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Sample records for galla chinensis extract

  1. Comparison of Composition and Anticaries Effect of Galla Chinensis Extracts with Different Isolation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuelian; Deng, Meng; Liu, Mingdong; Cheng, Lei; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Li, Jiyao; Zhou, Xuedong; Ten Cate, Jacob. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Galla chinensis water extract (GCE) has been demonstrated to inhibit dental caries by favorably shifting the demineralization/remineralization balance of enamel and inhibiting the biomass and acid formation of dental biofilm. The present study focused on the comparison of composition and anticaries effect of Galla chinensis extracts with different isolation methods, aiming to improve the efficacy of caries prevention. Methods: The composition of water extract (GCE), ethanol extract (eGCE) and commercial tannic acid was compared. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) analysis was used to analyze the main ingredients. In vitro pH-cycling regime and polymicrobial biofilms model were used to assess the ability of different Galla chinensis extracts to inhibit enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation. Results: All the GCE, eGCE and tannic acid contained a high level of total phenolics. HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS analysis showed that the main ingredients of GCE were gallic acid (GA), while eGCE mainly contained 4-7 galloylglucopyranoses (GGs) and tannic acid mainly contained 5-10 GGs. Furthermore, eGCE and tannic acid showed a better effect on inhibiting enamel demineralization, acid formation and biofilm formation compared to GCE. Conclusions: Galla chinensis extracts with higher tannin content were suggested to have higher potential to prevent dental caries. PMID:28979574

  2. Antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing Galla chinensis extract

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LU-FEI; LUO, FENG; XUE, CHAO-RAN; DENG, MENG; CHEN, CHEN; WU, HAO

    2016-01-01

    Galla chinensis extract (GCE), a naturally-derived agent, has a significant inhibitory effect on cariogenic bacteria. The present study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing GCE. A resin-modified glass ionomer cement incorporated GCE at five mass fractions (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8%) to prepare GCE-containing cement for analysis. For the agar diffusion test, cement specimens were placed on agar disk inoculated with Streptococcus mutans (strain ATCC 25175). Following 48 h incubation, the inhibition halo diameter was measured. To assess bacteria colonization susceptibility, S. mutans adhesion to cement specimens was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following 48 h incubation. To evaluate bond strength, a total of 50 metal brackets were bonded on premolar surfaces by using cement (10 teeth/group). Following immersion in an artificial saliva for 3 days, shear bond strength (SBS) was measured. The results demonstrated that GCE-containing samples exhibited a larger bacterial inhibition halo than control, and the inhibition zone increased as the GCE mass fraction increased. SEM analysis demonstrated that S. mutans presented a weaker adherent capacity to all GCE-containing cements compared with control, but the difference between each GCE-containing group was not significant. SBS values of each GCE-containing group exhibited no difference compared with the control. In conclusion, GCE-containing adhesive cement exhibits a promising inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth and adhesion. Without compromising bond strength, adding GCE in adhesive cement may be an attractive option for preventing white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment. PMID:27073642

  3. Effects of Galla chinensis extracts on UVB-irradiated MMP-1 production in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng-wang; Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Hyun Ji; Lee, Tae Youp; Song, Hyun Geun; Park, Sang-Yong; Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Don-Gil; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2015-01-01

    Galla chinensis (GAC) is a natural traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used in folk medicine. Although GAC compounds (mainly gallic acid and methyl gallate) possess strong antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer, and antioxidant activities, there is no report regarding topical or oral administration of GAC compounds on UVB irradiation-induced photoaging in hairless mice (SKH: HR-1). In the present study, we examined cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes induced by UVB in vitro. We also studied skin damage by measuring skin thickness, elasticity, wrinkling and levels of protein MMP-1, elastin, procollagen type I, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in hairless mouse skin chronically irradiated by UVB in vivo. GAC treatment significantly prevented skin photoaging by reducing the levels of ROS, MMP-1, and IL-6 and promoting production of elastin, procollagen type I, and TGF-β1. According to the results of H&E staining and Masson's trichrome staining, GAC reduced skin thickness and wrinkle formation while it increased skin elasticity. The effects of GAC on UVB-induced skin photoaging may be due to suppressed MMP-1 expression. These findings could be referenced for the development of new agents that target UVB-induced photoaging.

  4. Effect of Galla chinensis on the remineralization of two bovine root lesions morphous in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Que, Ke-Hua; Jing Yang; Wang, Bo; Liang, Qian-Qian; Xie, Hong-Hui

    2012-09-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of Galla chinensis compounds on the remineralization of two artificial root lesions morphous in vitro. Sixty bovine dentine blocks were divided into two groups and individually treated with two levels of demineralization solutions to form erosive and subsurface artificial carious lesions in vitro. Each group was then divided into three subgroups, each of which were treated with a remineralization solution (positive control), deionized water (negative control), or 4 000 mg⋅L(-1) aqueous solutions of Galla chinensis extract. The dentine blocks were then subjected to a pH-cycling regime for 7 days. During the first 4 days, the daily cycle included 21-h deal and 3-h demineralization applications. The dentine blocks were dealt with the entire day during the remaining 3 days. Two specimens from each of the treatment groups were selected and observed under a polarized light microscope. Data collected using a laser scanning confocal microscope were computerized and analyzed. Galla chinensis extract clearly enhanced the remineralization of both erosive lesion and subsurface lesion patterns in the specimens (P<0.05). The level of remineralization of the erosive lesion by Galla chinensis extract was lower than that of the subsurface lesion (P<0.05). In addition, the remineralization of the subsurface lesion by Galla chinensis extract was higher than that of the remineralization solution (P<0.05). No significant difference between the remineralization of erosive lesions by Galla chinensis extract and the remineralization solution was observed (P>0.05). So Galla chinensis extract has the potential to improve the remineralization of artificial root lesions under dynamic pH-cyclic conditions, indicating its potential use as a natural remineralization medicine.

  5. Ionic liquid-based ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction combined with UPLC-MS-MS for the determination of tannins in Galla chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunxia; Wang, Hongxin; Lv, Wenping; Ma, Chaoyang; Lou, Zaixiang; Xie, Jun; Liu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid was used as extraction solvents and applied to the extraction of tannins from Galla chinensis in the simultaneous ultrasonic- and microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE) technique. Several parameters of UMAE were optimised, and the results were compared with of the conventional extraction techniques. Under optimal conditions, the content of tannins was 630.2 ± 12.1 mg g⁻¹. Compared with the conventional heat-reflux extraction, maceration extraction, regular ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (11.7-22.0% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 6 h to 1 min). The tannins were then identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. This study suggests that ionic liquid-based UMAE is an efficient, rapid, simple and green sample preparation technique.

  6. Preliminary extraction of tannins by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazole bromide and its subsequent removal from Galla chinensis extract using macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunxia; Luo, Xiaoling; Lu, Liliang; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Xia; Ji, Yong

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids have become increasingly attractive as 'green solvents' used in the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural plant. However, the separation of ionic liquid from the target compounds was difficult, due to their low vapour pressure and high stabilities. In our study, ionic liquid-based ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction was used to obtain the crude tannins, then the macroporous resin adsorption technology was further employed to purify the tannins and remove the ionic liquid from crude extract. The results showed that XDA-6 had higher separation efficiency than other tested resins, and the equilibrium experimental data were well fitted to Langmuir isotherms. Dynamic adsorption and desorption were performed on XDA-6 packed in glass columns to optimise the separation process. The optimum conditions as follows: the ratio of column height to diameter bed was 1:8, flow rate 1 BV/h (bed volume per hour), 85% ethanol was used as eluant while the elution volume was 2 BV. Under the optimised conditions, the adsorption and desoption rate of tannins in XDA-6 were 94.81 and 91.63%, respectively. The content of tannins was increased from 70.24% in Galla chinensis extract to 85.12% with a recovery of 99.06%. The result of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS analysis showed that [bmim]Br could be removed from extract. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Rhus chinensis and Galla Chinensis--folklore to modern evidence: review.

    PubMed

    Djakpo, Odilon; Yao, Weirong

    2010-12-01

    The species Rhus chinensis Mill. (Anacardiaceae) is an important representative of the genus Rhus, which contains over 250 individual species found in temperate and tropical regions worldwide. Rhus chinensis has long been used by folk medicine practitioners in Asia. Leaves, roots, stem, bark, fruit and particularly the galls on Rhus chinensis leaves, Galla chinensis, are recognized to have preventative and therapeutic effects on different ailments (such as diarrhea, dysentery, rectal and intestinal cancer, diabetes mellitus, sepsis, oral diseases and inflammation). However, it is critical to separate evidence from anecdote. Fortunately, recent scientific research has revealed that Rhus chinensis compounds possess strong antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antidiarrheal and antioxidant activities. Moreover, compounds isolated from the stem of Rhus chinensis significantly suppressed HIV-1 activity in vitro. Compounds from this plant were also found to inhibit enamel demineralization in vitro and enhance remineralization of dental enamel with fluoride. This review highlights claims from traditional and tribal medicinal lore and makes a contemporary summary of phytochemical, biological and pharmacological findings on this plant material. It aims to show that the pharmaceutical potential of this plant deserves closer attention. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. [Chemical constituents from supercritical CO2 extraction of Schisandra chinensis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-yan; Lin, Hai-cheng; Wang, Guo-li; Zhang, Lian-xue

    2014-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the supercritical CO2 extraction of Schisandra chinensis. The compounds were separated and purified by conventional column chromatography and their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. Nine compounds were isolated from the supercritical CO2 extraction of Schisandra chinensis, and their structures were identified as chrysophanol(1),schisandrin B(2), β-sitosterol(3), schisandrin C(4),schisandrol A(5), angeloylgomisin H(6), daucosterol(7) 1, 5-dimethyl citrate (8), and shikimic acid (9). Compounds 1, 8 and 9 are isolated from Schisandra chinensis for the first time,and compound 1 as an anthraquinone is isolated from this genus for the first time.

  9. Antioxidant lipoxygenase inhibitors from the leaf extracts of Simmondsia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mageed, Wael Mostafa; Bayoumi, Soad Abdel Latief Hassan; Salama, Awwad Abdoh Radwan; Salem-Bekhit, Mounir Mohamed; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif Hussein; Sayed, Hanaa Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    To isolate and identify chemical constituents with antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects of the ethanolic extract of Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) leaves. The alcoholic extract was subjected to successive solvent fractionation. The antioxidant active fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions) were subjected to a combination of different chromatographic techniques guided by the antioxidant assay with DPPH. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and correlated with known compounds. The antioxidant activity was assessed quantitively using DPPH and β-carotene methods. The inhibitory potential against enzyme lipoxygenase was assessed on soybean lipoxygenase enzyme. Ten flavonoids and four lignans were isolated. Flavonoid aglycones showed stronger antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects than their glycosides. Lignoid glycosides showed moderate to weak antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory effects. A total of 14 compounds were isolated and identified from Simmondsia chinensis; 12 of them were isolated for the first time. This is the first report that highlights deeply on the phenolic content of jojoba and their potential biological activities and shows the importance of this plant as a good source of phenolics in particular the flavonoid content. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Green Algae].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-05-01

    Coptis chinensis contains antiseptic alkaloids and thus its rhizomes and preparations are widely used for the treatment of.fish diseases. In order to realize the risk of water ecosystems produced by this medical herb and preparations used in aquaculture, the present experiment was carried out to study the toxicity of Coptis chinensis rhizome extract (CRE) to Scenedesmus oblique and Chlorella pyrenoidosa grown in culture solution with 0.00 (CK), 0.088 (Tl), 0.44 (T2) and 1.76 mg · L(-1) (T3) of CRE, respectively. The results show that low concentration of CRE (T1) inhibited the growth rate of the alga and high CRE (T2 and T3) ceased growth and reproductions. CRE also decreased the chlorophyll and proteins in alga cells, indicating the inhibition of photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis, which could be direct reasons for the low growth rate and death of green alga. The efflux of protons and substances from alga cells led to pH reduction and conductivity increment in culture solution with CRE. Furthermore, the activity of superoxide dismutase in alga increased at the beginning of CRE in T1 and T2 treatments but decreased as time prolonged which was in contrast to high CRE treatment. And the long exposure to low CRE treatment behaved otherwise. This suggests that the low concentration of CRE could induce the resistant reactions in alga at initial time but high CRE concentration or long exposure even at low CRE concentration could inhibit the enzyme synthesis. Similarly, malondialdehyde in alga increased as CRE concentrations increased in culture solutions, implying the damage and high permeability of cell membrane. In general, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was more sensitive to CRE. The abuse of rhizomes and preparations in aquaculture and intensive cultivation of Coptis chinensis plants in a large scale might produce ecological risks to primary productivity of water ecosystems.

  11. Ex vivo relaxation effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Bo-Ram; Huang, Yi-Ran; Park, Jong-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on the rabbit penile corpus cavernosum (PCC) was evaluated in the present study. Penises obtained from healthy male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg) were precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µmol l(-1)) and then treated with various concentrations of Cuscuta chinensis extract (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg ml(-1)). The change in penile tension was recorded, and cyclic nucleotides in the PCC were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The interaction between Cuscuta chinensis and sildenafil was also evaluated. The result indicated that the PCC relaxation induced by Cuscuta chinensis extract was concentration-dependent. Pre-treatment with an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (Nω nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, L-NAME), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ), or a protein kinase A inhibitor (KT 5720) did not completely inhibit the relaxation. Incubation of penile cavernous tissue with the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the PCC. Moreover, the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly enhanced sildenafil-induced PCC relaxation. In conclusion, the Cuscuta chinensis extract exerts a relaxing effect on penile cavernous tissue in part by activating the NO-cGMP pathway, and it may improve erectile dysfunction (ED), which does not completely respond to sildenafil citrate.

  12. Ex vivo relaxation effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on rabbit corpus cavernosum

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Bo-Ram; Huang, Yi-Ran; Park, Jong-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on the rabbit penile corpus cavernosum (PCC) was evaluated in the present study. Penises obtained from healthy male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5–3.0 kg) were precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µmol l−1) and then treated with various concentrations of Cuscuta chinensis extract (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg ml−1). The change in penile tension was recorded, and cyclic nucleotides in the PCC were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The interaction between Cuscuta chinensis and sildenafil was also evaluated. The result indicated that the PCC relaxation induced by Cuscuta chinensis extract was concentration-dependent. Pre-treatment with an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (Nω nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, L-NAME), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ), or a protein kinase A inhibitor (KT 5720) did not completely inhibit the relaxation. Incubation of penile cavernous tissue with the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the PCC. Moreover, the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly enhanced sildenafil-induced PCC relaxation. In conclusion, the Cuscuta chinensis extract exerts a relaxing effect on penile cavernous tissue in part by activating the NO-cGMP pathway, and it may improve erectile dysfunction (ED), which does not completely respond to sildenafil citrate. PMID:23147465

  13. Optimization of microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Song, Haiyan; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Hu, Haobin; Zhang, Yang

    2015-05-01

    A microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction (MAEE) method had been developed, which was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and orthogonal test design, to enhance the extraction of crude polysaccharides (CPS) from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill. The optimum conditions were as follows: microwave irradiation time of 10 min, extraction pH of 4.21, extraction temperature of 47.58°C, extraction time of 3h and enzyme concentration of 1.5% (wt% of S. chinensis powder) for cellulase, papain and pectinase, respectively. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of CPS was 7.38 ± 0.21%, which was well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods including heat-refluxing extraction (HRE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) for extracting CPS by RSM were further compared. Results indicated MAEE method had the highest extraction yields of CPS at lower temperature. It was indicated that the proposed approach in this study was a simple and efficient technique for extraction of CPS in S. chinensis Baill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sedative and hypnotic effects of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction from Schisandra chinensis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongyan; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Guoli; He, Zhongmei; Zhao, Yan; Xu, Yonghua; Gao, Yugang; Zhang, Lianxue

    2016-10-01

    Schisandra chinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for treating insomnia and neurasthenia for centuries. Lignans, which are considered to be the bioactive components, are apt to be extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. This study was conducted to investigate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of S. chinensis (SFES) in mice and the possible mechanisms. SFES exhibited an obvious sedative effect on shortening the locomotor activity in mice in a dose-dependent (10-200 mg/kg) manner. SFES (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg, intragstrically) showed a strong hypnotic effect in synergy with pentobarbital in mouse sleep, and reversal of insomnia induced by caffeine, p-chlorophenylalanine and flumazenil by decreasing sleep latency, sleep recovery, and increasing sleeping time. In addition, it produced a synergistic effect with 5-hydroxytryptophan (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The behavioral pharmacological results suggest that SFES has significant sedative and hypnotic activities, and the mechanisms might be relevant to the serotonergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Cuscuta chinensis extract promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun Mo; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee; Kim, Jin-Kyung

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of To-Sa-Za (TSZ-AE), the seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam., which is a traditional medicinal herb commonly used in Korea and other oriental countries, could induce osteogenic activity in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. TSZ-AE treatment mildly promoted the proliferation of MG-63 cells at doses of 500 and 1,000 microg/mL in the 24-hour culture period. Dose-dependent increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen synthesis were shown at 48 and 72 hours of incubation. The release of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 but not osteocalcin in the MG-63 cells was induced by TSZ-AE at 72 hours (100-1,000 microg/mL). In addition, TSZ-AE markedly increased mRNA expression of ALP, collagen, and BMP-2 in the MG-63 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Mineralization in the culture of MG-63 cells was significantly induced at 500 and 1,000 microg/mL TSZ-AE treatment. In conclusion, this study shows that TSZ-AE enhanced ALP activity, collagen synthesis, BMP-2 expression, and mineralization in MG-63 cells. These results strongly suggest that C. chinensis can play an important role in osteoblastic bone formation and may possibly lead to the development of bone-forming drugs.

  16. [Allelopathic effects of extracts from fibrous roots of Coptis chinensis on two leguminous species].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wu, Ye-Kuan; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-Guo

    2013-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the allelopathic effects of Coptis chinensis fibrous root extracts (CRE) on the germination and seedling growth of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum in order to alleviate the allelopathic effects and increase land productivity. The seeds of both garden pea (P. sativum) and broad been (V. faba) were germinated in CRE solution of various concentrations, the germination rate, seedling growth and related physiological indexes were measured. The result indicated that there were no significant effects of CRE in low concentrations on seed germination, including both the rate and index, and seed vitality and membrane permeability. With the increment of CRE concentrations, however, the high seed membrane permeability and germination inhibition were observed. For example, the germination rates were reduced by 23.4% (P. sativum) and 9.5% (V. faba), respectively, in CRE solution with 800 mg . L-1. Simultaneously, soluble sugars and the free amino acids in the seeds were lower than those in the control (without CRE) after soaking seeds in CRE solutions. In addition, the seedling growth and nitrate reductase activity were stimulated by CRE at low concentrations in contrast to high concentrations which behaved otherwise and inhibited the nutrient utilization in endosperm. Therefore, the large amount of allelochemicals released from the roots and remains of C. chinensis in soils could inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth of legumes, which may lead to decrease even fail crop yields after growing this medical plant.

  17. [Monitoring method of extraction process for Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus based on near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical process control].

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yue, Hong-Shui; Pang, Hong-Wei; Ye, Zheng-Liang; Ding, Li

    2017-10-01

    To establish an on-line monitoring method for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, the formula medicinal material of Yiqi Fumai lyophilized injection by combining near infrared spectroscopy with multi-variable data analysis technology. The multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model was established based on 5 normal batches in production and 2 test batches were monitored by PC scores, DModX and Hotelling T2 control charts. The results showed that MSPC model had a good monitoring ability for the extraction process. The application of the MSPC model to actual production process could effectively achieve on-line monitoring for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, and can reflect the change of material properties in the production process in real time. This established process monitoring method could provide reference for the application of process analysis technology in the process quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Zhou, Hongli; Hu, Haobin

    2014-08-05

    A method for two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill had been established. Firstly, S. chinensis was extracted by hydro-distillation, the extracted solution was separated from the water-insoluble residue and precipitated by adding dehydrated alcohol after the essential oil was collected, and then the precipitate as polysaccharide was collected. Finally, second extraction was performed to obtained lignans from the water-insoluble residue with ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) method. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the UMAE parameters, the optimal conditions were as follows: microwave power 430W, ethanol concentration 84%, particle size of sample 120-mesh sieves, ratio of water to raw material 15 and extraction time 2.1min. Under these optimized conditions, the total extraction yields of five lignans (Schisandrol A, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C) had reached 14.22±0.135mg/g. Compared with the traditional method of direct extraction of different bioactive components in respective procedure, the extraction yields of polysaccharides and the five lignans had reached 99% and 95%, respectively. The mean recoveries of the 5 lignan compounds and polysaccharides were 97.75-101.08% and their RSD value was less than 3.88%.The approach proposed in this study not only improved the extraction yield of lignans, but also elevated the utilization of Schisandra resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cuscuta chinensis seeds water extraction protecting murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian-mei; Li, Ran; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Li-long; Ying, Xi-xiang; Dou, De-qiang; Li, Jian-chun; Li, Hai-bo

    2013-07-09

    Cuscuta chinensis (C. chinensis) is a well-known traditional Chinese herb that has been used to treat heart disease, diabetes, liver injury, cancer, and aging. Murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with various concentrations of C. chinensis water extraction at different time intervals. The antioxidant effect of C. chinensis on MC3T3-E1 cells was evaluated using MTT and TUNEL assays. The effect of C. chinensis on cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Lipid peroxidation was measured by the HPLC method. The cellular redox status was determined from the reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) and the enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism, including glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). The changes in relative mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) in the MC3T3-E1 cells were analyzed with rhodamine 123 staining. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the levels of cytochrome c (cyto c), Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 3, Sirt3, and IDH2 expressions. The C. chinensis water extraction protects tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-treated MC3T3-E1 cells from death in a dose-dependent manner. C. chinensis treatment significantly inhibited the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), GR, GST, and G6PD. The release of cyto c from mitochondria was reduced by C. chinensis, which increased the expression of antiapoptotic IDH2, Sirt3, and Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax, cyto c, and caspase 3. C. chinensis modulated the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, probably due to its antioxidant activity and functioning via mitochondria-dependent pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

    2011-12-02

    Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Actinidia chinensis Planch root extract inhibits cholesterol metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma through upregulation of PCSK9.

    PubMed

    He, Mingyan; Hou, Jiayun; Wang, Lingyan; Zheng, Minghuan; Fang, Tingting; Wang, Xiangdong; Xia, Jinglin

    2017-06-27

    Actinidia chinensis Planch root extract (acRoots) is a traditional Chinese medicine with anti-tumor efficacy. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for this activity, we examined the effects of acRoots on cholesterol metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). mRNA chip analysis was used to identify the metabolic genes regulated by acRoots. The effects of acRoots on cholesterol synthesis and uptake were evaluated by measuring intracellular cholesterol levels and 3,3'-dioctadecylindocarbocyanine-labeled low-density lipoprotein (Dil-LDL) uptake. Expression of metabolic genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR, western blotting, and flow cytometry. acRoots reduced the viability of LM3 and HepG2 cells at 5 mg/mL and HL-7702 cells at 30 mg/mL. Gene expression profiling revealed that treatment with acRoots altered expression of genes involved in immune responses, inflammation, proliferation, cell cycle control, and metabolism. We also confirmed that acRoots enhances expression of PCSK9, which is important for cholesterol metabolism. This resulted in decreased LDL receptor expression, inhibition of LDL uptake by LM3 cells, decreased total intracellular cholesterol, and reduced proliferation. These effects were promoted by PCSK9 overexpression and rescued by PCSK9 knockdown. Our data demonstrate that acRoots is a novel anti-tumor agent that inhibits cholesterol metabolism though a PCSK9-mediated signaling pathway.

  2. Effect of Kelp Waste Extracts on the Growth and Development of Pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shiyan; Jiang, Jie; He, Meilin; Zou, Shanmei; Wang, Changhai

    2016-12-01

    To explore the effects of kelp waste extracts (KWE) on the growth and development of Brassia chinensis L., germination and greenhouse experiments were carried out under different concentrations of KWE. The results showed that a higher germination percentage (95%), associated with high germination index (8.70), germination energy (71.67%) and seedling vigor index (734.67), was obtained under a lower KWE concentration (2%) compared with the control. The radicle length (4.97 cm), fresh weight (0.32 g/10 seedlings) and dry weight (0.015 g/10 seedlings) were significantly increased in the treatment of 2% KWE. KWE also could enhance the root growth, the maximum leaf length × width and the fresh weight of plants, the optimal value of which increased by 8.37 cm, 58.14 cm2 and 7.76 g under the treatment of 10% KWE compared with the control respectively. Meanwhile, the contents of vitamin C and soluble sugars in pakchoi leaf were improved by 19.6 mg/100 g and 1.44 mg/g compared with the control, and the nitrate content was decreased by 212.27 mg/kg. Briefly, KWE could markedly stimulate the pakchoi seeds germination at a lower concentration (2%) and enhance the plant growth and quality at a higher concentration (10%).

  3. Ovipositional responses of the pulse beetle, Bruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to extracts and compounds of Capparis decidua.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Ravi K; Rohatgi, Leena; Chaubey, Mukesh K; Jain, Subhash C

    2006-12-27

    Extracts of Capparis decidua stems and flowers showed insecticidal and oviposition inhibitory activities against Bruchus chinensis. The LC50 values of these extracts were found to increase with the increase in the polarity of the extract at different exposure periods. For instance, after 96 h, the LC50 values were found to be 3.619, 7.319, and 10.151 microg for CD1, CD2, and CD3, respectively. Extract CD7 was effective only at higher doses. The toxicity was found to be dose- and time-dependent. The females laid lesser number of eggs, when exposed to sublethal doses of different extracts and pure compounds, as compared to control. The maximum oviposition deterrence index was found for extract CD1 followed in decreasing order by CD2, CD3, and CD7. From extract CD1, two compounds were isolated and characterized as triacontanol (C1) and 2-carboxy-1,1-dimethylpyrrolidine (C2). When the females were exposed to sublethal doses of these compounds, they laid lesser number of eggs as compared to the control. C2 was found to have a slightly greater oviposition inhibition effect than C1. From fraction CD7, one novel compound labeled as CDF1 has been isolated and identified as 6-(1-hydroxy-non-3-enyl)tetrahydropyran-2-one. CDF1 has also shown insecticidal and oviposition inhibitory activities against B. chinensis at low concentrations.

  4. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, A.; Ghannadi, A.; Mohebi, B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents. PMID:25657780

  5. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Jafarian, A; Ghannadi, A; Mohebi, B

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents.

  6. Combination of HPLC chromatogram and hypoglycemic effect identifies isoflavones as the principal active fraction of Belamcanda chinensis leaf extract in diabetes treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Wu, Chong-Ming; Dai, Rong-Ji; Li, Liang; Yu, Yu-Hong; Li, Yan; Meng, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Yongqian; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2011-02-15

    In previous study, we demonstrated the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Belamcanda chinensis leaves in rats. Here, we separated the aqueous extract of B. chinensis leaves and investigated the spectrum-effect relationships between HPLC chromatograms and hypoglycemic activities of different isolates from B. chinensis leaf extract. Sequential solvent extraction with petroleum ether, chloroform, acetic ester and n-butanol provided several isolates showing similar hypoglycemic activities, making it difficult to discriminate the active fractions. Stepwise elution through HP20 macroporous resin by water, 40% and 95% ethanol provided isolates with distinct hypoglycemic activities, representing a simple, rapid and efficient preparative separation method. Combination of HPLC chromatogram and pharmacological effect targeted a hypoglycemic activity-related region in HPLC chromatogram. Each peak in this region was analyzed by UV spectrum scan. Most of them were flavonoids in which tectoridin and swertisin were known flavonoids with anti-diabetic activities. In together, this work provides a general model of combination of HPLC chromatography and pharmacological effect to study the spectrum-effect relationships of aqueous extract from B. chinensis leaves, which can be used to find principle components of B. chinensis on pharmacological activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Wei; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi. PMID:27152614

  8. Ethanol Extract of Dianthus chinensis L. Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nho, Kyoung Jin; Chun, Jin Mi; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis L. is used to treat various diseases including cancer; however, the molecular mechanism by which the ethanol extract of Dianthus chinensis L. (EDCL) induces apoptosis is unknown. In this study, the apoptotic effects of EDCL were investigated in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Treatment with EDCL significantly inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. This induction was associated with chromatin condensation, activation of caspases, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. However, apoptosis induced by EDCL was attenuated by caspase inhibitor, indicating an important role for caspases in EDCL responses. Furthermore, EDCL did not alter the expression of bax in HepG2 cells but did selectively downregulate the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xl, resulting in an increase in the ratio of bax:bcl-2 and bax:bcl-xl. These results support a mechanism whereby EDCL induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in HepG2 cells. PMID:22645629

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics study of orientin in rat plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS after intravenous administration of single orientin and Trollius chinensis Bunge extract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Sun, Qi; Song, Yang; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Tingjian; Meng, Fanhao

    2018-04-01

    Orientin showed a broad array of biological activities, and it is the major bioactive compound in the Trollius chinensis Bunge. The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative pharmacokinetics of orientin after intravenous administration of single orientin and T. chinensis Bunge extract. Sample preparation involved a simple one-step deproteinization procedure with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters BEH C 18 column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid in an isocratic elution way. The detection was accomplished in multiple reaction monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The pharmacokinetic properties of orientin were compared after intravenous administrations of pure orientin and T. chinensis Bunge extract to rats with approximately the same dosage of 10 mg/kg. The results of the study indicate that the pharmacokinetics of orientin in rat plasma show significant differences between two groups. This is useful for the clinical uses of therapeutic dosing of orientin and T. chinensis Bunge. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Schisandra chinensis fruit extract attenuates albuminuria and protects podocyte integrity in a mouse model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mianzhi; Liu, Miao; Xiong, Min; Gong, Junbo; Tan, Xiaoyue

    2012-05-07

    Schisandra chinensis fruit is widely used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of hepatic, renal, heart, cerebrovascular and infectious diseases. To investigate the effects of Schisandra chinensis fruit extract (SE) on albuminuria and podocyte injury as well as the underlying mechanism in the mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy and in cultured mouse podocyte cells. SE was orally administrated in STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy mice for 7 weeks, at a daily dose of 5g/kg body weight. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio and urine albumin excretion rate were measured at the 6th and 9th week of the experiment. The extent of glomerulosclerosis and extracellular matrix deposition were determined by periodic acid-silver methenamine and Masson's trichrome staining. The amount of podocytes and the integrity of the slit diaphragm were detected by immunohistological staining of podocyte markers, Wilms' tumor 1 and nephrin. Alpha-smooth muscle actin, E-cadherin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by western blot and immunohistological staining to evaluate the level of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to detect the mRNA level of E-cadherin, alpha-SMA and snail in cultured podocyte cells. Treatment with SE significantly decreased the urine albumin excretion rate and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. In addition, SE attenuated glomerulosclerosis and protected against podocyte loss and integrity of the slit diaphragm. Furthermore, SE effectively prevented the EMT of podocytes caused by diabetic nephropathy. Our studies suggest that SE might be beneficial for diabetic nephropathy. The effects of SE on attenuating albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis are possibly mediated by preserving podocyte integrity through suppressing EMT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of the semen extract of Cuscuta chinensis on inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Yong; Jung, Hyo Won; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Hye Won; Chae, Seong Wook; Park, Yong-Ki

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of the semen extract of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Cuscutae Semen; CS) on the production of inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin 2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglia. BV-2 cells were treated with CS extract for 30 min, and then stimulated with LPS or without for 24 h. The levels of NO, PGE2 and proinflammatory cytokines were measured by Griess assay and ELISA. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA and protein was determined by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the nuclear expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 were investigated by Western blot analysis. CS extract significantly decreased the production of NO and PGE2 by suppressing the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in activated microglia. CS extract decreased the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 by down-regulating their transcription levels. In addition, CS extract suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in activated microglia. These results indicate that CS extract is capable of suppressing the inflammatory response by microglia activation, suggesting that CS extract has potential in the treatment of brain inflammation. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of schisandrin B from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill seeds: optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y B; Wang, L H; Zhang, D Y; Zhou, L L; Guo, Y X

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a process consisting of ultrasonic-assisted extraction, silica-gel column chromatography and crystallization to optimize pilot scale recovery of schisandrin B (SAB) from Schisandra chinensis seeds. The effects of five independent variables including liquid-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, ultrasonic power, extraction time, and temperature on the SAB yield were evaluated with fractional factorial design (FFD). The FFD results showed that the ethanol concentration was the only significant factor for the yield of SAB. Then, with the liquid-solid ratio 5 (mL/g) and ultrasonic power 600 W, the other three parameters were further optimized by means of response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM results revealed that the optimal conditions consisted of 95% ethanol, 60 °C and 70 min. The average experimental SAB yield under the optimum conditions was found to be 5.80 mg/g, which was consistent with the predicted value of 5.83 mg/g. Subsequently, a silica gel chromatographic process was used to prepare the SAB-enriched extract with petroleum ether/acetone (95:5, v/v) as eluents. After final crystallization, 1.46 g of SAB with the purity of 99.4% and the overall recovery of 57.1% was obtained from 400 g seeds powder. This method provides an efficient and low-cost way for SAB purification for pharmaceutical industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of DGT with traditional extraction methods for assessing arsenic bioavailability to Brassica chinensis in different soils.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yunchao; Nasir, Mubasher; Zhang, Yulin; Gao, Jiakai; Lv, Yamin; Lv, Jialong

    2018-01-01

    Several predictive models and methods have been used for heavy metals bioavailability, but there is no universally accepted approach in evaluating the bioavailability of arsenic (As) in soil. The technique of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is a promising tool, but there is a considerable debate with respect to its suitability. The DGT method was compared with other traditional chemical extractions techniques (soil solution, NaHCO 3 , NH 4 Cl, HCl, and total As method) for estimating As bioavailability in soil based on a greenhouse experiment using Brassica chinensis grown in various soils from 15 provinces in China. In addition, we assessed whether these methods are independent of soil properties. The correlations between plant and soil As concentration measured with traditional extraction techniques were pH and iron oxide (Fe ox ) dependent, indicating that these methods are influenced by soil properties. In contrast, DGT measurements were independent of soil properties and also showed a better correlation coefficient than other traditional techniques. Thus, DGT technique is superior to traditional techniques and should be preferable for evaluating As bioavailability in different type of soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective effect of Schisandra chinensis bee pollen extract on liver and kidney injury induced by cisplatin in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibo; Shen, Zhenhuang; Geng, Qianqian; Wu, Zhenhong; Shi, Peiying; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2017-11-01

    Cisplatin (CP) has been used to cure numerous forms of cancers effectively in clinics, however, it could induce some toxic effects. Bee pollen is a natural compound, produced by honey bees. It is obtained from collected flower pollen and nectar, mixed with bee saliva. Bee pollen produced from Schisandra chinensis plants is described to exert potent antioxidant effects and to be a free radical scavenger. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of therapeutic treatment with Schisandra chinensis bee pollen extract (SCBPE) on liver and kidney injury induced by CP. The rats were intragastrically administrated with different doses of SCBPE (400mg/kg/day, 800mg/kg/day, 1200mg/kg/day) and vitamin C (400mg/kg/day, positive control group) for 12days, and the liver and kidney injury models were established by single intraperitoneal injection of CP (8mg/kg) at seventh day. The effect of SCBPE on CP toxicity was evaluated by measuring markers of liver and kidney injury in serum, levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in liver and kidney, observing pathological changes of tissue, and quantified expression of NFκB, IL-1β, IL-6, cytochrome C, caspase3, caspase9, p53 and Bax in liver and kidney. Compared with the model group, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the content of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) in serum all decreased in SCBPE high dose group. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver and kidney increased, and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) decreased. In addition, the histopathologic aspects showed that the pathological changes of liver and kidney were found in the model group, and SCBPE group reduced to varying degrees. Moreover, the expression of NFκB, IL-1β, IL-6, cytochrome C, caspase3, caspase9, p53 and Bax in liver and kidney decreased

  15. Inhibition mechanism of compound ethanol extracts from wuweizi (fructus schisandrae chinensis) on renal interstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy model mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Daning; Zhang, Mianzhi

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate inhibition effect and mechanism of compound ethanol extracts from Wuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Chuanxiong) and Muli (Cocha Ostreae) (FRC) on glomerular and tubular interstitial fibrosis in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (ND) model mice. Twenty-seven male C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into 3 groups: nondibetic (ND), STZ-induced diabetic (D), and STZ-induced diabetic that were treated with 5 g x kg(-1) x day(-1) of FRC by oral gavage (D(FRC)), with 9 in each group. The protein expressions of E-cadherin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAL-1) in renal tissues were investigated by Western blotting. The expressions of fibronectin (FN) and alpha-SMA were detected by immunohistochemical method. The morphological changes of renal tissues were observed under a microscope. Renal tissues in the D(FRC) group showed a lessened degree of fibrosis. Meanwhile, the expressions of FN, alpha-SMA and PAI-1 were significantly lower in the D(FRC) group than those in the D group (all P < 0.05). FRC can ameliorate the DN in the C57BL/6 mice, and its mechanism may relate to inhibition on the epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation, endothelial-myofibroblast transition and PAL-1 expression.

  16. Extraction and characterisation of pomace pectin from gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Yuliarti, Oni; Goh, Kelvin K T; Matia-Merino, Lara; Mawson, John; Brennan, Charles

    2015-11-15

    Gold kiwifruit pomace extracted using citric acid, water and enzyme (Celluclast 1.5L) were studied in terms of pectin yield, protein, ash, non-starch polysaccharide, galacturonic acid (GalA), neutral sugar composition, molar mass (Mw), viscosity and degree of branching. Water-extracted pectin was considered closest to its native form. Enzyme extracted pectin showed the highest yield (∼ 4.5%w/w) as compared with the acid and water extraction methods (∼ 3.6-3.8%w/w). Pectin obtained from different extraction methods showed different degree of branching. The Mw and root mean square (RMS) radius varied with the extraction methods with values of 8.4 × 10(5) g/mol and 92 nm, 8.5 × 10(5)g/mol and 102 nm, 6.7 × 10(5) g/mol and 52 nm for acid, water and enzymatic extraction methods, respectively. Similar trend was observed for pectin viscosity, with water-extracted pectin giving a slightly higher viscosity followed by acid and enzyme-extracted pectin. This study showed that gold kiwifruit pomace pectin has potential application in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of conditions of solvent-free microwave extraction and study on antioxidant capacity of essential oil from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Liu, Ting-ting

    2012-10-15

    In this article, solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oil from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill was studied. A multivariate study based on central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the influence of three major variables affecting the performance of SFME. The optimum parameters were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 385 W and moisture content of the fruits was 68%. The extraction yield of essential oil was 11 ml/kg under the optimum conditions. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were determined, and compared with traditional antioxidants. GC-MS showed the different composition of essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation (HD), steam-distillation (SD) and SFME. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Micrographs and thermo gravimetric loss provided more evidences to prove SFME of essential oil is more completed than HD and SD. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant Efficacy of Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pericarp Extract in Sheep Meat Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arun K.; Rajkumar, Vincent; Nanda, Pramod K.; Chauhan, Pranav; Pradhan, Soubhagya R.; Biswas, Subhasish

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of litchi fruit pericarp (LFP) extract (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% concentration) in retarding lipid oxidation of cooked sheep meat nuggets was evaluated and compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 100 ppm). The total phenolic content and antioxidant potential of LFP extracts were determined. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values were evaluated to assess the potential of LFP extracts as natural antioxidants for oxidative stability of cooked nuggets during 12 days of refrigerated storage. Results show that total phenolics content in 10 mg LFP powder was comparable to 100 ppm BHT, but 15 mg LFP powder had significantly higher (p < 0.05) total phenolics content and reducing power than the synthetic antioxidant. LFP extract did not affect pH, cooking yield and the sensory attributes of cooked nuggets. Non-treated control and nuggets with 1.0% LFP extract had significantly lower total phenolics than nuggets with 1.5% extract and BHT. TBARS values were significantly lower (p < 0.05) throughout the storage period in cooked meat nuggets containing either LFP extract or BHT than in non-treated control. Results indicate that LFP extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional food additives in meat products at 1.5% without affecting products’ acceptability. PMID:27213457

  19. A botulinum neurotoxin-like function of Potentilla chinensis extract that inhibits neuronal SNARE complex formation, membrane fusion, neuroexocytosis, and muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang-Hwa; Choi, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Yoosoo; Koh, Hyun-Ju; Heo, Paul; Yoon, Kee-Jung; Kim, Sehyun; Park, Won-Seok; Shing, Hong-Ju; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk

    2012-09-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are popularly used to treat various diseases and for cosmetic purposes. They act by blocking neurotransmission through specific cleavage of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Recently, several polyphenols were shown to interfere with SNARE complex formation by wedging into the hydrophobic core interface, thereby leading to reduced neuroexocytosis. In order to find industrially-viable plant extract that functions like BoNT, 71 methanol extracts of flowers were screened and BoNT-like activity of selected extract was evaluated. After evaluating the inhibitory effect of 71 flower methanol extracts on SNARE complex formation, seven candidates were selected and they were subjected to SNARE-driven membrane fusion assay. Neurotransmitter release from neuronal PC12 cells and SNARE complex formation inside the cell was also evaluated. Finally, the effect of one selected extract on muscle contraction and digit abduction score was determined. The extract of Potentilla chinensis Ser. (Rosaceae)(Chinese cinquefoil) flower inhibited neurotransmitter release from neuronal PC12 cells by approximately 90% at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. The extract inhibited neuroexocytosis by interfering with SNARE complex formation inside cells. It reduced muscle contraction of phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm by approximately 70% in 60 min, which is comparable to the action of the Ca²⁺-channel blocker verapamil and BoNT type A. While BoNT blocks neuroexocytosis by cleaving SNARE proteins, the Potentilla chinensis extract exhibited the same activity by inhibiting SNARE complex formation. The extract paralyzed muscle as efficiently as BoNT, suggesting the potential versatility in cosmetics and therapeutics.

  20. [Effects of extracts from ziziphi spinosae semen and schisandrae chinensis fructus on amino acid neurotransmitter in rats with insomnia induced by PCPA].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jia-Rong; Ji, Wen-Bo; Jiang, Hui; Chen, Jin-Feng

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effects of extract from Ziziphus Spinosa Semen and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus on the content of amino acid neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus of insomnia rats induced by P-Chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and its mechanism. The model of insomnia rats were established by PCPA intraperitoneal injection, after the modeling, all the therapeutic group were treated with corresponding drug for one week. The hypothalamus pathological changes of the rats were observed. The contents of GABA, Glu in the hypothalamus were detected by Elisa. The GABA, Glu protein expression were detected by immunohistochemical. GABA(A), R(alpha1) and GABA(A)R(gamma2) mRNA expressions were detected by RT-PCR. Compared with model group, the content of GABA in the hypothalamus of rats increased obviously in the alcohol-water group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), while the content of Glu decreased obviously (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The extract from Ziziphus Spinosae Semen and Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus has obviously Sedative-hypnotic effect. Its mechanism may be related to regulating the content of amino acid neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus of rats.

  1. High throughput screening and antioxidant assay of dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene lignans in modified-ultrasonic and supercritical fluid extracts of Schisandra chinensis Baill by liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry and a free radical-scavenging method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Chih; Lai, Yih-Cherng; Chang, Chia-Lin

    2008-05-01

    Dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene lignans of Schisandra chinensis Baill are well known because of their hepatoprotective activity, antioxidant activity, and anticancer effect. For the isolation of the dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene lignans of Schisandra chinensis Baill two extraction methods were used: modified-ultrasonic extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. A specific and fast analytical method for structure identification is established for quality control because structure elucidation could be accomplished by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technologies. The separation and identification of the compounds were completed by: (i) a water-acetonitrile gradient system using a C18 reversed-phase column; (ii) UV detection at 225 nm; (iii) MS/MS experiments with electrospray ionization interface (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry in the positive mode. Normalized collision energy was used to obtain fragment ions of structural relevance in the LC-MS/MS. These results provided a reliable LC-MS/MS method for the determination of the dibenzo[a,c]cyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. Finally, we also detected 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging effects (%) of the modified-ultrasonic and supercritical fluid extracts of Schisandra chinensis Baill compared with 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). The antioxidant activities of the modified-ultrasonic and supercritical fluid extracts were lower than that of trolox.

  2. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities and chemical compositions of volatile oils extracted from Schisandra chinensis Baill. seeds using simultaneous distillation extraction method, and comparison with Soxhlet and microwave-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Y

    2014-01-01

    The volatile oils were isolated from dried Schisandra chinensis Baill. seeds by Soxhlet extraction (SE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), and fractions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The essential oils were assessed for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. GC-MS results also revealed that the major ingredients in the oil extracted by SDE were terpenoids compounds such as ylangene (15.01%), α-phellandrene (8.23%), β-himachalene (6.95%), and cuparene (6.74), and the oil extracts of MAE and SE mainly contained aromatics such as schizandrins, wuweizisu C, and gomisin A. HPLC analysis results confirmed that more schizandrin was obtained through extraction by MAE (996.64 μg/g) and SE (722.13 μg/g). SDE oil extract showed more significant antioxidant activity than MAE or SE oil. Only volatile oil from SDE showed good antibacterial activity against all tested strains.

