-deficiency-anemia). Abdominopelvic-CT-angiography revealed focal wall thickening at the bladder neck; a mass containing an air cavity replacing the normal prostate; and adjacent rectal invasion. Colonoscopy demonstrated an ulcerated, oozing, multinodular, friable, 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm mass in anterior rectal wall, at the usual prostate location. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of colonoscopic biopsies of the mass revealed poorly-differentiated-carcinoma of urothelial origin. At visceral angiography, the right-superior-rectal-artery was embolized to achieve hemostasis. The patient subsequently developed multiple new metastases and expired 13 mo post-embolization. Comprehensive literature review revealed 16 previously reported cases of rectal involvement from bladder urothelial carcinoma, including 11 cases from direct extension and 5 cases from metastases. Patient age averaged 63.7 ± 9.6 years (all patients male). Rectal involvement was diagnosed on average 13.5 ± 11.8 mo after initial diagnosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Symptoms included constipation/gastrointestinal obstruction-6, weight loss-5, diarrhea-3, anorexia-3, pencil thin stools-3, tenesmus-2, anorectal pain-2, and other-5. Rectal examination in 9 patients revealed annular rectal constriction-6, and rectal mass-3. The current patient had the novel presentation of daily bright red blood per rectum coating the stools simulating

  20. A case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder with prolonged spontaneous remission

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent; Zwi, Jonathan; Hanning, Fritha; Lim, Remy; Cadwallader, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary bladder are rare. We present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented with back pain and acute renal failure. Ultrasound showed a soft tissue mass in the base of the bladder causing bilateral ureteric obstruction. Subsequent biopsy of this mass demonstrated neuroendocrine carcinoma. He was commenced on neoadjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin/etoposide) and proceeded to a radical cysto-prostatectomy. Histology revealed a LCNEC involving the bladder, T4a with invasion through to adipose tissue and posteriorly at perivesical resection margins. In addition, there was a Gleason score 9 prostatic adenocarcinoma, distinct from the neuroendocrine carcinoma. Following surgery, the patient developed gross local-regional recurrence and refused further systemic therapy. However, 1 year following referral to palliative care, a further CT-PET showed complete spontaneous remission of his disease. There are only few case reports of LCNEC of the urinary bladder therefore the pathogenesis and treatment protocol are still unclear. This case report highlights the unpredictable nature of this disease. PMID:28560016

  1. A case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder with prolonged spontaneous remission.

    PubMed

    Chong, Vincent; Zwi, Jonathan; Hanning, Fritha; Lim, Remy; Williams, Andrew; Cadwallader, Jon

    2017-05-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary bladder are rare. We present a case of a 72-year-old man who presented with back pain and acute renal failure. Ultrasound showed a soft tissue mass in the base of the bladder causing bilateral ureteric obstruction. Subsequent biopsy of this mass demonstrated neuroendocrine carcinoma. He was commenced on neoadjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin/etoposide) and proceeded to a radical cysto-prostatectomy. Histology revealed a LCNEC involving the bladder, T4a with invasion through to adipose tissue and posteriorly at perivesical resection margins. In addition, there was a Gleason score 9 prostatic adenocarcinoma, distinct from the neuroendocrine carcinoma. Following surgery, the patient developed gross local-regional recurrence and refused further systemic therapy. However, 1 year following referral to palliative care, a further CT-PET showed complete spontaneous remission of his disease. There are only few case reports of LCNEC of the urinary bladder therefore the pathogenesis and treatment protocol are still unclear. This case report highlights the unpredictable nature of this disease.

  2. Influence of gross specimen sampling on the incidence of incidental prostatic carcinoma in cystoprostatectomy specimens of patients with bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, J; Volavšek, M

    2016-03-01

    Reported prostate cancer incidence rates vary greatly among cystoprostatectomy samples. We investigated how the thoroughness of prostate sampling influences prostatic carcinoma incidence in bladder cancer patients. In a retrospective study, 313 cystoprostatectomy cases of urinary bladder carcinoma were analysed for the presence of concurrent prostatic carcinoma. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who had undergone the operation before and after 2007, when a policy of preferably complete prostate sampling in cystoprostatectomy specimens was introduced at our institution. Cases processed after the 2007 recommended sampling changes had a significantly higher rate of incidental prostatic carcinoma and clinically significant prostatic carcinoma than the pre-2007 group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.003, respectively). Complete prostate processing in cystoprostatectomy specimens results in a higher incidence of incidental prostatic carcinoma than with partial processing. More patients with clinically significant prostate cancer are consequently discovered. In conclusion, we believe that complete prostate sampling should be mandatory.

  3. [Association of serum decoy receptor 3 protein level with the clinicopathologic features of bladder transitional cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Jian; Chen, Guojun

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the association of serum levels of decoy receptor 3(DcR3) protein and the clinicopathologic features of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the serum levels of DcR3 in patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma for analysis of its association with the patients' age, gender, clinical stages and pathological classification. The patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma showed a significantly elevated serum level of DcR3 (183.43 ∓78.45 pg/m1) compared with the normal level (116.65∓97.43 pg/m1, P<0.05). The serum level of DcR3 in the patients showed close correlations with the TNM stage and pathological classification of the tumor (P<0.05) but not with the patients' age or gender (P>0.05). In patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma, a high serum level of DcR3 suggests a higher malignancy of the tumor.

  4. Pathology of carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder and related lesions.

    PubMed

    Farrow, G M

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, nearly all cases of bladder cancer are of the transitional cell type, and epidemiological evidence indicates that among these, approximately 80% present initially as more or less well-differentiated, superficial papillary neoplasms with a tendency for multifocal or diffuse involvement of the urothelial surface and/or recurrent tumor episodes, but with limited potential for invasive growth or a lethal outcome. Bladder tumors with lethal potential generally begin as poorly differentiated, sessile growths that are usually invasive at first diagnosis. Carcinoma in situ is a change that must be elicited among intact surface cells before progressive proliferation results in a tumor mass. Evidence for such an association is both temporal and spatial. Since most transitional cell carcinomas begin as well-differentiated tumors, i.e., resembling normal urothelium, recognition of early neoplastic alteration before a papillary structure forms is unlikely and most of the evidence is spatial based upon urothelial changes adjacent to papillary tumors. The morphologic definition of carcinoma in situ is arbitrary and generally defined as a total replacement of the urothelial surface by cells which bear morphologic features of carcinoma, but which lack architectural alteration other than an increase in the number of cell layers, i.e., a flat lesion. The Union Internationále Contra Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) staging scheme for bladder cancer distinguishes non-invasive papillary growths as Ta and carcinoma in situ as Tis. Because detection of carcinoma in situ, either by cytology or biopsy, depends upon recognizable malignant morphologic characteristics, studies of the lesion tend to be limited to the higher grade or more anaplastic examples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in normal urothelium, and superficial and advanced transitional cell carcinoma of bladder.

    PubMed

    Margulis, Vitaly; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Ashfaq, Raheela; Thompson, Melissa; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Lotan, Yair

    2007-03-01

    We compared the differential expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in normal bladder tissue, primary bladder transitional cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma metastases to lymph nodes, and determined whether cyclooxygenase-2 expression is associated with molecular alterations commonly found in bladder transitional cell carcinoma and clinical outcomes after radical cystectomy. Immunohistochemical staining for cyclooxygenase-2, survivin (Novus Biologicals, Littleton, Colorado), p21, p27, pRB, p53, MIB-1, Bax, Bcl-2, cyclin D(1) (Dakotrade mark), cyclin E (Oncogene, Cambridge, Massachusetts) and caspase-3 (Cell Signaling, Beverley, Massachusetts) was performed on archival bladder specimens from 9 subjects who underwent cystectomy for benign causes, 21 patients who underwent transurethral resection and 157 consecutive patients after radical cystectomy, and on 41 positive lymph nodes. Cyclooxygenase-2 was expressed in none of the 9 normal bladder specimens (0%), 52% of transurethral resection specimens, 62% of cystectomy specimens and 80% of lymph nodes involved with transitional cell carcinoma. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was associated with higher pathological stage, lymphovascular invasion and metastases to lymph nodes (p=0.001, 0.045 and 0.002, respectively). Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was associated with altered expression of p53 (p=0.039), pRB (p=0.025), cyclin D1 (p=0.034) and caspase-3 (p=0.014). On univariate analysis cyclooxygenase-2 expression was associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence and bladder cancer specific mortality (p=0.0189 and 0.0472, respectively). However, on multivariate analysis only pathological stage and metastases to lymph nodes were associated with disease recurrence (p<0.001 and <0.001) and survival (p<0.001 and 0.015, respectively). Cyclooxygenase-2 is not expressed in normal bladder urothelium. Cyclooxygenase-2 over expression is associated with pathological and molecular features of biologically aggressive disease

  6. Thirty-five years of noninvasive bladder carcinoma: a plea for the use of papillary intraurothelial neoplasia as new terminology.

    PubMed

    Van der Kwast, Theodorus H; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Fleshner, Neil; Jewett, Michael; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Montironi, Roldolfo

    2008-12-01

    Since the introduction of the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 terminology for bladder cancer, noninvasive epithelial bladder tumors have consistently been labeled bladder carcinomas. In the WHO 2004 classification the removal of the "carcinoma" label from a small subset of noninvasive bladder carcinomas with indolent behavior created the entity of papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential, but the remaining noninvasive carcinomas of the urothelial tract retained this label. In this overview, we analyze clinical, pathologic and molecular-genomic findings to support a more evidence-based nomenclature of papillary neoplastic lesions of the urinary tract. In line with the tendency during the last few decades to label flat precancerous lesions of various organs intraepithelial neoplasms, we may now also refer to dysplasia and carcinoma in situ of the urinary tract as low and high grade intraurothelial neoplasia, respectively. To harmonize nomenclature, we now propose that the terms low and high grade papillary urothelial carcinoma be replaced by low and high grade papillary intraurothelial neoplasiafor all noninvasive urothelial cancers.

  7. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of lung masquerading as urothelial carcinoma of bladder

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Donna M.; O’Connor, Kate M.; Hinchion, John; Coate, Linda E.; Burke, Louise; Power, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the lung is a rare subtype of non-small cell lung cancer. There is no consensus regarding optimal management for this disease. Case report We present a case of MEC of the lung in a 75 year-old female with a history of superficial urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The patient was found to have an asymptomatic lung mass. Initial biopsy suggested metastatic recurrence of urothelial carcinoma and therefore, cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy was administered prior to surgical resection. Pathological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed a diagnosis of stage IIIA MEC with focal high-grade features including transitional cell-like areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered due to a positive microscopic resection margin. No chemotherapy was given due to lack of supporting data. The patient developed widespread metastatic disease 3 months following completion of radiotherapy and died 1 month later. Conclusion This case demonstrates the possibility of dual pathology in cases where metastatic disease is suspected. The use of small tissue samples may complicate diagnosis due to the heterogeneity of malignant tumours. PMID:24936321

  8. [Retroviral-mediated transfer of a hygromycin phosphotransferase-thymidine kinase fusion gene into human bladder carcinoma cell].

    PubMed

    Ye, C; Chen, S; Pei, X; Li, L; Feng, K

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of retroviral-mediated hygromycin phosphotransferase-thymidine kinase fusion gene (HyTK)/GCV on human bladder carcinoma cell. A retroviral expression vector pL (HyTK) SN was constructed. By using FuGENE 6-mediated transfection and "ping-pong effect" technique, high-titer of retroviral supernatant was obtained and HyTK gene was transferred into EJ cells. A retroviral vector encoding, enhanced green fluorescent protein, EGFP was used to rapidly detect the transduction efficiency. Antitumor effects were observed after GCV treatment. In vitro experiments demonstrated the EJ cells transferred by HyTK gene were killed in the GCV treatment. Non-transduced parental cells were not sensitive to GCV, but they were dead by the bystander killing of neighboring cells when mixed with EJ/HyTK cells at various ratios. In addition, this not only affect wild-type EJ cells but also cells from different bladder carcinoma cell lines. Retroviral-mediated HyTK/GCV systems were a promising suicide gene therapy for bladder carcinoma. EGFP may act as a convenient and rapid reporter to monitor retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression in bladder carcinoma cells.

  9. Phytohormones in Japanese mugwort gall induction by a gall-inducing gall midge.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuichiro; Okada, Koichi; Asami, Tadao; Suzuki, Yoshihito

    2013-01-01

    A variety of insect species induce galls on host plants. Liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric analyses showed that a gall midge (Rhopalomyia yomogicola) that induces galls on Artemisia princeps contained high levels of indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinins. The gall midge larvae also synthesized indole-3-acetic acid from tryptophan. Close observation of gall tissue sections indicated that the larval chamber was surrounded by layers of cells having secondary cell walls with extensive lignin deposition, except for the part of the gall that constituted the feeding nutritive tissue which was composed of small cells negatively stained for lignin. The differences between these two types of tissue were confirmed by an expression analysis of the genes involved in the synthesis of the secondary cell wall. Phytohormones may have functioned in maintaining the feeding part of the gall as fresh nutritive tissue. Together with the results in our previous study, those presented here suggest the importance of phytohormones in gall induction.

  10. Bladder Carcinoma Data with Clinical Risk Factors and Molecular Markers: A Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redondo-Gonzalez, Enrique; de Castro, Leandro Nunes; Moreno-Sierra, Jesús; Maestro de las Casas, María Luisa; Vera-Gonzalez, Vicente; Ferrari, Daniel Gomes; Corchado, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer occurs in the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder and is amongst the most common types of cancer in humans, killing thousands of people a year. This paper is based on the hypothesis that the use of clinical and histopathological data together with information about the concentration of various molecular markers in patients is useful for the prediction of outcomes and the design of treatments of nonmuscle invasive bladder carcinoma (NMIBC). A population of 45 patients with a new diagnosis of NMIBC was selected. Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), muscle invasive bladder carcinoma (MIBC), carcinoma in situ (CIS), and NMIBC recurrent tumors were not included due to their different clinical behavior. Clinical history was obtained by means of anamnesis and physical examination, and preoperative imaging and urine cytology were carried out for all patients. Then, patients underwent conventional transurethral resection (TURBT) and some proteomic analyses quantified the biomarkers (p53, neu, and EGFR). A postoperative follow-up was performed to detect relapse and progression. Clusterings were performed to find groups with clinical, molecular markers, histopathological prognostic factors, and statistics about recurrence, progression, and overall survival of patients with NMIBC. Four groups were found according to tumor sizes, risk of relapse or progression, and biological behavior. Outlier patients were also detected and categorized according to their clinical characters and biological behavior. PMID:25866762

  11. [Disseminated BCG infection in patients with urinary bladder carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Korać, Milos; Milosević, Branko; Lavadinović, Lidija; Janjić, Aleksandar; Brmbolić, Branko

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guërin--a live, attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis has been used in immunotherapy of patients with superficial urinary bladder carcinoma. Some patients develop complications after intravesical instillation of BCG: high temperature followed by hematuria or granulomatous prostatits, epidydimoorchitis, urethral obstruction, and less than 1% have a systemic disease followed by dissemination of bacteria into other organs. A 50-year-old man underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. One month after the operation BCG intravesical installations were administered for three weeks. After the fourth installation, our patient developed high fever, fatigue, vomiting, dark urine, light stools, and jaundice. On admission he was jaundiced with a high fever, enlarged liver and spleen and laboratory findings which included high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, pancytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, especially alkaline phosphatase and aminotranspherases. The bone-marrow biopsy showed granulomatous inflamation suggesting mycobacterial spread in the bone marrow, liver and spleen and sepsis. The patient was initially treated with antituberculous therapy, but his state did not improve until corticosteroids were added to the antituberculous treatment regimen. Although dissemination of BCG is a rare complication of intravesical BCG treatment of the bladder carcinoma, it may result in prolonged fever and granulomatous inflamation of the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow and BCG sepsis. Antituberclous agents in combination with corticosteroids comprise the treatment of choice for disseminated BCG infection.

  12. Treatment Trends and Outcomes of Small-Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Koay, Eugene J.; MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; Teh, Bin S., E-mail: bteh@tmh.org

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Treatment for small-cell carcinoma of the bladder is largely guided by case reports, retrospective reviews, and small prospective trials. This study aimed to study outcomes using a large population-based database. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database (1991-2005) was used to analyze how different treatment combinations of specific bladder surgeries, chemotherapy, and radiation affected patient outcomes. Trends in the use of these combinations over time were also analyzed. Results: A total of 533 patients were retrieved from the database. A bladder-sparing approach involving transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) combined with chemotherapy and radiation yielded no significantmore » difference in overall survival compared with patients undergoing at least a cystectomy (of whom over 90% received radical cystectomy) with chemotherapy (p > 0.05). The analysis of treatment trends indicated that these two general strategies for cure combined to account for fewer than 20% of patients. A majority of patients (54%) received TURBT as their only surgical treatment, and a subset analysis of these patients indicated that chemotherapy played a role in all stages of disease (p < 0.05) whereas radiation improved overall survival in regional-stage disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Relatively few patients with small-cell carcinoma of the bladder receive potentially curative therapies. Chemotherapy should be a major component of treatment. Cystectomy and bladder-sparing approaches represent two viable strategies and deserve further investigation to identify the patients who may benefit from organ preservation or not. In addition, the role of radiation in regional-stage disease should be investigated further, because it positively affects survival after TURBT.« less

  13. Bladder chondrosarcoma plus urothelial carcinoma in recurred transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Hyun; Kim, Sung Han; Park, Weon Seo; Joung, Jae Young; Seo, Ho Kyung; Chung, Jinsoo; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-10-20

    Sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma (SUC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the urinary bladder comprising 0.2-0.6 % of all histological bladder tumor subtypes. It presents as a high-stage malignancy and exhibits aggressive biological behavior, regardless of the treatment employed. It is defined as histologically indistinguishable from sarcoma and as a high-grade biphasic neoplasm with malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. The mean age of patients presenting with SUC is 66 years, and the male-to-female ratio is 3:1. In addition, gross hematuria is usually present. The prognosis of SUC is poorer than that of typical urothelial carcinoma because of uncertainty concerning the optimal treatment regimen. We report the case of a 77-year-old woman with SUC containing a chondrosarcoma component who, 12 years previously, had undergone a nephroureterectomy for pT3N0M0 ureter cancer of the contralateral upper urinary tract. From the 4th year of follow-up after nephroureterectomy, multiple recurrent bladder tumors staged as Ta transitional cell carcinoma developed, and six transurethral resections of the bladder (TURB) with multiple intravesical instillations were performed without any evidence of metastases and upper tract recurrences. In 2015, a right partial distal ureterectomy and an additional TURB were performed due to a papillary mass at the right contralateral ureterovesical junction of the bladder, which was confirmed as a high-grade pT1 transitional cell carcinoma. After a further 2 years of follow-up, total pelvic exenteration with an ileal conduit diversion was performed to remove the mass, which was a pT4N0M0 tumor composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements compatible with a sarcomatoid carcinoma including grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma and chondrosarcoma. Immunohistochemical examination showed that tumor cells were positive for vimentin and p63 and negative for NSE and Cd56 markers. In the first postoperative month, a metastatic lung nodule

  14. Immunohistochemical analysis of the role and relationship between Notch-1 and Oct-4 expression in urinary bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; El-Wahed, Moshira Mohammed Abd; Kandil, Mona Abd-Elhalim; Samaka, Rehab Monir; Elkady, Noha

    2013-10-01

    Most tumors contain a minor population of cancer stem cells that are responsible for tumor heterogeneity, resistance to therapy and recurrence. Oct-4 is a transcription factor responsible for self-renewal of stem cells, whereas the Notch family of receptors and ligands may play a pivotal role in the regulation of stem cell maintenance and differentiation. This study aimed at an evaluation of Oct-4 and Notch-1 expression in both carcinoma and stromal cells of 83 cases of primary bladder carcinoma and to study the relationship between them. Notch-1 was expressed in carcinoma and stromal cells of all malignant cases, where expression in both cell types was correlated with parameters indicating differentiation, such as low grade (p < 0.05) and less proliferation (p < 0.05). However, Notch-1 expression in stromal cells was associated with nodal metastasis (p = 0.016) and advanced stage (p = 0.030). 56.6 and 75.9% of carcinoma and stromal cells of malignant cases showed Oct-4 expression, respectively. Oct-4 expression in carcinoma cells or stromal cells was associated with aggressive features of bladder carcinoma, such as poor differentiation (p = 0.001), high proliferation (p < 0.001, 0.030), and liability for recurrence (p = 0.010, p < 0.001). There was an inverse relationship between Notch-1 and Oct-4 expression in carcinoma cells (p = 0.002), but stromal expression of Notch-1 was found to be associated with a nuclear pattern of Oct-4 expression in carcinoma cells (p = 0.030). Oct-4 as a stem cell marker is expressed in carcinoma cells and in stromal cells of bladder carcinoma, where they may cooperate in the progression of bladder carcinoma by acquiring aggressive features, such as a liability for recurrence and dissemination. Notch-1 is also expressed in both carcinoma cells and stromal cells of bladder carcinoma. Although they could share in enhancing differentiation, stromal expression of Notch-1 may have a bad impact, possibly through up-regulation of the active

  15. Risk factors for development of primary bladder squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, R; Swallow, D; Finch, W; Wood, SJ; Biers, SM

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of risk factors for primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. MATERIALS A total of 90 cases of primary SCC of the bladder were identified through multicentre analysis. Patient demographics, stage and grade of cancer at presentation, management and outcomes were recorded. The presence of known risk factors (catheter use, neuropathic bladder, smoking history, recurrent urinary tract infection and bladder stones) was also documented. RESULTS Over half of the patients had at least one identifiable risk factor for the development of primary bladder SCC: 13.9% of patients had a history of catheter use (clean intermittent self-catheterisation [CISC] in 11.1%), 10.0% of patients had a neuropathic bladder, 27.8% were smokers or ex-smokers and 20.0% had a documented history of recurrent urinary tract infection. Statistical analysis of the results showed no association between risk factors and grade of tumour at presentation. CONCLUSIONS These data further support the association between primary bladder SCC and several of the well documented risk factors for its development. Chronic use of CISC may confer a greater risk for development of SCC than thought previously. Further evidence of the role of CISC in primary SCC is required to justify routine screening and to determine exactly when surveillance of the bladder should begin for this group of patients. PMID:27869492

  16. Bladder Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage. Start here to find information on bladder cancer treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  17. [Inhibitory effects of 11 coumarin compounds against growth of human bladder carcinoma cell line E-J in vitro].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiu-wei; Xu, Bo; Ran, Fu-xiang; Wang, Rui-qing; Wu, Jun; Cui, Jing-rong

    2007-01-01

    To screen antitumor active compounds, drug-like or leading compounds from Chinese traditional and herbal drugs. Eleven coumarin compounds isolated from the Chinese traditional and herbal drugs were studied for their antitumor activities in vitro by determining the inhibition rates against growth of human bladder carcinoma cell line E-J. It showed that umbelliferone, scoparone, demethylfuropinarine, isopimpinellin, forbesoside, columbianadin, decursin and glycycoumarin inhibited the growth of human bladder carcinoma cell line E-J in vitro and their activities showed a concentration-effect relationship. The inhibitory effects of forbesoside, columbianadin, decursin and umbelliferone, with IC50 values of 7.50x10(-7), 2.30x10(-6), 6.00x10(-6) and 1.30x10(-6) mol/L, respectively, were stronger than those of the other tested compounds. However, xanthotoxin, esculin and sphondin did not inhibit the growth of human bladder carcinoma cell line E-J in this assay condition. These findings indicate that forbesoside, columbianadin, esculin, decursin and umbelliferone would be effective or regarded as potent drug-like or leading compounds against human bladder carcinoma.

  18. Cytological Diagnosis of Small Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder in a Patient with CLL

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Gülçin Güler; Güreşçi, Servet; Oğuz, Ural; Ünsal, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is an extremely rare bladder malignancy characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. So, it is important to diagnose this high grade disease by urinary cytology. We report a case of SCCUB in an old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in remission, while bladder tumor was diagnosed by cytology. With this article, we aimed to review and to update the literature concerning this tumor. PMID:24518979

  19. Separation and characterization of gall bladder bile metabolites from speckled trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, exposed to individual polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Leonard, J D; Hellou, J

    2001-03-01

    Speckled trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were orally exposed to individual polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) represented by benzo[a]pyrene, carbazole, chrysene, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Fish were sacrificed 7 d after exposure and the gall bladder removed for bile analysis. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence (F) and ultraviolet (UV) detection was used to determine the presence of PAC derivatives in the bile without pretreatment. Glucuronide conjugates were predominant in all exposures with variable amounts (0-53%) of phenols and starting material. Identification of compounds was confirmed by selective extraction of less polar nonconjugated PACs and enzymatic hydrolysis of water-soluble material. This was followed by HPLC and/or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) characterization of the produced phenols. Total metabolite levels varied widely among compounds.

  20. Autofluorescence imaging to optimize 5-ALA-induced fluorescence endoscopy of bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Frimberger, D; Zaak, D; Stepp, H; Knüchel, R; Baumgartner, R; Schneede, P; Schmeller, N; Hofstetter, A

    2001-09-01

    To design an optical system for detecting autofluorescence (AF) of bladder tumors and to determine the success of reducing the false-positive rate of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence endoscopy (AFE). AFE provides significantly higher sensitivity in detecting and localizing bladder carcinoma compared with white light endoscopy. The specificity of AFE is equivalent to white light endoscopy, mostly because of the false-positive fluorescence of chronic cystitis lesions. Laser-induced spectral autofluorescence detection is also an efficient method in the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma. Bladder tissue was excited to AF using the D-Light (375 to 440 nm) after regular AFE with detection of fluorescence-positive areas. The optical image was produced using a special RGB camera. Biopsies were taken from AFE-positive areas, the peritumoral edges, and normal bladder mucosa. The AF images of the suspicious areas were compared with the AFE images and the histologic results. A total of 43 biopsies were histologically examined (24 benign and 19 neoplastic). AF imaging showed contrast differences between papillary tumors, flat lesions, and normal mucosa. The combination of AFE with AF raised the specificity of AFE alone from 67% to 88%. AF imaging is possible. The value of the method in reducing the false-positive rate of the highly sensitive AFE needs to be validated with higher numbers. The combination of AF with AFE had a 20% higher specificity than AFE alone in our study.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder mimicking interstitial cystitis and voiding dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Prudnick, Colton; Morley, Chad; Shapiro, Robert; Zaslau, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder is a relatively uncommon cause of bladder cancer accounting for <5% of bladder tumors in the western countries. SCC has a slight male predominance and tends to occur in the seventh decade of life. The main presenting symptom of SCC is hematuria, and development of this tumor in the western world is associated most closely with chronic indwelling catheters and spinal cord injuries. A 39-year-old Caucasian female presented with bladder and lower abdominal pain, urinary frequency, and nocturia which was originally believed to be interstitial cystitis (IC) but was later diagnosed as SCC of the bladder. Presentation of SCC without hematuria is an uncommon presentation, but the absence of this symptom should not lead a practitioner to exclude the diagnosis of SCC. This case is being reported in an attempt to explain the delay and difficulty of diagnosis. Background on the risk factors for SCC of the bladder and the typical presenting symptoms of bladder SCC and IC are also reviewed.

  2. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in adults: predilection for alveolar morphology with anaplasia and significant morphologic overlap with small cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Paner, Gladell P; McKenney, Jesse K; Epstein, Jonathan I; Amin, Mahul B

    2008-07-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents the most common malignant soft tissue tumor in children and adolescents with the urinary bladder representing a frequent site. Most of these urinary bladder tumors are embryonal RMS, predominantly the botryoid subtype. RMSs of the urinary bladder in adults are distinctively rare and the subject of only case reports. We report the clinicopathologic features of 5 bladder neoplasms with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation in adults and emphasize the differential diagnosis in the adult setting. The patients, 4 men and 1 woman, ranged in age from 23 to 85 years (mean 65.4 y). Gross hematuria was the most common initial symptom, although 2 patients had metastatic disease at presentation. Four cases were pure primary RMSs of the bladder and 1 case was a sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma with RMS representing the extensive heterologous component. All 5 cases demonstrated a diffuse growth pattern (ie, non-nested), of which 4 cases had nuclear anaplasia (Wilms criteria without the atypical mitotic figure requirement); only 1 case (the sarcomatoid carcinoma) showed obvious rhabdomyoblastic differentiation (ie, strap cells). Three cases were of the alveolar subtype (1 admixed with embryonal histology) and 2 were RMS, not further classified. Microscopically, all tumors had a primitive undifferentiated morphology with cells containing scant cytoplasm, varying round to fusiform nuclei with even chromatin distribution, and frequent mitoses. The degree of morphologic overlap with small cell carcinoma of the bladder, a relatively more common round cell tumor in adults, was striking. The epithelial component of the sarcomatoid carcinoma was high-grade invasive urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation. No other case had previous history of bladder cancer or concurrent carcinoma in situ or invasive urothelial carcinoma. All tumors showed immunohistochemical expression for desmin, myogenin, and/or MyoD1. Synaptophysin was performed in 4 cases

  3. Carcinomas of the urinary bladder simulating malignant lymphoma. A report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Zukerberg, L R; Harris, N L; Young, R H

    1991-06-01

    We report five carcinomas of the urinary bladder, four of them transitional cell carcinomas and one undifferentiated carcinoma, with unusual features that have received little or no comment in the literature and may be the cause of diagnostic difficulty because of their possible confusion with malignant lymphoma. Four patients were male and one female. They ranged from 61 to 76 years of age. Three tumors from these patients had a prominent (2 cases) or massive (1 case) lymphoid infiltrate that partially obscured the invasive carcinoma in two cases and largely obscured it in the third case, which closely resembled a lymphoepithelioma. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was only excluded with confidence in the last case after thorough immunohistochemical study. The lymphoid infiltrate was composed of numerous T-cells (UCHL-1 and Leu 22 positive) and polytypic plasma cells with admixed eosinophils; occasional germinal centers were present in one case. The tumors were deeply invasive in two patients, one of whom is alive with no evidence of disease 4 years after treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy; the other two cases are too recent for meaningful follow-up. Two other transitional cell carcinomas had diffuse patterns that simulated lymphoma or plasmacytoma. Recognition of these patterns of vesical carcinoma is important in order to avoid the misdiagnosis of the very rare malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder.

  4. Case report of metastatic invasive breast lobular carcinoma to the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Al Ibraheemi, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women except skin cancer. The common metastatic sites include lymph node, lung, liver and bone. However, metastasis to the bladder is extremely rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case of breast cancer metastasis to urinary bladder in Jordan which is reported. Nine years after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, the patient suffered from left side leg edema; Ultrasonography and Computed tomography scanning showed thickening of posterior bladder wall and bilateral hydronephrosis. The biopsy of the bladder confirmed metastatic lesion from the breast. In contrast to the primary tumor, bladder metastasis showed negative expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. However, Her2neu test was negative in both. The reported case confirms that bladder metastasis from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. Furthermore, bladder metastasis can be asymptomatic and heterogeneous in ER and PR expression in comparison with the primary tumor. This report supports the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. This report supports further evaluation of receptor status at time of metastasis.

  5. Expression of EphA2 and Ephrin A-1 in carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Shaji; Knapp, Deborah W; Cheng, Liang; Snyder, Paul W; Mittal, Suresh K; Bangari, Dinesh S; Kinch, Michael; Wu, Lan; Dhariwal, Jay; Mohammed, Sulma I

    2006-01-15

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase is believed to play a role in tumor growth and metastasis. The clinical significance of the expression of EphA2 was observed in breast, prostate, colon, skin, cervical, ovarian, and lung cancers. The purpose of this work was to determine the expression of EphA2 and its ligand, Ephrin A-1, and E-cadherin in carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and determine EphA2 as a new target for therapy in bladder cancer. EphA2 mRNA and protein expression was investigated by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot, respectively, in bladder cancer cell lines. In addition, the expression of EphA2, Ephrin A-1, and E-cadherin in tissues from patients with different stages of urinary bladder cancer was determined by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the ability of Ephrin A-1 to inhibit growth of bladder cancer cells was also investigated using an adenoviral delivery system. Western blot analysis showed high EphA2 expression in TCCSUP, T24, and UMUC-3 cell lines. In tissues, the staining intensity of EphA2 was less in normal urothelium but increased greatly in advancing stages of urothelial carcinoma (P < 0.05). Similarly, the staining intensity of Ephrin A-1 was low in normal tissues and high in cancerous tissues, but it was similar across the various stages of urothelial carcinoma (T(a)-T(4)). E-cadherin immunoreactivity decreased in urothelial cancer. Association of EphA2 and Ephrin A-1 expression was found to be significant between T(a) stage and T(1)-T(2) (P < 0.04) and T(a) and T(3)-T(4) stages (P < 0.0001). Adenovirus delivery of Ephrin A-1 inhibited proliferation of TCCSUP cells. EphA2 may serve as a novel target for bladder cancer therapy.

  6. [Spinal cord injury with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction as a potential risk factor for bladder carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Böthig, Ralf; Fiebag, Kai; Kowald, Birgitt; Hirschfeld, Sven; Thietje, Roland; Kurze, Ines; Schöps, Wolfgang; Böhme, Holger; Kaufmann, Albert; Zellner, Michael; Kadhum, Thura; Golka, Klaus

    2018-05-29

     Life expectancy for people with spinal cord injury/disease (SCI/D) is increasing, due to modern advances in treatment methods and in neuro-urology. However, with the increased life expectancy the risk of developing urinary bladder cancer is gaining importance. How is this patient group different from the general population?  Single-centre retrospective evaluation of consecutive patient data with spinal cord injury and proven urinary bladder cancer.  Between January 1st 1998 and March 31st 2017, 32 (3 female, 29 male) out of a total of 6432 patients with SCI/D were diagnosed with bladder cancer.The average age at bladder cancer diagnosis was 54.5 years, which is well below the average for bladder cancer cases in the general population (male: 74, female: 75).Twenty-seven patients suffered from urodynamically confirmed neurogenic detrusor overactivity, while five patients (all male) had detrusor acontractility.The median latency period between the onset of SCI/D and tumor diagnosis was 29.5 years. Temporary indwelling catheterisation was found in four patients for only 1.61 % of the overall latency period of all patients.The majority of the patients (n = 27) had transitional cell carcinoma, while five had squamous cell carcinoma. Of the 32 patients, 25 (78 %) had muscle invasive bladder cancer at ≥ T2 at the time of diagnosis. Regarding tumour grading, 23 out of 32 patients showed a histologically poorly differentiated G3 carcinoma; two patients each had G2 and G1 tumours repectively (no information on tumour grading was available in five patients).The median survival for all patients was 11.5 months. The prognosis of patients with squamous cell carcinoma was even worse; 4 out of 5 died within 7 months (median 4 months).  The significantly younger age at onset and the frequency of invasive, poorly differentiated tumour at diagnosis indicate that SCI/D influences both bladder cancer risk and prognosis significantly. The latency period between

  7. ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gautam K; Sen, Debraj; Mulajker, D S; Suresh, M S

    2011-01-01

    An elderly man from the region of Ladakh presented with recurrent episodes of lower respiratory tract infection, rapidly progressive Acanthosis nigricans, Acanthosis palmaris and plantar keratoderma. Detailed investigations revealed underlying metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. This case is being reported for its rarity in the literature. PMID:22345779

  8. Bladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have an elevated risk of developing bladder cancer. Chronic bladder inflammation. Chronic or repeated urinary infections or inflammations (cystitis), ... the world, squamous cell carcinoma is linked to chronic bladder inflammation caused by the parasitic infection known as schistosomiasis. ...

  9. Female, Black, and Unmarried Patients Are More Likely to Present With Metastatic Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Zachary; DiBianco, John M; Jen, Rita P; Evans, Austin J; Reinstatler, Lael; Terris, Martha K; Madi, Rabii

    2016-10-01

    Although there are well-established risk factors for the diagnosis of bladder cancer, there is no consensus regarding risk factors for presentation of advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify the demographic and clinical factors associated with metastasis at diagnosis in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma. Patients diagnosed with bladder urothelial carcinoma from 2004 to 2010 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (n = 108,417). The primary outcome was metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were analyzed, and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to generate odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with metastasis at diagnosis. Of patients with bladder cancer, 3018 (2.8%) had metastasis at diagnosis and 105,399 (97.2%) had nonmetastatic disease. Patients with metastatic disease at diagnosis were more frequently female (29.6% vs. 23.6%, P < .001), black (9.4% vs. 5.0%, P < .001), and unmarried (44.1% vs. 32.5%, P < .001) compared to patients with nonmetastatic disease. On multivariable analysis, the following characteristics were confirmed to be independently associated with metastatic disease at diagnosis: female gender (vs. male, OR 1.21), black race (vs. white, OR 1.71), unmarried (vs. married, OR 1.46), unemployed (OR 1.02), and foreign-born status (OR 1.01). Female gender, black race, unmarried, unemployed, and foreign-born status are independently associated with metastasis at diagnosis for bladder urothelial carcinoma. All clinicians should be aware of these potential health care disparities in order to involve social services and other support mechanisms in efforts to improve early care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signaling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in miRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any common cancer studied to date, suggesting the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  11. Ultrasound and Biomarker Tests in Predicting Cancer Aggressiveness in Tissue Samples of Patients With Bladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-23

    Bladder Papillary Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage 0a Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage 0is Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer With Carcinoma In Situ; Stage I Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage III Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma

  12. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of urinary bladder: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Das, Ashim; Radotra, Bishan D

    2015-01-01

    Micropapillary variant of urothelial carcinoma (MPUC) is a rare but well-recognized tumor of the urinary bladder. Tumors with micropapillary areas accompanying conventional urothelial carcinoma are more aggressive compared to conventional urothelial carcinoma and show variable keratin 7, keratin 20 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her 2)neu expression. The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical profile of MPUC. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) chips of seven cases of invasive MPUC with subsequent cystoprostatectomy specimens of five patients was reviewed. Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), Keratin 7, Keratin 20, and Her 2 immunohistochemistry were performed in all cases. Follow-up information was available for all patients (2-36 months). All seven patients were male, and their ages ranged from 50 to 62 years. All cases presented with hematuria. The micropapillary pattern was seen in 20-95% of the tumor. All cases showed extensive lymphatic emboli with detrusor muscle invasion. Lymph node metastasis was present in all cases undergoing cystoprostatectomy except one. Keratin 7 and abluminal pattern of EMA positivity were seen in all cases. Keratin 20 was positive in five cases (71%), and Her 2neu positivity was seen in four cases. Three patients died 2, 3, and 6 months after initial diagnosis, among which two were Her 2 positive and one was Her 2 negative. There was no clear prognostic significance of Her 2 positivity. (1) MPUC is a rare but highly aggressive tumor. (2) Micropapillary is usually the predominant pattern. (3) Keratin 7 is expressed universally, whereas Keratin 20 expression is variable. (4) Her 2 expression has no clear influence on the survival.

  13. Resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Veda Padma Priya; Zaidi, Shuaib; Pande, Pankaj; Goel, Ashish; Kumar, Kapil

    2015-03-01

    Although rare over most of the world, Gallbladder cancer is very common in northern india. A delayed presentation, aggressive nature,lack of randomised trials and a poor prognosis have all contributed to the nihilistic halo encircling gallbladder cancer. None of the advances in oncology have been exploited enough to shatter the nihilistic halo. In this background we sought to analyze if the addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy had any impact on the resectability, overall and disease free survival in patients with advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder. We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent surgery for carcinoma of the gall bladder from 2004 to 2010 at our institute retrospectively. Twenty-one patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequently taken up for surgery. Outcome analysis of these 21 patients were done by Kaplan meier method and graphs plotted. Out of the 21 patients who were taken up for surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, fourteen patients underwent R0 resection (Group 1). Seven patients had been rendered inoperable on exploration (Group 2). Thus about 66.67 % of patients deemed resectable after neoadjuvant chemotherapy on imaging underwent R0 resection. The mean overall survival of the group 1 was 42.8 months versus 6.6 months of group 2(Hazard Ratio: 3.42). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves resectability in some patients with unresectable gall bladder cancer. Resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is feasible and may improve survival in a select group of patients. However randomized studies are required to establish its definitive role.

  14. Decrement of miR-199a-5p contributes to the tumorigenesis of bladder urothelial carcinoma by regulating MLK3/NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tao; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Guoqiang; Song, Yong; Cai, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant miRNA expression is implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the role of miRNAs in bladder urothelial carcinoma still remains largely unknown. In this study, miR-199a-5p was validated to be significantly down-regulated in bladder urothelial carcinoma. In addition, restoring expression of miR-199a-5p inhibited the tumorigenesis of bladder urothelial carcinoma in vitro and in vivo by inducing the apoptosis and suppressing the proliferation of bladder cancerous cells. Further investigation reported that MLK3 was a direct target of miR-199a-5p. Moreover, the expression level of miR-199a-5p was conversely correlated with MLK3 in bladder cancerous cells. In addition, reintroduction of MLK3 was identified to promote the proliferation and inhibit the apoptotic rate of cells, which have been altered by miR-199a-5p through activating the NF-κB pathway. All together, decrement of miR-199a-5p contributes to the tumorigenesis of bladder cancer by directly regulating MLK3/NF-κB pathway and miR-199a-5p might be developed as a therapeutic target for treatment of the bladder urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26885275

  15. Functional distinction between two transport mechanisms in rabbit gall-bladder epithelium by use of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and metabolic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, O

    1978-07-01

    1. Net fluid transport rate, transepithelial p.d. and resistance, and unidirectional Na+-fluxes were measured in rabbit gall-bladder preparations exposed on both sides to bicarbonate-Ringer solution in vitro. 2. Both ouabain and ethacrynic acid (ETCA) caused dose-dependent decreases of net fluid transport rate; ouabain inhibited fluid transport predominantly from the serosal side, whereas the inhibitory effect of ETCA was elicited mainly from the mucosal (luminal) side. Applied bilaterally, the ID50 for ouabain was 2.5 X 10(-6) M, and for ETCA 2.3 X 10(-4) M. After maximal inhibition at each concentration level of the two inhibitors fluid transport could not be reversed. 3. 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) (2 X 10(-4) M) or substitution of O2 by N2 caused an 80% reversible decrease of net fluid transport. 4. The spontaneous p.d. across the rabbit gall-bladder was about 2.7 mV, mucosal side positive. 2,4-DNP, N2 and serosal application of ouabain depressed the p.d. after an initial hyperpolarization. This decrease was reversible during recovery from 2,4-DNP and N2, but irreversible after removal of ouabain at concentrations greater than or equal to 10(-4) M. Mucosal application of ETCA (10(-3) M) caused no decrease in p.d., which actually increased slightly. 5. Calculated passive serosal-to-mucosal Na+-fluxes changed in the same direction as did changes in conductance. 6. It is concluded that ETCA does not interfere primarily with the Na-K-ATPase or cellular oxidative metabolism. The data support the proposal that the pump responsible for isosmotic transepithelial fluid transfer is located in the luminal end of the cells. This pump is ETCA-sensitive. The ATPase-dependent Na-K pump, which can be inhibited by ouabain, is localized in the serosa-facing cell membrane. The data suggest that the inhibition of net fluid transport by ouabain is indirect and mediated by changes in intracellular ion concentrations. 7. The results support the concept that the transepithelial fluid

  16. The photokilling of bladder carcinoma cells in vitro by phenothiazine dyes.

    PubMed

    Fowler, G J; Rees, R C; Devonshire, R

    1990-09-01

    The potential photodynamic therapy photosensitizers Methylene Blue, Azure C, Methylene Violet, Thionine, Methylene Green, Haematoporphyrin, Nile Blue A, chloroaluminium phthalocyanine and bis-aluminium phthalocyanine were examined for their photoeffects and dark toxicity against a human superficial bladder carcinoma cell-line. By examination of [3H]thymidine uptake into dye-treated cells after irradiation with a copper-vapour pumped dye laser, it was found that Methylene Blue was the most phototoxic and dark toxic of all the dyes tested, suggesting that the dye might be of some use as a topically applied photodrug for use in photodynamic therapy of superficial or early-recurring carcinomas.

  17. Mitomycin C Intravesical Chemotherapy in Conjunction With Synergo® Radiofrequency-Induced Hyperthermia for Treatment of Carcinoma in Situ Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients Unresponsive to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, With or Without Papillary Tumors.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-20

    Bladder Cancer; Bladder Neoplasm; Bladder Tumors; Cancer of Bladder; Cancer of the Bladder; Malignant Tumor of Urinary Bladder; Neoplasms, Bladder; Urinary Bladder Cancer; Carcinoma in Situ of Bladder; Papillary Carcinoma of Bladder (Diagnosis); BCG-Unresponsive Bladder Cancer

  18. CD 10 expression intensity in various grades and stages of urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Atique, Muhammad; Abbasi, Muhammad Sajjad; Jamal, Shahid; Khadim, Muhammad Tahir; Akhtar, Farhan; Jamal, Nighat

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate CD10 expression in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder and the association of immunohistochemical (IHC) CD10 expression intensity with grade and stage. Descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2011. Fifty consecutive cases of urothelial bladder carcinomas, obtained through transurethral resections, were included in this study. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained sections from each case were re-evaluated histopathologically according to WHO 2004 grading system. The TNM system was used for pathologic staging. On selected slides IHC CD10 marker was applied and a semiquantitative scoring for its expression based on the percentage of positive cells and intensity was performed. Data was entered and analysed on SPSS version 17. Fisher's exact test was used to compare grades, stages of urothelial carcinoma with CD 10 expression and age groups. P < 0.05 was taken as level of significance. Urothelial carcinoma was more common in males. The male to female ratio was 9:1. The older patients > 50 years had higher grade and stage as compared to the younger patients. All cases of high grade urothelial carcinoma showed higher positivity for CD 10. Twenty cases (86.95%) of high grade urothelial carcinoma were positive with +2 immunostaining while 3 cases (13.04 %) were positive with +1 staining. None of the tumors of stage pTa was positive for CD 10 expression. Of all patients with stage pT 1 tumor, 1 case (5.3%) was CD 10 negative and 17 cases (89.9%) were CD 10 positive having +1 staining with 5 - 50% staining and 1 case (5.3%) had +2 staining with more then 50% expression. Out of all patients with stage pT 2, no tumor was CD 10 negative, 3 (13.6%) patients were CD 10 positive with +1 staining and 19 (86.4%) with stage pT 2 tumor had stained positive with +2 staining. CD 10 expression was greater in high grade and invasive urothelial carcinomas; it may be associated with tumor progression

  19. The expression of pigment epithelium-derived factor in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae Jung; Kim, Sung Woo; Lee, Kyung Seop

    2012-06-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic factor. The purpose of this study is to examine the involvement of PEDF in the angiogenesis and biological behavior of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). We examined the expression of PEDF in 99 bladder TCCs and ten non-neoplastic tissues, and evaluated microvessel density (MVD). The positive immunoreactivity for PEDF was seen in normal urothelium in 60% (6/10) and TCC in 13% (13/99). The PEDF expression had a significant correlation with MVD, i.e., a low MVD in 42% (5/12), a middle MVD in 11% (8/76) and a high MVD 0% (0/11) of tumors. The PEDF expression was not significantly correlated with the differentiation and invasion of TCC, but the degree of MVD was significantly higher in both high grade TCC and the pT2 tumors. The degree of PEDF expression is significantly higher in normal bladder urothelium than bladder TCC; it is inversely correlated with the angiogenesis; and it is not related to the differentiation and progression of TCC. It can therefore be concluded that bladder TCC would initially occur if there is a lack of the PEDF expression.

  20. Atezolizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent BCG-Unresponsive Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-25

    Recurrent Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage 0a Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage 0is Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Bladder Cancer With Carcinoma In Situ; Stage I Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7

  1. Activated platelet-derived growth factor β receptor and Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in natural bovine urinary bladder carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Corteggio, Annunziata; Di Geronimo, Ornella; Roperto, Sante; Roperto, Franco; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Bovine papillomavirus types 1 or 2 (BPV-1/2) are involved in the aetiopathogenesis of bovine urinary bladder cancer. BPV-1/2 E5 activates the platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR). The aim of this study was to analyse the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in relation to activation of PDGFβR in natural bovine urinary bladder carcinomas. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis demonstrated that recruitment of growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (GRB-2) and Sos-1 to the activated PDGFβR was increased in carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Higher grade bovine urinary bladder carcinomas were associated with activation of Ras, but not with activation of downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Mek 1/2) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk 1/2). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Some coccidia from the gall-bladder and intestine of the teiid lizard Ameiva ameiva ameiva and the gecko Hemidactylus mabouia in north Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lainson, R; Paperna, I

    1999-06-01

    A study has been made of the endogenous development of two eimeriid Coccidia in the teiid lizard Ameiva ameiva, which were previously considered by Carini (1932) to be conspecific with Eimeria rochalimai and Eimeria boveroi Carini & Pinto, 1926, described in the gecko Hemidactylus mabouia. It has been shown that this is not so, and the two parasites of A. ameiva have been named Choleoeimeria carinii n. sp. and Acroeimeria pintoi n. sp. A description is also given of the endogenous stages of the two eimeriid coccidians previously described in Hemidactylus mabouia. The one from the gall-bladder is renamed Choleoeimeria rochalimai (Carini & Pinto, 1926) nov. comb., and a redescription is made of Eimeria boveroi. The shortcomings of diagnosis based solely on morphology of the oocysts are discussed, particularly with regards the eimeriids of reptiles.

  3. The Expression of Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor in Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Woo; Lee, Kyung Seop

    2012-01-01

    Background Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic factor. The purpose of this study is to examine the involvement of PEDF in the angiogenesis and biological behavior of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Methods We examined the expression of PEDF in 99 bladder TCCs and ten non-neoplastic tissues, and evaluated microvessel density (MVD). Results The positive immunoreactivity for PEDF was seen in normal urothelium in 60% (6/10) and TCC in 13% (13/99). The PEDF expression had a significant correlation with MVD, i.e., a low MVD in 42% (5/12), a middle MVD in 11% (8/76) and a high MVD 0% (0/11) of tumors. The PEDF expression was not significantly correlated with the differentiation and invasion of TCC, but the degree of MVD was significantly higher in both high grade TCC and the pT2 tumors. Conclusions The degree of PEDF expression is significantly higher in normal bladder urothelium than bladder TCC; it is inversely correlated with the angiogenesis; and it is not related to the differentiation and progression of TCC. It can therefore be concluded that bladder TCC would initially occur if there is a lack of the PEDF expression. PMID:23110012

  4. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in a Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas)

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, D.; Lagacé, A.; Massé, R.; Morin, M.; Béland, P.

    1985-01-01

    A transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder was found in a beluga whale stranded in the St. Lawrence middle estuary. Various organs of this animal were submitted to high resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. High frequency of urinary bladder cancer in the human population of the same area and the presence of carcinogenic compounds in the marine environment of this animal are discussed. Concurrent isolation of Edwardsiella tarda from various organs of this whale is also reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:17422578

  5. Familial urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder with autosomal dominant inheritance and late onset phenotype.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robin; Donnelly, Deirdre E; Allen, Derek; Loughrey, Maurice B; Morrison, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Familial Urothelial cell bladder cancer is rare. We report two families with urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of bladder with family history in other relatives, displaying probable autosomal dominant inheritance and a late onset pure UCC phenotype, and document the phenotype in each family. Descriptive familial study on two pedigrees over three generations. Two families with UCC bladder were identified, and the phenotype documented, each family having three cases of late onset UCC. Some cases of UCC are hereditary and may display autosomal dominant inheritance with late onset of the cancer. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of a familial late onset UCC phenotype when managing cases of UCC.

  6. 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings of Metastasis to Spongy Body of Penis From Urothelial Carcinoma of Bladder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-li; Fang, Na; Zeng, Lei; Wu, Zeng-jie; Cui, Xin-jian

    2016-05-01

    The spongy body of the penis metastasis from other primary sites is a rare clinical entity. It is frequently associated with widespread metastatic disease and poor prognosis clinically. We report a case of a 61-year-old man with a previous history of cystectomy due to infiltrating urothelial carcinoma of the bladder 12 months ago and presented with penile shaft swelling pain and hematuria for 3 months. The restaging F-FDG PET/CT scan demonstrated a hypermetabolic mass at his penile shaft. This lesion was confirmed on phallectomy to be infiltrating urothelial carcinoma metastasis from the known primary bladder tumor.

  7. Arthropods associated with fungal galls: do large galls support more abundant and diverse inhabitants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funamoto, Daichi; Sugiura, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    Fungus-induced galls can attract spore-feeding arthropods as well as gall-feeding ones, resulting in diverse communities. Do large fungal galls support more abundant and diverse arthropod communities than small fungal galls? To address this question, we investigated the structure of the arthropod community associated with bud galls induced by the fungus Melanopsichium onumae on the tree species Cinnamomum yabunikkei (Lauraceae) in central Japan. Thirteen species of arthropods were associated with M. onumae galls. Dominant arthropod species were represented by the larvae of a salpingid beetle (a spore feeder), a nitidulid beetle (a spore feeder), a cosmopterigid moth (a spore feeder), an unidentified moth (a gall tissue feeder), and a drosophilid species (a gall tissue feeder). Arthropod abundance and species richness were positively correlated with gall diameter. The majority of the most abundant species were more frequently found in large galls than in small ones, indicating that large fungal galls, which have more food and/or space for arthropods, could support a more abundant and diverse arthropod community.

  8. Urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma with expression of KIT and PDGFRA and showing diverse differentiations into plasmacytoid, clear cell, acantholytic, nested, and spindle variants, and into adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and pleomorphic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Various tumors can arise in the urinary bladder (UB); most common is urothelial carcinoma (UC). UC of the UB have many variants. Other types of carcinomas such as adenocarcinoma (AC) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) can occur in UB carcinomas. Expression of KIT and PDGFRA has not been reported. A 66-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed papillary invasive tumor and a transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. The TUR-BT showed UC, AC, SmCC, large cell carcinoma (LCC), and pleomorphic carcinoma (PC). The UC component showed plasmacytoid, spindle, nested, clear cell, acantholytic variants. The AC element showed tubular adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma (Sig). Immunohistochemically, all of these subtypes were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK34BE12, CK5, CK6, CK7, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, CEA, p63, CA19-9, p53 (positive 45%), MUC1, NSE, NCAM, KIT, PDGFRA, and Ki-67 (87%). They were negative for vimentin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, S100 protein, CD34, CD14, α-smooth muscle actin, CD31, caldesmon, CD138, CD45, κ-chain, λ-chain, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6. Mucin histochemistry revealed mucins in AC element including Sig. A molecular genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method identified no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. The carcinoma was highly aggressive and invaded into muscular layer. The nuclear grade was very high, and there were numerous lymphovascular permeations were seen. The surface showed carcinoma in situ involving von-Brunn's nests. This case shows that carcinoma of UB can show diverse differentiations into numerous histological types and variants, and can express KIT and PDGFRA. The both genes showed no mutations in the present case.

  9. The association between gall bladder mucoceles and hyperlipidaemia in dogs: a retrospective case control study.

    PubMed

    Kutsunai, M; Kanemoto, H; Fukushima, K; Fujino, Y; Ohno, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of gall bladder mucoceles (GM) in dogs has become increasingly frequent in veterinary medicine. Primary breed-specific hyperlipidaemia is reported in Shetland Sheepdogs and Miniature Schnauzers, breeds in which GM are known to occur more frequently than in other breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between GM and hyperlipidaemia in dogs. The study design was a retrospective case control study. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with GM at the Veterinary Medical Centre of The University of Tokyo between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2012, were reviewed. Fifty-eight dogs with GM and a record of either serum cholesterol, triglyceride, or glucose concentrations were included in the study. Hypercholesterolaemia (15/37 cases; odds ratio [OR]: 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-8.36) and hypertriglyceridaemia (13/24 cases; OR: 3.55; 95% CI:1.12-15.91) showed significant association with GM. Pomeranians (OR: 10.69), American Cocker Spaniels (OR: 8.94), Shetland Sheepdogs (OR: 6.21), Miniature Schnauzers (OR: 5.23), and Chihuahuas (OR: 3.06) were significantly predisposed to GM. Thirty-nine out of 58 cases had at least one concurrent disease, including pancreatitis (five cases), hyperadrenocorticism (two cases), and hypothyroidism (two cases). A significant association between GM and hyperlipidaemia was confirmed, suggesting that hyperlipidaemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of GM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Myasthenia Gravis After Nivolumab Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Elaine; Sabichi, Anita L; Sada, Yvonne H

    2017-04-01

    Checkpoint inhibitors have become standard therapy for multiple cancers, and their use will increase in the next year as regulatory approvals for additional indications are expected. It is essential for clinicians to be aware of the potential for rare immune-related adverse effects. Here, we report the case of a new diagnosis of myasthenia gravis (MG) after the use of nivolumab for squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. A review the literature identified 10 cases of MG diagnosed after programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor therapy. This is the first case, to our knowledge, reported in association with bladder cancer. The precise diagnosis of MG has important implications on management, as treatment with steroids can transiently worsen myasthenia in nearly 50% of cases.