  3. Ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of isoflavones from Belamcanda chinensis and subsequent screening and isolation of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors by ultrafiltration and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Senlin; Li, Sainan; Huang, Yu; Liu, Chunming; Chen, Lina; Zhang, Yuchi

    2017-06-01

    The separation of a compound of interest from its structurally similar homologues to produce high-purity natural products is a challenging problem. This work proposes a novel method for the separation of iristectorigenin A from its structurally similar homologues by ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction and the subsequent screening and isolation of potential α-glucosidase inhibitors via ultrafiltration and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Ionic-liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of tectorigenin, iristectorigenin A, irigenin, and irisflorentin from Belamcanda chinensis. The optimum conditions for the efficient extraction of isoflavones were determined as 1.0 M 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate with extraction time of 30 min and a solvent to solid ratio of 30 mL/g. Ultrafiltration with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was applied to screen and identify α-glucosidase inhibitors from B. chinensis, followed by the application of semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography to separate and isolate the active constituents. Four major compounds including tectorigenin, iristectorigenin A, irigenin, and irisflorentin were screened and identified as α-glucosidase inhibitors, and then the four active compounds abovementioned were subsequently isolated by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (99.89, 88.97, 99.79, and 99.97% purity, respectively). The results demonstrate that ionic liquid extraction can be successfully applied to the extraction of isoflavones from B. chinensis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. In vitro apoptotic effects of methanol extracts of Dianthus chinensis and Acalypha australis L. targeting specificity protein 1 in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Ae; Kim, Jae-Jin; Choi, Eun-Sun; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kwon, Ki Han; Park, Hee-Min; Seo, Jin-Young; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Lim, Do-Won; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the apoptotic activities and molecular mechanisms of methanol extracts of Dianthus chinensis (MEDC) and Acalypha australis L. (MEAL) in human oral cancer cells. The apoptotic effects and related molecular mechanisms of MEDC and MEAL on oral cancer cells were evaluated using MTS assay, DAPI staining, immunostaining, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sp1 was overexpressed in oral tumor tissues compared with normal oral mucosa. Downregulation of Sp1 inhibited the growth of SCC-15 and YD-15 oral cancer cells. MEDC and MEAL inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in both cell lines by decreasing the expression of Sp1. In addition, treatment of cells with MEDC and MEAL decreased Mcl-1 expression, which is a downstream target of Sp1. Our results indicate that MEDC and MEAL are bioactive natural products that can potentially induce apoptosis of tumor cells that overexpress the Sp1 protein. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Study on chemical constituents from Schisandra chinensis stem].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-shi; Du, Shu-shan; Cai, Qian

    2014-10-01

    To separate and identify the chemical constituents from the stem of Schisandra chinensis. Various chromatographic techniques were used to separate and purify the chemical constituents from 95% ethanol extraction of the stem of Schisandra chinensis. Their structures were elucidated based on the physico-chemical properties and spectral data. Ten compounds were obtained and elucidated as (+)-deoxyschizandrin (1), γ-schizandrin (2), wuweizisu C (3), gomisin N (4), schizandrin (5), anwuweizic acid (6), (-)-dihydroguaiaretic acid (7), tetradecanoic acid (8), β-sitosterol (9) and daucosterol (10). Compounds 6-8 are obtained from the stem of Schisandra chinensis for the first time.

  6. [Isolation and characterization of polyphenols in seed of Litchi chinensis].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ren-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2009-04-01

    To study the chemical constituents of polyphenols in seed of Litchi chinensis. The seeds of Litchi chinensis were extracted by 65% ethanol, then the compounds were separated by repeated silica gel, polyamide and preparative TLC. The structures of polyphones isolated were identified by analysis of their spectral datas and chemical properties. Four polyphones compounds were isolated as protocatechuic aldehyde (I), protocatechuic acid (II), daucosterol (III) and (-) -epicatichin (IV). Compounds I , III and IV are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  7. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of bioactive alkaloid compounds from rhizoma coptidis (Coptis chinensis Franch.) using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hui; Choi, Yong Hee

    2014-01-01

    The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum recovery of total alkaloid content (TAC), berberine content (BC), palmatine content (PC), and the highest antioxidant capacity (AC) from rhizoma coptidis subjected to ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design (CCD) with three variables and five levels was employed, and response surface plots were constructed in accordance with a second order polynomial model. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the quadratic model was well fitted and significant for responses of TAC, BC, PC, and AA. The optimum conditions obtained through the overlapped contour plot were as follows: ethanol concentration of 59%, extraction time of 46.57min, and temperature of 66.22°C. Verification experiment was carried out, and no significant difference was found between observed and estimated values for each response, suggesting that the estimated models were reliable and valid for UAE of alkaloids. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cuscuta chinensis Ameliorates Immunosuppression and Urotoxic Effect of Cyclophosphamide by Regulating Cytokines - GM-CSF and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Raju, Nidhi; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Kannan, Narayanan; Vinod Prabhu, Venugopal; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is commonly used as anticancer drug which causes toxicity by its reactive metabolites such as acroline and phosphoramide mustard. In this study, Cuscuta chinensis (C. chinensis) (family: Convolvulaceae) was assessed for ability to restore mice against CTX-induced toxicity. Coadministration of C. chinensis extract (10 mg/kg BW, IP, daily) for ten consecutive days reduced CTX-induced (25 mg/kg BW, IP, daily) toxicity. Treatment with C. chinensis extract significantly (p < 0.01) increased the relative organ weight and body weight. Moreover, administration of C. chinensis extract significantly increased bone marrow cellulatity and α-esterase activity in CTX-treated mice which suggested its protective role on the hematopoietic system. The GSH content was drastically reduced by CTX administration in urinary bladder which was enhanced by treatment with C. chinensis extract, indicating that preventing acroline-mediated tissue damage or cell toxicity and also the extract decreased the urinary bladder nitric oxide (NO) level which proves recovery over urinary tract injury associated with CTX treatment. The administration of C. chinensis extract decreased serum urea, creatinine, and bilirubin levels when compared to CTX-alone-treated group. Histopathological analysis of the urinary bladder of CTX-alone-treated group showed necrotic damage whereas the C. chinensis-treated group showed normal bladder architecture. The above data clearly demonstrates chemoprotective role of C. chinensis against CTX-induced toxicities by regulating antioxidant and inflammatory mediators.

  9. Cyclopentapeptides from Dianthus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Huang, Maobo; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Yuqing; Zeng, Guangzhi; He, Wenjun; Tan, Ninghua

    2015-07-01

    A new cyclopentapeptide dianthin I (1), together with two known ones pseudostellarin A (2) and heterophyllin J (3), was isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus chinensis. The structure of 1 was elucidated as cyclo-(Gly(1)-L-Phe(2)-L-Pro(3)-L-Ser(4)-L-Phe(5)) on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Determination of four major saponins in the seeds of Aesculus chinensis Bunge using accelerated solvent extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhui; Li, Wenlong; Yang, Baijuan; Guo, Xiuchun; Lee, Frank Sen-Chun; Wang, Xiaoru

    2007-07-23

    A new method based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and positive ion electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS) analysis has been developed for the characterization and quantification of four major saponins in extracts of the seeds of Aesculus chinensis Bunge (semen aesculi). The saponins escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted from seeds of A. chinesis Bunge via ASE, and the operational parameters of ASE were optimized, such as extraction solvent, extraction temperature, static extraction time and extraction cycles. The optimized procedure employed 70% MeOH as extraction solvent, 120 degrees C of extraction temperature, 7 min of static extraction time, 60% flush volume and the extraction recoveries of the four compounds were nearly to 100% for two cycles. The HPLC conditions are as follows: SinoChrom ODS BP C18 (4.6 mm x 200 mm, 5 microm) column, acetonitrile and 0.10% phosphoric acid solution as mobile phase, flow rate is 1.0 mL min(-1), detection length of UV is 203 nm, injection volume is 10 microL. The results indicated that the developed HPLC method is simple, sensitive and reliable for the determination of four major saponins in seeds of A. chinesis Bunge with a good linearity (r2 > 0.9994), precision (relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) < 1.5%) and the recovery ranges of 95.2-97.3%. The limits of detection (LOD) of the four compounds were in the range of 0.40-0.75 microg mL(-1). This assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for semen aesculi and other related medicinal plants.

  11. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Cuscuta chinensis against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yen, Feng-Lin; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2007-04-20

    Tu-Si-Zi, the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae), is a traditional Chinese medicine that is commonly used to nourish and improve the liver and kidney conditions in China and other Asian countries. As oxidative stress promotes the development of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C chinensis on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The C chinensis ethanolic extract at an oral dose of both 125 and 250mg/kg showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P<0.05) by reducing levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, the same ethanolic extract prevented the hepatotoxicity induced by APAP-intoxicated treatment as observed when assessing the liver histopathology. Regarding the antioxidant activity, C chinensis ethanolic extract exhibited a significant effect (P<0.05) by increasing levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and by reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. In contrast, the same doses of the aqueous extract of C chinensis did not present any hepatoprotective effect as seen in the ethanolic extract, and resulted in further liver deterioration. In conclusion, these data suggest that the ethanolic extract of Cuscuta chinensis can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and this is likely mediated through its antioxidant activities.

  12. [Chemical Constituents of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis Aerial Parts].

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Song, Zu-rong; Liu, Jin-qi; Zhang, Guo-sheng

    2015-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents of aerial parts of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis . Aerial parts of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was extracted with 95% EtOH, and separated and purified by silica gel, RP 18 and Sephadex LH-20 col- umn chromatography. The structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis. A total of ten compounds were isolated and iden- tified as β-sitosterol (1) ergosta-7, 22-dien-3-one (2), β-ecdysone (3), kaempferol (4), daucosterol (5) luteolin (6) calonysterone (7), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (8), quercetin (9), and 3β, 5α, 9α-trihydroxyergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (10). Compounds 2,6 and 10 are isolated from Paris polyphylla var. chinensis for the first time.

  13. The type specimen and generic placement of Tridactylus galla Saussure, 1895 (Orthoptera: Caelifera: Tridactylidae).

    PubMed

    Heads, Sam W; Hollier, John

    2016-11-15

    Tridactylus galla was described by Henri de Saussure (1895) on the basis of a single adult female collected during Vittorio Bottego's first expedition to the Horn of Africa in 1892 and 1893. The species appears in lists compiled by Fenizia (1896), Lucas (1898) and Kirby (1906), but aside from a brief mention by Günther (1995), is entirely overlooked by subsequent authors and is absent from Otte's (1997) catalogue. During the course of compiling an annotated catalogue of the Orthoptera described by Saussure (Hollier and Heads, 2012) we were able to relocate the type of Tridactylus galla in the collection of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria" in Genova, Italy. Our examination of the specimen confirmed Günther's (1995) assertion that its placement in Tridactylus Olivier, 1789 is erroneous, and the species is herein formally transferred to the genus Xya Latreille, 1809.

  14. Total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine, perfluorooctane sulfonate and other related fluorochemicals in liver of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from South China.

    PubMed

    Yeung, L W Y; Miyake, Y; Wang, Y; Taniyasu, S; Yamashita, N; Lam, P K S

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 10 PFCs (perfluorinated compounds: PFOS, PFHxS, PFOSA, N-EtFOSA, PFDoDA, PFUnDA, PFDA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFHpA) were measured in liver samples of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) (n=10) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n=10) stranded in Hong Kong between 2003 and 2007. PFOS was the dominant PFC in the tissues at concentrations ranging at 26-693 ng/g ww in dolphins and 51.3-262 ng/g ww in porpoises. A newly developed combustion ion chromatography for fluorine was applied to measure total fluorine (TF) and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in these liver samples to understand PFC contamination using the concept of mass balance analysis. Comparisons between the amounts of known PFCs and EOF in the livers showed that a large proportion (approximately 70%) of the organic fluorine in both species is of unknown origin. These investigations are critical for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of these compounds to humans and other receptors.

  15. Allelopathic potential of Chromolaena odorata and Mikania micrantha on Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Nornasuha; Ismail B., S.

    2015-09-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the allelopathic potential of the aqueous leaf extract and leaf debris (incorporated into the soil) of Chromolaena odorata and Mikania micrantha on the germination indices and growth as well as the allelopathic effect response index of Brassica chinensis. Three concentrations each of the aqueous leaf extract (12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 g/L) and leaf debris (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/500 g soil) were used in the experiments. The treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications, and the experiment was conducted twice. The aqueous leaf extracts of both species significantly inhibited all growth parameters of B. chinensis at 50.0 g/L concentration by more than 50% (compared to that by the control). In contrast, the leaf debris of both species at most of the concentrations showed significant stimulatory effects on all growth parameters of B. chinensis. However, M. micrantha leaf debris showed no significant effect on the fresh weight of B. chinensis at all concentrations. The total germination percentage of B. chinensis was significantly decreased as concentration of the aqueous leaf extracts of both species increased. The aqueous leaf extract of both species at concentrations higher than 25.0 g/L, significantly reduced the initial speed of germination as well as the cumulative speed of germination of B. chinensis. The allelopathic effect response index was negative for both species, indicating that the extracts of both species have inhibitory effects on the germination and seedling growth of B. chinensis. Results from the study suggested that the leaves of C. odorata and M. micrantha have phytotoxic properties and have potential for use directly or indirectly on susceptible weeds, and thereby reducing the use of chemical pesticides.

  16. Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneid.: jojoba

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The Simmondsiaceae (jojoba family), has only 1 genus, Simmondsia, which consists of only 1 species, jojoba - S. chinensis (Link) Schneid. Once considered an isolated member of the box family (Buxaceae), jojoba is now regarded as sufficiently distinct to be placed in its own family. Jojoba is found from coastal and cis-montane southern California east to central Arizona...

  17. Preparative isolation and purification of seven isoflavones from Belamcanda chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon Sil; Kim, Seon Ha; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sanghyun; Jung, Sang Hoon; Lim, Soon Sung

    2011-01-01

    Isoflavonoids from Belamcanda chinensis are known to have a number of physiological benefits including anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-mutagenic properties. However, there have been no reports on the effective isolation and purification of isoflavonoids from B. chinensis. To develop an efficient method for the preparative isolation and purification of isoflavones from B. chinensis by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). A two-step HSCCC isolation method was developed using solvent system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-2-propanol-methanol-water (5:6:2:3.5:6, v/v) and of ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:2:9, v/v). FLASH purification system (45% methanol, isocratic) was also used for further purification. The purities and chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA), electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), ¹H- and ¹³C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) and nuclear overhauser enhancement (NOE). HSCCC was successfully used for the preparative separation and purification of seven isoflavones, including tectoridin (145.4 mg, 97.5%), iridin (77.9 mg, 94.0%), irilin D (42.0 mg, 92.0%), tectorigenin (294.1 mg, 98.6%), iristectorigenin A (86.8 mg, 93.4%), irigenin (141.8 mg, 95.8%) and irisflorentin (73.4 mg, 94.7%) from the rhizomes of B. chinensis. Two isoflavone glycosides and five isoflavone derivatives were successfully isolated and purified from the crude methanol extract of dried rhizomes of the B. chinensis by HSCCC. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Aqueous extract of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd inhibits lung carcinoma A549 cells through the epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shu, Qijin; Shen, Minhe; Wang, Binbin; Cui, Qingli; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhu, Luming

    2014-06-01

    To explore the anticancer mechanism of aqueous extract of Taxus Chinensis (Pilger) Rehd (AETC). The serum pharmacological method was used to avoid interference from administration of the crude medicinal herbs. Eight purebred New Zealand rabbits were used for preparation of serum containing various concentrations of AETC. Forty-eight Balb/c-nu mice were used for in vivo experiments. The effects of serum containing AETC on the proliferation of A549 cells and expression levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase (EGFR/MAPK) pathway-related proteins in vitro were investigated. Additionally, the effects on the growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice, and expression levels of the EGFR/MAPK pathway-related proteins in the xenografts, were investigated. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed that the serum containing AETC significantly decreased the viability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot showed that the serum containing various concentrations of AETC strongly reduced the levels of phospho-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 (ERK1/2) while it increased the level of p-p38. However, no significant effects on the expression levels of JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK were found. In addition, an anticancer effect from AETC was observed in vivo in the Balb/c-nu mice bearing A549 xenografts. AETC has significant effects on the growth of A549 xenografts and on the activity of the EGFR/MAPK pathway. Therefore, AETC may be beneficial in lung carcinoma treatment.

  19. Methyl gallate from Galla rhois successfully controls clinical isolates of Salmonella infection in both in vitro and in vivo systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang-Gi; Mun, Su-Hyun; Chahar, Harendra S; Bharaj, Preeti; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Kim, Se-Gun; Shin, Dong-Won; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2014-01-01

    Galla rhois is a commonly used traditional medicine for the treatment of pathogenic bacteria in Korea as well as in other parts of Asia. Methyl gallate (MG), a major component of Galla Rhois, exhibits strong antibacterial activity, but its mechanism of action against Salmonella spp. is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial actions of MG against Salmonella. The antibacterial activity determined by broth dilution method indicated that the antibacterial activity of MG against Salmonella strains ranged from 3.9 to 125 µg/ml. In vitro bacterial viability test indicated that MG significantly decreased the viability of Salmonella over 40% when combined with ATPase inhibitors. The time-kill curves showed that a combined MG and ATPase inhibitors (DCCD and NaN3) treatment reduced the bacterial counts dramatically after 24 h. Oral administration of MG showed a strong anti-bacterial activity against WS-5 infected BALB/c mice. In contrast to the untreated Salmonella infected control animals, MG treated groups showed no clinical symptoms of the disease, such as lethargy and liver damage. It was observed that MG treatment significantly increased the survival of animals from Salmonella infection, while in untreated groups all animal succumbed to disease by the sixth day post infection. Thus, the present study demonstrates the therapeutic ability of MG against Salmonella infections.

  20. Methyl Gallate from Galla rhois Successfully Controls Clinical Isolates of Salmonella Infection in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Systems

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jang-Gi; Mun, Su-Hyun; Chahar, Harendra S.; Bharaj, Preeti; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Kim, Se-Gun; Shin, Dong-Won; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2014-01-01

    Galla rhois is a commonly used traditional medicine for the treatment of pathogenic bacteria in Korea as well as in other parts of Asia. Methyl gallate (MG), a major component of Galla Rhois, exhibits strong antibacterial activity, but its mechanism of action against Salmonella spp. is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial actions of MG against Salmonella. The antibacterial activity determined by broth dilution method indicated that the antibacterial activity of MG against Salmonella strains ranged from 3.9 to 125 µg/ml. In vitro bacterial viability test indicated that MG significantly decreased the viability of Salmonella over 40% when combined with ATPase inhibitors. The time-kill curves showed that a combined MG and ATPase inhibitors (DCCD and NaN3) treatment reduced the bacterial counts dramatically after 24 h. Oral administration of MG showed a strong anti-bacterial activity against WS-5 infected BALB/c mice. In contrast to the untreated Salmonella infected control animals, MG treated groups showed no clinical symptoms of the disease, such as lethargy and liver damage. It was observed that MG treatment significantly increased the survival of animals from Salmonella infection, while in untreated groups all animal succumbed to disease by the sixth day post infection. Thus, the present study demonstrates the therapeutic ability of MG against Salmonella infections. PMID:25048362

  1. Antiinflammatory triterpenoid saponins from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Ma, Lin-Yun; Jin, Wen-Tao; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Han, Guo-Zhu; Khan, Ikhlas Ahmad; Lin, Rui-Chao

    2004-10-01

    Phytochemical study of the ethanol extract of the seeds of Aesculus chinensis led to the isolation of a new triterpenoid saponin (6), together with five known triterpenoid saponins (1-5). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral data to be 21,28-di-O-acetylprotoaescigenin-3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2)][beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (aesculiside A, 6). The antiinflammatory activities of the four main saponins (1-4) were compared with those of total saponin extracts, and single saponins showed more potent activity than total saponin extracts in mice.

  2. [Determination of carvacrol and thymol in Mosla chinensis by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Ji, Li; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yuan-yan; Tong, Yan; Li, Xian-duan; Feng, Xue-feng; Huang, Lu-qi; Zhou, Guo-ping

    2004-11-01

    To establish a quantitative method of determination of carvacrol and thymol in Mosla chinensis. The sample was extracted with 95% ethanol, ODS column was used with methanol-water-acetic acid (60:40:2) as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was set at 274 nm. The linearities of carvacrol and thymol were respectively in the range of 0.23-2.15 microg (r = 0.9999) and 0.39-2.36 microg (r = 0.9999); the average recoveries were 99.9% (RSD 1.4%) and 98.6% (RSD 1.3%); the RSD of repeatability were 1.1% and 1.6%. The method is reliable, and can be used for quality control of M. chinensis.

  3. [Reason for dormancy of Cuscuta chinensis seed and solving method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemin; He, Jiaqing; Cai, Jing; Dong, Zhenguo

    2010-02-01

    To study the reason for the deep dormancy of the aged Cuscuta chinensis seed and find the solving method. The separated and combined treatments were applied in the orthogonal designed experiments. The aged seed had well water-absorbency; the water and ethanol extracts of the seeds showed an inhibition effect on germination capacity of the seeds. The main reason for the deep dormancy of aged C. chinensis seed is the inhibitors existed in seed. There are two methods to solve the problem. The seeds is immersed in 98% of H2SO4 for 2 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 60 min, or in 100 mg x L(-1) of NaOH for 20 min followed by 500 mg x L(-1) of GA3 treatment for 120 min.

  4. New dicyclopeptides from Dianthus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Yu-Qing; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; He, Wen-Jun; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2014-05-01

    One new dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-N-methyl Glu-L-N-methyl Glu) (1), together with one new natural dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-methyl Glu ester) (2), and two known dicyclopeptides cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-Glu) (3), and cyclo-(L-Glu-L-Glu) (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus chinensis L. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods.

  5. Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pulp Phenolic Extract Provides Protection against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice by Alleviating Intestinal Microbiota Dysbiosis, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, and Liver Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhou, Qiuyun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yongxuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-11-08

    Liver injury is the most common consequence of alcohol abuse, which is promoted by the inflammatory response triggered by gut-derived endotoxins produced as a consequence of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modulation of intestinal microbiota and barrier function, and liver inflammation contributes to the hepatoprotective effect of lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) in alcohol-fed mice. Mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks. LPPE supplementation alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and downregulated key markers of inflammation. Moreover, LPPE supplementation reversed the ethanol-induced alteration of intestinal microbiota composition and increased the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, mucus protecting proteins, and antimicrobial proteins. Furthermore, in addition to decreasing serum endotoxin level, LPPE supplementation suppressed CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 expression, and repressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the liver. These data suggest that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and liver inflammation are improved by LPPE, and therefore, the intake of LPPE or Litchi pulp may be an effective strategy to alleviate the susceptibility to alcohol-induced hepatic diseases.

  6. [Study on the chemical constituents of the fruit handles from Schizandra chinensis].

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; He, Xiao-Xia; Pan, Ying; Han, Ling; Yang, Xiao-Ou; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2009-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the fruit handles from Schizandra chinensis. Compounds from the 85% ethanol extracts were isolated by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, recrystal, etc., and their structures were identified by the spectral analysis and chemical evidence. Eight compounds were isolated and identified as wuweizisu C (I), ganwuweizic acid(II), beta-sitosterol(III), gomisin A(IV), schizandrin(V), daucosterol(VI), wuweizisu A(VII), gamma-schizandrin (VIII). Compounds I - VIII are isolated from the fruit handles of Schizandra chinensis for the first time.

  7. Phenolic antioxidants (hydrolyzable tannins, flavonols, and anthocyanins) identified by LC-ESI-MS and MALDI-QIT-TOF MS from Rosa chinensis flowers.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi-Zhong; Xing, Jie; Sun, Mei; Zhan, Zhao-Qi; Corke, Harold

    2005-12-28

    Rosa chinensis (Yuejihua) is a well-known ornamental plant, and its flowers are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Methanolic crude extracts of dried R. chinensis flowers were used for simultaneous determination of phenolic constituents by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS). A total of 36 known and unknown phenolics were identified as hydrolyzable tannins, flavonols, and anthocyanins, mainly including gallotannins (mono-, di-, or trigalloylglucopyranosides), ellagitannins, quercetin, quercetin/kaempferol mono- and diglycosides, and cyanidin/pelargonidin diglycosides. MALDI-QIT-TOF MS was applied not only to verify most phenolics isolated and identified by LC-MS but also to tentatively identify two ellagitannins (rugosins B and C) not isolated and unidentified by LC-MS. This study is the first to demonstrate the rapid and successful use of MALDI-QIT-TOF MS and LC-MS to directly and simultaneously identify phenolics in the crude extracts of R. chinensis flowers without any purification. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts from R. chinensis flowers was also measured with three assay methods. The results showed that the phenolic antioxidants from R. chinensis flowers exhibited very strong radical scavenging effect and antioxidant power. High levels of flavonols and hydrolyzable tannins might be important bioactive principles in the dried R. chinensis flowers.

  8. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins between male and female plants in Pistacia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Erhui; Wu, Xiaolin; Shi, Jiang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Pistacia chinensis is a strict dioecious plant with male and female flowers in individuals. In China, P. chinensis is widely planted for biodiesel oil due to high oil content in seeds. In practice it requires to grow more female plants for biodiesel production. At present, there are still no reliable methods for sex determination during the long juvenile stage of this species. In order to develop protein molecular markers for sex determination in P. chinensis, proteomic approach was used to identify differentially expressed proteins between male and female plants. Vegetative organs (leaf and stem) rather than reproductive organs/tissues were used for protein extraction so as to develop protein markers which can be used in siblings before flowering. Protein was extracted using a phenol-based protocol. By using two-dimensional electrophoresis, a total of 10 protein spots were found to be differentially expressed in leaf and stem between both sexes, of which 7 were successfully identified by mass spectrometry and matched to 6 functional proteins such as NB-ARC domain containing protein, light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein, asorbate peroxidase (APX), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2, temperature-induced lipocalin (TIL) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK). The sex-related difference displayed in a tissue-specific way, especially in stem. PGK existed in high abundance in stem phloem in the female, but was almost not detected in the male; APX and two TIL species were highly abundant in the stem of male plants, while their abundance was much lower in female plants. Moreover, these abundance differences were further confirmed in individual plants. Hence, it is assumed that APX, PGK and TIL might be promising candidates to serve as protein molecular markers for sex determination in P. chinensis. Our results form the basis for a further understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of sex determination in P. chinensis.

  9. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins between Male and Female Plants in Pistacia chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Pistacia chinensis is a strict dioecious plant with male and female flowers in individuals. In China, P. chinensis is widely planted for biodiesel oil due to high oil content in seeds. In practice it requires to grow more female plants for biodiesel production. At present, there are still no reliable methods for sex determination during the long juvenile stage of this species. In order to develop protein molecular markers for sex determination in P. chinensis, proteomic approach was used to identify differentially expressed proteins between male and female plants. Vegetative organs (leaf and stem) rather than reproductive organs/tissues were used for protein extraction so as to develop protein markers which can be used in siblings before flowering. Protein was extracted using a phenol-based protocol. By using two-dimensional electrophoresis, a total of 10 protein spots were found to be differentially expressed in leaf and stem between both sexes, of which 7 were successfully identified by mass spectrometry and matched to 6 functional proteins such as NB-ARC domain containing protein, light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein, asorbate peroxidase (APX), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2, temperature-induced lipocalin (TIL) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK). The sex-related difference displayed in a tissue-specific way, especially in stem. PGK existed in high abundance in stem phloem in the female, but was almost not detected in the male; APX and two TIL species were highly abundant in the stem of male plants, while their abundance was much lower in female plants. Moreover, these abundance differences were further confirmed in individual plants. Hence, it is assumed that APX, PGK and TIL might be promising candidates to serve as protein molecular markers for sex determination in P. chinensis. Our results form the basis for a further understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of sex determination in P. chinensis. PMID:23691188

  10. [Studies on chemical components of Lobelia chinensis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanyan; Shi, Renbing; Liu, Bin; Wang, Qiuying; Dai, Ying

    2009-02-01

    To study on the chemical constituents of Lobelia chinensis. The coloumn chromatographic techniques were applied to isolate constituents, and their structures were elucidated by means of spectral data analysis. Sixteen compounds were isolated and identified as daucosterol (1), diosmetin (2), apigenin (3), chrysoeriol (4), loteolin (5), hesperidin (6), loteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (7), apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (8), linarin (9), diosmin(10), 5,7-dimethoxy-8- hydroxycoumarin (11), palmitinic acid (12), lacceroic acid (13), stearic acid (14), beta-sitosterol (15), daucosterol (16). All of these compouds were obtained from L. chinensis for the first time.

  11. Immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides isolated from Taxillus chinensis and Uncaria rhyncophylla.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang Chul; Reddy, Narsimha; Bailey, Trevor; Longvah, T

    2013-11-06

    Taxillus chinensis and Uncaria rhyncophylla are the herbs used in traditional Chinese anticancer formulations. During the past decade, research on plant polysaccharides has gained importance due to their therapeutic value and minimum side effects. In this study, hot water extraction method was employed to isolate polysaccharides from the stems of T. chinensis and stems with hooks of U. rhyncophylla. Size-exclusion chromatography was then used for further fractionation. Separated fractions from T. chinensis were designated as TCP-1, TCP-2 and TCP-3 and those from U. rhyncophylla were termed UC-1 and UC-2. Their sugar compositions were estimated using gas chromatography that revealed the presence fructose, glucose, xylose, arbinose, and rhamnose. Amino acid analysis of these fractions has indicated that they are protein-bound polysaccharides. The antioxidant activities were investigated using DPPH and yeast assays. The ability of these polysaccharide fractions to stimulate mouse macrophages was measured using Griess reagent and ELISA test. The results revealed that some of the isolated fractions (TCP-2, TCP-3, UC-1 and UC-2) displayed significant antioxidant activities and were also found to be effective immunomodulators in a concentration-dependent manner. Outcomes of this research strongly indicate that U. rhyncophylla and T. chinensis have therapeutic potential to be used for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijuan; Chen, Qianfeng; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Guolin

    2011-05-17

    The seeds of Cuscuta chinensis (Tu-Si-Zi, TSZ) have long been used for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and some Asian countries. The compounds in TSZ responsible for the antiosteoporotic activity are still poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the osteogenic compounds in TSZ, and to evaluate their antiosteoporotic effects in osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells were used for bioactivity-guided isolation of the active compounds. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in UMR-106 cells was measured by p-nitrophenyl sodium phosphate assay. The proliferation of UMR-106 cells was assayed by Alamar-Blue method. Estrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by activation of estrogen response element (ERE) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 5×ERE luciferase reporter plasmid. Antiestrogenic activity of the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated by activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) luciferase reporter expression in HeLa cells co-transfected with human estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα or ERβ) expression vectors and 6×AP-1 luciferase reporter plasmid. ALP-guided fractionation led to the isolation of five known flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, hyperoside and astragalin from the crude ethanolic extract of TSZ. Further study showed that kaempferol and hyperoside significantly increased the ALP activity in UMR-106 cells. Astragalin promoted the proliferation of UMR-106 cells whereas other compounds had no such effect. The isolated compounds showed estrogenic activity but quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin showed more potent ERβ agonist activity. However, compared with their ER agonist activity, only quercetin and kaempferol showed potent ER antagonist activity by activating ERα/β-mediated AP-1 reporter expression. Our findings validated the clinical use of TSZ in

  13. Content and Color Stability of Anthocyanins Isolated from Schisandra chinensis Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chunhui; Yang, Lei; Yang, Fengjian; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian; Zu, Yuangang

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a multivariate study based on Box-Behnken Design was used to evaluate the influence of three major variables affecting the performance of the extraction process of Schisandra chinensis anthocyanins. The optimum parameters were 5.5 h extraction time; 1:19 solid-liquid ratio and 260 r/min stirring rate, respectively. The extraction yield of anthocyanins was 29.06 mg/g under the optimum conditions. Moreover, many factors on the impact of heating, ultrasound, microwave treatment and ultraviolet irradiation on content and color stability of anthocyanins from Schisandra chinensis fruit were investigated. The results show that thermal degradation reaction of anthocyanins complies with the first order reaction kinetics, and the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.9950 at 40–80 °C. Ultrasound and microwave treatment has little effect on the stability of anthocyanins, and the extraction time of ultrasound and microwave should be no more than 60 min and 5 min, respectively. The anthocyanins degradation effect of UVC ultraviolet radiation is greater than UVA and UVB; after 9 h ultraviolet radiation, the anthocyanins content degradation of UVC is 23.9 ± 0.7%, and the ΔE* was changed from 62.81 to 76.52 ± 2.3. Through LC-MS analysis, the major composition of Schisandra chinensis anthocyanins was cyanidin-3-O-xylosylrutinoside. PMID:23203065

  14. Isozyme variation in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A genetic diversity analysis involving 49 lychee (Litchi chinensis SOM.) accessions using eight enzyme systems encoding 12 loci (Zdh-I, Zdh-2, Mdh-2, Per-l, Pgi-2, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Sk& Tpi-1, Tpi-2, Ugpp-1, and Ugpp-2) revealed moderate to high levels of genetic variability. Cluster analysis of the iso...

  15. Isolation and purification of orientin and vitexin from Trollius chinensis Bunge by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Xue; Huang, Jie-Yun; Xu, Dan; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Xie, Zhi-Sheng; Xu, Xin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Orientin and vitexin are the two main bioactive compounds in Trollius chinensis Bunge. In this study, a rapid method was established for the isolation and purification of orientin and vitexin from T. chinensis Bunge using high-speed counter-current chromatography in one step, with a solvent system of ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (4:1:5, v/v/v). A total of 9.8 mg orientin and 2.1 mg vitexin were obtained from 100 mg of the ethyl acetate extract, with purities of 99.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Their structures were identified by UV, MS and NMR. The method was efficient and convenient, which could be used for the preparative separation of orientin and vitexin from T. chinensis Bunge.

  16. Cytotoxic and Anti-HIV Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids from Cryptocarya chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tian-Shung; Su, Chung-Ren; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the cytotoxic ethanol extract of Cryptocarya chinensis has led to the isolation of 11 compounds, including two phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids [(−)-antofine (1) and dehydroantofine (2)], five pavine alkaloids (3–7), and four proaporphine alkaloids (8–11). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by means of NMR spectroscopic methods, and supported by HRMS and optical rotation data. Compounds 1 and 2 showed cytotoxic activity against four cancer cell lines, L1210, P388, A549, and HCT-8, with 1 being the most potent against A549 and HCT-8 with EC50 values of 0.002 and 0.001 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, 2 is first reported to exhibit significant anti-HIV activity. PMID:22816292

  17. Antiviral flavonoids from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Ma, Lin-Yun; But, Paul Pui-Hay; Lin, Rui-Chao; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2004-04-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanol extract of the seeds of Aesculus chinensis led to the isolation of two new flavanoids (1 and 2), along with eight known ones (3-10). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR. All compounds were tested for antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV 3), and influenza virus type A (Flu A). Compounds 1, 2, and 6 showed significant antiviral activities against RSV with IC(50) values of 4.5, 6.7, and 4.1 microg/mL and selective index (SI) values of 15.8, 32, and 63.8, respectively. Compound 8 demonstrated significant antiviral activity against Flu A with an IC(50) of 24.5 microg/mL and a SI of 16.0, respectively.

  18. Ultrafiltration-LC-MS combined with semi-preparative HPLC for the simultaneous screening and isolation of lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors from Belamcanda chinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Senlin; Li, Sainan; Tang, Ying; Liu, Chunming; Chen, Lina; Zhang, Yuchi

    2016-12-01

    Stroke represents the fourth leading cause of death in the USA and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of ischemic stroke and natural products are considered a promising source of novel lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors. In this study, we used PC12 cells to determine the protective effect of extracts from the herb Belamcanda chinensis following toxic challenge. Using ultrafiltration high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we screened and identified isoflavonoids from Belamcanda chinensis extracts. Semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was then applied to separate and isolate the active constituents. Using these methods, we identified six major compounds in Belamcanda chinensis as lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors: tectoridin, iristectorin A, iridin, tectorigenin, irigenin, and irisflorentin, which were then isolated to >92% purity. This is the first report that Belamcanda chinensis extracts contain potent lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that the systematic isolation of bioactive components from Belamcanda chinensis guided by ultrafiltration high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry represents a feasible and efficient technique that could be extended for the identification and isolation of other enzyme inhibitors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. [Study of quality control on Cuscuta chinensis and C. australia].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-bin; Lin, Jian-qun; Lu, Ning; Lin, Jian-qiang

    2007-11-01

    To study the estimate method of C. chinensis and C. australia. HPLC was used to determine the contents of four kinds of flavones of C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts. C. chinensis and C. australia growing on different hosts both had hyperoside, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The content range of hyperoside was 2.790-6.502 mg/g and was higher than other flavones. The content ranges of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were 0.025-0.176 mg/g, 0.001-0.213 mg/g and 0.001-0.077 mg/g, respectively. The contents of hyperoside and quercetin are higher in C. chineasis than in C. australia. The contents of kaempferol and isorhamnetin are lower in C. chinensis than in C. australia. The hosts influence flavones content of C. chinensis and C. australia.

  20. Nanoparticles formulation of Cuscuta chinensis prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yen, Feng-Lin; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Cham, Thau-Ming; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2008-05-01

    Cuscuta chinensis is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine to nourish the liver and kidney. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as flavonoids and lignans, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The purpose of the present study was to use the nanosuspension method to prepare C. chinensis nanoparticles (CN), and to compare the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of C. chinensis ethanolic extract (CE) and CN on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. An oral dose of CE at 125 and 250 mg/kg and CN at 25 and 50mg/kg showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P<0.05) by reducing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat hepatic biopsy examinations. In addition, the antioxidant activities of CE and CN both significantly increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondialdehyde (P<0.05). Moreover, the results also indicated that the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of 50 mg/kg CN was effectively better than 125 mg/kg CE (P<0.05), and an oral dose of CN that is five times as less as CE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other water poorly soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of essential oils from five parts of Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri Chinensis).

    PubMed

    Meng, Jie; Chen, Xingfu; Yang, Wenyu; Song, Jiuhua; Zhang, Yu; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Xingwang; Yang, Zhanguo

    2014-12-01

    To analyze the essential oils from flowers, leaves, stems, roots, and fruits of Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri Chinensis). We extracted essential oils from different parts of Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri Chinensis) using a steam distillation method. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data were collected in full scan mode (m/z 60-600). Volatile components were identified based on their retention indices and by comparing their mass spectra with those in the National Institute of Standards and Technology 2005 database, assisted by tandem mass spectrometry information. The relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. We identified 111 components, of which 12 were common to all 5 parts, 30 were found only in roots, 14 were found only in flowers, 6 were found only in leaves, 4 were found only in stems, and 17 were found only in fruits. Our results show that the stems, flowers, leaves, and fruits of Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri Chinensis) contain a high concentration of essential oils, and that the exact composition of the essential oils differs among the plant parts. To develop new medicines and make full use of the Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri Chinensis) resource, it is important to characterize the essential oils from different parts of the plant. In future research, it will be important to determine the pharmacological effects of the various components and the essential oil mixtures.

  2. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  3. Selenium requirement of shrimp Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuchuan; Liu, Fayi

    1993-09-01

    Penaeus chinensis were reared in fibreglass tanks for the study of their selenium requirements. The shrimp were fed semipurified diets containing graded levels of selenium, and weight gains, activities of glutatione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and selenium contents in muscle and hepatopancreas were determined. Weight gain and GSH-Px activity were the highest when the shrimp were fed diet containing 20 mg/kg selenium. Good linear correlation was found between GSH-Px activities and selenium contents in the diets, and the number of healthy shrimp. The experiment showed that 20 mg/kg selenium in the diet is optimal for the shrimp and that GSH-Px activity can be an important biochemical index of the selenium nutrition status of the animal.

  4. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis.

    PubMed

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals--epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol. In the present review, we explore the lychee's description, traditional medicinal uses, and phytoconstituents, and investigate the pharmacological activities in various parts of the lychee to show its importance in ethanopharmacology. This is so that this review can serve as a ready-to-use material for further research on the plant.

  5. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui; Mu, Chunsheng

    2016-06-15

    Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Coptis chinensis Franch. exhibits neuroprotective properties against oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Thomas; Otto, Benjamin; Klätschke, Kristin; Schumacher, Udo; Tao, Yi; Leung, Alexander Kai-Man; Efferth, Thomas; Schröder, Sven

    2014-08-08

    The dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch. (family Ranunculaceae) is traditionally used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and diabetes. Recent studies showed a variety of activities of Coptis chinensis Franch. alkaloids, including neuroprotective, neuroregenerative, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is no report on the neuroprotective effect of Coptis chinensis Franch. watery extract against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced oxidative damage. The aim of the study is to investigate neuroprotective properties of Coptis chinensis Franch. rhizome watery extract (CRE) and to evaluate its potential mechanism of action. Neuroprotective properties on t-BOOH induced oxidative stress were investigated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Cells were pretreated with CRE for 2 h or 24 h followed by 2 h of treatment with t-BOOH. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of CRE, cell viability, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the apoptotic rate were determined and microarray analyses, as well as qRT-PCR analyses were conducted. Two hours of exposure to 100 µM t-BOOH resulted in a significant reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate, declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased ROS production. Reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate and declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) could be significantly reduced in cells pretreated with CRE (100 µg/ml) for 2h or 24h ahead of t-BOOH exposure with the greatest effect after 24h of pretreatment; however ROS production was not changed significantly. Furthermore, microarray analyses revealed that the expressions of 2 genes; thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1, were significantly regulated. Down regulation of TXNIP was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Due to its neuroprotective properties CRE might be a potential

  7. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Cuscuta chinensis seeds in mice.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jung-Chun; Chang, Wen-Te; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Chao, Wei-Kai; Lin, Ying-Chih; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of Cuscuta chinensis, Cuscutae Semen, are commonly used as a medicinal material for treating the aching and weakness of the loins and knees, tonifying the defects of the liver and the kidney, and treating the diarrhea due to hypofunction of the kidney and the spleen. Since aching and inflammation are highly correlated with such diseases, the aim of this study is to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the seeds of C. chinensis. The antinociceptive effect of the seeds of C. chinensis was evaluated via the acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking methods. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated via the λ-carrageenan induced mouse paw edema method. The results found that 100 and 500 mg/kg of the methanol extract of the seeds of C. chinensis( CC MeOH ) significantly decreased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) the writhing response in the acetic acid assay. Additionally, 20-500 mg/kg of CC MeOH significantly decreased licking time at the early (20 and 100 mg/kg, p < 0.001) and late phases (100 mg/kg, p < 0.01; 500 mg/kg, p < 0.001) of the formalin test, respectively. Furthermore, CC MeOH (100 and 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) edema paw volume four hours after λ-carrageenan had been injected. The results in the following study also revealed that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of CC MeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRd in the liver. In addition, CC MeOH also decreased IL-1β, IL-6, NF-κB, TNF-α, and COX-2 levels. This is the first study to demonstrate the possible mechanisms for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of CC MeOH in vivo. Thus, it provides evidence for the treatment of Cuscutae Semen in inflammatory diseases.

  8. Transpiration rates of urban trees, Aesculus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Hua; Ren, Yufen; Gao, Fuyuan; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2012-01-01

    Transpiration patterns of Aesculus chinensis in relation to explanatory variables in the microclimatic, air quality, and biological phenomena categories were measured in Beijing, China using the thermal dissipation method. The highest transpiration rate measured as the sap flux density of the trees took place from 10:00 am to 13:00 pm in the summer and the lowest was found during nighttime in the winter. To sort out co-linearity, principal component analysis and variation and hierarchical partitioning methods were employed in data analyses. The evaporative demand index (EDI) consisting of air temperature, soil temperature, total radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and atmospheric ozone (O3), explained 68% and 80% of the hourly and daily variations of the tree transpiration, respectively. The independent and joint effects of EDI variables together with a three-variable joint effect exerted the greatest influences on the variance of transpiration rates. The independent effects of leaf area index and atmospheric O3 and their combined effect exhibited minor yet significant influences on tree transpiration rates.

  9. Identification, functional characterization, and regulation of the enzyme responsible for floral (E)-nerolidol biosynthesis in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Bunn, Barry J.; Yauk, Yar-Khing; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2012-01-01

    Flowers of the kiwifruit species Actinidia chinensis produce a mixture of sesquiterpenes derived from farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) and monoterpenes derived from geranyl diphosphate (GDP). The tertiary sesquiterpene alcohol (E)-nerolidol was the major emitted volatile detected by headspace analysis. Contrastingly, in solvent extracts of the flowers, unusually high amounts of (E,E)-farnesol were observed, as well as lesser amounts of (E)-nerolidol, various farnesol and farnesal isomers, and linalool. Using a genomics-based approach, a single gene (AcNES1) was identified in an A. chinensis expressed sequence tag library that had significant homology to known floral terpene synthase enzymes. In vitro characterization of recombinant AcNES1 revealed it was an enzyme that could catalyse the conversion of FDP and GDP to the respective (E)-nerolidol and linalool terpene alcohols. Enantiomeric analysis of both AcNES1 products in vitro and floral terpenes in planta showed that (S)-(E)-nerolidol was the predominant enantiomer. Real-time PCR analysis indicated peak expression of AcNES1 correlated with peak (E)-nerolidol, but not linalool accumulation in flowers. This result, together with subcellular protein localization to the cytoplasm, indicated that AcNES1 was acting as a (S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase in A. chinensis flowers. The synthesis of high (E,E)-farnesol levels appears to compete for the available pool of FDP utilized by AcNES1 for sesquiterpene biosynthesis and hence strongly influences the accumulation and emission of (E)-nerolidol in A. chinensis flowers. PMID:22162874

  10. Identification, functional characterization, and regulation of the enzyme responsible for floral (E)-nerolidol biosynthesis in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Bunn, Barry J; Yauk, Yar-Khing; Atkinson, Ross G

    2012-03-01

    Flowers of the kiwifruit species Actinidia chinensis produce a mixture of sesquiterpenes derived from farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) and monoterpenes derived from geranyl diphosphate (GDP). The tertiary sesquiterpene alcohol (E)-nerolidol was the major emitted volatile detected by headspace analysis. Contrastingly, in solvent extracts of the flowers, unusually high amounts of (E,E)-farnesol were observed, as well as lesser amounts of (E)-nerolidol, various farnesol and farnesal isomers, and linalool. Using a genomics-based approach, a single gene (AcNES1) was identified in an A. chinensis expressed sequence tag library that had significant homology to known floral terpene synthase enzymes. In vitro characterization of recombinant AcNES1 revealed it was an enzyme that could catalyse the conversion of FDP and GDP to the respective (E)-nerolidol and linalool terpene alcohols. Enantiomeric analysis of both AcNES1 products in vitro and floral terpenes in planta showed that (S)-(E)-nerolidol was the predominant enantiomer. Real-time PCR analysis indicated peak expression of AcNES1 correlated with peak (E)-nerolidol, but not linalool accumulation in flowers. This result, together with subcellular protein localization to the cytoplasm, indicated that AcNES1 was acting as a (S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase in A. chinensis flowers. The synthesis of high (E,E)-farnesol levels appears to compete for the available pool of FDP utilized by AcNES1 for sesquiterpene biosynthesis and hence strongly influences the accumulation and emission of (E)-nerolidol in A. chinensis flowers.

  11. [Response of phytolith in Leymus chinensis to the simulation of global warming and nitrogen deposition on Songnen grassland, China].

    PubMed

    Jie, Dong-meir; Ge, Yong; Guo, Ji-xun; Liu, Hong-mei

    2010-08-01

    Using infrared radiator and applying nitrogen on Leymus chinensis community on Songnen grassland to simulate global warming and nitrogen deposition, phytolith was extracted from L. chinensis, the morphology and content of phytolith were analyzed. Phytolith in L. chinensis were classified into 4 main classes and 12 subclasses, as well as some small phytolith fragments. Of all the phytolith types, the hat-shaped take as much as 70%. The hat-shaped with spire and hat-shaped with flat peak may have different growth mechanisms from the echinate hat-shaped, and the point-shaped phytolith is more sensitive to N deposition. Compared with control check (CK), the warming treatment seemed to promote the growth of phytolith (increased the length and width 0.1-2.6 microm), while the N deposition treatment had an effect of inhibition on the growth of phytolith (decreased the length and width 0.1-1.4 microm), and when warming and N deposition mixed, in this treatment the effect of inhibition caused by N deposition declined. Hollow elongate (46% of elongate) was observed only in N deposition treatment, and the content of other types (elongate, point-shaped, hat-shaped excluded) increased to 10%, it was supposed, as L. chinensis is the dominant species in Songnen grassland, the effect of N deposition might be more significant than warming on such grassland, and warming could mitigate the affection of N deposition. Phytolith was sensitive to the change of environmental factors, this study provided an experimental evidence for phytolith as a reliable proxy indicator for paleo-environment.

  12. Improved antimelanogenesis and antioxidant effects of polysaccharide from Cuscuta chinensis Lam seeds after enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Jun; Wang, Ya-Lan; Li, Qi-Ling; Yang, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Cuscuta chinensis polysaccharide (CPS) was extracted using hot water and enzymatically hydrolyzed C. chinensis polysaccharide (ECPS) was produced by the mannase enzymatic hydrolysis process. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antimelanogenic activity of ECPS and CPS in B16F10 melanoma cells. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed by their ferric iron reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activities. The molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides was determined using SEC-MALLS-RI. CPS was successfully enzymatically degraded using mannase and the weighted average molecular weights of CPS and ECPS were 434.6 kDa and 211.7 kDa. The results of biological activity assays suggested that the enzymatically hydrolyzed polysaccharide had superior antimelanogenic activity and antioxidant effect than the original polysaccharide. ECPS exhibited antimelanogenic activity by down-regulating the expression of tyrosinase, MITF, and TRP-1 without cytotoxic effects in B16F10 melanoma cells. In conclusion, ECPS have the potential to become a skin whitening product.

  13. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  14. Tamarix chinensis Lour.: saltcedar or five-stamen tamarisk

    Treesearch

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    Saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis (Lour.)) and smallflower tamarisk (T. parviflora DC.) hybridize in the Southwest (Baum 1967; Horton and Campbell 1974) and are deciduous, pentamerous tamarisks that are both commonly referred to as saltcedar. Saltcedar is a native of Eurasia that has naturalized in the southwestern United States within the last century. It was introduced...

  15. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Its Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang; Deng, Cao; Fan, Gang; Qin, Shishang

    2017-01-01

    The Coptis chinensis Franch. is an important medicinal plant from the Ranunculales. We used next generation sequencing technology to determine the complete chloroplast genome of C. chinensis. This genome is 155,484 bp long with 38.17% GC content. Two 26,758 bp long inverted repeats separated the genome into a typical quadripartite structure. The C. chinensis chloroplast genome consists of 128 gene loci, including eight rRNA gene loci, 28 tRNA gene loci, and 92 protein-coding gene loci. Most of the SSRs in C. chinensis are poly-A/T. The numbers of mononucleotide SSRs in C. chinensis and other Ranunculaceae species are fewer than those in Berberidaceae species, while the number of dinucleotide SSRs is greater than that in the Berberidaceae. C. chinensis diverged from other Ranunculaceae species an estimated 81 million years ago (Mya). The divergence between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae was ~111 Mya, while the Ranunculales and Magnoliaceae shared a common ancestor during the Jurassic, ~153 Mya. Position 104 of the C. chinensis ndhG protein was identified as a positively selected site, indicating possible selection for the photosystem-chlororespiration system in C. chinensis. In summary, the complete sequencing and annotation of the C. chinensis chloroplast genome will facilitate future studies on this important medicinal species. PMID:28698879

  16. Coptis chinensis Polysaccharides Inhibit Advanced Glycation End Product Formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Li, Yun; Yin, Dengke; Chen, Song; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-06-01

    Coptis chinensis Franch (Huanglian) is commonly used to treat diabetes in China. In this study, the effects of the C. chinensis Franch polysaccharides (CCP) on advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were investigated. CCP significantly inhibited all the three periods of nonenzymatic protein glycation in vitro, including Amadori product, dicarbonyl compound, and AGE formation (P < .01). In diabetic mice, the administration of CCP not only improved both bodyweight and serum insulin and decreased fasting blood glucose and glycated serum protein concentrations but also decreased the AGE accumulations and morphological abnormalities in pancreas and liver. The inhibitory effects of CCP on AGE formation afford a potential therapeutic use in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  17. Pulsatilla saponin A, an active molecule from Pulsatilla chinensis, induces cancer cell death and inhibits tumor growth in mouse xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Weichang; Jiao, Yang; Hou, Jianquan; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Yanli; Qi, Xiaofei

    2014-05-15

    Many natural compounds possess antitumor growth activities. Pulsatilla chinensis is an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases. More recently, extracts from P chinensis have been shown to contain antitumor activities. In this study, we isolated Pulsatilla saponin A as an active compound from P chinensis extracts and tested its anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, Pulsatilla saponin A significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMCC-7721 cells and pancreatic BXPC3 and SW1990 cancer cells. Similar inhibitory activities were observed when the compound was tested in mouse xenograft tumor models using human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 and pancreatic cancer SW1990 cells. In Comet assay and flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle distribution and annexin V expression, DNA damage, G2 arrest, and apoptosis were identified in Pulsatilla saponin A-treated cancer cells. Based on the results of Western blotting, p53 and cyclin B protein levels were higher, whereas Bcl-2 protein levels were lower in Pulsatilla saponin A-treated cancer cells than in vehicle-treated cells. Pulsatilla saponin A may exert its antitumor effect by inducing DNA damage and causing G2 arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Pulsatilla saponin A and its derivatives may be developed as a new class of anticancer agents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin in Fenneropenaeus chinensis larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin (NFLX) in Fenneropenaeus chinensis ovary and egg and newly hatched larvae. Mature parental shrimp were exposed to 4 or 10 mg L-1 NFLX for 2 or 5 d. Ovary and eggs of the shrimp were sampled after spawning in order to detect NFLX residue using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that NFLX residue accumulated in F. chinensis eggs after the parental exposure, with the highest residue detected in ovary. To examine the fate of NFLX residue in larvae, we further determined the concentration of NFLX residue in F. chinensis eggs and larvae at 4 different developmental stages after 24-h exposure. From the newly metamorphosed larvae (0 h post-metamorphosis, h.p.m), samples were taken at different time intervals to 72 h.p.m. HPLC assay showed that the concentrations of NFLX residue in zoea exposed to 4 and 10 mg L-1 NFLX were the highest at 1.5 h, i.e., 0.332 and 0.454 μg g-1, respectively. At the two NFLX exposure levels, the elimination time of half NFLX (half life) in nauplius was 45.36 and 49.85 h, respectively, followed by that in zoea (31.68 and 33.13 h), mysis larvae (42.24 and 47.28 h) and postlarvae (24.48 and 30.96 h). Both NFLX exposure levels had a germicidal effect. The distribution and elimination of NFLX residue in F. chinensis tissue, eggs and larvae correlated well with the drug exposure level. The disappearance of NFLX residue coincided with the larval growth, and the half-life of NFLX decreased with the larval development.

  19. Antitumor immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides from Salvia chinensis Benth.

    PubMed

    Shu, Guangwen; Zhao, Wenhao; Yue, Ling; Su, Hanwen; Xiang, Meixian

    2015-06-20

    Salvia chinensis Benth (S. chinensis) is a traditional herb applied in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Polysaccharides abundantly exist in this plant. However, it remains poorly understood if polysaccharides from S. chinensis (PSSC) contribute to its anti-HCC activity. The in vivo anti-HCC activity of PSSC was evaluated in Kunming mice bearing H22 ascitic hepatoma cells. An array of physiological indexes was measured to evaluate toxicological effects on host animals. Subgroups of immune cells were purified by a magnetic-activated cell sorting system and analyzed by flow cytometry. Reverse transcription real-time PCR and immunoblotting were recruited to determine the effects of PSSC on the cellular signaling of different subgroup of immune cells. PSSC suppressed in vivo proliferation of H22 cells with undetectable toxic effects on tumor-bearing mice. PSSC alleviated tumor transplantation-induced CD4+ T cell apoptosis and dysregulation of serum cytokine profiles, which elevated cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8+ T cells. PSSC reduced serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Injection of exogenous PGE2 completely abrogated the antitumor immunostimulatory activity of PSSC. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is the second messager of PGE2. In CD4+ T cells, PSSC substantially declined intracellular cAMP. This event elevated protein levels of JAK3, enhancing STAT5 phosphorylation and STAT5-dependent expression of anti-apoptotic genes. Cyclooxygenase-2 is the key enzyme mediating biosynthesis of PGE2. PSSC suppressed the transcription and translation of cyclooxygenase-2 in tumor associated macrophages. Our data clearly showed antitumor immunostimulatory activity of PSSC against transplanted H22 HCC cells. Suppressing tumor transplantation-induced PGE2 production was implicated in the anti-tumor immunostimulatory activity of PSSC. These works provides novel insights into the traditional application of S. chinensis against HCC and supported

  20. Delayed progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy by Litchi chinensis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2017-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the aqueous fruit pericarp extract of Litchi chinensis (APLC) on parameters which leads to diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The objective of the study is to evaluate the APLC for in vivo antioxidant activity and its role in inhibiting the polyol pathway and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The diabetic animals were treated with L. chinensis for a period of 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, the animals were killed and the biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cataract such as oxidative stress by protein content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and polyolpathway by aldose reductase (AR) in lens homogenates, alterations in protein carbonyl content (PCO) and AGEs in both serum and lens the APLC-treated diabetic rats were compared against diabetic control rats. Cataract progression due to hyperglycemia was monitored by slit lamp bio microscope and classified into four stages. Fundoscope test and retinal histopathology were done for assessing retinopathy. Statistically significant reduction in glucose, and elevation of protein content, SOD, CAT, and GSH levels and decreased levels of AR and PCO in lens homogenate and significant reduction in AGEs serum and lens homogenate were observed. Slit lamp examination, fundoscope, and histopathology showed improvement in retinal changes in APLC-treated rats compared to diabetic control animals. The treatment with APLC found to delay the progression of diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy, which might be due to its antioxidant activity, because of the presence of active phytochemicals in APLC.

  1. Cuscuta chinensis Lam.: A systematic review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Donnapee, Sineeporn; Li, Jin; Yang, Xi; Ge, Ai-hua; Donkor, Paul Owusu; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2014-11-18

    Cuscuta chinensis Lam. has found its use as a traditional medicine in China, Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam, India and Thailand. It is commonly used as an anti-aging agent, anti-inflammatory agent, pain reliever and aphrodisiac. To provide an overview of the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology and clinical applications of Cuscuta chinensis, as well as being an evidence base for further research works of the plant. The present review covers the literature available from 1985 to 2014. The information was collected from journals, books, theses and electronic search (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ESBCO, Springerlink and CNKI). Literature abstracts and full-text articles were analyzed and included in the review. Many phytochemicals have been isolated, identified and published to date, including: at least 18 flavonoids; 13 phenolic acids; 2 steroids; 1 hydroquinone; 10 volatile oils; 22 lignans; 9 polysaccharides; 2 resin glycosides; 16 fatty acids. These phytochemicals and plant extracts exhibit a range of pharmacological activities that include hepatoprotective, renoprotective, antiosteoporotic, antioxidant, anti-aging, antimutagenic, antidepressant, improve sexual function, abortifacient effects, etc. This present review offers primary information for further studies of Cuscuta chinensis. The in vitro studies and in vivo models have provided a bioscientific explanation for its various ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological activities (most notably antioxidant effects) especially in the prevention of hepatic disease and renal failure. It is necessary and important to do more pharmacokinetic and toxicological research works on human subjects in order to inform the possible active compounds in the body and validate its safety in clinical uses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of Arma chinensis reared on an artificial diet formulated using transcriptomic methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An artificial diet formulated for continuous rearing of the predator Arma chinensis was inferior to natural prey when evaluated using life history parameters. A transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in diet-fed and prey-fed A. chinensis that were suggestive of molecular me...

  3. [Spatial distribution pattern and fractal analysis of Larix chinensis populations in Qinling Mountain].

    PubMed

    Guo, Hua; Wang, Xiaoan; Xiao, Yaping

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, the fractal characters of Larix chinensis populations in Qinling Mountain were studied by contiguous grid quadrate sampling method and by boxing-counting dimension and information dimension. The results showed that the high boxing-counting dimension (1.8087) and information dimension (1.7931) reflected a higher spatial occupational degree of L. chinensis populations. Judged by the dispersal index and Morisita's pattern index, L. chinensis populations clumped at three different age stages (0-25, 25-50 and over 50 years). From Greig-Smiths' mean variance analysis, the figure of pattern scale showed that L. chinensis populations clumped in 128 m2 and 512 m2, and the different age groups clumped in different scales. The pattern intensities decreased with increasing age, and tended to reduce with increasing area when detected by Kershaw's PI index. The spatial pattern characters of L. chinensis populations may be their responses to environmental factors.

  4. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  5. Sterol content in the artificial diet of Mythimna separata affects the metabolomics of Arma chinensis (Fallou) as determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi; Liu, Chen-Xi; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Wang, Meng-Qing; Chen, Hong-Yin

    2017-12-01

    Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests' natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively. The content of most substances increased in A. chinensis (AC) groups feeding on MS2 and MS5. The content of eight substances (alanine, betaine, dimethylamine, fumarate, glutamine, glycine, methylamine, and sarcosine) differed significantly between the control (AC0) and treated (AC1, AC2, and AC5) groups. Metabolic profiling revealed that only AC5 was significantly distinct from AC0; the major substances contributing to this difference were maltose, glucose, tyrosine, proline, O-phosphocholine, glutamine, allantoin, lysine, valine, and glutamate. Furthermore, only two metabolic pathways, that is, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis, differed significantly between AC1 and AC5 and the control, albeit with an impact value of zero. Thus, the sterol content in the artificial diet fed to M. separata only minimally affected the metabolites and metabolic pathways of its predator A. chinensis, suggesting that A. chinensis has good metabolic self-regulation with high resistance to sterol content changes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Chemical composition and content of antiphysiological factors of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) residual meal].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil, F; Sanginés, G L; Torreblanca, R A; Grande, M L; Carranco, J M

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial plant with an interesting economic value by processing it for liquid wax production. By pressing of jojoba seeds, by-product which has been called "residual meal" has been obtained, and because of its high protein content, it would be a great interest to evaluate it as animal feedstuff. The results of this study showed the following. Both seed and residual meal were analyzed in regard to their chemical proximal composition: crude protein 14.03 and 25.24%; ether extract, 48.89 and 14.73%; crude fiber, 10.03 and 10.07%; ash, 1.59 and 4.72, and nitrogen-free extract, 25.46 and 45.25, the limiting amino acids being methionine, lysine and isoleucine. The trypsin inhibitor factors were 13.747 and 11,197 TIU/g; and hemagglutinins and saponins were negative for both samples. Cyanogenic glucosides were positive in both samples. It was concluded that jojoba residual meal is an alternative as an adequate feedstuff in those regions where jojoba is produced. Nevertheless, prior to consumption it must be treated so as to eliminate the toxic factors.

  7. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  8. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis) 1

    PubMed Central

    Samac, Deborah; Storey, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling. Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination. PMID:16662104

  9. Absorption and translocation of nitrogen in rhizomes of Leymus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongsheng; Liu, Huajie; Song, Youhong

    2011-03-15

    Leymus chinensis is a dominant species in the Inner Mongolia steppe, northern China. Plant growth in northern China grassland is often limited by low soil nitrogen availability. The objective of this study is to investigate whether rhizomes of Leymus chinensis are involved in the contribution of N uptake. The N concentration, (15)N concentration and (15)N proportion in roots, rhizomes and shoots after 48 h exposure of roots (L(root)) and rhizomes (L(rhizo)) separately and roots and rhizomes together (L(r+r)) to 0.1 mM (15)NH (4)(15)NO(3) solution were measured using root-splitting equipment and stable isotope ((15)N) techniques, respectively. The N content and dry mass were not affected by the labeling treatment. In contrast, the (15)N concentration in shoots, rhizomes and roots was significantly increased by the labeling in rhizomes, indicating that the inorganic nitrogen was absorbed via rhizomes from the solution and can be transported to other tissues, with preference to shoots rather than roots. Meanwhile, the absolute N absorption and translocation among compartments were also calculated. The N absorption via rhizomes was much smaller than via roots; however, the uptake efficiency per surface unit via rhizomes was greater than via roots. The capacity and high efficiency to absorb N nutrient via rhizomes enable plants to use transient nutrient supplies in the top soil surface. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Impacts of malathion on population genetic structure of Oxya chinensis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Fu-Ping; Li, Cui-Lan; Duan, Yi-Hao; Guo, Ya-Ping; Ma, En-Bo

    2004-09-01

    Allozyme electrophoresis was employed to compare the difference in mortality among the genotypes at two polymorphic loci of Pgm and Me of grasshopper Oxya chinensis individuals acutely exposed to 1.5g/L malathion which resulted in 56% mortality in 24 hours. The selective lethal effects were observed among the genotypes at Pgm locus but not at Me locus. It is noted that the genotype Pgm-ab experienced the highest mortality (80%), whereas Pgm-bb and Pgm-bc were 49%, lower than the average. The chi(2) tests showed significant difference in morality between Pgm-bb and Pgm-cc. After exposure the allele frequency of Pgm-b showed a notable increase among surviving individuals. The cluster analysis based on Roger's genetic distance indicated that the acute exposure to malathion can cause differentiation in genetic composition at population level in Oxya chinensis. Because malathion is commonly used as the insecticide for grasshopper control, the data obtained in this study suggest that the similar genotype-mortality effects may occur in crop fields.

  11. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-05-01

    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay.

  12. 1,[Formula: see text]2,[Formula: see text]3,[Formula: see text]4,[Formula: see text]6-Penta-O-Galloyl-β-D-Glucose from Galla rhois Ameliorates Renal Tubular Injury and Microvascular Inflammation in Acute Kidney Injury Rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hun; Kho, Min Chol; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Youn Chul; Yoon, Jung Joo; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2018-05-13

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an important cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), causes increased renal tubular injury and microvascular inflammation. 1,[Formula: see text]2,[Formula: see text]3,[Formula: see text]4,[Formula: see text]6-penta-O-galloyl-[Formula: see text]-D-glucose (PGG) from Galla rhois has anticancer, anti-oxidation and angiogenesis effects. We examined protective effects of PGG on IRI-induced acute AKI. Clamping both renal arteries for 45[Formula: see text]min induced isechemia and then reperfusion. Treatment with PGG (10[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day and 50[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day for four days) significantly ameliorated urine volume, urine osmolality, creatinine clearance (Ccr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). In addition, PGG increased aquaporine 1/2/3, Na[Formula: see text]-K[Formula: see text]-ATPase and urea transporter (UT-B) and decreased ICAM-1, MCP-1, and HMGB-1 expression. In this histopathologic study, PGG improved glomerular and tubular damage. Immunohistochemistry results showed that PGG increased aquaporine 1/2, and Na[Formula: see text]-K[Formula: see text] ATPase and decreased ICAM-1 expression. These findings suggest that PGG ameliorates tubular injury including tubular dysfunction and microvascular inflammation in IRI-induced AKI rats.

  13. Isolation and identification of molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine from jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Léon, Fabian; Van Boven, Maurits; de Witte, Peter; Busson, Roger; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2004-03-10

    A mixture of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been isolated by column chromatography from a jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) extract. The molecular species of both classes could be separated and isolated by C18 reversed phase HPLC. The two major compounds were identified by 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR, by MS, and by GC-MS as 1-oleoyl-3-lysophosphatidylcholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-phosphatidylcholine. Eight other molecular species of LPC and four other molecular species of PC could be assigned by comparison of the mass spectra of the isolated compounds with the spectra of the two major compounds. Complete characterization of the individual molecular species was achieved by GC and GC-MS analysis of the fatty acyl composition from the isolated compounds. The PC/LPC proportion in the phospholipid mixture from three different samples is 1.6 +/- 0.1. LPC is considered to be an important bioactive compound; the results of this study suggest further research for the evaluation of potential health benefits of jojoba meal phospholipids.

  14. New Thymoquinol Glycosides and Neuroprotective Dibenzocyclooctane Lignans from the Rattan Stems of Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-You; Guo, Jiang-Tao; Li, Zu-Yi; Wang, Chang-Fu; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2016-09-01

    Three new lignans (1 - 3), together with four new thymoquinol glycosides (4 - 7), were isolated from 70%-EtOH extract of the rattan stems of Schisandra chinensis. The structures of 1 - 7 were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses, and these new compounds were identified as pinobatol-9-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 1,2,13,14-tetramethoxydibenzocyclooctadiene 3,12-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (2), 3,7-dihydroxy-1,2,13,14-tetramethoxydibenzocyclooctadiene 12-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), thymoquinol 2-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), thymoquinol 2-O-α-d-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), thymoquinol 5-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), and thymoquinol 5-O-α-d-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (7). The neuroprotective activity of 1 - 7 was evaluated on PC12 cells with neurotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta 1 - 42 (Aβ 1 - 42 ). Compounds 2 and 3 showed protecting activity against Aβ-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  15. The cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic effects of Nardostachys chinensis in animal and cell experiments.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Xu, Xue; Yang, Xinyu; Kwong, Joey S W; Shang, Hongcai

    2017-08-10

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature death throughout the world. An estimated 17.5 million people died from CVD in 2012, representing 31% of all global deaths. Nardostachys chinensis (NC), a typical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), plays a crucial role in the management of patients with CVD, especially for those with cardiac arrhythmia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic effects of NC in animal and cell experiments. To review the cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic effects of NC, studies of NC on cardiovascular diseases in animal and cell experiments were identified from five databases through April 2016. Two investigators independently conducted the literature search, study selection, and data extraction. A total of 16 studies were identified, including five animal experiments and eleven cell experiments. Four studies showed significant effects of NC on myocardial protection by inhibiting myocardial apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. Twelve studies indicated significant beneficial effects of NC in cardiac arrhythmia primarily through the modulation of ion channels (I k , I k1 , I Na , I Ca-L , I to ). The above findings showed the possible efficacy of NC via its cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic effects, but the results should be interpreted with caution due to the limitations and the deficiencies in the studies.

  16. The influence of natural deep eutectic solvents on bioactive natural products: studying interactions between a hydrogel model and Schisandra chinensis metabolites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J Brent; Nikolić, Dejan; Choules, Mary P; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Gemeinhart, Richard A; Pauli, Guido F

    2018-06-01

    Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent (NADES) species can exhibit unexpected solubilizing power for lipophilic molecules despite their simple composition: hydrophilic organic molecules and water. In the present study, the unique properties of NADES species were applied in combination with a model polymer system: a hydrophilic chitosan/alginate hydrogel. Briefly, NADES species (e.g., mannose-dimethylurea-water, 2:5:5, mole/mole) formed matrices to 1) dissolve lipophilic molecules (e.g., curcumin), 2) load lipophilic molecule(s) into the hydrogel, and 3) spontaneously vacate from the system. NADES species ubiquitously occur in natural sources, and a crude extract is a mixture of the NADES species and bioactive metabolites. Based on these ideas, we hypothesized that the crude extract may also allow the loading of natural bioactive molecules from a natural NADES species into (bio)hydrogel systems. To evaluate this hypothesis in vitro, Schisandra chinensis fruit extract was chosen as a representative mixture of lipophilic botanical molecules and hydrophilic NADES species. The results showed that the NADES matrix of S. chinensis was capable of loading at least three bioactive lignans (i.e., gomisin A, gomisin J, and angeloylgomisin H) into the polymer system. The lipophilic metabolites can subsequently be released from the hydrogel. The outcomes suggest that a unique drug delivery mechanism may exist in nature, thereby potentially improving the bioavailability of lipophilic metabolites through physicochemical interactions with the NADES. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chromosome behavior of heat shock induced triploid in Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2003-09-01

    Triploidy was induced in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis by 30±0.5°C heat shock treatment (initiated at 20 min after fertilization) for 10 min to inhibit the release of PB2 at 18.0°C. The highest triploid rate obtained was 84.5% in nauplius stage. The effect of heat shock treatment on meiosis and cleavage of eggs was investigated in this work aimed to establish efficient procedures for triploid induction and to gain understanding of the mechanism of triploid production. Three pronuclei that could be observed in the treated eggs under fluorescence microscope developed into triploid embryos. Some abnormal chromosome behavior was observed in heat shocked eggs.

  18. Four new triterpene saponins from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2003-09-01

    Two pairs of new geometrically isomeric triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis and characterized as 28-acetyl-21-tigloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 2)] [beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 4)] [beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (isoescin IIa, 1) and 28-acetyl-21-angeloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-[-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 2)] [beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 4)] beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (isoescin IIb, 2); 28-acetyl-21-tigloylbarringtogenol C 3-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 2)] [beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 4)] beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (isoescin IIIa, 3) and 28-acetyl-21-angeloylbarringtogenol C 3-O-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 2)] [beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 4)] beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (isoescin IIIb, 4). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence.

  19. Two new lignan glycosides from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Meng, A-Hui; He, Wen-Ni; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

    2010-11-01

    Two new lignan glycosides, 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside C, 1) and 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside D, 2), were isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam., along with six known compounds, 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 2'-hydroxyl asarinin 2'-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (cuscutoside A, 4), kaempferol 3,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), 5-caffeoyl quinic acid (6), 4-caffeoyl quinic acid (7), and cinnamic acid (8). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including HR-ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, and TOCSY.

  20. Oxidant-induced damage to equine erythrocytes from exposure to Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia terebinthus, and Pistacia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kyla M; Moore, Caroline E; Bozorgmanesh, Rana; Magdesian, K Gary; Woods, Leslie W; Puschner, Birgit

    2014-11-01

    Two horses were referred for methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following 5 acute deaths in their herd from an unidentified toxin source. Horses have a greater risk than other mammalian species of developing methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following ingestion of oxidizing toxins, due to deficiencies in the mechanisms that protect against oxidative damage in erythrocytes. Their susceptibility to oxidative erythrocyte damage is evident in the numerous cases of red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis. The suspected toxins causing A. rubrum toxicosis are tannic acid, gallic acid, and a metabolite of gallic acid, pyrogallol. These compounds can be found in a variety of plants, posing a risk to equine health. In order to quickly identify toxin sources, 2 rapid in vitro assays were developed to screen plant extracts for the ability to induce methemoglobin formation or cause hemolysis in healthy equine donor erythrocytes. The plant extract screening focused on 3 species of the genus Pistacia: P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, and P. chinensis, which were located in the horse pasture. Extracts of the seeds and leaves of each species induced methemoglobin formation and resulted in hemolysis, with seed extracts having greater potency. The in vitro assays used in the current study provide a useful diagnostic method for the rapid identification of oxidizing agents from unidentified sources. There is no effective treatment for oxidative erythrocyte damage in horses, making rapid identification and removal of the source essential for the prevention of poisoning. © 2014 The Author(s).

  1. Oxidant-induced damage to equine erythrocytes from exposure to Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia terebinthus, and Pistacia chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Kyla M.; Moore, Caroline E.; Bozorgmanesh, Rana; Magdesian, K. Gary; Woods, Leslie W.; Puschner, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Two horses were referred for methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following 5 acute deaths in their herd from an unidentified toxin source. Horses have a greater risk than other mammalian species of developing methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following ingestion of oxidizing toxins, due to deficiencies in the mechanisms that protect against oxidative damage in erythrocytes. Their susceptibility to oxidative erythrocyte damage is evident in the numerous cases of red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis. The suspected toxins causing A. rubrum toxicosis are tannic acid, gallic acid, and a metabolite of gallic acid, pyrogallol. These compounds can be found in a variety of plants, posing a risk to equine health. In order to quickly identify toxin sources, 2 rapid in vitro assays were developed to screen plant extracts for the ability to induce methemoglobin formation or cause hemolysis in healthy equine donor erythrocytes. The plant extract screening focused on 3 species of the genus Pistacia: P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, and P. chinensis, which were located in the horse pasture. Extracts of the seeds and leaves of each species induced methemoglobin formation and resulted in hemolysis, with seed extracts having greater potency. The in vitro assays used in the current study provide a useful diagnostic method for the rapid identification of oxidizing agents from unidentified sources. There is no effective treatment for oxidative erythrocyte damage in horses, making rapid identification and removal of the source essential for the prevention of poisoning. PMID:25227420

  2. Anti-oxidative and photo-protective effects of coumarins isolated from Fraxinus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum-Chun; Lee, So Yong; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Sim, Gwan-Sub; Kim, Jin-Hui; Kim, Jin-Hwa; Cho, Young-Ho; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Pyo, Hyeong-Bae; Choe, Tae-Boo; Moon, Dong Cheul; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Hong, Jin Tae

    2007-10-01

    Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated by UV irradiation, may cause serious injury to skin cell membranes, DNA and functional proteins. In addition, these agents stimulate the expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which can degrade most components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including collagen. In order to develop new anti-photoaging agents, five major components from the extract of Fraxinus chinensis extract (FCE) were identified. Two of the major components of FCE were found to be esculin (11.2%) and esculetin (1.9%). FCE (IC50: 50.0 microg/mL 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 19.8 microg/mL, superoxide anion radical) and esculetin (IC50: 2.1 microg/mL DPPH; 0.6 microg/mL, superoxide anion radical) showed strong antioxidative activities. Of the compounds tested, esculetin showed the strongest scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, followed by superoxide anions from the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. The intracellular ROS scavenging activity showed that oxidation of 5-(6-)-chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-H2DCFDA) was effectively inhibited by esculetin, with potent free radical scavenging activity was also shown in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Moreover, treatment of UVA-irradiated HDFs with esculetin resulted in dose-dependent decreases in the expression levels of MMP-1 mRNA and protein. From these results, FCE and one of its components, esculetin, were predicted to be potentially useful as ingredients in cosmetics for protecting against photoaging.

  3. Discrimination of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus based on fingerprint profiles of hydrophilic components by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Ryusei; Kotani, Akira; Kuroda, Minpei; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Hakamata, Hideki

    2018-03-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) using 20 mM phosphate mobile phase and an octadecylsilyl column (Triart C18, 150 × 3.0 mm i.d., 3 μm) has been developed for the analysis of hydrophilic compounds in the water extract of Schisandrae Fructus samples. The present HPLC-UV method permits the accurate and precise determination of malic, citric, and protocatechuic acids in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) Schisandrae Fructus, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus. The JP Schisandrae Fructus studied contains 27.98 mg/g malic, 107.08 mg/g citric, and 0.42 mg/g protocatechuic acids, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeatability of <0.9% (n = 6). The content of malic acids in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus is approximately ten times that in Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus. To examine whether the HPLC-UV method is applicable to the fingerprint-based discrimination of Schisandrae Fructus samples obtained from Chinese markets, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using the determined contents of organic acids and the ratio of six characteristic unknown peaks derived from hydrophilic components to internal standard peak areas. On the score plots, Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus samples are clearly discriminated. Therefore, the HPLC-UV method for the analysis of hydrophilic components coupled with PCA has been shown to be practical and useful in the quality control of Schisandrae Fructus.

  4. Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids in Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by ultra-violet detection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cuscuta species known as dodder, have been used in traditional medicine of eastern and southern Asian countries as liver and kidney tonic. Flavonoids are considered as the main biologically active constituents in Cuscuta plants especially in C. chinensis Lam. Objective In the present study, a fast, simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination and quantization of C. chinensis flavonols including hyperoside, rutin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol has been developed. Materials and methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase ACE 5 C18 with eluting at a flow rate of 1 ml/min using a gradient with O-phosphoric acid 0.25% : acetonitrile for 42 min. UV spectra were collected across the range of 200–900 nm, extracting 360 nm for the chromatograms. The method was validated according to linearity, selectivity, precision, recovery, LOD and LOQ. Results The method was selective for determination of rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin and kampferol. The calibration graphs of flavonols were linear with r2 > 0.999. RSDs% of intra- and inter-day precisions were found 1.3&3.4 for rutin, 1.5&2.8 for hyperoside, 1.3&3.3 for isorhamnetin and 1.7 & 2.9 for kaempferol which were satisfactory. LODs and LOQs were calculated as 1.73 & 8.19 for rutin, 0.09 & 4.19 for hyperoside, 2.09 & 6.3 for isorhamnetin and 0.18 & 0.56 for kaempferol. The recovery averages of above-mentioned flavonols were 90.3%, 97.4%, 98.7% and 90.0%, respectively. Conclusion The simplicity of the method makes it highly valuable for quality control of C. chinensis according to quantization of flavonols. PMID:23352257

  5. Composition and diversity of rhizosphere fungal community in Coptis chinensis Franch. continuous cropping fields

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longyun; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, effects of continuous cropping on soil properties, enzyme activities, and relative abundance, community composition and diversity of fungal taxa were investigated. Rhizosphere soil from field continuously cropped for one-year, three-year and five-year by Coptis chinensis Franch. was collected and analyzed. Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis showed that continuous cropping of C. chinensis resulted in a significant and continuous decline in the richness and diversity of soil fungal population. Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Glomeromycota were the dominant phyla of fungi detected in rhizosphere soil. Fungal genera such as Phoma, Volutella, Pachycudonia, Heterodermia, Gibberella, Cladosporium, Trichocladium, and Sporothrix, were more dominant in continuously cropped samples for three-year and five-year compared to that for one-year. By contrast, genera, such as Zygosaccharomyces, Pseudotaeniolina, Hydnum, Umbelopsis, Humicola, Crustoderma, Psilocybe, Coralloidiomyces, Mortierella, Polyporus, Pyrenula, and Monographella showed higher relative abundance in one-year samples than that in three-year and five-year samples. Cluster analysis of the fungal communities from three samples of rhizosphere soil from C. chinensis field revealed that the fungal community composition, diversity, and structure were significantly affected by the continuous cropping. Continuous cropping of C. chinensis also led to significant declines in soil pH, urease, and catalase activities. Redundancy analysis showed that the soil pH had the most significant effect on soil fungal population under continuous cropping of C. chinensis. PMID:29538438

  6. Composition and diversity of rhizosphere fungal community in Coptis chinensis Franch. continuous cropping fields.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuhong; Pan, Yuan; Li, Longyun; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, effects of continuous cropping on soil properties, enzyme activities, and relative abundance, community composition and diversity of fungal taxa were investigated. Rhizosphere soil from field continuously cropped for one-year, three-year and five-year by Coptis chinensis Franch. was collected and analyzed. Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis showed that continuous cropping of C. chinensis resulted in a significant and continuous decline in the richness and diversity of soil fungal population. Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Glomeromycota were the dominant phyla of fungi detected in rhizosphere soil. Fungal genera such as Phoma, Volutella, Pachycudonia, Heterodermia, Gibberella, Cladosporium, Trichocladium, and Sporothrix, were more dominant in continuously cropped samples for three-year and five-year compared to that for one-year. By contrast, genera, such as Zygosaccharomyces, Pseudotaeniolina, Hydnum, Umbelopsis, Humicola, Crustoderma, Psilocybe, Coralloidiomyces, Mortierella, Polyporus, Pyrenula, and Monographella showed higher relative abundance in one-year samples than that in three-year and five-year samples. Cluster analysis of the fungal communities from three samples of rhizosphere soil from C. chinensis field revealed that the fungal community composition, diversity, and structure were significantly affected by the continuous cropping. Continuous cropping of C. chinensis also led to significant declines in soil pH, urease, and catalase activities. Redundancy analysis showed that the soil pH had the most significant effect on soil fungal population under continuous cropping of C. chinensis.

  7. Bioaccumulation and detoxification mechanisms for lead uptake identified in Rhus chinensis Mill. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuifan; Huang, Meiying; Ren, Huijun; Yu, Jiaoda; Wu, Jiamei; Ma, Xiangqing

    2017-08-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assay the bioaccumulation and tolerance characteristics of Rhus chinensis Mill. to lead (Pb). The effects of exposing R. chinensis Mill seedlings to increasing Pb concentrations (0, 250, 500, 100mgkg-1) in the soil were assessed by measuring Pb accumulation, subcellular distribution, ultrastructure, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidative enzyme activity, malondialdehyde content, and phytochelatin content. The majority of Pb taken up by R. chinensis Mill was associated with the cell wall fraction in the roots, where the absorption of Ca increased to maintain cell wall stability, and Pb deposits were found in the intercellular space or in the cell wall structures. In leaves, Pb was primarily stored in the cell wall, while it was compartmentalized into the vacuolar structures in the stem. Pb concentrations adversely affected the morphology of Rhus chinensis Mill cellular substructures. Furthermore, increased Peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activity was observed in plants grown in Pb-amended soil, and this may have led to reduced ROS to maintain the function of the membrane. Changes in phytochelatin levels (PCs) that were observed in Pb treated plants suggest that PCs formed complexes with Pb in the cytoplasm to reduce Pb 2+ toxicity in the metabolically active cellular compartment. This mechanism may allow for the plant to accumulate higher concentrations of toxic Pb and survive for a longer period of time. Our study provides a better understanding of how Rhus chinensis Mill detoxifies Pb. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Mechanism of resistance to cyhalofop-butyl in Chinese sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees).

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaxing; Gao, Haitao; Pan, Lang; Yao, Zhenwei; Dong, Liyao

    2017-11-01

    Chinese sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees) is a serious grass weed in rice paddies. In some areas, L. chinensis has become resistant to the herbicide cyhalofop-butyl because of its frequent and extensive use over the past five years. In this study, whole-plant dose-response assays were conducted, and a L. chinensis population (ZHYH) had a 75.8-fold resistance index to cyhalofop-butyl. Molecular analyses revealed that this resistance was attributed to a tryptophan (Trp)-2027-to-cysteine (Cys) substitution in the CT domain of the ACCase gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report revealing the mechanism underlying cyhalofop-butyl resistance in L. chinensis. Furthermore, a derived cleaved amplified polymorphic (dCAPS) assay was developed to rapidly detect the Trp-2027-Cys mutation. Of the 100 ZHYH plants analyzed, 52 were heterozygous mutants and 48 were susceptible homozygous plants. In addition, the cyhalofop-butyl-resistant L. chinensis was cross-resistant to aryloxyphenoxypropionate and phenylpyrazoline herbicides, but not to cyclohexanedione, acetolactate synthase-inhibiting, protoporphyrinogen oxidase, and urea herbicides, and had only slight resistance to the hormonal herbicide quinclorac. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  10. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jin-shuang; Sun, Cheng-zhen; Zhang, Shu-ning; Hou, Xi-lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis. PMID:27507974

  11. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin-Shuang; Sun, Cheng-Zhen; Zhang, Shu-Ning; Hou, Xi-Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.

  12. Study of Commercially Available Lobelia chinensis Products Using Bar-HRM Technology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Yan, Song; Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; Shi, Yuhua; Wu, Lan; Xiang, Li; Deng, Bo; Ma, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for herbal medicine identification using a fast, sensitive, and easy-to-use method that does not require complex infrastructure and well-trained technicians. For instance, the detection of adulterants in Lobelia chinensis herbal product has been challenging, since current detection technologies are not effective due to their own limits. High Resolution Melting (HRM) has emerged as a powerful new technology for clinical diagnosis, research in the food industry and in plant molecular biology, and this method has already highlighted the complexity of species identification. In this study, we developed a method of species specific detection of L. chinensis using HRM analysis combined with internal transcribed spacer 2. We then applied this method to commercial products purporting to contain L . chinensis . Our results demonstrated that HRM can differentiate L. chinensis from six common adulterants. HRM was proven to be a fast and accurate technique for testing the authenticity of L. chinensis in herbal products. Based on these results, a HRM approach for herbal authentication is provided.

  13. [Effects of water stress and temperature on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of Sinocalycanthus chinensis leaves].

    PubMed

    Ke, Shi-sheng; Jin, Ze-xin

    2008-01-01

    Sinocalycanthus chinensis is an endangered species in Sinocalycanthus, and only distributed in Zhejiang Province of China. This paper studied the photosynthetic responses of 2-year-old pot-cultured S. chinensis to different levels of water stress and temperature. The results indicated that under mild and moderate water stress, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of S. chinensis leaves was decreased to 92.3% and 74.3% of the control, respectively, which was mainly attributed to stomatal limitation; and under severe water stress, the Pn was decreased to 44.4% of the control, which might be mainly linked to non-stomatal limitation. The appropriate temperature for S. chinensis photosynthesis was from 20 degrees C to 28 degrees C. At 39 degrees C, the Pn, water use efficiency (WUE), and maximal photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm) were decreased significantly, while the dark respiration rate (Rd) and transpiration rate (Tr) were enhanced significantly. With increasing water stress and temperature, some photosynthetic parameters including light saturation point (LSP), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and maximal CO2 assimilation rate (Pmax) decreased to certain extents, while light compensation point (LCP) increased, suggesting that both severe water stress and higher temperature were the important environmental factors affecting the survival of S. chinensis.

  14. [Regularity of changes in main active components of Schisandra chinensis before and after being processed with vinegar].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xiao, Yong-Qing; Yu, Ding-Rong; Ma, Yin-Lian; Zhu, Ming-Gui; Chen, Liang

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the regularity of changes in the main active components of Schisandra chinensis preparations before and after being processed with vinegar. High performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze the changes in the content of lignans and organic acids in S. chinensis preparations before and after being processed with vinegar. After being processed with vinegar, the content of lignans in S. chinensis preparations significantly reduced, while that of organic acids significantly increased. The ratio between them reduced from 1:16 (raw product) to 1:21 (vinegar products). The changes in the main pharmacological effects of S. chinensis are related to not only the changes in the contents of lignan and organic acids, but also the significant changes in the ratio relations between the two components. This is of great significance to the correlation among the principle of S. chinensis processed with vinegar and material basis and the changes in pharmacological effects.

  15. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  16. Phytochemical and biotechnological studies on Schisandra chinensis cultivar Sadova No. 1-a high utility medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Klimek-Szczykutowicz, Marta; Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Maślanka, Anna; Król, Agata; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Ekiert, Halina

    2018-06-01

    In the presented work, raw materials (fruits and leaves) and in vitro biomass of a highly productive Schisandra chinensis Sadova No. 1 cultivar (SchS) were evaluated for the production of therapeutically useful schisandra lignans (SL). In vitro cultures of SchS were initiated, followed by extensive optimization studies focused on maximizing secondary metabolite production, with the aim of establishing a sustainable source of SL. Different cultivation systems (agar, agitated, bioreactor), experiment times (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days) and plant growth regulators (6-benzyladenine-BA and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid-NAA, from 0 to 3 mg/l) in Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium were tested. Moreover, an elicitation procedure was applied to bioreactor-grown microshoots in order to increase SL production. Validated HPLC-DAD protocol enabled to detect fourteen SL in the extracts from in vitro and in vivo materials. The main compounds in the in vitro cultures were as follows: schisandrin (max. 176.3 mg/100 g DW), angeloylgomisin Q (max. 85.1 mg/100 g DW), gomisin A (max. 71.4 mg/100 g DW) and angeloylgomisin H (max. 67.0 mg/100 g DW). The highest total SL content (490.3 mg/100 g DW) was obtained in extracts from the biomass of agar cultures cultivated for 30 days on the MS medium variant containing 3 mg/l BA and 1 mg/l NAA. This amount was 1.32 times lower than in fruit extracts (646.0 mg/100 g DW) and 2.04 times higher than in leaf extracts (240.7 mg/100 g DW). The study demonstrated that SchS is a rich source of SL, thus proving its value for medical, cosmetic and food industry.