  11. Heparanase 2 expression inversely correlates with bladder carcinoma grade and stage

    PubMed Central

    Gross-Cohen, Miriam; Feld, Sari; Naroditsky, Inna; Nativ, Ofer; Ilan, Neta; Vlodavsky, Israel

    2016-01-01

    While the pro-tumorigenic function of heparanase is well taken, the role of its close homolog, heparanase 2 (Hpa2) in cancer is by far less investigated. Utilizing immunohistochemical analysis we found that Hpa2 is expressed by normal bladder transitional epithelium and its levels are decreased substantially in bladder cancer. Notably, tumors that retain high levels of Hpa2 were diagnosed as low grade (p=0.001) and low stage (p=0.002), suggesting that Hpa2 is required to preserve cell differentiation and halt cell motility. Indeed, migration of 5637 bladder carcinoma cells was attenuated significantly by exogenous addition of purified Hpa2, and over expression of Hpa2 in 5637 cells resulted in smaller tumors that were diagnosed as low grade. We also noted that tumors produced by Hpa2 over expressing cells are abundantly decorated with stromal cells and collagen deposition evident by Masson's/Trichrome staining, correlating with a marked increase in lysyl oxidase (LOX) staining. The association between Hpa2 and LOX was further confirmed clinically, because of the 16 cases that exhibited strong staining of Hpa2, 14 (87.5%) were also stained strongly for LOX (p=0.05). Collectively, our results suggest that Hpa2 functions as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer, maintaining cellular differentiation and decreasing cell motility in a manner that appears to be independent of regulating heparanase activity. PMID:26968815

  12. Sarcomatoid carcinoma associated with small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a series of 28 cases.

    PubMed

    Urrea, Yuly Ramirez; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2017-09-01

    The association of sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) with small cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been systematically studied. We identified 39 consult cases between 2001 and 2016 with available slides for review in 28 cases. There were 19 men and 9 women (mean age: 78 years [51-89]). In 26 (92.8%) cases, the sarcomatoid component had nonspecific malignant spindle cells, 4 (14%) chondrosarcoma, 2 (7%) myxoid sarcomatous, 1 (3.5%) osteosarcoma, and 1 (3.5%) rhabdomyosarcoma. The predominant component was SCC in 11 (39%) cases, urothelial carcinoma in 6 (21%), sarcomatoid in 3 (10%), and equal sarcomatoid and SCC in 8 (29%). There were 3 morphological groups: group 1 (18/28 [64%]) showed a gradual transition from SCC to other components; group 2 (5/28 [18%]) had an abrupt transition from SCC to other components; and in group 3 (5/28 [18%]), the SCC was separate from other components. In group 1, 12 (66%) cases of SCC showed a gradual transition to sarcomatoid areas; 3 (17%) to urothelial carcinoma; and 3 (17%) to multiple components including squamous cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, and sarcomatoid. Mortality did not differ based on pathological groups. The 36-month actuarial risk of death was 64.3%. The multitude of different components in these tumors is further evidence of the remarkable ability of carcinoma of the bladder to show divergent differentiation with, in some cases, gradual transition between SCC and other elements including sarcomatoid. Greater recognition of this entity with chemotherapy targeted to the various histological elements may have important therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bladder Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder can be low-grade or high-grade. Bladder cancer is also divided into muscle-invasive and nonmuscle-invasive disease. Find evidence-based information on bladder cancer including treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  14. Pagetoid spread of bladder urothelial carcinoma to the vagina and vulva.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bingjian; Liang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    To study the clinicopathologic features of a rare disease of pagetoid urothelial intraepithelial neoplasia (PUIN) in the vulva. We reviewed a case of PUIN in a Chinese woman with a long history of bladder urothelial carcinoma. The patient presented with vulvar pruritus for more than 1 month. Gynecologic examination showed a red, thickened, eczematoid lesion in the bilateral labia minora and a palpable 4-cm mass between the middle part of the vagina and the urethral meatus. Microscopically, the neoplastic cells with clear or pale eosinophilic cytoplasm were distributed throughout the squamous epithelium, with a predilection for the middle and basal portion in the vulva. Acantholysis-related papillary formation and pagetoid spread pattern to the normal squamous epithelium were also present. Invasive carcinoma was found underneath the unremarkable squamous epithelium in the vaginal biopsy. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that these cells were negative for mucin stain, carcinoembryonic antigen, and 34βE12 and were strongly positive for cytokeratins 5/6, 7, 18, 19, and 20. This rare entity of PUIN was associated with metastatic urothelial carcinoma and should be discriminated from vulvar Paget disease and pagetoid squamous cell carcinoma in situ.

  15. Keratin, luminal epithelial antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen in human urinary bladder carcinomas. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Nathrath, W B; Arnholdt, H; Wilson, P D

    1982-01-01

    14 urinary bladder carcinomas of all main types were investigated with antisera to "broad spectrum keratin" (aK), "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (aCEA), using an indirect immunoperoxidase method on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. Keratin and LEA were both present in normal transitional epithelium, papilloma and carcinoma in situ whereas CEA was absent. Transitional cell carcinomas reacted with both aK and aLEA whereas CEA was seen only in a few foci. In squamous metaplasia and squamous carcinoma reaction with aK was particularly strong, while LEA was almost lacking and CEA was present in necrotic centres. In adenocarcinomas aK and aLEA reacted equally while aCEA reacted only on the surface.

  16. Small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Ghervan, Liviu; Zaharie, Andreea; Ene, Bogdan; Elec, Florin I

    2017-01-01

    Small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a very rare pathology, but with a very aggressive behavior and disappointing prognosis. The literature concerning this type of cancer is scarce and physicians may encounter difficulty trying to manage it. Most articles involve the study of case series, without definite results due to the small number of patients. The present article aims at gathering the most significant articles and results in order to offer a broad perspective on the existing literature concerning this pathology.

  17. Heat-shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2) expression in bladder urothelial carcinoma is associated with tumour progression and promotes migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manoj; Kanojia, Deepika; Seth, Amlesh; Kumar, Rajive; Gupta, Anju; Surolia, Avadhesha; Suri, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Testis specific heat-shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2), a member of HSP70 chaperone family, is essential for the growth of spermatocytes and cancer cells. We investigated the association of HSP70-2 expression with clinical behaviour and progression of urothelial carcinoma of bladder. We assessed the HSP70-2 expression by RT-PCR and HSP70-2 protein expression by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting in urothelial carcinoma patient specimens and HTB-1, UMUC-3, HTB-9, HTB-2 and normal human urothelial cell lines. Further, to investigate the role of HSP70-2 in bladder tumour development, HSP70-2 was silenced in the high-grade invasive HTB-1 and UMUC-3 cells. The malignant properties of urothelial carcinoma cells were examined using colony formation, migration assay, invasion assay in vitro and tumour growth in vivo. Our RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that HSP70-2 was expressed in both moderate to well-differentiated and high-grade invasive urothelial carcinoma cell lines studied and not in normal human urothelial cells. In consistence with these results, HSP70-2 expression was also observed in superficially invasive (70%) and muscle-invasive (90%) patient's tumours. Furthermore, HSP70-2 knockdown significantly suppressed cellular motility and invasion ability. An in vivo xenograft study showed that inhibition of HSP70-2 significantly suppressed tumour growth. In conclusion, our data suggest that the HSP70-2 expression is associated with early spread and progression of urothelial carcinoma of bladder cancer and that HSP70-2 can be the potential therapeutic target for bladder urothelial carcinoma.

  18. Risk of transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder in first- and second-generation immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2010-07-01

    Environmental risk factors, particularly tobacco smoking, are important for transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder. Studies in migrants may provide valuable insight into the environmental and genetic etiology of cancer. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for transitional-cell carcinoma among the immigrants compared with native Swedes. SIRs for lung cancer were also calculated as a proxy for smoking prevalence. Significantly decreased risks of bladder cancer were observed for male (SIR=0.89) and female (0.71) Finns and male East Asian (0.39) first-generation immigrants. Male immigrants from many countries showed increased risks, ranging from 1.18 to 2.29. Only female immigrants from Denmark (1.40) and Norway (1.27) had increased risks. The risks for bladder and lung cancers correlated, except for Finnish and Iranian men. The sons of immigrants born in high-risk countries had an increased SIR (1.51) whereas the daughters of immigrants born in low-risk countries had a decreased risk (0.32). The risk in the second-generation immigrants born in Sweden was equal to that of natives. In conclusion, the observed bladder cancer risks in the first-generation immigrants, the changes in risks in the second-generation immigrants, and the covariation of the risk patterns of bladder and lung cancers suggested a main contribution by tobacco smoking. The exceptional patterns among the Finns and Iranians may point to the existence of modifying factors. The changes in incidence in second-generation immigrants, yet based on small case numbers, lend little support to the involvement of genetic factors.

  19. Management of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in dogs: a review.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Christopher M; Knapp, Deborah W

    2015-08-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), also referred to as urothelial carcinoma, is the most common form of urinary bladder cancer in dogs, affecting tens of thousands of dogs worldwide each year. Canine TCC is usually a high grade invasive cancer. Problems associated with TCC include urinary tract obstruction, distant metastases in >50% of affected dogs, and clinical signs that are troubling both to the dogs and to their owners. Risk factors for TCC include exposure to older types of flea control products and lawn chemicals, obesity, female sex, and a very strong breed-associated risk. This knowledge is allowing pet owners to take steps to reduce the risk of TCC in their dog. The diagnosis of TCC is made by histopathology of tissue biopsies obtained by cystoscopy, surgery, or catheter. Percutaneous aspirates and biopsies should be avoided due to the risk of tumor seeding. TCC is most commonly located in the trigone region of the bladder precluding complete surgical resection. Medical treatment is the mainstay for TCC therapy in dogs. Although TCC is not usually curable in dogs, multiple drugs have activity against it. Approximately 75% of dogs respond favorably to TCC treatment and can enjoy several months to a year or more of good quality life. Many promising new therapies for TCC are emerging and with the close similarity between TCC in dogs and high grade invasive bladder cancer in humans, new treatment strategies found to be successful in canine studies are expected to help dogs and to be subsequently translated to humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    GHERVAN, LIVIU; ZAHARIE, ANDREEA; ENE, BOGDAN; ELEC, FLORIN I.

    2017-01-01

    Small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a very rare pathology, but with a very aggressive behavior and disappointing prognosis. The literature concerning this type of cancer is scarce and physicians may encounter difficulty trying to manage it. Most articles involve the study of case series, without definite results due to the small number of patients. The present article aims at gathering the most significant articles and results in order to offer a broad perspective on the existing literature concerning this pathology. PMID:28246491

  1. B-Receptor Signaling in Cardiomyopathy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-16

    Carcinomas; Amyloidosis; Anal Cancer; Anemia; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Bladder; Bone Marrow Transplant Failure; Bone Cancer; Cancer of Brain and Nervous System; Breast Cancer; Carcinoma of the Large Intestine; Endocrine Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Eye Cancer; Gall Bladder Cancer; Gastric (Stomach) Cancer; Gastrooesophageal Cancer; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST); Gynecologic Cancers; Head and Neck Cancers; Hepatobiliary Neoplasm; Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Hodgkin Disease; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Mesothelioma; Multiple Myeloma; Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS); Neuroendocrine Tumors; Myeloproliferative Disorders; Pancreatic Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Skin Cancer; Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Testicular Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  2. 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC-Avid Synchronous Urinary Bladder Paraganglioma in a Patient With Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Ashwin Singh; Vadi, Shelvin Kumar; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Kumar, Rajender; Bal, Amanjit; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2018-06-19

    Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT has proven to be a useful modality in patients with prostate carcinoma, especially in those with suspected recurrence and in detection of locoregional and distant metastases. However, with expanding use of this tracer, several recent reports of in vivo expression of PSMA in nonprostatic benign and malignant entities have been published. We report a patient with PSMA-avid synchronous urinary bladder paraganglioma and metastatic prostate carcinoma.

  3. Cost-effective treatment of low-risk carcinoma not invading bladder muscle.

    PubMed

    Green, David A; Rink, Michael; Cha, Eugene K; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Chughtai, Bilal; Scherr, Douglas S; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Lee, Richard K

    2013-03-01

    Study Type - Therapy (cost effectiveness analysis) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Bladder cancer is one of the costliest malignancies to treat throughout the life of a patient. The most cost-effective management for low-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is not known. The current study shows that employing cystoscopic office fulguration for low-risk appearing bladder cancer recurrences can materially impact the cost-effectiveness of therapy. In a follow-up protocol where office fulguration is routinely employed for low-risk bladder cancers, peri-operative intravesical chemotherapy may not provide any additional cost-effectiveness benefit. To examine the cost-effectiveness of fulguration vs transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) with and without perioperative intravesical chemotherapy (PIC) for managing low-risk carcinoma not invading bladder muscle (NMIBC). Low-risk NMIBC carries a low progression rate, lending support to the use of office-based fulguration for small recurrences rather than traditional TURBT. A Markov state transition model was created to simulate treatment of NMIBC with vs without PIC, with recurrence treated by formal TURBT vs treatment with fulguration. Costing data were obtained from the Medicare Resource Based Relative Value Scale. Data regarding the success of PIC were obtained from the peer-reviewed literature, as were corresponding utilities for bladder cancer-related procedures. Sensitivity analyses were performed. At 5-year follow-up, a strategy of fulguration without PIC was the most cost-effective (mean cost-effectiveness = US $654.8/quality-adjusted life year), despite a lower recurrence rate with PIC. Both fulguration strategies dominated each TURBT strategy. Sensitivity analysis showed that fulguration without PIC dominated all other strategies when the recurrence rate after PIC was increased to ≥14.2% per year. Similarly, the cost-effectiveness of TURBT becomes more

  4. Expression status and prognostic significance of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway members in urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder after cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Luciana; Albadine, Roula; Hicks, Jessica; Jadallah, Sana; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Chen, Ying-Bei; Nielsen, Matthew E; Neilsen, Matthew E; Gonzalgo, Mark L; Sidransky, David; Schoenberg, Mark; Netto, George J

    2010-12-01

    Bladder urothelial carcinoma has high rates of mortality and morbidity. Identifying novel molecular prognostic factors and targets of therapy is crucial. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a pivotal role in establishing cell shape, migration, and proliferation. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 132 cystectomies (1994-2002). Immunohistochemistry was performed for Pten, c-myc, p27, phosphorylated (phos)Akt, phosS6, and 4E-BP1. Markers were evaluated for pattern, percentage, and intensity of staining. Mean length of follow-up was 62.6 months (range, 1-182 months). Disease progression, overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 42%, 60%, and 68%, respectively. Pten showed loss of expression in 35% of bladder urothelial carcinoma. All markers showed lower expression in invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma compared with benign urothelium with the exception of 4E-BP1. Pten, p27, phosAkt, phosS6, and 4E-BP1 expression correlated with pathologic stage (pathological stage; P<.03). Pten, 4E-BP1, and phosAkt expression correlated with divergent aggressive histology and invasion. phosS6 expression inversely predicted OS (P=.01), DSS (P=.001), and progression (P=.05). c-myc expression inversely predicted progression (P=.01). In a multivariate analysis model that included TNM stage grouping, divergent aggressive histology, concomitant carcinoma in situ, phosS6, and c-myc expression, phosS6 was an independent predictor of DSS (P=.03; hazard ratio [HR], -0.19), whereas c-myc was an independent predictor of progression (P=.02; HR, -0.38). In a second model substituting organ-confined disease and lymph node status for TNM stage grouping, phosS6 and c-myc remained independent predictors of DSS (P=.03; HR, -0.21) and progression (P=.03; HR, -0.34), respectively. We found an overall down-regulation of mTOR pathway in bladder urothelial carcinoma. phosS6 independently predicted DSS, and c-myc independently predicted progression

  5. Problems arising in the diagnosis of primary ovarian transitional cell carcinoma after the occurrence of a transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a report of a difficult case and a critical review of literature.

    PubMed

    Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Paglierani, Milena; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2009-03-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the ovary is a recently recognized subtype of ovarian surface epithelial-stromal cancer that morphologically resembles a TCC of the bladder. The most frequent metastases to ovaries come from the gastrointestinal tract and from breast carcinoma, but metastatic TCCs from the urinary tract to the ovary have been reported. TCC of the bladder is the sixth most common cancer in European and North American countries and its incidence has been increasing. We recently observed a woman, who previously had undergone endoscopic resection of a TCC of the bladder. She was affected by an ovarian bilateral tumor with features of malignant transitional cell tumor, characterized by papillae with multilayered transitional epithelium infiltrating the ovarian stroma. In this study, we showed the utility of WT1 and a panel of immunohistochemical markers in the difficult differential diagnosis between bladder and ovarian TCC.

  6. Incidentally Detected Penile Metastases in a Patient of Carcinoma Urinary Bladder on Follow-up FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Parida, Girish Kumar; Tripathy, Sarthak; Roy, Shambo Guha; Singhal, Abhinav; Das, Chandanjyoti; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Penis is an extremely uncommon site for metastases to occur and is often associated with very grave prognosis. Most of the secondary tumors originating in the penis have primaries from prostate, urinary bladder, and gastrointestinal tract. We hereby report a 65-year-old man, known case of carcinoma urinary bladder, who came for FDG PET/CT for metastatic workup. PET/CT study revealed FDG-avid mass lesion in the root and shaft of the penis, making it suggestive of metastases, which was confirmed later by MRI correlation.

  7. Chromosome 3 allelic losses and microsatellite alterations in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Li, M.; Zhang, Z. F.; Reuter, V. E.; Cordon-Cardo, C.

    1996-01-01

    A deletion analysis of chromosome 3 was conducted in 72 cases of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder using seven microsatellites spanning the 3p arm and two additional microsatellites in 3q. Results showed that 19 of 72 (26.4%) cases had deletions in one or more 3p regions. Two regions of frequent deletion were identified: 3p12-14 and 3p21-23. Less frequent deletions at 3p24.2-25 were also observed. Deletions at 3p were weakly correlated with tumor grade, but strongly with pathological stage. Among 70 cases with histological grade available, 4 of 29 (13.8%) grade 1 and 2 tumors, and 15 of 41 (36.6%) grade 3 tumors showed allelic losses in one or more of the 3p regions studied (P = 0.055). Among 69 cases with pathological stage available, none of 27 superficial carcinomas (pTa, pTis, and pT1) showed 3p deletions, whereas 18 of 42 (42.9%) muscle invasive lesions (pT2, pT3, and pT4) displayed allelic losses at 3p (P < 0.001). In addition, 12 cases showed microsatellite instability, but there was no correlation between abnormalities and tumor grade or stage. No correlation was found between deletions at 3p21-23 and microsatellite instability. In conclusion, deletions at three discrete regions of 3p were identified in bladder carcinoma, suggesting the involvement of candidate tumor suppressor genes residing in these regions. Moreover, detection of allelic losses in these regions was associated with higher tumor grade and more advanced stage, suggesting their potential involvement in bladder tumor progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8686747

  8. Telomerase activity in solid transitional cell carcinoma, bladder washings, and voided urine.

    PubMed

    Lance, R S; Aldous, W K; Blaser, J; Thrasher, J B

    1998-03-04

    Telomerase activity has been detected in a wide variety of human malignancies. It appears to be one of the fundamental ingredients necessary for cellular immortality. We sought to determine the incidence of telomerase activity in solid transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) specimens, benign urothelium, bladder washings, and voided urine from patients with TCC identified cystoscopically compared with controls. Telomerase activity was measured in 26 solid bladder cancers and 13 benign urothelial specimens using the telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay. Telomerase activity was further measured in the centrifuged cellular material obtained from the bladder washings of 26 patients with TCC and 40 with benign urologic disease found to have a normal cystoscopy. All patients with hematuria were additionally evaluated with an upper tract radiographic examination and found to be free of malignancy. Voided urine was likewise evaluated in 11 patients with TCC, 12 with benign urologic diseases, and 56 asymptomatic control subjects. Telomerase activity was detected in 25 of 26 (96%) solid specimens, 21 of 26 (81%) bladder washings, and 6 of 11 (54%) voided urine specimens from patients with histologically confirmed TCC. In the control group, 2 of 13 (15%) benign urothelial specimens and 2 of 56 (4%) voided urine specimens from the asymptomatic volunteer group demonstrated telomerase activity. Of those with benign urologic disease, 16 of 40 (40%) bladder barbotage specimens and 6 of 12 (50%) voided urine specimens demonstrated telomerase activity. Sensitivity and specificity of telomerase as a marker for TCC were 81% and 60%, respectively, in the bladder washings group and 54% and 50%, respectively, in voided urine. These data indicate that activation of telomerase is frequent in solid TCC and appears to be a sensitive marker in bladder washings of patients with TCC. We noted an unexpectedly high false positive detection rate in

  9. The differential expression of EphB2 and EphB4 receptor kinases in normal bladder and in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuqing; Choi, Wesley W; Yan, Rui; Yu, Haiyang; Krasnoperov, Valery; Kumar, S Ram; Schuckman, Anne; Klumpp, David J; Pan, Chong-Xian; Quinn, David; Gill, Inderbir S; Gill, Parkash S; Liu, Ren

    2014-01-01

    Effective treatment of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder requires early diagnosis. Identifying novel molecular markers in TCC would guide the development of diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Ephrins mediate signals via tyrosine kinase activity that modulates diverse physiologic and developmental processes, and ephrins are increasingly implicated in carcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to examine the differential regulation of EphB4 and EphB2 in normal bladder and in TCC of the bladder in 40 patients undergoing radical cystectomy for curative intent. Immunostaining and Western blotting revealed that normal urothelium expresses EphB2 (20 of 24 cases, 83% of the time) not EphB4 (0 of 24 cases, 0%). In sharp contrast, TCC specimens show loss of EphB2 expression (0 of 34 cases, 0%) and gain of EphB4 expression (32 of 34, 94%). Furthermore, EphB4 signal strength statistically correlated with higher tumor stage, and trended toward the presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS). These results are confirmed by analysis of normal urothelial and tumor cell lines. EphB2 is not a survival factor in normal urothelium, while EphB4 is a survival factor in TCC. Treatment of bladder tumor xenograft with an EphB4 inhibitor sEphB4-HSA leads to 62% tumor regression and complete remission when combined with Bevacizumab. Furthermore, tissue analysis revealed that sEphB4-HSA led to increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation, and reduced vessel density, implicating direct tumor cell targeting as well as anti-angiogenesis effect. In summary loss of EphB2 and gain of EphB4 expression represents an inflection point in the development, growth and possibly progression of TCC. Therapeutic compounds targeting EphB4 have potential for diagnosing and treating TCC.

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression predicts lymph node metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazumi; Morita, Tatsuo; Tokue, Akihiko

    2005-02-01

    It has been found that expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) in several carcinomas is significantly associated with angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and regional lymph node metastasis. However, VEGF-C expression in bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) has not yet been reported. To elucidate the role of VEGF-C in bladder TCC, we examined VEGF-C expression in bladder TCC and pelvic lymph node metastasis specimens obtained from patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Eighty-seven patients who underwent radical cystectomy for clinically organ-confined TCC of the bladder were enrolled in the present study. No neoadjuvant treatments, except transurethral resection of the tumor, were given to these patients. The VEGF-C expressions of 87 bladder tumors and 20 pelvic lymph node metastasis specimens were examined immunohistochemically and the association between VEGF-C expression and clinicopathological factors, including angiogenesis as evaluated by microvessel density (MVD), was also examined. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression was found in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, but not in the normal transitional epithelium. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression was significantly associated with the pathological T stage (P = 0.0289), pelvic lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001), lymphatic involvement (P = 0.0008), venous involvement (P = 0.0002) and high MVD (P = 0.0043). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that VEGF-C expression and high MVD in bladder TCC were independent risk factors influencing the pelvic lymph node metastasis. Moreover, the patients with VEGF-C-positive tumors had significantly poorer prognoses than those with the VEGF-C-negative tumors (P = 0.0087) in the univariate analysis. The multivariate analysis based on Cox proportional hazard model showed that the independent prognostic factors were patient age (P = 0.0132) and pelvic lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0333). The present study suggests that VEGF

  11. Downregulation of missing in metastasis gene (MIM) is associated with the progression of bladder transitional carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jiali; Smith, Elizabeth; Zhou, Kang; Liao, Jie; Yang, Guang-Yu; Tan, Ming; Zhan, Xi

    2007-03-01

    Missing in metastasis (MIM) gene encodes a putative metastasis suppressor. However, the role of MIM in tumorigenesis and metastasis has not yet been established. Western blot analysis using a MIM specific antibody demonstrated that MIM protein is present at varying levels in a variety of normal cells as well as tumor cell lines. Immunohistochemical staining of adult mouse tissues revealed abundant MIM immunoreactivity in uroepithelial cells in the bladder, neuron Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, and megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and spleen in addition. MIM immunoreactivity also was found in human normal bladder transitional epithelial cells. However, the reactivity was not seen in 69 percent of human primary transitional cell carcinoma specimens. Over 51 percent of the tumors at low grade display MIM staining similarly to the normal cells, whereas only 16.7 percent of the tumors at high-grade with poor differentiation show faint or mild staining. Furthermore, full-length MIM protein is highly expressed in SV-HUC-L an immortalized normal transitional epithelial cell line, moderately expressed in T24 and poorly expressed in J82 and TCCSUP transitional cell carcinoma cells. This finding indicates that downegulation of MIM expression may correlate with the transition of tumor cells from distinct epithelium-like morphology to less differentiated carcinomas.

  12. Expression of CCK Receptors in Carcinoma Gallbladder and Cholelithiasis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Faridi, Mohammad Shazib; Jaiswal, Mahabir Saran Das; Goel, Sudhir K

    2015-07-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are trophic for various gastrointestinal malignancies. Their role in gallbladder cancer has not been widely studied. To identify expression of CCK-A and CCK-B receptors in the tissue and blood of patients suffering from carcinoma (CA) gallbladder and gallstone disease and to compare expression of CCK A and B receptors in the gall bladder tissue and blood of healthy individuals and patients of CA gallbladder, and gallstone diseases. Forty nine subjects of both genders were recruited, comprising of 22 patients of CA gall bladder, 19 cases of cholelithiasis and, 8 normal gallbladders obtained from patients operated for trauma of the biliary system or Whipple's procedure. RNA extraction and cDNA formation for CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were carried out. Real Time PCR was performed on cDNA and threshold cycle (Ct) value of each sample was obtained and ΔCt was calculated. Chi-square test for comparing two groups and ANOVA test for comparing multiple groups were applied and if p<0.05 then Dunnett-C test was performed. Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were expressed irrespective of its origin in all tissues and blood samples studied; be it normal, Cholelithiasis or CA gallbladder and there was no difference among them (p>0.05). This preliminary study showed higher expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of cholelithiasis and decreased expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of CA gallbladder as compared to normal gallbladder although it did not rise to statistical significance.

  13. Bladder Cancer Symptoms, Tests, Prognosis, and Stages (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    There are three types of bladder cancer. Transitional cell carcinoma, or urothelial carcinoma, is the most common type. Signs of bladder cancer can include blood in the urine and pain during urination. Find out about other symptoms, risk factors, tests to diagnose, and stages of bladder cancer.

  14. Tumour front inflammation and necrosis are independent prognostic predictors in high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Anjelica; Xu, Bin; Satkunasivam, Raj; Downes, Michelle R

    2018-02-01

    Inflammation and necrosis have been associated with prognosis in multiple epithelial malignancies. Our objective was to evaluate inflammation and necrosis in a cohort of patients with high-grade urothelial carcinomas of the bladder to determine their association with pathological parameters and their prognostic effect on relapse-free and disease-specific survival. A retrospective cohort that underwent radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinomas (n=235) was evaluated for invasive front and central inflammation using the Klintrup-Makinen assessment method. Necrosis was scored using a four-point scale. The relationship of inflammation and necrosis with stage, nodal status, carcinoma in situ, tumour size, margin status and vascular space invasion and the impact on relapse-free and disease-specific survival were calculated using appropriate statistical tests. On multivariate analysis, invasive front inflammation (p=0.003) and necrosis (p=0.000) were independent predictors of relapse-free survival. Both invasive front inflammation (p=0.009) and necrosis (p=0.002) again were independent predictors of disease-specific survival. For pathological features, low invasive front inflammation was associated with lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.008), a positive soft tissue margin (p=0.028) and carcinoma in situ (p=0.042). Necrosis was statistically associated with tumours >3 cm in size (p=0.013) and carcinoma in situ (p<0.001). Necrosis and invasive front inflammation are additional histological variables with independent prognostic relevance in high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Radiation-induced cystitis following intracavitary irradiation for superficial bladder cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maatman, T.J.; Novick, A.C.; Montague, D.K.

    Intracavitary irradiation is effective in the treatment of noninvasive papillary transitional cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ of the bladder. Mortality has not been associated with this form of therapy. The morbidity associated with intracavitary irradiation consists of mild to severe radiation cystitis and we report 2 such cases. One patient is from a series of 65 patients with noninvasive bladder tumors treated with intracavitary irradiation at this clinic since 1965. The second patient had noninvasive bladder tumors and was treated with intracavitary irradiation elsewhere. In both patients severe radiation cystitis subsequently developed, requiring simple cystectomy and urinary diversion. Themore » potential for this serious side effect must be considered when choosing a form of therapy for patients with noninvasive papillary transitional cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ of the bladder.« less

  16. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  17. Sapanisertib in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Bladder Cancer With TSC1 and/or TSC2 Mutations

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-02

    Metastatic Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage III Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v7; TSC1 Gene Mutation; TSC2 Gene Mutation

  18. Small-Cell Carcinomas of the Bladder and Lung Are Characterized by a Convergent but Distinct Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Matthew T; Penson, Alexander; Desai, Neil B; Socci, Nicholas D; Shen, Ronglai; Seshan, Venkatraman E; Kundra, Ritika; Abeshouse, Adam; Viale, Agnes; Cha, Eugene K; Hao, Xueli; Reuter, Victor E; Rudin, Charles M; Bochner, Bernard H; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Bajorin, Dean F; Schultz, Nikolaus; Berger, Michael F; Iyer, Gopa; Solit, David B; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Taylor, Barry S

    2018-04-15

    Purpose: Small-cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor with a dismal prognosis and limited treatment options. As SCCB is histologically indistinguishable from small-cell lung cancer, a shared pathogenesis and cell of origin has been proposed. The aim of this study is to determine whether SCCBs arise from a preexisting urothelial carcinoma or share a molecular pathogenesis in common with small-cell lung cancer. Experimental Design: We performed an integrative analysis of 61 SCCB tumors to identify histology- and organ-specific similarities and differences. Results: SCCB has a high somatic mutational burden driven predominantly by an APOBEC-mediated mutational process. TP53, RB1 , and TERT promoter mutations were present in nearly all samples. Although these events appeared to arise early in all affected tumors and likely reflect an evolutionary branch point that may have driven small-cell lineage differentiation, they were unlikely the founding transforming event, as they were often preceded by diverse and less common driver mutations, many of which are common in bladder urothelial cancers, but not small-cell lung tumors. Most patient tumors (72%) also underwent genome doubling (GD). Although arising at different chronologic points in the evolution of the disease, GD was often preceded by biallelic mutations in TP53 with retention of two intact copies. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that small-cell cancers of the bladder and lung have a convergent but distinct pathogenesis, with SCCBs arising from a cell of origin shared with urothelial bladder cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 24(8); 1965-73. ©2017 AACR See related commentary by Oser and Jänne, p. 1775 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. 77 FR 73654 - Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed October 12, 2012, Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company informed the Commission that its exemption from... transferred to Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company by letter.\\2\\ The project is located on the Eau Galle River...

  20. Implication of androgen receptor in urinary bladder cancer: a critical mini review.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Alzohairy, Mohammad; Babiker, Ali Yousif Y; Khan, Amjad A; Aly, Salah M; Rizvi, Moshahid A

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is probably the most dreaded disease of mankind and the bladder cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer worldwide. It is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. From amongst the bladder cancer, the Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the bladder and accounts for 90% of all bladder cancer cases. Despite such a high prevalence, the molecular mechanism involved in the induction of bladder carcinoma and its progression are poorly understood. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression of bladder carcinomas are thought to result from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations. The Androgen Receptor (AR) gene is located on the q arm of X chromosome (q11-12) and considered as a ligand-inducible transcription factor that regulates target gene expression. The Androgen plays a vital role in the development and maintenance of the normal urinary bladder. The AR is also involved in the development and progression of urinary bladder carcinoma, which is the most common type of carcinoma. Mutation in AR alters the ligand binding ability that may cause the progression and development of bladder cancer. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression are thought to result from changes in the function of hormonal receptor gene. The accumulation of the changes in AR expressions, determines the tumor's phenotype and ultimately the patient's clinical outcome. The early detection of which may help in management and prediction, how will it behave and respond to the therapeutic regimen. The present review aimed to study the mechanism and alteration of AR gene that play a vital role in the tumorIgenesis of bladder carcinoma.

  1. Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.

    PubMed

    Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh.

  2. Relationship of PCNA, C-erbB2 and CD44s expression with tumor grade and stage in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ayhan; Kösem, Mustafa; Sayar, İlyas; Gelincik, İbrahim; Yavuz, Alparslan; Bozkurt, Aliseydi; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Bayram, İrfan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the intention was to reveal the relationship of histological grade and stage with c-erbB2, CD44s, and PCNA immunoreactivity in bladder urothelial carcinomas (UC). In our study, we evaluated 46 items of transurethral resection material of patients submitted by YYU Faculty of Medicine, Main Department of Pathology, with a mass revealed in their bladder after clinical and radiological studies at our laboratories and who were diagnosed with urothelial carcinomas. PCNA, c-erbB2, and CD44s were applied in an immunohistochemical manner comprised from nine low-malignant potential papillary urothelial neoplasia, 23 low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma, and 14 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. Immunostaining was scored according to the percentage of positive cells. The immunohistochemical study demonstrated that the c-erbB2 and PCNA staining ratio increased when an increase occurred in stage and grade. The CD44s staining ratio decreased. C-erbB2, PCNA, and CD44s appear to be a useful marker in the assessment of the prognosis and treatment options in urothelial carcinomas. PMID:25035774

  3. Proteomic Identification of the Galectin-1-Involved Molecular Pathways in Urinary Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Chien-Feng; Shen, Kun-Hung; Chien, Lan-Hsiang; Huang, Cheng-Hao; Wu, Ting-Feng; He, Hong-Lin

    2018-04-19

    Among various heterogeneous types of bladder tumors, urothelial carcinoma is the most prevalent lesion. Some of the urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas (UBUCs) develop local recurrence and may cause distal invasion. Galectin-1 de-regulation significantly affects cell transformation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell invasiveness. In continuation of our previous investigation on the role of galectin-1 in UBUC tumorigenesis, in this study, proteomics strategies were implemented in order to find more galectin-1-associated signaling pathways. The results of this study showed that galectin-1 knockdown could induce 15 down-regulated proteins and two up-regulated proteins in T24 cells. These de-regulated proteins might participate in lipid/amino acid/energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, cell proliferation, cell-cell interaction, cell apoptosis, metastasis, and protein degradation. The aforementioned dys-regulated proteins were confirmed by western immunoblotting. Proteomics results were further translated to prognostic markers by analyses of biopsy samples. Results of cohort studies demonstrated that over-expressions of glutamine synthetase, alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP⁺), fatty acid binding protein 4, and toll interacting protein in clinical specimens were all significantly associated with galectin-1 up-regulation. Univariate analyses showed that de-regulations of glutamine synthetase and fatty acid binding protein 4 in clinical samples were respectively linked to disease-specific survival and metastasis-free survival.

  4. Upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma: location as a predictive factor for concomitant bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Marco; Palou, Joan; Gaya, Josep M; Breda, Alberto; Rodriguez-Faba, Oscar; Villavicencio-Mavrich, Humberto

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the existence of predictive factors for concomitant, primary UUT-UCC and BC. Upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma (UUT-UCC) is a pan-urothelial disease of the transitional epithelial cells. Although several studies have shown the association of bladder recurrence following UUT-UCC, little is known on the incidence of concomitant UUT-UCC and bladder cancer (BC) without previous BC. A retrospective review of 673 patients diagnosed and treated for UUT-UCC was performed. Patients with history of BC were excluded. We investigated age, sex, location of the upper tract tumor (calyx, renal pelvis, upper ureter, mid-ureter, lower ureter), multifocality, clinical symptoms, tumor grade and pathological stage. Contingency tables and chi-square test were used for categorical variables and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for quantitative variables. 450 patients eligible for inclusion were identified. Of these, 76 (17 %) presented concomitant primary UUT-UCC and BC. Location of primary UUT-UCC was in calyx and/or renal pelvis in 25 patients (34 %), upper ureter 8 (11 %) and lower ureter 37 (49 %). In 6 patients (8 %), data were missing. Concomitant BC was found in 10, 18, and 33 % of patients with primary caliceal/renal pelvis, upper ureter and lower ureter UUT-UCC, respectively. On multivariate analysis, location of UUT-UCC was the only predictive factor for concomitant bladder tumor (OR: 1.7; 95 % CI, 1.007-2.906 p = 0.047). Our findings suggest that the possibility of concomitant BC in primary diagnosed patient with UUT-UCC is as high as 33 % and mainly depends on upper tract tumor location.

  5. [Study on different responses of rats' small intestine mucous membrane and bladder transitional epithelium in the same carcinogenic urine environment].

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Pan, C; Song, G

    2001-10-25

    To preliminarily verify the tentative idea of replacement of bladder transitional epithelium with small intestine mucous membrane to prevent recurrence of carcinoma of bladder. A certain segment of small intestine was transplanted to the urinary bladder of the same body in 17 rats. Then N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxy-butyl) nitrosamine (BBN) was used to induce carcinoma of bladder. BBN was used to 11 control rats that did not undergo operation. Bladder carcinoma failed to be found in the transplanted small intestine mucous membrane in all experimental rats except one. After stimulation of BBN, carcinoma of urinary bladder occurred in all rats' bladder transitional epithelium. 1) The carcinogenic substances in the urine of rats suffering from BBN-induced bladder carcinoma are carcinogenic only to bladder transitional epithelium and have no effect on small intestine epithelium. 2) Bladder transitional epithelium may be more sensitive to the urine carcinogenic substances and easier to be cancerized than small intestine epithelium. 3) The tentative idea of substitution of small intestine mucous membrane for bladder transitional epithelium to prevent the recurrence of bladder carcinoma is worth further studying.

  6. Emerging role of multimodality treatment in gall bladder cancer: Outcomes following 510 consecutive resections in a tertiary referral center.

    PubMed

    Patkar, Shraddha; Ostwal, Vikas; Ramaswamy, Anant; Engineer, Reena; Chopra, Supriya; Shetty, Nitin; Dusane, Rohit; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Goel, Mahesh

    2018-03-01

    Gall bladder cancer (GBC) is a disease with high incidence in India. We analyzed the outcomes of patients with suspected GBC who underwent surgical exploration. Analysis of a prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing surgical exploration for clinic-radiologically suspected GBC from January 2010 to August 2015. Outcomes as well as factors influencing survival were analyzed. Five hundred and ten patients underwent surgery for suspected GBC. Of these 400 had histologically proven malignancy. Eighty patients were deemed inoperable. Radical cholecystectomy was performed in 153 patients, revision surgery for incidental GBC in 160 and port site excision in seven patients. A total of 112 received peri-operative chemotherapy or chemoradiation. Majority were stage III (36%, n = 144) and stage II (31.8% n = 127). At a median follow up of 28.4 months, the median overall survival (OS) was not yet reached. Median disease free survival (DFS) was 33.4 months. Lymph node involvement, stage of the disease and resection status were the main factors influencing outcomes (P = 0.0001). Surgery alone is curative only for early GBC (Stage I). Combination of surgery and peri-operative systemic therapy results in favorable outcomes even in stage II/III disease. Potentially, multimodality treatment may add meaningful survival for this disease with inherently aggressive tumor biology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Serum and Tissue Galectin 3 Expression in Patients with Carcinoma of the Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Gendy, Hoda El; Madkour, Bothina; Abdelaty, Sara; Essawy, Fayza; Khattab, Dina; Hammam, Olfat; Nour, Hani H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Galectins are group of proteins found in the cytoplasm, nucleus, cell surface and extracellular matrix. Galectin 3 (Gal-3) displays pathological expression in a variety of processes such as tumorigenesis. Patients and Method 70 patients classified into the control group, cystitis group, transitional cell carcinoma group, and squamous cell carcinoma group were enrolled in this study which aimed to detect the serum level and the intensity of tissue expression of Gal-3. Results Both serum level and tissue expression of Gal-3 were statistically higher in bladder cancer patients compared to the other groups. Gal-3 level expression increased from low to high grade urothelial tumors, with a statistically significant increase of its level and expression between muscle invasive and non-muscle invasive Ta urothelial tumors. Conclusion The serum Gal-3 level is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The prognostic significance of tissue expression is to be confirmed. PMID:26195948

  8. Atezolizumab and CYT107 in Treating Participants With Locally Advanced, Inoperable, or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-18

    Metastatic Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Metastatic Renal Pelvis Urothelial Carcinoma; Metastatic Ureter Urothelial Carcinoma; Metastatic Urethral Urothelial Carcinoma; Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Pelvis Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Ureter Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Urethral Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage III Bladder Cancer AJCC v8; Stage III Renal Pelvis Cancer AJCC v8; Stage III Ureter Cancer AJCC v8; Stage III Urethral Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IV Bladder Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IV Renal Pelvis Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IV Ureter Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IV Urethral Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IVA Bladder Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IVB Bladder Cancer AJCC v8

  9. Collecting and Studying Blood and Tissue Samples From Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Prostate or Bladder/Urothelial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-04

    Healthy Control; Localized Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Soft Tissues; Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  10. Expression of CCK Receptors in Carcinoma Gallbladder and Cholelithiasis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Mahabir Saran Das; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are trophic for various gastrointestinal malignancies. Their role in gallbladder cancer has not been widely studied. Objectives: To identify expression of CCK-A and CCK-B receptors in the tissue and blood of patients suffering from carcinoma (CA) gallbladder and gallstone disease and to compare expression of CCK A and B receptors in the gall bladder tissue and blood of healthy individuals and patients of CA gallbladder, and gallstone diseases. Materials and Methods: Forty nine subjects of both genders were recruited, comprising of 22 patients of CA gall bladder, 19 cases of cholelithiasis and, 8 normal gallbladders obtained from patients operated for trauma of the biliary system or Whipple’s procedure. RNA extraction and cDNA formation for CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were carried out. Real Time PCR was performed on cDNA and threshold cycle (Ct) value of each sample was obtained and ΔCt was calculated. Chi-square test for comparing two groups and ANOVA test for comparing multiple groups were applied and if p<0.05 then Dunnett-C test was performed. Observation and Results: Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were expressed irrespective of its origin in all tissues and blood samples studied; be it normal, Cholelithiasis or CA gallbladder and there was no difference among them (p>0.05). Conclusion: This preliminary study showed higher expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of cholelithiasis and decreased expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of CA gallbladder as compared to normal gallbladder although it did not rise to statistical significance. PMID:26393162

  11. [DAB2IP expression in bladder transitional cell carcinoma and its correlation with clinical outcome].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Ning; Wu, Kai-Jie; Guan, Zhen-Feng; Liu, Li-Xia; Ning, Zhong-Yun; Zhou, Jian-Cheng; Wang, Xin-Yang; Fan, Jin-Hai

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the expression of DAB2IP in bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) and its correlation with clinical characteristics and prognosis of BTCC patients. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to detect DAB2IP protein level in 79 cases of TCCB tissues and 11 cases of normal bladder tissues, and the relationships of the staining results with pathological grade, stage, lymph node metastasis, gender, age and the 3-year survival rate of the patients were analyzed. The expression of DAB2IP in BTCC tissues was significantly lower than that in normal bladder epithelium, and the expression score and rate of DAB2IP in the high-grade, invasive and metastatic BTCC were significantly lower than those in low-grade, superficial and non-metastatic BTCC (P < 0.05). The 3-year survival rate of the patients with high DAB2IP expression was significantly higher than that of the patients with low DAB2IP expression. DAB2IP may be one of the important inhibitory factors during the occurrence and progression of BTCC.

  12. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder 2017.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Hulayel; Alkhateeb, Sultan; Murshid, Esam; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Abusamra, Ashraf; Rabah, Danny; Almansour, Mubarak; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Aljubran, Ali; Eltigani, Amin; Alkushi, Hussein; Ahmed, Imran; Alsharm, Abdullah; Bazarbashi, Shouki

    2018-01-01

    This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation and medical/surgical management of patients diagnosed with urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system, 7 th edition. The guidelines are presented with their accompanying supporting evidence level, which is based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors) who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology, and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health-care policymakers in the management of patients diagnosed with urothelial cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

  13. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR AND SURVIVIN EXPRESSION IN BLADDER CANCER TISSUE AND URINE CYTOLOGY OF PATIENTS WITH TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER.

    PubMed

    Kehinde, E O; Al-Maghrebi, M; Anim, J T; Kapila, K; George, S S; Al-Juwaiser, A; Memon, A

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and survivin immunostaining of tumour cells in urinary cytology and tissue of patients with bladder cancer has a prognostic significance. Prospective study Department of Surgery (Division of Urology), Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait Urine cytology smears obtainedpriorto cystoscopy in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were immunostained for EGFR and survivin. Bladder cancer tissue resected at surgery was also immunostained for EGFR and survivin expression. Tissue expression of EGFR and survivin in TCC of the bladder was compared to their expression in urine cytology and relationship to tumour grade and stage. 178 patients were studied (43 newly diagnosed bladder cancer, 58 with recurrent TCC and 77 in disease remission). Twenty five patients with normal urothelium served as controls. The mean sensitivity of urine cytology, tissue survivin immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue EGFR IHC was 30.5%, 62% and 59% respectively. The corresponding mean specificity was 95%, 79% and 38% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, tissue expression positivity for EGFR was 47.8%, 92.9%, 100% and for tissue survivin it was 27.8%, 18.2% and 33.3% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, urine expression positivity for EGFR was 35.7%, 40% and 67.7% and for urine survivin it was 8.3%, 42.9% and 33.3% respectively. Positive EGFR immunostaining of urine cytology specimen or tumour tissue increases with histological grade of TCC of the bladder. Survivin expression is less consistent in both urine cytology specimen and tissue samples. EGFR immunostaining may provide a useful tool in the grading of bladder TCC and aid in the selection of patients that may benefit from administration of EGFR inhibitors.

  14. Unusual asymptomatic presentation of bladder cancer metastatic to the penis.

    PubMed

    Giunchi, Francesca; Vasuri, Francesco; Valerio, Vagnoni; Montagnani, Ilaria; Nelli, Federico; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Raspollini, Maria Rosaria

    2017-06-01

    Penile metastasis is an extremely rare event and mainly originate from primary pelvic tumor sites such us urinary bladder, gastro-intestinal tract and prostate and more rarely from respiratory system, bone tumors and melanoma. Here we describe the unusual presentation of two bladder urothelial cancer metastatic to the penis with no relevant clinical symptoms. Namely, a 69 years-old man with a warthy lesions of the foreskin and the glans misunderstood for a condylomata that at histological and immunohistochemical analysis showed a bladder urothelial carcinoma; and a 71 years-old man with reddish skin lesion of the glans, a previous history of bladder and urethral carcinoma and histological pagetoid spread of urothelial cancer to the glans. Recurrent bladder urothelial carcinoma is usually a visceral disease that rarely presents as a superficial asymptomatic skin lesion. The two reported cases were asymptomatic superficial penis metastases with a relatively slow growth and a fairy good prognosis after conservative surgical approach. Accurate clinical examination of the penis is mandatory for males with history of bladder cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. [Primary upper urinary tract tumors and subsequent location in the bladder].

    PubMed

    Azémar, M-D; Audouin, M; Revaux, A; Misraï, V; Comperat, E; Bitker, M-O; Chartier-Kastler, E; Richard, F; Cussenot, O; Rouprêt, M

    2009-10-01

    The urothelium is the epithelium that lines the upper and lower urinary tract. Over 95% of urothelial carcinomas are derived from urothelium. They can be located in the lower tract (bladder, urethra) or upper tract (pyelocaliceal cavities, ureter). Urothelial carcinomas are the fourth most common tumours after prostate (or breast) cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer. On one hand, bladder tumours account for 90-95% of urothelial carcinomas. It is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract and the second most common malignancy of the urogenital tract after prostate cancer. It accounts for 5-10% of all cancers diagnosed each year in Europe. On the other hand, upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinomas (UUT-UCC) are scarce and account for only 5-10% of urothelial carcinomas. Recurrence in the bladder after primary UUT-UCC occurs in 15-50% of UUT-UCC. Differences in treatment modalities of the primary UUT-UCC do not play a key role in the subsequent appearance of a bladder recurrence. However, others factors have been described such as stage and location in the upper tract of the primary tumour or upper tract tumour multifocality. Previous history of bladder tumour is also associated with the risk that another tumour arises in the bladder subsequently. However, it becomes difficult to distinguish between natural history of bladder tumour and evolution of UUT-UCC in these cases. In most cases, bladder cancer occurs in the first two years after UUT-UCC management. Surveillance protocol is based on cystoscopy and on urinary cytology during at least every three months for two years. Current surveillance regimen have a low level of evidence considering the paucity of UUT-UCC.

  16. sEphB4-HSA Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Bladder Cancer, Prostate Cancer, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-08

    Infiltrating Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Prostate Cancer; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIA Prostate Cancer; Stage IIB Prostate Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer

  17. Identification of novel potential genetic predictors of urothelial bladder carcinoma susceptibility in Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Bangash, Kashif Sardar; Rauf, Abdur; Younis, Muhammad; Anwar, Khursheed; Khurram, Raja; Khawaja, Muhammad Athar; Azam, Maleeha; Qureshi, Abid Ali; Akhter, Saeed; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Qamar, Raheel

    2017-10-01

    Urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) is the most common among urinary bladder neoplasms. We carried out a preliminary study to determine the genetic etiology of UBC in Pakistani population, for this 25 sequence variants from 17 candidate genes were studied in 400 individuals by using polymerase chain reaction-based techniques. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for association analysis of the overall data as well as the data stratified by smoking status, tumor grade and tumor stage. Variants of GSTM1, IGFBP3, LEPR and ACE were found to be associated with altered UBC risk in the overall comparison. CYP1B1 and CDKN1A variants displayed a risk modulation among smokers; IGFBP3 and LEPR variants among non-smokers while GSTM1 polymorphism exhibited association with both. GSTM1 and LEPR variants conferred an altered susceptibility to low grade UBC; GSTT1, IGFBP3 and PPARG variants to high grade UBC while ACE polymorphism to both grades. GSTM1 and LEPR variants exhibited risk modulation for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC); GSTT1 and PPARG variants for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), and ACE variant for NMIBC as well as MIBC. In general, the susceptibility markers were common for low grade and NMIBC; and distinct from those for high grade and MIBC indicating the distinct pathologies of both groups. In brief, our results conform to reports of previously associated variants in addition to identifying novel potential genetic predictors of UBC susceptibility.

  18. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) stimulates different chemical and phytohormone responses in two Eucalyptus varieties that vary in susceptibility to galling.

    PubMed

    Li, X Q; Liu, Y Z; Guo, W F; Solanki, M K; Yang, Z D; Xiang, Y; Ma, Z C; Wen, Y G

    2017-09-01

    Gall-inducing insects produce various types of galls on plants, but little is known about the gall-induction mechanism of these galling insects. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) forms galls of different sizes on several Eucalyptus species. To clarify the physiological responses of Eucalyptus to L. invasa infestation, we measured the dynamics of nitrogen (N), carbon (C), total phenolics, total tannins and four types of phytohormones (zeatin [Z] + zeatin riboside [ZR], gibberellins [GA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and abscisic acid [ABA]) in galled and ungalled leaf tissues of two Eucalyptus horticultural varieties (DH201-2 [Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis] and EA [Eucalyptus exserta]) with different susceptibility to galling throughout the larval developmental stages. Nitrogen, total phenolics, tannins and four kinds of phytohormones strongly accumulated in tissues galled by L. invasa (especially during early larval feeding stages). While N, Z + ZR and GA levels were higher, tannins and ABA levels were lower in the galled tissues on the highly susceptible variety. Nitrogen, total phenolics, GA, Z + ZR and IAA levels in the galled tissues gradually decreased during gall development, but ABA and tannins conversely increased in the galled tissues of the less susceptible variety. Our results suggest that the effects of gall-inducing insects on plants depend not only on the susceptibility of the plant infested but also on the developmental stage of galled tissues. Gall formation process is thus synergistically influenced by both gall-inducing insect and plant genotypes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. CIP2A is a predictor of survival and a novel therapeutic target in bladder urothelial cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yijun; Wu, Gengqing; Wang, Xiaoning; Zou, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Guoxi; Xiao, Rihai; Yuan, Yuanhu; Long, Dazhi; Yang, Jun; Wu, Yuting; Xu, Hui; Liu, Folin; Liu, Min

    2013-03-01

    Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is a recently identified human oncoprotein that stabilizes the c-MYC protein. Herein, we aimed to investigate its expression pattern, clinical significance, and biological function in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder. CIP2A expression was examined in 20 fresh bladder UCC tissues and paired adjacent normal bladder tissues by RT-PCR and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry for CIP2A was performed on additional 117 bladder UCC tissues. The clinical significance of CIP2A expression was analyzed. CIP2A downregulation was performed in bladder UCC cell line T24 with high abundance of CIP2A, and the effects of CIP2A silencing on cell proliferation, migration, invasion in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo were evaluated. We found that CIP2A expression was upregulated in bladder UCC tissues relative to adjacent normal bladder tissues. Clinicopathological analysis showed that CIP2A expression was significantly associated with tumor stage (P = 0.004), histological grade (P = 0.007), and lymph node status (P = 0.001). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that CIP2A expression was associated with poor prognosis in bladder UCC patients (log-rank value = 14.704, P < 0.001). CIP2A expression was an independent prognostic marker of overall patient survival in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.015). Knockdown of the CIP2A expression reduced cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion, and tumor growth in xenograft model mice. Our findings suggest that CIP2A is an independent predictor of poor prognosis of bladder UCC patients, and inhibition of its expression might be of therapeutic significance.