  17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Narcissus tazzeta var. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; Zou, Qingcheng; Guo, Deping; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Yu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Xun; Cao, Jiashu

    2007-09-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY), as a key regulatory enzyme for carotene biosynthesis, plays an important role in regulating color formation in many species. In the present study, a protocol was developed for the transformation of Narcissus tazzeta var chinensis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA1301 plasmid which contained an antisense phytoene synthase gene, a reporter beta-glucuronidase gene and a selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene. Effects of some factors on efficiency of transformation and regeneration were examined. Preculture of the explants for 6 days before inoculation enhanced the transient GUS expression. The addition of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 micromol l(-1) for inoculation and a period of 3 days co-cultivation yielded efficient transient GUS expression. Transformants were obtained through selection on MS medium containing 5 mg l(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.1 mg l(-1)alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 40 mg l(-1) hygromycin. The transformation frequency was 1.24% based on PCR analysis of gus gene. One or two copies of transgene were demonstrated in different transformations by Southern blotting analyses. Northern blotting results confirmed that the transcription of the endogenous psy gene in transgenic plants was inhibited or silenced. The method reported here provides new opportunities for improvement of quality traits of Narcissus tazzeta via genetic transformation.

  18. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  19. [Comparison of clonal architecture between two divergent Leymus chinensis types in Songnen grassland].

    PubMed

    He, Nianpeng; Wu, Ling; Zhou, Daowei

    2004-12-01

    This paper studied the clonal architecture of two divergent Leymus chinensis types (grey-green type and yellow-green type) in Songnen grassland, and compared their internode length, spacer length, interbranching length, interbranching angle, and ramet population density and height under the same habitat. The results showed that there was no significant difference in these clonal characteristics except spacer length and ramet population density between the two types of L. chinensis, and yellow-green type, with less spacer length and more ramet density than grey-green type, should be more adaptable to the resourceful habitat. Moreover, the V-indices of the clonal architecture of two divergent L. chinensis types were all close to 1, and the difference was not significant. Therefore, both of the two types belonged to typical guerilla clonal plant.

  20. Tissue-specific metabolites profiling and quantitative analyses of flavonoids in the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis by combining laser-microdissection with UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS and UHPLC-QqQ-MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu Jie; Liang, Zhi Tao; Zhu, Yan; Xie, Guo Yong; Tian, Mei; Zhao, Zhong Zhen; Qin, Min Jian

    2014-12-01

    The rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. is a traditionally used medicinal material in China. Due to increasing demand, B. chinensis has been cultivated widely, and thus the study on its rational utilization of medicinal part and guidelines for the optimal cultivation and harvest is an important issue. Considering flavonoids were the main bioactive secondary metabolites of B. chinensis, fluorescence microscopy, laser microdissection (LMD), ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS), and UHPLC coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QqQ-MS) were applied to profile and determine flavonoids in various tissues in this study. Consequently, 43 peaks were detected by UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS, and 26 flavonoid compounds combined with seven triterpene compounds were identified or tentatively identified in the tissue extractions. The results indicated that the hydrophobic compounds, especially flavonoid or isoflavonoid aglycones and xanthone mainly accumulated in the cork, whereas the hydrophilic compounds, namely the flavonoid and isoflavonoid glycosides were usually found in the cortex or center (the part inside of endodermis). Samples of rhizomes from different growth ages and origins were simultaneously analyzed. It was shown that the bulb or lateral part of the rhizome generally possessed more total flavonoids than the vertical part or the primordium. The present study established a new practical method to evaluate the quality of the rhizome of B. chinensis and to explore the relationship between distribution patterns of secondary metabolites and growth years of plants, thus important information for cultivation and processing was provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential molecular mechanisms of overgrazing-induced dwarfism in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis) analyzed using proteomic data.

    PubMed

    Ren, Weibo; Xie, Jihong; Hou, Xiangyang; Li, Xiliang; Guo, Huiqin; Hu, Ningning; Kong, Lingqi; Zhang, Jize; Chang, Chun; Wu, Zinian

    2018-05-08

    This study was designed to reveal potential molecular mechanisms of long-term overgrazing-induced dwarfism in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). An electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry system was used to generate proteomic data of dwarf sheepgrass from a long-term overgrazed rangeland and normal sheepgrass from a long-term enclosed rangeland. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between dwarf and normal sheepgrass were identified, after which their potential functions and interactions with each other were predicted. The expression of key DEPs was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) using a multiple reaction monitoring method. Compared with normal sheepgrass, a total of 51 upregulated and 53 downregulated proteins were identified in dwarf sheepgrass. The amino acids biosynthesis pathway was differentially enriched between the two conditions presenting DEPs, such as SAT5_ARATH and DAPA_MAIZE. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network revealed a possible interaction between RPOB2_LEPTE, A0A023H9M8_9STRA, ATPB_DIOEL, RBL_AMOTI and DNAK_GRATL. Four modules were also extracted from the PPI network. The HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the upregulation and downregulation of ATPB_DIOEL and DNAK_GRATL, respectively in dwarf samples compared with in the controls. The upregulated ATPB_DIOEL and downregulated DNAK_GRATL as well as proteins that interact with them, such as RPOB2_LEPTE, A0A023H9M8_9STRA and RBL_AMOTI, may be associated with the long-term overgrazing-induced dwarfism in sheepgrass.

  2. Effects of supplementary lighting by natural light for growth of Brassica chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lee, Hui-Ping; Kao, Shih-Tse; Lu, Ju-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This paper present a model of cultivated chamber with supplementary natural colour light. We investigate the effects of supplementary natural red light and natural blue light on growth of Brassica chinensis under natural white light illumination. After 4 weeks of supplementary colour light treatment, the experiment results shown that the weight of fresh leaf were not affected by supplementary natural blue light. However, those Brassica chinensis were cultivated in the chambers with supplementary natural red light obtained a significant increasing of fresh weight of leaf under both white light illuminate models. The combination of natural white light with supplementary natural red light illumination will be benefits in growth for cultivation and energy saving.

  3. Assessment of Cuscuta chinensis seeds׳ effect on melanogenesis: comparison of water and ethanol fractions in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Jing; An, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Deng, Qiu-Di; Yang, Liu

    2014-05-28

    Cuscuta chinensis seeds have traditionally been used to treat freckles and melasma in Asia, although recent reports have revealed that Semen cuscutae is a promoter of melanogenesis. The present study aims to investigate the mechanism of this opposite effect of Semen cuscutae on melanogenesis. In accordance with traditional usage, the water fraction and the ethanol fraction from Semen cuscutae (WFSC/EFSC) were extracted to determine the herbal effects by examining the activity of mushroom tyrosinase, cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, quantitative-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot analysis for tyrosinase in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The melanocyte phenotypes of zebrafish larvae were observed while the in vivo melanin contents and tyrosinase activity were determined. The activity of mushroom tyrosinase assay shown that WFSC was an uncompetitive inhibitor of mushroom tyrosinase, while EFSC indicated dose-dependent activation of the mushroom tyrosinase activity. The WFSC markedly inhibited 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in vitro. Howeveran accelerant role in melanin synthesis and tyosinase activity. Neither fraction had any effect on the IBMX-induced expression of tyrosinase protein or mRNA. The WFSC strongly inhibited melanin synthesis and cellular tyrosinase activity in vivo. Furthermore, with the function of WFSC at a higher concentration, a punctate melanocyte pattern appeared that was similar to the pattern induced by arbutin or Mequinol (MQ). The EFSC had no effect on the melanocytes of zebrafish larvae. It was discovered that WFSC did not show a stable inhibitory effect until it was extracted 1 month later. These results suggest that the opposite effects of Cuscuta chinensis seeds were caused by the extraction methods and that time has an important role on the effect of WFSC. Both WFSC and EFSC significantly influence melanogenesis by

  4. Current knowledge of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine) as a medicinal plant species: a review on the bioactive components, pharmacological properties, analytical and biotechnological studies.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Ekiert, Radosław; Ekiert, Halina

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis Turcz. (Baill.) is a plant species whose fruits have been well known in Far Eastern medicine for a long time. However, schisandra seems to be a plant still underestimated in contemporary therapy still in the countries of East Asia. The article presents latest available information on the chemical composition of this plant species. Special attention is given to dibenzo cyclooctadiene lignans. In addition, recent studies of the biological activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans and schisandra fruit extracts are recapitulated. The paper gives a short resume of their beneficial effects in biological systems in vitro, in animals, and in humans, thus underlining their medicinal potential. The cosmetic properties are depicted, too. The analytical methods used for assaying schisandra lignans in the scientific studies and also in industry are also presented. Moreover, special attention is given to the information on the latest biotechnological studies of this plant species. The intention of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the huge potential of the pharmacological relevance of S. chinensis.

  5. Schisandra chinensis produces the antidepressant-like effects in repeated corticosterone-induced mice via the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wan, Shutong; Wang, Mengshi; Wu, Bo; Xiao, Feng; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-09-30

    The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effects and the possible mechanisms of Schisandra chinensis on depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injections in mice. Here we evaluated the effect of an ethanol extract of the dried fruit of S. chinensis (EESC) on BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. Three weeks of corticosterone injections in mice resulted in depressive-like behavior, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase the immobility time in the forced swim test, but without any influence on the locomotor activity. Further, there was a significant increase in serum corticosterone level and a significant downregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in CORT-treated mice. Treatment of mice with EESC (600mg/kg) significantly ameliorated all the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a abolished entirely the antidepressant-like effect triggered by chronic EESC treatment. These results suggest that EESC produces an antidepressant-like effect in CORT-induced depression in mice, which is possibly mediated, at least in part, by rectifying the stress-based hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction paradigm and upregulation of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  7. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  8. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  9. Rhizomes Help the Forage Grass Leymus chinensis to Adapt to the Salt and Alkali Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junfeng; Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Ying; Mu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis has extensive ecological adaptability and can grow well in saline-alkaline soils. The knowledge about tolerance mechanisms of L. chinensis could be base for utilization of saline-alkaline soils and grassland restoration and rebuilding. Two neutral salts (NaCl : Na2SO4 = 9 : 1) and two alkaline salts (NaHCO3 : Na2CO3 = 9 : 1) with concentration of 0, 100, and 200 mmol/L were used to treat potted 35-day-old seedlings with rhizome growth, respectively. After 10 days, the biomass and number of daughter shoots all decreased, with more reduction in alkali than in salt stress. The rhizome biomass reduced more than other organs. The number of daughter shoots from rhizome was more than from tillers. Under both stresses, Na+ contents increased more in rhizome than in other organs; the reduction of K+ content was more in underground than aerial tissue. Anion ions or organic acids were absorbed to neutralize cations. Na+ content in stem and leaf increased markedly in high alkalinity (200 mmol/L), with accumulation of soluble sugar and organic acids sharply. Rhizomes help L. chinensis to adapt to saline and low alkaline stresses by transferring Na+. However, rhizomes lost the ability to prevent Na+ transport to aerial organs under high alkalinity, which led to severe growth inhibition of L. chinensis. PMID:25121110

  10. First report of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on Mesona chinensis in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jellywort (Mesona chinensis Benth) is a herbaceous plant in the Lamiaceae Family. The plant is referred to as ‘Xiancao’ (Weed from Angels) in Chinese and is primarily used to make grass jelly, a popular refreshing drink. Currently, Xiancao cultivation is a fast growing industry with a high profit ma...

  11. Rhizomes help the forage grass Leymus chinensis to adapt to the salt and alkali stresses.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junfeng; Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Ying; Mu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis has extensive ecological adaptability and can grow well in saline-alkaline soils. The knowledge about tolerance mechanisms of L. chinensis could be base for utilization of saline-alkaline soils and grassland restoration and rebuilding. Two neutral salts (NaCl : Na₂SO₄ = 9 : 1) and two alkaline salts (NaHCO₃ : Na₂CO₃ = 9 : 1) with concentration of 0, 100, and 200 mmol/L were used to treat potted 35-day-old seedlings with rhizome growth, respectively. After 10 days, the biomass and number of daughter shoots all decreased, with more reduction in alkali than in salt stress. The rhizome biomass reduced more than other organs. The number of daughter shoots from rhizome was more than from tillers. Under both stresses, Na(+) contents increased more in rhizome than in other organs; the reduction of K(+) content was more in underground than aerial tissue. Anion ions or organic acids were absorbed to neutralize cations. Na(+) content in stem and leaf increased markedly in high alkalinity (200 mmol/L), with accumulation of soluble sugar and organic acids sharply. Rhizomes help L. chinensis to adapt to saline and low alkaline stresses by transferring Na(+). However, rhizomes lost the ability to prevent Na(+) transport to aerial organs under high alkalinity, which led to severe growth inhibition of L. chinensis.

  12. Tsuga chinensis as a source of host resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid

    Treesearch

    S. E. Bentz; Robert J. Griesbach; Margaret R. Pooler; A. M. Townsend

    2007-01-01

    The eastern North American native hemlock species, T. canadensis [L.] Carriere and T. caroliniana Engelm., are highly susceptible to injury from the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), while the Asian species, T. chinensis (Franch.) E. Pritz., T. diversifolia (Maxim.) Mast., and T. sieboldii...

  13. Complete genome sequence of a novel potyvirus, Callistephus mottle virus identified in Callistephus chinensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complete genomic sequence of a novel putative member of the genus Potyvirus was detected from Callistephus chinensis (china aster) in South Korea. The genomic RNA consists of 9,859 nucleotides excluding the 3’ poly(A) tail. The Callistephus virus genome, which contains the typical open reading f...

  14. Isolation and characterization of endophytic taxol-producing fungi from Taxus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaihui; Ding, Xiaowei; Deng, Baiwan; Chen, Wenqiang

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the endophytic fungi diversity of Taxus chinensis and screened the taxol-producing fungi in the host. A total of 115 endophytic fungi isolates obtained from bark segments of T. chinensis were grouped into 23 genera based on the morphological traits and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), indicating endophytic fungi in T. chinensis are diverse and abundant. Diaporthe, Phomopsis (anamorph of Diaporthe), Acremonium, and Pezicula were the dominant genera, whereas the remaining genera were infrequent groups. The 13 representative species of the distinct genera were capable of producing taxol verified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the taxol-producing fungi, the yield of taxol produced by the Metarhizium anisopliae, H-27 was 846.1 microg l(-1) in reformative potato dextrose liquid medium, and the fungal taxol was further validated by mass spectrometry (MS). The taxol-producing fungi (92.3%) were infrequent communities, suggesting that infrequent fungi associated with T. chinensis might be a fascinating reservoir of taxol-generating fungi.

  15. Algicidal effects of four Chinese herb extracts on bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liangtao; Qian, Jiazhong; Jin, Song; Zuo, Shengpeng; Mei, Hui; Ma, Suming

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from four Chinese herbs, Phellodendri chinensis cortex, Artemisia annua L., Scutellaria baicalensis G. and Citrus reticulate peel were tested for their algicidal effects on Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The results showed that M. aeruginosa was more susceptible than C. pyrenoidosa. The growth of M. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) by the four herb extracts. Among the four herbs, P. chinensis cortex and S. baicalensis had the greatest inhibitory effects on M. aeruginosa, followed by C reticulate peel and A. annua. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of S. baicalensis, P chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel and A. annua were 0.87, 0.88, 5.27 and 1 1.16 gherb L-1, respectively. The growth of C. pyrenoidosa was moderately inhibited by the herb extracts individually. The EC5o concentrations for S. baicalensis, P. chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel andA. annua were 8.67, 11.67, 12.81 and 12.44 g herb L-1', respectively. Extract from S. baicalensis displayed stronger algicidal effects on C. pyrenoidosa than the other three herbs, although no lethal effect on C. pyrenoidosa was observed during the cultivation period. Compared with corresponding individual extract at the same dosage, the binary mixtures of the four herb extracts enhanced the algicidal effects on M. aeruginosa. The maximum inhibitory rates of all binary mixtures of the four herb extracts were all above 92% during the 10-day incubation. The results demonstrate that Chinese herbs, such as P. chinensis cortex or S. baicalensis and their combinations, could offer an effective alternative for mitigating outbreaks of harmful algal blooms in water bodies.

  16. Apoptosis and pro-death autophagy induced by a spirostanol saponin isolated from Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) on HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaomin; Xiang, Limin; Huang, Yuying; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2018-03-15

    Our previous study has revealed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the rhizomes of Rohdea chinensis (Baker) N. Tanaka (synonym Tupistra chinensis Baker) (Convallariaceae) (a reputed folk medicine) exhibited potent antiproliferative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of purified saponins remains unclear. More studies are necessary to assess the apoptosis and autophagy activities of the saponins from R. chinensis and clarify their antiproliferative mechanisms. The present study certificated the potential antiproliferative activity and mechanism of 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)- β-D-xylopyranosyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (SPD), a spirostanol saponin from R. chinensis, against human acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). The antiproliferative activity of SPD in vitro was evaluated by MTT assay compared with cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II). The autophagic activity was assessed using MDC staining and western blot, cell apoptosis inspection was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and the mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 fluorescence dye combined with flow cytometry. The potential mechanisms for protein levels of apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated by western blot. Treatment of HL-60 cells with SPD resulted in growth inhibition (IC 50 value of 2.0 ± 0.2 µM, after 48 h treatment) and induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Results from Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay and mitochondrial membrane potential detection showed that apoptosis was happened after SPD treatment. The regulation of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, PARP following SPD treatment contributed to the induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Meanwhile, SPD induced autophagy related with Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling and activated of AMPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, blocking autophagy with bafilomycin A1 reduced the cytotoxicity of SPD in HL-60 cells. The antiproliferative, apoptosis and pro

  17. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Saururus chinensis Baill in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji-Yeon; Zhang, Jian; Kang, Min-Jung; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-A; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jung-In

    2007-01-01

    Saururus chinensis Baill was reported to inhibit alpha-glucosidase in vitro and flatten postprandial increase in blood glucose in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. We studied the effect of chronic consumption of S. chinensis Baill on blood glucose and lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic male rats fed high fat diet. Male rats weighing 100-120 g were fed 30% fat diet with and without 10% freeze-dried leaves of S. chinensis Baill for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. The rats were rendered diabetic by intravenous injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) after 6-week feeding of the assigned diets. At 1 week after the injection, the rats were sacrificed after an overnight fast. Plasma glucose (380.2 +/- 14.4 mg/dL), total cholesterol (93.9 +/- 7.9 mg/dL) and triglyceride levels (123.6 +/- 7.5 mg/dL) of the S. chinensis Baill group were significantly lower than those of the control group (418.1 +/- 12.0 mg/dL, 119.9 +/- 9.4 mg/dL, 152.0 +/- 10.3 mg/dL, respectively, p<0.05). Chronic consumption of S. chinesis Baill significantly decreased maltase activity of the small intestinal mucosa (120.1 +/- 8.7 U/g protein) compared with the control group (96.8 +/- 7.0 U/g protein, p<0.05). These results suggest that S. chinensis Baill have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects by inhibiting alpha-glucosidase activity in the animal model of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Transcriptome of the floral transition in Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush'.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuelian; Yu, Chao; Luo, Le; Wan, Huihua; Zhen, Ni; Xu, Tingliang; Tan, Jiongrui; Pan, Huitang; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-02-23

    The floral transition plays a vital role in the life of ornamental plants. Despite progress in model plants, the molecular mechanisms of flowering regulation remain unknown in perennial plants. Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush' is a unique plant that can flower continuously year-round. In this study, gene expression profiles associated with the flowering transition were comprehensively analyzed during floral transition in the rose. According to the transcriptomic profiles, 85,663 unigenes and 1,637 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, among which 32 unigenes were involved in the circadian clock, sugar metabolism, hormone, and autonomous pathways. A hypothetical model for the regulation of floral transition was proposed in which the candidate genes function synergistically the floral transition process. Hormone contents and biosynthesis and metabolism genes fluctuated during the rose floral transition process. Gibberellins (GAs) inhibited rose floral transition, the content of GAs gradually decreased and GA2ox and SCL13 were upregulated from vegetative (VM) meristem to floral meristem (FM). Auxin plays an affirmative part in mediating floral transition, auxin content and auxin-related gene expression levels were gradually upregulated during the floral transition of the rose. However, ABA content and ABA signal genes were gradually downregulated, suggesting that ABA passively regulates the rose floral transition by participating in sugar signaling. Furthermore, sugar content and sugar metabolism genes increased during floral transition in the rose, which may be a further florigenic signal that activates floral transition. Additionally, FRI, FY, DRM1, ELIP, COP1, CO, and COL16 are involved in the circadian clock and autonomous pathway, respectively, and they play a positively activating role in regulating floral transition. Overall, physiological changes associated with genes involved in the circadian clock or autonomous pathway collectively regulated the

  19. Effects of precipitation and clipping intensity on net primary productivity and composition of a Leymus chinensis temperate grassland steppe.

    PubMed

    He, Feng; Wang, Kun; Hannaway, David B; Li, Xianglin

    2017-01-01

    Leymus chinensis (Trin.) is the dominant vegetation type in eastern Eurasian temperate grasslands but is decreasing due to the combined pressure of reduced precipitation and overgrazing. This study evaluated the separate and combined effects of precipitation and defoliation on net primary productivity (NPP) and composition of a L. chinensis steppe to promote the sustainable development of temperate grasslands through improved management practices. The effects of three precipitation gradients (precipitation unchanged, reduced by 50%, and increased by 50%) and two clipping intensities (clipping once or twice per year) were examined on NPP and composition of the L. chinensis community using a 7-year in situ controlled trial at the Guyuan State Key Monitoring and Research Station of Grassland Ecosystem in China. The results showed that: (1) a 50% reduction in natural precipitation significantly decreased NPP; a 50% increase in precipitation did not significantly increase NPP, but it decreased the importance value of L. chinensis because more water promoted the growth of competing species. (2) Clipping twice per year increased NPP, but the increase was from the dry matter of other species (DMO) component, and not from the dry matter of L. chinensis. (3) The standardized coefficients of a regression model (β) for DMO, NPP, and the importance value of L. chinensis were 0.685, 0.532, and -0.608 for precipitation, and 0.369, 0.419, and -0.276 for clipping mode, respectively. This study demonstrated that variation in precipitationis the key driver of NPP and composition of a L. chinensis steppe under the precipitation range and clipping intensities evaluated. This improved understanding of the effects of precipitation and clipping on NPP and composition will allow for improved, sustainable management of L. chinensis temperate grassland steppes.

  20. Effects of precipitation and clipping intensity on net primary productivity and composition of a Leymus chinensis temperate grassland steppe

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Hannaway, David B.; Li, Xianglin

    2017-01-01

    Leymus chinensis (Trin.) is the dominant vegetation type in eastern Eurasian temperate grasslands but is decreasing due to the combined pressure of reduced precipitation and overgrazing. This study evaluated the separate and combined effects of precipitation and defoliation on net primary productivity (NPP) and composition of a L. chinensis steppe to promote the sustainable development of temperate grasslands through improved management practices. The effects of three precipitation gradients (precipitation unchanged, reduced by 50%, and increased by 50%) and two clipping intensities (clipping once or twice per year) were examined on NPP and composition of the L. chinensis community using a 7-year in situ controlled trial at the Guyuan State Key Monitoring and Research Station of Grassland Ecosystem in China. The results showed that: (1) a 50% reduction in natural precipitation significantly decreased NPP; a 50% increase in precipitation did not significantly increase NPP, but it decreased the importance value of L. chinensis because more water promoted the growth of competing species. (2) Clipping twice per year increased NPP, but the increase was from the dry matter of other species (DMO) component, and not from the dry matter of L. chinensis. (3) The standardized coefficients of a regression model (β) for DMO, NPP, and the importance value of L. chinensis were 0.685, 0.532, and −0.608 for precipitation, and 0.369, 0.419, and −0.276 for clipping mode, respectively. This study demonstrated that variation in precipitationis the key driver of NPP and composition of a L. chinensis steppe under the precipitation range and clipping intensities evaluated. This improved understanding of the effects of precipitation and clipping on NPP and composition will allow for improved, sustainable management of L. chinensis temperate grassland steppes. PMID:29287115

  1. [Effects of traditional Chinese medicine on oral bacteria biofilm].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin; Li, Ji-yao; Zhu, Bing; Zhou, Xue-dong

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the effects of compounds of Galla chinensis extract (GCE) and Nidus vespae extract-1 (WVE1) on oral bacteria biofilm structure and activity and to determine the possibility of caries prevention by the compounds. The morphology and activity of treated-oral bacterial biofilm and untreated-oral bacterial biofilm were observed by using fluorescence microscope in combination of idio-fluorochrome to label the died and living bacteria. The visible light semiquantitative method was used to measure biomass glucosyltransferase (GTF, A620) values and to determine the effects of active compounds of GCE and NVE1 on GTF of oral bacteria biofilm. The living bacteria in the untreated 24 h bacterial biofilm was dominant, and only a small number of died bacteria were found, the biofilm structure was regular and clear. GCE, GCE-B and NVE1 could inhibit the bacteria in the dental biofilm, which showed significant difference with the negative control. GCE and NVE1 could also inhibit GTF activity of 24 h bacterial biofilm in comparison with the negative control. The traditional Chinese medicine Galla chinensis and Nidus vespae could not only inhibit bacteria growth on oral bacterial biofilm, but also function by adjusting biofilm structure, composition and GTF activity of 24 h bacterial biofilm.

  2. [Quality level assessment of lowly efficient Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiang-Bao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Zhu, Jin-Fang; Xu, Jing-Wei; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Jing-Tao; Liu, Qing

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta as test objects, and by using synthetic factor method, this paper studied the main factors causing the lowly efficiency of T. chinensis secondary shrubs as well as the main parameters for the classification of lowly efficient T. chinensis secondary shrubs. A total of 24 indices including shrubs growth and soil physical and chemical properties were selected to determine the main affecting factors and parameters in evaluating and classifying the lowly efficient shrubs. There were no obvious correlations between the indices reflecting the shrubs growth and soil quality, and thus, only using shrub growth index to reflect the lowly efficiency level of T. chinensis was not enough, and it would be necessary to combine with soil quality factors to make a comprehensive evaluation. The principal factors reflecting the quality level of lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs included soil salt content and moisture content, stand age, single tree's aboveground stem, leaf biomass, and basal diameter, followed by soil density, porosity, and soil nutrient status. The lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs in the Bay could be classified into five types, namely, shrub with growth potential, slightly low quality shrub, moderately lowly efficient shrub, moderately low quality and lowly efficient shrub, and seriously low quality and lowly efficient shrub. The main features, low efficiency causes, and management measures of these shrubs were discussed based on the mean cluster value.

  3. Functional analysis of a WRKY transcription factor involved in transcriptional activation of the DBAT gene in Taxus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Zhang, P; Zhang, M; Fu, C; Yu, L

    2013-01-01

    Although the regulation of taxol biosynthesis at the transcriptional level remains unclear, 10-deacetylbaccatin III-10 β-O-acetyl transferase (DBAT) is a critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of taxol. The 1740 bp fragment 5'-flanking sequence of the dbat gene was cloned from Taxus chinensis cells. Important regulatory elements needed for activity of the dbat promoter were located by deletion analyses in T. chinensis cells. A novel WRKY transcription factor, TcWRKY1, was isolated with the yeast one-hybrid system from a T. chinensis cell cDNA library using the important regulatory elements as bait. The gene expression of TcWRKY1 in T. chinensis suspension cells was specifically induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Biochemical analysis indicated that TcWRKY1 protein specifically interacts with the two W-box (TGAC) cis-elements among the important regulatory elements. Overexpression of TcWRKY1 enhanced dbat expression in T. chinensis suspension cells, and RNA interference (RNAi) reduced the level of transcripts of dbat. These results suggest that TcWRKY1 participates in regulation of taxol biosynthesis in T. chinensis cells, and that dbat is a target gene of this transcription factor. This research also provides a potential candidate gene for engineering increased taxol accumulation in Taxus cell cultures. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Comparative proteomics and expression analysis of five genes in Epicauta chinensis larvae from the first to fifth instar.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiurong; Wang, Dun; Lv, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Blister beetle is an important insect model for both medicinal and pure research. Previous research has mainly focused on its biology and biochemistry, but very little data is yet available in the molecular biology. This study uses differential proteomics technology to analyze the soluble proteins extracted from each of the 5 instars larvae of Epicauta chinensis. 42 of the differentially-expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Some of these proteins' function and their expression profiles are analyzed. Our analysis revealed dynamics regulation of the following proteins: Axin-like protein pry-1 (APR-1), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), vitellogenin (Vg) and lysozyme C (Lmz-S). APR-1 negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Its overexpression could result in embryo, leg, eye and ovary ectopica or malformation. DLD catalyzes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the latter is the starting material of juvenile hormone (JH) and ipsdienol biosynthesis through the MVA pathway in insects. While Vg synthesis can be regulated by JH and stimulated by food factors. So DLD may affect the synthesis of JH, ipsdienol and Vg indirectly. The activity of lysozyme is an indicator of the immunity. Nutrition/food should be taken into account for its potential role during the development of larva in the future. Among the five genes and their corresponding proteins' expression, only hsc70 gene showed a good correspondence with the protein level. This reflects the fluctuating relationship between mRNA and protein levels.

  5. Comparison of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) whistles from two areas of western Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jordan M; Ponnampalam, Louisa S; Araújo, Claryana C; Wang, John Y; Kuit, Sui Hyang; Hung, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Differences in the acoustic variables of whistles emitted by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from two coastal locations along western Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Duration, frequency, and frequency modulation variables were extracted from and used to characterize recordings of free-ranging humpback dolphins that were made using a broadband towed hydrophone. A total of 960 whistles from Matang Mangroves and 823 whistles from Langkawi Island were used in analyses. The whistles of Malaysian humpback dolphins covered frequencies from 1231 to 27 120 Hz with durations from 0.010-1.575 s. Significant multivariate differences were found in whistles emitted between locations. Significant differences were also found between dolphins of the two locations in their whistle duration, frequency modulation, and all frequency variables except for minimum frequency, which is likely under morphological constraints. The differences in whistles may be related to adaptations to the local acoustic habitat or unique whistles may have developed due to social interactions within each location, or broader scale differences resulting from geographic separation between the locations.

  6. Effects of Litchi chinensis fruit isolates on prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in J774 murine macrophage cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Litchi chinensis is regarded as one of the 'heating' fruits in China, which causes serious inflammation symptoms to people. Methods In the current study, the effects of isolates of litchi on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production in J774 murine macrophage cells were investigated. Results The AcOEt extract (EAE) of litchi was found effective on stimulating PGE2 production, and three compounds, benzyl alcohol, hydrobenzoin and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfurolaldehyde (5-HMF), were isolated and identified from the EAE. Benzyl alcohol caused markedly increase in PGE2 and NO production, compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as positive control, and in a dose-dependent manner. Hydrobenzoin and 5-HMF were found in litchi for the first time, and both of them stimulated PGE2 and NO production moderately in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and NF-κB (p50) activation might be involved in mechanism of the stimulative process. Conclusion The study showed, some short molecular compounds in litchi play inflammatory effects on human. PMID:22380404

  7. [Grades evaluation of Phellodendri chinensis cortex pieces based on quality constant].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhe; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Qing; Cui, Wen-Jin; Shen, Li; Cheng, Jin-Tang; Liu, An

    2017-09-01

    Quality constant is a comprehensive grades evaluation method for traditional Chinese medicine decoction pieces, which is better but based on traditional way. In this paper, a new grading mode for Phellodendri chinensis pieces was established based on quality constant evaluation method. The results showed that the range of relative quality constant for 15 batches of different samples was from 0.41 to 0.96. As customary, if these samples were divided into three grades: the relative quality constant shall be ≥0.77 for first grade; <0.77 but ≥0.48 for the second grade; and <0.48 for the third grade. This research indicated that the quality constant mode can be used to effectively grade the P. chinensis pieces in a scientific, reasonable, objective and specific way. Simultaneously, it provided a beneficial reference for grading cortex herbal pieces or medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. [Soil catalase activity of main plant communities in Leymus chinensis grassland in northeast China].

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Guo, Jixun; Zhu, Li

    2002-06-01

    The seasonal dynamics of soil catalase activity of three different plants communities in Leymus chinensis grassland in northeast China were in a parabolas shape. The seasonal variation of Chloris virgata community was greater than those of Leymus chinensis community and Puccinellia tenuiflora community, and "seed effect" might be the main reason. The correlation between the activity of soil catalase in different soil layers and environmental factors were analyzed. The results showed that the activity of soil catalase was decreased gradually with depth of soil layer. The activity of soil catalase was closely correlated with rainfall and air temperature, and it was affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interactions. The correlation between the activity and aboveground vegetation was very significant, and the growing condition of plant communities could be reflected by the activity of soil catalase.

  9. The Potential Organ Involved in Cantharidin Biosynthesis in Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Meloidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Lü, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Cantharidin, a terpenoid defensive toxin mainly produced by blister beetles, is among the most widely known insect natural products in the world. However, little is known about the site of cantharidin biosynthesis in vivo. Our previous research showed that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA reductase (HMGR) is an essential enzyme in cantharidin biosynthesis. In this report, we further investigated cantharidin titer and HMGR mRNA expression levels in different tissues of male and female Epicauta chinensis, and performed a comparative analysis of HMGR transcript levels in male Tenebrio molitor, a Tenebrionidae beetle that cannot produce cantharidin. HMGR transcripts had a positive correlation with cantharidin production. Furthermore, the specifically high amounts of HMGR transcript and abundant cantharidin production in fat body of male E. chinensis indicated the process of cantharidin synthesis may occur in the fat body. PMID:28423415

  10. Observations on the ovulating process of the red flagellated shrimp Acetes chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiu

    1986-12-01

    Acetes chinensis always ovulate in the dark at night. Two to five hours before ovulation, the mature oocytes change from white to orange. In the meantime, meiosis of the oocytes occurs, and reaches the metaphase just prior to ovulation. If ovarian colour change starts in the dark at night but ovulation does not start by break of dawn, ovulation will be inhibited and meiosis of the cells will be blocked.

  11. Over-expression of miR158 causes pollen abortion in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiming; Jiang, Jianxia; Hu, Ziwei; Lyu, Tianqi; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jingjing; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    We identified and cloned the two precursors of miR158 and its target gene in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, which both had high relative expression in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility, which was caused by the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage. These results first suggest the role of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in many important growth and development processes both in plants and animals by regulating the expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression. In this study, miR158, a Brassicaceae specific miRNA, was functionally characterized with regard to its role in pollen development of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Two family members of miR158 in B. campestris, namely bra-miR158a1 and bra-miR158a2, and their target gene bra027656, which encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing protein, were identified. Then, qRT-PCR analysis and GUS-reporter system revealed that both bra-miR158 and its target gene had relatively high expression levels in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility and pollen germination ratio, and the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage was also found in those deformed pollen grains, which led to pollen shrinking and collapse in later pollen development stage. These results first shed light on the importance of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

  12. Genetic structure of the threatened Hopea chinensis in the Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, N T P; Triest, L

    2016-04-29

    Hopea chinensis Hand-Mazz (synonym H. hongayensis Tardieu), is a wind and insect pollinated species. It is a threatened species known only from two locations: Quang Ninh (Vietnam) and Guangxi (China). As an endemic species, it is worth preserving both for dipterocarp biodiversity, as well as for its medicinal use and economic importance as a fine wood. The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of H. chinensis was investigated, using natural populations distributed throughout the Ba Mun and Cai Lim islands, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. A total of 65 alleles were detected. The adult allelic richness was higher than that found in juveniles and seedlings in both populations. Inbreeding was found to be significant in Ba Mun adults (F(ST) = 0.139), as well as in Cai Lim juveniles and seedlings (F(ST) = 0.283 and 0.345, respectively). Evidence of a bottleneck could be detected in the juveniles and seedlings of the Cai Lim population. A Bayesian analysis and F(ST) values suggested high genetic differentiation among the age classes of the Ba Mun and Cai Lim populations. Whereas the adults of the Ba Mun population showed evidence of inbreeding, the next generations showed more potential heterozygotes. In contrast, the adults in the Cai Lim population showed no significant inbreeding, but the observed heterozygosity in the next generation was lower than expected, suggesting significant inbreeding. The H. chinensis populations on islands are developed well and showed re-generation under good condition. Thus, the forestry protector should conserve and protect the natural spatial structure of H. chinensis on each island as their natural habitats and keep them through natural regeneration.

  13. Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness of Leymus chinensis silage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Li, X J; Zhao, M M; Yu, Z

    2014-10-01

    Five LAB strains were evaluated using the acid production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All five strains (LP1, LP2, LP3, LC1 and LC2) grew at pH 4·0, and LP1 grew at 15°C. Strains LP1, LP2 and LP3 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, whereas LC1 and LC2 were classified as Lactobacillus casei by sequencing 16S rDNA. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants (PS and CL) were added to native grass and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. for ensiling. All five isolated strains decreased the pH and ammonia nitrogen content, increased the lactic acid content and LP1, LP2 and LP3 increased the acetic content and lactic/acetic acid ratio of L. chinensis silage significantly. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants decreased the butyric acid content of the native grass silage. LP2 treatment had lower butyric acid content and ammonia nitrogen content than the other treatments. The five isolated strains improved the quality of L. chinensis silage. The five isolated strains and the two commercial inoculants were not effective in improving the fermentation quality of the native grass silage, but LP2 performed better comparatively. Significance and impact of the study: Leymus chinensis is an important grass in China and Russia, being the primary grass of the short grassland 'steppe' regions of central Asia. However, it has been difficult to make high-quality silage of this species because of low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC). Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains will be helpful for improving the silage quality of this extensively grown species. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Baseline Survey of Root-Associated Microbes of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guiling; Wilson, Iain W.; Wu, Jianqiang; Hoffman, Angela; Cheng, Junwen; Qiu, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Taxol (paclitaxel) a diterpenoid is one of the most effective anticancer drugs identified. Biosynthesis of taxol was considered restricted to the Taxus genera until Stierle et al. discovered that an endophytic fungus isolated from Taxus brevifolia could independently synthesize taxol. Little is known about the mechanism of taxol biosynthesis in microbes, but it has been speculated that its biosynthesis may differ from plants. The microbiome from the roots of Taxus chinensis have been extensively investigated with culture-dependent methods to identify taxol synthesizing microbes, but not using culture independent methods.,Using bar-coded high-throughput sequencing in combination with a metagenomics approach, we surveyed the microbial diversity and gene composition of the root-associated microbiomefrom Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. High-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed 187 fungal OTUs which is higher than any previously reported fungal number identified with the culture-dependent method, suggesting that T. chinensis roots harbor novel and diverse fungi. Some operational taxonomic units (OTU) identified were identical to reported microbe strains possessing the ability to synthesis taxol and several genes previously associated with taxol biosynthesis were identified through metagenomics analysis. PMID:25821956

  15. Baseline survey of root-associated microbes of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Liu, Hongwei; Sun, Guiling; Wilson, Iain W; Wu, Jianqiang; Hoffman, Angela; Cheng, Junwen; Qiu, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Taxol (paclitaxel) a diterpenoid is one of the most effective anticancer drugs identified. Biosynthesis of taxol was considered restricted to the Taxus genera until Stierle et al. discovered that an endophytic fungus isolated from Taxus brevifolia could independently synthesize taxol. Little is known about the mechanism of taxol biosynthesis in microbes, but it has been speculated that its biosynthesis may differ from plants. The microbiome from the roots of Taxus chinensis have been extensively investigated with culture-dependent methods to identify taxol synthesizing microbes, but not using culture independent methods.,Using bar-coded high-throughput sequencing in combination with a metagenomics approach, we surveyed the microbial diversity and gene composition of the root-associated microbiomefrom Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. High-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed 187 fungal OTUs which is higher than any previously reported fungal number identified with the culture-dependent method, suggesting that T. chinensis roots harbor novel and diverse fungi. Some operational taxonomic units (OTU) identified were identical to reported microbe strains possessing the ability to synthesis taxol and several genes previously associated with taxol biosynthesis were identified through metagenomics analysis.

  16. Mortality estimate of Chinese mystery snail, Bellamya chinensis (Reeve, 1863) in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haak, Danielle M.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species found throughout the USA. Little is known about this species’ life history or ecology, and only one population estimate has been published, for Wild Plum Lake in southeast Nebraska. A recent die-off event occurred at this same reservoir and we present a mortality estimate for this B. chinensis population using a quadrat approach. Assuming uniform distribution throughout the newly-exposed lake bed (20,900 m2), we estimate 42,845 individuals died during this event, amounting to approximately 17% of the previously-estimated population size of 253,570. Assuming uniform distribution throughout all previously-reported available habitat (48,525 m2), we estimate 99,476 individuals died, comprising 39% of the previously-reported adult population. The die-off occurred during an extreme drought event, which was coincident with abnormally hot weather. However, the exact reason of the die-off is still unclear. More monitoring of the population dynamics of B. chinensis is necessary to further our understanding of this species’ ecology.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Bark in Response to Armoured Scale Insect (Hemiberlesia lataniae) Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Hill, M. Garry; Wurms, Kirstin V.; Davy, Marcus W.; Gould, Elaine; Allan, Andrew; Mauchline, Nicola A.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ah Chee, Annette; Stannard, Kate; Storey, Roy D.; Rikkerink, Erik H.

    2015-01-01

    The kiwifruit cultivar Actinidia chinensis ‘Hort16A’ is resistant to the polyphagous armoured scale insect pest Hemiberlesia lataniae (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). A cDNA microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes selected from over 132,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was used to measure the transcriptomic profile of the A. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ canes in response to a controlled infestation of H. lataniae. After 2 days, 272 transcripts were differentially expressed. After 7 days, 5,284 (30%) transcripts were differentially expressed. The transcripts were grouped into 22 major functional categories using MapMan software. After 7 days, transcripts associated with photosynthesis (photosystem II) were significantly down-regulated, while those associated with secondary metabolism were significantly up-regulated. A total of 643 transcripts associated with response to stress were differentially expressed. This included biotic stress-related transcripts orthologous with pathogenesis related proteins, the phenylpropanoid pathway, NBS-LRR (R) genes, and receptor-like kinase–leucine rich repeat signalling proteins. While transcriptional studies are not conclusive in their own right, results were suggestive of a defence response involving both ETI and PTI, with predominance of the SA signalling pathway. Exogenous application of an SA-mimic decreased H. lataniae growth on A. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ plants in two laboratory experiments. PMID:26571404

  18. Micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with MEEKC for quantitative analysis of lignans in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus using molecular sieve TS-1 as a sorbent.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chu; Wei, Mengmeng; Wang, Shan; Zheng, Liqiong; He, Zheng; Cao, Jun; Yan, Jizhong

    2017-09-15

    A simple and effective method was developed for determining lignans in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus by using a micro-matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) technique coupled with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC). Molecular sieve, TS-1, was applied as a solid supporting material in micro MSPD extraction for the first time. Parameters that affect extraction efficiency, such as type of dispersant, mass ratio of the sample to the dispersant, grinding time, elution solvent and volume were optimized. The optimal extraction conditions involve dispersing 25mg of powdered Schisandrae samples with 50mg of TS-1 by a mortar and pestle. A grinding time of 150s was adopted. The blend was then transferred to a solid-phase extraction cartridge and the target analytes were eluted with 500μL of methanol. Moreover, several parameters affecting MEEKC separation were studied, including the type of oil, SDS concentration, type and concentration of cosurfactant, and concentration of organic modifier. A satisfactory linearity (R>0.9998) was obtained, and the calculated limits of quantitation were less than 2.77μg/mL. Finally, the micro MSPD-MEEKC method was successfully applied to the analysis of lignans in complex Schisandrae fructus samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An in vitro AChE inhibition assay combined with UF-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS approach for screening and characterizing of AChE inhibitors from roots of Coptis chinensis Franch.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hengqiang; Zhou, Siduo; Zhang, Minmin; Feng, Jinhong; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Daijie; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao

    2016-02-20

    In this study, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition assay based on microplate reader combined with ultrafiltration high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass (UF-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS) was developed for the rapid screening and identification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) from roots of Coptis chinensis Franch. Incubation conditions such as enzyme concentration, incubation time, incubation temperature and co-solvent was optimized so as to get better screening results. Five alkaloids including columbamine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, palmatine and berberine were found with AChE inhibition activity in the 80% ethanol extract of C. chinensis Franch. The screened compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-TOF/MS compared with the reference stands and literatures. The screened results were verified by in vitro AChE inhibition assays, palmatine showed the best AChE inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 36.6μM among the five compounds. Results of the present study indicated that the combinative method using in vitro AChE inhibition assay and UF-HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS could be widely applied for rapid screening and identification of AChEI from complex TCM extract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Development of an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device and its application in the separation of the components from Schisandra chinensis (Turz) Baill].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingbo; Liu, Baoyue; Shan, Shibo; Ding, Yanl; Kou, Zinong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In order to meet the needs of efficient purification of products from natural resources, this paper developed an automatic vacuum liquid chromatographic device (AUTO-VLC) and applied it to the component separation of petroleum ether extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. The device was comprised of a solvent system, a 10-position distribution valve, a 3-position changes valve, dynamic axis compress chromatographic columns with three diameters, and a 10-position fraction valve. The programmable logic controller (PLC) S7- 200 was adopted to realize the automatic control and monitoring of the mobile phase changing, column selection, separation time setting and fraction collection. The separation results showed that six fractions (S1-S6) of different chemical components from 100 g Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill. petroleum ether phase were obtained by the AUTO-VLC with 150 mm diameter dynamic axis compress chromatographic column. A new method used for the VLC separation parameters screened by using multiple development TLC was developed and confirmed. The initial mobile phase of AUTO-VLC was selected by taking Rf of all the target compounds ranging from 0 to 0.45 for fist development on the TLC; gradient elution ratio was selected according to k value (the slope of the linear function of Rf value and development times on the TLC) and the resolution of target compounds; elution times (n) were calculated by the formula n ≈ ΔRf/k. A total of four compounds with the purity more than 85% and 13 other components were separated from S5 under the selected conditions for only 17 h. Therefore, the development of the automatic VLC and its method are significant to the automatic and systematic separation of traditional Chinese medicines.