  20. OBSERVATIONS ON SOME CAUSES OF GALL STONE FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Douglas R.; McMaster, Philip D.; Rous, Peyton

    1924-01-01

    As previous papers from our laboratory have shown, there exists a well defined tendency for calcium carbonate to come out of solution in the normal liver bile of the dog, and for it to be deposited on certain nuclei not infrequent in the secretion under pathological circumstances. Gall stones that had arisen in this fashion were a frequent occurrence in the intubated animals we studied. The present paper is concerned with the reasons for the absence of such stones from dogs with an intact biliary tract. The solubility of calcium carbonate is known to be markedly affected by the reaction of the fluid in which it is contained. The normal liver bile, out of which it tends to precipitate, is alkaline, with an average pH of 8.20 but in the gall bladder where conditions might otherwise seem especially favorable to precipitation, the secretion undergoes a change toward the acid side, becoming on long sojourn there, strongly acid to litmus (pH 5.18 to 6.00). From bile as thus altered, no carbonate precipitation takes place, even when it becomes greatly concentrated as in fasting animals or after obstruction of the common duct. Furthermore, carbonate which has precipitated out of liver bile on standing dissolves again in it when the fluid is rendered slightly acid in vitro, or, in some cases merely neutral to litmus. There are several obvious reasons for the absence of carbonate stones from the normal ducts under ordinary conditions,—notably the motility of these latter, the flushing that they undergo from an intermittently quickened bile stream, and the cleansing and possibly antagonistic action of the secretion elaborated by the duct mucosa. In the fasting animal, one at least of these influences is almost done away with, the rate of bile flow is so greatly cut down; while furthermore the calcium concentration of the secretion undergoes a considerable increase. But pari passu with these changes there occurs one in the bile reaction, a diminution in alkalinity so great

  1. Preconditioning methods influence tumor property in an orthotopic bladder urothelial carcinoma rat model

    PubMed Central

    MIYAZAKI, KOZO; MORIMOTO, YUJI; NISHIYAMA, NOBUHIRO; SATOH, HIROYUKI; TANAKA, MASAMITSU; SHINOMIYA, NARIYOSHI; ITO, KEIICHI

    2014-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is an extremely common type of cancer that occurs in the bladder. It has a particularly high rate of recurrence. Therefore, preclinical studies using animal models are essential to determine effective forms of treatment. In the present study, in order to establish an orthotopic bladder UC animal model with clinical relevance, the effects of preconditioning methods on properties of the developed tumor were evaluated. The bladder cavity was pretreated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), acid-base, trypsin (TRY) or poly (L-lysine) (PLL) and then rat UC cells (AY-27) (4×106 cells) were inoculated. The results demonstrated that, two weeks later, the tumorigenic rate (88%) and tumor count (2.3 per rat) were not significantly different among the preconditioning methods, whereas tumor volume and invasion depth into bladder tissue were significantly different. Average tumor volumes were >50 mm3 in the PBS and acid-base-treated groups and <10 mm3 in the TRY- and PLL-treated groups. The percentage of invasive tumors (T2 or more advanced stage) was ∼75% of total tumors in the PBS- and acid-base-treated groups, whereas the percentages were reduced in the TRY- and PLL-treated groups (58 and 32%, respectively). Non-invasive tumors (Ta or T1) accounted for 54% of tumors in the PLL-treated group, which was 2-5-fold higher than the percentages in the remaining groups. Properties of the developed tumor in the rat orthotopic UC model were different depending on preconditioning methods. Therefore, different animal models suitable for a discrete preclinical examination may be established by using the appropriate preconditioning condition. PMID:24649309

  2. Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)

  3. Phylogeny, evolution, and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total...

  4. Pseudoaneurysm embolization and vasopressin infusion for lower gastrointestinal bleeding due to recurrence of urinary bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kakizawa, Hideaki; Toyota, Naoyuki; Mita, Koji; Fujimura, Yoshio; Hieda, Masashi; Hirai, Nobuhiko; Tachikake, Toshihiro; Ito, Katsuhide

    2006-05-01

    We report a case that was successfully treated for massive lower gastrointestinal (LGI) bleeding due to a recurrent urinary bladder carcinoma. Treatment consisted of combination therapy including embolization of an inferior gluteal artery (IGA) pseudoaneurysm and low-dose arterial vasopressin infusion via a sigmoid artery (SA). A 57-year-old man presented with life-threatening sudden, massive LGI bleeding due to an obturator lymph node (LN) metastasis from a urinary bladder carcinoma. Computed tomography showed that the LN recurrence had invaded all the way to the sigmoid colon, and there was a pseudoaneurysm with extravasation inside the recurrence. An angiogram revealed a left IGA pseudoaneurysm. We therefore excluded the pseudoaneurysm by embolization with microcoils. Following this treatment the bleeding decreased, but intermittent LGI bleeding continued. Endoscopic examination showed the tumor with a huge ulcer inside the colonic lumen, and continuous oozing was confirmed. A second angiogram showed no recurrence of the IGA pseudoaneurysm and no apparent findings of bleeding. Then a 3F microcatheter was placed in the SA selectively using a coaxial catheter system, and vasopressin was infused at a rate 0.05 U/min for 12 h. Bleeding completely ceased 2 days later. There were no signs of ischemic gastrointestinal complications. Massive LGI bleeding has not recurred in 5 months.

  5. Roughness characterization of the galling of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, C.; Marteau, J.; Deltombe, R.; Chen, Y. M.; Bigerelle, M.

    2014-09-01

    Several kinds of tests exist to characterize the galling of metals, such as that specified in ASTM Standard G98. While the testing procedure is accurate and robust, the analysis of the specimen's surfaces (area=1.2 cm) for the determination of the critical pressure of galling remains subject to operator judgment. Based on the surface's topography analyses, we propose a methodology to express the probability of galling according to the macroscopic pressure load. After performing galling tests on 304L stainless steel, a two-step segmentation of the S q parameter (root mean square of surface amplitude) computed from local roughness maps (100 μ m× 100 μ m) enables us to distinguish two tribological processes. The first step represents the abrasive wear (erosion) and the second one the adhesive wear (galling). The total areas of both regions are highly relevant to quantify galling and erosion processes. Then, a one-parameter phenomenological model is proposed to objectively determine the evolution of non-galled relative area A e versus the pressure load P, with high accuracy ({{A}e}=100/(1+a{{P}2}) with a={{0.54}+/- 0.07}× {{10}-3} M P{{a}-2} and with {{R}2}=0.98). From this model, the critical pressure of galling is found to be equal to 43MPa. The {{S}5 V} roughness parameter (the five deepest valleys in the galled region's surface) is the most relevant roughness parameter for the quantification of damages in the ‘galling region’. The significant valleys’ depths increase from 10 μm-250 μm when the pressure increases from 11-350 MPa, according to a power law ({{S}5 V}=4.2{{P}0.75}, with {{R}2}=0.93).

  6. Phylogenetics of Australasian gall flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae): Evolutionary patterns of host-shifting and gall morphology.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, S J; Davies, K A; Taylor, G S; Thornhill, A H; Lewis, M L; Winkler, I S; Yeates, D K; Purcell, M F; Makinson, J; Giblin-Davis, R M

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated host-specificity and phylogenetic relationships in Australian galling flies, Fergusonina Malloch (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), in order to assess diversity and explore the evolutionary history of host plant affiliation and gall morphology. A DNA barcoding approach using COI data from 203 Fergusonina specimens from 5gall types on 56 host plant species indicated 85 presumptive fly species. These exhibited a high degree of host specificity; of the 40 species with multiple representatives, each fed only on a single host genus, 29 (72.5%) were strictly monophagous, and 11 (27.5%) were reared from multiple closely related hosts. COI variation within species was not correlated with either sample size or geographic distance. However variation was greater within oligophagous species, consistent with expectations of the initial stages of host-associated divergence during speciation. Phylogenetic analysis using both nuclear and mitochondrial genes revealed host genus-restricted clades but also clear evidence of multiple colonizations of both host plant genus and host species. With the exception of unilocular peagalls, evolution of gall type was somewhat constrained, but to a lesser degree than host plant association. Unilocular peagalls arose more often than any other gall type, were primarily located at the tips of the phylogeny, and did not form clades comprising more than a few species. For ecological reasons, species of this gall type are predicted to harbor substantially less genetic variation than others, possibly reducing evolutionary flexibility resulting in reduced diversification in unilocular gallers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Evaluation of contemporary prostate and urothelial lineage biomarkers in a consecutive cohort of poorly differentiated bladder neck carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sambit K; Smith, Steven C; Chang, Elena; Luthringer, Daniel J; Gown, Allen M; Aron, Manju; Amin, Mahul B

    2014-08-01

    New immunohistochemical (IHC) markers of urothelial carcinoma (UCa) and prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa) have emerged in recent years, yet comparative studies to establish markers remain lacking. We aimed to identify an effective but parsimonious approach for poorly differentiated bladder neck lesions, to establish a best practice panel approach in a setting simulating prospective use. We tested the performance of a panel of IHC markers on whole sections of a consecutive cohort of transurethral resection specimens of poorly differentiated, challenging bladder neck resections (n=36). In the setting of poorly differentiated bladder neck carcinomas, biomarker sensitivities for UCa were as follows: GATA3, 100%; S100P, 88%; p63, 75%; and cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, 56%; specificities of each were 100%. CK7 and CK20 showed sensitivities of 75% and 63%, though these were only 85% and 80% specific. For PCa markers, NKX3.1, p501S, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and androgen receptor (AR) each showed 100% sensitivity, outperforming ERG (35%) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA; 25%). All the prostate histogenesis markers were 100% specific, except for AR, which was positive in 13% of the UCa cases. Novel IHC markers show improved diagnostic performance that enables positive and negative support for identifying histogenesis with the use of as few as two markers for this critical therapeutic distinction. PSA underperforms newer markers. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  8. A case report of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Ravi; Cave, Christo; Sarran, Kevin; Bascombe, Nigel; Dan, Dilip; Greaves, Wesley; Warner, Wayne A

    2017-01-01

    Clear cell gallbladder carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of all gallbladder malignancies and demonstrates its unique histopathological characteristics in patients with no prior medical illness or familial predisposition. Here we present a case of a 56-year-old female, with no prior medical conditions presented with a 2-month history of upper abdominal pain. Routine hematological and biochemical tests were unremarkable. An abdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of a gallbladder calculi, and a fundic mass while magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a 8.0cm×3.5cm gallbladder mass. Computed tomography imaging excluded any distant haematogenous metastases. An open cholecystectomy with lymphadenectomy was proceeded by staging laparoscopy. Upon pathologic investigation, the morphologic and immunophenotypic features supported a diagnosis of clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma. Pathological prognostications for primary clear cell gall bladder carcinomas are not well defined due to the rarity of cases and possible misidentification as secondary metastases. Foci of adenocarcinoma within the tumor along with immunohistochemical staining probes can be informative in consideration of differential diagnosis. In these cases, clinical case management should be personalized for increased survival with the possible incorporation of next generation sequencing approaches to guide therapeutic algorithms. We discuss this exceedingly rare case of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma in detail, highlighting some of the diagnostic, and clinical challenges. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Loss of prostasin (PRSS8) in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Mei; Verity, Nicole J; Chai, Karl X

    2009-10-22

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored epithelial extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) is expressed abundantly in normal epithelia and essential for terminal epithelial differentiation, but down-regulated in human prostate, breast, and gastric cancers and invasive cancer cell lines. Prostasin is involved in the extracellular proteolytic modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is an invasion suppressor. The aim of this study was to evaluate prostasin expression states in the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the human bladder and in human TCC cell lines. Normal human bladder tissues and TCC on a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA) were evaluated for prostasin expression by means of immunohistochemistry. A panel of 16 urothelial and TCC cell lines were evaluated for prostasin and E-cadherin expression by western blot and quantitative PCR, and for prostasin gene promoter region CpG methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Prostasin is expressed in the normal human urothelium and in a normal human urothelial cell line, but is significantly down-regulated in high-grade TCC and lost in 9 (of 15) TCC cell lines. Loss of prostasin expression in the TCC cell lines correlated with loss of or reduced E-cadherin expression, loss of epithelial morphology, and promoter DNA hypermethylation. Prostasin expression could be reactivated by demethylation or inhibition of histone deacetylase. Re-expression of prostasin or a serine protease-inactive variant resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin. Loss of prostasin expression in bladder transitional cell carcinomas is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and may have functional implications in tumor invasion and resistance to chemotherapy.

  10. Altered RECQL5 expression in urothelial bladder carcinoma increases cellular proliferation and makes RECQL5 helicase activity a novel target for chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Karl; Arya, Lovleen; Bottomley, Sarah; Morgan, Susan; Cox, Angela; Catto, James; Bryant, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    RECQ helicases are a family of enzymes with both over lapping and unique functions. Functional autosomal recessive loss of three members of the family BLM, WRN and RECQL4, results in hereditary human syndromes characterized by cancer predisposition and premature aging, but despite the finding that RECQL5 deficient mice are cancer prone, no such link has been made to human RECQL5. Here we demonstrate that human urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCC) has increased expression of RECQL5 compared to normal bladder tissue and that increasing RECQL5 expression can drive proliferation of normal bladder cells and is associated with poor prognosis. Further, by expressing a helicase dead RECQL5 and by depleting bladder cancer cells of RECQL5 we show that inhibition of RECQL5 activity has potential as a new target for treatment of UCC. PMID:27764811

  11. Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens

    PubMed Central

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Nieves-Aldrey, José-Luis; Buffington, Matthew L.; Liu, Zhiwei; Liljeblad, Johan; Nylander, Johan A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini), which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI) and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2) markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will remain elusive

  12. Prospective comparison of molecular signatures in urothelial cancer of the bladder and the upper urinary tract--is there evidence for discordant biology?

    PubMed

    Krabbe, Laura-Maria; Lotan, Yair; Bagrodia, Aditya; Gayed, Bishoy A; Darwish, Oussama M; Youssef, Ramy F; Bolenz, Christian; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Raj, Ganesh V; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Kapur, Payal; Margulis, Vitaly

    2014-04-01

    Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is rare and less well studied than bladder cancer. It remains questionable if findings in bladder cancer can safely be extrapolated to upper tract urothelial carcinoma. We prospectively evaluate molecular profiles of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer using a cell cycle biomarker panel. Immunohistochemical staining for p21, p27, p53, cyclin E and Ki-67 was prospectively performed for 96 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma and 159 patients with bladder cancer with nonmetastatic high grade urothelial carcinoma treated with extirpative surgery. Data were compared between the groups according to pathological stage. Primary outcome was assessment of differences in marker expression. Secondary outcome was difference in survival according to marker status. During a median followup of 22.0 months 31.2% of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma and 28.3% of patients with bladder cancer had disease recurrence, and 20.8% and 27.7% died of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer, respectively. The number of altered markers was not significantly different between the study groups. Overall 34 patients (35.4%) with upper tract urothelial carcinoma and 62 (39.0%) with bladder cancer had an unfavorable marker score (more than 2 markers altered). There were no significant differences between upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer in the alteration status of markers, the number of altered markers and biomarker score when substratified by pathological stage. There were no significant differences in survival outcomes between patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma and those with bladder cancer according to the number of altered markers and biomarker score. Our results demonstrate the molecular similarity of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer in terms of cell cycle and proliferative tissue markers. These findings have important implications and support the further

  13. Upper tract urothelial recurrence following radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: an analysis of 1,069 patients with 10-year followup.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Kristin M; Cai, Jie; Miranda, Gustavo; Skinner, Donald G; Stein, John P

    2007-06-01

    Risk factors for upper tract recurrence following radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder are not yet well-defined. We reviewed our population of patients who underwent radical cystectomy to identify prognostic factors and clinical outcomes associated with upper tract recurrence. From our prospective database of 1,359 patients who underwent radical cystectomy we identified 1,069 patients treated for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder between January 1985 and December 2001. Univariate analysis was completed to determine factors predictive of upper tract recurrence. A total of 853 men and 216 women were followed for a median of 10.3 years (maximum 18.5). There were 27 (2.5%) upper tract recurrences diagnosed at a median of 3.3 years (range 0.4 to 9.3). Only urethral tumor involvement was predictive of upper tract recurrence. In men superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the prostatic urethra was associated with an increased risk of upper tract recurrence compared with prostatic stromal invasion or absence of prostatic transitional cell carcinoma (p <0.01). In women urethral transitional cell carcinoma was associated with an increased risk of upper tract recurrence (p = 0.01). Despite routine surveillance 78% of upper tract recurrence was detected after development of symptoms. Median survival following upper tract recurrence was 1.7 years (range 0.2 to 8.8). Detection of asymptomatic upper tract recurrence via surveillance did not predict lower nephroureterectomy tumor stage, absence of lymph node metastases or improved survival. Patients with bladder cancer are at lifelong risk for late oncological recurrence in the upper tract urothelium. Patients with evidence of tumor involvement within the urethra are at highest risk. Surveillance regimens frequently fail to detect tumors before symptoms develop. However, radical nephroureterectomy can provide prolonged survival.

  14. The relation between Ring Box-1 protein overexpression and tumor grade and stage in bladder urothelial cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Celik, Zeliha Esin; Kaynar, Mehmet; Karabagli, Pinar; Gergerlioglu, Nursadan; Goktas, Serdar

    2017-12-06

    Ring Box Protein-1 (RBX-1), a component of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases, has a crucial role in bladder urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) carcinogenesis and progression. In the present study, it is aimed to determine the expression of RBX-1 protein in bladder UCC and the association between tumor grade, stage and RBX-1 expression. Ninety UCC samples and 20 samples containing foci of normal bladder urothelium were recruited and analyzed immunohistochemically in terms of RBX-1 expression. Immuno-reactivity scoring system (IRS) was used to determine RBX-1 expression levels. RBX-1 overexpression was associated with high tumor grade (p= 0.001) and advanced stage (p= 0.001). pT1 tumors showed higher RBX-1 expression than pTa tumors. pT2 tumors showed not only higher expression than pTa tumors but also higher expression than the total of pTa and pT1 groups combined. There was no statistically significant relation between RBX-1 expression and patient gender (p= 0.116) or age (p= 0.191). In bladder UCC, RBX-1 overexpression is associated with high tumor grade and advanced stage and represents biological potential of invasiveness and aggressive disease. Results of the present study have to be supported with further studies to reveal clinical and therapeutic implications of RBX-1 overexpression in bladder UCC.

  15. Prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over expression in urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Atif Ali; Hussain, Zubaida Fida; Irfan, Muhammad; Khan, Erum Yousuf; Faridi, Naveen; Naqvi, Hanna; Khan, Amir; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil

    2018-06-07

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to have abnormal expression in many human cancers and is considered as a marker of poor prognosis. Frequency of over expression in bladder cancer has not been studied in our population; therefore we aimed to evaluate the frequency and prognostic significance of EGFR immunohistochemical expression in locoregional population. We performed EGFR immunohistochemistry on 126 cases of bladder cancer and association of EGFR expression with tumor grade, lamina propria invasion, deep muscle invasion and recurrence of disease was evaluated. High EGFR expression was noted in 26.2% (33 cases), 15.1% (19 cases) and 58.7% (74 cases) revealed low and no EGFR expression respectively. Significant association of EGFR expression was noted with tumor grade, lamina propria invasion, deep muscle invasion and recurrence status while no significant association was seen with age, gender and overall survival. Kaplan- Meier curves revealed significant association of EGFR expression with recurrence while no significant association was seen with overall survival. Significant association of EGFR overexpression with tumor grade, muscularis propria invasion and recurrence signifies its prognostic value; therefore EGFR can be used as a prognostic biomarker in Urothelial bladder carcinoma.

  16. Dose constraints in the rectum and bladder following carbon-ion radiotherapy for uterus carcinoma: a retrospective pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Okonogi, Noriyuki; Fukahori, Mai; Wakatsuki, Masaru; Ohkubo, Yu; Kato, Shingo; Miyasaka, Yuhei; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nakano, Takashi; Kamada, Tadashi

    2018-06-25

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) provides better dose distribution in cancer treatment compared to photons. Additionally, carbon-ion beams provide a higher biological effectiveness, and thus a higher tumor control probability. However, information regarding the dose constraints for organs at risk in C-ion RT is limited. This study aimed to determine the predictive factors for late morbidities in the rectum and bladder after carbon-ion C-ion RT for uterus carcinomas. Between June 1995 and January 2010, 134 patients with uterus carcinomas were treated with C-ion RT with curative intent; prescription doses of 52.8-74.4 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) were delivered in 20-24 fractions. Of these patients, 132 who were followed up for > 6 months were analyzed. We separated the data in two subgroups, a 24 fractions group and a 20 fractions group. Late morbidities, proctitis, and cystitis were assessed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. The correlations of clinical and dosimetric parameters, V10-V60, D 5cc , D 2cc , and Dmax, with the incidence of ≥grade 1 morbidities were retrospectively analyzed. In the 24 fractions group, the 3-year actuarial occurrence rates of ≥grade 1 rectal and bladder morbidities were 64 and 9%, respectively. In addition, in the 20 fractions group, the 3-year actuarial occurrence rates of ≥grade 1 rectal and bladder morbidities were 32 and 19%, respectively. Regarding the dose-volume histogram data on the rectum, the D 5cc and D 2cc were significantly higher in patients with ≥grade 1 proctitis than in those without morbidity. In addition, the D 5cc for the bladder was significantly higher in patients with ≥grade 1 cystitis than in those without morbidity. Results of univariate analyses showed that D 2cc of the rectum was correlated with the development of ≥grade 1 late proctitis. Moreover, D 5cc of the bladder was correlated with the

  17. Bladder carcinoma in a transplant recipient: evidence to implicate the BK human polyomavirus as a causal transforming agent.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Duvuru; Tong, Betty C; Racusen, Lorraine; Markowitz, Jay S; Westra, William H

    2002-06-27

    The BK polyomavirus (BKV) infects most of the human population, but clinically relevant infections are mostly limited to individuals who are immunosuppressed. In transplant recipients, BKV has been associated with ureteral stenosis, interstitial nephritis, and hemorrhagic cystitis. The role of BKV in the development of human tumors is intriguing but uncertain. BKV has been identified in various tumor types including urothelial carcinoma, but the ubiquitous presence of BKV as a latent infection has confounded efforts to validate any causal role in cancer development. We report the case of a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant recipient who developed BKV interstitial nephritis and carcinoma of the bladder with widespread metastases. High level expression of BKV large T antigen in the primary and metastatic carcinoma, but not in the nonneoplastic urothelium, implicates BKV as an etiologic agent in the development of this tumor.

  18. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Albert Institute for Bladder Cancer Research Symposium.

    PubMed

    Flaig, Thomas W; Kamat, Ashish M; Hansel, Donna; Ingersoll, Molly A; Barton Grossman, H; Mendelsohn, Cathy; DeGraff, David; Liao, Joseph C; Taylor, John A

    2017-07-27

    The Third Annual Albert Institute Bladder Symposium was held on September 8-10th, 2016, in Denver Colorado. Participants discussed several critical topics in the field of bladder cancer: 1) Best practices for tissue analysis and use to optimize correlative studies, 2) Modeling bladder cancer to facilitate understanding and innovation, 3) Targeted therapies for bladder cancer, 4) Tumor phylogeny in bladder cancer, 5) New Innovations in bladder cancer diagnostics. Our understanding of and approach to treating urothelial carcinoma is undergoing rapid advancement. Preclinical models of bladder cancer have been leveraged to increase our basic and mechanistic understanding of the disease. With the approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma, the treatment approach for these patients has quickly changed. In this light, molecularly-defined subtypes of bladder cancer and appropriate pre-clinical models are now essential to the further advancement and appropriate application of these therapeutic improvements. The optimal collection and processing of clinical urothelial carcinoma tissues samples will also be critical in the development of predictive biomarkers for therapeutic selection. Technological advances in other areas including optimal imaging technologies and micro/nanotechnologies are being applied to bladder cancer, especially in the localized setting, and hold the potential for translational impact in the treatment of bladder cancer patients. Taken together, advances in several basic science and clinical areas are now converging in bladder cancer. These developments hold the promise of shaping and improving the clinical care of those with the disease.

  19. Prognostic Value of Soluble Death Receptor Ligands in Patients with Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Bladder.

    PubMed

    Ben Bahria-Sediki, Islem; Chebil, Mohamed; Sampaio, Carla; Martel-Frachet, Véronique; Cherif, Mohamed; Zermani, Rachida; Rammeh, Soumaya; Ben Ammar Gaaied, Amel; Bettaieb, Ali

    2018-05-02

    The activation of Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) and DR4-DR5/tumor necrosis factor-related-apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathways in cancer cells triggers apoptosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of soluble FasL (sFasL) and soluble (sTRAIL) in the serum of patients with bladder cancer. The sFasL and sTRAIL levels in the sera of patients with bladder cancer or healthy donors were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Micro-culture tetrazolium viability assay and Western blot were used to analyze cell cytotoxicity and death receptors protein expression respectively. Whether no difference in sTRAIL levels was seen between patients and controls, the level of sFasL was higher in patients than that in healthy donors. According to, sFasL level was the highest in the serum of patients with superficial stage or low- and medium-grade cancer. Moreover, sFasL in patients with superficial noninvasive bladder tumors or low- and medium-grade cancers was higher than that in patients with invasive carcinomas and high-grade cancers. Patients with high levels of sFasL survive longer than those with low levels, probably related to the cytotoxic potential of FasL preserved in its soluble form. The data suggest that monitoring the level of sFasL and its cytotoxic activity could be a prognostic marker in the follow-up of patients with bladder cancer. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Gastric metastasis of cervix uteri carcinoma, rare cause of lower gastric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, B; Banu, E; Pocreaţă, D; Buiga, R; Rogoz, S; Pripisi, L; Cimpeanu, L; Moldovan, A; Jeder, O; Badea, A; Biris, P

    2012-01-01

    the paper presents a rare case of metachronous gastric metastasis of uterine cervix cancer, clinically manifested through severe pyloric stenosis. 49-year-old patient, operated on in January 2009, with uterine cervix cancer (Squamous cell carcinoma T2bN1M0), is hospitalized in August 2011 with pyloric stenosis: epigastric pains, abundant, stasis, late postprandial emesis, significant weight loss, stomach form visible upon abdomen inspection. Endoscopy: antral stenosis with intact gastric mucosa, and CT-scan: circumferential intramural gastric tumor, stomach dilated in the upper part, lack of cleavage between the tumor and the liver bed of the gall bladder. CEA increased to 13,78 (below 5), CA 19-9 slightly increased 29.9 (below 27). The case is considered as a second neoplasia and a D2 subtotal gastrectomy was performed, with 1 positive ganglion out of 27 on block with atypical hepatectomy of segments 4-5 for liver invasion, the final mounting being Y Roux. The histopathological examination shows a gastric metastasis of squamous carcinoma, of uterine cervix origin, the invaded perigastric ganglion having the same aspect of uterine cervix carcinoma. The post-surgery evolution was favorable, under chemo radiotherapy the patient being alive without relapse at 9 months post-surgery. In the literature there are 2 more cases of gastric metastasis of uterine cervix carcinoma, and 4 of uterine carcinoma without topographic indication, but without the histological documentation of the tumor filiation, without data related to resecability or follow-up, the case at hand being, from this perspective, the first documented resectable metachronous gastric metastasis from a cervix uteri carcinoma. Celsius.

  1. Galle Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-26

    This image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of Galle Crater. It was taken far enough south and late enough into the southern hemisphere fall to observe water ice clouds partially obscuring the surface.

  2. Protein Interactome of Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Akshay; Heinzel, Andreas; Mayer, Bernd; Perco, Paul; Mühlberger, Irmgard; Husi, Holger; Merseburger, Axel S.; Zoidakis, Jerome; Vlahou, Antonia; Schanstra, Joost P.; Mischak, Harald; Jankowski, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Muscle invasive bladder carcinoma is a complex, multifactorial disease caused by disruptions and alterations of several molecular pathways that result in heterogeneous phenotypes and variable disease outcome. Combining this disparate knowledge may offer insights for deciphering relevant molecular processes regarding targeted therapeutic approaches guided by molecular signatures allowing improved phenotype profiling. The aim of the study is to characterize muscle invasive bladder carcinoma on a molecular level by incorporating scientific literature screening and signatures from omics profiling. Public domain omics signatures together with molecular features associated with muscle invasive bladder cancer were derived from literature mining to provide 286 unique protein-coding genes. These were integrated in a protein-interaction network to obtain a molecular functional map of the phenotype. This feature map educated on three novel disease-associated pathways with plausible involvement in bladder cancer, namely Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Neurotrophin signalling pathway and Endocytosis. Systematic integration approaches allow to study the molecular context of individual features reported as associated with a clinical phenotype and could potentially help to improve the molecular mechanistic description of the disorder. PMID:25569276

  3. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C

    2006-02-01

    Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  4. Altered expression of transmembrane mucins, MUC1 and MUC4, in bladder cancer: pathological implications in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhwinder; Momi, Navneet; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Wagner, David G; Horn, Adam J; Lele, Subodh M; Theodorescu, Dan; Batra, Surinder K

    2014-01-01

    Radical changes in both expression and glycosylation pattern of transmembrane mucins have been observed in various malignancies. We and others have shown that MUC1 and MUC4, two transmembrane mucins, play a sentinel role in cell signaling events that drive several epithelial malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the expression profile of MUC1 and MUC4 in the non-neoplastic bladder urothelium, in various malignant neoplasms of bladder and in bladder carcinoma cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue sections from the urinary bladder biopsies, resection samples and tissue microarrays (TMAs) with monoclonal antibodies specific for MUC1 and MUC4. We also investigated their expression in bladder carcinoma cell lines by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. MUC1 is expressed on the apical surface or in umbrella cells of the normal non-neoplastic bladder urothelium. Strong expression of MUC1 was also observed in urothelial carcinoma (UC). MUC1 staining increased from normal urothelium (n = 27, 0.35±0.12) to urothelial carcinoma (UC, n = 323, H-score, 2.4±0.22, p≤0.0001). In contrast to MUC1, MUC4 was expressed in all the layers of non-neoplastic bladder urothelium (n = 14, 2.5±0.28), both in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. In comparison to non-neoplastic urothelium, the loss of MUC4 expression was observed during urothelial carcinoma (n = 211, 0.56±0.06). However, re-expression of MUC4 was observed in a subset of metastatic cases of urothelial carcinoma (mean H-score 0.734±0.9). The expression of MUC1 is increased while that of MUC4 decreased in UC compared to the normal non-neoplastic urothelium. Expression of both MUC1 and MUC4, however, are significantly higher in urothelial carcinoma metastatic cases compared to localized UC. These results suggest differential expression of MUC1 and MUC4 during development and progression of bladder carcinoma.

  5. Altered Expression of Transmembrane Mucins, MUC1 and MUC4, in Bladder Cancer: Pathological Implications in Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sukhwinder; Momi, Navneet; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Wagner, David G.; Horn, Adam J.; Lele, Subodh M.; Theodorescu, Dan; Batra, Surinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Radical changes in both expression and glycosylation pattern of transmembrane mucins have been observed in various malignancies. We and others have shown that MUC1 and MUC4, two transmembrane mucins, play a sentinel role in cell signaling events that drive several epithelial malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the expression profile of MUC1 and MUC4 in the non-neoplastic bladder urothelium, in various malignant neoplasms of bladder and in bladder carcinoma cell lines. Material and Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue sections from the urinary bladder biopsies, resection samples and tissue microarrays (TMAs) with monoclonal antibodies specific for MUC1 and MUC4. We also investigated their expression in bladder carcinoma cell lines by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Results MUC1 is expressed on the apical surface or in umbrella cells of the normal non-neoplastic bladder urothelium. Strong expression of MUC1 was also observed in urothelial carcinoma (UC). MUC1 staining increased from normal urothelium (n = 27, 0.35±0.12) to urothelial carcinoma (UC, n = 323, H-score, 2.4±0.22, p≤0.0001). In contrast to MUC1, MUC4 was expressed in all the layers of non-neoplastic bladder urothelium (n = 14, 2.5±0.28), both in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. In comparison to non-neoplastic urothelium, the loss of MUC4 expression was observed during urothelial carcinoma (n = 211, 0.56±0.06). However, re-expression of MUC4 was observed in a subset of metastatic cases of urothelial carcinoma (mean H-score 0.734±0.9). Conclusion The expression of MUC1 is increased while that of MUC4 decreased in UC compared to the normal non-neoplastic urothelium. Expression of both MUC1 and MUC4, however, are significantly higher in urothelial carcinoma metastatic cases compared to localized UC. These results suggest differential expression of MUC1 and MUC4 during development and progression of bladder carcinoma. PMID:24671186

  6. Antitumor effects of deracoxib treatment in 26 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Sarah K; Boria, Pedro; Moore, George E; Widmer, William R; Bonney, Patty L; Knapp, Deborah W

    2011-10-15

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the antitumor activity and toxic effects of deracoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. DESIGN-Clinical trial. Animals-26 client-owned dogs with naturally occurring, histologically confirmed, measurableTCC of the urinary bladder. PROCEDURES-Dogs were treated PO with deracoxib at a dosage of 3 mg/kg/d (1.36 mg/lb/d) as a single-agent treatment for TCC. Tumor response was assessed via radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasonographic mapping of urinary bladder masses. Toxic effects of deracoxib administration in dogs were assessed through clinical observations and hematologic and biochemical analyses. RESULTS-Of 24 dogs for which tumor response was assessed, 4 (17%) had partial remission, 17 (71%) had stable disease, and 3 (13%) had progressive disease; initial response could not be assessed in 2 of 26 dogs. The median survival time was 323 days. Median time to progressive disease was 133 days. Renal, hepatic, and gastrointestinal abnormalities attributed to deracoxib administration were noted in 4% (1/26), 4% (1/26), and 19% (5/26) of dogs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results indicated that deracoxib was generally well tolerated by dogs and had antitumor activity against TCC.

  7. [Synergism inhibition of curcumin combined with cisplatin on T24 bladder carcinoma cells and its related mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-nan; Yong, Qun; Wu, Xin-li; Liu, Xiao-ping

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the synergism inhibition of curcumin combined with cisplatin on T24 bladder carcinoma cells and the down-regulating effect of curcumin on the Keapl-Nrf2 pathway, a well recognized anti-drug pathway in almost drugged tumor cells. T24 cells were cultured and treated with increasing concentrations of curcumin(5 ,10 and 20 µmol/mL) combined with cisplatin(30 µg/mL) for 24 hours. The inhibitory effects on T24 cells were tested with MTI colorimetric assay. Nuclear Nrf2 and Keapl , cytoplasmic Keapl and two typical phase II enzymes (GSTP1 and NQOl) were checked with Western blotting. The proliferation of T24 cells was significantly inhibited by different concentrations of curcumin combined with cisplatin. After the treatment with different concentrations of curcumin, Nuclear Nrf2 was decreased but Keapl was increased, and GSTP1 and NQO1 were decreased. Synergism inhibition of curcumin combined with cisplatin on T24 bladder carcinoma cells is observed in this research. The Keapl-Nrf2 pathway in T24 cells is down-regulated by curcumin. The expression of typical phase I enzymes (GSTP1 and NQO1) mediated by Nrf2 are decreased by curcumin. The sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs is then enhanced. These may be the mechanism of synergism effect of curcumin combined with cisplatin.

  8. Disruption of the FA/BRCA pathway in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Neveling, K; Kalb, R; Florl, A R; Herterich, S; Friedl, R; Hoehn, H; Hader, C; Hartmann, F H; Nanda, I; Steinlein, C; Schmid, M; Tonnies, H; Hurst, C D; Knowles, M A; Hanenberg, H; Schulz, W A; Schindler, D

    2007-01-01

    Bladder carcinomas frequently show extensive deletions of chromosomes 9p and/or 9q, potentially including the loci of the Fanconi anemia (FA) genes FANCC and FANCG. FA is a rare recessive disease due to defects in anyone of 13 FANC genes manifesting with genetic instability and increased risk of neoplasia. FA cells are hypersensitive towards DNA crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C and cisplatin that are commonly employed in the chemotherapy of bladder cancers. These observations suggest the possibility of disruption of the FA/BRCA DNA repair pathway in bladder tumors. However, mutations in FANCC or FANCG could not be detected in any of 23 bladder carcinoma cell lines and ten surgical tumor specimens by LOH analysis or by FANCD2 immunoblotting assessing proficiency of the pathway. Only a single cell line, BFTC909, proved defective for FANCD2 monoubiquitination and was highly sensitive towards mitomycin C. This increased sensitivity was restored specifically by transfer of the FANCF gene. Sequencing of FANCF in BFTC909 failed to identify mutations, but methylation of cytosine residues in the FANCF promoter region was demonstrated by methylation-specific PCR, HpaII restriction and bisulfite DNA sequencing. Methylation-specific PCR uncovered only a single instance of FANCF promoter hypermethylation in surgical specimens of further 41 bladder carcinomas. These low proportions suggest that in contrast to other types of tumors silencing of FANCF is a rare event in bladder cancer and that an intact FA/BRCA pathway might be advantageous for tumor progression. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Reflections on the Gall-Peters Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur H.

    1987-01-01

    Explains the cartographic qualities of rectangular world maps and compares the merits of various projections such as the Mercator and the recently-created Gall-Peters. States that the Gall-Peters projection does not provide a reasonable base for a general world map; that no rectangular projection does. (JDH)

  10. Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Transforming Growth Factor Alpha in Cancer Bladder: Schistosomal and Non-Schistosomal

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Afkar A.; El-Hindawi, Ali; Hammam, Olfat; Moussa, Mona; Helal, Noha S.; Kamel, Amira

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been described in several solid tumors including bladder cancer. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) is frequently deregulated in neoplastic cells and plays a role in the development of bladder cancer. TGFα-EGFR ligand-receptor combination constitutes an important event in multistep tumorigenesis. Methods This study was done on 30 bladder biopsies from patients with urothelial carcinoma, 15 with squamous cell carcinoma, 10 with cystitis and 5 normal control bladder specimens. All were immuohistochemically stained with EGFR and TGFα antibodies. Results EGFR and TGFα were over-expressed in higher grades and late stages of bladder cancer. Moreover, they show higher expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to urothelial carcinoma and in schistosomal associated lesions than in non-schistosomal associated lesions. Conclusion EGFR and TGFα could be used as prognostic predictors in early stage and grade of bladder cancer cases, especially those with schistosomal association. In addition they can help in selecting patients who can get benefit from anti-EGFR molecular targeted therapy. PMID:28413380

  11. Expression of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I (COUP-TFI) in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ham, Won Sik; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Yu, Ho Song; Choi, Young Deuk

    2008-10-01

    An analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and the surrounding urothelium to help identify what lies behind the mechanism of multifocal tumor development has not yet been performed. We sought to find a new DEG related to the development of bladder TCC. Thirty-nine bladder TCC tissues paired with normal-appearing urothelium tissues obtained from the same patient were used as subjects. Initially, we compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) profiles between normal-appearing urothelium and TCC tissue of 1 patient by using annealing control primer (ACP)-based GeneFishing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and selective amplification of family members (SAFM) PCR to identify potential DEGs. To validate the results of the ACP data, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on those of all 39 patients. Among the several DEGs discovered in the ACP data, 1 DEG was chosen as the candidate for the RT-PCR, that is present or markedly upregulated in normal-appearing urothelial tissue compared with TCC tissue. Gene sequence searching revealed that this DEG is chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor I (COUP-TFI). Downregulation of COUP-TFI mRNA expression in TCC tissue compared to normal-appearing urothelium tissue of the same patient, irrespective of tumor stage and grade, was confirmed by RT-PCR in 39 patients. Our results suggest that the loss of COUP-TFI may play a role in the transition from normal epithelium to TCC. Further characterization of the COUP-TFI gene is expected to give us informations about bladder TCC tumorigenesis.

  12. Evaluation of cisplatin administered with piroxicam in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Greene, Shawna N; Lucroy, Michael D; Greenberg, Chelsea B; Bonney, Patty L; Knapp, Deborah W

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the antitumor activity and toxic effects of a conservative dose of cisplatin administered in combination with piroxicam to dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. Clinical trial (nonrandomized, noncontrolled). 14 client-owned dogs with histologically confirmed TCC of the urinary bladder. Each dog was treated with cisplatin (50 mg/m(2), i.v., q 21 d [reduced to 40 mg/m(2), i.v., q 21 d because of toxic effects]) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). A CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and urinalysis were performed prior to each cisplatin treatment. Tumor staging (determined from thoracic and abdominal radiographic and urinary bladder ultrasonographic findings) was performed before treatment and at 6-week intervals during treatment. 5 dogs received only 1 dose of cisplatin because of the rapid progression of disease (n = 2) or toxic effects (3). With regard to the neoplastic disease among the other 9 dogs, 1 had partial remission, 5 had stable disease, and 3 had progressive disease after 6 weeks of treatment. Median progression-free interval was 78 days (range, 20 to 112 days). Median survival time was 307 days (range, 29 to 929 days). Moderate to severe renal toxicosis and moderate to severe gastrointestinal toxicosis developed in 5 and 8 dogs, respectively. Because of minimal efficacy and associated renal and gastrointestinal toxicosis, administration of cisplatin (40 to 50 mg/m(2)) with piroxicam cannot be recommended for treatment of dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder.

  13. Metastasis of Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Into the Thyroid Gland: A Literature Review Accompanied by a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Murat; Faydaci, Gokhan; Altin, Gokhan; Kibar, Sermin; Sanli, Arif; Bilgici, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the most prevalent malignancy of the urinary tract. About 90% of bladder cancers are urothelial carcinomas. Seventy percent of cases newly diagnosed are superficial diseases; roughly 30% of newly diagnosed cases are muscle-invasive metastatic diseases. Bladder urothelial carcinoma primarily metastasizes into regional lymph nodes and then into liver, lung, mediastinum, bone, and adrenal gland. In our case, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer metastasized into the bone, mediastinum, iliac lymph node, and adrenal and thyroid glands. This is the first reported case in the current literature in which urothelial carcinoma metastasized into the thyroid gland. PMID:24648880

  14. Long-term consequences from bladder perforation and/or violation in the presence of transitional cell carcinoma: results of a small series and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Weinstein, R; Shah, S; Solliday, M; Macchia, R J

    1999-04-01

    Perforation of the bladder during transurethral resection is a worrisome complication for most urologists. Little is known about the consequences of seeding of tumor cells into the peritoneum or retroperitoneum. We reviewed several hospital patient databases as well as the literature to determine the outcome of such situations. We performed a local multi-institutional case and MEDLINE review using key words, such as bladder neoplasm, neoplasm seeding, perforation, rupture, transurethral resection, peritonitis and tumor. We also contacted several urologists and oncologists at major cancer centers in the United States and Europe regarding the incidence and followup of perforated/violated bladder cancer cases. There were 16 bladder violations in the presence of transitional cell carcinoma, including 2 partial cystectomies that had negative margins and no subsequent metastatic recurrences, a bladder tumor that was detected during suprapubic prostatectomy and perforations during transurethral resection (extraperitoneal in 4 cases and intraperitoneal in 9). Two patients died of sepsis and existing metastatic disease, respectively. The only recurrence among the remaining 11 patients developed after intraperitoneal bladder perforation during transurethral resection for Ta grade 2 tumor. Several anecdotal reports discussed local and distal tumor recurrences, suggesting that even superficial transitional cell carcinoma can behave aggressively if grown in an environment outside the bladder. However, these reports are rare. Any benefit of prophylactic chemotherapy was not proved. While perforation of the bladder during transurethral resection for cancer and the possibility of tumor implantation are matters of concern, our review demonstrates that few patients return with an extravesical tumor recurrence either locally or distally compared to those with a nonruptured bladder after resection. Although our patient sample is small and there are a limited number of reports in the

  15. An orthotopic model of murine bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Dobek, Georgina L; Godbey, W T

    2011-02-06

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to create a burn injury. An electrocautery unit is used to deliver 2.5W to the exposed end of the wire, burning away extracellular layers and providing attachment sites for carcinoma cells that are delivered in suspension to the bladder through a subsequent catheterization. Cells remain in the bladder for 90 minutes, after which the catheters are removed and the bladders allowed to drain naturally. The development of tumor is monitored via ultrasound. Specific attention is paid to the catheterization technique in the accompanying video.

  16. Analyses of publicly available genomics resources define FGF-2-expressing bladder carcinomas as EMT-prone, proliferative tumors with low mutation rates and high expression of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1.

    PubMed

    McNiel, Elizabeth A; Tsichlis, Philip N

    2017-01-01

    FGF-2 is overexpressed in a subset of invasive bladder carcinomas and its overexpression correlates with poor prognosis. Analyses of publicly available databases addressing the molecular mechanisms that may be responsible for the poor prognosis of these tumors, revealed that FGF-2 expression correlates positively with the expression of EMT-promoting transcription factors and with changes in gene expression that are characteristic of EMT. The same analyses also revealed that FGF-2 correlates negatively with the expression, mutation and copy number variations of FGFR-3, all of which are associated with non-invasive bladder carcinomas. Finally, they showed that FGF-2 expression correlates with the expression of FGFR-1, the expression of the IIIc variant of FGFR-2 and with the expression of Akt3. The latter observation is significant because our earlier studies had shown that Akt3 regulates FGFR-2 alternative splicing, shifting the balance toward the IIIc relative to the IIIb FGFR-2 splice variant. Since the IIIc variant is recognized by FGF-2, while the IIIb variant is not, we conclude that Akt3 may facilitate the FGF-2 response. FGF-2 is known to promote the expression of KDM2B, which functions in concert with EZH2 to repress the EZH2-targeting microRNA miR-101, activating a switch, which stably upregulates EZH2. TCGA data showing a correlation between KDM2B and EZH2 expression and Oncomine data, showing a correlation between KDM2B and tumor progression, strongly support the role of the FGF-2/KDM2B/miR-101/EZH2 pathway in bladder cancer. These observations combined, suggest a model according to which FGF-2 induces EMT, cell proliferation and cancer stem cell self-renewal by coupling the Akt3 and KDM2B-controlled pathways outlined above, in bladder carcinomas. Further analyses of publicly-available databases, revealed that FGF-2-expressing bladder carcinomas carry fewer genetic alterations and they tend to express high levels of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1, which suggests

  17. Convective fluid flow through the paracellular system of Necturus gall-bladder epithelium as revealed by dextran probes.

    PubMed Central

    Shachar-Hill, B; Hill, A E

    1993-01-01

    1. Bidirectional paracellular fluxes using radioactive dextrans as inert molecular probes have been measured across Necturus gall-bladder epithelium during conditions of normal fluid absorption. There is a net flux at all radii analysed (0.4-2.2 nm) in the direction of fluid absorption. 2. The net flux is substantial at all radii within the range. The data extraplate to 2 x 10(-6) cm s-1 at zero probe radius, which is very close to the rate of epithelial fluid absorption. 3. The unstirred layers at the epithelial faces during transport have been determined; their contribution to the net fluxes is negligible. 4. Two possible mechanisms for the net flow of probes are considered: (i) that the probes diffuse across the junctions and are then entrained in a local osmotic flow along the interspaces and subepithelium; (ii) that the probes are entrained in volume flow across the junctions and the emergent solution subsequently passes through the interspaces and subepithelium. Model calculations clearly rule out mechanism (i) in which the maximum net flow obtainable is less than 10% of that observed. In addition the presence of leak paths shunting the junctions is not compatible with the observed fluxes. With mechanism (ii) the net flows are correctly predicted with all the fluid flow being transjunctional. The fluid absorption is therefore entirely paracellular. 5. The slope of the net flow curve shows no apparent change in magnitude over the range of the probe radii, indicating that effectively only one population of convective channels is present with parallel walls separated by about 7.7 nm. This agrees with the width previously determined by electron microscopy. 6. If the fluid absorption is junctional then the cellular route offers little if any relative contribution. The hydraulic conductivity of the junctions is not high enough, or the osmotic permeability of the membranes low enough, to accommodate this by osmosis and therefore the junctional fluid absorption must

  18. GATA-3 immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Carla L; Chang, Alex G; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Argani, Pedram; Youssef, Ramy F; Kapur, Payal; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2013-11-01

    GATA-3 is a newly described marker that labels urothelial and breast carcinoma. However, no prior study has evaluated the expression of GATA-3 in primary bladder adenocarcinoma. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) containing 46 primary bladder adenocarcinomas were constructed. They contained 19 signet ring cell (SRC) and 27 conventional adenocarcinomas. Three additional cases of SRC using routine sections were included resulting in a total of 22 SRCs. In addition, TMAs containing 32 primary gastric signet ring adenocarcinomas and 36 primary lobular breast carcinomas were evaluated. The TMAs were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for GATA-3, with nuclear labeling scored by intensity and percentage labeling. Breast and urothelial TMAs were also labeled for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and gross cystic duct fluid protein. Diffuse nuclear GATA-3 labeling was seen in 9/22 (41.0%) SRCs and in 2/27 (7.0%) conventional adenocarcinomas (P=0.01). Extracellular mucin production was seen in 12 SRCs. One of 12 (8.0%) SRCs with extracellular mucin was GATA-3 positive, and 8/10 SRCs without extracellular mucin was GATA-3 positive (P=0.005). No nuclear GATA-3 labeling was seen in any gastric signet ring carcinoma. Diffuse, moderate to strong nuclear GATA-3 labeling was seen in 36/36 (100%) primary lobular breast carcinomas. Nuclear GATA-3 labeling is a useful marker for primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder with signet ring features and can be helpful in distinguishing primary signet ring carcinomas of the urinary bladder from gastric signet ring carcinomas. GATA-3 is rarely positive in bladder adenocarcinomas that lack signet ring features and in SRCs displaying extracellular mucin production.

  19. Caterpillar mimicry by plant galls as a visual defense against herbivores.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2016-09-07

    Plant galls, induced by arthropods and various other organisms have an intimate relationship with host plants, and gall-inducers have limited mobility. In addition to their own photosynthesis, galls are resource sinks rich with nutrients, with neighboring plant organs commonly serving as external photosynthate sources. Galls, if not well defended, may therefore be attractive food sources for herbivores. Galls produced by some aphids, jumping plant lice, thrips, and gall midges in Japan, Palearctic region and in the Middle East visually resemble lepidopteran caterpillars. I propose that such visual resemblance may reduce herbivory of galls and surrounding plant tissues, resulting in an increase in galler survival due to reduced gall damage and in enhanced galler growth due to improved nutrient inflow to the galls, when herbivores avoid colonizing or consuming plant parts that look as if they have been occupied by other herbivores. Potential predators and parasitoids of caterpillars may be attracted to the caterpillar-like galls and then attack real caterpillars and other invertebrate herbivores, which would also be beneficial for both gallers and their hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The biology of gall-inducing arthropods.

    Treesearch

    Gyuri Csoka; William J. Mattson; Graham N. Stone; Peter W. Price

    1998-01-01

    This proceedings explores many facets of the ever intriguing and enigmatic relationships between plants and their gall-forming herbivores. The research reported herein ranges from studies on classical biology and systematics of galling to molecular phylogeny, population genetics, and ecological and evolutionary theory. Human kind has much to learn and gain from...

  1. Phenotypic plasticity and similarity among gall morphotypes on a superhost, Baccharis reticularia (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Formiga, A T; Silveira, F A O; Fernandes, G W; Isaias, R M S

    2015-03-01

    Understanding factors that modulate plant development is still a challenging task in plant biology. Although research has highlighted the role of abiotic and biotic factors in determining final plant structure, we know little of how these factors combine to produce specific developmental patterns. Here, we studied patterns of cell and tissue organisation in galled and non-galled organs of Baccharis reticularia, a Neotropical shrub that hosts over ten species of galling insects. We employed qualitative and quantitative approaches to understand patterns of growth and differentiation in its four most abundant gall morphotypes. We compared two leaf galls induced by sap-sucking Hemiptera and stem galls induced by a Lepidopteran and a Dipteran, Cecidomyiidae. The hypotheses tested were: (i) the more complex the galls, the more distinct they are from their non-galled host; (ii) galls induced on less plastic host organs, e.g. stems, develop under more morphogenetic constraints and, therefore, should be more similar among themselves than galls induced on more plastic organs. We also evaluated the plant sex preference of gall-inducing insects for oviposition. Simple galls were qualitative and quantitatively more similar to non-galled organs than complex galls, thereby supporting the first hypothesis. Unexpectedly, stem galls had more similarities between them than to their host organ, hence only partially supporting the second hypothesis. Similarity among stem galls may be caused by the restrictive pattern of host stems. The opposite trend was observed for host leaves, which generate either similar or distinct gall morphotypes due to their higher phenotypic plasticity. The Relative Distance of Plasticity Index for non-galled stems and stem galls ranged from 0.02 to 0.42. Our results strongly suggest that both tissue plasticity and gall inducer identity interact to determine plant developmental patterns, and therefore, final gall structure. © 2014 German Botanical Society

  2. Gene expression signature in urine for diagnosing and assessing aggressiveness of bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mengual, Lourdes; Burset, Moisès; Ribal, María José; Ars, Elisabet; Marín-Aguilera, Mercedes; Fernández, Manuel; Ingelmo-Torres, Mercedes; Villavicencio, Humberto; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    To develop an accurate and noninvasive method for bladder cancer diagnosis and prediction of disease aggressiveness based on the gene expression patterns of urine samples. Gene expression patterns of 341 urine samples from bladder urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) patients and 235 controls were analyzed via TaqMan Arrays. In a first phase of the study, three consecutive gene selection steps were done to identify a gene set expression signature to detect and stratify UCC in urine. Subsequently, those genes more informative for UCC diagnosis and prediction of tumor aggressiveness were combined to obtain a classification system of bladder cancer samples. In a second phase, the obtained gene set signature was evaluated in a routine clinical scenario analyzing only voided urine samples. We have identified a 12+2 gene expression signature for UCC diagnosis and prediction of tumor aggressiveness on urine samples. Overall, this gene set panel had 98% sensitivity (SN) and 99% specificity (SP) in discriminating between UCC and control samples and 79% SN and 92% SP in predicting tumor aggressiveness. The translation of the model to the clinically applicable format corroborates that the 12+2 gene set panel described maintains a high accuracy for UCC diagnosis (SN = 89% and SP = 95%) and tumor aggressiveness prediction (SN = 79% and SP = 91%) in voided urine samples. The 12+2 gene expression signature described in urine is able to identify patients suffering from UCC and predict tumor aggressiveness. We show that a panel of molecular markers may improve the schedule for diagnosis and follow-up in UCC patients. Copyright 2010 AACR.

  3. Distinct antimicrobial activities in aphid galls on Pistacia atlantica

    PubMed Central

    Yoram, Gerchman; Inbar, Moseh

    2011-01-01

    Gall-formers are parasitic organisms that manipulate plant traits for their own benefit. Galls have been shown to protect their inhabitants from natural enemies such as predators and parasitoids by various chemical and mechanical means. Much less attention, however, has been given to the possibility of defense against microbial pathogens in the humid and nutrient-rich gall environment. We found that the large, cauliflower-shaped, galls induced by the aphid Slavum wertheimae on buds of Pistacia atlantica trees express antibacterial and antifungal activities distinct from those found in leaves. Antibacterial activity was especially profound against Bacillus spp (a genus of many known insect pathogen) and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a known plant pathogen). Antifungal activity was also demonstrated against multiple filamentous fungi. Our results provide evidence for the protective antimicrobial role of galls. This remarkable antibacterial and antifungal activity in the galls of S. wertheimae may be of agricultural and pharmaceutical value. PMID:22105034

  4. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Eribulin Mesylate in Treating Patients With Bladder Cancer That is Advanced or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-23

    Metastatic Ureteral Neoplasm; Metastatic Urethral Neoplasm; Stage III Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Ureter Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Urethral Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Ureter Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Urethral Cancer AJCC v7; Ureter Urothelial Carcinoma; Urethral Urothelial Carcinoma

  5. Gall-induction in insects: evolutionary dead-end or speciation driver?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The tree of life is significantly asymmetrical - a result of differential speciation and extinction - but general causes of such asymmetry are unclear. Differences in niche partitioning are thought to be one possible general explanation. Ecological specialization might lead to increases in diversification rate or, alternatively, specialization might limit the evolutionary potential of specialist lineages and increase their extinction risk. Here we compare the diversification rates of gall-inducing and non-galling insect lineages. Compared with other insect herbivores feeding on the same host plant, gall-inducing insects feed on plant tissue that is more nutritious and less defended, and they do so in a favorable microhabitat that may also provide some protection from natural enemies. We use sister-taxon comparisons to test whether gall-inducing lineages are more host-specific than non-galling lineages, and more or less diverse than non-gallers. We evaluate the significance of diversity bipartitions under Equal Rates Markov models, and use maximum likelihood model-fitting to test for shifts in diversification rates. Results We find that, although gall-inducing insect groups are more host-specific than their non-galling relatives, there is no general significant increase in diversification rate in gallers. However, gallers are found at both extremes - two gall-inducing lineages are exceptionally diverse (Euurina sawflies on Salicaceae and Apiomorpha scale insects on Eucalytpus), and one gall-inducing lineage is exceptionally species-poor (Maskellia armored scales on Eucalyptus). Conclusions The effect of ecological specialization on diversification rates is complex in the case of gall-inducing insects, but host range may be an important factor. When a gall-inducing lineage has a host range approximate to that of its non-galling sister, the gallers are more diverse. When the non-galler clade has a much wider host range than the galler, the non-galler is

  6. Clinical utility of urinary soluble Fas in screening for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anupam Kumar; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Dhramveer; Dalela, Divakar; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Bhatt, Madan Lal Brahma

    2016-06-01

    Early diagnosis of carcinoma of urinary bladder remains a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Soluble Fas (sFas), a cell-surface receptor and member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, is frequently expressed in urinary bladder carcinoma. The objective of this study was to investigate the urinary sFas for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder. We examined urinary sFas concentration in 74 controls and 117 cases of TCC, both primary and recurrent disease, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared it with urinary cytology. Urinary sFas concentration was found to be significantly higher in the patient as compared to control group (P < 0.05). An optimal cutoff value of 174.0 pg/mL was proposed. The urinary sFas level was found to have an approximate sensitivity and specificity of 88.03% and 89.19% (P < 0.001), whereas urine cytology had sensitivity of 66.67% and specificity of 95.95%. sFas had better sensitivity in higher grade and both primary and recurrent cases of urinary bladder cancer in comparison with cytology. Out of 15 node positive bladder cancer cases, 13 had high urinary sFas levels, whereas 12 were urinary cytology positive for malignancy. Urinary sFas can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC of urinary bladder, both for primary and recurrent disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Taxonomy and biology of a new ambrosia gall midge Daphnephila urnicola sp. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) inducing urn-shaped leaf galls on two species of Machilus (Lauraceae) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liang-Yu; Chiang, Tung-Chuan; Weng, Yu-Chu; Chen, Wen-Neng; Hsiao, Shu-Chuan; Tokuda, Makoto; Tsai, Cheng-Lung; Yang, Man-Miao

    2015-05-05

    Recent field surveys show that galls induced by Daphnephila spp. (Cecidomyiidae) on Machilus spp. (Lauraceae) are common in Taiwan, yet only five species, four leaf-gall inducers and one stem-gall inducer on M. thunbergii, have been named in the past. Here we describe a new species, Daphnephila urnicola sp. nov. Chiang, Yang & Tokuda, inducing urn-shaped galls on leaves of both M. zuihoensis and M. mushaensis. Comparisons of D. urnicola populations on M. zuihoensis and on M. mushaensis, indicate that they belong to one species, a result supported by gall midge morphology, life-history traits, gall shape and structure, the developmental process of gall tissues, fungal associations, and DNA-sequencing data. Size and structure of the gall operculum was found to differ between M. zuihoensis and M. mushahaensis.

  8. Alterations to the protein profile of bladder carcinoma cell lines induced by plant extract MINA-05 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Khuong, Terry; White, Melanie Y; Hung, Tzong-Tyng; Seeto, Shona; Thomas, Melissa L; Fitzgerald, Anna M; Martucci, Carlos E; Luk, Sharon; Pang, Shiu-Fu; Russell, Pamela J; Walsh, Bradley J

    2009-04-01

    Bladder cancer (BLCa) is a severe urological cancer of both men and women that commonly recurs and once invasive, is difficult to treat. MINA-05 (CK Life Sciences Int'l, Hong Kong) is a derivative of complex botanical extracts, shown to reduce cellular proliferation of bladder and prostate carcinomas. We tested the effects of MINA-05 against human BLCa cell sublines, B8, B8-RSP-GCK, B8-RSP-LN and C3, from a transitional cell carcinoma, grade IV, to determine the molecular targets of treatment by observing the cellular protein profile. Cells were acclimatised for 48 h then treated for 72 h with concentrations of MINA-05 reflecting 1/2 IC(50), IC(50) and 2 x IC(50) (n = 3) or with vehicle, (0.5% DMSO). Dose-dependant changes in protein abundance were detected and characterised using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and MS. We identified 10 proteins that underwent changes in abundance, pI and/or molecular mass in response to treatment. MINA-05 was shown to influence proteins across numerous functional classes including cytoskeletal proteins, energy metabolism proteins, protein degradation proteins and tumour suppressors, suggesting a global impact on these cell lines. This study implies that the ability of MINA-05 to retard cellular proliferation is attributed to its ability to alter cell cycling, metabolism, protein degradation and the cancer cell environment.

  9. Fungal endophytes which invade insect galls: insect pathogens, benign saprophytes, or fungal inquilines?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dennis

    1995-08-01

    Fungi are frequently found within insect galls. However, the origin of these fungi, whether they are acting as pathogens, saprophytes invading already dead galls, or fungal inquilines which invade the gall but kill the gall maker by indirect means, is rarely investigated. A pathogenic role for these fungi is usually inferred but never tested. I chose the following leaf-galling-insect/host-plant pairs (1) a cynipid which forms two-chambered galls on the veins of Oregon white oak, (2) a cynipid which forms single-chambered galls on California coast live oak, and (3) an aphid which forms galls on narrowleaf cottonwood leaves. All pairs were reported to have fungi associated with dead insects inside the gall. These fungi were cultured and identified. For the two cynipids, all fungi found inside the galls were also present in the leaves as fungal endophytes. The cottonwood leaves examined did not harbor fungal endophytes. For the cynipid on Oregon white oak, the fungal endophyte grows from the leaf into the gall and infects all gall tissue but does not directly kill the gall maker. The insect dies as a result of the gall tissue dying from fungal infection. Therefore, the fungus acts as an inquiline. Approximately 12.5% of these galls die as a result of invasion by the fungal endophyte.

  10. Relevance of prostate cancer in patients with synchronous invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma: a monocentric retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Dell'Atti, Lucio

    2015-03-31

    We retrospectively reviewed data of patients with incidental prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) for invasive bladder cancer and we analyzed their features with regard to incidence, pathologic characteristics, clinical significance, and implications for management. Clinical data and pathological features of 64 patients who underwent standard RCP for bladder cancer were included in this study. Besides the urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder, the location and tumor volume of the PCa, prostate apex involvement, Gleason score, pathological staging and surgical margins were evaluated. Clinically significant PCa was defined as a tumor with a Gleason 4 or 5 pattern, stage ≥ pT3, lymph node involvement, positive surgical margin or multifocality of three or more lesions. Postoperative follow-up was scheduled every 3 months in the first year, every 6 months in the second and third year, annually thereafter. 11 out of 64 patients (17.2%) who underwent RCP had incidentally diagnosed PCa. 3 cases (27.3%) were diagnosed as significant PCa, while 8 cases (72.7%) were clinically insignificant. The positive surgical margin of PCa was detected in 1 patient with significant disease. The prostate apex involvement was present in 1 patient of the significant PCa group. Median follow-up period was 47.8 ± 29.2 (range 4-79). During the follow-up, biochemical recurrence occurred in 1 patient (9%). Concerning the cancer specific survival there was no statistical significance (P = 0.326) between the clinically significant and clinical insignificant cancer group. In line with published studies, incidental PCa does not impact on the prognosis of bladder cancer of patients undergoing RCP.

  11. A rare case of metastatic squamous urachal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Andrei, S; Andrei, A; Rusu Muntean, G; Ungureanu, M; Herlea, V; Becheanu, G; Popescu, I

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare type of urachal malignancy, only a few cases being reported in the medical literature. We present the case of a 49-year-old male patient diagnosed with infected squamous cell urachal carcinoma with multiple pulmonary metastases, after complaints of lower abdominal pain, abdominal mass and fever, without respiratory symptoms. The abdominal ultrasonography and the CT scan revealed a tumoral mass in the lower abdomen in contact with the abdominal wall and the urinary bladder dome, displacing the small bowel. Pulmonary nodular lesions were described in the left lobe pyramid. The intraoperative diagnosis was necrotic urachal tumor with urinary bladder dome invasion and suspected pulmonary metastases, and tumor ablation with bladder dome resection and suture of the bladder were performed. The histopathological result was poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (G3), with negative resection margins. The patient recovered well after surgery, but the prognosis is very poor due to the metastatic stage in which the tumor was diagnosed, no standard chemotherapy regimen for the treatment of metastatic urachal carcinoma being known as effective until now. Celsius.

  12. Orthotopic neo- bladder in women.

    PubMed

    Schettini, Manlio

    2010-12-01

    Radical cystectomy is the most effective treatment madality for high grade urinary bladder carcinoma and orthotopic reconstruction is the better urinary diversion modality also in women. From 2002 to 2007 we performed 14 radical cystectomies followed by orthotopic reconstruction in women aged between 47 and 68 years (mean age 56) affected by urinary bladder carcinoma. Our reconstructive technique requires the preparation of two strips of the recti muscles fascia, the sectioning of the bladder neck and, when the uterus is present, hysteroannessiectomy and cystectomy en block leaving intact the lateral and inferior vaginal walls. The pelvic floor is stabilized by a colposacropexis with a prosthesis and placing an omental flap over the prosthesis. The orthotopic reconstruction is achieved via a neobladder according to the Padovana technique. The ureters are anastomized to the neobladder and splinted with single J stents. The pathological examination demonstrated in all patients the presence of a high grade carcinoma (G3): more specifically 4 patients had a full thickness intramural infiltration (T2), 2 patients had involvment of the perivescical fat (T3) ad 8 patients were in T1 stage. Lymphnodes were negative for tumour (NO). In 8 patients blood transfusions were necessary to treat post surgical anemia. No significant intra-, peri- or post operative complications were noted. The mean follow-up was 45 months: a patient died for diffuse metastatic disease after 11 months. The remaining patients are still alive and report normal lifestyle: 10 with normal micturition and 4 with urinary retention treated with intermittent self-catetherization. Two patients report nocturnal incontinence treated with hourly micturition and one pad. The five patients who had normal preoperative sexual intercourse resumed a normal sexual activity. The possibility to orthotopically recontruct the female urinary bladder has been established long time after the introduction of orthotopic

  13. Pathfinder Atomic Power Plant Nozzle Galling Test, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1961-12-29

    Galling tests of 304, 17-4PH, and chrome-plated 304 stainless-steel nozzles with 304 stainless-steel sleeves were conducted at Pathflnder reactor conditions of 480 deg F, 600 psig. A horizontal force was imposed on the sleeve with the nozzle inserted; and the nozzle was moved axially to determine galling tendencies. Galling was produced on both the 304 and 17-4PH stainless-steel nozzles. The chrome-plated 304-stainless-steel nozzles were cycled numerous times without galling. On the basis of these tests, chrome-plated 304-stainless- steel is the material selected for the Pathfinder boiler fuel-element nozzle.

  14. Bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hess, Marika J; Zhan, Ellen H; Foo, Dominic K; Yalla, Subbarao V

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer in spinal cord injury (SCI) is 16 to 28 times higher than that in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of bladder cancer that are unique to the SCI population. Retrospective review. The charts of 16 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer from 1982 to 2001 were reviewed for type of cancer, exposure to risk factors, presenting symptoms, and survival time. The presenting manifestations were gross hematuria in 14 patients, papillary urethral growth in 1 patient, and acute obstructive renal failure in 1 patient. The diagnosis was made on initial cystoscopic evaluation in 16 patients; 3 patients required further evaluation. Eight of the 11 screening cytologies were suspicious for a malignancy prior to the diagnosis. Seven patients had transitional cell carcinoma, 6 patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA), and 3 patients had both. The bladder wasmanaged with chronic indwelling catheter in 12 patients. Nine patients died of bladder cancer metastases and the remaining 3 patients died of other causes. Six patients survived 5 years or more; 4 were still alive at the completion of this study. Gross hematuria in individuals with SCI warrants aggressive assessment for bladder cancer. Chronic indwelling catheter, smoking, and renal and bladder stones are important risk factors for cancer. The incidence of SCCA in the SCI popullation is much higher than in the general population. Cystoscopic and cytologic evaluation in patients with advanced disease may fail to confirm the diagnosis in a high proportion of patients.

  15. Epithelial-stromal interface in normal and neoplastic human bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Alroy, J; Gould, V E

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the epithelial-stromal interface of the human urinary bladder was studied in biopsy specimens that included 7 normal controls, 1 inverted papilloma, 18 noninvasive papillary carcinomas, and 19 invasive transitional cell carcinomas. In the invasive foci of the transitional cell carcinomas, the underlying basal lamina was attenuated or absent and the number of hemidesmosomes was decreased. These neoplastic cells displayed notably increased numbers of lysosomes, some of which appeared to be in the process of exocytosis. Increased numbers of cytoplasmic filaments adjacent to the plasma membranes at the invading pole of these cells were also observed. Tight junctions and junctional complexes were noticed adjacent to the tumor-stromal interface. None of the aforementioned features was observed in normal transitional epithelium, in inverted papilloma, in noninvasive papillary carcinomas, or in the noninvasive portions of invasive transitional cell carcinomas. Alterations of the epithelial-stromal interface deserve additional studies for they may constitute important parameters in the evaluation of actual or potential invasiveness in the various types of carcinoma of the bladder.

  16. Gall midges (Hessian flies) as plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jeff J; Chen, Ming-Shun; Shukle, Richard; Harris, Marion O

    2012-01-01

    Gall midges constitute an important group of plant-parasitic insects. The Hessian fly (HF; Mayetiola destructor), the most investigated gall midge, was the first insect hypothesized to have a gene-for-gene interaction with its host plant, wheat (Triticum spp.). Recent investigations support that hypothesis. The minute larval mandibles appear to act in a manner that is analogous to nematode stylets and the haustoria of filamentous plant pathogens. Putative effector proteins are encoded by hundreds of genes and expressed in the HF larval salivary gland. Cultivar-specific resistance (R) genes mediate a highly localized plant reaction that prevents the survival of avirulent HF larvae. Fine-scale mapping of HF avirulence (Avr) genes provides further evidence of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) against HF in wheat. Taken together, these discoveries suggest that the HF, and other gall midges, may be considered biotrophic, or hemibiotrophic, plant pathogens, and they demonstrate the potential that the wheat-HF interaction has in the study of insect-induced plant gall formation.

  17. Sugary secretions of wasp galls: a want-to-be extrafloral nectar?

    PubMed

    Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Rothen, Carolina; Diez, Patricia; González, Ana María; Marazzi, Brigitte

    2017-11-10

    The most widespread form of protective mutualisms is represented by plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) that attract ants and other arthropods for indirect defence. Another, but less common, form of sugary secretion for indirect defence occurs in galls induced by cynipid wasps. Until now, such galls have been reported only for cynipid wasps that infest oak trees in the northern hemisphere. This study provides the first evidence of galls that exude sugary secretions in the southern hemisphere and asks whether they can be considered as analogues of plants' EFNs. The ecology and anatomy of galls and the chemical composition of the secretion were investigated in north-western Argentina, in natural populations of the host trees Prosopis chilensis and P. flexuosa . To examine whether ants protect the galls from natural enemies, ant exclusion experiments were conducted in the field. The galls produce large amounts of sucrose-rich, nectar-like secretions. No typical nectary and sub-nectary parenchymatic tissues or secretory trichomes can be observed; instead there is a dense vascularization with phloem elements reaching the gall periphery. At least six species of ants, but also vespid wasps, Diptera and Coleoptera, consumed the gall secretions. The ant exclusion experiment showed that when ants tended galls, no differences were found in the rate of successful emergence of gall wasps or in the rate of parasitism and inquiline infestation compared with ant-excluded galls. The gall sugary secretion is not analogous to extrafloral nectar because no nectar-producing structure is associated with it, but is functionally equivalent to arthropod honeydew because it provides indirect defence to the plant parasite. As in other facultative mutualisms mediated by sugary secretions, the gall secretion triggers a complex multispecies interaction, in which the outcome of individual pair-wise interactions depends on the ecological context in which they take place. © The Author

  18. Prognostic Power of a Tumor Differentiation Gene Signature for Bladder Urothelial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qianxing; Nikolos, Fotis; Chen, Fengju; Tramel, Zoe; Lee, Yu-Cheng; Hayashi, Kazukuni; Xiao, Jing; Shen, Jianjun; Chan, Keith Syson

    2018-05-01

    Muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs) cause approximately 150 000 deaths per year worldwide. Survival for MIBC patients is heterogeneous, with no clinically validated molecular markers that predict clinical outcome. Non-MIBCs (NMIBCs) generally have favorable outcome; however, a portion progress to MIBC. Hence, development of a prognostic tool that can guide decision-making is crucial for improving clinical management of bladder urothelial carcinomas. Tumor grade is defined by pathologic evaluation of tumor cell differentiation, and it often associates with clinical outcome. The current study extrapolates this conventional wisdom and combines it with molecular profiling. We developed an 18-gene signature that molecularly defines urothelial cellular differentiation, thus classifying MIBCs and NMIBCs into two subgroups: basal and differentiated. We evaluated the prognostic capability of this "tumor differentiation signature" and three other existing gene signatures including the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; 2707 genes), MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDA; 2252 genes/2697 probes), and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC; 47 genes) using five gene expression data sets derived from MIBC and NMIBC patients. All statistical tests were two-sided. The tumor differentiation signature demonstrated consistency and statistical robustness toward stratifying MIBC patients into different overall survival outcomes (TCGA cohort 1, P = .03; MDA discovery, P = .009; MDA validation, P = .01), while the other signatures were not as consistent. In addition, we analyzed the progression (Ta/T1 progressing to ≥T2) probability of NMIBCs. NMIBC patients with a basal tumor differentiation signature associated with worse progression outcome (P = .008). Gene functional term enrichment and gene set enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in the biologic process of immune response and inflammatory response are among the most elevated within basal bladder cancers

  19. Gall volatiles defend aphids against a browsing mammal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants have evolved an astonishing array of survival strategies. To defend against insects, for example, damaged plants emit volatile organic compounds that attract the herbivore’s natural enemies. So far, plant volatile responses have been studied extensively in conjunction with leaf chewing and sap sucking insects, yet little is known about the relationship between plant volatiles and gall-inducers, the most sophisticated herbivores. Here we describe a new role for volatiles as gall-insects were found to benefit from this plant defence. Results Chemical analyses of galls triggered by the gregarious aphid Slavum wertheimae on wild pistachio trees showed that these structures contained and emitted considerably higher quantities of plant terpenes than neighbouring leaves and fruits. Behavioural assays using goats as a generalist herbivore confirmed that the accumulated terpenes acted as olfactory signals and feeding deterrents, thus enabling the gall-inducers to escape from inadvertent predation by mammals. Conclusions Increased emission of plant volatiles in response to insect activity is commonly looked upon as a “cry for help” by the plant to attract the insect’s natural enemies. In contrast, we show that such volatiles can serve as a first line of insect defences that extends the ‘extended phenotype’ represented by galls, beyond physical boundaries. Our data support the Enemy hypothesis insofar that high levels of gall secondary metabolites confer protection against natural enemies. PMID:24020365

  20. Analyses of publicly available genomics resources define FGF-2-expressing bladder carcinomas as EMT-prone, proliferative tumors with low mutation rates and high expression of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1

    PubMed Central

    McNiel, Elizabeth A; Tsichlis, Philip N

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is overexpressed in a subset of invasive bladder carcinomas and its overexpression correlates with poor prognosis. Analyses of publicly available databases addressing the molecular mechanisms that may be responsible for the poor prognosis of these tumors, revealed that FGF-2 expression correlates positively with the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-promoting transcription factors and with changes in gene expression that are characteristic of EMT. The same analyses also revealed that FGF-2 correlates negatively with the expression, mutation and copy number variations of FGFR-3, all of which are associated with noninvasive bladder carcinomas. Finally, they showed that FGF-2 expression correlates with the expression of FGFR-1, the expression of the IIIc variant of FGFR-2 and with the expression of Akt3. The latter observation is significant because our earlier studies had shown that Akt3 regulates FGFR-2 alternative splicing, shifting the balance toward the IIIc relative to the IIIb FGFR-2 splice variant. As the IIIc variant is recognized by FGF-2, while the IIIb variant is not, we conclude that Akt3 may facilitate the FGF-2 response. FGF-2 is known to promote the expression of KDM2B, which functions in concert with EZH2 to repress the EZH2-targeting microRNA miR-101, activating a switch, which stably upregulates EZH2. The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) data showing a correlation between KDM2B and EZH2 expression and Oncomine data, showing a correlation between KDM2B and tumor progression, strongly support the role of the FGF-2/KDM2B/miR-101/EZH2 pathway in bladder cancer. These observations combined, suggest a model according to which FGF-2 induces EMT, cell proliferation and cancer stem cell self-renewal by coupling the Akt3 and KDM2B-controlled pathways outlined above, in bladder carcinomas. Further analyses of publicly available databases, revealed that FGF-2-expressing bladder carcinomas carry fewer genetic

  1. Biomarker in Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy for Urinary Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ecke, Thorsten H

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of metastasized bladder cancer has been evolving during recent years. Cisplatin based chemotherapy combinations are still gold standard in the treatment of advanced and metastasized bladder cancer. But new therapies are approaching. Based to this fact biological markers will become more important for decisions in bladder cancer treatment. A systematic MEDLINE search of the key words "cisplatin", "bladder cancer", "DNA marker", "protein marker", "methylation biomarker", "predictive marker", "prognostic marker" has been made. This review aims to highlight the most relevant clinical and experimental studies investigating markers for metastasized transitional carcinoma of the urothelium treated by cisplatin based regimens.

  2. Can bile duct injuries be prevented? "A new technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy"

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Yavuz Selim; Tunali, Vahit; Tomaoglu, Kamer; Karagöz, Binnur; Güneyİ, Ayhan; KaragöZ, İbrahim

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has gained worldwide acceptance and considered to be as "gold standard" in the surgical management of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. However, the incidence of bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still two times greater compared to classic open surgery. The development of bile duct injury may result in biliary cirrhosis and increase in mortality rates. The mostly blamed causitive factor is the misidentification of the anatomy, especially by a surgeon who is at the beginning of his learning curve. Biliary tree injuries may be decreased by direct coloration of the cystic duct, ductus choledochus and even the gall bladder. Methods gall bladder fundus was punctured by Veress needle and all the bile was aspirated. The same amount of fifty percent methylene blue diluted by saline solution was injected into the gall bladder for coloration of biliary tree. The dissection of Calot triangle was much more safely performed after obtention of coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and choledocus. Results Between October 2003 and December 2004, overall 46 patients (of which 9 males) with a mean age of 47 (between 24 and 74) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with methylene blue injection technique. The diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis (the thickness of the gall bladder wall was normal) confirmed by pre-operative abdominal ultrasonography in all patients. The diameters of the stones were greater than 1 centimeter in 32 patients and calcula of various sizes being smaller than 1 cm. were documented in 13 cases. One patient was operated for gall bladder polyp (our first case). Successful coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and ductus choledochus was possible in 43 patients, whereas only the gall bladder and proximal cystic duct were visualised in 3 cases. In these cases, ductus choledochus visibility was not possible. None of the patients developed bile duct injury. Conclusion The

  3. NOTCH pathway inactivation promotes bladder cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Maraver, Antonio; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Cash, Timothy P.; Mendez-Pertuz, Marinela; Dueñas, Marta; Maietta, Paolo; Martinelli, Paola; Muñoz-Martin, Maribel; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Cañamero, Marta; Roncador, Giovanna; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Grivas, Dimitrios; de la Pompa, Jose Luis; Valencia, Alfonso; Paramio, Jesús M.; Real, Francisco X.; Serrano, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    NOTCH signaling suppresses tumor growth and proliferation in several types of stratified epithelia. Here, we show that missense mutations in NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 found in human bladder cancers result in loss of function. In murine models, genetic ablation of the NOTCH pathway accelerated bladder tumorigenesis and promoted the formation of squamous cell carcinomas, with areas of mesenchymal features. Using bladder cancer cells, we determined that the NOTCH pathway stabilizes the epithelial phenotype through its effector HES1 and, consequently, loss of NOTCH activity favors the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Evaluation of human bladder cancer samples revealed that tumors with low levels of HES1 present mesenchymal features and are more aggressive. Together, our results indicate that NOTCH serves as a tumor suppressor in the bladder and that loss of this pathway promotes mesenchymal and invasive features. PMID:25574842

  4. EAU Guidelines on Non-Muscle-invasive Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder: Update 2016.

    PubMed

    Babjuk, Marko; Böhle, Andreas; Burger, Maximilian; Capoun, Otakar; Cohen, Daniel; Compérat, Eva M; Hernández, Virginia; Kaasinen, Eero; Palou, Joan; Rouprêt, Morgan; van Rhijn, Bas W G; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Soukup, Viktor; Sylvester, Richard J; Zigeuner, Richard

    2017-03-01

    The European Association of Urology (EAU) panel on Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) released an updated version of the guidelines on Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer. To present the 2016 EAU guidelines on NMIBC. A broad and comprehensive scoping exercise covering all areas of the NMIBC guidelines published between April 1, 2014, and May 31, 2015, was performed. Databases covered by the search included Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Libraries. Previous guidelines were updated, and levels of evidence and grades of recommendation were assigned. Tumours staged as TaT1 or carcinoma in situ (CIS) are grouped as NMIBC. Diagnosis depends on cystoscopy and histologic evaluation of the tissue obtained by transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) in papillary tumours or by multiple bladder biopsies in CIS. In papillary lesions, a complete TURB is essential for the patient's prognosis. If the initial resection is incomplete, there is no muscle in the specimen, or a high-grade or T1 tumour is detected, a second TURB should be performed within 2-6 wk. The risks of both recurrence and progression may be estimated for individual patients using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) scoring system and risk tables. The stratification of patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups is pivotal to recommending adjuvant treatment. For patients with a low-risk tumour and intermediate-risk patients at a lower risk of recurrence, one immediate instillation of chemotherapy is recommended. Patients with an intermediate-risk tumour should receive 1 yr of full-dose bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical immunotherapy or instillations of chemotherapy for a maximum of 1 yr. In patients with high-risk tumours, full-dose intravesical BCG for 1-3 yr is indicated. In patients at highest risk of tumour progression, immediate radical cystectomy (RC) should be considered. RC is recommended in BCG-refractory tumours. The long version of

  5. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) in prostate, bladder and kidney cancer cell lines and the use of IL-FABP as survival predictor in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) play an important role in carcinogenesis. Modified FABP expression patterns were described for prostate, bladder and for renal cell carcinoma. Studies on metabolic relationships and interactions in permanent cell lines allow a deeper insight into molecular processes. The aim of this study is therefore a systematic overview on mRNA and protein expressions of seven FABPs in frequently used urological cell lines. Methods Nine cell lines of renal carcinomas, seven of urinary bladder carcinomas, and five of prostate carcinomas were investigated. Quantitative RT-qPCR and western blotting were used to determine different FABPs. In addition, 46 paired cancerous and noncancerous tissue samples from nephrectomy specimen with renal cell carcinomas were investigated regarding the ileum FABP mRNA expression level and associated with survival outcome. Results General characteristics of all urological carcinoma cell lines were the expression of E-and IL-FABP on mRNA and protein level, while the expressions differed between the cell lines. The protein expression was not always congruent with the mRNA expression. Renal cell carcinoma cell lines showed expressions of L-, H- and B-FABP mRNA in addition to the general FABP expression in five out of the eight investigated cell lines. In bladder cancer cell lines, we additionally found the expression of A-FABP mRNA in six cell lines, while H-FABP was present only in three cell lines. In prostate cancer cell lines, a strong reduction of A- and E- FABP mRNA was observed. The expression of B-FABP mRNA and protein was observed only in the 22 RV-1 cells. IL-FABP mRNA was over-expressed in renal tumour tissue. The IL-FABP ratio was identified as an independent indicator of survival outcome. Conclusions Distinctly different FABP expression patterns were observed not only between the cell lines derived from the three cancer types, but also between the cell lines from the same cancer. The FABP

  6. Insect galls of Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Silva, L O

    2016-04-19

    Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera).

  7. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions--15 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Matłok, Maciej; Migaczewski, Marcin; Major, Piotr; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Budzyński, Piotr; Winiarski, Marek; Ostachowski, Mateusz; Budzyński, Andrzej; Rembiasz, Kazimierz

    2013-11-01

    Due to the constant increase of public health awareness and widespread "cancerophobia", the progressively larger number of incidentally diagnosed gall-bladder polyps became the source of anxiety, which leads patients and physicians to undertake therapeutic decisions, despite the absence of symptoms. The majority of gall-bladder polyps are benign. It is estimated that only 3 to 5% of polyps are malignant. Currently, there is lack of randomized control trials based on which the clear-cut criteria of qualification of patients with gall-bladder polyps for surgical procedure can be created. The aim of the study was to analyze gall-bladder polyps in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum. The retrospective study was conducted on 5369 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum with special attention to 152 (2.8%) patients in whom gall-bladder polyps were diagnosed preoperatively. Qualification criteria for surgery, surgical treatment results, and histopathological examination results were also analyzed. Amongst the 5369 patients qualified for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 152 (2.8%) were diagnosed with gall-bladder polyps during the preoperative ultrasound examinations. Postoperative histopathological examinations of 41 (27%) patients confirmed the presence of gall-bladder polyps. In 102 (67%) patients, only gall-stones were diagnosed without previously described polyps during the ultrasound examination. Analysis of the histopathological examination results revealed the presence of benign lesions in 35 (23.35%) patients. In 5 (3%) patients the presence of an adenoma, and in one (0.65%) the presence of adenocarcinoma were confirmed. Based on the conducted study and previous personal experience in the treatment of patients with gall-bladder polyps, we believe that due to the potential

  8. Secondary signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder from a gastric primary.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pramod K; Vijay, Mukesh K; Das, Ranjit K; Chatterjee, Uttara

    2011-05-01

    Primary bladder tumor is a frequent urological malignancy, whereas the incidence of secondary bladder tumor from a distant organ is quite rare. Secondary bladder neoplasms represent 1% of all malignant bladder tumors, of which distant metastases from stomach account for about 4% of cases. We present the case of a 30-year-old male who underwent partial gastrectomy for Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach and presented 2 years later with hematuria. On computerized tomography scan, a bladder tumor was found which was resected cystoscopically. The histopathological examination revealed secondary Signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder.

  9. Secondary signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder from a gastric primary

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Vijay, Mukesh K.; Das, Ranjit K.; Chatterjee, Uttara

    2011-01-01

    Primary bladder tumor is a frequent urological malignancy, whereas the incidence of secondary bladder tumor from a distant organ is quite rare. Secondary bladder neoplasms represent 1% of all malignant bladder tumors, of which distant metastases from stomach account for about 4% of cases. We present the case of a 30-year-old male who underwent partial gastrectomy for Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach and presented 2 years later with hematuria. On computerized tomography scan, a bladder tumor was found which was resected cystoscopically. The histopathological examination revealed secondary Signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder. PMID:21747602

  10. Panel of Urinary Diagnostic Markers for Non-Invasive Detection of Primary and Recurrent Urothelial Urinary Bladder Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Viktor; Kalousová, Marta; Capoun, Otakar; Sobotka, Roman; Breyl, Zuzana; Pešl, Michael; Zima, Tomas; Hanuš, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    To determine the combination of urinary protein markers for noninvasive detection of primary and recurrent urothelial bladder carcinomas. Urinary concentrations of 27 biomarkers (NSE, ATT, AFABP, Resistin, Midkine, Clusterin, Uromodulin, ZAG2, HSP27, HSP 60, NCAM1/CD56, Angiogenin, Calreticulin, Chromogranin A, CEACAM1, CXCL1, IL13Ra2, Progranulin, VEGFA, CarbAnhydIX, Annexin-V, TIM4, Galectin1, Cystatin B, Synuclein G, ApoA1 and ApoA2) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or by electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay. During the primary diagnostics, a group of 70 patients with primary occurrence of bladder cancer and 49 healthy control subjects were compared. For this clinical situation, the most accurate combination proved to be the combination of cytology with markers Midkine and Synuclein G (sensitivity 91.8%, specificity 97.5%). During the monitoring of patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), a group of 44 patients with cancer recurrence was compared with the group of 61 patients with a history of NMIBC without current disease. For this clinical situation, the most accurate combination proved to be the combination of cytology and erythrocytes count in urine sediment with markers Midkine, ZAG2, CEACAM1, and Synuclein G (sensitivity 92.68%, specificity 90.16%). A lower accuracy of the diagnostic panel and the necessity to use more markers in the case of recurrence was connected with a different structure of patients. Multi-marker test can significantly improve the bladder cancer detection both during the primary diagnostics and monitoring of patients with NMIBC. This outcome should result in other, larger studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in forest ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Marcela Skuhrav& #225; ; Marcela NO-VALUE

    1991-01-01

    The family Cecidomyiidae is one of the largest of the Diptera. Gall midges are small, inconspicuous flies, but they may be very important both in forest ecosystems and in agroecosystems. Many phytophagous gall midge species attack forest trees, and some of them can be serious pests, such as the Dasineura rozhkovii Mamaev and Nikolsky, which develops...

  12. Current state of immunotherapy for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Kassouf, Wassim; Kamat, Ashish M

    2004-12-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been shown to be the most effective agent for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer since its approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of carcinoma in situ of the bladder in 1990. Recently, augmentation of BCG immunotherapy with interferon-alpha2b and other agents is emerging as salvage therapy for those patients who fail initial treatment. This review summarizes the role of various immunotherapeutic agents in the treatment of bladder cancer, with special emphasis on the appropriate administration and schedule of BCG therapy as well as salvage with the combination of BCG with interferon-alpha2b.

  13. Hypofractionated Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Multiple Brain Metastases From Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.ne; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Hamburg; Meyners, Thekla

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Brain metastases in bladder cancer patients are extremely rare. Most patients with multiple lesions receive longer-course whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks or 20 x 2 Gy/4 weeks. Because its radiosensitivity is relatively low, metastases from bladder cancer may be treated better with hypofractionated radiotherapy. This study compared short-course hypofractionated WBRT (5 x 4 Gy/1 week) to longer-course WBRT. Methods and Materials: Data for 33 patients receiving WBRT alone for multiple brain metastases from transitional cell bladder carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. Short-course WBRT with 5 x 4 Gy (n = 12 patients) was compared to longer-coursemore » WBRT with 10 x 3 Gy/20 x 2 Gy (n = 21 patients) for overall survival (OS) and local (intracerebral) control (LC). Five additional potential prognostic factors were investigated: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), number of brain metastases, and extracranial metastases. The Bonferroni correction for multiple tests was used to adjust the p values derived from the multivariate analysis. p values of <0.025 were considered significant. Results: At 6 months, OS was 42% after 5 x 4 Gy and 24% after 10 x 3/20 x 2 Gy (p = 0.31). On univariate analysis, improved OS was associated with less than four brain metastases (p = 0.021) and almost associated with a lack of extracranial metastases (p = 0.057). On multivariate analysis, both factors were not significant. At 6 months, LC was 83% after 5 x 4 Gy and 27% after 10 x 3/20 x 2 Gy (p = 0.035). Improved LC was almost associated with a KPS of {>=}70 (p = 0.051). On multivariate analysis, WBRT regimen was almost significant (p = 0.036). KPS showed a trend (p = 0.07). Conclusions: Short-course WBRT with 5 x 4 Gy should be seriously considered for most patients with multiple brain metastases from bladder cancer, as it resulted in improved LC.« less

  14. Non-alcoholic beverages and risk of bladder cancer in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Correa, Pelayo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Brennan, Paul; Ferro, Gilles; Acosta, Giselle; Mendilaharsu, María

    2007-01-01

    Background Bladder cancer is the fourth most frequent malignancy among Uruguayan men. A previous study from Uruguay suggested a high risk of bladder cancer associated with maté drinking. We conducted an additional case-control study in order to further explore the role of non-alcoholic beverages in bladder carcinogenesis. Methods In the time period 1996–2000, 255 incident cases with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and 501 patients treated in the same hospitals and in the same time period were frequency matched on age, sex, and residence. Both cases and controls were face-to-face interviewed on occupation, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and intake of maté, coffee, tea, and soft drinks. Statistical analysis was carried out by unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results Ever maté drinking was positively associated with bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–3.9) and the risk increased for increasing duration and amount of maté drinking. Both coffee and tea were strongly associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for coffee drinking 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.3; OR for tea drinking 2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.4). These results were confirmed in a separate analysis of never-smokers. Conclusion Our results suggest that drinking of maté, coffee and tea may be risk factors for bladder carcinoma in Uruguay. PMID:17394632

  15. Oncologic outcomes in patients with nonurothelial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay G; Weiner, Adam Benjamin; Keegan, Kirk; Morgan, Todd

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relative prognostic impact of the most common variant histologies on disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result database was used to identify patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer from 1990 to 2007. Patients with urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC), sarcoma, small cell carcinoma, signet ring carcinoma, and spindle cell carcinoma were included in the study. Multivariable analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model to assess independent predictors of disease-specific survival (DSS). Mortality rates were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analyses. A total of 14,130 patients met inclusion criteria with the following histologies: UCC (90.1%), SCC (4.6%), AC, (2.3%), sarcoma (0.8%), small cell carcinoma (0.8%), signet ring carcinoma (0.5%), and spindle cell carcinoma (0.9%). Three-year DSS was most favorable in patients with UCC (63.7%; 95% confidence interval [62.9%-64.8%]) and AC (65.3% [59.3%-70.6%]), whereas 3-year DSS was the least favorable for small cell carcinoma (41.6% [31.3%-51.6%]) and sarcoma (45.4% [35.1%-55.1%]). In the multivariable analysis, independent predictors of DSS were age, marital status, grade, T-stage, N-stage, and variant histology. With respect to UCC, there was an increased risk of disease-specific death associated with all variants except AC. Sarcoma and spindle cell carcinoma were associated with the highest risk of death. With the exception of AC, the most common variant bladder cancer histologies are all independently associated with worse DSS relative to UCC in patients undergoing radical cystectomy.

  16. HAMLET treatment delays bladder cancer development.

    PubMed

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Hou, Yuchuan; Svensson, Majlis; Holmqvist, Bo; Svanborg, Catharina

    2010-04-01

    HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that kills different types of cancer cells. Recently we observed a rapid reduction in human bladder cancer size after intravesical HAMLET treatment. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of HAMLET in the mouse MB49 bladder carcinoma model. Bladder tumors were established by intravesical injection of MB49 cells into poly L-lysine treated bladders of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment groups received repeat intravesical HAMLET instillations and controls received alpha-lactalbumin or phosphate buffer. Effects of HAMLET on tumor size and putative apoptotic effects were analyzed in bladder tissue sections. Whole body imaging was used to study HAMLET distribution in tumor bearing mice compared to healthy bladder tissue. HAMLET caused a dose dependent decrease in MB49 cell viability in vitro. Five intravesical HAMLET instillations significantly decreased tumor size and delayed development in vivo compared to controls. TUNEL staining revealed selective apoptotic effects in tumor areas but not in adjacent healthy bladder tissue. On in vivo imaging Alexa-HAMLET was retained for more than 24 hours in the bladder of tumor bearing mice but not in tumor-free bladders or in tumor bearing mice that received Alexa-alpha-lactalbumin. Results show that HAMLET is active as a tumoricidal agent and suggest that topical HAMLET administration may delay bladder cancer development. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced glucocorticoid receptor expression predicts bladder tumor recurrence and progression.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Takashi; Zheng, Yichun; Netto, George J; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    To assess the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in bladder tumors because the status and its prognostic value remain largely unknown. We immunohistochemically stained for GR in bladder tumor and matched non-neoplastic bladder tissue specimens. Overall, GR was positive in 129 (87%) of 149 urothelial tumors, which was significantly (P=.026) lower than in non-neoplastic urothelium (90 [96%] of 94). Forty-two (79%) of 53 low-grade tumors vs 45 (47%) of 96 high-grade carcinomas (P<.001) and 61 (73%) of 84 non-muscle-invasive (NMI) tumors vs 26 (40%) of 65 muscle-invasive (MI) carcinomas (P<.001) were moderately to strongly immunoreactive for GR. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests revealed that loss or weak positivity of GR significantly or marginally correlated with recurrence of NMI tumors (P=.025), progression of MI tumors (P=.082), and cancer-specific survival of MI tumors (P=.067). Multivariate analysis identified low GR expression as a strong predictor for recurrence of NMI tumors (P=.034). GR expression was downregulated in bladder tumors compared with nonneoplastic bladder tumors and in high-grade/MI tumors compared with low-grade/NMI tumors. Decreased expression of GR, as an independent prognosticator, predicted recurrence of NMI tumors. These results support experimental evidence suggesting an inhibitory role of GR signals in bladder cancer outgrowth. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  18. c-KIT positive schistosomal urinary bladder carcinoma are frequent but lack KIT gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Shams, Tahany M; Metawea, Mokhtar; Salim, Elsayed I

    2013-01-01

    Urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), one of the most common neoplasms in Egypt, is attributed to chronic urinary infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Schistosomiasis). The proto-oncogene c-KIT, encoding a tyrosine kinase receptor and implicated in the development of a number of human malignancies, has not been studied so far in schistosomal urinary bladder SCCs. We therefore determined immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of c-KIT in paraffin sections from 120 radical cystectomies of SCCs originally obtained from the Pathology Department of Suez Canal University (Ismailia, Egypt). Each slide was evaluated for staining intensity where the staining extent of >10% of cells was considered positive. c-KIT overexpression was detected in 78.3% (94/120) of the patients, the staining extents in the tumor cells were 11-50% and >50% in 40 (42.6%) and 54 (57.4%) respectively. The positive cases had 14.9%, 63.8%, 21.3% as weak, moderate and strong intensity respectively. Patients with positive bilharzial ova had significantly higher c-KIT expression than patients without (95.2% vs. 38.9%, P=0.000). Mutation analysis of exons 9-13 was negative in thirty KIT positive cases. The high rate of positivity in SBSCC was one of the striking findings; However, CD117 may be a potential target for site specific immunotherapy to improve the outcome of this tumor.

  19. Significance of phytohormones in Siberian larch-bud gall midge interaction

    Treesearch

    Rida M. Matrenina

    1991-01-01

    Interrelations of the bud gall midge and the Siberian larch are of scientific and practical interest because of the bud gall midge's role as a plant endoparasite. We know that attack by the gall midge sets off a reaction in the entire plant. Invasion by the insect results in a certain interaction between physiological mechanisms of the insect and the plant which...

  20. Antioxidant activity of insect gall extracts of Pistacia integerrima.

    PubMed

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Lakshmikantha, Ramachandra Yarappa; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Surendranath, Austin Richard; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia integerrima (P. integerrina) insect galls are widely used in ayurveda and siddha system of medicine as karkatasringi. The use of leaf galls as a rejuvenator may be attributed to antioxidant property, however there is less scientific evidence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and the antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and ethanol) of P. integerrina, which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications. The antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. The presences of phenolics, tannins, phytosterols, triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the ethanolic extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 234 ±2.4 mg of GAE/g d.w. and 95.5 ±3.2 mg of QUE/g d.w., respectively. This higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids found in the ethanolic extract was directly associated with higher antioxidant activity. This study demonstrates the poetnet antioxidant activities of P. integerrima leaf gall extracts. Further, there was a strong association between the higher antioxidant activities with that of higher total phenolic and flavonoid content in the ethanolic leaf gall extracts of P. integerrima. The results encourage the use of P. integerrima leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications, due to their antioxidant properties. Future work will be interesting to learn the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present in the extract for development as a drug for therapeutic application.

  1. [Transitional tumours of urinary bladder (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Laumonier, R

    1979-01-01

    An overall survey of the transitional epithelium of the bladder and its carcinomas. This study is based upon the recent literature, in particular the considerable contribution of scanner electron microscopy. a) The transitional epithelium has the reputation of having a simple structure and even behaviour. In fact, it is complex with highly specialised surface cells. It has marked powers of regeneration after aggressions of various types. b) Tumours of the transitional epithelium are defined in relation to rupture of the basal lamina. Invasive carcinomas are classified according to their histological stage of penetration, their pure or partially metaplasic type and their degree defined according to the criteria of Broders. There exists a correlation between these three types of evaluation. Non-invasive carcinomas are either papillary--putting into question the reality of benign bladder papilloma--or flat mucosal and then often associated closely or at a distance with an invasive carcinoma. c) Abnormal regeneration, dysplasia or hyperplasia as a result of aggressions of different types or developing in isolation represent a high risk histologically, implying the need for careful follow-up and surveillance. d) Histopathological study of urothelial or transitional tumours is simple in operative specimens but difficult in biopsies. It requires close cooperation between surgeons and pathologists to ensure correct orientation of the fragments.

  2. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  3. Spatial variation in pollinator gall failure within figs of the gynodioecious Ficus hirta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui; Compton, Stephen G.; Wu, Lanfen

    2018-07-01

    Figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species (Moraceae), contain numerous uni-ovulate flowers. Male trees of gynodioecious Ficus have figs that support development of pollinator fig wasp offspring (Agaonidae) and rarely produce seeds. Pollinator larvae develop inside galled ovules that expand rapidly after eggs are laid to fill the available space. Galls that fail to support successful larval development can be abundant and failures may influence oviposition behavior and modify realized offspring sex ratios. We examined pollinator reproductive success in figs of the Asian Ficus hirta where we had allowed entry by either one or two foundresses and prevented attack by parasitoids. At the developmental stage when adult offspring were about to emerge from their galls, we recorded where in the figs their galls were located, the distributions of sons and daughters in the galls and whether galls that developed closest to the periphery of the figs were more likely to fail. Foundress number had an effect on gall location, but not total offspring numbers. No spatial variation in the distribution of male and female adult offspring was detected. Overall, over 25% of the galled ovaries failed to support offspring development, and failure rates were independent of foundress number. More peripheral galls were more likely to fail in figs entered by two foundresses. Gall location in gynodioecious figs is determined largely by the extent to which their basal pedicels expand after galling. Competition for nutrients between galls, with those developing shorter pedicels being at a disadvantage, may explain the results. If pedicel length is related to timing of oviposition, then pollinator eggs laid later are less likely to survive.

  4. Chronic Infections of the Urinary Tract and Bladder Cancer Risk: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Otunu, Oghenetejiri; Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Literature on the relationship between recurrent urinary tract infections and urinary bladder carcinoma risk has been inconsistent. Therefore, we carried out this systematic review of observational studies to ascertain if there is any association between chronic urinary tract infection and urinary bladder carcinoma. A total of 10 databases were searched using Boolean: CINAHL, PUBMED, Google Scholar, Medline, Science Direct, SCIRUS, Cochrane, UK PubMed central, NHS evidence and WHO-website. The search yielded an initial hit of 3,518 articles and after screening and critical appraisal, seven studies were included for this review. Four articles reported an association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer while three concluded a weak or no association at least in one gender. Main findings in this review were that most of the studies reported an association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk. However, inferences about the causal association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk should be drawn cautiously considering the methodological limitations of case-control studies included in this review. Therefore, more empirical evidence is needed to determine the causal nature of relationships between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk.

  5. Overexpression of HER-2 via immunohistochemistry in canine urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma - A marker of malignancy and possible therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Millanta, F; Impellizeri, J; McSherry, L; Rocchigiani, G; Aurisicchio, L; Lubas, G

    2018-06-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in the urinary bladder. Distant metastases to the regional lymph nodes, lungs, abdominal organs or bones are noted in up to 50% of dogs at time of death. Surgical excision is often not practical as TCC typically involve the trigone of the bladder and/or occurs multifocally throughout the bladder with field cancerization. Therapeutic approaches are very challenging and the requirement to evaluate alternative therapeutic protocols that may prolong survival times in dogs bearing these tumours is compelling. We assessed the immunohistochemical expression of HER-2 in 23 cases of canine TCCs of the urinary bladder and compare it with non-neoplastic urothelium in order to evaluate a rationale for targeted therapies and gene-based vaccines. HER-2 positivity was recorded in 13/23 (56%) neoplastic lesions. The receptor was significantly overexpressed in neoplastic than in non-neoplastic samples (P = .015). According to our preliminary results, it would be of interest to further evaluate the role of HER-2 in canine TCCs as a marker of malignancy and a therapeutic target for cancer vaccine and antibodies. Moreover, the significantly different overexpression of HER-2 in TCCs than in non-neoplastic urothelium further supports to investigate its role in the progression toward malignancy of non-neoplastic lesions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Goldenrod Ball Gall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents a generalized life history of the goldenrod ball gall, a ball-shaped swelling found almost exclusively on the Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, and caused by a peacock fly know as Eurosta soldiaginis. (KM)

  7. Contribution of gall microscopic structure to taxonomy of gallicolous aphids on Pistacia.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Martinez, J-J I; Muñoz-Viveros, A L; Molist, P; Abad-González, J; Nieto Nafría, J M

    2016-09-01

    Aphids inducing galls on Pistacia plants belong to the tribe Fordini. According to the Heie & Wegierek classification, the genera are grouped into three subtribes. Previous microscopic studies showed that this taxonomy is not consistent with the histological characteristics of the galls. In this paper, galls induced by Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti, Forda riccobonii, Slavun wertheimae and Smynthurodes betae were analyzed for the first time, as well as nine other galls previously described. Based on histological features three groups of galls can be establish: the first group comprises closed galls, induced by Baizongia pistaciae, Geoica utricularia, Rectinasus buxtoni and Slavun wertheimae; the second group includes two species of Geopemphigus (G. blackmani and G. torsus), and the third one is divided into two subgroups, the first comprises Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti and Geopemphigus morral, and the second that includes Forda formicaria, F. marginata, F. riccobonii, Paracletus cimiciformis and Smynthurodes betae. An identification key of species based on microscopic features of galls is presented. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Cytological and histochemical gradients on two Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae)--Cecidomyiidae gall systems.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Previous ultrastructural and histochemical analysis proposed patterns in the accumulation of substances in galls of Diptera: Cecidomyiidae in some plant species of the temperate region. Similar analyses were done to verify the conservativeness of these patterns in the Neotropical region, where a great number of species of Cecidomyiidae is responsible for a wide diversity of morphotypes. Two gall morphotypes induced by Cecidomyiidae in a unique host plant, Copaifera langsdorffii, were studied. The gradients of carbohydrates and the activity of invertases and acid phosphatases were similar, but the cytological gradients and distribution of proteins evidenced that the sites of the induction as well as the amount of neoformed tissues may be peculiar to each gall system. The production of lipids just in the secretory cavities either in the non-galled or galled tissues indicated a potentiality of the host plant which could not be manipulated by the galling insects. Further, the absence of nucleus in the nutritive tissue, an exclusive feature of the horn-shaped galls, indicates cell death attributed to the feeding habit of the galling herbivore.

  9. Downregulation of feline sarcoma-related protein inhibits cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the ERK/AP-1 pathway in bladder urothelial cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xudong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liang, Zhaofeng; Xie, Dongdong; Zhang, Tao; Yu, Dexin; Zhong, Caiyun

    2017-02-01

    Feline sarcoma-related protein (Fer) is a nuclear and cytoplasmic non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase and Fer overexpression is associated with various biological processes. However, the clinicopathological characteristics and molecular mechanisms of Fer expression in bladder urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) have yet to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that Fer was significantly upregulated in bladder UCC tissues and cell lines. A clinicopathological analysis suggested that Fer expression was significantly associated with tumor stage, histological grade and lymph node status, and Fer expression was a prognostic factor for overall survival in a multivariate analysis. Furthermore, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to silence the expression of the Fer gene in human bladder UCC T24 cells, and was shown to significantly reduce the migration and invasion of the cells. It was also observed that Fer-siRNA caused the T24 cells to acquire an epithelial cobblestone phenotype, and was able to reverse the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the cells. Subsequently, Fer-knockdown was shown to deactivate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/activator protein-1 signaling pathway in T24 cells. These results indicated, for the first time, that Fer has a critical role in bladder UCC progression and may be a potential therapeutic target for bladder UCC metastasis.

  10. Inverse expression of estrogen receptor-beta and nuclear factor-kappaB in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Stylianos; Kominea, Athina; Melachrinou, Maria; Balampani, Eleni; Sotiropoulou-Bonikou, Georgia

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the expression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) signalling pathways in bladder urothelial carcinoma according to clinicopathological features, in order to elucidate their role during carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemical methodology was carried out on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from urinary bladder carcinomas of 140 patients (94 males and 46 females) who underwent transurethral resection of bladder neoplasms. Correlations between ER-beta and NF-kappaB, and tumor grade and T-stage were evaluated, along with demographic data, sex and age. A significant decrease in ER-beta expression in the nucleus of bladder cells during loss of cell differentiation (r(s) = -0.61, P-value < 0.001, test of trend P-value = 0.003) and in muscle invasive carcinomas (T2-T4; test of trend P-value < 0.001) was found. p65 Subunit of NF-kappaB was expressed in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of bladder epithelial cells. A strong positive association between tumor grade and nuclear expression of NF-kappaB was shown. No correlation between NF-kappaB, nuclear or cytoplasmic staining, with T-stage was observed. An inverse correlation between ER-beta and nuclear p65 immunoreactivity was observed (r(s) = -0.45, P-value < 0.001). There was no correlation with demographic data. Our immunohistochemical study suggests the possible inverse regulation of NF-kappaB and ER-beta transcription factor during bladder carcinogenesis. Selective ER-beta agonists and agents, inhibitors of NF-kappaB, might represent a possible new treatment strategy for bladder urothelial tumors.

  11. Folate hydrolase (prostate-specific membrane [corrected] antigen) 1 expression in bladder cancer subtypes and associated tumor neovasculature.

    PubMed

    Samplaski, Mary K; Heston, Warren; Elson, Paul; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Hansel, Donna E

    2011-11-01

    Folate hydrolase (prostate-specific antigen) 1 (FH(PSA)1), also known as prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), is a transmembrane receptor expressed on prostate cancer cells that correlates with a more aggressive phenotype. Recent studies have demonstrated FH(PSA)1 expression in numerous benign and malignant tissue types, as well as the malignant neovasculature. As FH(PSA)1 represents a diagnostic immunomarker for prostate cancer, we explored its expression pattern in various subtypes of bladder cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) of FH(PSA)1 was performed using tissue microarrays constructed from 167 bladder cancers, including 96 urothelial carcinomas (UCCs), 37 squamous cell carcinomas, 17 adenocarcinomas and 17 small cell carcinomas. We used a FH(PSA)1 monoclonal antibody obtained from Dako (clone 3E6, dilution 1:100), which recognizes the epitope present in the 57-134 amino acid region of the extracellular portion of the PSMA molecule. Intensity of IHC staining was scored as 0 (no expression) to 3+ (strong expression), with 2-3+ IHC considered a positive result. FH(PSA)1 demonstrated expression in a subset of bladder cancers and was most common in small cell carcinoma (3/17; 18%), with concurrent expression in non-small cell components in a subset of cases (2/6). FH(PSA)1 expression was less frequent in UCC (3/96; 3%) and adenocarcinoma (2/17; 12%). None of the squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated tumor cell expression of FH(PSA)1. However, all bladder cancers examined expressed FH(PSA)1 in the tumor vasculature, suggesting a potential role for this molecule in mediating new vessel ingrowth. FH(PSA)1 may occasionally be expressed in various subtypes of bladder cancer. These findings suggest cautious use of FH(PSA)1 as a diagnostic marker for prostatic tissue invading the bladder. The finding of FH(PSA)1 in the bladder cancer neovasculature suggests that this molecule may promote tumor growth and may represent a potential new vascular target in this

  12. Bladder transitional cell carcinoma and BK virus in a young kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Pino, L; Rijo, E; Nohales, G; Frances, A; Ubre, A; Arango, O

    2013-02-01

    Kidney transplant recipients have a heightened risk of developing neoplasms. Immunosuppressive treatments decrease the incidence of transplant rejection but increase the risk of infections, including BK virus (BKV). This infection is acquired in childhood and remains latent in the renal and urinary epithelium. In cases of immunodeficiency, BKV has been implicated as a tumor virus, but the role of BKV in cancer is a controversial topic and is difficult to determine. In the tumor cells, it is possible to detect fragments of the viral genome that could alter the control mechanisms of the cell cycle and DNA repair. We report the case of a kidney transplant recipient who developed BKV nephropathy and carcinoma of the bladder, supporting a possible role for BKV in the oncogenic pathway in this clinical setting, but the role of BKV in cancer remains a controversial topic and difficult to determine. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 2 (TRPV2) expression in normal urothelium and in urothelial carcinoma of human bladder: correlation with the pathologic stage.

    PubMed

    Caprodossi, Sara; Lucciarini, Roberta; Amantini, Consuelo; Nabissi, Massimo; Canesin, Giacomo; Ballarini, Patrizia; Di Spilimbergo, Adriana; Cardarelli, Marco Andrea; Servi, Lucilla; Mammana, Gabriele; Santoni, Giorgio

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 2 (TRPV2) in normal human bladder and urothelial carcinoma (UC) tissues. Bladder specimens were obtained by transurethral resection or radical cystectomy. TRPV2 mRNA expression in normal human urothelial cells (NHUCs), UC cell lines, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal (n=6) and cancer bladder tissues (n=58) was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). TRPV2 protein expression was assessed by cytofluorimetric and confocal microscopy analyses in NHUCs and UC cells and by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in normal and UC tissues. Enhanced TRPV2 mRNA and protein expression was found in high-grade and -stage UC specimens and UC cell lines. Both the full-length TRPV2 (hTRPV2) and a short splice-variant (s-TRPV2) were detected in NHUC and normal bladder specimens, whereas a progressive decline of s-TRPV2 in pTa, pT1, and pT2 stages was observed, up to a complete loss in pT3 and pT4 UC specimens. Normal human urothelial cells and bladder tissue specimens express TRPV2 at both the mRNA and protein levels. A progressive loss of s-TRPV2 accompanied by a marked increase of hTRPV2 expression was found in high-grade and -stage UC tissues.