  1. Investigation of the effective components of the flowers of Trollius chinensis from the perspectives of intestinal bacterial transformation and intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lina; Qiao, Shanshan; Hu, Junhong; Li, Deli; Zheng, Shiqi; Shi, Duozhi; Liu, Junxiu; Wang, Rufeng

    2017-12-01

    The flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge (Ranunculaceae), used for respiratory tract infections, mainly contain flavonoids, phenolic acids, and alkaloids; however, the effective components are debatable because of their unclear in vivo activities. This study investigates the effective components from the perspectives of biotransformation and absorption. Both single person derived- and multiple people-derived intestinal florae were used to investigate the biotransformation of aqueous extract of the flowers of T. chinensis (AEOF) at the concentrations of 15.0, 30.0, and 60.0 mg/mL, respectively, for 72 h. Both human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) monolayers and everted gut sacs were employed to evaluate the intestinal absorption of the intestinal bacterial transformed AEOF at the concentrations of 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL, respectively, for 180 min. 2″-O-β-l-Galactopyranosylorientin, orientin, vitexin, quercetin, veratric acid, proglobeflowery acid, and trolline in AEOF were not transformed by intestinal bacteria, while isoquercetin and trollioside were completely transformed. The P app values of 2″-O-β-l-galactopyranosylorientin, orientin, and vitexin calculated based on the experimental data of intestinal absorption were at the levels of 10 -5 , whereas those of veratric acid, proglobeflowery acid, and trolline were at 10 -4 . The mass ratio of flavonoids to phenolic acids to alkaloids changed from 16:10:7 to 9:12:8 before and after absorption. The dominant position of flavonoids was replaced by phenolic acids after absorption. In addition to flavonoids which are usually considered as the dominant effective ones, phenolic acids and alkaloids should be also very important for the efficacy of these flowers.

  2. Anti-fibrotic effects of Cuscuta chinensis with in vitro hepatic stellate cells and a thioacetamide-induced experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Seoub; Koppula, Sushruta; Yum, Mun Jeong; Shin, Gwang Mo; Chae, Yun Jin; Hong, Seok Min; Lee, Jae Dong; Song, MinDong

    2017-12-01

    Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae) has been used as a traditional herbal remedy for treating liver and kidney disorders. Anti-fibrotic effects of C. chinensis extract (CCE) in cellular and experimental animal models were investigated. HSC-T6 cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis were analysed using MTT assay, flow cytometry and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining techniques. Thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis model was established using Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10). Control, TAA, CCE 10 (TAA with CCE 10 mg/kg), CCE 100 (TAA with CCE 100 mg/kg) and silymarin (TAA with silymarin 50 mg/kg). Fibrosis was induced by TAA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) twice per week for 13 weeks. CCE and silymarin were administered orally two times per week from the 7th to 13th week. Fibrotic related gene expression (α-SMA, Col1α1 and TGF-β1) was measured by RT-PCR. Serum biomarkers, glutathione (GSH) and hydroxyproline were estimated by spectrophotometer using commercial kits. CCE (0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL) and silymarin (0.05 mg/mL) treatment significantly (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) induced apoptosis (11.56%, 17.52% for CCE; 16.50% for silymarin, respectively) in activated HSC-T6 cells, compared with control group (7.26%). Further, rat primary HSCs showed changes in morphology with CCE 0.1 mg/mL treatment. In in vivo studies, CCE (10 and 100 mg/kg) treatment ameliorated the TAA-induced altered levels of serum biomarkers, fibrotic related gene expression, GSH, hydroxyproline significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) and rescued the histopathological changes. CCE can be developed as a potential agent in the treatment of hepatofibrosis.

  3. Transcriptome Exploration in Leymus chinensis under Saline-Alkaline Treatment Using 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yepeng; Wang, Fawei; Wang, Nan; Dong, Yuanyuan; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Huan; Liu, Weican; Yin, Hailong; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yuan, Yanxi; Li, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Background Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. is a high saline-alkaline tolerant forage grass genus of the tribe Gramineae family, which also plays an important role in protection of natural environment. To date, little is known about the saline-alkaline tolerance of L. chinensis on the molecular level. To better understand the molecular mechanism of saline-alkaline tolerance in L. chinensis, 454 pyrosequencing was used for the transcriptome study. Results We used Roche-454 massive parallel pyrosequencing technology to sequence two different cDNA libraries that were built from the two samples of control and under saline-alkaline treatment (optimal stress concentration-Hoagland solution with 100 mM NaCl and 200 mM NaHCO3). A total of 363,734 reads in control group and 526,267 reads in treatment group with an average length of 489 bp and 493 bp were obtained, respectively. The reads were assembled into 104,105 unigenes with MIRA sequence assemable software, among which, 73,665 unigenes were in control group, 88,016 unigenes in treatment group and 57,576 unigenes in both groups. According to the comparative expression analysis between the two groups with the threshold of “log2 Ratio ≥1”, there were 36,497 up-regulated unegenes and 18,218 down-regulated unigenes predicted to be the differentially expressed genes. After gene annotation and pathway enrichment analysis, most of them were involved in stress and tolerant function, signal transduction, energy production and conversion, and inorganic ion transport. Furthermore, 16 of these differentially expressed genes were selected for real-time PCR validation, and they were successfully confirmed with the results of 454 pyrosequencing. Conclusions This work is the first time to study the transcriptome of L. chinensis under saline-alkaline treatment based on the 454-FLX massively parallel DNA sequencing platform. It also deepened studies on molecular mechanisms of saline-alkaline in L. chinensis, and constituted a

  4. Rhizome severing increases root lifespan of Leymus chinensis in a typical steppe of Inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wenming; Xun, Fen; Li, Yang; Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Linghao

    2010-08-12

    Root lifespan is an important trait that determines plants' ability to acquire and conserve soil resources. There have been several studies investigating characteristics of root lifespan of both woody and herbaceous species. However, most of the studies have focused on non-clonal plants, and there have been little data on root lifespan for clonal plants that occur widely in temperate grasslands. We investigated the effects of rhizome severing on overall root lifespan of Leymus chinensis, a clonal, dominant grass species in the temperate steppe in northern China, in a 2-year field study using modified rhizotron technique. More specifically, we investigated the effects of rhizome severing on root lifespan of roots born in different seasons and distributed at different soil depths. Rhizome severing led to an increase in the overall root lifespan from 81 to 103 days. The increase in root lifespan exhibited spatial and temporal characteristics such that it increased lifespan for roots distributed in the top two soil layers and for roots born in summer and spring, but it had no effect on lifespan of roots in the deep soil layer and born in autumn. We also examined the effect of rhizome severing on carbohydrate and N contents in roots, and found that root carbohydrate and N contents were not affected by rhizome severing. Further, we found that root lifespan of Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida, two dominant, non-clonal species in the temperate steppe, was significantly longer (118 d) than that of L. chinensis (81 d), and this value became comparable to that of L. chinensis under rhizome severing (103 d). We found that root lifespan in dominant, clonal L. chinensis was shorter than for the dominant, non-clonal species of S. krylovii and A. frigida. There was a substantial increase in the root lifespan of L. chinensis in response to severing their rhizomes, and this increase in root lifespan exhibited temporal and spatial characteristics. These findings suggest that the

  5. Rhizome Severing Increases Root Lifespan of Leymus chinensis in a Typical Steppe of Inner Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Wenming; Xun, Fen; Li, Yang; Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Linghao

    2010-01-01

    Background Root lifespan is an important trait that determines plants' ability to acquire and conserve soil resources. There have been several studies investigating characteristics of root lifespan of both woody and herbaceous species. However, most of the studies have focused on non-clonal plants, and there have been little data on root lifespan for clonal plants that occur widely in temperate grasslands. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the effects of rhizome severing on overall root lifespan of Leymus chinensis, a clonal, dominant grass species in the temperate steppe in northern China, in a 2-year field study using modified rhizotron technique. More specifically, we investigated the effects of rhizome severing on root lifespan of roots born in different seasons and distributed at different soil depths. Rhizome severing led to an increase in the overall root lifespan from 81 to 103 days. The increase in root lifespan exhibited spatial and temporal characteristics such that it increased lifespan for roots distributed in the top two soil layers and for roots born in summer and spring, but it had no effect on lifespan of roots in the deep soil layer and born in autumn. We also examined the effect of rhizome severing on carbohydrate and N contents in roots, and found that root carbohydrate and N contents were not affected by rhizome severing. Further, we found that root lifespan of Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida, two dominant, non-clonal species in the temperate steppe, was significantly longer (118 d) than that of L. chinensis (81 d), and this value became comparable to that of L. chinensis under rhizome severing (103 d). Conclusions/Significance We found that root lifespan in dominant, clonal L. chinensis was shorter than for the dominant, non-clonal species of S. krylovii and A. frigida. There was a substantial increase in the root lifespan of L. chinensis in response to severing their rhizomes, and this increase in root lifespan exhibited

  6. Comprehensive transcriptome profiling reveals long noncoding RNA expression and alternative splicing regulation during fruit development and ripening in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic and transcriptomic data on kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) in public databases are very limited despite its nutritional and economic value. Previously, we have constructed and sequenced nine fruit RNA-Seq libraries of A. chinensis cv. 'Hongyang' at immature, mature, and postharvest ripening...

  7. DNA barcoding implicates 23 species and four orders as potential pollinators of Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, M-M; Lim, C-L; Wilson, J-J

    2015-08-01

    Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) is of ecological and economic importance as a high-risk invasive species and a traditional medicinal herb. However, the insects associated with P. chinensis pollination have received scant attention. As a widespread invasive plant we would expect P. chinensis to be associated with a diverse group of insect pollinators, but lack of taxonomic identification capacity is an impediment to confirm this expectation. In the present study we aimed to elucidate the insect pollinators of P. chinensis in peninsular Malaysia using DNA barcoding. Forty flower visitors, representing the range of morphological diversity observed, were captured at flowers at Ulu Kali, Pahang, Malaysia. Using Automated Barcode Gap Discovery, 17 morphospecies were assigned to 23 species representing at least ten families and four orders. Using the DNA barcode library (BOLD) 30% of the species could be assigned a species name, and 70% could be assigned a genus name. The insects visiting P. chinensis were broadly similar to those previously reported as visiting Persicaria japonica, including honey bees (Apis), droneflies (Eristalis), blowflies (Lucilia) and potter wasps (Eumedes), but also included thrips and ants.

  8. Screening of plant extracts for anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Guo; Yi, Yang-Lei; Ling, Fei; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    With the aim of finding natural anthelmintic agents against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus), 26 plants were screened for antiparasitic properties using in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay. The results showed that Caesalpinia sappan, Lysima chiachristinae, Cuscuta chinensis, Artemisia argyi, and Eupatorium fortunei were found to have 100% anthelmintic efficacy at 125, 150, 225, 300, and 500 mg L(-1) after 48 h of exposure. Crude extract of the five plants were further partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water to obtain anthelmintically active fractions with various polarity. Among these fractions tested, the ethyl acetate extract of L. chiachristinae was found to be the most effective with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 5.1 mg/L after 48 h of exposure. This was followed by ethyl acetate extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 8.5 mg L(-1)), chloroform extracts of C. sappan (48 h-EC50 = 15.6 mg L(-1)), methanol extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 15.9 mg L(-1)), and chloroform and petroleum ether extract of L. chiachristinae (EC50 values of 17.2 and 21.1 mg/L, respectively), suggesting that these plants, as well as the active fractions, provide potential sources of botanic drugs for the control of D. intermedius in aquaculture.

  9. The EDTA effect on phytoextraction of single and combined metals-contaminated soils using rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis).

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2005-08-01

    Rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis), a potential phytoextraction plant, can accumulate high concentrations of Cd from metal-contaminated soils. The soils used in this study were artificially added with different metals including (1) CK: original soil, (2) Cd-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1), (3) Zn-treated soil: 100 mg Zn kg(-1), (4) Pb-treated soil: 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), (5) Cd-Zn-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1) and 100 mg Zn kg(-1), (6) Cd-Pb-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1) and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), (7) Zn-Pb-treated soil: 100 mg Zn kg(-1) and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1), and (8) Cd-Zn-Pb-treated soil: 10 mg Cd kg(-1), 100 mg Zn kg(-1), and 1000 mg Pb kg(-1). Three concentrations of 2Na-EDTA solutions (0 (control), 2, and 5 mmol kg(-1) soil) were added to the different metals-treated soils to study the influence of applied EDTA on single and combined metals-contaminated soils phytoextraction using rainbow pink. The results showed that the Cd, Zn, Pb, Fe, or Mn concentrations in different metals-treated soil solutions significantly increased after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) (p<0.05). The metal concentrations in different metals-treated soils extracted by deionized water also significantly increased after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) (p<0.05). Because of the high extraction capacity of both 0.005 M DTPA (pH 5.3) and 0.05 M EDTA (pH 7.0), applying EDTA did not significantly increase the Cd, Zn, or Pb concentration in both extracts for most of the treatments. Applying EDTA solutions can significantly increase the Cd and Pb concentrations in the shoots of rainbow pink (p<0.05). However, this was not statistically significant for Zn because of the low Zn concentration added into the contaminated soils. The results from this study indicate that applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) can significantly increase the Cd, Zn, or Pb concentrations both in the soil solution or extracted using deionized water in single or combined metals-contaminated soils, thus increasing the accumulated metals concentrations in

  10. Differentiation of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta australis by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis and HPLC-UV quantitation.

    PubMed

    He, Xianghui; Yang, Wenzhi; Ye, Min; Wang, Qing; Guo, Dean

    2011-11-01

    Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta australis, the two botanical sources of the Chinese herbal medicine Tu-Si-Zi, were distinguished from each other based on qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. By HPLC‑DAD‑MS, a total of 36 compounds were characterized from these two Cuscuta species, including 14 flavonoids, 17 quinic acid derivatives, and 5 lignans. In addition, HPLC‑UV was applied to determine seven major compounds (6 flavonoids plus chlorogenic acid) in 27 batches of Tu-Si-Zi. The results revealed that the amounts of the three classes of compounds varied significantly between the species. C. australis contained more flavonoids but less quinic acid derivatives and lignans than C. chinensis. Particularly, the amounts of kaempferol and astragalin in C. australis were remarkably higher than in C. chinensis. This finding could be valuable for the quality control of Tu-Si-Zi. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Dianthus chinensis L.: The Structural Difference between Vascular Bundles in the Placenta and Ovary Wall Suggests Their Different Origin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xue-Min; Yu, Ying-Ying; Bai, Lan; Gao, Rong-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis is a perennial herbaceous plant with great ornamental, botanical, ecological, and medicinal value. The pistil of D. chinensis is composed of two fused carpels with free central placenta and two separate styles. The placenta is a columnar structure extending about two-thirds the length of the maturing fruit, which is typical of the Caryophyllaceous. Traditionally, free central placenta is thought to have evolved from axial placenta by septal disappearance, and axial placenta to have occurred through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placenta. However, the traditional opinion is becoming more and more inconsistent with the new data gained in recent research of angiosperm systematics. To clarify the origin of D. chinensis pistil, the present anatomical study was carried out. The results show that the vascular system of placenta is independent to that of the ovary wall in D. chinensis. Moreover, in the central part of placenta there are one or two amphicribral bundles, and correspondingly numerous ones in the pistil which supply the ovules/seeds. It is obvious that the central amphicribral bundles in placenta are comparable to the counterparts in branches but not to those in leaves or their derivatives. Therefore, it is reasonable to deduce that the placenta of D. chinensis was not derived from conduplicate carpels through fusion of collateral vascular bundles, and actually a floral axis with ovules/seeds laterally adhering. On the contrary, the ovary wall was the lateral appendages of the floral axis. The result of the present study is completely in agreement with Unifying Theory, in which the placenta is taken as an ovule-bearing branch. Except for D. chinensis, the similar vascular organization has been observed in placenta of numerous isolated taxa. But till now, it is uncertain that whether this vascular organization pattern is popular in the whole angiosperms or not. More intensive and extensive investigations are needed. PMID

  12. Dianthus chinensis L.: The Structural Difference between Vascular Bundles in the Placenta and Ovary Wall Suggests Their Different Origin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xue-Min; Yu, Ying-Ying; Bai, Lan; Gao, Rong-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis is a perennial herbaceous plant with great ornamental, botanical, ecological, and medicinal value. The pistil of D. chinensis is composed of two fused carpels with free central placenta and two separate styles. The placenta is a columnar structure extending about two-thirds the length of the maturing fruit, which is typical of the Caryophyllaceous. Traditionally, free central placenta is thought to have evolved from axial placenta by septal disappearance, and axial placenta to have occurred through fusion of conduplicate carpels with marginal placenta. However, the traditional opinion is becoming more and more inconsistent with the new data gained in recent research of angiosperm systematics. To clarify the origin of D. chinensis pistil, the present anatomical study was carried out. The results show that the vascular system of placenta is independent to that of the ovary wall in D. chinensis . Moreover, in the central part of placenta there are one or two amphicribral bundles, and correspondingly numerous ones in the pistil which supply the ovules/seeds. It is obvious that the central amphicribral bundles in placenta are comparable to the counterparts in branches but not to those in leaves or their derivatives. Therefore, it is reasonable to deduce that the placenta of D. chinensis was not derived from conduplicate carpels through fusion of collateral vascular bundles, and actually a floral axis with ovules/seeds laterally adhering. On the contrary, the ovary wall was the lateral appendages of the floral axis. The result of the present study is completely in agreement with Unifying Theory, in which the placenta is taken as an ovule-bearing branch. Except for D. chinensis , the similar vascular organization has been observed in placenta of numerous isolated taxa. But till now, it is uncertain that whether this vascular organization pattern is popular in the whole angiosperms or not. More intensive and extensive investigations are needed.

  13. Lack of gender effect on the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in Fenneropenaeus chinensis after intramuscular administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Chang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Wenting; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao

    2015-04-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis, an economically important shrimp species, currently suffers from epizootic diseases due to high density stocking and bacterial infections. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used to treat various systemic bacterial infections in shrimp farming. In the present study, the effect of gender on pharmacokinetics of OTC in F. chinensis was investigated. The OTC concentrations in hemolymph of shrimp after single intramuscular administration (75 mg OTC per kg body weight) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and best described with a two-compartment open model which is characterized by a short elimination half-life, low clearance, and a relatively large apparent volume of distribution. The pharmacokinetic equations were C t = 58.54e-0.38 t + 11.67e-0.04 t for females; and C t = 27.94e-0.28 t + 14.87e-0.04 t for males. The distribution and elimination half-lives of OTC were 1.82 and 19.58 h, respectively, in females and 2.50 and 16.11 h, respectively, in males at 22°C. The areas under the drug concentration curve were 480 mg L-1 h-1 in females and 430 mg L-1 h-1 in males. The total body clearance of the drug was 157.11 mL kg-1 h-1 in females and 172.47 mL kg-1 h-1 in males. The apparent volume distribution was 4.44 in females and 4.01 L kg-1 in males. There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between female and male shrimps, indicating that there is no need to consider the gender effect in clinical use of OTC in F. chinensis farming.

  14. [Research on bacteria microecology in root rot rhizosphere soil of Coptis chinensis produced in Shizhu city].

    PubMed

    Song, Xu-Hong; Wang, Yu; Li, Long-Yun; Tan, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Illumina Hiseq 2500 high-throughput sequencing platform was used to study the bacteria richness and diversity, the soil enzyme activities, nutrients in unplanted soil, root-rot and healthy rhizophere soil of Coptis chinensis for deeply discussing the mechanism of the root-rot of C. chinensis. The high-throughput sequencing result showed that the artificial cultivation effected the bacteria community richness and diversity. The bacteria community richness in healthy and diseased rhizosphere soil showed significant lower than that of in unplanted soil (P<0.05) and declined bacteria diversity. The bacteria community richness in root-rot rhizosphere soil increased significantly than that of health and unplanted soil and the diversity was lower significant than that of unplanted soil (P<0.05). The results of soil nutrients and enzyme activities detected that the pH value, available phosphorus and urease activity decreased and the sucrase activity increased significantly (P<0.05). The content of organic carbon and alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen the catalase and urease activity in root rot soil samples was significantly lower than that of healthy soil samples (P<0.05). However, the contents of available phosphorus and available potassium were significantly in root-rot sample higher than that of healthy soil samples (P<0.05). Comprehensive analysis showed that the artificial cultivation declined the bacteria community richness and diversity. The bacteria community richness decreased significantly and the decreased diversity may be the cause of the root-rot. Meanwhile, the decrease of carbon and the catalase activity may be another cause of the root-rot in C. chinensis produced in Shizhu city, Chongqing province. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Two new lignans from Saururus chinensis and their DGAT inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Tuo, Zhen-Dong; Qi, Shi-Zhou; Xing, Shan-Shan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Chen, Jian-Guang; Cui, Long

    2015-03-01

    Two new lignans were isolated from Saururus chinensis, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and physico-chemical analyses. All the isolates were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against DGAT1 and DGAT2. Among them, compounds 2, 3, 5 and 7 were found to exhibit selective inhibitory activity on DGAT1 with IC50 values ranging from 44.3±1.5 to 87.5±1.3μM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Triterpenoid Saponins from the Seeds of Aesculus chinensis and Their Cytotoxicities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin-Tang; Chen, Shi-Tao; Guo, Cong; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Cui, Wen-Jin; Wang, Shu-Hui; Deng, Zhe; Chen, Chang; Chen, Sha; Zhang, Jun; Liu, An

    2018-02-01

    Six new triterpenoid saponins, aesculusosides A-F (1-6), together with 19 known ones, were isolated from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis. The new structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with previously reported data. Some of the isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7 cell line by an MTT assay, and compounds 15, 16, 19, and 23-25 exhibited inhibitory activities against MCF-7 with IC 50 values ranging from 7.1 to 31.3 μM.

  17. Coptis Chinensis affects the function of glioma cells through the down-regulation of phosphorylation of STAT3 by reducing HDAC3.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangan; Ni, Lulu; Li, Bing; Wang, Mingdeng; Ding, Zhemin; Xiong, Chunrong; Lu, Xiaojie

    2017-12-06

    Glioma remains the most common cause of brain cancer-related mortality. Glioma accounts for 50-60% of brain cancer. Due to their low toxicity and infrequent side effects, traditional herbs have been increasingly popular. Coptis Chinensis is commonly used in cancer treatment in combination with other Chinese Medicine herbs. However, little is known about its biological functions and mechanisms in glioma cells. In this study, the anti-glioma cell effect of Coptis Chinensis was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, plate clone test, scratch tests, flow cytometry, western blotting and a glioma xenograft tumor model. The results showed that Coptis Chinensis significantly suppressed glioma cell proliferation, tumor formation, migration and tumor growth, and prolonged the survival time of glioma cell-bearing mice. The flow cytometry result showed that Coptis Chinensis induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioma cells. Western blotting showed that Coptis Chinensis down-regulated the Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels and reduced the expression of Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and caspase 3. Coptis Chinensis can inhibit various aspects of glioma cell functions. This study provides favorable scientific evidence for the potential use of natural products such as Coptis Chinensis in the clinical treatment of patients with glioma.

  18. [Effects of water level fluctuation on the inter- and intra-specific relationships between Wedelia trilobata and W. chinensis].

    PubMed

    Bu, Xiang Qi; Liu, Lin; Mu, Ya Nan; Guan, Yu Ting; Li, Hong Li; Yu, Fei Hai

    2017-03-18

    A controlled greenhouse experiment was designed with the invasive Wedelia trilobata and native W. chinensis. Three water level fluctuation treatments (no fluctuation, change pattern by 15 cm-0 cm-15 cm, change pattern by 0 cm-15 cm-0 cm) were crossed with five plant arrangement treatments (an individual invasive plant per pot, an individual native plant per pot, 6 invasive plants per pot, 6 native plants per pot, six plants per pot with three invasive and three native plants) to explore the effects of water level fluctuation on inter- and intra-specific relationships between W. trilobata and W. chinensis. The results showed that water level fluctuation decreased signifi-cantly the total biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, root biomass, stem length, number of nodes, number of leaves and leaf area of W. trilobata and W. chinensis. Meantime it had significant effects on the inter- and intra-specific competition between W. trilobata and W. chinensis. Water level fluctuation changed the inter- and intra-specific competition of W. trilobata. It indicated that W. trilobata was more sensitive to water level fluctuation with stronger adaptability.

  19. Scanning electron microscopy studies of antennal sensilla of bruchid beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei; Zhang, Guo-Na; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2009-04-01

    The bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and C. maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), are important stored-product insects of stored legume seeds. In this study, the external morphologies of the antennal sensilla on the antennae of both female and male adults of these two species were described using scanning electron microscopy. Antennae of both species are made up of the scape, pedicel, and nine segments of flagellomeres. Antennae of female and male C. maculatus and female of C. chinensis are serrate in shape, while those of male C. chinensis are pectinate. Eight morphological sensilla types were recorded in both sexes, including Böhm bristles (BB), two types of sensilla trichoid (ST1, ST2), sensilla chaetica (SC), two types of sensilla basiconic (SB1, SB2), grooved pegs (GP), and sensilla cavity (SCa). The number of ST1 and SB1 of the male were significantly greater than those of the female of C. chinensis, and the number of ST2 and SB1 of the male were significantly more abundant than those of the female of C. maculatus. The possible functions of the above sensilla types are discussed in light of previously published literature.

  20. Genetic variation and evolutionary demography of Fenneropenaeus chinensis populations, as revealed by the analysis of mitochondrial control region sequences

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation and evolutionary demography of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis were investigated using sequence data of the complete mitochondrial control region (CR). Fragments of 993 bp of the CR were sequenced for 93 individuals from five localities over most of the species' range in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. There were 84 variable sites defining 68 haplotypes. Haplotype diversity levels were very high (0.95 ± 0.03-0.99 ± 0.02) in F. chinensis populations, whereas those of nucleotide diversity were moderate to low (0.66 ± 0.36%-0.84 ± 0.46%). Analysis of molecular variance and conventional population statistics (FST ) revealed no significant genetic structure throughout the range of F. chinensis. Mismatch distribution, estimates of population parameters and neutrality tests revealed that the significant fluctuations and shallow coalescence of mtDNA genealogies observed were coincident with estimated demographic parameters and neutrality tests, in implying important past-population size fluctuations or range expansion. Isolation with Migration (IM) coalescence results suggest that F. chinensis, distributed along the coasts of northern China and the Korean Peninsula (about 1000 km apart), diverged recently, the estimated time-split being 12,800 (7,400-18,600) years ago. PMID:21637498

  1. [Physiological and biochemical changes of seeds of Coptis chinensis Franch. in stratification and the effect of ABA treatment].

    PubMed

    Li, X; Chen, Y; Zhan, J

    1997-05-01

    The seeds of Coptis chinensis need stratification to break dormancy. In this paper the changes of enzyme activities DNA contents and protein contents in stratification under refrigeration and outdoor temperature conditions, as well as the influence of ABA treatment were studied.

  2. [Effects of exogenous AsA and GSH on the growth of Dianthus chinensis seedlings exposed to Cd].

    PubMed

    Ding, Ji-Jun; Liu, Shi-Liang; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Li, Li

    2014-02-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse condition to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg x L(-1)) of exogenous AsA, GSH on Dianthus chinensis seedlings which were stressed by 50 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the soil. The results indicated that 50 mg x kg(-1) of Cd significantly inhibited the growth of D. chinensis seedlings. An appropriate concentration of exogenous AsA significantly improved the biomass, plant height, tiller number, GAT and APX activities, and AsA and GSH contents. However, with the increase of exogenous AsA concentration, the ameliorating effect decreased and prooxidant effect occurred. Exogenous GSH could replenish the non-enzymatic antioxidants of D. chinensis seedlings, but the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities were relatively slight. The main mechanisms of GSH to alleviate Cd toxicity might be promoting root PCs synthesis, thereby reducing the Cd concentration in the seedlings. Both 35-45 mg x L(-1) exogenous AsA and 55-65 mg x L(-1) exogenous GSH could alleviate the Cd toxicity on D. chinensis seedlings, and the former was superior to the latter.

  3. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.

  4. Comparative RNA-seq analysis of transcriptome dynamics during petal development in Rosa chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Wan, Huihua; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Yang, Weiru; Pan, Huitang; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-01-01

    The developmental process that produces the ornate petals of the China rose (Rosa chinensis) is complex and is thought to depend on the balanced expression of a functionally diverse array of genes; however, the molecular basis of rose petal development is largely unknown. Here, petal growth of the R. chinensis cultivar ‘Old Blush’ was divided into four developmental stages, and RNA-seq technology was used to analyse the dynamic changes in transcription that occur as development progresses. In total, 598 million clean reads and 61,456 successfully annotated unigenes were obtained. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis comparing the transcriptomes of the developmental stages resulted in the identification of several potential candidate genes involved in petal development. DEGs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, petal expansion, and phytohormone pathways were considered in depth, in addition to several candidate transcription factors. These results lay a foundation for future studies on the regulatory mechanisms underlying rose petal development and may be used in molecular breeding programs aimed at generating ornamental rose lines with desirable traits. PMID:28225056

  5. Effects of dietary vitamin C on the immune function of shrimps, Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiqing; Li, Aijie; Cheung, Siugin

    2002-04-01

    Prepared in this experiment were six groups of diets, i.e. VC0, VC1, VC2, VC3, VC4 and VC5 with the contents of vitamin C (VCmg(100 g)-1 diet) of 0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 respectively. It was found that vitamin C increased the concentrations of immunoglobulin-like (IgG-like, IgA-like and IgM-like) substances in the serum of Penaeus chinensis after a feeding period of 3 weeks. The differences among groups were significant (P<0.01), but there was no difference in the contents of complement3-like and complement4-like substances in the serum (P>0.05). Phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the serum of VC3 group shrimps was higher than that of VC0 and other groups, but no significant difference was observed between VC0 group and other groups. Furthermore, bactericidal activity of the serum to Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimps fed with the VC1 diet was higher than that in the other groups (P<0.01), while no difference was demonstrated among all groups for the bactericidal activity to Vibrio alginolyticus (P>0.05). It is, therefore, suggested that vitamin C (100 400 mg(100 g)-1 diets) could be used as an immunostimulant of P. chinensis.

  6. Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries

    PubMed Central

    Clearwater, Michael J.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ong, Sam Eng Chye; Blattmann, Peter; Thorp, T. Grant

    2012-01-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’) exhibiting a pre-harvest ‘shrivel’ disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labelling and mass balance experiments indicated that the xylem and phloem were both functional and contributed approximately equally to the fruit water supply during this stage of development. The modelled fruit water balance was dominated by transpiration, with net water loss under high vapour pressure deficit (Da) conditions in California, but a net gain under cooler New Zealand conditions. Direct measurement of pedicel sap flow under controlled conditions confirmed inward flows in both the phloem and xylem under conditions of both low and high Da. Phloem flows were required for growth, with gradual recovery after a step increase in Da. Xylem flows alone were unable to support growth, but did supply transpiration and were responsive to Da-induced pressure fluctuations. The results suggest that the shrivel disorder was a consequence of a high fruit transpiration rate, and that the perception of complete loss or reversal of inward xylem flows in ripening fruits should be re-examined. PMID:22155631

  7. A New Alien Invasive Longhorn Beetle, Xylotrechus chinensis (Cerambycidae), Is Infesting Mulberries in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Sarto I Monteys, Víctor; Torras I Tutusaus, Glòria

    2018-05-09

    In this paper, the invasion of a new alien beetle species to Europe, the longhorn Xylotrechus chinensis (Chevrolat) (Cerambycidae), originating from East Asia, is revealed. It has settled in Catalonia (Spain), occupying at present an area of at least 44.1 km², where it has been shown to severely infest (ca. 10 to 45%) and eventually kill mulberry trees in private and public grounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate its impact and provide new significant insights into its life history, seasonality, reproductive capacity (females produce an average of 83.4 ± 9.02 eggs) and the type of damage produced to mulberries. Such damage was thoroughly described to facilitate inspection by others. At least in laboratory conditions, X. chinensis has not used common grape vines as an alternative hostplant. Both plants, mulberries and grape vines, are important in Catalonia and Spain, the former providing shade and ornament to many streets and avenues, and the latter having great economic significance in Mediterranean wine production areas. Possible control methods to hinder its spread are suggested and one local wasp, Stephanus serrator (Stephanidae), was identified as a likely parasitoid. We believe the risk of this beetle widely spreading in Europe is very real.

  8. Transcriptome and gene expression analysis during flower blooming in Rosa chinensis 'Pallida'.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Min; Jian, Hongying; Baudino, Sylvie; Caissard, Jean-Claude; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Li, Shubin; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Ningning; Qiu, Xianqin; Wang, Qigang; Tang, Kaixue

    2014-04-25

    Rosa chinensis 'Pallida' (Rosa L.) is one of the most important ancient rose cultivars originating from China. It contributed the 'tea scent' trait to modern roses. However, little information is available on the gene regulatory networks involved in scent biosynthesis and metabolism in Rosa. In this study, the transcriptome of R. chinensis 'Pallida' petals at different developmental stages, from flower buds to senescent flowers, was investigated using Illumina sequencing technology. De novo assembly generated 89,614 clusters with an average length of 428bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known proteins, 62.9% of total clusters were annotated. Out of these annotated transcripts, 25,705 and 37,159 sequences were assigned to gene ontology and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. The dataset provides information on transcripts putatively associated with known scent metabolic pathways. Digital gene expression (DGE) was obtained using RNA samples from flower bud, open flower and senescent flower stages. Comparative DGE and quantitative real time PCR permitted the identification of five transcripts encoding proteins putatively associated with scent biosynthesis in roses. The study provides a foundation for scent-related gene discovery in roses. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  10. Screening white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-resistant molecular markers from Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingying; Meng, Xianhong; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Wang, Qingyin; Zheng, Yongyun

    2017-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-resistant molecular markers were screened from the selectively bred new variety `Huanghai No. 2' of Fenneropenaeus chinensis using unlabeled-probe high-resolution melting (HRM) technique. After the artificial infection with WSSV, the first 96 dead shrimps and the last 96 surviving shrimps were collected, representing WSSV-susceptible and -resistant populations, respectively. The genotypes at well-developed 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) loci were obtained. As revealed in the Chi-square test, 3 SNPs, genotype A/A of contig C364-89AT, genotype A/A of C2635-527CA and genotype C/T of contig C12355-592CT, were positively correlated with disease-resistance traits. Other 2 SNPs, genotype G/G of contig C283-145AG and genotype C/C of contig C12355-592CT, were negatively correlated. Moreover, analysis with BlastX program for disease-resistant SNPs indicated that 3 contigs, Contig283, Contig364 and Contig12355, matched to the functional genes of effector caspase of Penaeus monodon, peptide transporter family 1-like protein, and 40S ribosomal protein S2 of Perca flavescens with high sequence similarity. The results will be helpful to provide theoretical and technical supports for molecular marker-assisted selective breeding of F. chinensis.

  11. Morphological beak differences of loliginid squid, Uroteuthis chinensis and Uroteuthis edulis, in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Staples, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    The mitre squid ( Uroteuthis chinensis) and the swordtip squid ( U. edulis) are Indo-Pacific cephalopod species that are abundant in the western Pacific Ocean. They are currently exploited in the East and South China Seas and make up a significant portion of the Chinese neritic squid catch. Beaks, the feeding organs of squid, are important for individual size and biomass estimation because of their high resistance to degradation in predator stomachs and consistent dimensions. In this study, 104 U. chinensis and 143 U. edulis individuals were sampled from northern South China Sea with mantle length from 70 to 260 mm and 96 to 284 mm, respectively. The results indicated that morphological beak values were greater for U. edulis, compared to U. chinensis, for upper hood length (UHL), upper crest length (UCL), upper lateral wall length (ULWL), lower crest length (LCL), and lower lateral wall length (LLWL). According to principal component analysis, UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LCL/ML, LLWL/ML and LWL/ML could represent the characteristics of beaks for U. chinensis, while UHL/ML, UCL/ML, ULWL/ML, LHL/ML, LCL/ML and LLWL/ML could represent it for U. edulis. According to Akaike's information criterion (AIC) values, a power function was the most suitable model for U. chinensis, while a linear function was the most suitable model for U. edulis. The beak variable-mantle length ratio (beak variable/mantle length) declined with the increasing of mantle length and declined sharply at the early stage of growth in both beaks and species. The ratio changed quickly after achieving the mantle length of 140 mm for U. chinensis, while the ratio changed quickly after 170 mm for U. edulis. Beaks in both species experienced sharper changes through maturity stage I to II than other maturity stages. This study gives us basic beak morphology information for U. chinensis and U. edulis in the East and South China Seas. Geometric morphological methods combined with dietary analysis should be used

  12. A manually annotated Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis (kiwifruit) genome highlights the challenges associated with draft genomes and gene prediction in plants.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, Sarah M; Crowhurst, Ross; Hilario, Elena; Nardozza, Simona; Fraser, Lena; Peng, Yongyan; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Simpson, Robert; Tahir, Jibran; Deroles, Simon C; Templeton, Kerry; Luo, Zhiwei; Davy, Marcus; Cheng, Canhong; McNeilage, Mark; Scaglione, Davide; Liu, Yifei; Zhang, Qiong; Datson, Paul; De Silva, Nihal; Gardiner, Susan E; Bassett, Heather; Chagné, David; McCallum, John; Dzierzon, Helge; Deng, Cecilia; Wang, Yen-Yi; Barron, Lorna; Manako, Kelvina; Bowen, Judith; Foster, Toshi M; Erridge, Zoe A; Tiffin, Heather; Waite, Chethi N; Davies, Kevin M; Grierson, Ella P; Laing, William A; Kirk, Rebecca; Chen, Xiuyin; Wood, Marion; Montefiori, Mirco; Brummell, David A; Schwinn, Kathy E; Catanach, Andrew; Fullerton, Christina; Li, Dawei; Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Read, Nicola; Prakash, Roneel; Hunter, Don; Zhang, Huaibi; McKenzie, Marian; Knäbel, Mareike; Harris, Alastair; Allan, Andrew C; Gleave, Andrew; Chen, Angela; Janssen, Bart J; Plunkett, Blue; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Voogd, Charlotte; Leif, Davin; Lafferty, Declan; Souleyre, Edwige J F; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Gambi, Francesco; Hanley, Jenny; Yao, Jia-Long; Cheung, Joey; David, Karine M; Warren, Ben; Marsh, Ken; Snowden, Kimberley C; Lin-Wang, Kui; Brian, Lara; Martinez-Sanchez, Marcela; Wang, Mindy; Ileperuma, Nadeesha; Macnee, Nikolai; Campin, Robert; McAtee, Peter; Drummond, Revel S M; Espley, Richard V; Ireland, Hilary S; Wu, Rongmei; Atkinson, Ross G; Karunairetnam, Sakuntala; Bulley, Sean; Chunkath, Shayhan; Hanley, Zac; Storey, Roy; Thrimawithana, Amali H; Thomson, Susan; David, Charles; Testolin, Raffaele; Huang, Hongwen; Hellens, Roger P; Schaffer, Robert J

    2018-04-16

    Most published genome sequences are drafts, and most are dominated by computational gene prediction. Draft genomes typically incorporate considerable sequence data that are not assigned to chromosomes, and predicted genes without quality confidence measures. The current Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) 'Hongyang' draft genome has 164 Mb of sequences unassigned to pseudo-chromosomes, and omissions have been identified in the gene models. A second genome of an A. chinensis (genotype Red5) was fully sequenced. This new sequence resulted in a 554.0 Mb assembly with all but 6 Mb assigned to pseudo-chromosomes. Pseudo-chromosomal comparisons showed a considerable number of translocation events have occurred following a whole genome duplication (WGD) event some consistent with centromeric Robertsonian-like translocations. RNA sequencing data from 12 tissues and ab initio analysis informed a genome-wide manual annotation, using the WebApollo tool. In total, 33,044 gene loci represented by 33,123 isoforms were identified, named and tagged for quality of evidential support. Of these 3114 (9.4%) were identical to a protein within 'Hongyang' The Kiwifruit Information Resource (KIR v2). Some proportion of the differences will be varietal polymorphisms. However, as most computationally predicted Red5 models required manual re-annotation this proportion is expected to be small. The quality of the new gene models was tested by fully sequencing 550 cloned 'Hort16A' cDNAs and comparing with the predicted protein models for Red5 and both the original 'Hongyang' assembly and the revised annotation from KIR v2. Only 48.9% and 63.5% of the cDNAs had a match with 90% identity or better to the original and revised 'Hongyang' annotation, respectively, compared with 90.9% to the Red5 models. Our study highlights the need to take a cautious approach to draft genomes and computationally predicted genes. Our use of the manual annotation tool WebApollo facilitated manual checking and

  13. ¹H-NMR-Based Metabonomics of the Protective Effect of Coptis chinensis and Berberine on Cinnabar-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Su, Guangyue; Wang, Haifeng; Gao, Yuxian; Chen, Gang; Pei, Yuehu; Bai, Jiao

    2017-11-02

    Coptis chinensis Franch has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases for over two thousand years. Berberine (BN), an isoquinoline alkaloid, is the main component of Coptis chinensis . The pharmacological basis for its therapeutic effects, which include hepatoprotective effects on liver injuries, has been studied intensively, yet the therapy of liver injuries and underlying mechanism remain unclear. We investigated the detoxification mechanism of Coptis chinensis and berberine using metabolomics of urine and serum in the present study. After the treatment with Coptis chinensis and berberine, compared with the cinnabar group, Coptis chinensis and berberine can regulate the concentration of the endogenous metabolites. PLS-DA score plots demonstrated that the urine and serum metabolic profiles in rats of the Coptis chinensis and berberine groups were similar those of the control group, yet remarkably apart from the cinnabar group. The mechanism may be related to the endogenous metabolites including energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and metabolism of intestinal flora in rats. Meanwhile, liver and kidney histopathology examinations and serum clinical chemistry analysis verified the experimental results of metabonomics.

  14. Machine learning for the prediction of L. chinensis carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents and understanding of mechanisms underlying grassland degradation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuefen; Liang, Shuo; Zhao, Yiying; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Yuejiao

    2017-05-01

    The grasslands of Western Jilin Province in China have experienced severe degradation during the last 50 years. Radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) and support vector machines (SVM) were used to predict the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis) and explore the degree of grassland degradation using the matter-element extension model. Both RBFNN and SVM demonstrated good prediction accuracy. The results indicated that there was severe degradation, as samples were mainly concentrated in the 3rd and 4th levels. The growth of L. chinensis was shown to be limited by either nitrogen, phosphorus, or both during different stages of degradation. The soil chemistry changed noticeably as degradation aggravated, which represents a destabilization of L. chinensis community homeostasis. Soil salinization aggravates soil nutrient loss and decreases the bioavailability of soil nutrients. This, along with the destabilization of C/N, C/P and N/P ratios, weakens the photosynthetic ability and productivity of L. chinensis. This conclusion was supported by observations that L. chinensis is gradually being replaced by a Chloris virgata, Puccinellia tenuiflora and Suaeda acuminate mixed community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytoavailability of cadmium (Cd) to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in Chinese soils: a model to evaluate the impact of soil Cd pollution on potential dietary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg-1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production.

  16. Phytoavailability of Cadmium (Cd) to Pak Choi (Brassica chinensis L.) Grown in Chinese Soils: A Model to Evaluate the Impact of Soil Cd Pollution on Potential Dietary Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J.; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg−1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg−1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production. PMID:25386790

  17. Reconstruction of the forehead acoustic properties in an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), with investigation on the responses of soft tissue sound velocity to temperature.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhongchang; Zhang, Yu; Berggren, Per; Wei, Chong

    2017-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging and ultrasound experimental measurements were combined to reconstruct the acoustic properties (density, velocity, and impedance) of the head from a deceased Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis). The authors extracted 42 soft forehead tissue samples to estimate the sound velocity and density properties at room temperature, 25.0  °C. Hounsfield Units (HUs) of the samples were read from CT scans. Linear relationships between the tissues' HUs and velocity, and HUs and density were revealed through regression analyses. The distributions of the head acoustic properties at axial, coronal, and sagittal cross sections were reconstructed, suggesting that the forehead soft tissues were characterized by low-velocity in the melon, high-velocity in the muscle and connective tissues. Further, the sound velocities of melon, muscle, and connective tissue pieces were measured under different temperatures to investigate tissues' velocity response to temperature. The results demonstrated nonlinear relationships between tissues' sound velocity and temperature. This study represents a first attempt to provide general information on acoustic properties of this species. The results could provide meaningful information for understanding the species' bioacoustic characteristics and for further investigation on sound beam formation of the dolphin.

  18. Aliphatic hydrocarbons recovered in vegetables from soils based on their in-situ distribution in various soil humus fractions using a successive extraction method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shu-Kai; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Grieneisen, Michael L; Zhang, Jian-Feng

    2018-03-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) are major petroleum contaminants in the environment. In this study, the AHs bound to various soil endogenetic humus fractions were separated through successive extraction. Most of the AHs (46.1%) in soils were adsorbed onto/into humic acids (HA) and a small quantity of AHs (9.6%) were organic solvent extractable. AHs in B. chinensis were also analyzed since their potential risks to the residents through ingestion. AHs from C 21 to C 34 , so called high molecular weight AHs (HMWAHs), were dominant AHs in B. chinensis (85.5%) and soils (70.4%), followed by AHs from C 16 to C 21, whose mobility can be enhanced via binding to fulvic acids and then can be taken up by plant root lipids (soil-plant pathway). HMWAHs were mainly HA-bound and then were detained in the top soil layers. HMWAHs associated with fine topsoil particles could be transported to B. chinensis via the soil-air-plant pathway, including resuspension and aboveground plant cuticle capture. Results from Principal Component Analysis combined with Regression Analysis supported this assumption due to the positive correlations between HMWAHs concentration in B. chinensis and fine particle contents in soils. This work presents the distributions of petroleum contaminants that result from previously described behavior mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Schisandra chinensis regulates drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters via activation of Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Jin-Lian; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yin, Juan-Juan; He, Chang-Qiang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and drug transporters are regulated via epigenetic, transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and translational and posttranslational modifications. Phase I and II DMEs and drug transporters play an important role in the disposition and detoxification of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a critical regulator of a variety of important cytoprotective genes that are involved in disposition and detoxification of xenobiotics. Schisandra chinensis (SC) is a commonly used traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been primarily used to protect the liver because of its potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. SC can modulate some DMEs and drug transporters, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Nrf2 in the regulatory effect of SC extract (SCE) on selected DMEs and drug transporters in human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cells. The results showed that SCE, schisandrin A, and schisandrin B significantly increased the expression of NAD(P)H: Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate-oxidase or:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase-1, glutamate–cysteine ligase, and glutathione S-transferase A4 at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Incubation of HepG2 cells with SCE resulted in a significant increase in the intracellular level of glutathione and total glutathione S-transferase content. SCE significantly elevated the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and 4, whereas the expression of organic anion transporting peptide 1A2 and 1B1 was significantly downregulated by SCE. Knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering ribonucleic acid attenuated the regulatory effect of SCE on these DMEs and drug transporters. SCE significantly upregulated Nrf2 and promoted the translocation of Nrf2 from cytoplasm to

  20. Molecular cloning of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Cho, Hyun Kook; Park, Eun-Mi; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ok; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Woo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jun; Han, Hyon Sob; Jang, In-Kwon; Lee, Chang Hoon; Cheong, Jaehun; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors play important roles in host defence systems involving blood coagulation and pathogen digestion. We isolated and characterized a cDNA clone for a Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor (KPI) from a hemocyte cDNA library of the oriental white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The KPI gene consists of three exons and two introns. KPI cDNA contains an open reading frame of 396 bp, a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA, and a poly (A) tail. KPI cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 131 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of KPI contains two homologous Kazal domains, each with six conserved cysteine residues. The mRNA of KPI is expressed in the hemocytes of healthy shrimp, and the higher expression of KPI transcript is observed in shrimp infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), suggesting a potential role for KPI in host defence mechanisms.

  1. Effects of different diets on the dietary attractability and selectivity of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoqiang; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Fang

    2005-01-01

    Attractabilities of different diets and dietary selectivity of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis were studied through behavior observation and feeding experiment, respectively. The five diets used in the experiment are: Fish Flesh (FF), Shrimp Flesh (SF), Clam Foot (CF), Polychaete Worm (PW), and Formulated Diet (FD). No significant differences of attractability exist between any two different diets when every two natural diets or all five diets are provided simultaneously. On the other hand, significant differences of attractability exist between FD and every single natural diet when they are provided simultaneously. Results of behavioral observation indicate that natural diets are more attractive than FD. In feeding experiment, Chinese shrimp has distinct selectivity on different diets. It positively selects CF and PW, negatively selects FF and SF, and excludes FD absolutely. The results of the present studies indicate that the dietary selectivity of shrimp was based not only on the attractabilities of the diets, but also on the responses such as growth and food conversion.

  2. Evolution of Sousa chinensis: a scenario based on mitochondrial DNA study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenzhi; Zhou, Ruilian; Porter, Lindsay; Chen, Jialin; Wu, Yuping

    2010-11-01

    Taxonomy within genus Sousa is confused largely due to inconsistencies among external morphology, skull morphology, pigmentation patterns and molecular studies. Here we provide our understanding of the evolution of Sousa chinensis by proposing a phylogeographic history based on mtDNA study. It is proposed that the species originated in eastern Australian waters and the current distribution has taken shape over the last 8.02-1.24 million years. Populations in Southeast Asia and Australian region experienced recent expansion about 0.54-1.5 million years ago. It is also proposed that populations in Southeast Asia experienced separation, re-unification and further dispersal during the last glacial age with multiple north-south migration across the Sahul Shelf area of northern Australia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis O'sbeck for potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fa-Yi; Li, He-Fang; Wang, Hui-Liang; Liang, De-Hai; Tian, Yu-Chuan

    1995-06-01

    Potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis were studied. Orthogonal design was employed in this experiment. The composition of the basal diet consisted of fish meal, peanut cake, corn meal, soybean cake, wheat bran, vitamin mix and mineral mix, and supplementations of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine in the basal diet were made according to the L9(34) orthogonal table. The results indicated that iodine supplementation improved growth of the shrimp significantly and raised survival very significantly, iodine requirement of the shrimp was 0.003%; sodium requirement was 0.87% or less; and that 1.1 1.3% potassium and 0.18 0.38% magnesium in the diet were proper nutrition supplements for the shrimp.

  4. Antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory furostanol saponins from the rhizomes of Tupistra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Limin; Wang, Yihai; Yi, Xiaomin; He, Xiangjiu

    2016-12-01

    Phytochemical investigations of the rhizome of Tupistra chinensis led to the isolation of ten new furostanol saponins along with fourteen known spirostanols. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods, including IR, NMR, MS, and GC analyses. The antiproliferative effects against FaDu and Detroit 562 cell lines and inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were assayed for all the isolated compounds. Compound 14 exhibited significant antiproliferative effects against FaDu and Detroit 562 cells with IC 50 values of 1.1±0.1 and 1.2±0.1μM, respectively. Compounds 1, 2, 6, 13, 16, 19 and 24 exhibited inhibitory effects on NO production with IC 50 values ranging from 15.7 to 46.2μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial coumarins from the stems of Eurya chinensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Jia-Ling; Yuan, Yao; Tan, Hai-Bo; Huang, Ri-Ming; Liu, Hong-Xin; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Qiu, Sheng-Xiang

    2017-03-01

    Two new coumarins, named (±)-euryacoumarin A (1) and 6-demethylobtusinin (2), and one new natural coumarin, named euryacoumarin B (3), along with two known compounds, scopoletin (4) and obtusinol (5), were isolated from the stems of Eurya chinensis. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic methods and comparison with data reported in the literatures. Compound 1 exhibited significant inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells with IC 50 value of 35.64 ± 1.73 μM, and showed marginal antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus with MIC values of 50.59 ± 2.12 and 35.42 ± 0.96 μM, respectively.

  6. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9–1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5–1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5–1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions. PMID:26730602

  7. Chemical Discrimination of Cortex Phellodendri amurensis and Cortex Phellodendri chinensis by Multivariate Analysis Approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Wang, Huiyu; Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Han, Ying; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiuhong; Meng, Xiangcai; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    As herbal medicines have an important position in health care systems worldwide, their current assessment, and quality control are a major bottleneck. Cortex Phellodendri chinensis (CPC) and Cortex Phellodendri amurensis (CPA) are widely used in China, however, how to identify species of CPA and CPC has become urgent. In this study, multivariate analysis approach was performed to the investigation of chemical discrimination of CPA and CPC. Principal component analysis showed that two herbs could be separated clearly. The chemical markers such as berberine, palmatine, phellodendrine, magnoflorine, obacunone, and obaculactone were identified through the orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis, and were identified tentatively by the accurate mass of quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 29 components can be used as the chemical markers for discrimination of CPA and CPC. Of them, phellodenrine is significantly higher in CPC than that of CPA, whereas obacunone and obaculactone are significantly higher in CPA than that of CPC. The present study proves that multivariate analysis approach based chemical analysis greatly contributes to the investigation of CPA and CPC, and showed that the identified chemical markers as a whole should be used to discriminate the two herbal medicines, and simultaneously the results also provided chemical information for their quality assessment. Multivariate analysis approach was performed to the investigate the herbal medicineThe chemical markers were identified through multivariate analysis approachA total of 29 components can be used as the chemical markers. UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based multivariate analysis method for the herbal medicine samples Abbreviations used: CPC: Cortex Phellodendri chinensis, CPA: Cortex Phellodendri amurensis, PCA: Principal component analysis, OPLS-DA: Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, BPI: Base peaks ion intensity.

  8. [Cultural regionalization for Coptis chinensis based on 3S technology platform Ⅰ. Study on growth suitability for Coptis chinensis based on ecological factors analysis by Maxent and ArcGIS model].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Yan-Fang; Song, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wu, He-Zhen

    2016-09-01

    At the urgent request of Coptis chinensis planting,growth suitability as assessment indicators for C. chinensis cultivation was proposed and analyzed in this paper , based on chemical quality determination and ecological fators analysis by Maxent and ArcGIS model. Its potential distribution areas at differernt suitability grade and regionalization map were formulated based on statistical theory and growth suitability theory. The results showed that the most suitable habitats is some parts of Chongqing and Hubei province, such as Shizhu, Lichuan, Wulong, Wuxi, Enshi. There are seven ecological factor is the main ecological factors affect the growth of Coptidis Rhizoma, including altitude, precipitation in February and September and the rise of precipitation and altitude is conducive to the accumulation of total alkaloid content in C. chinensis. Therefore, The results of the study not only illustrates the most suitable for the surroundings of Coptidis Rhizoma, also helpful to further research and practice of cultivation regionalization, wild resource monitoring and large-scale cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine plants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Sympatric and allopatric experimental infections of the planorbid snail Gyraulus chinensis with miracidia of Euparyphium albuferensis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Marín, A; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J-G

    2010-12-01

    An experimental infection with echinostomatid miracidia in sympatric or 'local' vs. allopatric or 'away' snail combinations, as a model to examine parasite compatibility, was carried out. We employed Euparyphium albuferensis miracidia to infect Gyraulus chinensis snails, from three different natural parks: Albufera (Valencia, Spain); the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) and Coto de Doñana (Huelva, Spain). Insignificant differences between the three snail strains were noted for the infection rate and the rhythm of daily cercarial production. However, a significantly higher total cercarial production per snail, patent period and life span were observed in local snails. The different infection characteristics in the three G. chinensis strains considered reveal that E. albuferensis miracidia demonstrate local adaptation.

  10. Persistence and Dissipation of Chlorpyrifos in Brassica Chinensis, Lettuce, Celery, Asparagus Lettuce, Eggplant, and Pepper in a Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Meng-Xiao; Jiang, Wayne W.; Wang, Jia-Lei; Jian, Qiu; Shen, Yan; Liu, Xian-Jin; Yu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The residue behavior of chlorpyrifos, which is one of the extensively used insecticides all around the world, in six vegetable crops was assessed under greenhouse conditions. Each of the vegetables was subjected to a foliar treatment with chlorpyrifos. Two analytical methods were developed using gas chromatography equipped with a micro-ECD detector (LOQ = 0.05 mg kg−1) and liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry (LOQ = 0.01 mg kg−1). The initial foliar deposited concentration of chlorpyrifos (mg kg−1) on the six vegetables followed the increasing order of brassica chinensischinensis) to 74.0±5.9 mg kg−1 (pepper plant). At pre-harvest interval 21 days, the chlorpyrifos residues in edible parts of the crops were <0.01 (eggplant fruit), <0.01 (pepper fruit), 0.56 (lettuce), 0.97 (brassica chinensis), 1.47 (asparagus lettuce), and 3.50 mg kg−1 (celery), respectively. The half-lives of chlorpyrifos were found to be 7.79 (soil), 2.64 (pepper plants), 3.90 (asparagus lettuce), 3.92 (lettuce), 5.81 (brassica chinensis), 3.00 (eggplant plant), and 5.45 days (celery), respectively. The dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soil and the six selected plants was different, indicating that the persistence of chlorpyrifos residues strongly depends upon leaf characteristics of the selected vegetables. PMID:24967589

  11. The Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Two Octopods Cistopus chinensis and Cistopus taiwanicus: Revealing the Phylogenetic Position of the Genus Cistopus within the Order Octopoda

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Rubin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Qi

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of two species of Cistopus, namely C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus, and conducted a comparative mt genome analysis across the class Cephalopoda. The mtDNA length of C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus are 15706 and 15793 nucleotides with an AT content of 76.21% and 76.5%, respectively. The sequence identity of mtDNA between C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus was 88%, suggesting a close relationship. Compared with C. taiwanicus and other octopods, C. chinensis encoded two additional tRNA genes, showing a novel gene arrangement. In addition, an unusual 23 poly (A) signal structure is found in the ATP8 coding region of C. chinensis. The entire genome and each protein coding gene of the two Cistopus species displayed notable levels of AT and GC skews. Based on sliding window analysis among Octopodiformes, ND1 and DN5 were considered to be more reliable molecular beacons. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 13 protein-coding genes revealed that C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus form a monophyletic group with high statistical support, consistent with previous studies based on morphological characteristics. Our results also indicated that the phylogenetic position of the genus Cistopus is closer to Octopus than to Amphioctopus and Callistoctopus. The complete mtDNA sequence of C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus represent the first whole mt genomes in the genus Cistopus. These novel mtDNA data will be important in refining the phylogenetic relationships within Octopodiformes and enriching the resource of markers for systematic, population genetic and evolutionary biological studies of Cephalopoda. PMID:24358345

  12. [Effects of clipping on nitrogen allocation strategy and compensatory growth of Leymus chinensis under saline-alkali conditions].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cong Cong; Wang, Yong Jing; Sun, Hao; Wang, Xin Yu; Gao, Ying Zhi

    2017-07-18

    Soil salinization and overgrazing are two main factors limiting animal husbandry in the Songnen Grassland. Leymus chinensis is a dominant rhizome grass, resistant to grazing as well as to-lerant to salt stress. Foliar labeled with 15 N-urea was used to study the nitrogen allocation strategy and compensatory growth response to clipping under saline-alkali conditions. The results showed that the total absorbed 15 N allocated to the aboveground part was more than 60%. Compared with the control treatment (no saline-alkali, no clipping), saline-alkali increased the distribution of 15 N by 5.1% in root; the 15 N distribution into aboveground in the moderate clipping and saline-alkali treatment was 11.6% higher than that of the control, exhibiting over-compensatory growth of aboveground biomass and total biomass, however, 15 N allocated to stem base was significantly increased by 9.5% under severe clipping level and saline-alkali addition, showing under-compensatory growth of shoot, root and total biomass. These results suggested that L. chinensis adapted to mode-rate clipping by over-compensatory growth under salt-alkali stress condition. However, L. chinensis would take a relatively conservative growth strategy through the enhanced N allocation to stem base for storage under severe saline-alkali and clipping conditions.

  13. Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Uptake and Translocation of Lead in Brassica chinensis and Potential Health Risk of Pb

    PubMed Central

    Li, Renying; Zhou, Zhigao; Xie, Xiaojin; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Yaohong; Xu, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can affect the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil, especially in soils used for vegetable production, where intensive organic fertilization is applied. The present study examined the effects of DOM derived from commercial organic fertilizers (COF), cow manure (COM) and chicken manure (CHM), on uptake and translocation of lead (Pb) in Brassica chinensis in a pot experiment. The results indicate that DOM derived from CHM (DOMCHM) significantly increased Pb concentrations in roots of B. chinensis (p < 0.05). By contrast, there was no significant increase in shoot Pb concentration for all the DOM treatments except the high DOMCHM treatment in the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb. Consistent with the Pb concentrations in shoots, translocation factor of Pb from soil to shoot and specific lead uptake (SLU) by B. chinensis were significantly increased for the high DOMCHM treatment in the high Pb soil, but not for other DOM treatments. Based on the results of this study, the application of DOM to the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb could result in an increase in total Pb annually ingested by the inhabitants of Nanjing City in the range of 2018–9640 kg, with the highest estimates resulting from the high DOMCHM treatment. This study suggests the risk may rise under some conditions as indicated in the high DOMCHM treatment and high Pb pollution level. PMID:27399753

  14. The microgeographical patterns of morphological and molecular variation of a mixed ploidy population in the species complex Actinidia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifei; Li, Dawei; Yan, Ling; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy and hybridization are thought to have significant impacts on both the evolution and diversification of the genus Actinidia, but the structure and patterns of morphology and molecular diversity relating to ploidy variation of wild Actinidia plants remain much less understood. Here, we examine the distribution of morphological variation and ploidy levels along geographic and environmental variables of a large mixed-ploidy population of the A. chinensis species complex. We then characterize the extent of both genetic and epigenetic diversity and differentiation exhibited between individuals of different ploidy levels. Our results showed that while there are three ploidy levels in this population, hexaploids were constituted the majority (70.3%). Individuals with different ploidy levels were microgeographically structured in relation to elevation and extent of niche disturbance. The morphological characters examined revealed clear difference between diploids and hexaploids, however tetraploids exhibited intermediate forms. Both genetic and epigenetic diversity were high but the differentiation among cytotypes was weak, suggesting extensive gene flow and/or shared ancestral variation occurred in this population even across ploidy levels. Epigenetic variation was clearly correlated with changes in altitudes, a trend of continuous genetic variation and gradual increase of epigenomic heterogeneities of individuals was also observed. Our results show that complex interactions between the locally microgeographical environment, ploidy and gene flow impact A. chinensis genetic and epigenetic variation. We posit that an increase in ploidy does not broaden the species habitat range, but rather permits A. chinensis adaptation to specific niches.

  15. Beneficial effects of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kandasamy, Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Salacia chinensis L. is a traditional Southeast Asian herbal medicine and used in the treatment of diabetes. To investigate the antidiabetic properties of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis and its beneficial effect on toxicological and hematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mangiferin was orally treated with the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days to diabetic rats. Biochemical (blood glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine), toxicological (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups with mangiferin and glibenclamide. Mangiferin treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) lowered the level of blood glucose, in addition, altered the levels of biochemical parameters including urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Toxicological parameters including AST, ALT and ALP were also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin in diabetic rats. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved through the administration of mangiferin. Thus, our results indicate that mangiferin present in S. chinensis possesses antidiabetic properties and nontoxic nature against chemically induced diabetic rats. Further experimental investigations are warrant to make use of its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethno-medicinal usage.

  16. An integrated strategy using UPLC-QTOF-MSE and UPLC-QTOF-MRM (enhanced target) for pharmacokinetics study of wine processed Schisandra Chinensis fructus in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuangyi; Song, Yonggui; Liu, Yali; Peng, Mi; Li, Hanyun; Li, Xueliang; Feng, Bingwei; Xu, Pengfei; Su, Dan

    2017-05-30

    Currently the pharmacokinetic (PK) research of herbal medicines is still limited and facing critical technical challenges on quantitative analysis of multi-components from biological matrices which often accompanied by lacking of authentic standards and low concentration. This present work contributes to the development of an integrated strategy for extensive pharmacokinetics assessments, and a selective and sensitive method independent of authentic standards for multi-components analysis based on the use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight/MS E (UPLC-TOF-MS E ) and UPLC-TOF-MRM (rnhanced target). Initially, phytochemicals were identified by UPLC-TOF-MS E analysis, subsequently the identified components were matched with authentic standards and pre-classified, and UPLC-QTOF-MRM method optimized and developed. To guarantee reliable results, three rules are necessary: (1) detection with a mass error of less than 5ppm; (2) same class chemical compositions with structural high similarity between analytes with and without authentic reference substance; (3) a matching retention time between TOF-MRM mode and TOF-MS E within 0.2min. The developed and validated method was applied for the simultaneous determination of 12 lignans in rat plasma after administered with wine processed Schisandra Chinensis fructus (WPSCF) extract. Such an approach was found capable of providing extensive pharmacokinetic profiles of multi-components absorbed into blood after oral administrated with WPSCF extract. The results also indicated that significant difference in pharmacokinetics parameters of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans was observed between schizandrin and gomisin compounds. For lignans, the absorption via gastrointestinal tract were all rapid and maintained relatively long retention time, especially for schisantherin A and schisantherin B with higher plasma exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of a phosphopyruvate hydratase gene from the chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xupeng; Meng, Xianhong; Luo, Kun; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Kong, Jie

    2017-04-01

    In the present study a cDNA encoding a phosphopyruvate hydratase (enolase) was cloned from the muscle of the Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and named as FcEnolase. The cDNA of FcEnolase encoded a protein of 434 amino acid residues with a molecular mass 47.22 kDa. The residues 342-355 constituted the signature motif "LLLKVNQIGSVTES". A SNP locus (C96T) in the ORF at 96 bp was identified. The results showed that the FcEnolase was a conserved gene. In the normal F. chinensis, the mRNA level in the muscle was much higher (P < 0.05) than the mRNA level in the gill and hepatopancreas. To verify the mRNA level of FcEnolase in the F. chinensis post WSSV infection, a real-time RT-PCR was performed. In the WSSV-infected F. chinensis, the FcEnolase mRNA level was significantly (P < 0.05) up-regulated in the muscle at 12 and 24 h post challenge (hpc) to approximately 2.7-fold and 2.7-fold the mRNA level in the controls, respectively. The FcEnolase mRNA level in the gill was significantly (P < 0.05) down-regulated at 6 hpc to approximately 0.3-fold the mRNA level in the control, followed by a significant (P < 0.05) up-regulation at 12 hpc to approximately 2.8-fold the mRNA level in the control. There was no obvious change of FcEnolase mRNA level in the hepatopancreas during the infection process. The expression profile coincided with the fact that WSSV primarily infects the tissues of muscle and gill, but hardly infects hepatopancreas. To verify the protein level of FcEnolase post WSSV infection, a Western blot was performed. The FcEnolase protein level in the muscle at 24 hpc significantly (P < 0.05) increased to approximately 2.1-fold the level in the control. These results showed the characterization of FcEnolase and suggested that the FcEnolase might be involved in the response of F. chinensis to WSSV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Discovery and analysis of microRNAs in Leymus chinensis under saline-alkali and drought stress using high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Yuanyuan; Sun, Yepeng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Nan; Wang, Fawei; Liu, Weican; Li, Xiaowei; Chen, Huan; Yao, Na; Guan, Lili; Chen, Kai; Cui, Xiyan; Yang, Meiying; Li, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. is a perennial rhizome grass of the Poaceae (also called Gramineae) family, which adapts well to drought, saline and alkaline conditions. However, little is known about the stress tolerance of L. chinensis at the molecular level. microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play critical roles in nutrient homeostasis, developmental processes, pathogen responses, and abiotic stress in plants. In this study, we used Solexa sequencing technology to generate high-quality small RNA data from three L. chinensis groups: a control group, a saline-alkaline stress group (100 mM NaCl and 200 mM NaHCO3), and a drought stress group (20% polyethylene glycol 2000). From these data we identified 132 known miRNAs and 16 novel miRNAs candidates. For these miRNAs we also identified target genes that encode a broad range of proteins that may be correlated with abiotic stress regulation. This is the first study to demonstrate differentially expressed miRNAs in L. chinensis under saline-alkali and drought stress. These findings may help explain the saline-alkaline and drought stress responses in L. chinensis.

  19. Discovery and Analysis of MicroRNAs in Leymus chinensis under Saline-Alkali and Drought Stress Using High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Nan; Wang, Fawei; Liu, Weican; Li, Xiaowei; Chen, Huan; Yao, Na; Guan, Lili; Chen, Kai; Cui, Xiyan; Yang, Meiying; Li, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. is a perennial rhizome grass of the Poaceae (also called Gramineae) family, which adapts well to drought, saline and alkaline conditions. However, little is known about the stress tolerance of L. chinensis at the molecular level. microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play critical roles in nutrient homeostasis, developmental processes, pathogen responses, and abiotic stress in plants. In this study, we used Solexa sequencing technology to generate high-quality small RNA data from three L. chinensis groups: a control group, a saline-alkaline stress group (100 mM NaCl and 200 mM NaHCO3), and a drought stress group (20% polyethylene glycol 2000). From these data we identified 132 known miRNAs and 16 novel miRNAs candidates. For these miRNAs we also identified target genes that encode a broad range of proteins that may be correlated with abiotic stress regulation. This is the first study to demonstrate differentially expressed miRNAs in L. chinensis under saline-alkali and drought stress. These findings may help explain the saline-alkaline and drought stress responses in L. chinensis. PMID:25369004

  20. Low Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Variation in the Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Inferences About the Role of Balancing Selection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiyang; Lin, Wenzhi; Zhou, Ruilian; Gui, Duan; Yu, Xinjian; Wu, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    It has been widely reported that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is under balancing selection due to its immune function across terrestrial and aquatic mammals. The comprehensive studies at MHC and other neutral loci could give us a synthetic evaluation about the major force determining genetic diversity of species. Previously, a low level of genetic diversity has been reported among the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using both mitochondrial marker and microsatellite loci. Here, the expression and sequence polymorphism of 2 MHC class II genes (DQB and DRB) in 32 S. chinensis from PRE collected between 2003 and 2011 were investigated. High ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates, codon-based selection analysis, and trans-species polymorphism (TSP) support the hypothesis that balancing selection acted on S. chinensis MHC sequences. However, only 2 haplotypes were detected at either DQB or DRB loci. Moreover, the lack of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg expectation at DRB locus combined with the relatively low heterozygosity at both DQB locus and microsatellite loci suggested that balancing selection might not be sufficient, which further suggested that genetic drift associated with historical bottlenecks was not mitigated by balancing selection in terms of the loss of MHC and neutral variation in S. chinensis. The combined results highlighted the importance of maintaining the genetic diversity of the endangered S. chinensis. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Laurence Zsu-Hsin; Chen, Chih-How

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS) population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis) has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH), a type of marine protected area (MPA) for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers' attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species.

  2. Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in fresh omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) fruit and juice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hye Ran; Lim, Sung Jin; Cho, Jae Young

    2012-02-01

    Schizandra chinensis Baillon, or omija, is a fruit native to northeast Asia that is cultivated in South Korea and China. Fresh omija fruit has been used in beverages, traditional East Asian medicine and cosmetics because of its complex flavor and pharmacological effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze residue levels of 33 kinds of pesticides on fresh omija fruits and in omija juices produced in South Korea. A risk assessment of the pesticides in omija juice was conducted by calculating EDI and ADI. Most of the pesticide levels were below the LOD in fresh omija fruits. Among the detected compounds, the most frequently detected pesticide was ethoprophos. The EDIs of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole were 5.89E-03, 7.08E-04 and 4.73E-05, respectively. The percent of EDI to ADI of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole was 28.0%, 13.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The results of this research concluded that the detected pesticides are not harmful to human beings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Strength of silk attachment to Ilex chinensis leaves in the tea bagworm Eumeta minuscula (Lepidoptera, Psychidae).

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonas O; Lovtsova, Julia; Gorb, Elena; Dai, Zhendong; Ji, Aihong; Zhao, Zhihui; Jiang, Nan; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2017-03-01

    Silks play an important role in the life of various arthropods. A highly neglected prerequisite to make versatile use of silks is sufficient attachment to substrates. Although there have been some studies on the structure and mechanics of silk anchorages of spiders, for insects only anecdotal reports on attachment-associated spinning behaviour exist. Here, we experimentally studied the silk attachment of the pupae and last instar caterpillars of the tea bagworm Eumeta minuscula (Butler 1881) (Lepidoptera, Psychidae) to the leaves of its host plant Ilex chinensis We found that the bagworms spin attachment discs, which share some structural features with those of spiders, like a plaque consisting of numerous overlaid, looped glue-coated silk fibres and the medially attaching suspension thread. Although the glue, which coats the fibres, cannot spread and adhere very well to the leaf surface, high pull-off forces were measured, yielding a mean safety factor (force divided by the animal weight) of 385.6. Presumably, the bagworms achieve this by removal of the leaf epidermis prior to silk attachment, which exposes the underlying tissue that represents a much better bonding site. This ensures a reliable attachment during the immobile, vulnerable pupal stage. This is the first study on the biomechanics and structure of silk attachments to substrates in insects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Biology and Conservation of the Taiwanese Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, John Y; Riehl, Kimberly N; Klein, Michelle N; Javdan, Shiva; Hoffman, Jordan M; Dungan, Sarah Z; Dares, Lauren E; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2016-01-01

    The humpback dolphins of the eastern Taiwan Strait were first discovered scientifically in 2002 and since then have received much research attention. We reviewed all information published in peer-reviewed scientific journals on these dolphins and where appropriate and available, peer-reviewed scientific workshop reports and graduate theses were also examined. Recent evidence demonstrated that this population warranted recognition as a subspecies, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis. It is found in a highly restricted and linear strip of coastal waters along central western Taiwan. Numbering fewer than 80 individuals and declining, five main threats (fisheries interactions, habitat loss and degradation, loss of freshwater to estuaries within their habitat, air and water pollution, and noise) threaten the future existence of this subspecies. These dolphins have cultural and religious importance and boast the highest level of legal protection for wildlife in Taiwan. However, despite enormous efforts by local and international non-governmental groups urging immediate conservation actions, there have been no real government efforts to mitigate any existing threats; instead, some of these threats have worsened. Based on recent studies, we suggest the IUCN Red List status be revised to Critically Endangered CR 2a(ii); D for the subspecies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oocyte Degeneration Associated with Follicle Cells in Female Mactra chinensis (Bivalvia: Mactridae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Han; Chung, Ee-Yung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of oocyte degeneration in the oocyte, and the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are described to clarify the reproductive mechanism on oocyte degeneration of Mactra chinensis using cytological methods. Commonly, the follicle cells are attached to the oocyte. Follicle cells play an important role in oocyte degeneration. In particular, the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are associated with phagocytosis and the intracellular digestion of products. In this study, morphologically similar degenerated phagosomes (various lysosomes), which were observed in the degenerated oocytes, appeared in the follicle cells. After the spawning of the oocytes, the follicle cells were involved in oocyte degeneration through phagocytosis by phagolysosomes. Therefore, it can be assumed that follicle cells reabsorb phagosomes from degenerated oocytes. In this study, the presence of lipid granules, which occurred from degenerating yolk granules, gradually increased in degenerating oocytes. The function of follicle cells can accumulate reserves of lipid granules and glycogen in the cytoplasm, which can be employed by the vitellogenic oocyte. Based on observations of follicle cells attached to degenerating oocytes after spawning, the follicle cells of this species are involved in the lysosomal induction of oocyte degeneration for the reabsorption of phagosomes (phagolysosomes) in the cytoplasm for nutrient storage, as seen in other bivalves. PMID:25949203

  6. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance.

  7. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance. PMID:27780252

  8. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  9. Severe mutilation of a Critically Endangered Taiwanese humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis taiwanensis by fishing gear.

    PubMed

    Wang, John Y; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2017-03-21

    Direct observations of the causes of injuries to cetaceans are rare events. For very small and declining populations, such events may be even less likely to be observed because of the few individuals that remain. A long-term monitoring program using photographic identification of individuals resulted in the documentation of an individual Taiwanese humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis taiwanensis that survived a harmful interaction with fishing gear. An adult female that was accompanied by a young calf sustained massive damage to several tissue types on her dorsal surface. From the injuries, it is clear that the animal had suffered intense trauma that likely caused pain for several months as the fishing gear sliced through its dorsal hump and fin. Given the incredible mutilation, the animal is likely compromised at some level and probably continues to experience ongoing pain. This case, along with observations of other individuals in this population bearing serious injuries or being entangled in fishing gear, is direct evidence that the impacts of local fisheries on this subspecies are almost certainly unsustainable.

  10. Strength of silk attachment to Ilex chinensis leaves in the tea bagworm Eumeta minuscula (Lepidoptera, Psychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lovtsova, Julia; Gorb, Elena; Dai, Zhendong; Ji, Aihong; Zhao, Zhihui; Jiang, Nan; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2017-01-01

    Silks play an important role in the life of various arthropods. A highly neglected prerequisite to make versatile use of silks is sufficient attachment to substrates. Although there have been some studies on the structure and mechanics of silk anchorages of spiders, for insects only anecdotal reports on attachment-associated spinning behaviour exist. Here, we experimentally studied the silk attachment of the pupae and last instar caterpillars of the tea bagworm Eumeta minuscula (Butler 1881) (Lepidoptera, Psychidae) to the leaves of its host plant Ilex chinensis. We found that the bagworms spin attachment discs, which share some structural features with those of spiders, like a plaque consisting of numerous overlaid, looped glue-coated silk fibres and the medially attaching suspension thread. Although the glue, which coats the fibres, cannot spread and adhere very well to the leaf surface, high pull-off forces were measured, yielding a mean safety factor (force divided by the animal weight) of 385.6. Presumably, the bagworms achieve this by removal of the leaf epidermis prior to silk attachment, which exposes the underlying tissue that represents a much better bonding site. This ensures a reliable attachment during the immobile, vulnerable pupal stage. This is the first study on the biomechanics and structure of silk attachments to substrates in insects. PMID:28250101

  11. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    SciTech Connect

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media andmore » rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.« less

  12. Unsustainable human-induced injuries to the Critically Endangered Taiwanese humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, John Y; Riehl, Kimberly N; Yang, Shih Chu; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2017-03-15

    The Critically Endangered Taiwanese humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis) is endemic to inshore and estuarine waters of central western Taiwan. It numbers fewer than 75 individuals, is declining and faces a myriad of human threats. Data from a long-term photo-identification program on these dolphins allowed major injuries to be examined quantitatively. A large proportion (57.7%) of individuals had suffered major human-induced injuries that likely compromised their health, survivorship or reproductive potential and thus, the future of this subspecies. Considering major injuries as "takes", the injury rate (1.13 dolphins/year) for the population was 8-8.5 times higher than its Potential Biological Removal rate. Observations of new injuries and fishing gear entanglements on several dolphins showed that fisheries continue to be the predominant cause of these major injuries. Unless immediate action is taken to reduce harmful fisheries, extinction is imminent for Taiwan's only endemic dolphin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Laurence Zsu-Hsin; Chen, Chih-How

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS) population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis) has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH), a type of marine protected area (MPA) for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers’ attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species. PMID:27526102

  14. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (<3 m in depth) of the reservoir, then the total adult population in this impoundment is estimated to be 253,570 snails, and the total Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  15. Toxicity of copper sulfate and rotenone to Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haak, Danielle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Kill, Robert A.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Allen, Craig R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a freshwater snail native to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Russia and is currently classified as an invasive species in at least 27 states in the USA. The species tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions, making management of established populations difficult. We tested the efficacy of two traditional chemical treatments, rotenone and copper sulfate, on the elimination of adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments. All snails (N=50) survived 72-hour exposure to rotenone-treated lake water, and 96% (N=25) survived 72-hour exposure to pre-determined rotenone concentrations of 0.25, 2.5, and 25.0 mg/L. All snails (N=10) survived exposure to 1.25 mg/L copper sulfate solution, 90% (N=10) survived exposure to 2.50 mg/L copper sulfate solution, and 80% (N=5) survived exposure to 5.0 mg/L copper sulfate solution. Neither rotenone nor copper sulfate effectively killed adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments, most likely due to their relatively large size, thick shell, and operculum. Therefore, it appears that populations will be very difficult to control once established, and management should focus on preventing additional spread or introductions of this species.

  16. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  17. A Continuous Procedure Based on Column Chromatography to Purify Anthocyanins from Schisandra chinensis by a Macroporous Resin plus Gel Filtration Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yue, Daran; Yang, Lei; Liu, Shouxin; Li, Jian; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui

    2016-02-06

    In our previous study, as natural food colorants and antioxidants, the color and content stabilities of Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) anthocyanins were investigated. In this work, the purification process parameters of S. chinensis anthocyanins using a macroporous resin and gel filtration chromatography were evaluated. The optimized parameters of static adsorption and desorption were as follows. The selected resin is HPD-300 (nonpolar copolymer styrene type resin), and the anthocyanins adsorption saturation capacity of HPD-300 resin was 0.475 mg/g dry resin. Adsorption time was 4 h, and 0.517 mg/mL of S. chinensis anthocyanins was adsorbed on the resin column with a flow rate of 39 mL/h (3 BV/h). After adsorption, the anthocyanins were completely desorpted with 2.5 BV of 90% (v/v) ethanol solution, and the desorption flow rate was 13 mL/h (1 BV/h). After purification by dynamic adsorption and desorption, the anthocyanins content in the effluent increased from 47.6 mg/g to 128.4 mg/g, the purity of anthocyanins increased six-fold from 5.08% to 30.43%, and the anthocyanins recovery was 96.5%. The major constituent of S. chinensis anthocyanins was isolated with Bio-Gel P2 gel filtration chromatography, and it was detected by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) as cyanidin-3-O-xylosylrutinoside. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of S. chinensis anthocyanins were investigated. After purification using the HPD-300 resin, the antioxidant activities of anthocyanins were increased 1.2-fold (FRAP) and 1.7-fold (ABTS).

  18. The Cytochrome P450-Mediated Metabolism Alternation of Four Effective Lignans From Schisandra chinensis in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats and Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rongrong; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaorui; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2018-01-01

    It is highly valuable to study the pharmacokinetics of herbal components under the pathological condition of liver dysfunction for safe and rational use of herbal medicines. In this study, the pharmacokinetic profiles of four effective lignans from Schisandra chinensis (SC), schisandrin, schisantherin A, deoxyshisandrin and γ-schisandrin, were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated rats. The metabolism of the four lignans was also studied using microsomes from patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. In situ intestinal and hepatic perfusions were conducted to clarify the contributions from impairments of gut and liver on the pharmacokinetics of the four schisandra lignans in CCl4-intoxicated rats. The metabolism in rat and human liver microsomes and transport in Caco-2 monolayer cell model were studied to reveal the key factors for the in vivo disposition of the four lignans. When SC alcoholic extract was orally administrated to CCl4-intoxicated rat for a short term (4 days), the pharmacokinetics of four active SC lignans was significantly changed while its hepatotherapeutic effect was not obviously observed. The plasma concentrations of the four schisandra lignans were dramatically elevated compared with the control. The Cmax, AUC and MRT were all increased or prolonged significantly while parameter CLz/F was obviously reduced in rat pretreated with CCl4. In hepatic perfusion study and liver microsomes incubation, it was found that the hepatic metabolism of the four lignans was markedly decreased mainly due to the activity reduction of multiple CYP450 isoenzymes involved the metabolism, which, eventually, might lead to the alternation of their pharmacokinetic profiles in CCl4-intoxicated rats or patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The pharmacokinetic studies of SC components in pathological situation of liver dysfunction are expected to provide useful data for rational and safe application of SC preparations in clinic or

  19. The Cytochrome P450-Mediated Metabolism Alternation of Four Effective Lignans From Schisandra chinensis in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats and Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rongrong; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaorui; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2018-01-01

    It is highly valuable to study the pharmacokinetics of herbal components under the pathological condition of liver dysfunction for safe and rational use of herbal medicines. In this study, the pharmacokinetic profiles of four effective lignans from Schisandra chinensis (SC) , schisandrin, schisantherin A, deoxyshisandrin and γ-schisandrin, were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-intoxicated rats. The metabolism of the four lignans was also studied using microsomes from patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. In situ intestinal and hepatic perfusions were conducted to clarify the contributions from impairments of gut and liver on the pharmacokinetics of the four schisandra lignans in CCl 4 -intoxicated rats. The metabolism in rat and human liver microsomes and transport in Caco-2 monolayer cell model were studied to reveal the key factors for the in vivo disposition of the four lignans. When SC alcoholic extract was orally administrated to CCl 4 -intoxicated rat for a short term (4 days), the pharmacokinetics of four active SC lignans was significantly changed while its hepatotherapeutic effect was not obviously observed. The plasma concentrations of the four schisandra lignans were dramatically elevated compared with the control. The Cmax, AUC and MRT were all increased or prolonged significantly while parameter CLz/F was obviously reduced in rat pretreated with CCl 4 . In hepatic perfusion study and liver microsomes incubation, it was found that the hepatic metabolism of the four lignans was markedly decreased mainly due to the activity reduction of multiple CYP450 isoenzymes involved the metabolism, which, eventually, might lead to the alternation of their pharmacokinetic profiles in CCl 4 -intoxicated rats or patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The pharmacokinetic studies of SC components in pathological situation of liver dysfunction are expected to provide useful data for rational and safe application of SC preparations in

  20. Antioxidant activity of essential oils from Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) in vitro and in vivo lung cancer bearing C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Manjamalai, A; Berlin Grace, V M

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was to evaluate the effects of essential oils of Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) on free radicals and in vivo antioxidant properties. Essential oils were extracted using hydro-distillation and compound analysis was performed by GC-MS analysis. Screening for inhibitory activity was conducted by DPPH and OH-scavenging assays. In addition an in vivo study was carried out in cell line implanted cancer bearing mice with assessment of levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and reduced glutathione. Finally, lungs were dissected out for histopathology study of metastasis. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of carvocrol and trans-caryophyllene as the major compounds with 96% comparison with the Wilily and NBS libraries. The essential oil exhibited significant inhibition in DPPH free radical formation. Whereas reducing power and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity are dose dependent. When compared with the standard, it was found that the essential oil has more or less equal activity in scavenging free radicals produced. In the animal studies, the level of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as glutathione, were found to be increased in treated groups whereas lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide were reduced. Histopathology report also shows that the essential oil has a significant combating effect against cancer development. In all the in vitro assays, a significant correlation existed between the concentrations of the essential oil and percentage inhibition of free radicals. The in vivo studies also has shown a very good antioxidant property for the essential oil during cancer development. From, these results the essential oil can be recommended for treating disease related to free radicals and to prevent cancer development.

  1. Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, “soft start” and “power down

  2. Assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (OCTA-KONG) and its potential effects on the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, "soft start" and "power down" techniques.

  3. Effects of exogenous glutathione and cysteine on growth, lead accumulation, and tolerance of Iris lactea var. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongxia; Huang, Suzhen; Yang, Yongheng; Gu, Chunsun

    2015-02-01

    Effects of exogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) on growth, lead (Pb) accumulation, and nonprotein thiol (NPT) contents of Iris lactea var. chinensis under 100 and 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress were studied. Our results showed that 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress caused a dramatical decline in fresh weights, while the reduction of aboveground biomass was alleviated by exogenous GSH and Cys even though keeping higher Pb contents in roots and shoots. Exogenous GSH and Cys could enhance Pb accumulation in the shoots and roots compared with single Pb treatment. The promoting effect of GSH to Pb accumulation was larger than the effect of Cys, and the Pb contents in the shoots and roots treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH reached 1,712 and 14,603 mg kg(-1), about 4.19 and 2.78 times of single 500 mg L(-1) Pb treatment, respectively. Microscopic imaging of Pb in roots and leaves showed that higher intensive fluorescence was observed in cell wall of root epidermis, stele, vascular tissues of the roots, and sclerenchyma cells of leaves treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH and treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + Cys. Exogenous GSH had an apparent promoting effect on root and shoot GSH synthesis, while exogenous Cys reduced the synthesis of cellular GSH in shoot and increased Cys contents. Pb only induced the synthesis of phytochelatin (PC)2 in roots, and the PC2 content declined in GSH- and Cys-treated plant roots. These results suggested that GSH synthesis was a more effective approach to improve Pb accumulation and translocation of I. lactea var. chinensis. Further analysis of protein expression in plants by exogenous GSH and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) application showed that the proteins regulated by GSH and BSO may constitute various enzymes involved in GSH biosynthesis and play certain roles in Pb accumulation and tolerance of I. lactea var. chinensis.