  14. Lymphovascular invasion, ureteral reimplantation and prior history of urothelial carcinoma are associated with poor prognosis after partial cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer with negative pelvic lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ma, B; Li, H; Zhang, C; Yang, K; Qiao, B; Zhang, Z; Xu, Y

    2013-10-01

    To identify predictive factors underlying recurrence and survival after partial cystectomy for pelvic lymph node-negative muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) (urothelial carcinoma) and to report the results of partial cystectomy among select patients. We retrospectively reviewed 101 cases that received partial cystectomy for MIBC (pT2-3N0M0) between 2000 and 2010. The log-rank test and a Cox regression analyses were performed to identify factors that were predictive of recurrence and survival. With a median follow-up of 53.0 months (range 9-120), the 5-year overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 58%, 65% and 50%, respectively. A total of 33 patients died of bladder cancer and 52 patients survived with intact bladder. Of the 101 patients included, 55 had no recurrence, 12 had non-muscle-invasive recurrence in the bladder that was treated successfully, and 34 had recurrence with advanced disease. The multivariate analysis showed that prior history of urothelial carcinoma (PH.UC) was associated with both CSS and RFS and weakly associated with OS; lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and ureteral reimplantation (UR) were associated with OS, CSS and RFS. Among patients with pelvic lymph node-negative MIBC, PH.UC and UR should be considered as contraindications for partial cystectomy, and LVI is predictive of poor outcomes after partial cystectomy. Highly selective partial cystectomy is a rational alternative to radical cystectomy for the treatment of MIBC with negative pelvic lymph nodes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gynaecomastia: an unusual presenting symptom of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mashrafi; Kanji, Aleem; Begum, Tahmina

    2015-06-25

    A 74-year-old man presented to the outpatient clinic with painful gynaecomastia. A detailed physical examination to sort out possible causes of the gynaecomastia, including intracranial tumour, liver cirrhosis, hyperthyroidism, and adrenal and testicular tumour, was negative. No offending agent was found in his medication list. A CT scan of the head and ultrasound of the scrotum did not show any mass lesion. His serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and oestradiol levels were elevated. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed bladder wall thickening with soft tissue mass. A cystoscopic biopsy confirmed transitional cell carcinoma with muscle invasion. The patient was started on chemotherapy but responded poorly. This case report describes the β-hCG and oestradiol-secreting transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder presenting as gynaecomastia in an older man. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Gall bladder cancer and the role of dietary and lifestyle factors: a case-control study in a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dipanjan; Sharma, Atul; Shukla, Nootan K; Jaiswal, Richa; Dwivedi, Sadanand; Raina, Vinod; Mohanti, Bidhu K; Deo, Surya V; Patra, Somdatta

    2013-09-01

    Most patients with gall bladder cancer (GBC) present in the advanced stage with a poor response to therapy. Prevention or early detection is the best way to prevent death, but this requires identification of susceptible subgroups. Keeping this in mind, this study was carried out to evaluate the association between selected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors and GBC. A hospital-based case-control study was carried out at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (New Delhi, India). Cases were defined as newly registered confirmed primary GBC patients. Controls were defined as healthy relatives of patients other than that of GBC. Data were collected from February 2008 to October 2009 using a semistructured interview schedule from both cases and controls. Analysis was carried out using SPSS version 15 and Epi-Info version 6. Factors found to be significant in the bivariate analysis were entered in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 122 cases and 122 controls were included in the study. There was no significant difference in age (P=0.06) and sex (P=0.66) between the cases and the controls. In the bivariate analysis, factors found to be significantly associated with GBC were illiteracy [odds ratio (OR) 8.00, P=0.000], lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.45, P=0.000), parity more than 3 (OR 9.06, P=0.000), age at first pregnancy less than 20 years (OR 2.03, P=0.018), and the use of nonliquefied petroleum gas cooking fuel (OR 4.17, P=0.000). Higher vitamin C intake had a protective effect (OR 0.33, P=0.004). In the multivariate analysis, education, intake of vitamin C, parity, and type of fuel used were significant factors. The risk factors for GBC that have been identified in the present study delineate a high-risk population group that can be targeted for preventive measures including improvement in socioeconomic status, education and lifestyle, and dietary intervention, and avoidance of the use of nonliquefied petroleum gas as cooking fuel.

  17. Radiological interventions in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Srivastava, Deep Narayan; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction is commonly caused by gall bladder carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic nodes. Percutaneous interventions play an important role in managing these patients. Biliary drainage, which forms the major bulk of radiological interventions, can be palliative in inoperable patients or pre-operative to improve liver function prior to surgery. Other interventions include cholecystostomy and radiofrequency ablation. We present here the indications, contraindications, technique and complications of the radiological interventions performed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27247718

  18. Gene Discovery in Bladder Cancer Progression using cDNA Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Socci, Nicholas D.; Lozano, Juan Jose; Li, Wentian; Charytonowicz, Elizabeth; Belbin, Thomas J.; Prystowsky, Michael B.; Ortiz, Angel R.; Childs, Geoffrey; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    To identify gene expression changes along progression of bladder cancer, we compared the expression profiles of early-stage and advanced bladder tumors using cDNA microarrays containing 17,842 known genes and expressed sequence tags. The application of bootstrapping techniques to hierarchical clustering segregated early-stage and invasive transitional carcinomas into two main clusters. Multidimensional analysis confirmed these clusters and more importantly, it separated carcinoma in situ from papillary superficial lesions and subgroups within early-stage and invasive tumors displaying different overall survival. Additionally, it recognized early-stage tumors showing gene profiles similar to invasive disease. Different techniques including standard t-test, single-gene logistic regression, and support vector machine algorithms were applied to identify relevant genes involved in bladder cancer progression. Cytokeratin 20, neuropilin-2, p21, and p33ING1 were selected among the top ranked molecular targets differentially expressed and validated by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays (n = 173). Their expression patterns were significantly associated with pathological stage, tumor grade, and altered retinoblastoma (RB) expression. Moreover, p33ING1 expression levels were significantly associated with overall survival. Analysis of the annotation of the most significant genes revealed the relevance of critical genes and pathways during bladder cancer progression, including the overexpression of oncogenic genes such as DEK in superficial tumors or immune response genes such as Cd86 antigen in invasive disease. Gene profiling successfully classified bladder tumors based on their progression and clinical outcome. The present study has identified molecular biomarkers of potential clinical significance and critical molecular targets associated with bladder cancer progression. PMID:12875971

  19. Evaluation of wild juglans species for crown gall resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A. tumefaciens is a soil-borne Gram-negative bacterium which causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plant species including walnut. Crown gall symptoms on walnut are characterized by large tumors located near the crown of the tree but can occur near wounds caused by bleeding cuts or at the graft u...

  20. Comparative analysis of the effect of prostatic invasion patterns on cancer-specific mortality after radical cystectomy in pT4a urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Vallo, Stefan; Gilfrich, Christian; Burger, Maximilian; Volkmer, Björn; Boehm, Katharina; Rink, Michael; Chun, Felix K; Roghmann, Florian; Novotny, Vladimir; Mani, Jens; Brisuda, Antonin; Mayr, Roman; Stredele, Regina; Noldus, Joachim; Schnabel, Marco; May, Matthias; Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Pycha, Armin; Martini, Thomas; Wirth, Manfred; Roigas, Jan; Bastian, Patrick J; Nuhn, Philipp; Dahlem, Roland; Haferkamp, Axel; Fisch, Margit; Aziz, Atiqullah

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the prognostic relevance of different prostatic invasion patterns in pT4a urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) after radical cystectomy. Our study comprised a total of 358 men with pT4a UCB. Patients were divided in 2 groups-group A with stromal infiltration of the prostate via the prostatic urethra with additional muscle-invasive UCB (n = 121, 33.8%) and group B with continuous infiltration of the prostate through the entire bladder wall (n = 237, 66.2%). The effect of age, tumor grade, carcinoma in situ, lymphovascular invasion, soft tissue surgical margin, lymph node metastases, administration of adjuvant chemotherapy, and prostatic invasion patterns on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) was evaluated using competing-risk regression analysis. Decision curve analysis was used to evaluate the net benefit of including the variable invasion pattern within our model. The estimated 5-year CSM-rates for group A and B were 50.1% and 66.0%, respectively. In multivariable competing-risk analysis, lymph node metastases (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.73, P<0.001), lymphovascular invasion (HR = 1.62, P = 0.0023), soft tissue surgical margin (HR = 1.49, P = 0.026), absence of adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 2.11, P<0.001), and tumor infiltration of the prostate by continuous infiltration of the entire bladder wall (HR = 1.37, P = 0.044) were significantly associated with a higher risk for CSM. Decision curve analysis showed a net benefit of our model including the variable invasion pattern. Continuous infiltration of the prostate through the entire bladder wall showed an adverse effect on CSM. Besides including these patients into clinical trials for an adjuvant therapy, we recommend including prostatic invasion patterns in predictive models in pT4a UCB in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Emodin modulates epigenetic modifications and suppresses bladder carcinoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Cha, Tai-Lung; Chuang, Mei-Jen; Tang, Shou-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Sun, Kuang-Hui; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Sun, Guang-Huan; Chang, Sun-Yran; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Ho, Jar-Yi; Liu, Shu-Yu; Huang, Shih-Ming; Yu, Dah-Shyong

    2015-03-01

    The deregulation of epigenetics was involved in early and subsequent carcinogenic events. Reversing cancer epigenetics to restore a normal epigenetic condition could be a rational approach for cancer treatment and specialized prevention. In the present study, we found that the expression levels of two epigenetic markers, histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), was low but histone H3S10 phosphorylation (pH3Ser10) was high in human bladder cancer tissues, which showed opposite expression patterns in their normal counterparts. Thus, we investigated whether a natural product, emodin, has the ability to reverse these two epigenetic modifications and inhibit bladder cancer cell growth. Emodin significantly inhibited the cell growth of four bladder cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Emodin treatment did not induce specific cell cycle arrest, but it altered epigenetic modifications. Emodin treatment resulted in the suppression of pH3Ser10 and increased H3K27me3, contributing to gene silencing in bladder cancer cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated that oncogenic genes including fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fibroblast growth factor binding protein 1 (HBP17), RGS4, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), WNT5b, URB, and collagen, type VIII, alpha 1 (COL8A1) responsible for proliferation, survival, inflammation, and carcinogenesis were significantly repressed by emodin. The ChIP assays also showed that emodin increased H3K27me3 but decreased pH3Ser10 modifications on the promoters of repressed genes, which indicate that emodin reverses the cancer epigenetics towards normal epigenetic situations. In conclusion, our work demonstrates the significant anti-neoplastic activity of emodin on bladder cancer cells and elucidates the novel mechanisms of emodin-mediated epigenetic modulation of target genes. Our study warrants further investigation of emodin as an effective therapeutic or preventive agent for bladder cancer. © 2013 Wiley

  2. Differences in Monoterpene Biosynthesis and Accumulation in Pistacia palaestina Leaves and Aphid-Induced Galls.

    PubMed

    Rand, Karin; Bar, Einat; Ari, Matan Ben; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Dudareva, Natalia; Inbar, Moshe; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2017-02-01

    Certain insect species can induce gall formation on numerous plants species. Although the mechanism of gall development is largely unknown, it is clear that insects manipulate their hosts' anatomy, physiology, and chemistry for their own benefit. It is well known that insect-induced galls often contain vast amounts of plant defensive compounds as compared to non-colonized tissues, but it is not clear if defensive compounds can be produced in situ in the galled tissues. To answer this question, we analyzed terpene accumulation patterns and possible independent biosynthetic potential of galls induced by the aphid Baizongia pistaciae L. on the terminal buds of Pistacia palaestina Boiss. We compared monoterpene levels and monoterpene synthase enzyme activity in galls and healthy leaves from individual trees growing in a natural setting. At all developmental stages, monoterpene content and monoterpene synthase activity were consistently (up to 10 fold on a fresh weight basis) higher in galls than in intact non-colonized leaves. A remarkable tree to tree variation in the products produced in vitro from the substrate geranyl diphosphate by soluble protein extracts derived from individual trees was observed. Furthermore, galls and leaves from the same trees displayed enhanced and often distinct biosynthetic capabilities. Our results clearly indicate that galls possess independent metabolic capacities to produce and accumulate monoterpenes as compared to leaves. Our study indicates that galling aphids manipulate the enzymatic machinery of their host plant, intensifying their own defenses against natural enemies.

  3. Fluorescein angiography of the bladder: technique and relevance to bladder cancer and interstitial cystitis patients.

    PubMed

    Zimmern, P E; Laub, D; Leach, G E

    1995-07-01

    Fluorescein angiography has been used in the study of bleeding vessels, neovascularity, tumors and ischemic tissues in a variety of disorders. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the feasibility, safety and relevance of this interesting technology for the evaluation of bladder wall vessels in patients with interstitial cystitis and bladder cancer. Five patients with National Institutes of Health defined interstitial cystitis symptoms and 10 with bladder cancer were studied during cytoscopy while they were under general anesthesia. A yellow-green barrier filter (520 nm.) was placed over the cystoscope eyepiece and a blue exciter filter (465 nm.) was attached to the light source. Patients received a 5 ml. bolus of 10% fluorescein intravenously. After hydrodistension, glomerulations in interstitial cystitis patients were more prominent with fluorescein angiography and occurred in the venule phase. Areas of papillary transitional cell tumor and carcinoma in situ developed a brilliant yellow-green fluorescence. Adjacent normal urothelium was nonfluorescent and provided a contrasting dark background facilitating the detection of all lesions. No allergic reaction or other adverse effect related to the fluorescein injection was observed. These unique observations in a limited number of patients suggest that fluorescein angiography of the bladder is a safe and simple procedure. This preliminary report underscores the relevance of fluorescein angiography in the detection of bladder tumor and offers a new approach to the evaluation of bladder wall vessels in interstitial cystitis patients.

  4. Urothelial bladder cancer with cavitary lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Anil; Lee, Jason; Born, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tends to remain superficial; however, in 5% to 20% of cases, it progresses to muscle invasion and, more rarely, can metastasize. TCC of the bladder primarily spreads via regional lymphatics. The most common sites of distant metastases of TCC are the liver, lung, mediastinum and bone. Long-term survival of patients with metastatic bladder cancer is rare. Patterns of pulmonary metastasis include multiple nodules, a solitary mass or interstitial micronodule. When multiple nodules are present, they are round and well-circumscribed, without calcification or cavitation. An unusual case of rapidly metastatic TCC to the lung causing large cavitary masses and nodules is presented. Imaging performed after the patient began chemotherapy revealed widespread necrosis of the metastatic cavitary masses causing moderate volume hemoptysis. PMID:21766082

  5. Brenner tumor of the ovary: a comparative immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, N G; Mackay, B

    2000-01-01

    Because of a fancied light microscopic resemblance to transitional epithelium (urothelium), Brenner tumor (BT) of the ovary is commonly described as a transitional cell neoplasm. An inability to detect a great deal of similarity between the two at the ultrastructural level prompted this electron microscopic study comparing 3 benign Brenner tumors with normal urothelium and 6 transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of varying histologic grade from the urinary bladder. To complement the ultrastructural observations, the immunophenotype of 8 benign BTs was evaluated together with that of 12 TCCs of the bladder using antibodies to thrombomodulin (TM), cytokeratin 20, cytokeratin 7, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), all of which have been shown to react with TCCs of urothelial origin. At the ultrastructural level, there was only limited evidence of a morphologic likeness between the epithelial cells of BTs and those of the benign or neoplastic urothelium. The immunophenotype of the two tumors also differed significantly in that there was no reactivity for TM or cytokeratin 20 in the BTs, while these markers were expressed in the TCCs. Both BTs and TCCs were positive for cytokeratin 7 and may express CEA.

  6. Subtropical Interactions: Comparing Galling Insect and Host Plant Diversity in Southern Brazil and Florida.

    PubMed

    D S Mendonça, M; Stiling, P

    2017-11-22

    Gall-inducing insects seem to have a diversity pattern distinct from the usual latitudinal decrease in species, with more species occurring in xeric environments instead. Many questions regarding galler diversity over geographical scales remain unanswered: for example, little is known about beta diversity, and the role super host plants play in local/regional richness. Our aim was to compare galling insect and host plant diversity in different biogeographical regions, but under similar environmental conditions. We sampled short stature coastal woodlands on sandy soils of the Atlantic coast in both USA (Florida) and Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, RS), between 25° and 30° latitude. Little-used 200-m long trails were searched during 90 min for galls; there were four trails in USA and five in Brazil. Gall functional traits (galled plant organ, gall shape and colour) proportions were not different between Florida and RS. Local galling and host plant species richness also did not differ, and neither did regional galling diversity. The beta diversity pattern, however, was distinct: sites in Florida have more similar galling faunas than sites in RS. Common diversity patterns indicate common environmental biotic (plant diversity, vegetation structure) and abiotic (climate, soil) factors might be contributing to these similar responses. As Brazilian sites are in the Atlantic forest hotspot, a high galling insect beta diversity might be caused by a higher heterogeneity at larger scales-sample-based rarefaction curves were ascending for Brazil, but not for USA. Myrtaceans were super hosts in Brazil, but not in Florida, where oaks take up this role.

  7. Resistance to galling adelgids varies among families of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmani P.)

    Treesearch

    William J. Mattson; Alvin Yanchuk; Gyula Kiss; Bruce Birr

    1999-01-01

    Cooley gall adelgids, Adelges cooleyi, and round gall adelgids, Adelges abietis, differentially infested 110 half-sib families of Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii at 9 study sites in British Columbia. There was a negative genetic correlation (-0.53) between the infestations of the two gall-forming species....

  8. Galle Crater Floor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-05

    The unusual texture seen in this image of Galle Crater is likely layered deposits that have been eroded. Small dune and windstreak features in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, indicate that winds are part of the erosive process. Orbit Number: 57733 Latitude: -51.7743 Longitude: 329.135 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2014-12-19 11:13 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19191

  9. Proteomics Analysis of Bladder Cancer Exosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Joanne L.; Khanna, Sanjay; Giles, Peter J.; Brennan, Paul; Brewis, Ian A.; Staffurth, John; Mason, Malcolm D.; Clayton, Aled

    2010-01-01

    Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles, secreted by various cell types, present in biological fluids that are particularly rich in membrane proteins. Ex vivo analysis of exosomes may provide biomarker discovery platforms and form non-invasive tools for disease diagnosis and monitoring. These vesicles have never before been studied in the context of bladder cancer, a major malignancy of the urological tract. We present the first proteomics analysis of bladder cancer cell exosomes. Using ultracentrifugation on a sucrose cushion, exosomes were highly purified from cultured HT1376 bladder cancer cells and verified as low in contaminants by Western blotting and flow cytometry of exosome-coated beads. Solubilization in a buffer containing SDS and DTT was essential for achieving proteomics analysis using an LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS approach. We report 353 high quality identifications with 72 proteins not previously identified by other human exosome proteomics studies. Overrepresentation analysis to compare this data set with previous exosome proteomics studies (using the ExoCarta database) revealed that the proteome was consistent with that of various exosomes with particular overlap with exosomes of carcinoma origin. Interrogating the Gene Ontology database highlighted a strong association of this proteome with carcinoma of bladder and other sites. The data also highlighted how homology among human leukocyte antigen haplotypes may confound MASCOT designation of major histocompatability complex Class I nomenclature, requiring data from PCR-based human leukocyte antigen haplotyping to clarify anomalous identifications. Validation of 18 MS protein identifications (including basigin, galectin-3, trophoblast glycoprotein (5T4), and others) was performed by a combination of Western blotting, flotation on linear sucrose gradients, and flow cytometry, confirming their exosomal expression. Some were confirmed positive on urinary exosomes from a bladder cancer patient. In summary, the

  10. Discordance Between Preoperative and Postoperative Bladder Cancer Location: Implications for Partial-Bladder Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Tucker, Kai; Conway, Robert Greg

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: There is strong interest in partial-bladder radiation whether as a boost or definitive therapy to limit long-term toxicity. It is unclear that a standard preoperative examination can accurately identify all sites of disease within the bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preoperative localization of bladder tumors with postoperative findings to facilitate partial-bladder radiation techniques when appropriate. Methods and Materials: We examined patients with clinically staged T1-T4 invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or TCC with variant histology with no history of radiation or partial cystectomy undergoing radical cystectomy. Patients were scored as “under-detected” ifmore » a bladder site was involved with invasive disease (≥T1) at the time of cystectomy, but not identified preoperatively. Patients were additionally scored as “widely under-detected” if they had postoperative lesions that were not identified preoperatively in a given site, nor in any adjacent site. Rates of under-detected and widely under-detected lesions, as well as univariate and multivariate association between clinical variables and under-detection, were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: Among 222 patients, 96% (213/222) had at least 1 area of discordance. Fifty-eight percent of patients were under-detected in at least 1 location, whereas 12% were widely under-detected. Among 24 patients with a single site of disease on preoperative evaluation, 21/24 (88%) had at least 1 under-detected lesion and 14/24 (58%) were widely under-detected. On multivariate analysis, only solitary site of preoperative disease was associated with increased levels of under-detection of invasive disease (OR = 4.161, 95% CI, 1.368-12.657). Conclusion: Our study shows a stark discordance between preoperative and postoperative localization of bladder tumors. From a clinical perspective, incomplete localization of all sites of disease within the

  11. Bud gall midges - potential invaders on larches in North America

    Treesearch

    Yuri N. Baranchikov

    2007-01-01

    Larch bud gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) form a specialized group of gall insects inhabiting buds of larch (Larix) in the northern Palaearctic Region. Currently there are four described species in this group. Dasineura kellneri Henschel is found in Central Europe and infests Larix decidua; D....

  12. Incidence analyses of bladder cancer in the Nile delta region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Fedewa, Stacey A.; Soliman, Amr S.; Ismail, Kadry; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Ramadan, Mohamed; Omar, Hoda G.; Nriagu, Jerome; Wilson, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy among Egyptian males and previously has been attributed to Schistosoma infection, a major risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recently, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) incidence has been increasing while SCC has declined. To investigate this shift, we analyzed the geographical patterns of all bladder cancers cases recorded in Egypt’s Gharbiah Population-Based Cancer Registry from 1999 through 2002. Data on tumor grade, stage, and morphology, as well as smoking, community of residence, age and sex, were collected on 1,209 bladder cancer cases. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for males, females, and the total population for the eight administrative Districts and 316 communities in Gharbiah. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were computed using Poisson Regression. The male age-adjusted incidence rate (IR) in Gharbiah Province was 13.65/100,000 person years (PY). The District of Kotour had the highest age-adjusted IR 28.96/100,000 among males. The District of Kotour also had the highest IRR among all Districts, IRR=2.15 95% CI (1.72, 2.70). Kotour’s capital city had the highest bladder cancer incidence among the 316 communities (IR=73.11/100,000 PY). Future studies on sources and types of environmental pollution and exposures in relation to the spatial patterns of bladder cancer, particularly in Kotour District, may improve our understating of risk factors for bladder cancer in the region. PMID:19762298

  13. Morphological keys in the differential diagnosis of bladder inverted papilloma. Study of two types, trabecular and glandular.

    PubMed

    Sabater Marco, Vicente; Navalón Verdejo, Pedro; Morera Faet, Arturo

    2012-09-01

    Inverted papilloma of the urinary bladder is an uncommon urothelial neoplasm that may be specially difficult to distinguish from urothelial carcinoma. Two patients with obstructive symptoms and hematuria have been studied. In the transurethral resection, accidentally, one showed a papillary lesion in the context of nodular hyperplasia of the prostate, where as the other showed a polypoid tumor of the urinary bladder Histologically, in both cases, a bladder inverted papilloma was demonstrated, originating from the surface transitional epithelium. Basal cells exhibited peripheral palisading pattern in the trabecular form. In the glandular type, Dogiel or umbrella cells into the gland-like structures, were recognized. Immunohistochemical stains for p53 and Ki-67 were negative. Umbrella cells were positive for cytokeratin 20. Two cases of bladder inverted papilloma with relevant morphological aspects are presented, which we consider useful for the differential diagnosis with urothelial carcinoma.

  14. DNA Methylation Mediated Control of Gene Expression Is Critical for Development of Crown Gall Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kneitz, Susanne; Weber, Dana; Fuchs, Joerg; Hedrich, Rainer; Deeken, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Crown gall tumors develop after integration of the T-DNA of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains into the plant genome. Expression of the T-DNA–encoded oncogenes triggers proliferation and differentiation of transformed plant cells. Crown gall development is known to be accompanied by global changes in transcription, metabolite levels, and physiological processes. High levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in crown galls regulate expression of drought stress responsive genes and mediate drought stress acclimation, which is essential for wild-type-like tumor growth. An impact of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation on crown gall development has been suggested; however, it has not yet been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the methylation pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana crown galls was analyzed on a genome-wide scale as well as at the single gene level. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the oncogenes Ipt, IaaH, and IaaM were unmethylated in crown galls. Nevertheless, the oncogenes were susceptible to siRNA–mediated methylation, which inhibited their expression and subsequently crown gall growth. Genome arrays, hybridized with methylated DNA obtained by immunoprecipitation, revealed a globally hypermethylated crown gall genome, while promoters were rather hypomethylated. Mutants with reduced non-CG methylation developed larger tumors than the wild-type controls, indicating that hypermethylation inhibits plant tumor growth. The differential methylation pattern of crown galls and the stem tissue from which they originate correlated with transcriptional changes. Genes known to be transcriptionally inhibited by ABA and methylated in crown galls became promoter methylated upon treatment of A. thaliana with ABA. This suggests that the high ABA levels in crown galls may mediate DNA methylation and regulate expression of genes involved in drought stress protection. In summary, our studies provide evidence that epigenetic processes regulate gene

  15. DNA methylation mediated control of gene expression is critical for development of crown gall tumors.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, Jochen; Scholz, Claus-Juergen; Kneitz, Susanne; Weber, Dana; Fuchs, Joerg; Hedrich, Rainer; Deeken, Rosalia

    2013-01-01

    Crown gall tumors develop after integration of the T-DNA of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains into the plant genome. Expression of the T-DNA-encoded oncogenes triggers proliferation and differentiation of transformed plant cells. Crown gall development is known to be accompanied by global changes in transcription, metabolite levels, and physiological processes. High levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in crown galls regulate expression of drought stress responsive genes and mediate drought stress acclimation, which is essential for wild-type-like tumor growth. An impact of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation on crown gall development has been suggested; however, it has not yet been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the methylation pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana crown galls was analyzed on a genome-wide scale as well as at the single gene level. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the oncogenes Ipt, IaaH, and IaaM were unmethylated in crown galls. Nevertheless, the oncogenes were susceptible to siRNA-mediated methylation, which inhibited their expression and subsequently crown gall growth. Genome arrays, hybridized with methylated DNA obtained by immunoprecipitation, revealed a globally hypermethylated crown gall genome, while promoters were rather hypomethylated. Mutants with reduced non-CG methylation developed larger tumors than the wild-type controls, indicating that hypermethylation inhibits plant tumor growth. The differential methylation pattern of crown galls and the stem tissue from which they originate correlated with transcriptional changes. Genes known to be transcriptionally inhibited by ABA and methylated in crown galls became promoter methylated upon treatment of A. thaliana with ABA. This suggests that the high ABA levels in crown galls may mediate DNA methylation and regulate expression of genes involved in drought stress protection. In summary, our studies provide evidence that epigenetic processes regulate gene

  16. Host manipulation by the orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata: gall induction on distant leaves by dose-dependent stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukura, Keiichiro; Matsumura, Masaya; Tokuda, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    The evolution of the gall-inducing ability in insects and the adaptive significance of the galling habit have been addressed by many studies. Cicadulina bipunctata, the maize orange leafhopper, is an ideal study organism for evaluating these topics because it can be mass-reared and it feeds on model plants such as rice ( Oryza sativa) and maize ( Zea mays). To reveal differences between gall inductions by C. bipunctata and other gall inducers, we conducted four experiments concerning (a) the relationship between the feeding site and gall-induction sites of C. bipunctata on maize, (b) the effects of leafhopper sex and density, (c) the effects of length of infestation on gall induction, and (d) the effects of continuous infestation. C. bipunctata did not induce galls on the leaves where it fed but induced galls on other leaves situated at more distal positions. The degree of gall induction was significantly correlated with infestation density and length. These results indicate that C. bipunctata induces galls in a dose-dependent manner on leaves distant from feeding sites, probably by injecting chemical(s) to the plant during feeding. We suggest that insect galls are induced by a chemical stimulus injected by gall inducers during feeding into the hosts.

  17. Systemic Immunotherapy of Non–Muscle Invasive Mouse Bladder Cancer with Avelumab, an Anti–PD-L1 Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Vandeveer, Amanda J.; Fallon, Jonathan K.; Tighe, Robert; Sabzevari, Helen; Schlom, Jeffrey; Greiner, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the standard of care for intravesical therapy for carcinoma in situ and non–muscle invasive, nonmetastatic human urothelial carcinoma. While the responsiveness to this immunotherapeutic is believed to be linked with (i) a high number of somatic mutations and (ii) a large number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, recent findings of the roles that inhibitory immune receptors and their ligands play in tumor evasion may provide insights into the limitations of the effectiveness of BCG and offer new targets for immune-based therapy. In this study, an aggressive, bioluminescent orthotopic bladder cancer model, MB49 tumor cells transfected with luciferase (MB49luc), was used to study the antitumor effects of avelumab, an antibody to PD-L1. MB49luc murine tumor cells form multifocal tumors on the mucosal wall of the bladder reminiscent of non–muscle invasive, nonmetastatic urothelial carcinomas. MB49luc bladder tumors are highly positive for the expression of PD-L1 and avelumab administration induced significant (P<0.05) antitumor effects. These antitumor effects were more dependent on the presence of CD4 than CD8 T cells, as determined by in vivo immune cell depletions. The findings suggest that in this bladder tumor model, interruption of the immune suppressive PD-1/PD-L1 complex releases a local adaptive immune response that, in turn, reduces tumor growth. This bladder tumor model can be used to further identify host antitumor immune mechanisms and evaluate combinations of immune-based therapies for carcinoma in situ and non–muscle invasive, nonmetastatic urothelial carcinoma, to provide the rationale for subsequent clinical studies. PMID:26921031

  18. Use of imipramine hydrochloride for treatment of urospermia in a stallion with a dysfunctional bladder.

    PubMed

    Turner, R M; Love, C C; McDonnell, S M; Sweeney, R W; Twitchell, E D; Habecker, P L; Reilly, L K; Pozor, M A; Kenney, R M

    1995-12-15

    An 8-year-old stallion was evaluated because of recurrent urinary tract infections and chronic intermittent urospermia. After extensive diagnostic testing, it was hypothesized that the stallion had a reflex dyssynergia of the bladder and urethral sphincter. Initial attempts to manage the urospermia included semen fractionation, semen collection after voluntary urination, and use of semen extenders. None of these efforts reliably yielded a quality ejaculate. Administration of imipramine hydrochloride (1.2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, 4 hours prior to semen collection) was initiated in an attempt to enhance bladder neck closure during ejaculation. This treatment, combined with voluntary urination prior to ejaculation, resulted in ejaculates containing little or no urine. Using this protocol, 19 of 20 mares bred during the subsequent 2 years became pregnant. By the third year, the bladder dysfunction had progressed, and the urospermia was no longer manageable. Bladder catheterization, followed by manual expression of the bladder per rectum, were necessary prior to each semen collection to obtain a urine-free ejaculate. Three-and-a-half years after initial examination, transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder with metastasis was identified, and the stallion was euthanatized. It is not known whether the transitional cell carcinoma was related to the dysfunctional bladder. Imipramine hydrochloride did not eliminate, but did reduce, the frequency and degree of urospermia in the affected stallion for approximately 2 years.

  19. Urinary tract infections and reduced risk of bladder cancer in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Castelao, J E; Groshen, S; Cortessis, V K; Shibata, D; Conti, D V; Yuan, J-M; Pike, M C; Gago-Dominguez, M

    2009-03-10

    We investigated the association between urinary tract infections (UTIs) and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles covering 1586 cases and age-, gender-, and race-matched neighbourhood controls. A history of bladder infection was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer among women (odds ratio (OR), 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.46-0.96). No effect was found in men, perhaps due to power limitations. A greater reduction in bladder cancer risk was observed among women with multiple infections (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18-0.78). Exclusion of subjects with a history of diabetes, kidney or bladder stones did not change the inverse association. A history of kidney infections was not associated with bladder cancer risk, but there was a weak association between a history of other UTIs and slightly increased risk among men. Our results suggest that a history of bladder infection is associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer among women. Cytotoxicity from antibiotics commonly used to treat bladder infections is proposed as one possible explanation.

  20. Crown gall transformation of tobacco callus cells by cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, A.; Manzara, T.; Lurquin, P.F.

    1984-09-17

    Incubation of cells from squashed tobacco callus tissue with virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens leads to the production of cells displaying a crown gall phenotype. In vitro crown gall transformation of dicotyledonous plant cells has been demonstrated after cocultivation of cell-wall regenerating mesophyll protoplasts with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. In addition, it has been shown that protoplasts freshly isolated from suspension cultures, when treated with A. tumefaciens spheroplasts and a fusogen, also generated cells displaying a typical crown gall phenotype, i.e., phytohormone-independent growth and opine synthesis. Subsequently, both techniques were used to transfer and express foreign genes in plant cells via A. tumefaciensmore » T-DNA integration. For practical purposes, it would be advantageous to be able to perform crown gall transformation of plant cells in tissue culture. The authors report here for the first time the production of Nicotiana tabacum crown gall cells after cocultivation of callus tissue with A. tumefaciens A136 cells. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table.« less

  1. Winter Biology and Freeze Tolerance in the Goldenrod Gall Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a variety of opportunities for educational activities that can be found in the complex, yet easy-to-manipulate, trophic relationships between goldenrod plants, insects that induce gall formation, and the natural enemies of these gallmakers. Gall collection, measurement, and observation (exit holes, larval response,…

  2. Safety of three sequential whole bladder photodynamic therapy (WBPDT) treatments in the management of resistant bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, Maria C.; Nseyo, Unyime O.

    2009-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: WBPDT has been used to treat resistant superficial bladder cancer, with clinical benefits and associated dose-dependent side effects. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the safety of three sequential WBPDT treatments in patients with resistant non-muscle invasive (NMI) bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 12 males and one female provided written informed consent in this Phase II study. Each patient received intravenous injection of Photofrin® (AXCAN Parma Inc, Canada) at 1.5 mg/kg two days prior to whole bladder laser (630nm) treatment. Assessment of safety and efficacy included weekly urinary symptoms; cystoscopy, biopsy and cytology; and measurement of bladder volume quarterly after each treatment at baseline, six and 12 months. Treatment #2 and/or #3 occurred only in the absence of bladder contracture, and/or disease progression. RESULTS: 13 patients: 12 males and one female have been enrolled and average age of enrollees is 67.1(52 - 87) years. Four patients had Ta-T1/Grade I-III tumors; two patients had CIS associated with T1/GI-III; and seven patients had carcinoma in situ (CIS) only. Three patients received 3/3 treatments, and are evaluable for toxicity; three patients received two treatments only; and seven patients received one treatment only. There was no bladder contracture; transient mild to moderate bladder irritative voiding symptoms of dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia and urgency occurred in all patients. The three evaluable patients were without evidence of disease at average of 13.1 (7-20) months. CONCLUSION: Three sequential WBPDT treatments might have a favorable toxicity profile in the management of recurrent/ refractory non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

  3. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of canine invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shingo; Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Tsuboi, Masaya; Inoue, Akiko; Ishihara, Genki; Uchikai, Takao; Chambers, James K; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2018-04-27

    Invasive urothelial carcinoma (iUC) is a major cause of death in humans, and approximately 165,000 individuals succumb to this cancer annually worldwide. Comparative oncology using relevant animal models is necessary to improve our understanding of progression, diagnosis, and treatment of iUC. Companion canines are a preferred animal model of iUC due to spontaneous tumor development and similarity to human disease in terms of histopathology, metastatic behavior, and treatment response. However, the comprehensive molecular characterization of canine iUC is not well documented. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of tissue samples from canine iUC and normal bladders using an RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) approach to identify key molecular pathways in canine iUC. Total RNA was extracted from bladder tissues of 11 dogs with iUC and five healthy dogs, and RNA-Seq was conducted. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to assign differentially expressed genes to known upstream regulators and functional networks. Differential gene expression analysis of the RNA-Seq data revealed 2531 differentially expressed genes, comprising 1007 upregulated and 1524 downregulated genes, in canine iUC. IPA revealed that the most activated upstream regulator was PTGER2 (encoding the prostaglandin E 2 receptor EP2), which is consistent with the therapeutic efficiency of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in canine iUC. Similar to human iUC, canine iUC exhibited upregulated ERBB2 and downregulated TP53 pathways. Biological functions associated with cancer, cell proliferation, and leukocyte migration were predicted to be activated, while muscle functions were predicted to be inhibited, indicating muscle-invasive tumor property. Our data confirmed similarities in gene expression patterns between canine and human iUC and identified potential therapeutic targets (PTGER2, ERBB2, CCND1, Vegf, and EGFR), suggesting the value of naturally occurring canine iUC as a relevant animal model for human

  4. Nephrogenic Adenoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nephrogenic adenoma of the urinary bladder (NAUB) is a rare lesion associated with nonspecific symptoms and could inadvertently be misdiagnosed. Aim. To review the literature. Methods. Various internet search engines were used. Results. NAUB is a benign tubular and papillary lesion of the bladder, is more common in men and adults, and has been associated with chronic inflammation/irritation, previous bladder surgery, diverticula, renal transplantation, and intravesical BCG; recurrences and malignant transformations have been reported. Differential diagnoses include clear cell adenocarcinoma, endocervicosis, papillary urothelial carcinoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma of bladder, and nested variant of urothelial carcinoma; most NAUBs have both surface papillary and submucosal tubular components; both the papillae and tubules tend to be lined by a single layer of mitotically inactive bland cells which have pale to clear cytoplasm. Diagnosis may be established by using immunohistochemistry (positive staining with racemase; PAX2; keratins stain positive with fibromyxoid variant), electron microscopy, DNA analysis, and cytological studies. Treatment. Endoscopic resection is the treatment but recurrences including sporadic malignant transformation have been reported. Conclusions. There is no consensus on best treatment. A multicentre study is required to identify the treatment that would reduce the recurrence rate, taking into consideration that intravesical BCG is associated with NAUB. PMID:27347540

  5. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854

  6. Galle Cr. Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03637 Galle Cr. Dunes

    These dunes are located on the floor of Galle Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 51.5S, Longitude 329.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Clinical significance and biological roles of CARMA3 in human bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Man, Xiaojun; He, Jiani; Kong, Chuize; Zhu, Yuyan; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-05-01

    Caspase recruitment domain and membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like domain protein 3 (CARMA3) was reported as an oncoprotein overexpressed in several cancers. The expression pattern of CARMA3 and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer have not been well characterized. In the present study, CARMA3 expression was analyzed in 90 archived bladder cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry, and the correlation between CARMA3 expression and clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. We found that CARMA3 was overexpressed in 35 of 90 (38.8%) bladder cancer specimens. Significant association was observed between CARMA3 overexpression with tumor status (p = 0.081) and tumor grade (p = 0.027). To further explore the biological functions of CARMA3 in bladder cancer, we depleted CARMA3 in T24 and 5637 cell lines using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Using cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay and colony formation assay, we were able to show that CARMA3 depletion inhibited cell proliferation and colony number. Further study demonstrated that CARMA3 depletion decreased an expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) targets cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 expression, as well as IκB phosphorylation. Luciferase reporter assay showed that CARMA3 depletion could downregulate NF-κB reporter activity. In conclusion, CARMA3 is overexpressed in bladder cancer and regulates malignant cell growth and NF-κB signaling, which makes CARMA3 a candidate therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  8. Effect of Temperature on Galling Behavior of SS 316, 316 L and 416 Under Self-Mated Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsha, A. P.; Limaye, P. K.; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-11-01

    Galling behavior of three different stainless steels (SS 316, 316 L and 416) was evaluated at room temperature and 300 °C under a self-mated condition. An indigenously fabricated galling tester was used to evaluate the galling performance of mated materials as per ASTM G196-08 standard. The variation in frictional torque was recorded online during the test to assess the onset of galling. The galling50 (G50) stress value was used to compare the galling resistance of a combination of materials, and the results indicate a significant influence of temperature on the galling resistance of the materials tested. This has been attributed to the decrease in hardness and yield strength at elevated temperature which results in softening of the steel and limits its ability to resist severe deformation. Scanning electron micrographs of the galled surface reflected a severe plastic deformation in sliding direction, and a typical adhesive wear mechanism is prevalent during the galling process.

  9. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  10. Roles of ERβ and GPR30 in Proliferative Response of Human Bladder Cancer Cell to Estrogen.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiren; Chen, Yuanbin; Liu, Yuchen; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Yu, Zhou; Mou, Lisha; Wu, Hanwei; Zhao, Li; Long, Ting; Qin, Danian; Gui, Yaoting

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer belongs to one of the most common cancers and is a leading cause of deaths in our society. Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is the main type of this cancer, and the estrogen receptors in UCB remain to be studied. Our experiment aimed to investigate the possible biological effect of 17β-estradiol on human bladder-derived T24 carcinoma cells and to indicate its related mechanisms. T24 cells were treated with various doses of 17β-estradiol, and cell proliferation was detected using MTT assays. 17β-estradiol promoted T24 cell proliferation independent of ERβ/GPR30-regulated EGFR-MAPK pathway, while it inhibited cell growth via GPR30. Furthermore, the expression levels of downstream genes (c-FOS, BCL-2, and CYCLIN D1) were increased by 17β-estradiol and this effect was independently associated with activity of the EGFR-MAPK pathway. The two estrogen receptors might be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of bladder cancer.

  11. Could the Extended Phenotype Extend to the Cellular and Subcellular Levels in Insect-Induced Galls?

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Pacheco, Priscilla; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Neo-ontogenesis of plant galls involves redifferentiation of host plant tissues to express new phenotypes, when new cell properties are established via structural-functional remodeling. Herein, Psidium cattleianum leaves and Nothotrioza cattleiani galls are analyzed by developmental anatomy, cytometry and immunocytochemistry of cell walls. We address hypothesis-driven questions concerning the organogenesis of globoid galls in the association of P. cattleianum - N. cattleianum, and P. myrtoides - N. myrtoidis. These double co-generic systems represent good models for comparing final gall shapes and cell lineages functionalities under the perspective of convergent plant-dependent or divergent insect-induced characteristics. Gall induction, and growth and development are similar in both galls, but homologous cell lineages exhibit divergent degrees of cell hypertrophy and directions of elongation. Median cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls hypertrophy the most, while in P. myrtoides galls there is a centrifugal gradient of cell hypertrophy. Cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls tend to anisotropy, while P. myrtoidis galls have isotropically hypertrophied cells. Immunocytochemistry evidences the chemical identity and functional traits of cell lineages: epidermal cells walls have homogalacturonans (HGAs) and galactans, which confer rigidity to sites of enhanced cell division; oil gland cell walls have arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) that help avoiding cell death; and parenchyma cell walls have HGAs, galactans and arabinans, which confer porosity. Variations in such chemical identities are related to specific sites of hypertrophy. Even though the double co-generic models have the same macroscopic phenotype, the globoid morphotype, current analyses indicate that the extended phenotype of N. cattleiani is substantiated by cellular and subcellular specificities. PMID:26053863

  12. Galling Insects of the Brazilian Páramos: Species Richness and Composition Along High-Altitude Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Marcel S; Carneiro, Marco Antônio Alves; Branco, Cristina A; Borges, Rafael Augusto Xavier; Fernandes, G Wilson

    2017-12-08

    In this work, we investigated the factors that determine the distribution of galling insects in high-altitude grasslands, locally called 'campos de altitude' of Mantiqueira Range and tested whether 1) richness of galling insects decreases with altitude, 2) galling insect richness increases with plant richness, 3) variation in galling insect diversity is predominantly a consequence of its β component, and 4) turnover is the main mechanism driving the beta diversity of both galling insects and plants. Galling insect richness did not exhibit a negative relationship with altitude, but it did increase with plant richness. The additive partition of regional richness (γ) into its local and beta components showed that local diversity (α) of galling insects and plants was relatively low in relation to regional diversity; the β component incorporated most of the regional diversity. This pattern was also found in the multiscale analysis of the additive partition for galling insects and plants. The beta diversity of galling insects and plants was driven predominantly by the process of turnover and minimally by nesting. The results reported here point out that the spatial distribution of galling insects is best explained by historical factors, such as the distribution of genera and species of key host plants, as well as their relation to habitat, than ecological effects such as hygrothermal stress - here represented by altitude. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A Randomized Pilot Trial of Dietary Modification for the Chemoprevention of Non-invasive Bladder Cancer: The Dietary Intervention in Bladder Cancer Study (DIBS)

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, J. Kellogg; Pierce, John P.; Natarajan, Loki; Newman, Vicky A.; Barbier, Leslie; Mohler, James; Rock, Cheryl L.; Heath, Dennis D.; Guru, Khurshid; Jameson, Michael B.; Li, Hongying; Mirheydar, Hossein; Holmes, Michael A.; Marshall, James

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest robust associations of high vegetable intake with decreased risks of bladder cancer incidence and mortality, but translational prevention studies have yet to be performed. We designed and tested a novel intervention to increase vegetable intake in patients with non-invasive bladder cancer. We randomized 48 patients aged 50 to 80 years with biopsy-proven non-invasive (Ta, T1, or carcinoma in situ) urothelial cell carcinoma to telephone- and Skype-based dietary counseling or a control condition that provided print materials only. The intervention behavioral goals promoted 7 daily vegetable servings, with at least 2 of these as cruciferous vegetables. Outcome variables were self-reported diet and plasma carotenoid and 24-hour urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) concentrations. We used 2-sample t-tests to assess between-group differences at 6-month follow-up. After 6 months, intervention patients had higher daily intakes of vegetable juice (p=0.02), total vegetables (p=0.02), and cruciferous vegetables (p=0.07); lower daily intakes of energy (p=0.007), (p=0.002) and energy from fat (p=0.06); and higher plasma alpha-carotene concentrations (p=0.03). Self-reported cruciferous vegetable intake correlated with urinary ITC concentrations at baseline (p<0.001) and at 6 months (p=0.03). Although urinary ITC concentrations increased in the intervention group and decreased in the control group, these changes did not attain between-group significance (p=0.32). In patients with non-invasive bladder cancer, our novel intervention induced diet changes associated with protective effects against bladder cancer. These data demonstrate the feasibility of implementing therapeutic dietary modifications to prevent recurrent and progressive bladder cancer. PMID:23867158

  14. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Diagnosis of Urothelial Carcinoma in the Bladder and the Upper Urinary Tract: Protocols for Two Prospective Explorative Studies.

    PubMed

    Liem, Esmee Iml; Freund, Jan Erik; Baard, Joyce; de Bruin, D Martijn; Laguna Pes, M Pilar; Savci-Heijink, C Dilara; van Leeuwen, Ton G; de Reijke, Theo M; de la Rosette, Jean Jmch

    2018-02-07

    Visual confirmation of a suspicious lesion in the urinary tract is a major corner stone in diagnosing urothelial carcinoma. However, during cystoscopy (for bladder tumors) and ureterorenoscopy (for tumors of the upper urinary tract) no real-time histopathologic information can be obtained. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an optical imaging technique that allows for in vivo high-resolution imaging and may allow real-time tumor grading of urothelial lesions. The primary objective of both studies is to develop descriptive criteria for in vivo CLE images of urothelial carcinoma (low-grade, high-grade, carcinoma in situ) and normal urothelium by comparing CLE images with corresponding histopathology. In these two prospective clinical trials, CLE imaging will be performed of suspicious lesions and normal tissue in the urinary tract during surgery, prior to resection or biopsy. In the bladder study, CLE will be performed in 60 patients using the Cystoflex UHD-R probe. In the upper urinary tract study, CLE will be performed in 25 patients during ureterorenoscopy, who will undergo radical treatment (nephroureterectomy or segmental ureter resection) thereafter. All CLE images will be analyzed frame by frame by three independent, blinded observers. Histopathology and CLE-based diagnosis of the lesions will be evaluated. Both studies comply with the IDEAL stage 2b recommendations. Presently, recruitment of patients is ongoing in both studies. Results and outcomes are expected in 2018. For development of CLE-based diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma in the bladder and the upper urinary tract, a structured conduct of research is required. This study will provide more insight in tissue-specific CLE criteria for real-time tumor grading of urothelial carcinoma. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03013894; https://clinicaltrials.gov /ct2/show/NCT03013894?term=NCT03013894&rank=1 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6wiPZ378I); and Dutch Central

  15. [Intradiverticular bladder tumours: review of the Cancer Committee of the French Association of Urology].

    PubMed

    Neuzillet, Y; Comperat, E; Rouprêt, M; Larre, S; Roy, C; Quintens, H; Houede, N; Pignot, G; Wallerand, H; Soulie, M; Pfister, C

    2012-07-01

    Cancer Committee of the French Association of Urology (CCAFU) conducted a review of the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of intradiverticular bladder tumours (TVID) and proposed therapeutic management. A bibliographic research in French and English using Medline(®) with the keywords "tumor", "bladder" and "diverticulum" was performed. TVID are more frequently of stage T ≥ 3a and with non urothelial histology than classical bladder tumors. At diagnosis, the risk of underestimation of the extent and multifocality of the tumor was described. Their prognosis, that was more pejorative than conventional tumors, should impelled to limit the indications of conservative treatment. The evidence levels of analyzed publications were low, with C level according to Sackett score. the specificities of the TVID have lead the CCAFU to propose specific therapeutic guidelines, based on poor evidence level. Ta-T1 low grade TVID can be treated by transurethral resection alone or followed by BCG therapy in cases of associated carcinoma in situ. High-grade TVID, unifocal and without associated carcinoma in situ, can be treated by diverticulectomy associated with pelvic lymphadenectomy. High grade TVID, multiple or associated with carcinoma in situ, warranted total cystectomy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Systemic Immunotherapy of Non-Muscle Invasive Mouse Bladder Cancer with Avelumab, an Anti-PD-L1 Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Vandeveer, Amanda J; Fallon, Jonathan K; Tighe, Robert; Sabzevari, Helen; Schlom, Jeffrey; Greiner, John W

    2016-05-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the standard of care for intravesical therapy for carcinoma in situ and non-muscle invasive, nonmetastatic human urothelial carcinoma. Although the responsiveness to this immunotherapeutic is believed to be linked with (i) a high number of somatic mutations and (ii) a large number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, recent findings of the roles that inhibitory immune receptors and their ligands play in tumor evasion may provide insights into the limitations of the effectiveness of BCG and offer new targets for immune-based therapy. In this study, an aggressive, bioluminescent orthotopic bladder cancer model, MB49 tumor cells transfected with luciferase (MB49(luc)), was used to study the antitumor effects of avelumab, an antibody to PD-L1. MB49(luc) murine tumor cells form multifocal tumors on the mucosal wall of the bladder reminiscent of non-muscle invasive, nonmetastatic urothelial carcinomas. MB49(luc) bladder tumors are highly positive for the expression of PD-L1, and avelumab administration induced significant (P < 0.05) antitumor effects. These antitumor effects were more dependent on the presence of CD4 than CD8 T cells, as determined by in vivo immune cell depletions. The findings suggest that in this bladder tumor model, interruption of the immune-suppressive PD-1/PD-L1 complex releases a local adaptive immune response that, in turn, reduces tumor growth. This bladder tumor model can be used to further identify host antitumor immune mechanisms and evaluate combinations of immune-based therapies for carcinoma in situ and non-muscle invasive, nonmetastatic urothelial carcinoma, to provide the rationale for subsequent clinical studies. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(5); 452-62. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Activation of RAS family genes in urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Boulalas, I; Zaravinos, A; Karyotis, I; Delakas, D; Spandidos, D A

    2009-05-01

    Bladder cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in men in Western society. We determined RAS codon 12 and 13 point mutations and evaluated mRNA expression levels in transitional cell carcinoma cases. Samples from 30 human bladder cancers and 30 normal tissues were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing to determine the occurrence of mutations in codons 12 and 13 of RAS family genes. Moreover, we used real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the expression profile of RAS genes in bladder cancer specimens compared to that in adjacent normal tissues. Overall H-RAS mutations in codon 12 were observed in 9 tumor samples (30%). Two of the 9 patients (22%) had invasive bladder cancer and 7 (77%) had noninvasive bladder cancer. One H-RAS mutation (11%) was homozygous and the remaining 89% were heterozygous. All samples were WT for K and N-RAS oncogenes. Moreover, 23 of 30 samples (77%) showed over expression in at least 1 RAS family gene compared to adjacent normal tissue. K and N-RAS had the highest levels of over expression in bladder cancer specimens (50%), whereas 27% of transitional cell carcinomas demonstrated H-RAS over expression relative to paired normal tissues. Our results underline the importance of H-RAS activation in human bladder cancer by codon 12 mutations. Moreover, they provide evidence that increased expression of all 3 RAS genes is a common event in bladder cancer that is associated with disease development.

  18. Cytokeratins in normal and malignant transitional epithelium. Maintenance of expression of urothelial differentiation features in transitional cell carcinomas and bladder carcinoma cell culture lines.

    PubMed Central

    Moll, R.; Achtstätter, T.; Becht, E.; Balcarova-Ständer, J.; Ittensohn, M.; Franke, W. W.

    1988-01-01

    The pattern of cytokeratins expressed in normal urothelium has been compared with that of various forms of transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs; 21 cases) and cultured bladder carcinoma cell lines, using immunolocalization and gel electrophoretic techniques. In normal urothelium, all simple-epithelium-type cytokeratins (polypeptides 7, 8, 18, 19) were detected in all cell layers, whereas antibodies to cytokeratins typical for stratified epithelia reacted with certain basal cells only or, in the case of cytokeratin 13, with cells of the basal and intermediate layers. This pattern was essentially maintained in low-grade (G1, G1/2) TCCs but was remarkably modified in G2 TCCs. In G3 TCCs simple-epithelial cytokeratins were predominant whereas the amounts of component 13 were greatly reduced. Squamous metaplasia was accompanied generally by increased or new expression of some stratified-epithelial cytokeratins. The cytokeratin patterns of cell culture lines RT-112 and RT-4 resembled those of G1 and G2 TCCs, whereas cell line T-24 was comparable to G3 carcinomas. The cell line EJ showed a markedly different pattern. The results indicate that, in the cell layers of the urothelium, the synthesis of stratification-related cytokeratins such as component 13 is inversely oriented compared with that in other stratified epithelia where these proteins are suprabasally expressed, that TCCs retain certain intrinsic cytoskeletal features of urothelium, and that different TCCs can be distinguished by their cytokeratin patterns. The potential value of these observations in histopathologic and cytologic diagnoses is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2456018

  19. Gradients of metabolite accumulation and redifferentiation of nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues in galls induced by sucking insects

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells respond to abiotic and biotic stimuli, which generate adaptive phenotypes in plant organs. In the case of plant galls, cell phenotypes are adaptive for the gall inducer and assume characteristics mainly linked to its protection and nutrition. Herein, the cytological development and histochemical profile of Nothotrioza cattleiani galls, a sucking insect, on the leaves of Psidium cattleianum are compared with those of other galls, especially N. myrtoidis galls, searching for conserved and divergent alterations in cell fates and cycles. Leaf cell fates are completely changed within galls, except for epidermal cells, but the comparison between Nothotrioza spp. galls shows conserved fates. Nevertheless, cytological development of N. cattleiani galls is different from the standby-redifferentiation of N. myrtoidis galls. Starch and lignins, and reducing sugars form centrifugal and centripetal gradients of accumulation, respectively. Proteins, total phenolics, terpenoids, proanthocyanidins and reactive oxygen species are detected in bidirectional gradients, i.e. weak or undetectable reaction in the median cortical cells that is gradually more intense in the cell layers towards the inner and outer surfaces of the gall. True nutritive cells associated with vascular tissues, together with the bidirectional gradients of metabolite accumulation, are herein reported for the first time in insect galls. The globoid galls of N. cattleiani, though macro-morphologically similar to the galls of N. myrtoidis, are distinct and unique among insect galls, as far as the cellular, subcellular and histochemical traits are concerned. Thus, the traits of the galls on P. cattleianum studied herein represent the extended phenotypes of their inducers. PMID:26209687

  20. [Expression and clinical significance of 5hmC in bladder urothelial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Xu, Yuqiao; Zhang, Zhiwen; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Zhekai; Zhang, Feng; Li, Qing

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the expression of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) and its clinical significance. The expression of 5hmC in 21 cases of UC tissues and pericarcinous urinary tract epithelium was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Then the expression of 5hmC in the surgical resection of UC tissues in 92 cases was also surveyed. Non parametric U Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the correlation between 5hmC expression and clinical data. Single factor survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier test. The expression of 5hmC in normal urinary tract epithelium and UC tissues was significantly different, but there was no significant difference in the expression of 5hmC between low and high grades of UC tissues as well as between different TNM grades. Kaplan-Meier single factor survival analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between the 5hmC expression level and the survival rate or the recurrence-free survival of UC patients. The expression level of 5hmC in UC tissues is significantly lower than that in pericarcinous urinary tract epithelium. There is no correlation between the 5hmC expression and the progression, prognosis and recurrence of UC.