  4. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  5. Identification and expression profile analysis of the sucrose phosphate synthase gene family in Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Zhao, Jietang; Hu, Bing; Li, Jiaqi; Qin, Yaqi; Chen, Linhuan; Qin, Yonghua

    2018-01-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) is a key enzyme that regulates sucrose biosynthesis in plants. SPS is encoded by different gene families which display differential expression patterns and functional divergence. Genome-wide identification and expression analyses of SPS gene families have been performed in Arabidopsis, rice, and sugarcane, but a comprehensive analysis of the SPS gene family in Litchi chinensis Sonn. has not yet been reported. In the current study, four SPS gene (LcSPS1, LcSPS2, LcSPS3, and LcSPS4) were isolated from litchi. The genomic organization analysis indicated the four litchi SPS genes have very similar exon-intron structures. Phylogenetic tree showed LcSPS1-4 were grouped into different SPS families (LcSPS1 and LcSPS2 in A family, LcSPS3 in B family, and LcSPS4 in C family). LcSPS1 and LcSPS4 were strongly expressed in the flowers, while LcSPS3 most expressed in mature leaves. RT-qPCR results showed that LcSPS genes expressed differentially during aril development between cultivars with different hexose/sucrose ratios. A higher level of expression of LcSPS genes was detected in Wuheli, which accumulates higher sucrose in the aril at mature. The tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of LcSPS1-4 genes uncovered in this study increase our understanding of the important roles played by these genes in litchi fruits. PMID:29473005

  6. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yang, Xiaohan

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resultedmore » in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.« less

  7. Creating animal models, why not use the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)?

    PubMed

    Yao, Yong-Gang

    2017-05-18

    The Chinese tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri chinensis ), a squirrel-like and rat-sized mammal, has a wide distribution in Southeast Asia, South and Southwest China and has many unique characteristics that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal. There have been many studies using the tree shrew ( Tupaia belangeri ) aimed at increasing our understanding of fundamental biological mechanisms and for the modeling of human diseases and therapeutic responses. The recent release of a publicly available annotated genome sequence of the Chinese tree shrew and its genome database (www.treeshrewdb.org) has offered a solid base from which it is possible to elucidate the basic biological properties and create animal models using this species. The extensive characterization of key factors and signaling pathways in the immune and nervous systems has shown that tree shrews possess both conserved and unique features relative to primates. Hitherto, the tree shrew has been successfully used to create animal models for myopia, depression, breast cancer, alcohol-induced or non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to name a few. The recent successful genetic manipulation of the tree shrew has opened a new avenue for the wider usage of this animal in biomedical research. In this opinion paper, I attempt to summarize the recent research advances that have used the Chinese tree shrew, with a focus on the new knowledge obtained by using the biological properties identified using the tree shrew genome, a proposal for the genome-based approach for creating animal models, and the genetic manipulation of the tree shrew. With more studies using this species and the application of cutting-edge gene editing techniques, the tree shrew will continue to be under the spot light as a viable animal model for investigating the basis of many different human diseases.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-01-01

    Background Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. Results The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. Conclusions This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species. PMID:23861841

  9. Transcriptome analysis in sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): a dominant perennial grass of the Eurasian Steppe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-01-01

    Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  10. Quality profile of litchi ( Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B. B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2010-09-01

    Litchi ( Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 μg catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was ˜3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was ˜2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the "good" organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 °C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  11. A successful microbound diet for the larval culture of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinxia; Mai, Kangsen

    2005-07-01

    A 13-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a microbound diet for rearing the larvae of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in comparison with the live foods that consist of Isochrysis galbana, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis chuii, rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia sp. Larvae of 0 to 13d post-hatch (dph) were reared in a temperature-controlled semi-open culture system and stocked at a density of 100 larvae L-1 in tanks, each containing 50 L sterilized seawater with salinity 30 32. Larvae were manually fed either the live foods or the microbound diet 6 times per day. At 13dph, the growth of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was approximately 84% of that fed on the live foods. The survival rate of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was 44.29% at 13 dph, which was not significantly different from that of larvae fed on live foods (63.55% ). The body length and development index (DI) of the larvae fed on the microbound diet were always lower than those of larvae fed on live foods. However, the differences reached significant levels only at 11 and 13dph (P<0.05). The mean dry weight loss of the microbound diet was 9.2% after 90min immersion in seawater, indicating that this diet has a good water stability. The microbound diet contains 5223% crude protein and 10.27% lipid and is easy to prepare. These characteristics of the diet suggest good potentials for its successful use in the larviculture of other penaeid and fish species.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling of Development and Anthocyanin Accumulation in Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Based on Transcriptome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shaohua; Xiao, Gong; Wang, Gan; Wang, Ying; Peng, Ming; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. ‘Hongyang’) is a promising commercial cultivar due to its nutritious value and unique flesh color, derived from vitamin C and anthocyanins. In this study, we obtained transcriptome data of ‘Hongyang’ from seven developmental stages using Illumina sequencing. We mapped 39–54 million reads to the recently sequenced kiwifruit genome and other databases to define gene structure, to analyze alternative splicing, and to quantify gene transcript abundance at different developmental stages. The transcript profiles throughout red kiwifruit development were constructed and analyzed, with a focus on the biosynthesis and metabolism of compounds such as phytohormones, sugars, starch and L-ascorbic acid, which are indispensable for the development and formation of quality fruit. Candidate genes for these pathways were identified through MapMan and phylogenetic analysis. The transcript levels of genes involved in sucrose and starch metabolism were consistent with the change in soluble sugar and starch content throughout kiwifruit development. The metabolism of L-ascorbic acid was very active, primarily through the L-galactose pathway. The genes responsible for the accumulation of anthocyanin in red kiwifruit were identified, and their expression levels were investigated during kiwifruit development. This survey of gene expression during kiwifruit development paves the way for further investigation of the development of this uniquely colored and nutritious fruit and reveals which factors are needed for high quality fruit formation. This transcriptome data and its analysis will be useful for improving kiwifruit genome annotation, for basic fruit molecular biology research, and for kiwifruit breeding and improvement. PMID:26301713

  13. Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from a root of Dianthus chinensis L.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jia; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; He, Hairong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Lianjie; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Shuanghe; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-CY18(T), was isolated from the root of a Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus chinensis L and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The novel strain was found to develop spherical sporangia with non-motile spores on aerial mycelium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were identified as madurose, mannose, ribose, galactose and glucose. The phospholipid profile was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were identified as C17:0 10-methyl, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. EzTaxon-e analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Sphaerisporangium and was most closely related to Sphaerisporangium cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) (98.9 %) and Sphaerisporangium melleum JCM 13064(T) (98.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-CY18(T) forms a monophyletic clade with S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T), an association that was supported by a bootstrap value of 97 % in the neighbour-joining tree and also recovered with the maximum-likelihood algorithm. Comparisons of some phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) and S. melleum JCM 13064(T). Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-CY18(T) represents a novel Sphaerisporangium species, for which the name Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-CY18(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7132(T) = DSM 46736(T)).

  14. Cytosine Methylation Alteration in Natural Populations of Leymus chinensis Induced by Multiple Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yingjie; Yang, Xuejiao; Wang, Huaying; Shi, Fengxue; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jushan; Li, Linfeng; Wang, Deli; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Background Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and warming+nitrogen (N) addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML) indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid adaptation by

  15. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  16. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    WEI, Li; SHAO, Wei-Wei; DING, Guo-Hua; FAN, Xiao-Li; YU, Miao-Ling; LIN, Zhi-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas. PMID:25017745

  17. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Ding, Guo-Hua; Fan, Xiao-Li; Yu, Miao-Ling; Lin, Zhi-Hua

    2014-07-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas.

  18. Discovery and characterization of Coturnix chinensis avian β-defensin 10, with broad antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deying; Lin, Lijuan; Zhang, Kexin; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Wang, Ruiqin; Liu, Shengwang

    2012-04-01

    A novel avian β-defensin (AvBD), AvBD10, was discovered in the liver and bone marrow tissues from Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis) in the present study. The complete nucleotide sequence of quail AvBD10 contains a 207-bp open reading frame that encodes 68 amino acids. The quail AvBD10 was expressed widely in all the tissues from quails except the tongue, crop, breast muscle, and thymus and was highly expressed in the bone marrow. In contrast to the expression pattern of AvBD10 in tissues from quail, the chicken AvBD10 was expressed in all 21 tissues from the layer hens investigated, with a high level of expression in the kidney, lung, liver, bone marrow, and Harderian glands. Recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged AvBD10s of both quail and chicken were produced and purified by expression of the two cDNAs in Escherichia coli, respectively. In addition, peptide according to the respective AvBD10s sequence was synthesized, named synthetic AvBD10s. As expected, both recombinant GST-tagged AvBD10s and synthetic AvBD10s of quail and chicken exhibited similar bactericidal properties against most bacteria, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative forms. However, no significant bactericidal activity was found for quail recombinant GST-tagged AvBD10 against Salmonella choleraesuis or for chicken recombinant GST-tagged AvBD10 against Proteus mirabilis. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Essential oils of Cupressus funebris, juniperus communis, and j. chinensis (cupressaceae) as repellents against ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) and mosquitoes (diptera; Culicidae) and as toxiants against mosquitoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Juniperus communis leaf oil, J. chinensis wood oil and Cupressus funebris wood oil (Cupressaceae) from China were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified 104 compounds representing 66.8-95.5% of the oils. The major components of J. communis were a-pinen...

  20. Biodiesel Production: Utilization of Loofah Sponge to Immobilize Rhizopus chinensis CGMCC #3.0232 Cells as a Whole-Cell Biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    He, Qiyang; Xia, Qianjun; Wang, Yuejiao; Li, Xun; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Bo; Wang, Fei

    2016-07-28

    Rhizopus chinensis cells immobilized on loofah (Luffa cylindrica) sponges were used to produce biodiesel via the transesterification of soybean oil. In whole-cell immobilization, loofah sponge is considered to be a superior alternative to conventional biomass carriers because of its biodegradable and renewable properties. During cell cultivation, Rhizopus chinensis mycelia can spontaneously and firmly adhere to the surface of loofah sponge particles. The optimal conditions for processing 9.65 g soybean oil at 40°C and 180 rpm using a 3:1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio were found to be 8% cell addition and 3-10% water content (depending on the oil's weight). Under optimal conditions, an over 90% methyl ester yield was achieved after the first reaction batch. The operational stability of immobilized Rhizopus chinensis cells was assayed utilizing a 1:1 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, thus resulting in a 16.5-fold increase in half-life when compared with immobilized cells of the widely studied Rhizopus oryzae. These results suggest that transesterification of vegetable oil using Rhizopus chinensis whole cells immobilized onto loofah sponge is an effective approach for biodiesel production.

  1. Chemical composition and α-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oil from Sabina chinensis cv. Kaizuca leaves.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dongyu; Fang, Chen; Yang, Jiao; Li, Minjing; Liu, Hengming; Yang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Sabina chinensis cv. Kaizuca (SCK) is a variant of S. chinensis L. The essential oil from its leaves exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity in vitro and the IC 50 value was 187.08 ± 0.56 μg/mL. Nineteen compounds were identified from this essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds identified were bornyl acetate (42.6%), elemol (20.5%), β-myrcene (13.7%) and β-linalool (4.0%). In order to study the reason of the α-amylase inhibitory activity of this essential oil, the identified compounds were docked with α-amylase by molecular docking individually. Among these compounds, γ-eudesmol exhibited the lowest binding energy (-6.73 kcal/mol), followed by α-copaen-11-ol (-6.66 kcal/mol), cubedol (-6.39 kcal/mol) and α-acorenol (-6.12 kcal/mol). The results indicated that these compounds were the active ingredients responsible for the α-amylase inhibitory activity of essential oil from SCK.

  2. Diversity of bacteriome associated with Phlebotomus chinensis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies in two wild populations from China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaili; Chen, Huiying; Jiang, Jinjin; Li, Xiangyu; Xu, Jiannong; Ma, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Sand fly Phlebotomus chinensis is a primary vector of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in China. The sand flies have adapted to various ecological niches in distinct ecosystems. Characterization of the microbial structure and function will greatly facilitate the understanding of the sand fly ecology, which would provide critical information for developing intervention strategy for sand fly control. In this study we compared the bacterial composition between two populations of Ph. chinensis from Henan and Sichuan, China. The phylotypes were taxonomically assigned to 29 genera of 19 families in 9 classes of 5 phyla. The core bacteria include Pseudomonas and enterobacteria, both are shared in the sand flies in the two regions. Interestingly, the endosymbionts Wolbachia and Rickettsia were detected only in Henan, while the Rickettsiella and Diplorickettsia only in Sichuan. The intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, Rickettsiella and Diplorickettsia were reported for the first time in sand flies. The influence of sex and feeding status on the microbial structure was also detected in the two populations. The findings suggest that the ecological diversity of sand fly in Sichuan and Henan may contribute to shaping the structure of associated microbiota. The structural classification paves the way to function characterization of the sand fly associated microbiome. PMID:27819272

  3. Transcriptional changes during ovule development in two genotypes of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) with contrast in seed size.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ashish K; Singh, Sudhir P; Gupta, Yogesh; Gurjar, Anoop K S; Mantri, Shrikant S; Tuli, Rakesh

    2016-11-08

    Litchi chinensis is a subtropical fruit crop, popular for its nutritional value and taste. Fruits with small seed size and thick aril are desirable in litchi. To gain molecular insight into gene expression that leads to the reduction in the size of seed in Litchi chinensis, transcriptomes of two genetically closely related genotypes, with contrasting seed size were compared in developing ovules. The cDNA library constructed from early developmental stages of ovules (0, 6, and 14 days after anthesis) of bold- and small-seeded litchi genotypes yielded 303,778,968 high quality paired-end reads. These were de-novo assembled into 1,19,939 transcripts with an average length of 865 bp. A total of 10,186 transcripts with contrast in expression were identified in developing ovules between the small- and large- seeded genotypes. A majority of these differences were present in ovules before anthesis, thus suggesting the role of maternal factors in seed development. A number of transcripts indicative of metabolic stress, expressed at higher level in the small seeded genotype. Several differentially expressed transcripts identified in such ovules showed homology with Arabidopsis genes associated with different stages of ovule development and embryogenesis.

  4. Whistle characteristics of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhitao; Fang, Liang; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2013-04-01

    Broadband recording systems were adapted to characterize the whistle characteristics of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China. A total of 4630 whistles were recorded, of which 2651 with legible contours and relatively good signal-to-noise ratios were selected for statistical analysis. Of the six tonal types (i.e., flat, down, rise, convex, U-shaped, and sine), flat (N = 1426; 39.45%) was the most predominant, followed by down (N = 754; 23.35%) and rise (N = 489; 12.34%). The whistles showed a short duration (mean ± SD: 370.19 ± 285.61 ms; range: 29-2923 ms), a broad frequency range (fundamental contour ranged from 0.52 to 33 kHz), and two harmonics (mean ± SD: 1.90 ± 2.74, with the maximum frequency of harmonics beyond 96 kHz). Whistles without gaps and stairs accounted for 76.7% and 86.4%, respectively. No significant interspecies differences in frequency parameters were observed compared with S. teuszii, which is inconsistent with morphological taxonomies but confirms phylogenetic results, thus suggesting a close relation between Chinese S. chinensis and Atlantic S. teuszii. Significant intra- and interspecific differences in the genus Sousa were also observed, indicating that animal vocalization may not be limited by genetically determined traits but could also be a function of local habitat adaptation.

  5. Diversity and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Larix chinensis across the alpine treeline ecotone of Taibai Mountain.

    PubMed

    Han, Qisheng; Huang, Jian; Long, Dongfeng; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-07-01

    Alpine treeline ecotones represent ecosystems that are vulnerable to climate change. We investigated the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community, which has potential to stabilize alpine ecosystems. ECM communities associated with Larix chinensis were studied in four zones along a natural ecotone from a mixed forest stand over pure forest stands, the timberline, and eventually, the treeline (3050-3450 m) in Tabai Mountain, China. Sixty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of ECM fungi were identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer of ECM tips. The richness of ECM species increased with elevation. The soil C/N ratio was the most important factor explaining ECM species richness. The treeline zone harbored some unique ECM fungi whereas no unique genera were observed in the timberline and pure forest zone. Elevation and topography were equally important factors influencing ECM communities in the alpine region. We suggest that a higher diversity of the ECM fungal community associated with L. chinensis in the treeline zone could result from niche differentiation.

  6. Echolocation signals of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Li, Songhai; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Zhitao; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Ding

    2015-09-01

    While the low-frequency communication sounds of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have been reported in a number of papers, the high-frequency echolocation signals of Sousa chinensis, especially those living in the wild, have been less studied. In the current study, echolocation signals of humpback dolphins were recorded in Sanniang Bay, Guangxi Province, China, using a cross-type hydrophone array with five elements. In total, 77 candidate on-axis clicks from 77 scans were selected for analysis. The results showed that the varied peak-to-peak source levels ranged from 177.1 to 207.3 dB, with an average of 187.7 dB re: 1 μPa. The mean peak frequency was 109.0 kHz with a -3-dB bandwidth of 50.3 kHz and 95% energy duration of 22 μs. The -3-dB bandwidth was much broader than the root mean square bandwidth and exhibited a bimodal distribution. The center frequency exhibited a positive relationship with the peak-to-peak source level. The clicks of the wild Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were short-duration, broadband, ultrasonic pulses, similar to those produced by other whistling dolphins of similar body size. However, the click source levels of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin appear to be lower than those of other whistling dolphins.

  7. [Identification characters of leaf morphological and venation pattern of Houttuynia cordata with its confused herb Gymnotheca chinensis].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Lin; Guo, Min; Liao, Yue-Kui; Huang, Ding-Ying; Huang, Chun-Ni; Wu, Xiao-Chen; He, Bao-Zuo

    2012-11-01

    To study the identification characters of Houttuynia cordata and its confused herb Gymnotheca chinensis and establish an identification method. LMVP (leaf morphological-venation pattern for identification Chinese herbs), and QAERM (quantitatively analyze and evaluate reliability for the method of identification Chinese herbs) were applied for the study. Both venations were brochidodromous-acrodromous and arising from the mid-petiole or the upper section of petiole. The main characteristic of the leaf of Houttuynia cordata: surface with small gray-white stoma protuberances; Ligulate process of stipule-petiole sheath were clear; Primary veins 7 or 5; The innermost pair of primary vein closed up the top of the sinus at blade base or above sinus, and the section of closed vein was straight; Emitted a smell of fish when fresh leaf was kneaded into pieces. The main feature of the leaf of Gymnotheca chinensis: no small gray-white stoma protuberances; Ligulate process of stipule-petiole sheath were not clear; Primary veins 5; The innermost pair of primary vein closed into the sinus at blade base, and the section of closed vein was slightly curve; No smell of fish. With the mentioned key differences, the both plants could be successfully identified from each other. The accuracy of identification results (AC) was 100%, the repeatability of identification results: agreement rate for observation (ARO) was 100% and Kappa value was 1.00. The established method is simple, rapid, economic and reliable.

  8. Species presence frequency and diversity in different patch types along an altitudinal gradient: Larix chinensis Beissn in Qinling Mountains (China).

    PubMed

    Huang, Minyi; Duan, Renyan; Wang, Shixiong; Wang, Zhigao; Fan, Weiyi

    2016-01-01

    Forest communities are mosaic systems composed of patches classified into four different developmental patch types: gap patch (G), building patch (B), mature patch (M) and degenerate patch (D). To study the mechanisms maintaining diversity in subalpine coniferous forests, species presence frequency and diversity in the four distinct patch types (G, B, M and D) of Larix chinensis conifer forests at three altitudinal gradients in the Qinling Mountains were analyzed. Our results were as follows: (1) Different species (or functional groups) had distinct presence frequencies in the four different patch types along the altitudinal gradient; (2) Some species or functional groups (species groups sharing similar traits and responses to the environment) only occurred in some specific patches. For seed dispersal, species using wind mainly occurred in G and D, while species using small animals mainly occurred in B and M; (3) Species composition of adjacent patch types was more similar than non-adjacent patch types, based on the lower β diversity index of the former; (4) The maximum numbers of species and two diversity indices (D' and H') were found in the middle altitudes. Various gap-forming processes and dispersal limitation may be the two major mechanisms determining species diversity in Larix chinensis coniferous forests at the patch scale.

  9. Essential oils of Cupressus funebris, Juniperus communis, and J. chinensis (Cupressaceae) as repellents against ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and as toxicants against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Carroll, John F; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kramer, Matthew; Elejalde, Natasha M; Wedge, David E; Bernier, Ulrich R; Coy, Monique; Becnel, James J; Demirci, Betul; Başer, Kemal Husnu Can; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Sui

    2011-12-01

    Juniperus communis leaf oil, J. chinensis wood oil, and Cupressus funebris wood oil (Cupressaceae) from China were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified 104 compounds, representing 66.8-95.5% of the oils. The major components were: α-pinene (27.0%), α-terpinene (14.0%), and linalool (10.9%) for J. communis; cuparene (11.3%) and δ-cadinene (7.8%) for J. chinensis; and α-cedrene (16.9%), cedrol (7.6%), and β-cedrene (5.7%) for C. funebris. The essential oils of C. funebris, J. chinensis, and J. communis were evaluated for repellency against adult yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.), host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), and the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and for toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae and adults, all in laboratory bioassays. All the oils were repellent to both species of ticks. The EC(95) values of C. funebris, J. communis, and J. chinensis against A. americanum were 0.426, 0.508, and 0.917 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper, respectively, compared to 0.683 mg deet/cm(2) filter paper. All I. scapularis nymphs were repelled by 0.103 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper of C. funebris oil. At 4 h after application, 0.827 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper, C. funebris and J. chinensis oils repelled ≥80% of A. americanum nymphs. The oils of C. funebris and J. chinensis did not prevent female Ae. aegypti from biting at the highest dosage tested (1.500 mg/cm(2) ). However, the oil of J. communis had a Minimum Effective Dosage (estimate of ED(99) ) for repellency of 0.029 ± 0.018 mg/cm(2) ; this oil was nearly as potent as deet. The oil of J. chinensis showed a mild ability to kill Ae. aegypti larvae, at 80 and 100% at 125 and 250 ppm, respectively. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  10. Comparisons of Growth and Survival Performance Among Selected Families and Wild Populations of Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Kun; Kong, Jie; Meng, Xianhong; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Chen, Baolong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, families of selected population for growth (SP_BWT), selected population for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistance (SP_RW), Bohai wild population (WP_BH) and Huanghai wild population (WP_HH) of F. chinensis were constructed through artificial insemination and with the standardized procedure of larvae rearing. Growth and survival performance were studied among four populations after a 70 days common test. The results showed that the maximum least square mean of body weight was 17.50 g in SP_BWT while the minimum was 13.03 g in WP_HH. Compared with WP_BH, body weight of SP_BWT increased by 23.41% ( P < 0.01) and that of SP_RW by 12.20% ( P > 0.05). Body weights of SP_BWT and SP_RW were significantly higher than that of WP_HH, which increased by 34.31% ( P < 0.01) and 22.10% ( P < 0.05), respectively. The mean AGR of four populations was 0.19, 0.18, 0.17 and 0.16 g d-1, respectively. Coefficient of variation of body weight among four populations was high, which ranged from 32.67% to 35.25%. Such a range showed that there was the potentiality for further improvement in selected populations. Coefficient of variation of survival rate among four populations was low, varying between 3.20% and 5.90%. The difference of survival was highly significant ( P < 0.01) between SP_BWT and WP_BH, and significant ( P < 0.05) between SP_RW and WP_BH. However, no significant difference among other populations ( P < 0.05) was observed. Different growth performances were also observed among different families in each population. The body weight of 798F family was the highest. The absolute growth rate (AGR) was 0.25 g d-1, 150% higher than that of the lowest one, 0.1 g d-1 in 807F family. Survival rate of families among four populations was different. The highest was 94.74%, and the lowest was 71.88%.

  11. The impact of mangiferin from Belamcanda chinensis on experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Szandruk, Marta; Merwid-Ląd, Anna; Szeląg, Adam

    2018-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)] constitutes an important clinical problem. The pathogenesis of IBD remains unclear. It is believed that immune dysfunction, inflammatory mediators and oxidative damage play crucial roles in development of IBD. The condition is clinically associated with symptoms ranging from mild to severe during relapses, depending on the affected segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Bloody diarrhea with mucus, abdominal pain, weight loss and anemia are initial symptoms of both CD and UC. Differences between diseases become more evident in time, along with the development of intestinal and extraintestinal complications. Mangiferin (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C-2-β-D-glucoside), a natural polyphenol in plants, exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects making it an interesting option for the treatment of inflammatory pathologies associated with oxidative stress in humans, such as IBD. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the impact of mangiferin on colon tissues in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Mangiferin was obtained from Belamcanda chinensis rhizomes by a multistage process. Groups of rats were pre-treated with 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg of mangiferin, or with distilled water administered intragastrically for 16 days. An ethanol solution of TNBS or saline was given rectally on the day 15 of the experiment. The experiment was terminated on the day 17. The colon was removed, cleaned, weighed and examined macro- and microscopically. Determination of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 17 (IL-17), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were performed spectrophotometrically in homogenates of colon tissues. Rats in the TNBS group developed symptoms of colitis, including: body weight loss, colon mass index increase and damage of intestinal tissues with concomitant increase in TNF-α, IL-17, MDA levels

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Taxillusi chinensis (DC.) Danser Seeds in Response to Water Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shugen; Ma, Xiaojun; Pan, Limei; Miao, Jianhua; Fu, Jine; Bai, Longhua; Zhang, Zhonglian; Guan, Yanhong; Mo, Changming; Huang, Hao; Chen, Maoshan

    2017-01-01

    Background Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Danser, the official species of parasitic loranthus that grows by parasitizing other plants, is used in various traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways are two major pathways in response to drought stress for plants and some genes have been reported to play a key role during the dehydration including dehydration-responsive protein RD22, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, and various transcription factors (TFs) like MYB and WRKY. However, genes responding to dehydration are still unknown in loranthus. Methods and Results Initially, loranthus seeds were characterized as recalcitrant seeds. Then, biological replicates of fresh loranthus seeds (CK), and seeds after being dehydrated for 16 hours (Tac-16) and 36 hours (Tac-36) were sequenced by RNA-Seq, generating 386,542,846 high quality reads. A total of 164,546 transcripts corresponding to 114,971 genes were assembled by Trinity and annotated by mapping them to NCBI non-redundant (NR), UniProt, GO, KEGG pathway and COG databases. Transcriptome profiling identified 60,695, 56,027 and 66,389 transcripts (>1 FPKM) in CK, Tac-16 and Tac-36, respectively. Compared to CK, we obtained 2,102 up-regulated and 1,344 down-regulated transcripts in Tac-16 and 1,649 up-regulated and 2,135 down-regulated transcripts in Tac-36 by using edgeR. Among them some have been reported to function in dehydration process, such as RD22, heat shock proteins (HSP) and various TFs (MYB, WRKY and ethylene-responsive transcription factors). Interestingly, transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins peaked in Tac-16. It is indicated that HSPs and ribosomal proteins may function in early response to drought stress. Raw sequencing data can be accessed in NCBI SRA platform under the accession number SRA309567. Conclusions This is the first time to profile transcriptome globally in loranthus seeds. Our findings provide insights into the gene regulations of loranthus

  13. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in Rural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis. PMID:25295297

  14. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  15. Dynamic changes in DNA demethylation in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) brain during postnatal development and aging.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu; Hua, Hai-Rong; Chen, Qian-Quan; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Fei; Li, Shu-Qing; Li, Fan; Li, Jia-Li

    2017-03-18

    Brain development and aging are associated with alterations in multiple epigenetic systems, including DNA methylation and demethylation patterns. Here, we observed that the levels of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzyme-mediated active DNA demethylation products were dynamically changed and involved in postnatal brain development and aging in tree shrews ( Tupaia belangeri chinensis ). The levels of 5hmC in multiple anatomic structures showed a gradual increase throughout postnatal development, whereas a significant decrease in 5hmC was found in several brain regions in aged tree shrews, including in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, but not the cerebellum. Active changes in Tet mRNA levels indicated that TET2 and TET3 predominantly contributed to the changes in 5hmC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the dynamic changes in 5hmC levels in tree shrew brains during postnatal development and aging processes.

  16. Isolation and anti-hepatitis B virus activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yongbo; Li, Xifeng; Du, Xue; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Weiguang; Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Jijun; Pu, Jianxin; Sun, Handong

    2015-08-01

    Seven lignans with a dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton, termed schinlignans A-G, and a 6,7-seco-homolignan, schischinone, together with seven known lignans, were isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, IR, UV, and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, COSY, and HMBC experiments). The stereochemistry at the chiral centers and the biphenyl moiety, were determined using ROESY, as well as via interpretation of their ECD spectra. Schinlignan G and methylgomisin O exhibited potent anti-hepatitis B virus activity against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 5.13 and 5.49μgmL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Echinostoma macrorchis (Digenea: Echinostomatidae): Metacercariae in Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata Snails and Adults from Experimental Rats in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2017-10-01

    A survey was performed to know the infection status of echinostome metacercariae in Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata snails from Korea. Total 75 snails collected in 5 localities, i.e., Imsil-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Hwasun-gun and Shinan-gun (Aphae and Jido), Jeollanam-do, and Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, were examined for metacercariae by the artificial digestion method. Infection rates of metacercariae were 80.0%, 66.7%, 100%, 60.0%, and 73.3%, and their densities were 39, 32, 183, 19, and 30 per snail infected, respectively. The metacercariae were round, 105-118×105-118 μm in size, with a thin cyst wall, collar spines on the head collar, and excretory granules in 2 canals of excretory tube. Adult flukes were elongated, ventrally curved, and 5,167×939 μm in average size. Head collar distinct, bearing 45 collar spines with 5 end groups on each side. Oral sucker subterminal, pharynx well developed, and esophagus somewhat short. Cirrus sac well developed, with a saccular seminal vesicle, and ventral sucker very large. Ovary elliptical and on the median line of the body. Testes tandem and slightly lobed. Eggs operculated, elliptical, and 90-103×55-60 μm in size. By scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent with 45 collar spines resembling horns of younger stags. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the body surface between the head collar and ventral sucker. Conclusively, it has been first confirmed that the life cycle of E. macrorchis is indigenously maintained in Korea, and C. chinensis malleata snails are popularly infected with the metacercariae of this echinostome.

  18. Echinostoma macrorchis (Digenea: Echinostomatidae): Metacercariae in Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata Snails and Adults from Experimental Rats in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    A survey was performed to know the infection status of echinostome metacercariae in Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata snails from Korea. Total 75 snails collected in 5 localities, i.e., Imsil-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Hwasun-gun and Shinan-gun (Aphae and Jido), Jeollanam-do, and Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, were examined for metacercariae by the artificial digestion method. Infection rates of metacercariae were 80.0%, 66.7%, 100%, 60.0%, and 73.3%, and their densities were 39, 32, 183, 19, and 30 per snail infected, respectively. The metacercariae were round, 105–118×105–118 μm in size, with a thin cyst wall, collar spines on the head collar, and excretory granules in 2 canals of excretory tube. Adult flukes were elongated, ventrally curved, and 5,167×939 μm in average size. Head collar distinct, bearing 45 collar spines with 5 end groups on each side. Oral sucker subterminal, pharynx well developed, and esophagus somewhat short. Cirrus sac well developed, with a saccular seminal vesicle, and ventral sucker very large. Ovary elliptical and on the median line of the body. Testes tandem and slightly lobed. Eggs operculated, elliptical, and 90–103×55–60 μm in size. By scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent with 45 collar spines resembling horns of younger stags. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the body surface between the head collar and ventral sucker. Conclusively, it has been first confirmed that the life cycle of E. macrorchis is indigenously maintained in Korea, and C. chinensis malleata snails are popularly infected with the metacercariae of this echinostome. PMID:29103269

  19. Incubation temperature fluctuation does not affect incubation length and hatchling phenotype in the Chinese skink Plestiodon chinensis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan-Fu; Lu, Hong-Liang; Li, Hong; Ji, Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Studies examining the effects of incubation temperature fluctuation on the phenotype of hatchling reptiles have shown species variation. To examine whether incubation temperature fluctuation has a key role in influencing the phenotype of hatchling Chinese skinks (Plestiodon chinensis), we incubated eggs produced by 20 females under five thermal regimes (treatments). Eggs in three treatments were incubated in three incubators, one set constant at 27°C and two ramp-programmed at 27 ± 3°C and 27 ± 5°C on a cycle of 12h (+) and 12h (-). The remaining eggs were incubated in two chambers: one inside a room where temperatures varied from 23.0 to 31.1°C, with a mean of 27.0°C; the other outside the room where temperatures varied from 20.2 to 35.3°C, with a mean of 26.1°C. We found that: (1) for eggs at a given embryonic stage at ovipositon, the mean rather than the variance of incubation temperatures determined the length of incubation; (2) most (egg mass, embryonic stage at oviposition, incubation length and all examined hatchling traits except tail length and locomotor performance) of the examined variables were affected by clutch; and (3) body mass was the only hatchling trait that differed among the five treatments, but the differences were tiny. These findings suggest that incubation temperature fluctuation has no direct role in influencing incubation length and hatchling phenotype in P. chinensis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical analysis and biological activity of the essential oils of two valerianaceous species from China: Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jihua; Zhao, Jianglin; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhilong; Wang, Jingguo; Han, Jianguo; Yu, Zhu; Yang, Fuyu

    2010-09-14

    In order to investigate essential oils with biological activity from local wild plants, two valerianaceous species, Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis, were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The essential oils were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of the two plants by hydro-distillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Calarene (25.31%), aristolone (13.35%), α-selinene (7.32%) and β-maaliene (6.70%) were the major compounds of the 23 identified components which accounted for 92.76% of the total oil of N. chinensis. Patchoulol (16.75%), α-pinene (14.81%), and β-humulene (8.19%) were the major compounds among the 20 identified components, which accounted for 88.11% of the total oil of V. officinalis. Both oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as well as their oxygenated derivatives. Essential oils were shown to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with MIC values that ranged from 62.5 μg/mL to 400 μg/mL, and IC(50) values from 36.93 μg/mL to 374.72 μg/mL. The oils were also shown to have moderate antifungal activity to Candida albicans growth as well as inhibition of spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Two essential oils were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and ferrozine-ferrous ions assays, respectively, to show moderate antioxidant activity. Results suggest that the isolated essential oils could be used for future development of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  1. Influence of white spot syndrome virus infection on hepatopancreas gene expression of `Huanghai No. 2' shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xianhong; Shi, Xiaoli; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Cao, Baoxiang; Liu, Ning; Lu, Xia; Li, Xupeng; Deng, Kangyu; Cao, Jiawang; Zhang, Yingxue; Zhang, Hengheng

    2017-10-01

    To elucidate the molecular response of shrimp hepatopancreas to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, microarray was applied to investigate the differentially expressed genes in the hepatopancreas of `Huanghai No. 2' ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis). A total of 59137 unigenes were designed onto a custom-made 60K Agilent chip. After infection, the gene expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp with a lower viral load at early (48-96 h), peak (168-192 h) and late (264-288 h) infection phases were analyzed. Of 18704 differentially expressed genes, 6412 were annotated. In total, 5453 differentially expressed genes (1916 annotated) expressed at all three phases, and most of the annotated were either up- or down-regulated continuously. These genes function diversely in, for example, immune response, cytoskeletal system, signal transduction, stress resistance, protein synthesis and processing, metabolism among others. Some of the immune-related genes, including antilipopolysaccharide factor, Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor, C-type lectin and serine protease encoding genes, were up-regulated after WSSV infection. These genes have been reported to be involved in the anti-WSSV responses. The expression of genes related to the cytoskeletal system, including β-actin and myosin but without tubulin genes, were down-regulated after WSSV infection. Astakine was found for the first time in the WSSV-infected F. chinensis. To further confirm the expression of differentially expressed genes, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to test the expression of eight randomly selected genes and verified the reliability and accuracy of the microarray expression analysis. The data will provide valuable information to understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp's response to WSSV.

  2. Actinidia chinensis planch polysaccharide protects against hypoxia‑induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Xu, Yunfa; Gao, Ying; Wang, Qi

    2018-05-03

    Cardiac hypertrophy is frequently accompanied by ischemic heart disease. Actinidia chinensis planch polysaccharide (ACP) is the main active compound from Actinidia chinensis planch. In the present study, a cardiac hypertrophy model was produced by treating cells with Angiotensin II (Ang II), which was used to investigate whether ACP protected against cardiac hypertrophy in vitro. It was demonstrated that ACP alleviated Ang II‑induced cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, pretreatment with ACP prior to hypoxic culture reduced the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential as investigated by flow cytometry. Cell Counting kit‑8 analysis demonstrated that ACP maintained the cell viability of cardiomyocytes. The flow cytometric analysis revealed that ACP inhibited hypoxia‑induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes treated with Ang II. Additionally, reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays demonstrated that ACP decreased the expression of apoptosis‑associated genes including apoptosis‑inducing factor mitochondria associated 1, the cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinases caspases‑3/8/9, and cleaved caspases‑3/8/9. The results of the present study also demonstrated that ACP inhibited the activation of the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathways. Furthermore, the specific activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT reversed the apoptotic‑inhibitory effect of ACP. In conclusion, the protective effects of ACP against hypoxia‑induced apoptosis may depend on depressing the ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes treated with Ang II.

  3. Effect of Schisandra chinensis on interleukins, glucose metabolism, and pituitary-adrenal and gonadal axis in rats under strenuous swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Wang, Jian; Shao, Jia-Qing; Du, Hong; Wang, Yang-Tian; Peng, Li

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Chinese medicine (CM) Schisandra chinensis on interleukin (IL), glucose metabolism, and pituitary-adrenal and gonadal axis of rats after strenuous navigation and exercise. A total of 45 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into the quiet control group, the stress group, and the CM group (15 in each group). The CM group received 2.5 g/kg of Schisandra chinensis twice per day for one week before modeling. Except the quiet controls, rats were trained using the Bedford mode for 10 days. On the 11th day, they performed 3 h of stressful experimental navigation and 3 h of strenuous treadmill exercise. The levels of serum testosterone (T), cortisol (CORT), luteinizing hormone (LH), IL-1, IL-2, and IL-6 were tested by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The adrenal cortex ultrastructure was observed using electron microscopy. Compared with the quiet control group, after navigation and strenuous exercise, blood glucose was increased, and T level was decreased in the stress group (both P<0.01). The blood glucose, CORT, IL-1 and IL-2 levels were significantly reduced in the CM group (P<0.05 or P<0.01) as compared with the stress group. Electron microscopy revealed that the rats in the CM group had a smaller decrease in adrenal intracellular lipid droplets and higher levels of apoptosis than those in the stress group. Schisandra chinensis can reduce serum CORT and blood glucose levels in stressed rats. It appears to protect the cell structure of the adrenal cortex, and offset the negative effects of psychological stress and strenuous exercise related to immune dysfunction. Schisandra chinensis plays a regulatory role in immune function, and can decrease the influence of stress in rats.

  4. Organic acids on the growth, anatomical structure, biochemical parameters and heavy metal accumulation of Iris lactea var. chinensis seedling growing in Pb mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-Lin; Huang, Su-Zhen; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Jiu-Zhou; Gu, Ji-Guang

    2013-08-01

    The effect of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the growth, anatomical structure, physiological responses and lead (Pb) accumulation of Iris lactea var. chinensis seedling growing in Pb mine tailings for 30 days were studied. Results showed that the dry weights (DW) of roots decreased significantly under both levels of CA. The DWs of leaves and roots treated with 2 mmol/kg EDTA decreased significantly and were 23 and 54 %, respectively, lower than those of the control. The tolerant indexes of I. lactea var. chinensis under all treatments of organic acids were lower than control. The root tip anatomical structure was little affected under the treatments of 2 mmol/kg CA and 2 mmol/kg EDTA compared with control. However, the formation of photosynthesizing cells was inhibited by the treatment of 2 mmol/kg EDTA. The concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids in the leaves treated with 2 mmol/kg EDTA significantly decreased. Higher CA level and lower EDTA level could trigger the synthesis of ascorbic acid and higher level of EDTA could trigger the synthesis of glutathione. CA and EDTA could promote Pb accumulation of I. lactea var. chinensis and Pb concentration in the leaves and roots at 2 mmol/kg EDTA treatment increased significantly and reached to 160.44 and 936.08 μg/g DW, respectively, and 1.8 and 1.6 times higher than those of the control. The results indicated that I. lactea var. chinensis could be used to remediate Pb tailing and the role of EDTA in promoting Pb accumulation was better than CA did.

  5. Physiological and biochemical responses of Machilus ichangensis Rehd. et Wils and Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. to elevated O3 in subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Chen, Zhan; Shang, He; Cao, Jixin

    2017-07-01

    Considerable researches have documented the negative effects of ozone on woody species in North America and Europe; however, little is known about how woody tree species respond to elevated O 3 in subtropical China, and most of the previous studies were conducted using pot experiment. In the present study, Machilus ichangensis Rehd. et Wils (M. ichangensis) and Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. (T. chinensis), evergreen tree species in subtropical China, were exposed to non-filtered air (NF), 100 nmol mol -1 O 3 (E1) and 150 nmol mol -1 O 3 (E2), in open-top chambers under field conditions from 21st March to 2nd November 2015. In this study, O 3 fumigation significantly reduced net photosynthesis rate (Pn) in M. ichangensis in the three measurements and in T. chinensis in the last measurement. Also, non-stomatal factors should be primarily responsible for the decreased Pn. O 3 fumigation-induced increase in malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and reduced ascorbic acid levels indicated that antioxidant defense mechanism had been stimulated to prevent O 3 stress and repair the oxidative damage. Yet, the increase of antioxidant ability was not enough to counteract the harm of O 3 fumigation. Because of the decrease in CO 2 assimilation, the growth of the two tree species was restrained ultimately. The sensitivity of the two tree species to O 3 can be determined: M. ichangensis > T. chinensis. It suggests a close link between the rising O 3 concentrations and the health risk of some tree species in subtropics in the near future.

  6. Variations in the natural ¹⁵N abundance of Brassica chinensis grown in uncultivated soil affected by different nitrogen fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuwei; Hu, Guixian; Zhao, Ming; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Qiang

    2014-11-26

    To further investigate the method of using δ(15)N as a marker for organic vegetable discrimination, the effects of different fertilizers on the δ(15)N in different growing stages of Brassica chinensis (B. chinensis) grown in uncultivated soil were investigated with a pot experiment. B. chinensis was planted with uncultivated soil and different fertilizer treatments and then harvested three times in three seasons consecutively. For the spring experiments in the years of 2011 and 2012, the δ(15)N value of B. chinensis, which increased due to organic manure application and decreased due to chemical fertilizer application, was significantly different (p < 0.05) with manure treatment and chemical treatment. The δ(15)N value of vegetables varied among three growing stages and ranged from +8.6‰ to +11.5‰ for the control, from +8.6‰ to +12.8‰ for the compost chicken manure treatment, from +2.8‰ to +7.7‰ for the chemical fertilizer urea treatment, and from +7.7‰ to +10.9‰ for the compost-chemical fertilizer treatment. However, the δ(15)N values observed in the autumn experiment of 2011 without any fertilizer application increased ranging from +13.4‰ to +15.4‰, + 11.2‰ to +17.7‰, +10.7‰ to +17.1‰, and +10.6‰ to +19.1‰, respectively, for the same treatments mentioned above. This result was not significantly different between manure treatment and chemical treatment. The δ(15)N values of soil obtained in the spring of 2011 during three growing stages were slightly affected by fertilizers and varied in the range of +1.6‰ to +2.5‰ for CK, +4.7‰ to +6.5‰ for compost treatment, +2.1‰ to +2.4‰ for chemical treatment, and +2.7‰ to +4.6‰ for chemical-compost treatment, respectively. High δ(15)N values of B. chinensis were observed in these experiments, which would be useful to supplement a δ(15)N database for discriminating organic vegetables. Although there was a significant difference between manure treatment and chemical

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus inoculation reduces the drought-resistance advantage of endophyte-infected versus endophyte-free Leymus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Wei; Wu, Man; Wu, Rihan; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Yubao; Ren, Anzhi

    2017-11-01

    Grasses can be infected simultaneously by endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endophyte-associated drought resistance of a native grass was affected by an AM fungus. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared the performance of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Leymus chinensis, a dominant species native to the Inner Mongolia steppe, under altered water and AM fungus availability. The results showed that endophyte infection significantly increased drought resistance of the host grass, but the beneficial effects were reduced by AM fungus inoculation. In the mycorrhizal-non-inoculated (MF) treatment, EI plants accumulated significantly more biomass, had greater proline and total phenolic concentration, and lower malondialdehyde concentration than EF plants. In the mycorrhizal-inoculation (MI) treatment, however, no significant difference occurred in either growth or physiological characters measured between EI and EF plants. AM fungus inoculation enhanced drought resistance of EF plants but had no significant effect on drought resistance of EI plants, thus AM fungus inoculation reduced the difference between EI and EF plants. Our findings highlight the importance of interactions among multiple microorganisms for plant performance under drought stress.

  8. Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northern Beibu Gulf, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyao; Xu, Xinrong; Jefferson, Thomas A; Olson, Paula A; Qin, Qiurong; Zhang, Hongke; He, Liwen; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    There has been very little previous research on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Beibu Gulf of southern China. Here, we report on the population size, habitat and ecology, threats, and overall conservation status of this putative population. 'Population size' was estimated based on photo-identification mark/recapture analysis. It was estimated to number a total of 398-444 individuals (95% CI: 393-506), with two apparently distinct groups in the Dafengjiang-Nanliujiang Estuary and at Shatian-Caotan. Movements of dolphins in the Beibu Gulf appear to be limited, with high site fidelity. These dolphins were found to occur mainly in shallow coastal waters near estuaries. The main threats are fisheries interactions (including by-catch), vessel traffic, mariculture operations, dolphin-watching tourism, and habitat degradation (including marine construction activities and large-scale land reclamation). Although the conservation status of this putative population has been considered to be better than that of other populations of the species in more northern areas of China, there is still reason for strong concern about its future, and several management recommendations are made. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and characterization of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Yu, Dandan; Wu, Yong; Xu, Ling; Fan, Yu; Peng, Li; Xu, Min; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-07-01

    In mammals, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. Comparison of the TLRs in different mammals may help in understanding the TLR-mediated responses and developing of animal models and efficient therapeutic measures for infectious diseases. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small mammal with a close relationship to primates, is a viable experimental animal for studying viral and bacterial infections. In this study, we characterized the TLRs genes (tTLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew and identified 13 putative TLRs, which are orthologs of mammalian TLR1-TLR9 and TLR11-TLR13, and TLR10 was a pseudogene in tree shrew. Positive selection analyses using the Maximum likelihood (ML) method showed that tTLR8 and tTLR9 were under positive selection, which might be associated with the adaptation to the pathogen challenge. The mRNA expression levels of tTLRs presented an overall low and tissue-specific pattern, and were significantly upregulated upon Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. tTLR4 and tTLR9 underwent alternative splicing, which leads to different transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis and TLR structure prediction indicated that tTLRs were evolutionarily conserved, which might reflect an ancient mechanism and structure in the innate immune response system. Taken together, TLRs had both conserved and unique features in the Chinese tree shrew. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Nandita; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad; Fardous, Zeenath; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ash, moisture, and total sugar content) of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), mustard (Brassica juncea), and litchi (Litchi chinensis) honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness. PMID:26618176

  11. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Nandita; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad; Fardous, Zeenath; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ash, moisture, and total sugar content) of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), mustard (Brassica juncea), and litchi (Litchi chinensis) honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness.