  1. Prompt diagnosis key in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    DeSouza, Karen; Chowdhury, Simon; Hughes, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer involving the urinary tract and is the seventh most common cancer in the UK. Delayed diagnosis is associated with high-grade muscle invasive disease which has the potential to progress rapidly, metastasise and is often fatal. Urothelial cancer (transitional cell carcinoma) is the predominant histological subtype in Europe, where it accounts for 90% of all bladder cancers. Haematuria, which is typically intermittent, frank, painless and at times present throughout micturition, is the classical and most common presentation of bladder cancer. However, irritative symptoms such as dysuria, urgency, urge incontinence and frequency as well as obstructive symptoms can also be experienced. Fatigue; weight loss; anorexia; renal failure; respiratory symptoms and a suprapubic palpable mass are usually signs of advanced or metastatic malignancy. Cigarette smokers have up to four times the risk of bladder cancer compared with non-smokers. Other risk factors include: exposure to aniline dyes; use of cyclophosphamide; history of pelvic radiation; exposure to chemical carcinogens associated with certain industries; spinal cord injuries requiring long-term indwelling catheters; type 2 diabetes treated with pioglitazone and condylomata acuminata. Frank haematuria has a high diagnostic yield for malignancies involving the urinary tract and initial routine tests should be directed towards identifying a variety of potential non-malignant causes. A thorough physical examination should be undertaken to identify evidence of bleeding diathesis and metastatic malignancy. Suggested laboratory investigations include FBC, coagulation, creatinine and PSA. The diagnosis of bladder cancer is based on urine cytology, cystoscopy and pathological assessment of the bladder biopsy.

  2. Bile peritonitis associated with gastric dilation-volvulus in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Saundra A; Brisson, Brigitte A; Holmberg, David L

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a case of septic peritonitis and gall bladder rupture in German shepherd dog that developed 7 d after surgical treatment for gastric dilation-volvulus. Histological examination confirmed gall bladder necrosis, secondary to an acute ischemic event. Postoperative acute necrotizing cholecystitis has not been a previously reported complication in dogs.

  3. Spatial distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on arctic willows.

    PubMed

    Kuczyński, Lechosław; Skoracka, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on three Salix species was studied. The factors influencing this distribution were analysed, i.e. willow species, study area and shoot length. Spatial pattern of gall distribution within the shoot was also examined. The study was conducted in Russia, Kola Peninsula. Densities of galls caused by A. tetanothrix differed significantly among willow species. Considerably higher gall density was recorded in the White Sea coast than in the Khibiny Mountains. This may be explained by the influence of a milder maritime climate that favors mite occurrence compared to a harsh and variable mountain climate that limits mite abundance. There was no relationship between the gall density and the shoot length. The highest density of galls was recorded on the inner offshoots; within the offshoot, there was a maximum density on the fifth leaf. This pattern was repeatable for all shoots studied, independent of the study area, willow species and length of shoots, suggesting the optimal conditions for A. tetanothrix exist on leaves in the middle part of a shoot. This distribution pattern may be an effect of the trade-off between the costs and benefits resulting from leaf quality and mite movement along the shoot. This hypothesis, however, needs to be tested experimentally.

  4. Reacquisition of New Meristematic Sites Determines the Development of a New Organ, the Cecidomyiidae Gall on Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Renê G S; Isaias, Rosy M S; Moreira, Ana S F P; Oliveira, Denis C

    2017-01-01

    The development of gall shapes has been attributed to the feeding behavior of the galling insects and how the host tissues react to galling stimuli, which ultimately culminate in a variable set of structural responses. A superhost of galling herbivores, Copaifera langsdorffii , hosts a bizarre "horn-shaped" leaflet gall morphotype induced by an unidentified species of Diptera: Cecidomyiidae. By studying the development of this gall morphotype under the anatomical and physiological perspectives, we demonstrate the symptoms of the Cecidomyiidae manipulation over plant tissues, toward the cell redifferentiation and tissue neoformation. The most prominent feature of this gall is the shifting in shape from growth and development phase toward maturation, which imply in metabolites accumulation detected by histochemical tests in meristem-like group of cells within gall structure. We hypothesize that the development of complex galls, such as the horn-shaped demands the reacquisition of cell meristematic competence. Also, as mature galls are green, their photosynthetic activity should be sufficient for their oxygenation, thus compensating the low gas diffusion through the compacted gall parenchyma. We currently conclude that the galling Cecidomyiidae triggers the establishment of new sites of meristematic tissues, which are ultimately responsible for shifting from the young conical to the mature horn-shaped gall morphotype. Accordingly, the conservative photosynthesis activity in gall site maintains tissue homeostasis by avoiding hypoxia and hipercarbia in the highly compacted gall tissues.

  5. Feltiella acarisuga (predatory gall midge)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga is one of the most effective and widespread natural enemies of spider mites. Because of their flying and prey detecting capabilities, and high feeding potential, it is considered an important natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite in a number of cr...

  6. Biomarkers in bladder cancer: present status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wun-Jae; Park, Soongang; Kim, Yong-June

    2007-03-27

    Bladder cancers are a mixture of heterogeneous cell populations, and numerous factors are likely to be involved in dictating their recurrence, progression and the patient's survival. For any candidate prognostic marker to have considerable clinical relevance, it must add some predictive capacity beyond that offered by conventional clinical and pathologic parameters. Here, the current situation in bladder cancer research with respect to identification of suitable prognostic markers is reviewed. A number of individual molecular markers that might predict bladder cancer recurrence and progression have been identified but many are not sufficiently sensitive or specific for the whole spectrum of bladder cancer diseases seen in routine clinical practice. These limitations have led to interest in other molecular parameters that could enable more accurate prognosis for bladder cancer patients. Of particular interest is the epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Since the methylation of these genes can correlate with a poor prognosis, the methylation profile may represent a new bio-marker that indicates the risk of transitional cell carcinoma development. In addition, bladder cancer research is likely to be revolutionized by high-throughput molecular technologies, which allow rapid and global gene expression analysis of thousands of tumor samples. Initial studies employing these technologies have considerably expanded our ability to classify bladder cancers with respect to their survivability. Future microarray analyses are likely to reveal particular gene expression signatures that predict the likelihood of bladder cancer progression and recurrence, as well as patient's survival and responsiveness to different anti-cancer therapies, with great specificity and sensitivity.

  7. Bile peritonitis associated with gastric dilation-volvulus in a dog

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This report describes a case of septic peritonitis and gall bladder rupture in German shepherd dog that developed 7 d after surgical treatment for gastric dilation-volvulus. Histological examination confirmed gall bladder necrosis, secondary to an acute ischemic event. Postoperative acute necrotizing cholecystitis has not been a previously reported complication in dogs. PMID:15884650

  8. Renin-Angiotensin Inhibitors Decrease Recurrence after Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor in Patients with Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Blute, Michael L; Rushmer, Timothy J; Shi, Fangfang; Fuller, Benjamin J; Abel, E Jason; Jarrard, David F; Downs, Tracy M

    2015-11-01

    Prior reports suggest that renin-angiotensin system inhibition may decrease nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer recurrence. We evaluated whether angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker treatment at initial surgery was associated with decreased recurrence or progression in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Using an institutional bladder cancer database we identified 340 patients with data available on initial transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Progression was defined as an increase to stage T2. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations with recurrence-free and progression-free survival. Median patient age was 69.6 years. During a median followup of 3 years (IQR 1.3-6.1) 200 patients (59%) had recurrence and 14 (4.1%) had stage progression. Of those patients 143 were receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers at the time of the first transurethral resection. On univariate analysis factors associated with improved recurrence-free survival included carcinoma in situ (p = 0.040), bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy (p = 0.003) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy (p = 0.009). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-0.87, p = 0.002) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.84, p = 0.005) were less likely to experience tumor recurrence. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 45.6% for patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers and 28.1% in those not treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (p = 0.009). Subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer pathology (Ta, T1 and carcinoma in situ) in 85 patients on bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy alone and in

  9. Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima architecture and litter nutrient dynamics in an old-field ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Crutsinger, Greg; Habenicht, Melissa N; Classen, Aimee T

    2008-01-01

    Plant-insect interactions can alter ecosystem processes, especially if the insects modify plant architecture, quality, or the quantity of leaf litter inputs. In this study, we investigated the interactions between the gall midge Rhopalomyia solidaginis and tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima, to quantify the degree to which the midge alters plant architecture and how the galls affect rates of litter decomposition and nutrient release in an old-field ecosystem. R. solidaginis commonly leads to the formation of a distinct apical rosette gall on S. altissima and approximately 15% of the ramets in a S. altissima patch were galled (range: 3-34%). Aboveground biomass ofmore » galled ramets was 60% higher and the leaf area density was four times greater on galled leaf tissue relative to the portions of the plant that were not affected by the gall. Overall decomposition rate constants did not differ between galled and ungalled leaf litter. However, leaf-litter mass loss was lower in galled litter relative to ungalled litter, which was likely driven by modest differences in initial litter chemistry; this effect diminished after 12 weeks of decomposition in the field. The proportion of N remaining was always higher in galled litter than in ungalled litter at each collection date indicating differential release of nitrogen in galled leaf litter. Several studies have shown that plant-insect interactions on woody species can alter ecosystem processes by affecting the quality or quantity of litter inputs. Our results illustrate how plant-insect interactions in an herbaceous species can affect ecosystem processes by altering the quality and quantity of litter inputs. Given that S. altissima dominates fields and roadsides and that R. solidaginis galls are highly abundant throughout eastern North America, these interactions are likely to be important for both the structure and function of old-field ecosystems.« less

  10. Proton beam therapy for invasive bladder cancer: A prospective study of bladder-preserving therapy with combined radiotherapy and intra-arterial chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, Masaharu; Miyanaga, Naoto; Tokuuye, Koichi

    Purpose: To present outcomes of bladder-preserving therapy with proton beam irradiation in patients with invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, cT2-3N0M0, underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor(s), followed by pelvic X-ray irradiation combined with intra-arterial chemotherapy with methotrexate and cisplatin. Upon completion of these treatments, patients were evaluated by transurethral resection biopsy. Patients with no residual tumor received proton irradiation boost to the primary sites, whereas patients demonstrating residual tumors underwent radical cystectomy. Results: Of 25 patients, 23 (92%) were free of residual tumor at the time of re-evaluation; consequently,more » proton beam therapy was applied. The remaining 2 patients presenting with residual tumors underwent radical cystectomy. Of the 23 patients treated with proton beam therapy, 9 experienced recurrence at the median follow-up time of 4.8 years: local recurrences and distant metastases in 6 and 2 patients, respectively, and both situations in 1. The 5-year overall, disease-free, and cause-specific survival rates were 60%, 50%, and 80%, respectively. The 5-year local control and bladder-preservation rates were 73% and 96%, respectively, in the patients treated with proton beam therapy. Therapy-related toxicities of Grade 3-4 were observed in 9 patients: hematologic toxicities in 6, pulmonary thrombosis in 1, and hemorrhagic cystitis in 2. Conclusions: The present bladder-preserving regimen for invasive bladder cancer was feasible and effective. Proton beam therapy might improve local control and facilitate bladder preservation.« less

  11. A Novel Risk Stratification to Predict Local-Regional Failures in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder After Radical Cystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Brian C.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; He Jiwei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Local-regional failures (LF) following radical cystectomy (RC) plus pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) with or without chemotherapy for invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma are more common than previously reported. Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) could reduce LF but currently has no defined role because of previously reported morbidity. Modern techniques with improved normal tissue sparing have rekindled interest in RT. We assessed the risk of LF and determined those factors that predict recurrence to facilitate patient selection for future adjuvant RT trials. Methods and Materials: From 1990-2008, 442 patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma at University of Pennsylvania were prospectively followed aftermore » RC plus PLND with or without chemotherapy with routine pelvic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One hundred thirty (29%) patients received chemotherapy. LF was any pelvic failure detected before or within 3 months of distant failure. Competing risk analyses identified factors predicting increased LF risk. Results: On univariate analysis, pathologic stage {>=}pT3, <10 nodes removed, positive margins, positive nodes, hydronephrosis, lymphovascular invasion, and mixed histology significantly predicted LF; node density was marginally predictive, but use of chemotherapy, number of positive nodes, type of surgical diversion, age, gender, race, smoking history, and body mass index were not. On multivariate analysis, only stage {>=}pT3 and <10 nodes removed were significant independent LF predictors with hazard ratios of 3.17 and 2.37, respectively (P<.01). Analysis identified 3 patient subgroups with significantly different LF risks: low-risk ({<=}pT2), intermediate-risk ({>=}pT3 and {>=}10 nodes removed), and high-risk ({>=}pT3 and <10 nodes) with 5-year LF rates of 8%, 23%, and 42%, respectively (P<.01). Conclusions: This series using routine CT and MRI surveillance to detect LF confirms that such failures are relatively

  12. Progression of urothelial carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder: a switch from luminal to basal phenotype and related therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Barth, Isabella; Schneider, Ursula; Grimm, Tobias; Karl, Alexander; Horst, David; Gaisa, Nadine T; Knüchel, Ruth; Garczyk, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    The stratification of bladder cancer into luminal and basal tumors has recently been introduced as a novel prognostic system in patient cohorts of muscle-invasive bladder cancer or high-grade papillary carcinomas. Using a representative immunohistochemistry panel, we analyzed luminal and basal marker expression in a large case series (n = 156) of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS), a precancerous lesion that frequently progresses to muscle-invasive disease. The majority of CIS cases was characterized by a positivity for luminal markers (aberrant cytokeratin (CK) 20 85% (132/156), GATA3 median Remmele score (score of staining intensity (0-3) multiplied with percentage of positive cells (0-4)): 12, estrogen receptor (ER) β Remmele score > 2: 88% (138/156), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) Dako score 3+ 32% (50/156), Her2 Dako score 2+ 33% (51/156)), and marginal expression of basal markers (CK5/6+ 2% (3/156), CK14+ 1% (2/156)). To further investigate phenotypic stability during disease progression, we compared 48 pairs of CIS and invasive tumors from the same biopsy. A highly significant loss of luminal marker expression (p < 0.001) was observed in the course of progression whereas an increase of basal marker expression (p < 0.01) was noted in the invasive compartment. Importantly, 91% of CIS cases demonstrated a positivity for at least one of the two predictive markers Her2 and ERβ, indicating that the analysis of Her2 and ERβ may help to identify CIS-patient subgroups prone to more efficient targeted treatment strategies. Larger prospective and biomarker-embedded clinical trials are needed to confirm and validate our preliminary findings.

  13. Analysis on pathogenesis of 50 cases of bladder proliferative lesions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Lan, Ruzhu; Ye, Zhangqun; Yang, Weimin

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the pathogenesis, clinical and pathological characteristics of proliferative lesions of the bladder, 50 cases of proliferative lesions of the bladder from 150 patients with complaints of frequency, urgency, hematuria and dysuria were subjected to cystoscopic biopsy of the suspicious foci in the bladder. In combination with the symptoms, urine and urodynamics, the relationship of proliferative lesions of the bladder to the inflammation and obstruction of the lower urinary tract was analyzed. Of the 50 cases of proliferative bladder lesions, 44 cases (88%) had lower urinary tract infection and 29 (58%) lower urinary tract obstruction. The patients with lower urinary tract obstruction were all complicated with infection. Three cases were associated with transitional cell carcinoma. Malignant cells were detected in 1 case by urinary cytologic examination. Proliferative lesions of the bladder, especially those without other obvious mucosa changes under cystoscopy, are common histological variants of urothelium in the patients with chronic inflammation and obstruction of the lower urinary tract. Chronic inflammation and obstruction of the lower urinary tract might be the causes for proliferative lesions of the bladder. It is suggested that different treatments should be applied according to the scope and histological type of the proliferative lesions.

  14. In vitro and in vivo effects of CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) on murine transitional cell carcinoma and on the native murine urinary bladder wall.

    PubMed

    Olbert, Peter Jochen; Schrader, Andres Jan; Simon, Corinna; Dalpke, Alexander; Barth, Peter; Hofmann, Rainer; Hegele, Axel

    2009-06-01

    Intravesical BCG instillation is established and efficient in the prophylaxis of recurrent transitional cell carcinoma. A Th-1 biased immune response is postulated. Recent work has proven the efficacy of synthetic CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) as inducers and adjuvants for a strong Th1-response and there is evidence for a direct and/or adjuvant anti-neoplastic effect. The purpose of this study was to examine the local effects of CpG-ODN on the murine bladder wall after intravesical instillation and the effects on cytokine expression in an orthotopic murine bladder cancer model. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy were performed after different instillation schedules of stimulatory, non-stimulatory biotinylized and FITC-labelled CpG-ODN into the murine bladder. MB-49 murine bladder cancer cells were tested for TLR-9 expression to exclude a potential direct responsiveness to CpG-ODN. Furthermore induction of apoptosis was tested by annexin V staining and FACS analysis of CpG-ODN stimulated tumor cells. In an orthotopic C57/Bl6 murine bladder cancer model, the expressions of IL-12, IFNgamma, IL-10 and TGF-beta were evaluated after repeated CpG-ODN treatment. Single and repeated instillation of CpG-ODN induced subepithelial and urothelial lymphocytic infiltrations with consecutive apoptoses. PBS and non-stimulative ODN induced no visible reaction. Bladder submucosa stained positive for biotin. Controls showed no endogenic biotin staining. FITC-labelled ODN adhered to the bladder mucosa and penetration of the mucosal barrier was not detected. MB-49 TCC cells did not express TLR-9 and CpG-ODN did not induce apoptosis in these cells. Repeated intravesical instillations of CpG-ODN in orthotopic murine tumor bearing urinary bladders resulted in significant up-regulation of both Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. CpG-ODNs have promising anti-neoplastic potential. They exert a pronounced immunological response both in the native murine urinary bladder and

  15. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Ellen O; Hackett, Jeremiah D; Machado, Carlos A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association.

  16. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Hackett, Jeremiah D.; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association. PMID:26090817

  17. Effects of nutrient treatment and previous stem galling on biomass allocation in tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.S.; Abrahamson, W.G.; McCrea, K.D.

    1987-07-01

    Ramets from six goldenrod clones of known resistance to the gallmaker (Eurosta solidaginis) were grown with and without nutrient treatment. Mated female Eurosta oviposited in ramets which were grown through flowering and harvested to determine biomass allocation. Nutrient treatment increased biomass but did not affect resistance. Gall mass was increased by nutrient treatment and was correlated with larval mass. Additional ramets from two of the susceptible clones were grown from rhizomes of ramets galled and ungalled the previous year. Galls reduced ramet growth in both years. A gall in the previous year reduced total ramet biomass as well as biomassmore » of all component organs in the current year but a gall in the current season had no effect. The detrimental effects of a gall are carried into the next growing season.« less

  18. Developmental pathway from leaves to galls induced by a sap-feeding insect on Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Graciela G; Ferreira, Bruno G; Moreira, Gilson R P; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2013-03-01

    Galling sap-feeding insects are presumed to cause only minor changes in host plant tissues, because they usually do not require development of nutritive tissues for their own use. This premise was examined through comparison of the histometry, cytometry and anatomical development of non-galled leaves and galls of Calophya duvauae (Scott) (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) on Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera (Anacardiaceae). Cell fates changed from non-galled leaves to galls during the course of tissue differentiation. C. duvauae caused changes in dermal, ground, and vascular systems of the leaves of S. polygamus. Its feeding activity induced the homogenization of the parenchyma, and the neoformation of vascular bundles and trichomes. The histometric and cytometric data revealed compensatory effects of hyperplasia and cell hypertrophy in the epidermis, with hyperplasia predominating in the adaxial epidermis. There was a balance between these processes in the other tissues. Thus, we found major differences between the developmental pathways of non-galled leaves and galls. These changes were associated with phenotypic alterations related to shelter and appropriate microenvironmental conditions for the gall inducer. The nondifferentiation of a typical nutritive tissue in this case was compared to other non-phylogenetically related arthropod gall systems, and is suggested to result from convergence associated with the piercing feeding apparatus of the corresponding gall-inducer.

  19. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. IV. Fergusobia from flat leaf galls on Eucalyptus and Corymbia, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kerrie A; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2013-11-26

    Two new species of Fergusobia are described. Both were collected from flat leaf galls from South Australia, one on Eucalyptus microcarpa and the other on E. porosa. Fergusobia microcarpae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short, broadly rounded conoid tail, an arcuate to open C-shaped infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and arcuate to J-shaped males with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia porosae n. sp. Davies is similar in having an arcuate to C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a small conoid tail, an almost straight to arcuate infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and males that are almost straight to barely J-shaped with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. They differ in that the bodies of parthenogenetic and infective females of F. microcarpae n. sp. are more curved than in F. porosae n. sp. Other known similar forms of Fergusobia/Fergusonina galls are outlined and the larval shield morphologies of their associated mutualistic Fergusonina fly species are discussed where known. An inventory of all known Fergusobia/Fergusonina associations from flat leaf galls from Corymbia spp. and Eucalyptus spp. is presented. Relationships of Fergusobia nematodes were inferred from analysis of sequences of 28S rDNA D2/D3 domains and a portion of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI). Nematodes from flat leaf galls appeared in two clades. 

  20. The effect of TGF-beta2 on MMP-2 production and activity in highly metastatic human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637.

    PubMed

    Dehnavi, Ehsan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ataei, Zahra; Aryan, Hajar

    2009-06-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), which intrinsically regulate various cell behaviors leading to metastasis. We investigated the effect of TGF-beta(2) on MMP-2 regulation in human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. Zymography, ELISA, and real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that TGF-beta(2) stimulated MMP-2 production, but the transcription of its gene remained unchanged. Wortmannin could not inhibit MMP-2 secretion and activity and conversely the amount of the protein and its enzymatic activity were increased. These data suggest that TGF-beta(2) increased MMP-2 at the posttranscriptional level and this upregulation was independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway.

  1. Prognostic value of sex-hormone receptor expression in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jong Kil; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, Sang Don; Chung, Moon Kee

    2014-09-01

    We investigated sex-hormone receptor expression as predicting factor of recurrence and progression in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. We retrospectively evaluated tumor specimens from patients treated for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder at our institution between January 2006 and January 2011. Performing immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal androgen receptor antibody and monoclonal estrogen receptor-beta antibody on paraffin-embedded tissue sections, we assessed the relationship of immunohistochemistry results and prognostic factors such as recurrence and progression. A total of 169 patients with bladder cancer were evaluated in this study. Sixty-threepatients had expressed androgen receptors and 52 patients had estrogen receptor beta. On univariable analysis, androgen receptor expression was significant lower in recurrence rates (p=0.001), and estrogen receptor beta expression was significant higher in progression rates (p=0.004). On multivariable analysis, significant association was found between androgen receptor expression and lower recurrence rates (hazard ratio=0.500; 95% confidence interval, 0.294 to 0.852; p=0.011), but estrogen receptor beta expression was not significantly associated with progression rates. We concluded that the possibility of recurrence was low when the androgen receptor was expressed in the bladder cancer specimen and it could be the predicting factor of the stage, number of tumors, carcinoma in situ lesion and recurrence.

  2. NMP22 BladderChek Test: point-of-care technology with life- and money-saving potential.

    PubMed

    Tomera, Kevin M

    2004-11-01

    A new, relatively obscure tumor marker assay, the NMP22 BladderChek Test (Matritech, Inc.), represents a paradigm shift in the diagnosis and management of urinary bladder cancer (transitional cell carcinoma). Specifically, BladderChek should be employed every time a cystoscopy is performed, with corresponding changes in the diagnostic protocol and the guidelines of the American Urological Association for the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. Currently, cystoscopy is the reference standard and NMP22 BladderChek Test in combination with cystoscopy improves the performance of cystoscopy. At every stage of disease, BladderChek provides a higher sensitivity for the detection of bladder cancer than cytology, which now represents the adjunctive standard of care. Moreover, BladderChek is four-times more sensitive than cytology and is available at half the cost. Early detection of bladder cancer improves prognosis, quality of life and survival. BladderChek may be analogous to the prostate-specific antigen test and eventually expand beyond the urologic setting into the primary care setting for the testing of high-risk patients characterized by smoking history, occupational exposures or age.

  3. Assemblage of filamentous fungi associated with aculeate hymenopteran brood in reed galls.

    PubMed

    Heneberg, Petr; Bizos, Jiří; Čmoková, Adéla; Kolařík, Miroslav; Astapenková, Alena; Bogusch, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Monotypic stands of common reed and the reed-gall-associated insect assemblages are distributed worldwide. However, fungi associated with these assemblages have not been characterized in detail. Here we examined 5200 individuals (12 species) of immature aculeate hymenopterans or their parasitoids collected at 34 sampling sites in Central Europe. We noticed fungal outgrowth on exoskeletons of 83 (1.60%) larvae and pupae. The most common host was eudominant Pemphredon fabricii. However, the less abundant aculeate hymenopteran reed gall inquilines were infected at higher prevalence, these included Trypoxylon deceptorium, Trypoxylon minus, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus moricei (all considered new host records). We identified three fungal species, Penicillium buchwaldii (72% of cases), Aspergillus pseudoglaucus (22%) and Penicillium quebecense (6%). When multibrooded nests were affected, only a part of individuals was infected in 62% of cases. The sampling site-specific infection rate reached up to 13%, thus fungal infections should be considered an important variable driving the abundance of gall inquilines. Infections of generalist host species were more frequent than those of reed gall specialists, suggesting that suboptimal conditions decreased the immunocompetence of non-specialized species, which only occasionally nest in reed galls and feed in reed beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Unexpected High Diversity of Galling Insects in the Amazonian Upper Canopy: The Savanna Out There

    PubMed Central

    Julião, Genimar R.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Fernandes, G. Wilson; Price, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the “harsh environment hypothesis”, and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly. PMID:25551769

  5. Unexpected high diversity of galling insects in the Amazonian upper canopy: the savanna out there.

    PubMed

    Julião, Genimar R; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Fernandes, G Wilson; Price, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the "harsh environment hypothesis", and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly.

  6. Taxonomic identity of a galling adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) from three spruce species in central Japan

    Treesearch

    Masakazu Sano; Nathan P. Havill; Kenichi Ozaki

    2011-01-01

    Gall-forming insects are commonly highly host-specific, and galling species once thought to be oligo- or polyphagous are often found to represent a complex of host-specific races or cryptic species. A recent DNA barcoding study documented that an unidentified species of the genus Adelges is a gall-former associated with four spruce species (...

  7. Two Birch Species Demonstrate Opposite Latitudinal Patterns in Infestation by Gall-Making Mites in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Skoracka, Anna; Zverev, Vitali; Lewandowski, Mariusz; Zvereva, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    Latitudinal patterns in herbivory, i.e. variations in plant losses to animals with latitude, are generally explained by temperature gradients. However, earlier studies suggest that geographical variation in abundance and diversity of gall-makers may be driven by precipitation rather than by temperature. To test the above hypothesis, we examined communities of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on leaves of Betula pendula and B. pubescens in boreal forests in Northern Europe. We sampled ten sites for each of five latitudinal gradients from 2008–2011, counted galls of six morphological types and identified mites extracted from these galls. DNA analysis revealed cryptic species within two of six morphologically defined mite species, and these cryptic species induced different types of galls. When data from all types of galls and from two birch species were pooled, the percentage of galled leaves did not change with latitude. However, we discovered pronounced variation in latitudinal changes between birch species. Infestation by eriophyoid mites increased towards the north in B. pendula and decreased in B. pubescens, while diversity of galls decreased towards the north in B. pendula and did not change in B. pubescens. The percentage of galled leaves did not differ among geographical gradients and study years, but was 20% lower in late summer relative to early summer, indicating premature abscission of infested leaves. Our data suggest that precipitation has little effect on abundance and diversity of eriophyoid mites, and that climate warming may impose opposite effects on infestation of two birch species by galling mites, favouring B. pendula near the northern tree limit. PMID:27835702

  8. Phase II Trial Of PS-341 (Bortezomib) In Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Urothelial Tract Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-04

    Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder; Ureter Cancer

  9. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachat, Sandra R.; Labandeira, Conrad C.

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

  10. Suppression of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma cell by the ethanol extract of pomegranate fruit through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Song-Tay; Lu, Min-Hua; Chien, Lan-Hsiang; Wu, Ting-Feng; Huang, Li-Chien; Liao, Gwo-Ing

    2013-12-21

    Pomegranate possesses many medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antitumor. It has been extensively used as a folk medicine by many cultures. Pomegranate fruit has been shown to have the inhibitory efficacy against prostate cancer and lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. It can be exploited in chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. In this study we examined the anti-cancer efficacy of pomegranate fruit grown in Taiwan against urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) and its mechanism of action. Edible portion of Taiwanese pomegranate was extracted using ethanol and the anti-cancer effectiveness of ethanol extract was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Flow cytometry and western immunoblotting were exploited to uncover the molecular pathways underlying anti-UBUC activity of Taiwanese pomegranate ethanol extract. This study demonstrated that Taiwanese pomegranate fruit ethanol extract (PEE) could effectively restrict the proliferation of UBUC T24 and J82 cells. Cell cycle analyses indicated that the S phase arrest induced by PEE treatment might be caused by an increase in cyclin A protein level and a decrease in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The results of western immunoblotting demonstrated that PEE treatment could not only evoke the activation of pro-caspase-3, -8,-9 but also increase Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in T24 cells. The above observations implicated that PEE administration might trigger the apoptosis in T24 cells through death receptor signaling and mitochondrial damage pathway. Besides we found that PEE exposure to T24 cells could provoke intensive activation of procaspase-12 and enhance the expressions of CHOP and Bip, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker, suggesting that ER stress might be the cardinal apoptotic mechanism of PEE-induced inhibition of bladder cancer cell. The analytical results of this study help to provide insight into the molecular mechanism

  11. Suppression of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma cell by the ethanol extract of pomegranate fruit through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pomegranate possesses many medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antitumor. It has been extensively used as a folk medicine by many cultures. Pomegranate fruit has been shown to have the inhibitory efficacy against prostate cancer and lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. It can be exploited in chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. In this study we examined the anti-cancer efficacy of pomegranate fruit grown in Taiwan against urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) and its mechanism of action. Methods Edible portion of Taiwanese pomegranate was extracted using ethanol and the anti-cancer effectiveness of ethanol extract was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Flow cytometry and western immunoblotting were exploited to uncover the molecular pathways underlying anti-UBUC activity of Taiwanese pomegranate ethanol extract. Results This study demonstrated that Taiwanese pomegranate fruit ethanol extract (PEE) could effectively restrict the proliferation of UBUC T24 and J82 cells. Cell cycle analyses indicated that the S phase arrest induced by PEE treatment might be caused by an increase in cyclin A protein level and a decrease in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The results of western immunoblotting demonstrated that PEE treatment could not only evoke the activation of pro-caspase-3, -8,-9 but also increase Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in T24 cells. The above observations implicated that PEE administration might trigger the apoptosis in T24 cells through death receptor signaling and mitochondrial damage pathway. Besides we found that PEE exposure to T24 cells could provoke intensive activation of procaspase-12 and enhance the expressions of CHOP and Bip, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker, suggesting that ER stress might be the cardinal apoptotic mechanism of PEE-induced inhibition of bladder cancer cell. Conclusions The analytical results of this study help to provide

  12. The Changing Treatment Landscape for Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Flaig, Thomas W

    2018-05-01

    Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant histologic type of bladder cancer. After 30 years of minimal progress in the treatment of advanced-stage disease, recent advances in the genomic characterization of urothelial cancer and breakthroughs in bladder cancer therapeutics have rejuvenated the field. Nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab are among the exciting recent novel therapeutic advances gaining approvals by the FDA for treatment of advanced-stage urothelial carcinoma. Yet the challenge for clinicians is to determine the optimal choice of agents as first-line or second-line therapy and which offers the best chance for overall survival for the individual patient in this rapidly changing field. Copyright © 2018 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  13. Correlation between Urothelial Differentiation and Sensory Proteins P2X3, P2X5, TRPV1, and TRPV4 in Normal Urothelium and Papillary Carcinoma of Human Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Sterle, Igor; Zupančič, Daša; Romih, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Terminal differentiation of urothelium is a prerequisite for blood-urine barrier formation and enables normal sensory function of the urinary bladder. In this study, urothelial differentiation of normal human urothelium and of low and high grade papillary urothelial carcinomas was correlated with the expression and localization of purinergic receptors (P2X3, and P2X5) and transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPV1, and TRPV4). Western blotting and immunofluorescence of uroplakins together with scanning electron microscopy of urothelial apical surface demonstrated terminal differentiation of normal urothelium, partial differentiation of low grade carcinoma, and poor differentiation of high grade carcinoma. P2X3 was expressed in normal urothelium as well as in low grade carcinoma and in both cases immunolabeling was stronger in the superficial cells. P2X3 expression decreased in high grade carcinoma. P2X5 expression was detected in normal urothelium and in high grade carcinoma, while in low grade carcinoma its expression was diminished. The expression of TRPV1 decreased in low grade and even more in high grade carcinoma when compared with normal urothelium, while TRPV4 expression was unchanged in all samples. Our results suggest that sensory proteins P2X3 and TRPV1 are in correlation with urothelial differentiation, while P2X5 and TRPV4 have unique expression patterns. PMID:24868547

  14. Correlation between urothelial differentiation and sensory proteins P2X3, P2X5, TRPV1, and TRPV4 in normal urothelium and papillary carcinoma of human bladder.

    PubMed

    Sterle, Igor; Zupančič, Daša; Romih, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Terminal differentiation of urothelium is a prerequisite for blood-urine barrier formation and enables normal sensory function of the urinary bladder. In this study, urothelial differentiation of normal human urothelium and of low and high grade papillary urothelial carcinomas was correlated with the expression and localization of purinergic receptors (P2X3, and P2X5) and transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPV1, and TRPV4). Western blotting and immunofluorescence of uroplakins together with scanning electron microscopy of urothelial apical surface demonstrated terminal differentiation of normal urothelium, partial differentiation of low grade carcinoma, and poor differentiation of high grade carcinoma. P2X3 was expressed in normal urothelium as well as in low grade carcinoma and in both cases immunolabeling was stronger in the superficial cells. P2X3 expression decreased in high grade carcinoma. P2X5 expression was detected in normal urothelium and in high grade carcinoma, while in low grade carcinoma its expression was diminished. The expression of TRPV1 decreased in low grade and even more in high grade carcinoma when compared with normal urothelium, while TRPV4 expression was unchanged in all samples. Our results suggest that sensory proteins P2X3 and TRPV1 are in correlation with urothelial differentiation, while P2X5 and TRPV4 have unique expression patterns.

  15. Pretreatment Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio as a Predictor in Bladder Cancer and Metastatic or Unresectable Urothelial Carcinoma Patients: a Pooled Analysis of Comparative Studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuiqing; Zhao, Xiaokun; Wang, Yinhuai; Zhong, Zhaohui; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Jian; Ai, Kai; Xu, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Emerging studies have shown that the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a potential predictor in various tumors. Our study was conducted to assess the prognostic value of the pretreatment NLR in bladder cancer and metastatic or unresectable urothelial carcinoma (mUC or uUC) patients up to July 2017. The correlation between the pretreatment NLR and pathological characteristics was also evaluated in bladder cancer patients. The hazard ratio (HR) and odds ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted or calculated from the included studies for further pooled analysis. A total of 21 studies were included in a pooled analysis. The pooled results indicated that a high pretreatment NLR was associated with reduced overall survival (OS) (HR=1.27, 95% CI=1.12-1.43), relapse-free survival (RFS) (HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.23-1.60), progression-free survival (PFS) (HR=1.75, 95% CI=1.36-2.15), disease-specific survival (DSS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR=1.27, 95% CI=1.19-1.35) in the bladder cancer patients. Additionally, an elevated pretreatment NLR suggested a worse OS rate in the mUC or uUC patients (HR=1.63, 95% CI=1.34-1.91). The pooled ORs and 95% CIs showed that a high pretreatment NLR could be a risk indicator for certain pathological features, such as lymphovascular invasion, a positive margin status and advanced tumor stage. our results showed that a high pretreatment NLR predicted poor prognosis in bladder cancer, mUC and uUC patients. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Treatment of carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder with an alpha-emitter immunoconjugate targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Michael E; Seidl, Christof; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Horn, Thomas; Kurtz, Florian; Feuerecker, Benedikt; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Pfob, Christian; Nekolla, Stephan; Apostolidis, Christos; Mirzadeh, Saed; Gschwend, Jürgen E; Schwaiger, Markus; Scheidhauer, Klemens; Morgenstern, Alfred

    2018-07-01

    Patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder refractory to bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment are usually treated with cystectomy. Therefore, new treatment options with preservation of the urinary bladder are needed. The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of a novel targeted alpha-emitter immunotherapy for CIS after BCG treatment failure. A pilot study was conducted in 12 patients (age range 64-86 years, ten men, two women) with biopsy-proven CIS of the bladder refractory to BCG treatment. The patients were treated intravesically with a single instillation (one patient was treated twice) of the alpha-emitter 213 Bi coupled to an anti-EGFR antibody (366-821 MBq). The primary aims of the study were to determine the feasibility of treatment with the 213 Bi-immunoconjugate and evaluation of adverse effects. Therapeutic efficacy was monitored by histological mapping of the urinary bladder 8 weeks after treatment and at different time points thereafter. The study proved that intravesical instillation of the 213 Bi-immunoconjugate targeting EGFR is feasible. No adverse effects were observed and all blood and urine parameters determined remained in their normal ranges. Therapeutic efficacy was considered satisfactory, in that three of the 12 patients showed no signs of CIS 44, 30 and 3 months after treatment. Intravesical instillation of 213 Bi-anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody was well tolerated and showed therapeutic efficacy. Repeated instillation and/or instillation of higher activities of the 213 Bi-immunoconjugate might lead to better therapeutic outcomes. A phase I clinical trial is planned.

  17. Low grade urothelial carcinoma mimicking basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia in needle prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Arista-Nasr, Julian; Martinez-Benitez, Braulio; Bornstein-Quevedo, Leticia; Aguilar-Ayala, Elizmara; Aleman-Sanchez, Claudia Natalia; Ortiz-Bautista, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of urothelial carcinomas infiltrating the bladder are consistente with high-grade tumors that can be easily recognized as malignant in needle prostatic biopsies. In contrast, the histological changes of low-grade urothelial carcinomas in this kind of biopsy have not been studied. We describe the clinicopathologic features of two patients with low-grade bladder carcinomas infiltrating the prostate. They reported dysuria and hematuria. Both had a slight elevation of the prostate specific antigen and induration of the prostatic lobes. Needle biopsies were performed. At endoscopy bladder tumors were found in both cases. Both biopsies showed nests of basophilic cells and cells with perinuclear clearing and slight atypia infiltrating acini and small prostatic ducts. The stroma exhibited extensive desmoplasia and chronic inflammation. The original diagnosis was basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia. The bladder tumors also showed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. In one case, the neoplasm infiltrated the lamina propria, and in another, the muscle layer. In both, a transurethral resection was performed for obstructive urinary symptoms. The neoplasms were positive for high molecular weight keratin (34BetaE12) and thrombomodulin. No metastases were found in either of the patients, and one of them has survived for five years. The diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma in prostate needle biopsies is difficult and may simulate benign prostate lesions including basal cell hyperplasia and urothelial metaplasia. It is crucial to recognize low-grade urothelial carcinoma in needle biopsies because only an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve the prognosis for these patients.

  18. Voided urine versus bladder washing cytology for detection of urothelial carcinoma: which is better?

    PubMed

    Keller, Anna Krarup; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2017-08-01

    Cytology is recommended as part of the follow-up of high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, currently there are no solid guideline recommendations regarding the use of voided urine versus bladder washing for cytology as part of the diagnosis or follow-up of NMIBC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cytological outcome was equal regarding the two techniques. The authors reviewed all outpatient flexible cystoscopies carried out in their department in 2013. Patient records in the registry of pathology were examined and those with simultaneous urine and bladder washing cytology were included. Previous urothelial disease and positive histology within 3 months after the cystoscopy were registered. A total of 1458 patients had both voided urine and bladder washing cytology and were included in the study, of whom 643 (44%) had a history of urothelial disease. An equal outcome of urine and bladder washing cytology was found in 1447 patients (99.2%). For the remaining 11 patients, only four patients underwent further examinations based on cytology findings in addition to what had already been planned after cystoscopy. Of the included patients, 100 (6.9%) had a positive histological outcome within 3 months. In most patients, no relevant difference between voided urine and bladder washing cytology was observed. Therefore, if cytology is indicated, it is recommended to use the test that is most readily available locally. The additional gain in using both urine and bladder wash is minimal, and can therefore be discarded.

  19. Manipulation of host plant cells and tissues by gall-inducing insects and adaptive strategies used by different feeding guilds.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; Isaias, R M S; Fernandes, G W; Ferreira, B G; Carneiro, R G S; Fuzaro, L

    2016-01-01

    Biologists who study insect-induced plant galls are faced with the overwhelming diversity of plant forms and insect species. A challenge is to find common themes amidst this diversity. We discuss common themes that have emerged from our cytological and histochemical studies of diverse neotropical insect-induced galls. Gall initiation begins with recognition of reactive plant tissues by gall inducers, with subsequent feeding and/or oviposition triggering a cascade of events. Besides, to induce the gall structure insects have to synchronize their life cycle with plant host phenology. We predict that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in gall induction, development and histochemical gradient formation. Controlled levels of ROS mediate the accumulation of (poly)phenols, and phytohormones (such as auxin) at gall sites, which contributes to the new cell developmental pathways and biochemical alterations that lead to gall formation. The classical idea of an insect-induced gall is a chamber lined with a nutritive tissue that is occupied by an insect that directly harvests nutrients from nutritive cells via its mouthparts, which function mechanically and/or as a delivery system for salivary secretions. By studying diverse gall-inducing insects we have discovered that insects with needle-like sucking mouthparts may also induce a nutritive tissue, whose nutrients are indirectly harvested as the gall-inducing insects feeds on adjacent vascular tissues. Activity of carbohydrate-related enzymes across diverse galls corroborates this hypothesis. Our research points to the importance of cytological and histochemical studies for elucidating mechanisms of induced susceptibility and induced resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in shotgun protein expression profile between superficial bladder transitional cell carcinoma and normal urothelium.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hai Tao; Zhang, Yi Bing; Jiang, Hai Ping; Cheng, Bo; Sun, Guang; Wang, Yi; E, Ya Jun; Pang, De Quan; Chang, Ji Wu

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify differences in protein expression profiles between superficial bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) and normal urothelial cells. We used laser capture microdissection (LCM) to harvest purified cells, and used two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) followed by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) to separate and identify the peptide mixture. A total of 440/438 proteins commonly appeared in 4 paired specimens. Multi-step bioinformatic procedures were used for the analysis of identified proteins; 175/179 of the 293/287 proteins that were specific expressed in tumor/normal cells own gene ontology (GO) biological process annotation. Compared with the entire list of the international protein index (IPI), there are 52/46 GO terms exhibited as enriched and 6/10 exhibited as depleted, respectively. Significantly altered pathways between tumor and normal cells mainly include oxidative phosphorylation, focal adhesion, etc. Finally, descriptive statistics show that the shotgun proteomics strategy has practice directive significance for biomarker discovery by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technology.

  1. Cell damage and death by autoschizis in human bladder (RT4) carcinoma cells resulting from treatment with ascorbate and menadione.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M; Neal, Deborah R; Loukas, Marios; Doberzstyn, Theresa; Summers, Jack L

    2010-05-01

    A human bladder carcinoma cell line RT4 was sham-treated with buffer or treated with ascorbate (VC) alone, menadione alone (VK(3)), or a combination of ascorbate:menadione (VC+VK(3)) for 1, 2, and 4 h. Cytotoxic damage was found to be treatment-dependent in this sequence: VC+VK(3)>VC>VK(3)>sham. The combined treatment induced the greatest oxidative stress, with early tumor cell injury affecting the cytoskeletal architecture and contributing to the self-excisions of pieces of cytoplasm freed from organelles. Additional damage, including a reduction in cell size, organelle alterations, nuclear damage, and nucleic acid degradation as well as compromised lysosome integrity, is caused by reactivation of DNases and the redox cycling of VC or VC+VK(3). In addition, cell death caused by VC+VK(3) treatment as well as by prolonged VC treatment is consistent with cell demise by autoschizis, not apoptosis. This report confirms and complements previous observations about this new mode of tumor cell death. It supports the contention that a combination of VC+VK(3), also named Apatone, could be co-administered as a nontoxic adjuvant with radiation and/or chemotherapies to kill bladder tumor cells and other cancer cells without any supplementary risk or side effects for patients.

  2. Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects.

    PubMed

    Schachat, Sandra R; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-04-01

    A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

  3. Chronic urinary tract infection and bladder carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Saeed; Al-Shammari, Ahmad; Al-Abkal, Jarrah

    2018-02-05

    This meta-analysis of published case-control and cohort studies sought to quantify the magnitude and direction of association between chronic UTI (defined as the infection of the urinary tract that either does not respond to treatment or keeps recurring) and risk of bladder carcinoma (BCa) (i.e., including mainly urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma). A literature search was conducted using Medline, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, Science Direct and Cochrane Library, which was supplemented with manual search of reference lists of the identified articles. Case-control and cohort studies examining UTI as a predictor of BCa risk published through June 2016 were eligible. Using random-effects models, odds ratios (OR) or relative risks (RR) from eligible studies were combined to synthesize summary effect estimates. The included studies were assessed for methodological quality and potential publication bias. Heterogeneity by study characteristics was examined by sub-group and meta-regression analyses. Eighteen case-control and three cohort studies published between 1963 and 2016 were eligible. Random-effects models showed that UTI was significantly associated with an increased BCa risk both in case-control studies (summary OR RE  = 2.33; 95% CI 1.86, 2.92) and cohort studies (summary RR RE  = 2.88; 95% CI 1.20, 6.89). The observed relationship of UTI with an increased BCa risk was independent of the study characteristics considered. No significant publication bias was detected. Chronic UTI was significantly and independently associated with an increased BCa risk. However, due to the presence of high between-study heterogeneity and inconsistent patterns of adjusted confounding effects, more data are needed to clarify the role of chronic UTI in causation of BCa and if established, prompt and effective treatment of UTI may minimize a substantial proportion of BCa risk.

  4. Species turnover drives β-diversity patterns across multiple spatial scales of plant-galling interactions in mountaintop grasslands.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Marcel Serra; Carneiro, Marco Antônio Alves; Branco, Cristina Alves; Borges, Rafael Augusto Xavier; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2018-01-01

    This study describes differences in species richness and composition of the assemblages of galling insects and their host plants at different spatial scales. Sampling was conducted along altitudinal gradients composed of campos rupestres and campos de altitude of two mountain complexes in southeastern Brazil: Espinhaço Range and Mantiqueira Range. The following hypotheses were tested: i) local and regional richness of host plants and galling insects are positively correlated; ii) beta diversity is the most important component of regional diversity of host plants and galling insects; and iii) Turnover is the main mechanism driving beta diversity of both host plants and galling insects. Local richness of galling insects and host plants increased with increasing regional richness of species, suggesting a pattern of unsaturated communities. The additive partition of regional richness (γ) into local and beta components shows that local richnesses (α) of species of galling insects and host plants are low relative to regional richness; the beta (β) component incorporates most of the regional richness. The multi-scale analysis of additive partitioning showed similar patterns for galling insects and host plants with the local component (α) incorporated a small part of regional richness. Beta diversity of galling insects and host plants were mainly the result of turnover, with little contribution from nesting. Although the species composition of galling insects and host plant species varied among sample sites, mountains and even mountain ranges, local richness remained relatively low. In this way, the addition of local habitats with different landscapes substantially affects regional richness. Each mountain contributes fundamentally to the composition of regional diversity of galling insects and host plants, and so the design of future conservation strategies should incorporate multiple scales.

  5. Contemporary use trends and survival outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy or bladder-preservation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Cahn, David B; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Ghiraldi, Eric M; Ristau, Benjamin T; Geynisman, Daniel M; Churilla, Thomas M; Horwitz, Eric M; Sobczak, Mark L; Chen, David Y T; Viterbo, Rosalia; Greenberg, Richard E; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G; Smaldone, Marc C

    2017-11-15

    The current study was performed to examine temporal trends and compare overall survival (OS) in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) or bladder-preservation therapy (BPT) for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The authors reviewed the National Cancer Data Base to identify patients with AJCC stage II to III urothelial carcinoma of the bladder from 2004 through 2013. Patients receiving BPT were stratified as having received any external-beam radiotherapy (any XRT), definitive XRT (50-80 grays), and definitive XRT with chemotherapy (CRT). Treatment trends and OS outcomes for the BPT and RC cohorts were evaluated using Cochran-Armitage tests, unadjusted Kaplan-Meier curves, adjusted Cox multivariate regression, and propensity score matching, using increasingly stringent selection criteria. A total of 32,300 patients met the inclusion criteria and were treated with RC (22,680 patients) or BPT (9620 patients). Of the patients treated with BPT, 26.4% (2540 patients) and 15.5% (1489 patients), respectively, were treated with definitive XRT and CRT. Improved OS was observed for RC in all groups. After adjustments with more rigorous statistical models controlling for confounders and with more restrictive BPT cohorts, the magnitude of the OS benefit became attenuated on multivariate (any XRT: hazard ratio [HR], 2.115 [95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.045-2.188]; definitive XRT: HR, 1.870 [95% CI, 1.773-1.972]; and CRT: HR, 1.578 [95% CI, 1.474-1.691]) and propensity score (any XRT: HR, 2.008 [95% CI, 1.871-2.154]; definitive XRT: HR, 1.606 [95% CI, 1.453-1.776]; and CRT: HR, 1.406 [95% CI, 1.235-1.601]) analyses. In the National Cancer Data Base, receipt of BPT was associated with decreased OS compared with RC in patients with stage II to III urothelial carcinoma. Increasingly stringent definitions of BPT and more rigorous statistical methods adjusting for selection biases attenuated observed survival differences. Cancer 2017;123:4337-45. © 2017

  6. Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas Accompanied by Previous or Synchronous Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer and Preoperative Hydronephrosis Might Have Worse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Nephroureterectomy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chengcai; Chi, Runmin; Huang, Liqun; Wang, Jinliang; Liu, Hailong; Xu, Ding; Qian, Subo; Qian, Xiaoqiang; Qi, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify predictors of clinicopathologic features and oncologic outcomes in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). The medical records of 172 patients treated with RNU from January 2001 to September 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Logistic regression and survival analysis methodology were respectively used to evaluate predictors of clinicopathologic features and oncologic outcomes. Of the enrolled 172 patients, 80 (46.5%) had renal pelvic tumors, 67 (39%) had ureteral tumors, and the remaining 25 (14.5%) patients had multifocal tumors. Compared with patients with renal pelvic tumors, those with ureteral and multifocal tumors were more likely to have previous or synchronous nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and severe hydronephrosis (P = .001 and P < .001, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that previous or synchronous NMIBC was significantly associated with worse renal function and high grade (P = .034 and P = .014, respectively), and severe hydronephrosis independently predicted worse renal function and positive lymph node or lymphovascular invasion status (P = .001 and P = .007, respectively). Moreover, severe hydronephrosis was an independent risk factor for overall survival and cancer-specific survival in multivariate analysis (P = .025 and P = .045, respectively). Multifocality and previous or synchronous NMIBC were significantly associated with bladder-recurrence-free survival (P = .023 and P = .001, respectively). Upper tract urothelial carcinoma accompanied by previous or synchronous NMIBC and preoperative severe hydronephrosis could have worse oncologic outcomes after RNU. These common accompanied diagnoses could be valuable for guiding preoperative planning and postoperative adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of cell cycle regulators, 14-3-3σ and p53 proteins, and vimentin in canine transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Bonnet, Alejandro; Herráez, Pedro; Aguirre, Maria; Suárez-Bonnet, Elena; Andrada, Marisa; Rodríguez, Francisco; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The study of the expression of 14-3-3σ, p53, and vimentin proteins in canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) evaluating differences with normal bladder tissues, and the association with clinicopathological variables. We analyze by immunohistochemistry in 19 canine TCCs the expression of 14-3-3σ, p53, and vimentin using monoclonal antibodys. A semiquantitative scoring method was employed and statistical analysis was performed to display relationships between variables. In contrast to normal urinary bladder epithelium, which showed high levels of 14-3-3σ, its expression was decreased in 53% of the studied tumors (P = 0.0344). The 14-3-3σ protein was expressed by neoplastic emboli and by highly infiltrative neoplastic cells. The p53 protein was expressed in 26% of TCCs, but no significant association between 14-3-3σ and p53 was detected. Neoplastic epithelial cells displayed vimentin immunoreactivity in 21% of TCCs, and a positive correlation with mitotic index was observed (P = 0.042). Coexpression of vimentin and 14-3-3σ by highly infiltrative neoplastic cells was also observed. 14-3-3σ is deregulated in canine TCCs and its expression by highly infiltrative tumor cells may be related to the acquisition of aggressive behavior. Furthermore, this article reinforce the role of canine TCC as relevant model of human urothelial carcinoma and we suggest 14-3-3σ as a potential therapeutic target. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of 14-3-3σ in canine TCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The North American gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of hackberries (Cannabaceae: Celtis spp.).

    Treesearch

    Raymond J. Gagne; John Moser

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-three species of gall midges occur exclusively on hackberries in North America north of Mexico. Twenty-one of them belong to the genus Celticecis and form complex, dehiscent galls on leaves and the current year's twigs. Celticecis species are definitely known only from the typical subgenus of Celtis, distributed through much of the Holarctic Region....

  9. OBSERVATIONS ON SOME CAUSES OF GALL STONE FORMATION : III. THE RELATION OF THE REACTION OF THE BILE TO EXPERIMENTAL CHOLELITHIASIS.

    PubMed

    Drury, D R; McMaster, P D; Rous, P

    1924-02-29

    As previous papers from our laboratory have shown, there exists a well defined tendency for calcium carbonate to come out of solution in the normal liver bile of the dog, and for it to be deposited on certain nuclei not infrequent in the secretion under pathological circumstances. Gall stones that had arisen in this fashion were a frequent occurrence in the intubated animals we studied. The present paper is concerned with the reasons for the absence of such stones from dogs with an intact biliary tract. The solubility of calcium carbonate is known to be markedly affected by the reaction of the fluid in which it is contained. The normal liver bile, out of which it tends to precipitate, is alkaline, with an average pH of 8.20 but in the gall bladder where conditions might otherwise seem especially favorable to precipitation, the secretion undergoes a change toward the acid side, becoming on long sojourn there, strongly acid to litmus (pH 5.18 to 6.00). From bile as thus altered, no carbonate precipitation takes place, even when it becomes greatly concentrated as in fasting animals or after obstruction of the common duct. Furthermore, carbonate which has precipitated out of liver bile on standing dissolves again in it when the fluid is rendered slightly acid in vitro, or, in some cases merely neutral to litmus. There are several obvious reasons for the absence of carbonate stones from the normal ducts under ordinary conditions,-notably the motility of these latter, the flushing that they undergo from an intermittently quickened bile stream, and the cleansing and possibly antagonistic action of the secretion elaborated by the duct mucosa. In the fasting animal, one at least of these influences is almost done away with, the rate of bile flow is so greatly cut down; while furthermore the calcium concentration of the secretion undergoes a considerable increase. But pari passu with these changes there occurs one in the bile reaction, a diminution in alkalinity so great

  10. Sweet Tetra-Trophic Interactions: Multiple Evolution of Nectar Secretion, a Defensive Extended Phenotype in Cynipid Gall Wasps.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, James A; Melika, George; Stone, Graham N

    2017-01-01

    Many herbivores employ reward-based mutualisms with ants to gain protection from natural enemies. We examine the evolutionary dynamics of a tetra-trophic interaction in which gall wasp herbivores induce their host oaks to produce nectar-secreting galls, which attract ants that provide protection from parasitoids. We show that, consistent with other gall defensive traits, nectar secretion has evolved repeatedly across the oak gall wasp tribe and also within a single genus (Disholcaspis) that includes many nectar-inducing species. Once evolved, nectar secretion is never lost in Disholcaspis, consistent with high defensive value of this trait. We also show that evolution of nectar secretion is correlated with a transition from solitary to aggregated oviposition, resulting in clustered nectar-secreting galls, which produce a resource that ants can more easily monopolize. Such clustering is commonly seen in ant guard mutualisms. We suggest that correlated evolution between maternal oviposition and larval nectar induction traits has enhanced the effectiveness of this gall defense strategy.

  11. [Concomitant oncopathological changes in the prostate of urinary bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystoprostateectomy].

    PubMed

    Komyakov, B K; Sergeev, A V; Fadeev, V A; Ismailov, K I; Ulyanov, A Yu; Shmelev, A Yu; Onoshko, M V

    2017-09-01

    To determine the incidence of spreading bladder transitional cell carcinoma and primary adenocarcinoma to the prostate in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. From 1995 to 2016, 283 men underwent radical cystectomy with removal of the bladder, perivesical tissue, prostate, seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes. Prostate sparing cystectomy was performed in 45 (13.7%) patients. The whole prostate and the apex of the prostate were preserved in 21 (6.4%) and 24 (7.3%) patients, respectively. The spread of transitional cell cancer of the bladder to the prostate occurred in 50 (15.2%) patients. Twelve (3.6%) patients were found to have primary prostate adenocarcinoma. Clinically significant prostate cancer was diagnosed in 4 (33.3%) patients. We believe that the high oncological risk of prostate sparing cystectomy, despite some functional advantages, dictates the need for complete removal of the prostate in the surgical treatment of bladder cancer.

  12. Patterns of cell elongation in the determination of the final shape in galls of Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae) on Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Thiago Alves; de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Suzuki, Aline Yasko Marinho; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Cell redifferentiation, division, and elongation are recurrent processes, which occur during gall development, and are dependent on the cellulose microfibrils reorientation. We hypothesized that changes in the microfibrils orientation from non-galled tissues to galled ones occur and determine the final gall shape. This determination is caused by a new tissue zonation, its hyperplasia, and relative cell hypertrophy. The impact of the insect's activity on these patterns of cell development was herein tested in Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae-Baccharis dracunculifolia system. In this system, the microfibrils are oriented perpendicularly to the longest cell axis in elongated cells and randomly in isodiametric ones, either in non-galled or in galled tissues. The isodiametric cells of the abaxial epidermis in non-galled tissues divided and elongated periclinally, forming the outer gall epidermis. The anticlinally elongated cells of the abaxial palisade layer and the isodiametric cells of the spongy parenchyma originated the gall outer cortex with hypertrophied and periclinally elongated cells. The anticlinally elongated cells of the adaxial palisade layer originated the inner cortex with hypertrophied and periclinally elongated cells in young and mature galls and isodiametric cells in senescent galls. The isodiametric cells of the adaxial epidermis elongated periclinally in the inner gall epidermis. The current investigation demonstrates the role of cellulose microfibril reorientation for gall development. Once many factors other than this reorientation act on gall development, it should be interesting to check the possible relationship of the new cell elongation patterns with the pectic composition of the cell walls.

  13. Endometrial stromal sarcoma involving the urinary bladder: a study of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Latour, Mathieu; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2014-07-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) involving the urinary bladder is very rare, with no prior series reported. We identified 6 cases of low-grade ESS involving the bladder at our institution (1998 to 2013), 5 of them consults. The median age at bladder involvement was 60 years (range, 44 to 77 y). One patient presented with bladder involvement at initial diagnosis of ESS. The remaining 5 cases with bladder involvement presented 7 to 30 years (mean 18 y) after a known diagnosis of ESS (n=2) or after a remote history of hysterectomy with an uncertain diagnosis (n=3). The location of bladder involvement included dome (n=1), trigone (n=2), diffuse (n=1), and unknown (n=2). Two cases demonstrated worm-like infiltrating tumor nests classic of low-grade ESS with little stromal reaction with retraction artifact mimicking vascular invasion. One case originating from the ovary showed focal glandular differentiation in the bladder, resembling endometriosis. Two cases had abundant keloidal collagen formation, arranged haphazardly or in a sunburst pattern. One case showed primitive cells infiltrating entirely hyalinized stroma, after chemotherapy given for a misdiagnosis of urothelial carcinoma. CD31 was negative in all cases, except for 1 case with obvious large vessel invasion. The differential diagnosis included a large nested variant of urothelial carcinoma, carcinoid tumor, synovial sarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor, Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and endometriosis. CD10 was strongly positive in 5 cases, and 1 case had very focal, moderate staining. Estrogen receptor showed strong and diffuse staining in all 6 cases. Progesterone receptor showed moderate to strong staining in 5 cases and focal staining in 1 case. One case showed PAX8 expression, and 2 cases showed p16 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression. CD56 showed weak to strong staining in 4 cases. Two cases had diffuse synaptophysin, and 1 case had focal p63 positivity. GATA-3, CD34, and CD99 were negative

  14. Foods and risk of bladder cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Balbi, J C; Larrinaga, M T; De Stefani, E; Mendilaharsu, M; Ronco, A L; Boffetta, P; Brennan, P

    2001-10-01

    A case-control study on 144 cases of transitional cell bladder carcinoma and 576 hospitalized controls was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. Barbecued meat, salted meat and fried eggs were associated with significant increased risks of bladder cancer (odds ratio (OR) for high intake of salted meat 4.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.24-7.27). On the other hand, all fruits, cooked vegetables, potatoes and cheese were associated with inverse associations (OR for high consumption of potatoes 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.64). The associations with salted and barbecued meat suggest that the way of preserving or cooking meat play a role in bladder carcinogenesis. More precisely, N-nitroso compounds and heterocyclic amines could be involved in this process.

  15. Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

  16. [Efficacy of balneotherapy in cholelithiasis].

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, A Iu; Vakhrushev, Ia M

    2011-01-01

    To assess therapeutic efficacy of mineral water Uvinskaya at a prestone stage of cholelithiasis. A total of 135 cholelithiasis patients entered the trial. Of them 57 patients had a prestone stage and 78--stone stage of the disease. The stages were verified by clinical data, findings of dynamic hepatobiliscintigraphy, biochemical bile tests, anatomoemission spectroscopy with induction-bound plasma. 57 patients at prestone stage of cholelithiasis received balneotherapy with mineral water Uvinskaya. The treatment relieved pain syndrome, dyspeptic symptoms, enhanced absorption-excretion function of the liver, prolonged the time of maximal gall-bladder filling, shortened radiopharmaceutical half-life in the gall-bladder, raised the level of trace elements (magnesium, iron, potassium) in the bile, improved gall-bladder contraction, lithogenic bile characteristics. Mineral water Uvinskaya has a positive effect in a physical-chemical stage of cholelithiasis.

  17. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genomic heterogeneity at a nucleotide and chromosomal level in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Pengyuan; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Zhang, Jianmin; Luo, Wei; Qin, Maochun; Bshara, Wiam; Conroy, Jeffrey M.; Sabatini, Linda; Vedell, Peter; Xiong, Donghai; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin; Shen, He; Li, Yinwei; Omilian, Angela R.; Hill, Annette; Head, Karen; Guru, Khurshid; Kunnev, Dimiter; Leach, Robert; Eng, Kevin H.; Darlak, Christopher; Hoeflich, Christopher; Veeranki, Srividya; Glenn, Sean; You, Ming; Pruitt, Steven C.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Using complete genome analysis, we sequenced five bladder tumors accrued from patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB) and identified a spectrum of genomic aberrations. In three tumors, complex genotype changes were noted. All three had tumor protein p53 mutations and a relatively large number of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs; average of 11.2 per megabase), structural variants (SVs; average of 46), or both. This group was best characterized by chromothripsis and the presence of subclonal populations of neoplastic cells or intratumoral mutational heterogeneity. Here, we provide evidence that the process of chromothripsis in TCC-UB is mediated by nonhomologous end-joining using kilobase, rather than megabase, fragments of DNA, which we refer to as “stitchers,” to repair this process. We postulate that a potential unifying theme among tumors with the more complex genotype group is a defective replication–licensing complex. A second group (two bladder tumors) had no chromothripsis, and a simpler genotype, WT tumor protein p53, had relatively few SNVs (average of 5.9 per megabase) and only a single SV. There was no evidence of a subclonal population of neoplastic cells. In this group, we used a preclinical model of bladder carcinoma cell lines to study a unique SV (translocation and amplification) of the gene glutamate receptor ionotropic N-methyl D-aspertate as a potential new therapeutic target in bladder cancer. PMID:24469795

  18. Toxic effects and antitumor response of gemcitabine in combination with piroxicam treatment in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Marconato, Laura; Zini, Eric; Lindner, Donna; Suslak-Brown, Lisa; Nelson, Victoria; Jeglum, Ann K

    2011-04-15

    To investigate whether combined treatment with gemcitabine and piroxicam in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder is tolerated and provides an advantage in terms of survival time over previously reported treatments. Clinical trial. Animals-38 dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder. Dogs were treated with gemcitabine (800 mg/m(2), IV over 30 to 60 minutes, q 7 d) and piroxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h). Complete blood cell counts were monitored prior to each gemcitabine treatment. All toxic effects of gemcitabine in dogs were recorded. Primary tumors were ultrasonographically reevaluated after 4 gemcitabine treatments. Dogs received a median of 8 gemcitabine treatments (range, 1 to 38 treatments/dog). In response to treatment, 10 of 38 (26.3%) dogs had grade 1 gastrointestinal tract signs, 11 (28.9%) had grade 2, and 5 (13.2%) had grade 3. Grade 1 neutropenia developed in 6 (15.8%) dogs and grade 2 and 3 neutropenia in 2 (5.3%) dogs each. Thrombocytopenia was rare. All dogs had improvement of clinical signs of disease. Two dogs had a complete tumor response, 8 had a partial response, 19 had stable disease, and 8 had progressive disease. Median survival time with treatment was 230 days. Administration of gemcitabine in combination with piroxicam treatment failed to provide a longer overall survival time in dogs with TCC of the urinary bladder, compared with previously reported treatment strategies. However, this combination of chemotherapy did provide a new treatment alternative with fewer adverse effects.

  19. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Checklist of host plants of insect galls in the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Walter Santos; Porfírio Júnior, Eder Dasdoriano; Ribeiro, Bárbara Araújo; Silva, Taiza Moura; Silva, Elienai Cândida E; Guilherme, Frederico Augusto Guimarães; Scareli-Santos, Claudia; Dos Santos, Benedito Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of host plants of insect galls have been performed in different regions of Brazil. The knowledge of species of host plants of insect galls is fundamental to further studies of plant-galling insect interactions. However, a list of host plant species of gall-inducing insects has not yet been compiled for the flora of the Midwest Region of Brazil. We provide a compilation of the plant species reported to host insect galls in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Altogether we found records for 181 species of 47 families of host plants, which hosted 365 distinct gall morphotypes.

  1. Use of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Algorithms with Gene Expression Profiling to Predict Recurrent Nonmuscle Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Georg; Mitra, Anirban P; Mitra, Sheetal A; Almal, Arpit A; Steven, Kenneth E; Skinner, Donald G; Fry, David W; Lenehan, Peter F; Worzel, William P; Cote, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high recurrence risk of nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma it is crucial to distinguish patients at high risk from those with indolent disease. In this study we used a machine learning algorithm to identify the genes in patients with nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma at initial presentation that were most predictive of recurrence. We used the genes in a molecular signature to predict recurrence risk within 5 years after transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Whole genome profiling was performed on 112 frozen nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma specimens obtained at first presentation on Human WG-6 BeadChips (Illumina®). A genetic programming algorithm was applied to evolve classifier mathematical models for outcome prediction. Cross-validation based resampling and gene use frequencies were used to identify the most prognostic genes, which were combined into rules used in a voting algorithm to predict the sample target class. Key genes were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The classifier set included 21 genes that predicted recurrence. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was done for these genes in a subset of 100 patients. A 5-gene combined rule incorporating a voting algorithm yielded 77% sensitivity and 85% specificity to predict recurrence in the training set, and 69% and 62%, respectively, in the test set. A singular 3-gene rule was constructed that predicted recurrence with 80% sensitivity and 90% specificity in the training set, and 71% and 67%, respectively, in the test set. Using primary nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma from initial occurrences genetic programming identified transcripts in reproducible fashion, which were predictive of recurrence. These findings could potentially impact nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma management. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pseudocarcinomatous urothelial hyperplasia of the bladder: clinical findings and followup of 70 patients.

    PubMed

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2013-06-01

    Pseudocarcinomatous urothelial hyperplasia is rare and almost exclusively described in the pathology literature. We reviewed 70 cases during a 9.5-year period. Two specimens were taken from biopsies done at our institution and 68 were from cases referred for consultation. Samples were obtained from a total of 60 men and 10 women with a mean age of 67 years (range 33 to 85). Of 68 patients with information available 52 (76.5%) underwent prior pelvic irradiation, 2 received systemic chemotherapy only, 3 had an indwelling bladder catheter, 2 received intravesical chemotherapy, 1 had been treated with radical prostatectomy, 4 had severe peripheral vascular disease, 1 had an arteriovenous malformation, 1 had sickle cell disease and only 2 (2.9%) had no identifiable contributing factors. Pseudocarcinomatous urothelial hyperplasia developed an average of 54.6 months (range 9 months to 13 years) after prior irradiation. Hematuria was the most common clinical presentation, noted in 45 of 51 patients with data available. Of 48 patients with data endoscopy revealed erythema in 20, a papillary/polypoid lesion in 12, broad-based elevated erythematous lesions in 6, erythematous bullous edema in 5, shallow bleeding ulcers in 4 and prominent trabeculation in 1. Additional findings in the bladder were carcinoma in situ in 3 cases, and dysplasia, low grade papillary urothelial carcinoma and papillary urothelial hyperplasia in 1 each. Three of the 40 patients with an average followup of 27 months (range 1 to 94) subsequently had urothelial carcinoma, including 1 who had prior positive cytology and fluorescence in situ hybridization, 1 with prior high grade papillary urothelial carcinoma and 1 with an unknown history. Although pseudocarcinomatous urothelial hyperplasia mimics invasive urothelial carcinoma clinically and histologically, it is not related to urothelial neoplasms. Almost all patients have causes of bladder ischemia, most commonly a history of remote prior pelvic

  3. Galle Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 June 2002) The Science This image is of part of Galle Crater, located at 51.9S, 29.5W. This image was taken far enough south and late enough into the southern hemisphere fall to catch observe water ice clouds partially obscuring the surface. The most striking aspect of the surface is the dissected layered unit to the left in the image. Other areas also appear to have layering, but they are either more obscured by clouds or are less well defined on the surface. The layers appear to be mostly flat lying and layer boundaries appear as topographic lines would on a map, but there are a few areas where it appears that these layers have been deformed to some level. Other areas of the image contain rugged, mountainous terrain as well as a separate pitted terrain where the surface appears to be a separate unit from the mountains and the layered terrain. The Story Galle Crater is officially named after a German astronomer who, in 1846, was the first to observe the planet Neptune. It is better known, however, as the 'Happy Face Crater.' The image above focuses on too small an area of the crater to see its beguiling grin, but you can catch the rocky line of a 'half-smile' in the context image to the right (to the left of the red box). While water ice clouds make some of the surface harder to see, nothing detracts from the fabulous layering at the center left-hand edge of the image. If you click on the above image, the scalloped layers almost look as if a giant knife has swirled through a landscape of cake frosting. These layers, the rugged, mountains near them, and pits on the surface (upper to middle section of the image on the right-hand side) all create varying textures on the crater floor. With such different features in the same place, geologists have a lot to study to figure out what has happened in the crater since it formed.

  4. Checklist of host plants of insect galls in the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Porfírio Júnior, Eder Dasdoriano; Ribeiro, Bárbara Araújo; Silva, Taiza Moura; Silva, Elienai Cândida e; Guilherme, Frederico Augusto Guimarães; Scareli-Santos, Claudia; dos Santos, Benedito Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Surveys of host plants of insect galls have been performed in different regions of Brazil. The knowledge of species of host plants of insect galls is fundamental to further studies of plant-galling insect interactions. However, a list of host plant species of gall-inducing insects has not yet been compiled for the flora of the Midwest Region of Brazil. New information We provide a compilation of the plant species reported to host insect galls in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Altogether we found records for 181 species of 47 families of host plants, which hosted 365 distinct gall morphotypes. PMID:26696767

  5. Electric Ablation with Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) in Vital Hepatic Structures and Follow-up Investigation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinhua; Ren, Zhigang; Zhu, Tongyin; Zhang, Xiongxin; Peng, Zhiyi; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Yin, Shengyong; Sun, Junhui; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-11-09

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) with microsecond-pulsed electric fields (μsPEFs) can effectively ablate hepatocellular carcinomas in animal models. This preclinical study evaluates the feasibility and safety of IRE on porcine livers. Altogether, 10 pigs were included. Computed tomography (CT) was used to guide two-needle electrodes that were inserted near the hilus hepatis and gall bladder. Animals were followed-up at 2 hours and at 2, 7 and 14 days post-treatment. During and after μsPEF ablation, electrocardiographs found no cardiovascular events, and contrast CT found no portal vein thrombosis. There was necrosis in the ablation zone. Mild cystic oedema around the gall bladder was found 2 hours post-treatment. Pathological studies showed extensive cell death. There was no large vessel damage, but there was mild endothelial damage in some small vessels. Follow-up liver function tests and routine blood tests showed immediate liver function damage and recovery from the damage, which correlated to the pathological changes. These results indicate that μsPEF ablation affects liver tissue and is less effective in vessels, which enable μsPEFs to ablate central tumour lesions close to the hilus hepatis and near large vessels and bile ducts, removing some of the limitations and contraindications of conventional thermal ablation.

  6. Electric Ablation with Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) in Vital Hepatic Structures and Follow-up Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinhua; Ren, Zhigang; Zhu, Tongyin; Zhang, Xiongxin; Peng, Zhiyi; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Yin, Shengyong; Sun, Junhui; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) with microsecond-pulsed electric fields (μsPEFs) can effectively ablate hepatocellular carcinomas in animal models. This preclinical study evaluates the feasibility and safety of IRE on porcine livers. Altogether, 10 pigs were included. Computed tomography (CT) was used to guide two-needle electrodes that were inserted near the hilus hepatis and gall bladder. Animals were followed-up at 2 hours and at 2, 7 and 14 days post-treatment. During and after μsPEF ablation, electrocardiographs found no cardiovascular events, and contrast CT found no portal vein thrombosis. There was necrosis in the ablation zone. Mild cystic oedema around the gall bladder was found 2 hours post-treatment. Pathological studies showed extensive cell death. There was no large vessel damage, but there was mild endothelial damage in some small vessels. Follow-up liver function tests and routine blood tests showed immediate liver function damage and recovery from the damage, which correlated to the pathological changes. These results indicate that μsPEF ablation affects liver tissue and is less effective in vessels, which enable μsPEFs to ablate central tumour lesions close to the hilus hepatis and near large vessels and bile ducts, removing some of the limitations and contraindications of conventional thermal ablation. PMID:26549662

  7. Intravesical markers for delineation of target volume during external focal irradiation of bladder carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, Maarten C C M; van Andel, George; Bel, Arjen; Gangel, Pieter; van de Kamer, Jeroen B

    2007-07-01

    A clip forceps was developed which can insert markers at the border of a bladder tumour through a rigid cystoscope. This technique proved to be simple and safe and is of help for delineation of the target volume during CT simulation for focal boost irradiation of bladder cancer.

  8. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Retrospective, Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study of 107 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquier, David, E-mail: d-pasquier@o-lambret.fr; Barney, Brandon; Sundar, Santhanam

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Small cell carcinomas of the bladder (SCCB) account for fewer than 1% of all urinary bladder tumors. There is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment for SCCB. Methods and Materials: Fifteen academic Rare Cancer Network medical centers contributed SCCB cases. The eligibility criteria were as follows: pure or mixed SCC; local, locoregional, and metastatic stages; and age ≥18 years. The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated from the date of diagnosis according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze survival as functions of clinical and therapeutic factors. Results: The study includedmore » 107 patients (mean [±standard deviation, SD] age, 69.6 [±10.6] years; mean follow-up time, 4.4 years) with primary bladder SCC, with 66% of these patients having pure SCC. Seventy-two percent and 12% of the patients presented with T2-4N0M0 and T2-4N1-3M0 stages, respectively, and 16% presented with synchronous metastases. The most frequent curative treatments were radical surgery and chemotherapy, sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and radical surgery alone. The median (interquartile range, IQR) OS and DFS times were 12.9 months (IQR, 7-32 months) and 9 months (IQR, 5-23 months), respectively. The metastatic, T2-4N0M0, and T2-4N1-3M0 groups differed significantly (P=.001) in terms of median OS and DFS. In a multivariate analysis, impaired creatinine clearance (OS and DFS), clinical stage (OS and DFS), a Karnofsky performance status <80 (OS), and pure SCC histology (OS) were independent and significant adverse prognostic factors. In the patients with nonmetastatic disease, the type of treatment (ie radical surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy vs conservative treatment) did not significantly influence OS or DFS (P=.7). Conclusions: The prognosis for SCCB remains poor. The finding that radical cystectomy did not influence DFS or OS in the patients with nonmetastatic

  9. Orthotopic AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma model presented an elevated methemoglobin proportion in the increased total hemoglobin content when evaluated in vivo by single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tengfei; Davis, Carole A.; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel W.; Piao, Daqing

    2017-02-01

    In vivo single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy (SfRS) was performed on an orthotopic AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma model to explore potential spectroscopic features revealing neoplastic changes. AY-27 bladder tumor cells were intravesically instilled in four rats and allowed to implant and grow for one week, with two additional rats as the control. A total of 107 SfRS measurements were taken from 27 sites on two control bladders and 80 from four AY-27 treated bladders. The spectral profiles obtained from AY-27 treated bladders revealed various levels of a methemoglobin (MetHb) characteristic spectral feature around 635nm. A multisegment spectral analysis method estimated concentrations of five chromophore compositions including oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, MetHb, lipid and water. The total hemoglobin concentration ([HbT]), the MetHb proportion in the total hemoglobin and the lipid volume content showed possible correlations. The 80 measurements from the AY-27 treated bladders could separate to three sub-sets according to the MetHb proportion. Specifically, 72 were in subset 1 with low proportion (5.3%<[MetHb]<7%), 6 in subset 2 with moderate proportion (7%<[MetHb]<30%), and 2 in subset 3 with significant proportion (>30%). When grouped according to [MetHB], the [HbT] increased from 368 μM of subset 1 to 488 μM of subset 2 to 541 μM of subset 3, in comparison to the 285 μM of the control. The increased total hemoglobin and the elevation of MetHb proportion may signify angiogenesis and degradation in hemoglobin oxygen-transport. Additionally, the lipid volume content decreased from 2.58% in the control to <0.2% in the tumor groups, indicating disruption of subepithelium tissue architecture.

  10. Fluorescence cystoscopy in the management of bladder cancer: a help for the urologist!

    PubMed

    Jichlinski, Patrice; Leisinger, Hans-Jurg

    2005-01-01

    As a disease characterized by a nature polymorphic and fluctuant in its evolution, superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder remains a perpetual therapeutic challenge, and raises a great interest in the development of new diagnostic and surveillance techniques. This paper reviews 10 years of experience of fluorescence cystoscopy, a simple technique perfectly adapted to the current endoscopic equipment. Its principle is to enhance the visual contrast between benign and malignant cells. Three photosensitizing agents are available, two prodrugs: delta-aminolevulinic acid or hexaminolevulinate, and a natural substance: hypericin. With a detection rate of over 90% for carcinoma in situ and a real potential for detecting small tumors overlooked by standard cystoscopy, fluorescence cystoscopy may be clearly recommended in clinical practice. This technique favors a standardization of superficial bladder cancer endoscopic management and is susceptible to have a real impact on the disease recurrence and progression rate.

  11. Urosepsis complicated by a spontaneous bladder perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a case of a 72-year-old diabetic male s/p pelvic irradiation for prostate carcinoma who arrived in the emergency department with complaints of shaking chills. After admission for urosepsis, he developed severe abdominal pain and examination revealed a diffusely tender abdomen. The patient was diagnosed with spontaneous urinary bladder perforation and underwent surgery. After several weeks of intravenous antibiotics, he was discharged with multiple drains in place and bilateral nephrostomy tubes. PMID:22674104

  12. Urosepsis complicated by a spontaneous bladder perforation.

    PubMed

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2011-11-08

    The authors present a case of a 72-year-old diabetic male s/p pelvic irradiation for prostate carcinoma who arrived in the emergency department with complaints of shaking chills. After admission for urosepsis, he developed severe abdominal pain and examination revealed a diffusely tender abdomen. The patient was diagnosed with spontaneous urinary bladder perforation and underwent surgery. After several weeks of intravenous antibiotics, he was discharged with multiple drains in place and bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

  13. Dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water changed the morphology of urinary bladder but not the expression of DNA repair genes of bladder transitional epithelium in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Amy; Wolf, Douglas C; Sen, Banalata; Knapp, Geremy W; Holladay, Steven D; Huckle, William R; Caceci, Thomas; Robertson, John L

    2009-06-01

    Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In F344 rats, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA[V]) increases transitional cell carcinoma. Arsenic-induced inhibition of DNA repair has been reported in cultured cell lines and in lymphocytes of arsenic-exposed humans, but it has not been studied in urinary bladder. Should inhibition of DNA damage repair in transitional epithelium occur, it may contribute to carcinogenesis or cocarcinogenesis. We investigated morphology and expression of DNA repair genes in F344 rat transitional cells following up to 100 ppm DMA(V) in drinking water for four weeks. Mitochondria were very sensitive to DMA(V), and swollen mitochondria appeared to be the main source of vacuoles in the transitional epithelium. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time RT PCR) showed the mRNA levels of tested DNA repair genes, ataxia telangectasia mutant (ATM), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1), excision repair cross-complementing group 3/xeroderma pigmentosum B (ERCC3/XPB), and DNA polymerase beta (Polbeta), were not altered by DMA(V). These data suggested that either DMA(V) does not affect DNA repair in the bladder or DMA(V) affects DNA repair without affecting baseline mRNA levels of repair genes. The possibility remains that DMA(V) may lower damage-induced increases in repair gene expression or cause post-translational modification of repair enzymes.

  14. Local anaesthetic 5-aminolaeuvulinic acid photodynamic therapy in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackley, David C.

    The aim of this thesis was to study aspects of the treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma using photodynamic therapy by combining the delivery of laser light energy with the photosensitiser 5-aminolaeuvulinic acid (ALA). ALA is a novel pro-drug, which can be absorbed intravesically where it is converted in diseased urothelium and tumour to the active photosensitiser, PpK. Following whole bladder light irradiation there is release of toxic radicals, which are scavenged by oxygen causing selective necrosis (PDT). Preliminary studies on animals suggest that ALA is superior to earlier bladder PDT sensitisers in that generalised photosensitivity and bladder contracture are avoided. These problems in conjunction with the complexity of PDT whereby a general anaesthetic with rigid cystoscopy under continuous irrigation are required, have previously limited the development of this modality as a practical therapy. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor overexpression is associated with outcome in invasive urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder: a retrospective study of patients treated using radical cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Kim, Jenny J; Faraj, Sheila F; Chaux, Alcides; Bezerra, Stephania M; Munari, Enrico; Ellis, Carla; Sharma, Rajni; Keizman, Daniel; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Schoenberg, Mark; Eisenberger, Mario; Carducci, Michael; Netto, George J

    2014-06-01

    To assess the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) expression in urothelial carcinoma (UC) and its prognostic role in relation to clinicopathologic parameters. A total of 100 cases of invasive UC were evaluated using tissue microarrays. Membranous IGF1R staining was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. A scoring method analogous to that of HER2 expression in breast carcinoma was used, and the highest score was assigned in each tumor. IGF1R was considered overexpressed in cases with score≥1. We found IGF1R overexpression in 62% of invasive UC. IGF1R overexpression was associated with race (P=.04) and pT category (P=.03). Median follow-up was 29 months (range, 0.5-212). Progression rate was 60%, and overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality rates were 69% and 51%, respectively. In invasive UC, IGF1R overexpression was significantly associated with overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality (Mantel Cox P=.0002 and P=.006, respectively). IGF1R overexpression was associated with increased hazard ratios (HRs) for overall mortality (HR=2.63, P=.001) and cancer-specific mortality (HR=2.45, P=.01), independently and after adjusting for clinicopathologic features and treatment modalities. We found IGF1R overexpression in 62% of bladder UC. More importantly, IGF1R overexpression was a significant predictor of overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality, suggesting its potential role as a prognosticator in UC of bladder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combined Modality Treatment for Bladder Preservation in Elderly Patients With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Turgeon, Guy-Anne; Souhami, Luis, E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca; Cury, Fabio L.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To review our experience with bladder-preserving trimodality treatment (TMT) using hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of elderly patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of elderly patients treated with TMT using hypofractionated IMRT (50 Gy in 20 fractions) with concomitant weekly radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Eligibility criteria were as follows: age ≥70 years, a proven diagnosis of muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stage T2-T3N0M0 disease, and receipt of TMT with curative intent. Response rate was assessed by cystoscopic evaluation and bladder biopsy. Results: 24 patients with a median age of 79 years were eligible.more » A complete response was confirmed in 83% of the patients. Of the remaining patients, 1 of them underwent salvage cystectomy, and no disease was found in the bladder on histopathologic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 28 months, of the patients with a complete response, 2 patients had muscle-invasive recurrence, 1 experienced locoregional failure, and 3 experienced distant metastasis. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates at 3 years were 61% and 71%, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 75% have a disease-free and functioning bladder. All patients completed hypofractionated IMRT, and 19 patients tolerated all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities occurred in only 4% of the patients, and acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities, liver toxicities, or both were experienced by 17% of the cohort. No patient experienced grade 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy appears to be an effective and well-tolerated curative treatment strategy in the elderly population and should be considered for patients who are not candidates for cystectomy or who wish to avoid

  17. Frequency and prevention of laparoscopic port site infection.

    PubMed

    Taj, Muhammad Naeem; Iqbal, Yasmeen; Akbar, Zakia

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness and safety of the nonpowder surgical glove for extraction of the gallbladder in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The study was carried out in Capital Hospital Islamabad and in a private hospital. The duration of study was from March 2009 to March 2012. This was an observational study carried out in 492 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy using the surgical glove for extraction of the gallbladder and compared with the conventional method of gall bladder removal in two hospitals were analyzed. The operative findings, port site infection and co morbid conditions were evaluated. Postoperative wound infection was found in 27 (5.48%) of 492 cases. Umbilical port infection was found in 26 (5.28%) of cases in which gall bladder was removed without endogloves and only one case (0.2%) had infection when gall bladder was removed with the endogloves. Wound infection was more in acute cholecystitis (25.9%) and empyema of Gall Bladder (44.4%). Among the co morbid conditions, diabetes mellitus has got higher frequency of wound infection (44%). The use of the surgical glove for extraction of the gallbladder is safe, cheap, simple and potentially reduces significant morbidity. Its routine use at laparoscopic cholecystectomy is mandatory in all cases.

  18. Expression of gap junction protein connexin 43 in bovine urinary bladder tumours.

    PubMed

    Corteggio, A; Florio, J; Roperto, F; Borzacchiello, G

    2011-01-01

    The aetiopathogenesis of urinary bladder tumours in cattle involves prolonged ingestion of bracken fern and infection by bovine papillomavirus types 1 or 2 (BPV-1/2). The oncogenic activity of BPV is largely associated with the major oncoprotein E5. Gap junctions are the only communicating junctions found in animal tissues and are composed of proteins known as connexins. Alterations in connexin expression have been associated with oncogenesis. The present study investigated biochemically and immunohistochemically the expression of connexin 43 in samples of normal (n=2), dysplastic (n=3) and neoplastic (n=23) bovine urothelium. The tumours included 10 carcinomas in situ, five papillary urothelial carcinomas and eight invasive urothelial carcinomas. Normal and dysplastic urothelium had membrane expression of connexin 43, but this was reduced in samples of carcinoma in situ. Papillary urothelial carcinomas showed moderate cytoplasmic and membrane labelling, while invasive carcinoma showed loss of connexin 43 expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer-assisted bladder cancer grading: α-shapes for color space decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, M. K. K.; Parwani, Anil V.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2016-03-01

    According to American Cancer Society, around 74,000 new cases of bladder cancer are expected during 2015 in the US. To facilitate the bladder cancer diagnosis, we present an automatic method to differentiate carcinoma in situ (CIS) from normal/reactive cases that will work on hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained images of bladder. The method automatically determines the color deconvolution matrix by utilizing the α-shapes of the color distribution in the RGB color space. Then, variations in the boundary of transitional epithelium are quantified, and sizes of nuclei in the transitional epithelium are measured. We also approximate the "nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio" by computing the ratio of the average shortest distance between transitional epithelium and nuclei to average nuclei size. Nuclei homogeneity is measured by computing the kurtosis of the nuclei size histogram. The results show that 30 out of 34 (88.2%) images were correctly classified by the proposed method, indicating that these novel features are viable markers to differentiate CIS from normal/reactive bladder.

  20. Identification of Carbonic Anhydrase IX as a Novel Target for Endoscopic Molecular Imaging of Human Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaqi; Fang, Ruizhe; Wang, Lu; Chen, Guang; Wang, Hongzhi; Wang, Zhichao; Zhao, Danfeng; Pavlov, Valentin N; Kabirov, Ildar; Wang, Ziqi; Guo, Pengyu; Peng, Li; Xu, Wanhai

    2018-06-27

    Emerging novel optical imaging techniques with cancer-specific molecular imaging agents offer a powerful and promising platform for cancer detection and resection. White-light cystoscopy and random bladder biopsies remain the most appropriate but nonetheless suboptimal diagnostic technique for bladder cancer, which is associated with high morbidity and recurrence. However, white-light cystoscopy has intrinsic shortcomings. Although current optical imaging technologies hold great potential for improved diagnostic accuracy, there are few imaging agents for specific molecular targeting. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) plays a pivotal role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression with potential value as an imaging target. Here, we investigated the feasibility of CAIX as a target and validated the diagnostic performance and significance of CAIX as an imaging agent. We first analyzed the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Pairs of samples comprising bladder cancer and adjacent normal tissue were collected. All tissue samples were used for real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry to compare CAIX expression in normal and cancer tissue. Using blue-light cystoscopy, we observed the optical distribution of fluorescently labeled CAIX antibody in freshly excised human bladders and obtained random bladder biopsies to assess sensitivity and specificity. The TCGA data revealed that CAIX expression was significantly higher in bladder cancer specimens than in normal tissue. The outcome was similar in quantitative real-time PCR analysis. In immunohistochemical analysis, bladder cancer specimens classified in four pathological subtypes presented a variety of positive staining intensities, whereas no benign specimens showed CAIX staining. Using blue-light cystoscopy, we distinguished bladder cancers that were mainly papillary, some variants of urothelial carcinoma, and less carcinoma in situ, from benign tissue, despite the presence of suspicious-appearing mucosa. The sensitivity and

  1. Divergent host-plant use promotes reproductive isolation among cynipid gall wasp populations

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Scott P.; Hood, Glen R.; Feder, Jeff L.; Ott, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of divergent natural selection among environments. A direct prediction of this process is that ecologically divergent pairs of populations will exhibit greater reproductive isolation than ecologically similar pairs of populations. By comparing allopatric populations of the cynipid gall wasp Belonocnema treatae infesting Quercus virginiana and Quercus geminata, we tested the role that divergent host use plays in generating ecological divergence and sexual isolation. We found differences in body size and gall structure associated with divergent host use, but no difference in neutral genetic divergence between populations on the same or different host plant. We observed significant assortative mating between populations from alternative host plants but not between allopatric populations on the same host plant. Thus, we provide evidence that divergent host use promotes speciation among gall wasp populations. PMID:22337505

  2. Pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia in the bladder unassociated with prior irradiation or chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lane, Zhaoli; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2008-01-01

    Pseudocarcinomatous epithelial hyperplasia in the bladder is a little known phenomenon, recognized to be associated with prior irradiation and/or chemotherapy. Whether this process can occur outside of this setting has not been studied. We identified 8 of these cases mimicking invasive urothelial carcinoma from our consultation files from 07/04 to 07/06 with no prior history of radiation or chemotherapy. The mean age at diagnosis was 65 years (range, 42 to 81 y), with 5 of the 8 males. Seven patients had a potential etiology for these changes that could either have resulted in localized ischemia or injury to the urothelium. These included case 1: atrial fibrillation, hypertension, congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and coronary artery vascular disease; case 2: coronary angioplasty, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidemia, and amputation of arm for ischemia; case 3: hypertension, uncontrolled diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and atrial fibrillation; case 4: underlying arteriovenous malformation of the bladder; cases 5 to 6: history of indwelling Foley catheter; and case 7: history of radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer but no radiation. One patient had no potential contributing factors. All 8 patients presented with gross hematuria. At cystoscopy, 7 patients had polypoid lesions with 1 appearing nonpolypoid. Histologically, all cases showed epithelial proliferation of urothelium with cells having prominent eosinophilic cytoplasm. This process that mimicked invasive cancer within the lamina propria was marked in 3 cases (38%). Moderate nuclear pleomorphism was seen in 6 cases (75%). Only 1 case revealed mitotic figures. Ulceration was seen in 1 case. All cases showed some degree of hemorrhage with hemosiderin deposition identified in 3 cases (38%). Fibrin deposition was present in 1 case within the stroma, 3 cases in the vessels, and 4 cases in both. Five cases show stromal fibrosis. Edema and vascular congestion were common features (90% and 100

  3. Effect of TRPV2 cation channels on the proliferation, migration and invasion of 5637 bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quanliang; Wang, Xinghuan

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), a nonselective cation channel, has become an attractive target gene for tumor studies due to its wide range of physiological and pathological functions. However, its specific role in bladder cancer development and progression remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of TRPV2 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of 5637 bladder cancer cells in vitro . Rat TRPV2 cDNA was transfected into 5637 bladder cancer cells and changes in the behavior of the cells were detected. It was observed that TRPV2 enhanced bladder cancer cell migration and invasion; however, it did not affect cell proliferation in vitro . TRPV2 activity, which may be mediated by direct matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) regulation, is important in bladder tumor development and progression. The results of this study suggest that TRPV2 channels are a potential therapeutic target for bladder carcinoma.

  4. Effect of TRPV2 cation channels on the proliferation, migration and invasion of 5637 bladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, QUANLIANG; WANG, XINGHUAN

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), a nonselective cation channel, has become an attractive target gene for tumor studies due to its wide range of physiological and pathological functions. However, its specific role in bladder cancer development and progression remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of TRPV2 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of 5637 bladder cancer cells in vitro. Rat TRPV2 cDNA was transfected into 5637 bladder cancer cells and changes in the behavior of the cells were detected. It was observed that TRPV2 enhanced bladder cancer cell migration and invasion; however, it did not affect cell proliferation in vitro. TRPV2 activity, which may be mediated by direct matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) regulation, is important in bladder tumor development and progression. The results of this study suggest that TRPV2 channels are a potential therapeutic target for bladder carcinoma. PMID:24223658

  5. Superiority of fluorescent in situ hybridization over immunohistochemistry in detection of HER2 gene in carcinoma of the urinary bladder associated with and without schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Hindawi, All; Mosaad, Maha; Akl, Maha; Khalil, Heba; Al Ganzoury, Hossam; Badawy, Mohamed; Elesaily, Khaled

    2014-12-01

    HER2 is an oncogene encoding a type 1 tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor and the role of HER2 in the development of numerous types of human cancer is still understood and correlates with clinical outcome, poor prognosis, it is a predictor factor for poor response to chemotherapy. HER2 overexpression is associated with reduced disease free and overall survival. Patients who have HER2 negative expression have a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study is to explore the accuracy of detection of expression of HER2 protein by two different techniques of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The two techniques were applied to sixty two patients that included different cell types of carcinoma of the bladder, benign bilharzial lesions and control. Characteristics of the 62 patients are: 10 chronic cystitis, 19 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with schistosomiasis, 33 urothelial carcinoma (UC) schistosomal and non-schistosomal, ten healthy individuals without schistosomiasis served as controls. Gene amplification of HER2 was done using FISH and protein expression of HER2 by IHC. The study was applied on archival data of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues and patient clinical data and follow up for 5 years. Overexpression of HER2 protein was found in 30/52 (57.7%). Fourteen cases had score of 2+, and sixteen cases had score of 3+. Using FISH technique it showed more accurate detection of HER2 gene as those fourteen cases who had score of 2+ had been found to be 5 out of 14 were positive for gene over expression, the other sixteen who had score of 3+ all were positive for gene amplification. HER2 protein and gene was found to be significantly overexpressed in carcinoma of the bladder in both cell types SCC and UC with or without schistosomiasis compared to the benign lesions and control groups (P <0.01) by both techniques. There is significant increase in expression of HER2 protein and gene in SCC compared to

  6. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p <0.01). A weak negative correlation was seen between Urgency Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p <0.05). No correlation was noted for the other urodynamics parameters. First sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  7. Dimethylarsinic acid in drinking water changed the morphology but not the expression of DNA repair genes of bladder transitional epithelium in F344 rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic arsenic increases urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma in humans. In laboratory animals, it is dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], a major arsenic metabolite in the urine of inorganic arsenic-exposed people, that increases transitional cell carcinoma, namely in F344 r...

  8. Chemotherapeutic potential of quercetin on human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oršolić, Nada; Karač, Ivo; Sirovina, Damir; Kukolj, Marina; Kunštić, Martina; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Štajcar, Damir

    2016-07-28

    In an effort to improve local bladder cancer control, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of quercetin on human bladder cancer T24 cells. The cytotoxic effect of quercetin against T24 cells was examined by MTT test, clonogenic assay as well as DNA damaging effect by comet assay. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of quercetin on the primary culture of papillary urothelial carcinoma (PUC), histopathological stage T1 of low- or high-grade tumours, was investigated. Our analysis demonstrated a high correlation between reduced number of colony and cell viability and an increase in DNA damage of T24 cells incubated with quercetin at doses of 1 and 50 µM during short term incubation (2 h). At all exposure times (24, 48 and 72 h), the efficacy of quercetin, administered at a 10× higher dose compared to T24 cells, was statistically significant (P < 0.05) for the primary culture of PUC. In conclusion, our study suggests that quercetin could inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation of human bladder cancer cells by inducing DNA damage and that quercetin may be an effective chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for papillary urothelial bladder cancer after transurethral resection.

  9. In vivo fluorescence imaging of an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model indicates differential uptake of intravesically instilled near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose analog by neoplastic urinary bladder tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Daqing; Davis, Carole A.; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel W.

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most expensive cancers to manage due to frequent recurrences requiring life-long surveillance and treatment. A near-infrared labeled 2-deoxy-d-glucose probe IRDye800CW-DG targeting glucose metabolism pathway has shown to enhance the sensitivity of diagnosing several types of cancers as tested on tumor models not including bladder tumor. This pilot study has explored differential uptake of intravesically administered IRDye800CW-DG in an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model. Twenty-five female Fischer rats were randomly grouped to four conditions: no-tumor-control (n=3), no-tumor-control intravesically instilled with IRDye800CWDG (n=6), rats bearing GFP-labeled AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma cells and washed with saline (n=5), and rats bearing AY-27 tumors and intravesically instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=11). Near-infrared fluorescence was measured from the opened bladder wall of anesthetized rat at an excitation wavelength of 750nm and an emission wavelength of 776nm, by using an in-house fluorescence imaging system. There is no statistically significant difference of the peak fluorescence intensity among the no-tumor-control bladders (n=3), the no-tumorcontrol bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), and the GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders washed by saline (n=5). When compared to that of the no-tumor-control bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), the fluorescence intensity of GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG and with histology confirmed neoplastic bladder tissue (n=11) was remarkably more intense (3.34 fold of over the former) and was also statistically significant (p<0.0001). The differential uptake of IRDye800CW-DG by the neoplastic urinary bladder tissues suggests the potential for cystoscopy-adaptation to enhance diagnosis and guiding surgical management of flat urinary bladder cancer.

  10. Retrospective study of efficacy of intravesical BCG alone in treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Usher, S M; Camacho, F; Freed, S

    1986-09-01

    This is a review of 100 patients at our institution who were treated for superficial bladder cancer. In those patients with carcinoma in situ of the bladder who were treated with conventional therapy (resection and/or fulguration) and intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) without intradermal BCG, and those patients who were treated with conventional therapy alone, we found a response rate of 60 per cent versus 40 per cent at the end of three months. In comparing those patients with superficial papillary cancer, we found a response of 39 per cent after conventional therapy and 63 per cent after conventional therapy and intravesical BCG. This suggests that intravesical BCG without intradermal BCG can be an important adjunct to the conventional therapy of bladder tumors.

  11. Oncogenic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Pandith, Arshad A; Shah, Zafar A; Siddiqi, Mushtaq A

    2013-05-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary tumor and constitutes a very heterogeneous disease. Molecular and pathologic studies suggest that low-grade noninvasive and high-grade invasive urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) arise via distinct pathways. Low-grade noninvasive UCC represent the majority of tumors at presentation. A high proportion of patients with low-grade UCC develop recurrences but usually with no progression to invasive disease. At presentation, a majority of the bladder tumors (70%-80%) are low-grade noninvasive (pTa). Several genetic changes may occur in bladder cancer, but activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes are the most common and most specific genetic abnormality in bladder cancer. Interestingly, these mutations are associated with bladder tumors of low stage and grade, which makes the FGFR3 mutation the first marker that can be used for diagnosis of noninvasive bladder tumors. Since the first report of FGFR3 involvement in bladder tumors, numerous studies have been conducted to understand its function and thereby confirm the oncogenic role of this receptor particularly in noninvasive groups. Efforts are on to exploit this receptor as a therapeutic target, which holds much promise in the treatment of bladder cancer, particularly low-grade noninvasive tumors. Further studies need to explore the potential use of FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and in surveillance of patients with bladder cancer. This review focuses on the role of FGFR3 in bladder tumors in the backdrop of various studies published. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanisms arthropods use to induce plant gall formation are poorly understood. However, there is growing evidence that effector proteins are involved. To examine this hypothesis, we sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor, M. des), an obligate plant parasitic gall midge an...

  13. Bladder Cancer-associated Protein, a Potential Prognostic Biomarker in Human Bladder Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, José M. A.; Ohlsson, Gita; Gromov, Pavel; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Celis, Julio E.; Gromova, Irina

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that no single marker will have the sensitivity and specificity necessary to be used on its own for diagnosis/prognosis of tumors. Interpatient and intratumor heterogeneity provides overwhelming odds against the existence of such an ideal marker. With this in mind, our laboratory has been applying a long term systematic approach to identify multiple biomarkers that can be used for clinical purposes. As a result of these studies, we have identified and reported several candidate biomarker proteins that are deregulated in bladder cancer. Following the conceptual biomarker development phases proposed by the Early Detection Research Network, we have taken some of the most promising candidate proteins into postdiscovery validation studies, and here we report on the characterization of one such biomarker, the bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP), formerly termed Bc10. To characterize BLCAP protein expression and cellular localization patterns in benign bladder urothelium and urothelial carcinomas (UCs), we used two independent sets of samples from different patient cohorts: a reference set consisting of 120 bladder specimens (formalin-fixed as well as frozen biopsies) and a validation set consisting of 2,108 retrospectively collected UCs with long term clinical follow-up. We could categorize the UCs examined into four groups based on levels of expression and subcellular localization of BLCAP protein and showed that loss of BLCAP expression is associated with tumor progression. The results indicated that increased expression of this protein confers an adverse patient outcome, suggesting that categorization of staining patterns for this protein may have prognostic value. Finally, we applied a combinatorial two-marker discriminator using BLCAP and adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein, another UC biomarker previously reported by us, and found that the combination of the two markers correlated more closely with grade and/or stage of

  14. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  15. Therapeutic options for intractable hematuria in advanced bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Abt, Dominik; Bywater, Mirjam; Engeler, Daniel Stephan; Schmid, Hans-Peter

    2013-07-01

    Intractable hematuria is a common and severe complication in patients with inoperable bladder carcinoma. The aim was to provide an overview of therapeutic options for such cases, and analyze their effectiveness and risk profile, so a systematic literature search of peer-reviewed papers published up to September 2012 was carried out. Various options are available to treat hematuria in patients with inoperable bladder cancer; these include orally administered epsilon-aminocaproic acid, intravesical formalin, alum or prostaglandin irrigation, hydrostatic pressure, urinary diversion, radiotherapy, embolization and intraarterial mitoxantrone perfusion. These treatment options are associated with different prospects of success, risks and side-effects. Well-designed and large studies comparing options are completely lacking. Despite various treatment options, management of intractable hematuria in patients with inoperable bladder cancer remains a challenge, and most of the reported methods should be seen as experimental. Interventional radiology and alum instillation seem to be suitable alternative options for patients who, after critical consideration, cannot be treated by irrigation, transurethral resection or palliative cystectomy. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  16. [Verrucous carcinoma of the kidney: report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Sellami-Boudawara, T; Gouiaa, N; Makni, S; Sellami, A; Bahri, I; Mhiri, M N; Jlidi, R

    2001-07-01

    The verrucous carcinoma is an unusual shape of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, first described at the ORL region; the kidney location is rare; the risk factors are represented essentially by lithiasis and/or urinary infection; the clinical symptom is not specific. Diagnosis is facilitated by radiological investigations and particularly excretory urogram/ultrasound; certainly diagnosis is pathological. The nephro-ureterectomy with collar resection of the bladder is the choice treatment. We report two observations and we clarify clinicopathological aspects of this type of carcinoma and we discuss the prognosis.

  17. Systemically Applied Insecticides for Treatment of Erythrina Gall Wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Treesearch

    Joseph J. Doccola; Sheri L. Smith; Brian L. Strom; Arthur C. Medeiros; Erica von Allmen

    2009-01-01

    The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host...

  18. Seventeen-year follow-up of the prospective randomized Nordic CIS study: BCG monotherapy versus alternating therapy with mitomycin C and BCG in patients with carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Kaasinen, Eero; Wijkström, Hans; Rintala, Erkki; Mestad, Oddvar; Jahnson, Staffan; Malmström, Per-Uno

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the long-term efficacy of BCG monotherapy to alternating therapy of mitomycin C (MMC) and BCG in patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS). Between 1992 and 1997, 321 patients with CIS were randomized from Finland, Norway and Sweden in a prospective multicenter trial into two treatment groups. The alternating therapy comprised six weekly instillations of MMC 40 mg followed by 10 instillations of BCG (Connaught 120 mg) or MMC alternating monthly for 1 year. BCG monotherapy followed the same 6 + 10 schedule. Stratification was done by nationality and CIS category. Primary endpoints were time to first recurrence and time to progression. Secondary endpoints were disease-specific mortality and overall survival. The main statistical methods were the proportional subdistribution hazards model and Cox proportional hazards model with the cumulative incidence and Kaplan-Meier analyses. The median follow-up time was 9.9 years (maximum 19.9 years) in the BCG group and 8.9 years (maximum 20.3 years) in the alternating group. The risk of recurrence was significantly lower in the BCG group than in the alternating group (49 vs 59% at 15 years, respectively; hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.54-1.00, p = 0.048). There were no significant differences in the other endpoints. Patients who progressed after 2 years were particularly prone to dying from bladder carcinoma. Younger patients performed worse than older ones. BCG monotherapy including monthly maintenance was effective and better than the alternating therapy. The risk of dying from bladder carcinoma after progression was high.

  19. High-Grade Hydronephrosis Predicts Poor Outcomes After Radical Cystectomy in Patients with Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Suk; Cho, Kang Su; Lee, Young Hoon; Cho, Nam Hoon; Oh, Young Taek

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether the presence and severity of preoperative hydronephrosis have prognostic significance in patients who underwent radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. The medical records of 457 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer between 1986 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Following the Society for Fetal Urology grading system, patients were divided into low-, and high-grade hydronephrosis groups. Clinicopathologic factors associated with preoperative hydronephrosis and survival were evaluated. Of a total of 406 patients, unilateral hydronephrosis was found in 74 (18.2%), bilateral hydronephrosis in 11 (2.7%), and no hydronephoris in 321 (79.1%). Low-grade hydronephrosis was found in 57 (12.2%) patients and high-grade hydronephrosis in 28 (6%). Preoperative hydronephrosis was related to higher pT stage and lymph node invasion. In univariate analysis, the presence of hydronephrosis, hydronephrosis grade, age, pT and pN stage, tumor grade, surgical margin, number of retrieved nodes, carcinoma in situ, and lymphovascular invasion were significant prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival. In multivariate analysis, bilateral hydronephrosis and high-grade hydronephrosis remained significant predictors for decreased survival. The presence of preoperative hydronephrosis, and high-grade hydronephrosis are significant prognostic factors in patients with bladder cancer after radical cystectomy. PMID:20191034

  20. Comparing Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy Combined With Intravesical Chemotherapy Versus Intravesical Chemotherapy Alone: A Randomised Prospective Pilot Study for T1G3 Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma After Bladder-Preserving Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junxing, E-mail: Junxingchen@hotmail.com; Yao, Zhijun, E-mail: yaozhijun1985@qq.com; Qiu, Shaopeng, E-mail: qiushp@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy versus intravesical chemotherapy alone for T1G3 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) followed by bladder-preserving surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with T1G3 BTCC were randomly divided into two groups. After bladder-preserving surgery, 29 patients (age 30-80 years, 24 male and 5 female) received intra-arterial chemotherapy in combination with intravesical chemotherapy (group A), whereas 31 patients (age 29-83 years, 26 male and 5 female) were treated with intravesical chemotherapy alone (group B). Twenty-nine patients were treated with intra-arterial epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) + cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) chemotherapy 2-3more » weeks after bladder-preserving surgery once every 4-6 weeks. All of the patients received the same intravesical chemotherapy: An immediate prophylactic was administered in the first 6 h. After that, therapy was administered one time per week for 8 weeks and then one time per month for 8 months. The instillation drug was epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) and lasted for 30-40 min each time. The end points were tumour recurrence (stage Ta, T1), tumour progression (to T2 or greater), and disease-specific survival. During median follow-up of 22 months, the overall survival rate, tumour-specific death rate, recurrence rate, progression rate, time to first recurrence, and adverse reactions were compared between groups. Results: The recurrence rates were 10.3 % (3 of 29) in group A and 45.2 % (14 of 31) in group B, and the progression rates were 0 % (0 of 29) in group A and 22.6 % (7 of 31) in group B. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding recurrence (p = 0.004) and progression rates (p = 0.011). Median times to first recurrence in the two groups were 15 and 6.5 months, respectively. The overall survival rates were 96.6 and 87.1 %, and the tumour-specific death rates were 0 % (0 of 29) and 13.5 % (4

  1. Loss of tumor suppressor KDM6A amplifies PRC2-regulated transcriptional repression in bladder cancer and can be targeted through inhibition of EZH2.

    PubMed

    Ler, Lian Dee; Ghosh, Sujoy; Chai, Xiaoran; Thike, Aye Aye; Heng, Hong Lee; Siew, Ee Yan; Dey, Sucharita; Koh, Liang Kai; Lim, Jing Quan; Lim, Weng Khong; Myint, Swe Swe; Loh, Jia Liang; Ong, Pauline; Sam, Xin Xiu; Huang, Dachuan; Lim, Tony; Tan, Puay Hoon; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Cheng, Christopher Wai Sam; Ho, Henry; Ng, Lay Guat; Yuen, John; Lin, Po-Hung; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Weng, Wen-Hui; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Patrick; Creasy, Caretha L; Pang, See-Tong; McCabe, Michael T; Poon, Song Ling; Teh, Bin Tean

    2017-02-22

    Trithorax-like group complex containing KDM6A acts antagonistically to Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) containing EZH2 in maintaining the dynamics of the repression and activation of gene expression through H3K27 methylation. In urothelial bladder carcinoma, KDM6A (a H3K27 demethylase) is frequently mutated, but its functional consequences and therapeutic targetability remain unknown. About 70% of KDM6A mutations resulted in a total loss of expression and a consequent loss of demethylase function in this cancer type. Further transcriptome analysis found multiple deregulated pathways, especially PRC2/EZH2, in KDM6A -mutated urothelial bladder carcinoma. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis revealed enrichment of H3K27me3 at specific loci in KDM6A -null cells, including PRC2/EZH2 and their downstream targets. Consequently, we targeted EZH2 (an H3K27 methylase) and demonstrated that KDM6A -null urothelial bladder carcinoma cell lines were sensitive to EZH2 inhibition. Loss- and gain-of-function assays confirmed that cells with loss of KDM6A are vulnerable to EZH2. IGFBP3, a direct KDM6A/EZH2/H3K27me3 target, was up-regulated by EZH2 inhibition and contributed to the observed EZH2-dependent growth suppression in KDM6A -null cell lines. EZH2 inhibition delayed tumor onset in KDM6A -null cells and caused regression of KDM6A -null bladder tumors in both patient-derived and cell line xenograft models. In summary, our study demonstrates that inactivating mutations of KDM6A , which are common in urothelial bladder carcinoma, are potentially targetable by inhibiting EZH2. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  3. Fluorescent imaging of high-grade bladder cancer using a specific antagonist for chemokine receptor CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Shinya; Tanahara, Noriko; Kotani, Hirokazu; Mikami, Yoshiki; Toda, Yoshinobu; Evans, Barry J; Peiper, Stephen C; Saito, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Jun; Fujii, Nobutaka; Ogawa, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    We previously reported that the expression of CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) was upregulated in invasive bladder cancers and that the small peptide T140 was a highly sensitive antagonist for CXCR4. In this study, we identified that CXCR4 expression was induced in high-grade superficial bladder tumors, including carcinoma in situ and invasive bladder tumors. To visualize the bladder cancer cells using urinary sediments from the patients and chemically induced mouse bladder cancer model, a novel fluorescent CXCR4 antagonist TY14003 was developed, that is a T140 derivative. TY14003 could label bladder cancer cell lines expressing CXCR4, whereas negative-control fluorescent peptides did not label them. When labeling urinary sediments from patients with invasive bladder cancer, positive-stained cells were identified in all patients with bladder cancer and positive urine cytology but not in controls. Although white blood cells in urine were also labeled with TY14003, they could be easily discriminated from urothelial cells by their shape and size. Finally, intravesical instillation of TY14003 into mouse bladder, using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder cancer model, demonstrated that fluorescent signals were detected in the focal areas of bladder of all mice examined at 12 weeks of BBN drinking by confocal microscopy and fluorescent endoscopy. On the contrary, all the normal bladders were found to be negative for TY14003 staining. In conclusion, these results indicate that TY14003 is a promising diagnostic tool to visualize small or flat high-grade superficial bladder cancer.

  4. Bladder biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... than usual ( oliguria ). You cannot urinate despite a strong urge to do so. Alternative Names Biopsy - bladder Images Bladder catheterization, female Bladder catheterization, male Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Bladder biopsy ...

  5. Molecular and morphological characterisation of two species of the genus Ellipsomyxa Køie, 2003 (Ceratomyxidae) from the gall-bladder of Liza saliens (Risso) off Tunisian coasts of the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Aouatef; Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Mansour, Lamjed

    2016-07-01

    During examination of some species of the family Mugilidae, two coelozoic myxozoans were observed in the gall-bladder of the leaping mullet, Liza saliens (Risso). Spore morphology allowed us to allocate them to the genus Ellipsomyxa Køie, 2003, one of which is described here as new. Ellipsomyxa kalthoumi n. sp. was observed forming globular pseudoplasmodia and free spores floating in the bile. Mature spores are ellipsoidal, measuring 13-21 × 10-15 (17.2 × 13.2) µm and possessing two equal spherical polar capsules, 5-6 (5.5) µm in diameter, opening subterminally in opposite directions, with nine polar filament coils. Morphological data and molecular analysis of the small subunit rDNA sequences helped identify this parasite as a new species of Elliposmyxa. The second species identified as E. mugilis (Sitjà-Bobadilla & Alvarez-Pellitero, 1993) has oval spores with rounded ends, measuring 10-11 × 7-9 (10.5 × 8.0) µm and possessing two polar subspherical capsules, 2.7-3.0 (2.8) µm in diameter, opening subterminally in opposite directions. Spore morphometry and molecular study of the small subunit (SSU) of the rRNA gene identified this species as E. mugilis described from the same host in the Western Mediterranean off Spain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Elliposmyxa as a monophyletic clade and showed that E. mugilis, E. syngnathi Køie & Karlsbakk, 2009, E. adlardi Whipps & Font, 2012 and E. gobii Køie, 2003 group in a subclade containing the Tunisian isolate of E. mugilis whereas E. kalthoumi n. sp. appears in a second subclade together with four Australian species, E. maniliensis Heiniger & Adlard, 2014, E. apogoni Heiniger & Adlard, 2014, E. nigropunctatis Heiniger & Adlard, 2014 and E. arothroni Heiniger & Adlard, 2014.

  6. Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Zangari, Andrea; Zaini, Johan; Gulìa, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor development. PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR (P-F) fusion state has important implications in the pathogenesis and biology of RMS, and different genes alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of P-F negative and embryonal RMS, which are the subsets of tumors most frequently affecting the bladder. These genes include p53, MEF2, MYOG, Ptch1, Gli1, Gli3, Myf5, MyoD1, NF1, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, FGFR4, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, FBXW7, IGF1R, PDGFRA, ERBB2/4, MET, BCOR. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) usually shows SMARCB1/INI1 alterations. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene translocations are the most frequently associated alterations in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Few genes alterations in urothelial neoplasms have been reported in the paediatric population, which are mainly related to deletion of p16/lnk4, overexpression of CK20 and overexpression of p53. Here, we reviewed available literature to identify genes associated to bladder malignancies in children and discussed their possible relationships with these tumors. PMID:27013922

  7. Dissolution of cholesterol gall stones using methyltertbutyl ether: a safe effective treatment.

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, J; Chua, A; Keating, J; Ah-Kion, S; Weir, D G; Keeling, P W

    1991-01-01

    Methyltertbutyl ether (MTBE) administered by percutaneous transhepatic catheter rapidly dissolves radiolucent cholesterol gall bladder stones. However, complete dissolution and clearance of non-cholesterol debris is essential to prevent recurrence. In this study we analysed 25 consecutive patients with reference to efficacy and recurrence based on the presence or absence of non-cholesterol stone fragments after dissolution. Placement of the catheter was successful in 24 patients, one patient requiring cholecystectomy for bile peritonitis. MTBE was infused and aspirated continuously, four to six cycles per minute, resulting in rapid stone dissolution (median six hours; range 4-23 hours for solitary stones and median seven hours, range 4-30 hours for multiple stones). In 18 patients who had complete dissolution, four (22%) had recurrent stones within six to 18 months. Five patients had residual debris which failed to clear completely despite bile acid treatment. One patient with an incomplete rim of calcium in a large stone did not respond to MTBE treatment. A further patient required cholecystectomy for symptomatic recurrence. There were no serious side effects observed. MTBE treatment is a rapid, safe, and effective treatment for patients who refuse surgery or who for medical reasons cannot undergo cholecystectomy. The results of this study confirm that complete dissolution of all fragments is essential and may prevent recurrence. Images Figure 2 PMID:1773965

  8. The Impact of Multiple Malignancies on Patients with Bladder Carcinoma: A Population-Based Study Using the SEER Database

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Joshua R.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Ng, Casey K.; Kauffman, Eric C.; Scherr, Douglas S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To date, no study has examined a population-based registry to determine the impact of multiple malignancies on survival of bladder cancer patients. Our experience suggests that bladder cancer patients with multiple malignancies may have relatively positive outcomes. Materials & Methods. We utilized data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEERs) database to examine survival between patients with only bladder cancer (BO) and with bladder cancer and additional cancer(s) antecedent (AB), subsequent (BS), or antecedent and subsequent to bladder cancer (ABS). Results. Analyses demonstrated diminished survival among AB and ABS cohorts. However, when cohorts were substratified by stage, patients in the high-stage BS cohort appeared to have a survival advantage over high-stage BO patients. Conclusions. Bladder cancer patients with multiple malignancies have diminished survival. The survival advantage of high-stage BS patients is likely a statistical phenomenon. Such findings are important to shape future research and to improve our understanding of patients with multiple malignancies. PMID:20069054

  9. TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in small cell carcinoma of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Guo, Charles C; Dancer, Jane Y; Wang, Yan; Aparicio, Ana; Navone, Nora M; Troncoso, Patricia; Czerniak, Bogdan A

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that most prostate cancers carry the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. Here we evaluated the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in small cell carcinoma of the prostate (n = 12) in comparison with small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (n = 12) and lung (n = 11). Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated rearrangement of the ERG gene in 8 cases of prostatic small cell carcinoma (67%), and the rearrangement was associated with deletion of the 5' ERG gene in 7 cases, but rearrangement of the ERG gene was not present in any small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or lung. Next we evaluated the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in nude mouse xenografts that were derived from 2 prostatic small cell carcinomas carrying the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. Two transcripts encoded by the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing demonstrated that the 2 transcripts were composed of fusions of exon 1 of the TMPRSS2 gene to exon 4 or 5 of the ERG gene. Our study demonstrates the specific presence of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in prostatic small cell carcinoma, which may be helpful in distinguishing small cell carcinoma of prostatic origin from nonprostatic origins. The high prevalence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in prostatic small cell carcinoma as well as adenocarcinoma implies that small cell carcinoma may share a common pathogenic pathway with adenocarcinoma in the prostate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bladder outlet obstruction treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Terrence R.

    1991-07-01

    Fifty-nine males with bladder outlet obstruction were treated with transurethral ultrasonic aspiration of the prostate. Utilizing a 26.5 French urethral sheath, surgery was accomplished with a 10 French, 0-700 micron vibration level ultrasonic tip with an excursion rate of 39 kHz. Complete removal of the adenoma was accomplished, followed by transurethral electrocautery biopsies of both lateral lobes to compare pathologic specimens. One-year follow-up revealed satisfactory voiding patterns in 57 of 59 men (96%). Two men developed bladder neck contractures. Pathologic comparisons showed 100% correlation between aspirated and TUR specimens (56 BPH, 3 adeno-carcinoma). Forty-sevel men were active sexually preoperatively (6 with inflatable penile prostheses). Post ultrasonic aspiration, 46 men had erectile function similar to preoperative levels with one patient suffering erectile dysfunction. Forty men (85%) had antegrade ejaculation while 7 (15%) experienced retrograde or retarded ejaculation. No patients were incontinent.

  11. Quantitative differences detected in the histology of galls induced by the same aphid species in different varieties of the same host.

    PubMed

    Martinez, J-J I; Moreno-González, V; Jonas-Levi, A; Álvarez, R

    2018-05-01

    Plant galls are abnormal growths caused by an inducer that determines their morphology and anatomy. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the histological anatomy of five aphid species (Paracletus cimiciformis, Forda marginata, Forda formicaria, Baizongia pistaciae and Geoica wertheimae) that induce galls in Pistacia terebinthus shrubs growing in Israel. We also quantitatively compared these galls to those that the aphids create on the same host in Spain. Histological study was conducted following methods described previously by the authors. Quantitative differences among the galls were found in five of 12 common anatomical traits: gall thickness, stomatal number in the epidermis-air, size of vascular bundles, distance of phloem ducts from the lumen and number of intraphloematic schizogenous ducts. Other structures were particular to one or some species: number of cracks in the epidermis-lumen, a sclereid layer, trichomes and microcrystal inclusions. Fisher's tests of combined probabilities showed that the galls induced in Israel were statistically different from those in Spain. In particular, the number of intraphloematic schizogenous ducts was higher in the galls induced in P. terebinthus in Israel. Such differences were also found in other traits related to defence of the gall inhabitant. In conclusion, while the gall shape and size are determined mainly by the cecidogenic insect, it seems that the host plant also plays an important role in determining the number/size of quantitative traits, in this case mainly protective structures. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. The interrelationships of three gall makers and their natural enemies, on hackberry (Celtis Occidentalis L.)

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser

    1965-01-01

    This bulletin describes three hackberry galls, the insects which make them, and 19 of their natural enemies in the Cayuga Valley near Ithaca, N.Y. Two galls were caused by psyllids and the third by a cecidomyiid. The taxonomy, biology, morphology, and distribution of the species are discussed. Fourteen natural enemies attacked the psyllid...

  13. Aldehyde dehydrogenase induction in arsenic-exposed rat bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Yu, Hsin-Su; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment. Many human cancers, including urothelial carcinoma (UC), show a dose-dependent relationship with arsenic exposure in the south-west coast of Taiwan (also known as the blackfoot disease (BFD) areas). However, the molecular mechanisms of arsenic-mediated UC carcinogenesis has not yet been defined. In vivo study, the rat bladder epithelium were exposed with arsenic for 48 h. The proteins were extracted from untreated and arsenic-treated rat bladder cells and utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Selected peptides were extracted from the gel and identified by quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) Ultima-Micromass spectra. The significantly difference expression of proteins in arsenic-treated groups as compared with untreated groups was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting. We found that thirteen proteins were down-regulated and nine proteins were up-regulated in arsenic-treated rat bladder cells when compared with untreated groups. The IHC and western blotting results confirmed that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) protein was up-regulated in arsenic-treated rat bladder epithelium. Expression of ALDH protein was significantly higher in UC patients from BFD areas than those from non-BFD areas using IHC (p=0.018). In conclusion, the ALDH protein expression could be used as molecular markers for arsenic-induced transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus-based gene Therapy Enhances the Efficacy of Mitomycin-C in the Treatment of Human Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mullerad, Michael; Bochner, Bernard H.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Bhargava, Amit; Kikuchi, Eiji; Hui-Ni, Chen; Kattan, Michael W.; Chou, Ting-Chao; Fong, Yuman

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Oncolytic replication-competent herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV) mutants have the ability to replicate in and kill malignant cells. We have previously demonstrated the ability of replication-competent HSV to control bladder cancer growth in an orthotopic murine model. We hypothesized that a combination of a chemotherapeutic agent used for intravesical treatment - mitomycin-C (MMC) - and oncolytic HSV would exert a synergistic effect in the treatment of human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Materials and Methods We used the mutant HSV NV1066, which is deleted for viral genes ICP0 and ICP4 and selectively infects cancer cells, to treat TCC lines, KU19-19 and SKUB. Cell survival was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for each agent as well as for drug-viral combinations from days 1 to 5. The isobologram method and the combination index method of Chou-Talalay were used to assess for synergistic effect. Results NV1066 enhanced MMC mediated cytotoxicity at all combinations tested for both KU19-19 and SKUB. Combination of both agents demonstrated a synergistic effect and allowed dose reduction by 12 and 10.4 times (NV1066) and by 3 and 156 times (MMC) in the treatment of KU19-19 and SKUB respectively, while achieving an estimated 90% cell kill. Conclusion These data provide the cellular basis for the clinical investigation of combined mitomycin-C and oncolytic HSV therapy in the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:16006968

  15. Expression of AR, 5αR1 and 5αR2 in bladder urothelial carcinoma and relationship to clinicopathological factors.

    PubMed

    Hata, Shuko; Ise, Kazue; Azmahani, Abdullah; Konosu-Fukaya, Sachiko; McNamara, Keely May; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Shimada, Keiji; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Arai, Yoichi; Sasano, Hironobu; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    2017-12-01

    Bladder urothelial carcinoma is increasing in incidence with age and its prognosis could become worse when accompanied with metastasis. Effective treatment of these advanced patients is required and it becomes important to understand its underlying biology of this neoplasm, especially with regard to its biological pathways. A potential proposed pathway is androgen receptor (AR)-mediated intracellular signaling but the details have remained relatively unexplored. The expression of AR, 5α-reductase type1 (5αR1) and 5α-reductase type2 (5αR2) were examined in the bladder cancer cell line T24 and surgical pathology specimens. We also evaluated the status of androgen related cell proliferation and migration using the potent, non-aromatizable androgen agonist 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT treatment significantly increased AR mRNA expression level, but not those of 5αR1 and 5αR2 in T24 cells. DHT also suppressed cellular migration with weaker and opposite effects on cell proliferation. A significant inverse correlation was detected between pT stage and AR, 5αR1 and 5αR2 immunoreactivity. Inverse correlations detected between tumor grade and AR/androgen metabolizing enzyme also suggested that the loss of AR and androgen-producing enzymes could be associated with tumor progression. Effects of DHT on cells also suggest that androgens may regulate cellular behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical and pathological implications of miRNA in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Braicu, Cornelia; Cojocneanu-Petric, Roxana; Chira, Sergiu; Truta, Anamaria; Floares, Alexandru; Petrut, Bogdan; Achimas-Cadariu, Patriciu; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA species with a length of 20-22 nucleotides that are recognized as essential regulators of relevant molecular mechanisms, including carcinogenesis. Current investigations show that miRNAs are detectable not only in different tissue types but also in a wide range of biological fluids, either free or trapped in circulating microvesicles. miRNAs were proven to be involved in cell communication, both in pathological and physiological processes. Evaluation of the global expression patterns of miRNAs provides key opportunities with important practical applications, taking into account that they modulate essential biological processes such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which is a mechanism relevant in bladder cancer. miRNAs collected from biological specimens can furnish valuable evidence with regard to bladder cancer oncogenesis, as they also have been linked to clinical outcomes in urothelial carcinoma. Therefore, a single miRNA or a signature of multiple miRNAs may improve risk stratification of patients and may supplement the histological diagnosis of urological tumors, particularly for bladder cancer.

  17. Clinical and pathological implications of miRNA in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Braicu, Cornelia; Cojocneanu-Petric, Roxana; Chira, Sergiu; Truta, Anamaria; Floares, Alexandru; Petrut, Bogdan; Achimas-Cadariu, Patriciu; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA species with a length of 20–22 nucleotides that are recognized as essential regulators of relevant molecular mechanisms, including carcinogenesis. Current investigations show that miRNAs are detectable not only in different tissue types but also in a wide range of biological fluids, either free or trapped in circulating microvesicles. miRNAs were proven to be involved in cell communication, both in pathological and physiological processes. Evaluation of the global expression patterns of miRNAs provides key opportunities with important practical applications, taking into account that they modulate essential biological processes such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which is a mechanism relevant in bladder cancer. miRNAs collected from biological specimens can furnish valuable evidence with regard to bladder cancer oncogenesis, as they also have been linked to clinical outcomes in urothelial carcinoma. Therefore, a single miRNA or a signature of multiple miRNAs may improve risk stratification of patients and may supplement the histological diagnosis of urological tumors, particularly for bladder cancer. PMID:25653521

  18. The ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects.

    Treesearch

    Peter W. Price; William J. Mattson; Yuri N. Baranchikov

    1994-01-01

    This international proceedings focuses on the biology, ecology, and evolution of gall-forming insects and their uniquely specialized relationships with their host plants. The individual contributions range in scope from detailed descriptive to profoundly theoretical, synthetic studies. One underlying theme of the proceedings is the important contribution of knowledge...

  19. Science Galls Me: What Is a Niche Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Kristy Lynn; Lankford, Deanna Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors have developed a lesson to investigate basic principles of ecology, more specifically niche partitioning, while using a jigsaw activity that explores galling insects' interactions with goldenrods. Not only does this lesson capture secondary students' interest and keeps them engaged in hands-on activities, the content addresses two…

  20. Impact of the Ki-67 labeling index and p53 expression status on disease-free survival in pT1 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Vetterlein, Malte W; Roschinski, Julia; Gild, Philipp; Marks, Phillip; Soave, Armin; Doh, Ousman; Isbarn, Hendrik; Höppner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Walter; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Brausi, Maurizio; Büscheck, Franziska; Sauter, Guido; Fisch, Margit; Rink, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The identification of protein biomarkers to guide treatment decisions regarding adjuvant therapies for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has been of increasing interest. Evidence of the impact of tumor suppressor gene product p53 and cell proliferation marker Ki-67 on oncologic outcomes in bladder cancer patients at highest risk of recurrence and progression is partially contradictory. We sought to mirror contemporary expression patterns of p53 and Ki-67 in a select cohort of patients with pT1 bladder cancer. Patients from four Northern German institutions with a primary diagnosis of pT1 bladder cancer between 2009 and 2016 and complete data regarding p53 or Ki-67 expression status were included for final analyses. Baseline patient characteristics (age, gender, age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index) and tumor characteristics [diagnostic sequence, tumor focality, concomitant carcinoma in situ, 1973 World Health Organization (WHO) grading, lymphovascular invasion, adjuvant instillation therapy] were abstracted by retrospective chart review. Immunohistochemistry for detection of p53 and Ki-67 expression was performed according to standardized protocols. Microscopic analyses were performed by central pathologic review. First, we compared patients with positive vs. negative p53 expression and Ki-67 labeling index [>40% vs. ≤40%; cutoffs based on best discriminative ability in univariable Cox regression analysis with disease-free survival (DFS) as endpoint] with regard to baseline and tumor characteristics. Second, we evaluated the effect of biomarker positivity on DFS by plotting univariable Kaplan-Meier curves and performing uni- and multivariable Cox regression analyses. Of 102 patients with complete information on p53 status, 44 (43.1%) were p53 positive, and they more often harbored concomitant carcinoma in situ (50.0% vs. 27.6%; P=0.032) and 1973 WHO grade 3 (97.7% vs. 69.0%; P=0.001) compared to their p53 negative counterparts. Of 79

  1. Urothelium update: how the bladder mucosa measures bladder filling.

    PubMed

    Janssen, D A W; Schalken, J A; Heesakkers, J P F A

    2017-06-01

    This review critically evaluates the evidence on mechanoreceptors and pathways in the bladder urothelium that are involved in normal bladder filling signalling. Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies on (i) signalling pathways like the adenosine triphosphate pathway, cholinergic pathway and nitric oxide and adrenergic pathway, and (ii) different urothelial receptors that are involved in bladder filling signalling like purinergic receptors, sodium channels and TRP channels will be evaluated. Other potential pathways and receptors will also be discussed. Bladder filling results in continuous changes in bladder wall stretch and exposure to urine. Both barrier and afferent signalling functions in the urothelium are constantly adapting to cope with these dynamics. Current evidence shows that the bladder mucosa hosts essential pathways and receptors that mediate bladder filling signalling. Intracellular calcium ion increase is a dominant factor in this signalling process. However, there is still no complete understanding how interacting receptors and pathways create a bladder filling signal. Currently, there are still novel receptors investigated that could also be participating in bladder filling signalling. Normal bladder filling sensation is dependent on multiple interacting mechanoreceptors and signalling pathways. Research efforts need to focus on how these pathways and receptors interact to fully understand normal bladder filling signalling. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL CAUSES FOR THE VARIED CHARACTER OF STASIS BILE

    PubMed Central

    Rous, Peyton; McMaster, Philip D.

    1921-01-01

    The gall bladder and ducts exert opposite influences upon the bile. The ducts fail to concentrate and thicken it with mucus as the bladder does, but dilute it slightly with a thin secretion of their own that is colorless and devoid of cholates even when the organism is heavily jaundiced. The fluid may readily be collected into a rubber bag connected with an isolated duct segment. It continues to be formed against a considerable pressure, and, in the dog, is slightly alkaline to litmus, clear, almost watery, practically devoid of cholesterol, and of low specific gravity to judge from the one specimen tested. In obstructed ducts separated from the gall bladder, or connecting with one so changed pathologically that the concentrating faculty has been lost, such fluid gradually replaces the small amount of bile originally pent up. It is the so called "white bile" of surgeons. When obstructed ducts connect with an approximately normal gall bladder the stasis fluid is entirely different, owing to the bladder activity. At first there accumulates in quantity a true bile much inspissated by loss of fluid through the bladder wall, darkened by a change in the pigment, and progressively thickened with bladder mucus. As time passes duct secretion mingles with the tarry accumulation and very gradually replaces it. The inspissation of the bile, as indicated by the pigment content, is at its greatest after only a day or two of stasis. The differing influences of the ducts and bladder upon the bile must obviously have much to do with the site of origin of calculi and their clinical consequences. The concentrating activity of the bladder cannot but be a potent element in the formation of stones. We have discussed these matters at some length. Intermittent biliary stasis is admittedly the principal predisposing cause of cholelithiasis; and the stasis is to be thought of as effective, in many instances at least, through the excessive biliary inspissation for which it gives opportunity

  3. Linearized texture of three-dimensional extracellular matrix is mandatory for bladder cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Massimo; Nebuloni, Manuela; Allevi, Raffaele; Zerbi, Pietro; Longhi, Erika; Lucianò, Roberta; Locatelli, Irene; Pecoraro, Angela; Indrieri, Marco; Speziali, Chantal; Doglioni, Claudio; Milani, Paolo; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-10-25

    In the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering simulating the native microenvironment is of utmost importance. As a major component of the microenvironment, the extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes to tissue homeostasis, whereas modifications of native features are associated with pathological conditions. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) geometry is an important feature of synthetic scaffolds favoring cell stemness, maintenance and differentiation. We analyzed the 3D structure, geometrical measurements and anisotropy of the ECM isolated from (i) human bladder mucosa (basal lamina and lamina propria) and muscularis propria; and, (ii) bladder carcinoma (BC). Next, binding and invasion of bladder metastatic cell line was observed on synthetic scaffold recapitulating anisotropy of tumoral ECM, but not on scaffold with disorganized texture typical of non-neoplastic lamina propria. This study provided information regarding the ultrastructure and geometry of healthy human bladder and BC ECMs. Likewise, using synthetic scaffolds we identified linearization of the texture as a mandatory feature for BC cell invasion. Integrating microstructure and geometry with biochemical and mechanical factors could support the development of an innovative synthetic bladder substitute or a tumoral scaffold predictive of chemotherapy outcomes.

  4. [Cholesterosis of the gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Baĭbekov, I M; Vorozheĭkin, V M; Altiev, B K; Khoroshaev, V A

    1985-01-01

    Altogether 238 gall bladders from the necropsy cases and 260 those removed surgically were examined morphologically. Various forms of cholesterosis were found in 5 cases from the first group and in 12 cases from the second. The gall bladder mucous membrane was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Low incidence of this disease is noted in the Central Asia. The mucous membrane surface in health and cholesterosis is described. The conclusion is drawn about the link of the cholesterosis incidence with the traditional nutrition in this area.

  5. What are the currently available and in development molecular markers for bladder cancer? Will they prove to be useful in the future?

    PubMed

    Abdulmajed, Mohamed Ismat; Sancak, Eyüp Burak; Reşorlu, Berkan; Al-Chalaby, Gydhia Zuhair

    2014-12-01

    Urothelial carcinoma is the 9(th) most common cancer worldwide. Most urothelial tumors are non-muscle invasive on presentation. However, two-thirds of non-invasive bladder cancers will eventually recur with a 25% risk of progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Tumor stage, histological grade and pathological invasion of blood vessels and lymphatic tissue are the main indicators for urothelial cancer prognosis. The gold standard for diagnosing bladder cancer is conventional white-light cystoscopy and biopsy. Urine cytology is a highly specific, sensitive test for high-grade tumors or carcinoma in situ (CIS). Urinary NMP22 has an overall sensitivity and specificity for detecting bladder cancer of 49% and 87%, respectively. However, there are false-positive results in the presence of urinary tract infection or hematuria. The detection of specific gene mutations related to urothelial cancers has been studied and employed to reproduce markers helpful for diagnosis. According to current studies, molecular markers can be used to predict tumor recurrence. From a prognostic point of view, new molecular markers have yet to be established as reliable indicators of tumor aggressiveness. We aimed to review the molecular markers with possible prognostic significance that have been discussed in the literature. This review examined the literature for various molecular markers under development for bladder cancer in an attempt to optimize patient care and reduce the costs of treating these patients.

  6. Cytological cycles and fates in Psidium myrtoides are altered towards new cell metabolism and functionalities by the galling activity of Nothotrioza myrtoidis.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, R G S; Isaias, R M S

    2015-03-01

    The morphogenesis of galls occurs by the redifferentiation of cells that assume new functions in the modified host plant organs. The redifferentiated cells in the galls of Nothotrioza myrtoidis on Psidium myrtoides have low complexity metabolism and are photosynthesis-deficient. These galls were studied in search for evidences of the establishment of new cell cycles and fates and cytological gradients that corroborate their metabolic profile. Young and mature leaves of P. myrtoides and leaf galls induced by N. myrtoidis at different developmental stages were collected along 24 months and analyzed under light and transmission electron microscopy. The leaves of P. myrtoides are long-lasting and did not senesce within the analyzed period, while the galls have a shorter cycle, and senesce within 1 year. A homogenous parenchyma is established by a "standby-redifferentiation" of the chlorophyllous tissues, and sclerenchyma cells redifferentiate from parenchyma cells in the outer cortex of the mature galls. The lack of organelles, the underdeveloped lamellation of chloroplasts, and the occurrence of few plastoglobules are related to the photosynthetic deficiency of the galls. No cytological gradients were observed, but the organelle-rich cells of the vascular and perivascular parenchymas are similar to those of the nutritive tissues of galls induced by other insect taxa. These cells nearest to the feeding sites of N. myrtoidis present higher metabolism and well-developed apparatus for the prevention of oxidative stress. The features herein described corroborate the low metabolic profile of the galls as the cell cycles and fates of P. myrtoides are manipulated for completely new functionalities.

  7. Galectin 3 for the diagnosis of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    El Gendy, Hoda; Madkour, Bothina; Abdelaty, Sara; Essawy, Fayza; Khattab, Dina; Hammam, Olfat; El Kholy, Amr; Nour, Hani H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate serum levels of galectin-3 (G-3) in patients with bladder cancer and a control group, as a potential diagnostic and prognostic serum tumour marker. Patients and methods Between November 2012 and January 2013, 55 patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled into three groups, i.e., a control, those with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or those with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The serum G-3 level was measured the night before cystoscopy. The levels of G-3 levels were correlated with tumour type, stage and grade, and in relation to levels in normal urothelium. The results were analysed statistically using the Mann–Whitney U-test, the Kruskal–Wallis test and the receiver operating characteristic curve, as appropriate. Results The median serum G-3 level was 100, 720 and 920 pg/mL in the control, TCC and SCC groups, respectively, with very significantly greater G-3 levels in both the TCC and SCC groups than in the control group. Patients with high-grade TCC had a statistically significantly greater serum G-3 level than those with low-grade tumours, as did those with muscle-invasive TCC than those with Ta tumours. Conclusions The level of G-3 can aid as a diagnostic marker in patients with either TCC or SCC of the bladder, but the prognostic significance of G-3 remains to be confirmed. PMID:26019945

  8. Phylogeny of Rhus gall aphids (Hemiptera:Pemphigidae) based on combined molecular analysis of nuclear EF1α and mitochondrial COII genes

    Treesearch

    Zi-xiang Yang; Xiao-ming Chen; Nathan P. Havill; Ying Feng; Hang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Rhus gall aphids (Fordinae : Melaphidini) have a disjunct distribution in East Asia and North America and have specific host plant relationships. Some of them are of economic importance and all species form sealed galls which show great variation in shape, size, structure, and galling-site. We present a phylogeny incorporating ten species and four...

  9. Different HER2 protein expression profiles aid in the histologic differential diagnosis between urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) and non-CIS conditions (dysplasia and reactive atypia) of the urinary bladder mucosa.

    PubMed

    Gunia, Sven; Koch, Stefan; Hakenberg, Oliver W; May, Matthias; Kakies, Christoph; Erbersdobler, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated HER2 expression profiles in 32 carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 31 non-CIS conditions (5 dysplasia and 26 reactive atypia) of the urinary bladder mucosa by applying breast cancer scoring rules. In situ hybridization was performed on tissue microarrays to assess HER2 gene amplification status. Our immunoprofiling data disclosed moderate to strong HER2 expression in CIS, including the basal layer of the urothelium, and absent to weak HER2 expression in non-CIS conditions. From the histologic differential diagnostic standpoint, immunostaining for HER2 protein represents a useful adjunct to aid in the delineation between CIS and non-CIS conditions of the bladder mucosa. Pathogenically, aberrant HER2 protein expression in CIS seems to be more commonly associated with polysomy than with gene amplification. From a therapeutic viewpoint, prospective clinical studies should investigate the potential benefit of HER2-targeted therapies in CIS, particularly in cases unresponsive to conventional therapeutic regimens.

  10. Dithiothreitol-based protein equalization technology to unravel biomarkers for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Araújo, J E; López-Fernández, H; Diniz, M S; Baltazar, Pedro M; Pinheiro, Luís Campos; da Silva, Fernando Calais; Carrascal, Mylène; Videira, Paula; Santos, H M; Capelo, J L

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the benefits of dithiothreitol (DTT)-based sample treatment for protein equalization to assess potential biomarkers for bladder cancer. The proteome of plasma samples of patients with bladder carcinoma, patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and healthy volunteers, was equalized with dithiothreitol (DTT) and compared. The equalized proteomes were interrogated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Six proteins, namely serum albumin, gelsolin, fibrinogen gamma chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, Ig alpha-2 chain C region and haptoglobin, were found dysregulated in at least 70% of bladder cancer patients when compared with a pool of healthy individuals. One protein, serum albumin, was found overexpressed in 70% of the patients when the equalized proteome of the healthy pool was compared with the equalized proteome of the LUTS patients. The pathways modified by the proteins differentially expressed were analyzed using Cytoscape. The method here presented is fast, cheap, of easy application and it matches the analytical minimalism rules as outlined by Halls. Orthogonal validation was done using western-blot. Overall, DTT-based protein equalization is a promising methodology in bladder cancer research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of imaging techniques in the diagnosis and follow-up of muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mesa, A; Nava, E; Fernández Del Valle, A; Argüelles, B; Menéndez-Del Llano, R; Sal de Rellán, S

    2017-10-10

    Muscle-invasive bladder malignancies represent 20-30% of all bladder cancers. These patients require imaging tests to determine the regional and distant staging. To describe the role of various imaging tests in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. To assess recent developments in radiology aimed at improving the sensitivity and specificity of local staging and treatment response. We conducted an updated literature review. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the tests of choice for performing proper staging prior to surgery. Computed tomography urography is currently the most widely used technique, although it has limitations in local staging. Ultrasonography still has a limited role. Recent developments in MRI have improved its capacity for local staging. MRI has been suggested as the test of choice for the follow-up, with promising results in assessing treatment response. Positron emission tomography could improve the detection of adenopathies and extrapelvic metastatic disease. Imaging tests are essential for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Recent technical developments represent important improvements in local staging and have opened the possibility of assessing treatment response. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Social stress induces changes in urinary bladder function, bladder NGF content, and generalized bladder inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Abbey; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Nelson, Mark T.; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Social stress may play a role in urinary bladder dysfunction in humans, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we explored changes in bladder function caused by social stress using mouse models of stress and increasing stress. In the stress paradigm, individual submissive FVB mice were exposed to C57BL/6 aggressor mice directly/indirectly for 1 h/day for 2 or 4 wk. Increased stress was induced by continuous, direct/indirect exposure of FVB mice to aggressor mice for 2 wk. Stressed FVB mice exhibited nonvoiding bladder contractions and a decrease in both micturition interval (increased voiding frequency) and bladder capacity compared with control animals. ELISAs demonstrated a significant increase in histamine protein expression with no change in nerve growth factor protein expression in the urinary bladder compared with controls. Unlike stressed mice, mice exposed to an increased stress paradigm exhibited increased bladder capacities and intermicturition intervals (decreased voiding frequency). Both histamine and nerve growth factor protein expression were significantly increased with increased stress compared with control bladders. The change in bladder function from increased voiding frequency to decreased voiding frequency with increased stress intensity suggests that changes in social stress-induced urinary bladder dysfunction are context and duration dependent. In addition, changes in the bladder inflammatory milieu with social stress may be important contributors to changes in urinary bladder function. PMID:25100077

  13. FARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON THE SOUTH INDIAN MARKET SAMPLE OF KARKATASRINGI (KADUKKAIPOO) – TERMINALIA CHEBUL (GAERTN. LEAF GALL)

    PubMed Central

    Santha, T. R.; Shetty, J. K. P.; Yoganarasimhan, S. N.; Sudha, R.

    1991-01-01

    Pharmacognostical studies on the South Indian market sample of Karkatasringi (Terminalia chebula leaf galls) were carried out along with comparative studies on Pistacia integerima which is the accepted source of Karkatasringi. The galls of T. chebula are also known as Kadukkai Poo in Siddha system. PMID:22556552

  14. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia

    PubMed Central

    McLeish, Michael J; Chapman, Thomas W; Schwarz, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Background Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification. This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Results Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species. Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period. Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia. Conclusion Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia. PMID:17257412

  15. Multilayered disease-mimicking bladder phantom with realistic surface topology for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gennifer T.; Lurie, Kristen L.; Khan, Saara A.; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown potential as a complementary modality to white light cystoscopy (WLC), the gold standard for imaging bladder cancer. OCT can visualize sub-surface details of the bladder wall, which enables it to stage cancers and detect tumors that are otherwise invisible to WLC. Currently, OCT systems have too slow a speed and too small a field of view for comprehensive bladder imaging, which limits its clinical utility. Validation and feasibility testing of technological refinements aimed to provide faster imaging and wider fields of view necessitates a realistic bladder phantom. We present a novel process to fabricate the first such phantom that mimics both the optical and morphological properties of layers of the healthy and pathologic bladder wall as they characteristically appear with OCT. The healthy regions of the silicone-based phantom comprises three layers: the urothelium, lamina propria and muscularis propria, each containing an appropriate concentration of titanium dioxide to mimic its distinct scattering properties. As well, the layers each possess a unique surface appearance imposed by a textured mold. Within this phantom, pathologic tissue-mimicking regions are created by thickening specific layers or creating inclusions that disrupt the layered appearance of the bladder wall, as is characteristic of bladder carcinomas. This phantom can help to evaluate the efficacy of new OCT systems and software for tumor localization. Moreover, the procedure we have developed is highly generalizable for the creation of OCT-relevant, multi-layer phantoms for tissues that incorporate diseased states characterized by the loss of layered structures.

  16. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  17. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, Wojciech, E-mail: wmajewski1@poczta.onet.p; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanningmore » during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to <95% of the prescribed dose. The dose distribution in the rectum and intestines was better with a 'partially empty' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm{sup 3} for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm{sup 3} for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in

  18. [Franz Joseph Gall and his "talking skulls" established the basis of modern brain sciences].

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Regal; Michael, Nanut

    2008-01-01

    The anatomist and brain scientist Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) developed the "phrenology" in the early 19(th) century. At this time, his new teachings were more seen as a temporary fashion than science and were discredited. No more than hundred years ago, it was realised that the phrenology established the basis of modern brain sciences. By all means Gall was the first one to combine defined regions of the cerebral cortex with distinct cognitive functions.

  19. Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Galled by the Gallbladder? Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ En español Send us your comments Most ... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 ...

  20. Urothelial cancer of bladder in young versus older adults: clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Telli, Onur; Sarici, Hasmet; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Sunay, Mehmet Melih; Bozkurt, Selen; Eroglu, Muzaffer

    2014-09-01

    Bladder urothelial carcinoma is rare in young adults and occurs more commonly in older individuals. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical behavior, pathologic characteristics, and prognosis of urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder in young versus older adults. A retrospective review of our records between 2007 and 2013 identified 56 patients (42 males and 14 females) with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder who were less than 40 years old. Clinical and pathological parameters of patients who were less than 40 years of age were compared with those of a series of patients older than 40 years of age (the control group) during the same period. A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, and Cox regression was performed to identify clinical parameters that affected the clinical outcomes. The mean age was 29.21 years (range, 5-40 years) for patients less than 40 years old and 61.66 years (range, 41-75) for those older than 40 years. The mean follow-up was 40.26 months (range, 12-65 months) for young patients and 42.57 months (range, 12-72 months) for the older patients. Young bladder cancer patients had smaller-sized tumors (less than 3 cm), less high-grade cancers, higher papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential, and low-grade tumors than patients older than 40 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis predicted tumor recurrence in young patients with high-grade tumors [odds ratio (OR), 1.959; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.235-2.965; p = 0.046] and tumors larger than 3 cm (OR, 1.772; 95% CI, 1.416-1.942; p = 0.032). The 5-year overall survival rate was 100% for young patients and 88.1% for older patients. No difference was observed in the recurrence-free (p = 0.321) and progression-free (p = 0.422) survival rates between the two groups. We concluded that although the clinical stage distribution, natural history, and outcomes of bladder urothelial cancer in young adults are

  1. The evolution of bladder cancer genomics: What have we learned and how can we use it?

    PubMed

    Audenet, François; Attalla, Kyrollis; Sfakianos, John P

    2018-03-21

    With advancements in molecular biology techniques, great progress has been made in the understanding of urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis. To examine the historic description of molecular alterations in bladder cancer and their evolution towards our current comprehension of the biology of the disease. Historically, a two-pathway model was described from histological and cytogenetic studies: low-grade papillary non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC) were described to arise from epithelial hyperplasia with loss of chromosome 9 as an early event, whereas muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBC) were considered to develop from dysplasia, associated with genetic instability. Although there could be connections between the 2 pathways, NMIBC and MIBC were largely believed to develop secondary to different molecular alterations. Next-generation sequencing has allowed important insights into cancer biology and a better understanding of the pathways involved in bladder cancer pathogenesis and heterogeneity. Urothelial carcinoma has been found to have a high frequency of somatic mutations compared to other solid tumors, including several mutations in multiple signaling pathways, such as cell cycle regulators (TP53, RB1), RTK/RAS/RAF pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and TERT gene promoter. Epigenetic changes and mutations in chromatin remodeling genes are especially frequent in bladder cancer. Mutations in FGFR3 and KDM6A are more common in NMIBC than in MIBC, whereas mutations in TP53 and KMT2D are more common in MIBC, suggesting the previously hypothesized 2 different pathways, with a subset of tumors progressing from NMIBC to MIBC. Using comprehensive RNA expression profiling studies, at least 5 subtypes of bladder cancer have been identified, the most fundamental division being Basal/Squamous-like and Luminal. These subtypes have different prognoses, natural histories and responses to systemic treatments: Luminal subtypes are enriched with papillary histology and have a

  2. Bladder Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  3. Non-destructive study of iron gall inks in manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duh, Jelena; Krstić, Dragica; Desnica, Vladan; Fazinić, Stjepko

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to establish an effective procedure of iron gall ink characterization using complementary non-destructive methods. By this, it is possible to better understand correlation of chemical composition of the inks and the state of preservation of iron gall ink manuscripts, as well as the effects of conservation treatment performed upon them. This study was undertaken on a bound 16th century manuscript comprised of different types of paper and ink from the National and University Library in Zagreb. Analytical methods used included Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Paper fibers were identified by optical microscopy and the degradation state, as well as ink differentiation, transit metal migrations and detection of stains, with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) photography. The techniques applied on original writing materials gave important information about paper and ink composition, its preservation state and efficiency of conservation treatment performed upon them.

  4. Viruses and interstitial cystitis: adenovirus genomes cannot be demonstrated in urinary bladder biopsies.

    PubMed

    Hukkanen, V; Haarala, M; Nurmi, M; Klemi, P; Kiilholma, P

    1996-01-01

    Microbes may be involved in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis (IC). Adenoviruses and BK virus (BKV) can infect epithelial cells in urinary bladder and they are causative agents for hemorrhagic cystitis. We therefore studied the presence of adenovirus and BKV genomes in urinary bladder tissue specimens of patients with IC using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH). Controls were specimens from cases with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Nucleic acids were extracted from paraffin sections of the bladder tissue for PCR. Primers detecting all adenovirus types were used. In situ hybridization was carried out for the paraffin sections using digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes for adenovirus and BKV. The adenovirus DNA PCR was able to detect one to two infected cells/specimen. All the seven IC cases studied and six controls were negative for adenovirus DNA by PCR and ISH. The ISH test for BKV genomes was also considered negative in IC cases and controls. The specimens which were negative in PCR tests yielded a signal with beta-globin primers, thus being amplifiable. We conclude that adenovirus and BKV do not play a major pathogenetic role in interstitial cystitis.

  5. Developmental anatomy and immunocytochemistry reveal the neo-ontogenesis of the leaf tissues of Psidium myrtoides (Myrtaceae) towards the globoid galls of Nothotrioza myrtoidis (Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Renê G S; Oliveira, Denis C; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2014-12-01

    The temporal balance between hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and the new functions of different cell lineages led to cell transformations in a centrifugal gradient that determines the gall globoid shape. Plant galls develop by the redifferentiation of new cell types originated from those of the host plants, with new functional and structural designs related to the composition of cell walls and cell contents. Variations in cell wall composition have just started to be explored with the perspective of gall development, and are herein related to the histochemical gradients previously detected on Psidium myrtoides galls. Young and mature leaves of P. myrtoides and galls of Nothotrioza myrtoidis at different developmental stages were analysed using anatomical, cytometrical and immunocytochemical approaches. The gall parenchyma presents transformations in the size and shape of the cells in distinct tissue layers, and variations of pectin and protein domains in cell walls. The temporal balance between tissue hyperplasia and cell hypertrophy, and the new functions of different cell lineages led to cell transformations in a centrifugal gradient, which determines the globoid shape of the gall. The distribution of cell wall epitopes affected cell wall flexibility and rigidity, towards gall maturation. By senescence, it provided functional stability for the outer cortical parenchyma. The detection of the demethylesterified homogalacturonans (HGAs) denoted the activity of the pectin methylesterases (PMEs) during the senescent phase, and was a novel time-based detection linked to the increased rigidity of the cell walls, and to the gall opening. Current investigation firstly reports the influence of immunocytochemistry of plant cell walls over the development of leaf tissues, determining their neo-ontogenesis towards a new phenotype, i.e., the globoid gall morphotype.

  6. Evaluation of wild Juglans species for crown gall resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Paradox, the most widely used rootstock in CA walnut production, is highly susceptible to the causal agent of crown gall (CG) Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The bacterial pathogen induces the formation of large tumors around the crown of the tree resulting in a reduction in both vigor and yield. If left...

  7. Biochemical Changes in Terminal Root Galls Caused by an Ectoparasitic Nematode, Longidorus africanus: Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Epstein, E; Cohn, E

    1971-10-01

    The amino acids of terminal root galls caused by Longidorus africanus on bur marigold (Bidens tripartita L.) and grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) were studied. The galled roots of bur marigold contained 73% more cell-wall protein and 184% more free amino acids. The main changes among the free amino acids of the galled tissue were a large increase (1900%) in proline and a decrease in aspartic acid (56%) compared with the respective check tissue. Hydroxyproline decreased in the wall protein fraction from 5.6% in the healthy tissue to 3.6% in the infected tissue.Percent of hydroxyproline in total amino acids of the wall protein fraction of grapevine roots decreased from 0.7% in the healthy tissue to 0.3% in the galled tissue, and total proteins of this fraction decreased from 9.5 mg to 4.5 rag, respectively. Total protein in the protoplasmic fraction also decreased from 3.0 mg in healthy to 1.0 mg in infected roots. No change was noticed in total proteins in the free amino acids fraction but free proline decreased 40% in the infected roots.The relationship of these differences to the specific reactions of the hosts to nematode feeding is discussed.

  8. Cecidonius pampeanus, gen. et sp. n.: an overlooked and rare, new gall-inducing micromoth associated with Schinus in southern Brazil (Lepidoptera, Cecidosidae).

    PubMed

    Moreira, Gilson R P; Eltz, Rodrigo P; Pase, Ramoim B; Silva, Gabriela T; Bordignon, Sérgio A L; Mey, Wolfram; Gonçalves, Gislene L

    2017-01-01

    Galls induced by the larval stage of cecidosids (Lepidoptera: Cecidosidae) are complex, multi-trophic systems, still poorly studied. They may be associated with other insect feeding guilds, including inquilines, kleptoparasites, cecidophages, parasitoids, and predators. By causing death of the gall inducer early in life and altering the gall phenotype, inquilines may lead to misidentification of the true gall inducers. Here, we describe through light and scanning electron microscopy Cecidonius pampeanus , a new genus and species of cecidosid moth, from the Pampa biome, south Brazil. It induces unnoticed, small galls under swollen stems of Schinus weinmannifolius Mart. ex Engl. (Anacardiaceae). Such galls are severely attacked early in ontogeny either by unidentified parasitoids belonging to Lyrcus Walker (Pteromalidae) that feed upon the inducer, or by inquiline wasps of the genus Allorhogas Gahan (Braconidae). The inquilines modify the galls into large ones that last longer and promptly call attention. Free-living galls are rare and dehiscent, pupation of C. pampeanus occurring on the ground. Due to these reasons the true inducer has been overlooked in this case for more than a century. Additionally we inferred a phylogeny for Cecidosidae using sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear loci, and characterized genetic variation and gene flow across ten populations. Despite its natural history similarities with the African genus Scyrotis , Cecidonius is a much younger lineage, more closely related to the Neotropical cecidosids. C. pampeanus populations, which are now confined to a few mountain areas within its distribution range due to habitat destruction, are also genetically isolated, requiring conservation measures.

  9. Cecidonius pampeanus, gen. et sp. n.: an overlooked and rare, new gall-inducing micromoth associated with Schinus in southern Brazil (Lepidoptera, Cecidosidae)

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Gilson R.P.; Eltz, Rodrigo P.; Pase, Ramoim B.; Silva, Gabriela T.; Bordignon, Sérgio A.L.; Mey, Wolfram; Gonçalves, Gislene L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Galls induced by the larval stage of cecidosids (Lepidoptera: Cecidosidae) are complex, multi-trophic systems, still poorly studied. They may be associated with other insect feeding guilds, including inquilines, kleptoparasites, cecidophages, parasitoids, and predators. By causing death of the gall inducer early in life and altering the gall phenotype, inquilines may lead to misidentification of the true gall inducers. Here, we describe through light and scanning electron microscopy Cecidonius pampeanus, a new genus and species of cecidosid moth, from the Pampa biome, south Brazil. It induces unnoticed, small galls under swollen stems of Schinus weinmannifolius Mart. ex Engl. (Anacardiaceae). Such galls are severely attacked early in ontogeny either by unidentified parasitoids belonging to Lyrcus Walker (Pteromalidae) that feed upon the inducer, or by inquiline wasps of the genus Allorhogas Gahan (Braconidae). The inquilines modify the galls into large ones that last longer and promptly call attention. Free-living galls are rare and dehiscent, pupation of C. pampeanus occurring on the ground. Due to these reasons the true inducer has been overlooked in this case for more than a century. Additionally we inferred a phylogeny for Cecidosidae using sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear loci, and characterized genetic variation and gene flow across ten populations. Despite its natural history similarities with the African genus Scyrotis, Cecidonius is a much younger lineage, more closely related to the Neotropical cecidosids. C. pampeanus populations, which are now confined to a few mountain areas within its distribution range due to habitat destruction, are also genetically isolated, requiring conservation measures. PMID:29134006

  10. Role of androgen receptor and associated lysine-demethylase coregulators, LSD1 and JMJD2A, in localized and advanced human bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Eric C; Robinson, Brian D; Downes, Martin J; Powell, Leagh G; Lee, Ming Ming; Scherr, Douglas S; Gudas, Lorraine J; Mongan, Nigel P

    2011-12-01

    Bladder cancer is approximately three times more common in men as compared to women. We and others have previously investigated the contribution of androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) to bladder cancer. JMJD2A and LSD1 are recently discovered AR coregulator proteins that mediate AR-dependent transcription via recently described histone lysine-demethylation (KDM) mechanisms. We used immunohistochemistry to examine JMJD2A, LSD1, and AR expression in 72 radical cystectomy specimens, resulting in evaluation of 129 tissue samples (59 urothelial carcinoma, 70 benign). We tested levels of these proteins for statistical association with clinicopathologic variables and patient survival. Expression of these markers was also assessed in human bladder cancer cell lines. The effects of pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 on the proliferation of these bladder cancer cells was determined. JMJD2A and AR levels were significantly lower in malignant versus benign urothelium, while increased LSD1 levels were observed in malignant urothelium relative to benign. A significant reduction in all three proteins occurred with cancer stage progression, including muscle invasion (JMJD2A/LSD1/AR), extravesical extension (JMJD2A/LSD1), and lymph node metastasis (JMJD2A/AR). Lower JMJD2A intensity correlated with additional poor prognostic features, including lymphovascular invasion, concomitant carcinoma in situ and tobacco usage, and predicted significantly worse overall survival. Pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 suppressed bladder cancer cell proliferation and androgen-induced transcription. Our results support a novel role for the AR-KDM complex in bladder cancer initiation and progression, identify JMJD2A as a promising prognostic biomarker, and demonstrate targeting of the KDM activity as an effective potential approach for bladder cancer growth inhibition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tissue reactions under piezoelectric shockwave application for the fragmentation of biliary calculi.

    PubMed Central

    Ell, C; Kerzel, W; Heyder, N; Rödl, W; Langer, H; Mischke, U; Giedl, J; Domschke, W

    1989-01-01

    The tissue reactions that occurred during piezoelectric shockwaves for the fragmentation of biliary calculi were investigated in 10 surgically removed stone containing human gall bladders and in acute (six dogs) and chronic (six dogs) animal experiments. Before and after shockwave (500, 1500 or 3000) in the anaesthetised dogs, computed tomography (CT), magnetic imaging (MRI) and laboratory tests were done; treatment was carried out under continuous ultrasonographic control. Shockwave applications to the human gall bladders resulted in disintegration of the stones with no macroscopically or microscopically detectable tissue changes. In acute animal experiments, small haematomas were observed in all six animals at surfaces, but also inside the liver and gall bladder (max diameter 25 mm). Perforation or intra-abdominal or pleural bleeding did not occur. In chronic experiments, no macroscopic, and only slight microscopic residual lesions (haemosiderin deposits) were seen three weeks after shockwave. In almost all instances, the lesions were detected by CT, MRI, and ultrasonography, while laboratory tests were negative. Images Fig 1 Figs. 2-4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2731762

  12. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  13. Screening biomarkers of bladder cancer using combined miRNA and mRNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ning; Jin, Xuefei; Gu, Xinquan; Na, Wanli; Zhang, Muchun; Zhao, Rui

    2015-08-01

    Biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) may be useful for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying bladder cancer, differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) and their target genes in bladder cancer were analyzed. In the present study, miRNA and mRNA expression profiles (GSE40355) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. These consisted of healthy bladder samples (n=8) and urothelial carcinoma samples (low-grade, n=8 and high-grade, n=8). DE-miRNAs and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the limma package and the Benjamin and Hochberg method from the multtest package in R. Target genes of DE-miRNAs were screened. Associations between DEGs were investigated using STRING, and an interaction network was constructed using Cytoscape. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for DEGs from the interaction network. 87 DE-miRNAs and 2058 DEGs were screened from low-grade bladder cancer samples, and 40 DE-miRNAs and 2477 DEGs were screened from high-grade bladder cancer samples. DE-target genes were significantly associated with the regulation of cell apoptosis. Bladder cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer biological pathways were found to be enriched. The results of the present study demonstrated that E2F transcription factor 1, which is targeted by miR-106b, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and V-Erb-B2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog-2, which are targeted by miR-125b, participate in the bladder cancer pathway. In conclusion, DE-miRNAs in bladder cancer tissue samples and DE-targeted genes, such as miR-106b and CDKN2A, which were identified in the present study, may provide the basis for targeted therapy for breast cancer and enhance understanding of its pathogenesis.

  14. Neurogenic Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Dorsher, Peter T.; McIntosh, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented. PMID:22400020

  15. A unified EM approach to bladder wall segmentation with coupled level-set constraints

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Duan, Chaijie; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Yang; Liang, Zhengrong

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based virtual cystoscopy (VCys), as a non-invasive, safe and cost-effective technique, has shown its promising virtue for early diagnosis and recurrence management of bladder carcinoma. One primary goal of VCys is to identify bladder lesions with abnormal bladder wall thickness, and consequently a precise segmentation of the inner and outer borders of the wall is required. In this paper, we propose a unified expectation-maximization (EM) approach to the maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) solution of bladder wall segmentation, by integrating a novel adaptive Markov random field (AMRF) model and the coupled level-set (CLS) information into the prior term. The proposed approach is applied to the segmentation of T1-weighted MR images, where the wall is enhanced while the urine and surrounding soft tissues are suppressed. By introducing scale-adaptive neighborhoods as well as adaptive weights into the conventional MRF model, the AMRF model takes into account the local information more accurately. In order to mitigate the influence of image artifacts adjacent to the bladder wall and to preserve the continuity of the wall surface, we apply geometrical constraints on the wall using our previously developed CLS method. This paper not only evaluates the robustness of the presented approach against the known ground truth of simulated digital phantoms, but further compares its performance with our previous CLS approach via both volunteer and patient studies. Statistical analysis on experts’ scores of the segmen