  12. Two rare species of tylenchids, Discotylenchus biannulatus n. sp. and Labrys chinensis Qing Bert, 2018 (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from western Iran.

    PubMed

    Konani, Ehsan; Panahandeh, Yousef; Pourjam, Ebrahim; Álvarez-Ortega, Sergio; Pedram, Majid

    2018-04-23

    Two rare species of the family Tylenchidae are described and illustrated based on morphological and morphometric characters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies provided details of anterior end structures, helpful in generic identification of the studied populations. Discotylenchus biannulatus n. sp. is characterized by its dorso-ventrally flattened smooth cephalic region having two proximal annuli and a rectangular perioral disc, short longitudinal amphidial slits, lateral field with four incisures, stylet 9-10 μm long, with the conus shorter than half the total stylet length and with posteriorly directed knobs, well-developed median bulb, mono-prodelphic reproductive system with rounded empty spermatheca and short postvulval uterine sac (PUS), and filiform tail with pointed end. It is compared with other species of Discotylenchus having four lines in the lateral field. The Iranian population of Labrys chinensis is characterized by its long and slender (a = 45.2-57.2) body, smooth rounded cephalic region and an offset disc-like apical labial plate, short longitudinal lateral amphidial slits, lateral field with two incisures, moderately developed stylet with the conus less than half the total length and posteriorly directed knobs, median bulb fusiform with distinct but weak valve, gradually joining the isthmus, vulva at 57.2-59.1% with small flaps, elongate conoid tail, uniformly and slightly narrowing toward end with broadly rounded terminus and rare males. The minor morphological differences of the recovered population with the type population are discussed.

  13. A UPLC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics study of rattan stems of Schisandra chinensis effects on Alzheimer's disease rats model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-You; Tan, Jin-Yan; Liu, Yan; Liu, Bo; Jin, Shuang; Guo, Hong-Wei; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2018-02-01

    A UPLC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics method was established to explore the therapeutic mechanisms of rattan stems of S. chinensis (SCS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental AD model was induced by intra-hippocampal Aβ 1-42 injection in rats. Cognitive function and oxidative stress condition in brain of AD rats were assessed using Morris water maze tests and antioxidant assays [malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)], respectively. UPLC-TOF/MS combined with multivariate statistical analysis were conducted to study the changes in metabolic networks in serum of rats. The results indicated that the AD model was established successfully and the inducement of Aβ 1-42 caused a decline in spatial learning and memory of rats. The injection of Aβ 1-42 in rat brains significantly elevated the level of MDA, and reduced SOD and GSH-Px activities. In addition, SCS showed significant anti-AD effects on model rats. A total of 30 metabolites were finally identified as potential biomarkers of AD and 14 of them had a significant recovery compared with the AD model after SCS administration. Changes in AD metabolite profiling were restored to different levels through the regulation of 13 pathways. This is first report on the use of the UPLC-TOF/MS-based serum metabolomics method to investigate therapeutic effects of SCS on AD, and enrich potential biomarkers and metabolic networks of AD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Dynamic Growth Exhibition and Accumulation of Cadmium of Pak Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) Grown in Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), in leafy vegetables was compared with other vegetables. Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) is a leafy vegetable consumed in Taiwan and its safety for consumption after growing in contaminated soils is a public concern. A pot experiment (50 days) was conducted to understand the dynamic accumulation of Cd by pak choi grown in artificially contaminated soils. The edible parts of pak choi were sampled and analyzed every 2–3 days. The dry weight (DW) of pak choi was an exponential function of leaf length, leaf width, and chlorophyll content. The accumulation of Cd increased when the soil Cd concentration was raised, but was kept at a constant level during different growth stages. Pak choi had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = ratio of the concentration in the edible parts to that in the soils), at values of 3.5–4.0. The consumption of pak choi grown in soils contaminated at levels used in this study would result in the ingestion of impermissible amounts of Cd and could possibly have harmful effects on health. PMID:24284350

  15. LcMCII-1 is involved in the ROS-dependent senescence of the rudimentary leaves of Litchi chinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congcong; Lü, Peitao; Zhong, Silin; Chen, Houbin; Zhou, Biyan

    2017-01-01

    LcMCII - 1 is a type II metacaspase. Over-expression of LcMCII- 1 in Arabidopsis promoted ROS-dependent and natural senescence. Virus-induced LcMCII- 1 silencing delayed the ROS-dependent senescence of the rudimentary leaves of Litchi chinensis . Litchi is an evergreen woody fruit tree that is widely cultivated in subtropical and tropical regions. Its floral buds are mixed with axillary or apical panicle primordia, leaf primordia and rudimentary leaves. A low spring temperature is vital for litchi production as it promotes the abscission of the rudimentary leaves, which could otherwise prevent panicle development. Hence, climate change could present additional challenges for litchi production. We previously reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can substitute low-temperature treatment to induce the senescence of rudimentary leaves. We have now identified from RNA-Seq data a litchi type II metacaspase gene, LcMCII-1, that is responsive to ROS. Silencing LcMCII-1 by virus-induced gene silencing delayed ROS-dependent senescence. The ectopic over-expression of LcMCII-1 in transgenic Arabidopsis promoted ROS-dependent and natural senescence. Consistently, the transient expression of LcMCII-1 in tobacco leaf by agroinfiltration resulted in leaf yellowing. Our findings demonstrate that LcMCII-1 is positively involved in the regulation of rudimentary leaf senescence in litchi and provide a new target for the future molecular breeding of new cultivars that can set fruit in warmer climates.

  16. Ameliorative Effects of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on Alcoholic Liver Oxidative Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:25622257

  17. Elevation of secondary metabolites synthesis in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis L. via exogenous inoculation of Piriformospora indica with appropriate fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Muhammad; Hassani, Danial; Bilal, Muhammad; Liao, Jianli

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the impact of exogenous soil inoculation of beneficial fungal strain Piriformospora indica on phytochemical changes and the related genes expression of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis L.) by greenhouse pot experiments. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) affirmed that among the different combinations of fungal and organic fertilizer treatments, the phenolic acids and flavonoids were considerably enriched in organic fertilizer and fungi (OP) followed by organic fertilizer, biochar, fungi (OBP) treated plants. The antiradical activity was higher in OP (61.29%) followed by P (60%) and organic fertilizer (OF) (53.84%) inoculated plants which positively correlated with chlorophyll, carotenoids and flavonoids level (P<0.05). Furthermore, results showed that the exogenous application of P. indica significantly (P<0.05) enhanced plant growth, as well as stimulating the activation of chlorophyll, carotenoids and other antioxidant related pathways. The RT-qPCR analysis indicated that key FLS gene triggering the synthesis of kaemferol was up-regulated by the inoculation of P. indica. In conclusion, the results revealed that organic fertilizer and P. indica (OP) is the most appropriate combination for improving phytochemical and antiradical properties in Pakchoi. PMID:28493970

  18. Enhancing shelf life of litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit through integrated approach of surface coating and gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Neha; Joshi, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, C. P.; Kumar, Surendra; Rajput, Sanjay; Khandal, R. K.

    2013-04-01

    India and China account for 91% of the world's litchi (Litchi chinensis) production. Although India is the second largest producer of litchi, its contribution to export is insignificant. Litchi being non-climacteric fruit possesses poor shelf life and fruit quality declines rapidly after harvest. Present investigation was an attempt to enhance shelf life of litchi fruit var. rose scented with integrated treatments of 1% NaCl solution, 2% wax solution and gamma radiation. Out of all, 1% NaCl coated+irradiated samples, proved out to be the best with enhanced shelf life of 24 days at 4 °C (shelf life at ambient temperature without any treatment being 3-4 days). Various biochemical parameters were tested and organoleptic evaluation was done to judge the acceptability of the stored litchi samples. TSS, vitamin C, total & reducing sugar content was found in range of 14.17-15.42°Bx; 35.67-57.88 mg/100 gm pulp weight, 12.44-14.06% and 9.41-11.91%. Organoleptic evaluation for different parameters ranged from 5.92 to 7.72 (fair-good) at 24th day of storage. Radiation dose of 1 kGy was found to be the only effective dose in which enhanced shelf life was achieved without any deterioration of various quality attributes.

  19. Transcriptome analyses provide insights into the difference of alkaloids biosynthesis in the Chinese goldthread (Coptis chinensis Franch.) from different biotopes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanting; Deng, Cao; Nie, Hu; Fan, Gang; He, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Coptis chinensis Franch., the Chinese goldthread ('Weilian' in Chinese), one of the most important medicinal plants from the family Ranunculaceae, and its rhizome has been widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries. Here, we analyzed the chemical components and the transcriptome of the Chinese goldthread from three biotopes, including Zhenping, Zunyi and Shizhu. We built comprehensive, high-quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of the Chinese goldthread from short-read RNA-Sequencing data, obtaining 155,710 transcripts and 56,071 unigenes. More than 98.39% and 95.97% of core eukaryotic genes were found in the transcripts and unigenes respectively, indicating that this unigene set capture the majority of the coding genes. A total of 520,462, 493,718, and 507,247 heterozygous SNPs were identified in the three accessions from Zhenping, Zunyi, and Shizhu respectively, indicating high polymorphism in coding regions of the Chinese goldthread (∼1%). Chemical analyses of the rhizome identified six major components, including berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, columbamine, and jatrorrhizine. Berberine has the highest concentrations, followed by coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine sequentially for all the three accessions. The drug quality of the accession from Shizhu may be the highest among these accessions. Differential analyses of the transcriptome identified four pivotal candidate enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferaseprotein, polyphenol oxidase, primary-amine oxidase, and tyrosine decarboxylase, were significantly differentially expressed and may be responsible for the difference of alkaloids contents in the accessions from different biotopes.

  20. Promoting Effects of a Single Rhodopseudomonas palustris Inoculant on Plant Growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under Low Fertilizer Input

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-01-01

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×106 CFU g−1 soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture. PMID:25130882

  1. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Hong Kong: Modelling demographic parameters with mark-recapture techniques.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stephen C Y; Karczmarski, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting Hong Kong waters are thought to be among the world's most anthropogenically impacted coastal delphinids. We have conducted a 5-year (2010-2014) photo-ID study and performed the first in this region comprehensive mark-recapture analysis applying a suite of open population models and robust design models. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models suggested a significant transient effect and seasonal variation in apparent survival probabilities as result of a fluid movement beyond the study area. Given the spatial restrictions of our study, limited by an administrative border, if emigration was to be considered negligible the estimated survival rate of adults was 0.980. Super-population estimates indicated that at least 368 dolphins used Hong Kong waters as part of their range. Closed robust design models suggested an influx of dolphins from winter to summer and increased site fidelity in summer; and outflux, although less prominent, during summer-winter intervals. Abundance estimates in summer (N = 144-231) were higher than that in winter (N = 87-111), corresponding to the availability of prey resources which in Hong Kong waters peaks during summer months. We point out that the current population monitoring strategy used by the Hong Kong authorities is ill-suited for a timely detection of a population change and should be revised.

  2. Spatiotemporal Trends of Heavy Metals in Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Western Pearl River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Ri-Qing; Karczmarski, Leszek; Ding, Yulong; Zhang, Haifei; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Wu, Yuping

    2017-02-07

    We assessed the spatiotemporal trends of the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (HMs) in the liver and kidney of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from western Pearl River Estuary (PRE) during 2004-2015. The hepatic levels of Cr, As, and Cu in these dolphins were among the highest reported for cetaceans globally, and the levels of Zn, Cu, and Hg were sufficiently high to cause toxicological effects in some of the animals. Between same age-sex groups, dolphins from Lingdingyang were significantly more contaminated with Hg, Se, and V than those from the West-four region, while the opposite was true for Cd. Generalized additive mixed models showed that most metals had significant but dissimilar temporal trends over a 10-year period. The concentrations of Cu and Zn increased significantly in recent years, corresponding to the high input of these metals in the region. Body-length-adjusted Cd levels peaked in 2012, accompanied by the highest annual number of dolphin stranding events. In contrast to the significant decrease in HM levels in the dolphins in Hong Kong waters (the eastern reaches of the PRE), the elevated metal exposure in the western PRE raises serious concerns.

  3. Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Hong Kong: Modelling demographic parameters with mark-recapture techniques

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting Hong Kong waters are thought to be among the world's most anthropogenically impacted coastal delphinids. We have conducted a 5-year (2010–2014) photo-ID study and performed the first in this region comprehensive mark-recapture analysis applying a suite of open population models and robust design models. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models suggested a significant transient effect and seasonal variation in apparent survival probabilities as result of a fluid movement beyond the study area. Given the spatial restrictions of our study, limited by an administrative border, if emigration was to be considered negligible the estimated survival rate of adults was 0.980. Super-population estimates indicated that at least 368 dolphins used Hong Kong waters as part of their range. Closed robust design models suggested an influx of dolphins from winter to summer and increased site fidelity in summer; and outflux, although less prominent, during summer-winter intervals. Abundance estimates in summer (N = 144–231) were higher than that in winter (N = 87–111), corresponding to the availability of prey resources which in Hong Kong waters peaks during summer months. We point out that the current population monitoring strategy used by the Hong Kong authorities is ill-suited for a timely detection of a population change and should be revised. PMID:28355228

  4. Ameliorative effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  5. Effect of tea polyphenols on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenrong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Shen, Yanwen; Duan, Xuewu; Jiang, Yuemin

    2014-10-20

    To understand the potential of application of tea polyphenols to the shelf life extension and quality maintenance of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit, the fruits were dipped into a solution of 1% tea phenols for 5 min before cold storage at 4 °C. Changes in browning index, contents of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, O2.- production rate and H2O2 content, levels of relative leakage rate and lipid peroxidation, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were measured after 0, 10, 20 and 30 days of cold storage. The results showed that application of tea polyphenols markedly delayed pericarp browning, alleviated the decreases in contents of total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid, and maintained relatively high levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins of litchi fruit after 30 days of cold storage. Meanwhile, the treatment reduced the increases in relative leakage rate and lipid peroxidation content, delayed the increases in both O2.- production rate and H2O2 contents, and increased SOD activity but reduced POD activity throughout this storage period. These data indicated that the delayed pericarp browning of litchi fruit by the treatment with tea polyphenols could be due to enhanced antioxidant capability, reduced accumulations of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, and improved membrane integrity.

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  7. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth, photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigments of Leymus chinensis seedlings under salt-alkali stress and nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Sun, Shengnan; Mu, Chunsheng; Yan, Xiufeng

    2017-01-15

    Leymus chinensis is the most promising grass species for salt-alkaline grassland restoration in northern China. However, little information exists concerning the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in the adaptation of seedlings to salt-alkali stress, particularly under increased nitrogen deposition, which has become a major environmental problem throughout the world. In this study, Leymus chinensis seedlings were cultivated in soil with 0, 100 and 200mM NaCl/NaHCO 3 under two forms of nitrogen (10mM NH 4 NO 3 or NH 4 Cl: NH 4 NO 3 =3:1), and the root colonization, growth and photosynthetic characteristics of the seedlings were measured. The results showed that the colonization rate and intensity decreased with increasing salt-alkali stress and were much lower under alkali stress. The nitrogen treatments also decreased the colonization, particularly under the NH 4 + -N treatment. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal controls, mycorrhizal seedlings generally presented higher plant biomass, photosynthetic parameters and contents of photosynthetic pigments under stresses, and the inhibitive effects of alkali stress were substantially stronger. In addition, both nitrogen forms decreased the physiological indexes compared with those of the AM seedlings. Our results suggest that salt stress and alkali stress are significantly different and that the salt-alkali tolerance of Leymus chinensis seedlings could be enhanced by associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in which would yield better plant growth and photosynthesis. Excessive nitrogen in the soil affects mycorrhizal colonization and thereby inhibits the growth and photosynthetic ability of the seedlings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Re-assessment of the Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Smith, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List designation of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is re-assessed in light of its newly recognized taxonomic status (it has recently been separated into three species) and findings that humpback dolphins along the coast of Bangladesh, and possibly eastern India, are phylogenetically distinct from other members of the Sousa genus. Sousa chinensis is found in Southeast/South Asia (in both the Indian and Pacific oceans), from at least the southeastern Bay of Bengal east to central China, and then south to the Indo-Malay Archipelago. There are no global population estimates, and the sum of available abundance estimates add up to about 5700 individuals, although only a portion of the range has been covered by surveys. This species occurs in shallow (<30m deep), coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics, and feeds mainly on small fishes. It has a similar reproductive biology to other large dolphins, occurs mostly in small groups, and generally has individual movements of about 50-200km(2). Major threats throughout the range include entanglement in fishing nets (primarily gillnets) and habitat destruction/degradation, although in some more industrialized areas, vessel traffic, and environmental contamination from organochlorines are also serious issues. Conservation management is largely lacking in most parts of the species' range, although there has been significant (though still inadequate) attention in some parts of China (e.g. Hong Kong and adjacent areas, and Taiwan). Much greater efforts are needed toward conservation of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins to stop apparent declines, and to lower the species' extinction risk. Sousa chinensis meets the IUCN Red List requirements for Vulnerable (under criteria A4cd), with fisheries bycatch and habitat loss/degradation being the main pervasive threats. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Zeatin and Thidiazuron Induced Embryogenic Calli From In Vitro Leaf and Stem of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis).

    PubMed

    El-Ashry, Amal Abd El-Latif; Gabr, Ahmed Mohamed Magdy; Bekheet, Shawky Abd El-Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Jojoba is a promising industrial plant, which recommended with pharmaceutical benefits. The present study was conducted to stimulate embryogenic calli formation from jojoba using zeatin and thidiazuron (TDZ), as well as determination of the antioxidant activity of proliferated calli. For callus induction, leaf and stem explants derived from in vitro grown shootlets, were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different combinations of 0.5 mg L-1 benzyl adenine (BA) or kinetin with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and picloram at 0.5 or 1mg L-1. To stimulate embryogenic calli, friable callus were transferred to woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with different concentrations of zeatin or TDZ. Antioxidant activity of different treatments was determined using hexane or petroleum ether extraction. Data was analyzed as mean±standard deviation (SD). The MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 BA+0.5 or 1 mg L-1 picloram was the best treatment to obtain friable calli from both explants types. WPM medium supplemented with 2 mg L-1 zeatin gave the highest percentage of embryogenic calli derived from leaf explants. While the highest percentage of embryogenic calli derived from stem explants was registered using 1 or 4 mg L-1 TDZ containing medium. Embryogenic calli originated from leaves explants on 1.5 mg L-1 zeatin showed promising activity of antioxidant with hexane extraction. However, embryogenic calli originated from stem explants on 1 mg L-1 TDZ showed the highest antioxidant activity with petroleum ether extraction. TDZ has promising effect on embryogenic callus induction from stem explants. While, zeatin has promising effect on embryogenic callus induction from leaf explants.

  10. Pathways of Leymus chinensis Individual Aboveground Biomass Decline in Natural Semiarid Grassland Induced by Overgrazing: A Study at the Plant Functional Trait Scale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xinhong; Li, Xinle; Hu, Jing; Shi, Hongxiao; Guo, Fenghui; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Natural grassland productivity, which is based on an individual plant’s aboveground biomass (AB) and its interaction with herbivores, can obviously affect terrestrial ecosystem services and the grassland’s agricultural production. As plant traits have been linked to both AB and ecosystem success, they may provide a useful approach to understand the changes in individual plants and grassland productivity in response to grazing on a generic level. Unfortunately, the current lack of studies on how plant traits affect AB affected by herbivores leaves a major gap in our understanding of the mechanism of grassland productivity decline. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the paths of overgrazing-induced decline in the individual AB of Leymus chinensis (the dominant species of meadow-steppe grassland in northern China) on a plant functional trait scale. Using a paired-sampling approach, we compared the differences in the functional traits of L. chinensis in long-term grazing-excluded and experimental grazing grassland plots over a continuous period of approximately 20 years (located in meadow steppe lands in Hailar, Inner Mongolia, China). We found a highly significant decline in the individual height and biomass (leaf, stem, and the whole plant) of L. chinensis as a result of overgrazing. Biomass allocation and leaf mass per unit area were significantly affected by the variation in individual size. Grazing clearly enhanced the sensitivity of the leaf-to-stem biomass ratio in response to variation in individual size. Moreover, using a method of standardized major axis estimation, we found that the biomass in the leaves, stems, and the plant as a whole had highly significant allometric scaling with various functional traits. Also, the slopes of the allometric equations of these relationships were significantly altered by grazing. Therefore, a clear implication of this is that grazing promotes an asymmetrical response of different plant functional traits to variation

  11. Pathways of Leymus chinensis Individual Aboveground Biomass Decline in Natural Semiarid Grassland Induced by Overgrazing: A Study at the Plant Functional Trait Scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiliang; Liu, Zhiying; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xinhong; Li, Xinle; Hu, Jing; Shi, Hongxiao; Guo, Fenghui; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Natural grassland productivity, which is based on an individual plant's aboveground biomass (AB) and its interaction with herbivores, can obviously affect terrestrial ecosystem services and the grassland's agricultural production. As plant traits have been linked to both AB and ecosystem success, they may provide a useful approach to understand the changes in individual plants and grassland productivity in response to grazing on a generic level. Unfortunately, the current lack of studies on how plant traits affect AB affected by herbivores leaves a major gap in our understanding of the mechanism of grassland productivity decline. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the paths of overgrazing-induced decline in the individual AB of Leymus chinensis (the dominant species of meadow-steppe grassland in northern China) on a plant functional trait scale. Using a paired-sampling approach, we compared the differences in the functional traits of L. chinensis in long-term grazing-excluded and experimental grazing grassland plots over a continuous period of approximately 20 years (located in meadow steppe lands in Hailar, Inner Mongolia, China). We found a highly significant decline in the individual height and biomass (leaf, stem, and the whole plant) of L. chinensis as a result of overgrazing. Biomass allocation and leaf mass per unit area were significantly affected by the variation in individual size. Grazing clearly enhanced the sensitivity of the leaf-to-stem biomass ratio in response to variation in individual size. Moreover, using a method of standardized major axis estimation, we found that the biomass in the leaves, stems, and the plant as a whole had highly significant allometric scaling with various functional traits. Also, the slopes of the allometric equations of these relationships were significantly altered by grazing. Therefore, a clear implication of this is that grazing promotes an asymmetrical response of different plant functional traits to variation in

  12. Detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of Penaeus chinensis by in situ hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Wen-Bin; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Hideo, Fukuda

    2000-09-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) was purified from hemolymph of infected shrimp. After nucleic acid extraction from the purified virus particles, EcoR I-digested fragments of the WSSV genome were cloned; three of these fragments were used as non-radioactive probes labeled with DIG-11-dUTP. The probes hybridized in situ, with sections located in the nuclei of all WSSV-infected tissues. The virus was detected in the gill, stomach, epidermis, and connective tissue and so on, but not detected in healthy shrimp tissues and epithelial cells of hepatopancreatic tubules of diseased shrimp.

  13. Screening and characterizing of xylanolytic and xylose-fermenting yeasts isolated from the wood-feeding termite, Reticulitermes chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Rongrong; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Miao

    2017-01-01

    The effective fermentation of xylose remains an intractable challenge in bioethanol industry. The relevant xylanase enzyme is also in a high demand from industry for several biotechnological applications that inevitably in recent times led to many efforts for screening some novel microorganisms for better xylanase production and fermentation performance. Recently, it seems that wood-feeding termites can truly be considered as highly efficient natural bioreactors. The highly specialized gut systems of such insects are not yet fully realized, particularly, in xylose fermentation and xylanase production to advance industrial bioethanol technology as well as industrial applications of xylanases. A total of 92 strains from 18 yeast species were successfully isolated and identified from the gut of wood-feeding termite, Reticulitermes chinensis. Of these yeasts and strains, seven were identified for new species: Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Hamamotoa lignophila, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Sugiyamaella sp.1, Sugiyamaella sp. 2, and Sugiyamaella sp.3. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization, the type strain of C. pseudorhagii sp. nov., which was originally designated strain SSA-1542T, was the most frequently occurred yeast from termite gut samples, showed the highly xylanolytic activity as well as D-xylose fermentation. The highest xylanase activity was recorded as 1.73 and 0.98 U/mL with xylan or D-xylose substrate, respectively, from SSA-1542T. Among xylanase-producing yeasts, four novel species were identified as D-xylose-fermenting yeasts, where the yeast, C. pseudorhagii SSA-1542T, showed the highest ethanol yield (0.31 g/g), ethanol productivity (0.31 g/L·h), and its fermentation efficiency (60.7%) in 48 h. Clearly, the symbiotic yeasts isolated from termite guts have demonstrated a competitive capability to produce xylanase and ferment xylose, suggesting that the wood-feeding termite gut is a promising reservoir for novel xylanases

  14. [Effects of NaCl stress on photosynthesis characteristics and fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction dynamics of Pistacia chinensis leaves].

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Xin; Liu, Bing-Xiang; Guo, Zhi-Tao; Chang, Yue-Xia; He, Lei; Chen, Fang; Lu, Bing-She

    2013-09-01

    By using fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction dynamics analysis technique (JIP-test), this paper studied the photosynthesis characteristics and fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction dynamics of 1-year old Pistacia chinensis seedlings under the stress of NaCl at the concentrations 0% (CK), 0.15%, 0.3%, 0.45%, and 0.6%. With the increasing concentration of NaCl, the contents of Chl a, Chl b, and Chl (a+b) in the seedlings leaves decreased, the Chl a/b ratio decreased after an initial increase, and the carotenoid content increased. The net photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) decreased gradually with increasing NaCl concentration. The decrease of P(n) was mainly attributed to the stomatal limitation when the NaCl concentration was lower than 0.3%, and to the non-stomatal limitation when the NaCl concentration was higher than 0.3%. The trapped energy flux per RC (TR0/CS0), electron transport flux per RC (ET0/CS0), density of RCs (RC/CS0), and yield or flux ratio (psi(0) or phi(E0)) decreased, but the absorption flux per CS (ABS/CS0) and the K phase (W(k)) and J phase (V) in the O-J-I-P chlorophyll fluorescence induction curves increased distinctly, indicating that NaCl stress damaged the leaf oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), donor sides, and PS II reaction centers. When the NaCl concentration reached 0.3%, the maximum photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) and performance index (PI(ABS)) decreased 17.7% and 36.6%, respectively, as compared with the control.

  15. Identification and fine mapping of a stay-green gene (Brnye1) in pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yun; Li, Chengyu; Feng, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Using bulked segregant analysis combined with next-generation sequencing, we delimited the Brnye1 gene responsible for the stay-green trait of nye in pakchoi. Sequence analysis identified Bra019346 as the candidate gene. "Stay-green" refers to a plant trait whereby leaves remain green during senescence. This trait is useful in the cultivation of pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis), which is marketed as a green leaf product. This study aimed to identify the gene responsible for the stay-green trait in pakchoi. We identified a stay-green mutant in pakchoi, which we termed "nye". Genetic analysis revealed that the stay-green trait is controlled by a single recessive gene, Brnye1. Using the BSA-seq method, a 3.0-Mb candidate region was mapped on chromosome A03, which helped us localize Brnye1 to an 81.01-kb interval between SSR markers SSRWN27 and SSRWN30 via linkage analysis in an F 2 population. We identified 12 genes in this region, 11 of which were annotated based on the Brassica rapa annotation database, and one was a functionally unknown gene. An orthologous gene of the Arabidopsis gene AtNYE1, Bra019346, was identified as the potential candidate for Brnye1. Sequence analysis revealed a 40-bp insertion in the second exon of Bra019346 in nye, which generated the TAA stop codon. A candidate gene-specific Indel marker in 1561 F 2 individuals showed perfect cosegregation with Brnye1 in the nye mutant. These results provide a foundation for uncovering the molecular mechanism of the stay-green trait in pakchoi.

  16. Correlation of trace element concentrations between epidermis and internal organ tissues in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian; Yu, Ri-Qing; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Xiyang; Chen, Xi; Xiao, Yousheng; Ding, Yulong; Wu, Yuping

    2017-12-15

    Trace element accumulation in the epidermis of cetaceans has been less studied. This study explored the feasibility of using epidermis as a surrogate tissue to evaluate internal contaminant burdens in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis). Eleven trace elements were analyzed in the epidermis, muscle and liver tissues from 46 individuals of dolphins stranded along the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) coast between 2007 and 2013. Trace elemental concentrations varied among the three tissues, generally with the highest concentrations found in liver tissues and lowest in the epidermis (except Zn, As, and Pb). Zn concentration in the epidermis was the highest among all tissues, indicating that Zn could be an important element for the epidermis physiology. High concentrations of Hg and Cr in liver were likely due to an excessive intake by dolphins which consumed high Hg and Cr contaminated fishes in the PRE. Hg concentrations in epidermis and muscle tissues were significantly higher in the females than in males. Concentrations of V and Pb in liver, Se and Cd in both muscle and liver, and As and Hg in all tissue samples showed significantly positive relationships with body length. Hepatic Cu concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with the body length. Hg and As concentrations in epidermis showed significantly positive correlations with those in liver tissues. Thus this study proposed that epidermis could be used as a non-invasive monitoring tissue to evaluate Hg and As bioaccumulation in internal tissues of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptome-wide identification and screening of WRKY factors involved in the regulation of taxol biosynthesis in Taxus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Chen, Ying; Nie, Lin; Jin, Xiaofei; Liao, Weifang; Zhao, Shengying; Fu, Chunhua; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-03-26

    WRKY, a plant-specific transcription factor family, plays important roles in pathogen defense, abiotic cues, phytohormone signaling, and regulation of plant secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the roles, functions, and mechanisms of WRKY in taxane biosynthesis in Taxus spp. In this study, 61 transcripts were identified from Taxus chinensis transcriptome datasets by using hidden Markov model search. All of these transcripts encoded proteins containing WRKY domains, which were designated as TcWRKY1-61. After phylogenetic analysis of the WRKY domains of TcWRKYs and AtWRKYs, 16, 8, 10, 14, 5, 7, and 1 TcWRKYs were cladded into Group I, IIa-IIe, and III, respectively. Then, six representative TcWRKYs were selected to classify their effects on taxol biosynthesis. After MeJA (methyl jasmonate acid) and SA (salicylic acid) treatments, all of the six TcWRKYs were upregulated by MeJA treatment. TcWRKY44 (IId) and TcWRKY47 (IIa) were upregulated, whereas TcWRKY8 (IIc), TcWRKY20 (III), TcWRKY26 (I), TcWRKY41 (IIe), and TcWRKY52 (IIb) were downregulated by SA treatment. Overexpression experiments showed that the six selected TcWRKYs exerted different effects on taxol biosynthesis. In specific, TcWRKY8 and TcWRKY47 significantly improved the expression levels of taxol-biosynthesis-related genes. Transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY factors in Taxus not only enhances our understanding of plant WRKY factors but also identifies candidate regulators of taxol biosynthesis.

  18. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Pericarp Transcriptome and Identification of Candidate Genes Mediating Fruit Cracking in Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Cai; Wu, Jian-Yang; Zhang, Hong-Na; Shi, Sheng-You; Liu, Li-Qin; Shu, Bo; Liang, Qing-Zhi; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Wei, Yong-Zan

    2014-01-01

    Fruit cracking has long been a topic of great concern for growers and researchers of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying fruit cracking, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was first used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of cracking pericarp of litchi. Comparative transcriptomic analyses were performed on non-cracking and cracking fruits. A total of approximately 26 million and 29 million high quality reads were obtained from the two groups of samples, and were assembled into 46,641 unigenes with an average length of 993 bp. These unigenes can be useful resources for future molecular studies of the pericarp in litchi. Furthermore, four genes (LcAQP, 1; LcPIP, 1; LcNIP, 1; LcSIP, 1) involved in water transport, five genes (LcKS, 2; LcGA2ox, 2; LcGID1, 1) involved in GA metabolism, 21 genes (LcCYP707A, 2; LcGT, 9; Lcβ-Glu, 6; LcPP2C, 2; LcABI1, 1; LcABI5, 1) involved in ABA metabolism, 13 genes (LcTPC, 1; Ca2+/H+ exchanger, 3; Ca2+-ATPase, 4; LcCDPK, 2; LcCBL, 3) involved in Ca transport and 24 genes (LcPG, 5; LcEG, 1; LcPE, 3; LcEXP, 5; Lcβ-Gal, 9; LcXET, 1) involved in cell wall metabolism were identified as genes that are differentially expressed in cracked fruits compared to non-cracked fruits. Our results open new doors to further understand the molecular mechanisms behind fruit cracking in litchi and other fruits, especially Sapindaceae plants. PMID:25272225

  19. [Effects of Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp. chinensis Rousi polysaccharide on alpha-glucosidase enzyme activity and level of blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng-Xia; Zeng, Yang; Li, Jin-Ping; Chen, Zhen-Ning; Ma, Ji-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    The enzyme-inhibitor model and the sugar tolerance mouse model were used to evaluate the relationship between the inhibition rate of enzyme activity and concentration of Hippophae rhamnoides L. subsp. chinensis Rousi polysaccharide (HRP). The inhibitory patterns of enzyme and dose-dependent effects of HRP's effect on blood glucose using acarbose tablets as control were also examined. The mechanism underlying hypoglycemic effects of HRP was discussed. The results showed: in the enzyme-inhibitor model, the inhibitory activity of different concentrations of HRP (9.80, 19.60, 39.20, 78.40, 156.80 and 312.50 mg x L(-1)) on alpha-glucosaminidase (AG) inhibitory activity were 6.62%, 18.02%, 33.26%, 48.23%, 62.11%, 76.31%, 90.12%, IC50 was 31.59 mg x L(-1). The inhibitory rate of 25.00 x 10(3) mg x L(-1) acarbose tablets was only 64.87%, and IC50 was 10.75 x 10(3) mg x L(-1). In the sugar tolerance mouse model, different doses of HRP (240, 480, 960 mg x kg(-1)) tended to decrease levels of blood glucose compared with control group (acarbose tablets 375 mg x kg(-1)) at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. It's further confirmed that HRP is a kind of competitive inhibitor of AG activity. Its inhibition rate increases with the increase of concentration in normal mice, and it subsequently improves the sugar tolerance showing the effect of reducing blood sugar.

  20. New Insights on Drought Stress Response by Global Investigation of Gene Expression Changes in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pincang; Liu, Panpan; Yuan, Guangxiao; Jia, Junting; Li, Xiaoxia; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Ma, Tian; Liu, Gongshe; Cheng, Liqin

    2016-01-01

    Water is a critical environmental factor that restricts the geographic distribution of plants. Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis, (Trin.) Tzvel] is an important forage grass in the Eurasia Steppe and a close germplasm for wheat and barley. This native grass adapts well to adverse environments such as cold, salinity, alkalinity and drought, and it can survive when the soil moisture may be less than 6% in dry seasons. However, little is known about how sheepgrass tolerates water stress at the molecular level. Here, drought stress experiment and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed in three pools of RNA samples (control, drought stress, and rewatering). We found that sheepgrass seedlings could still survive when the soil water content (SWC) was reduced to 14.09%. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis showed that 7320 genes exhibited significant responses to drought stress. Of these DEGs, 2671 presented opposite expression trends before and after rewatering. Furthermore, ~680 putative sheepgrass-specific water responsive genes were revealed that can be studied deeply. Gene ontology (GO) annotation revealed that stress-associated genes were activated extensively by drought treatment. Interestingly, cold stress-related genes were up-regulated greatly after drought stress. The DEGs of MAPK and calcium signal pathways, plant hormone ABA, jasmonate, ethylene, brassinosteroid signal pathways, cold response CBF pathway participated coordinatively in sheepgrass drought stress response. In addition, we identified 288 putative transcription factors (TFs) involved in drought response, among them, the WRKY, NAC, AP2/ERF, bHLH, bZIP, and MYB families were enriched, and might play crucial and significant roles in drought stress response of sheepgrass. Our research provided new and valuable information for understanding the mechanism of drought tolerance in sheepgrass. Moreover, the identification of genes involved in drought response can facilitate the genetic improvement of

  1. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Floral Repressor, BcMAF1, From Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Feiyi; Liu, Tongkun; Hou, Xilin

    2018-01-01

    MADS-box genes form a large gene family in plants and are involved in multiple biological processes, such as flowering. However, the regulation mechanism of MADS-box genes in flowering remains unresolved, especially under short-term cold conditions. In the present study, we isolated BcMAF1 , a Pak-choi ( Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis ) MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING ( MAF ), as a floral repressor and functionally characterized BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis and Pak-choi. Subcellular localization and sequence analysis indicated that BcMAF1 was a nuclear protein and contained a conserved MADS-box domain. Expression analysis revealed that BcMAF1 had higher expression levels in leaves, stems, and petals, and could be induced by short-term cold conditions in Pak-choi. Overexpressing BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis showed that BcMAF1 had a negative function in regulating flowering, which was further confirmed by silencing endogenous BcMAF1 in Pak-choi. In addition, qPCR results showed that AtAP3 expression was reduced and AtMAF2 expression was induced in BcMAF1 -overexpressing Arabidopsis . Meanwhile, BcAP3 transcript was up-regulated and BcMAF2 transcript was down-regulated in BcMAF1 -silencing Pak-choi. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase transient assays showed that BcMAF1 could bind to the promoters of BcAP3 and BcMAF2 . These results indicated that BcAP3 and BcMAF2 might be the targets of BcMAF1. Taken together, our results suggested that BcMAF1 could negatively regulate flowering by directly activating BcMAF2 and repressing BcAP3 .

  2. The Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptis chinensis Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Min; Choi, Hyun-Sik; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae) inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting IRAK1 phosphorylation and helper T (Th)17 differentiation. Coptis chinensis (CC, family Ranunculaceae), which inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on toll-like receptor 4 and inducing regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation. The mixture of AA and CC (AC-mix) synergistically attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-[Formula: see text]B activation and regulating Th17/Treg balance. In the present study, we examined the effect of AC-mix on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced colitis in mice, which induced NF-[Formula: see text]B activation and disturbed Th17/Treg balance. Long-term feeding of HFD in mice caused colitis, including increased macroscopic score and myeloperoxidase activity. Oral administration of AC-mix (20[Formula: see text]mg/kg) suppressed HFD-induced myeloperoxidase activity by 68% ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, treatment with the AC-mix (20[Formula: see text]mg/kg) inhibited HFD-induced activation of NF-[Formula: see text]B and expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible NO synthase, interleukin (IL)-17, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha but increased HFD- suppressed expression of IL-10. AC-mix suppressed HFD-induced differentiation into Th17 cells by 46% ([Formula: see text]) and increased HFD-induced differentiation into regulatory T cells 2.2-fold ([Formula: see text]). AC-mix also suppressed the HFD-induced Proteobacteria/Bacteroidetes ratio on the gut microbiota by 48% ([Formula: see text]). These findings suggest that AC-mix can ameliorate HFD-induced colitis by regulating innate and adaptive immunities and correcting the disturbance of gut microbiota.

  3. Anti-apoptosis effect of polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam on cardiomyocytes in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Li; Guo, Li; Ren, Ya-Chao; Wang, Bing; Li, Rong-Hui; Qi, Yu-Shan; Yu, Hui; Chang, Nai-Dan; Li, Ming-Hui; Peng, Hai-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis in myocardial cells of aging rats induced by D-galactose and to study the effect of the Polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam (PCCL) on apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and its corresponding machinasim in aging rat model. Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Normal control group (NC). D-galactose (100 mg · kg(-1)d(-1) for 56 day) indued aging group (MC), D-galactose plus 100 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (ML), D-galactose plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MM), and D-galactose plus 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MH). Same volume of solution (water, or PCCL aqueous solution) was given by gavage for 56 days. Then the hearts were collected and apoptosis parameters were evaluated. Caspase-3 and Cyt c were determined by fluorescence spectrometer, the apoptosis rate was assessed by AnnexinV-FITC method by Flow-Cytometry, [Ca(2+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i overloaded by KCL were observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM); Bcl-2 and Bax were examined by immunohistochemistry. The content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3, Bax expression level in D-galactose induced aging group were higher than NC (p < 0.05). The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased in D-galactose induced aging group compared to NC. On the other hand, the content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3 and apoptosis rate, as well as Bax expression level in all three PCCL groups were decreased compared to galactose induced group (p < 0.05). Bcl-2/Bax ratio was increased in all PCCL groups compared to galactose induced aging group. PCCL could decrease the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by the mitochondria apoptosis pathway.

  4. A new C-type lectin (FcLec5) from the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Teng; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2010-11-01

    C-type lectins are one family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that play important roles in innate immunity. In this work, cDNA and genomic sequences for a new C-type lectin (FcLec5) were obtained from the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. FcLec5 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1,008 bp and its genomic sequence is 1,137 bp with 4 exons and 3 introns. The predicted FcLec5 protein contains a signal peptide and two carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). The N-terminal CRD of FcLec5 has a predicted carbohydrate recognition motif of Gln-Pro-Asp (QPD), while the C-terminal CRD contains a motif of Glu-Pro-Gln (EPQ). Northern blot analysis showed that FcLec5 mRNA was specifically expressed in hepatopancreas. FcLec5 protein was expressed in hepatopancreas and secreted into hemolymph. Real-time PCR showed that FcLec5 transcript exhibited different expression profiles after immune-challenged with Vibrio anguillarum or White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Recombinant FcLec5 and its two individual CRDs could agglutinate most bacteria tested, and the agglutinating activity was Ca2+-dependent. Besides, the agglutinating activity to gram-negative bacteria is higher than that to gram-positive bacteria. Direct binding assay showed that recombinant FcLec5 could bind to all microorganisms tested (five gram-positive and four gram-negative bacteria, as well as yeast) in a Ca2+-independent manner. Recombinant FcLec5 also directly bound to bacterial peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acids. These results suggest that FcLec5 may act as a PRR for bacteria via binding to bacterial cell wall polysaccharides in Chinese white shrimp.

  5. Simultaneous determination of carbohydrates and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis) by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lein, Sabine; Van Boven, Maurits; Holser, Ron; Decuypere, Eddy; Flo, Gerda; Lievens, Sylvia; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2002-11-22

    Separate methods for the analyses of soluble carbohydrates in different plants and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal are described. A reliable gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous quantification of D-pinitol, myo-inositoL sucrose, 5-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol. 2-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol, simmondsin, 4-demethylsimmondsin, 5-demethylsimmondsin and 4,5-didemethylsimmondsin as trimethylsilyl derivatives in jojoba seed meal has been developed. The study of different extraction mixtures allowed for the quantitative recovery of the 9 analytes by a mixture of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) in the concentration range between 0.1 and 4%. Comparison of the separation parameters on three different capillary stationary phases with MS detection allowed for the choice of the optimal gas chromatographic conditions for baseline separation of the analytes.

  6. Synthesis of 3-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3'-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)tamarixetin, the putative structure of aescuflavoside A from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cunsheng; Peng, Wenjie; Li, Yuwen; Han, Xiuwen; Yu, Biao

    2006-06-12

    3-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-3'-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)tamarixetin, the putative flavonal glycoside named aescuflavoside A, isolated from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis, is synthesized via regioselective glycosylation of 7-O-benzyltamarixetin with glycosyl bromides under phase-transfer-catalyzed conditions.

  7. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia”

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia.” Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 106) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 106) and C. arborea (45 × 106), respectively. The increase in height (60–70 cm), number of leaves (600–650), and yield of chili (120–150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations. PMID:25632354

  8. Characterization of BcMF23a and BcMF23b, two putative pectin methylesterase genes related to pollen development in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sue; Huang, Li; Yu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xingpeng; Yue, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingting; Liang, Ying; Lv, Meiling; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    Two homologous genes, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23a (BcMF23a) and Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23b (BcMF23b), encoding putative pectin methylesterases (PMEs) were isolated from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (syn. Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis). These two genes sharing high sequence identity with each other were highly expressed in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile line system ('Bcajh97-01A/B'). Results of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization suggested that BcMF23a and BcMF23b were pollen-expressed genes, whose transcripts were first detected at the binucleate pollen and maintained throughout to the mature pollen grains. Western blot indicated that both of the putative BcMF23a and BcMF23b proteins are approximately 40 kDa, which exhibited extracellular localization revealed by transient expression analysis in the onion epidermal cells. The promoter of BcMF23a was active specifically in pollen during the late pollen developmental stages, while, in addition to the pollen, BcMF23b promoter drove an extra gene expression in the valve margins, abscission layer at the base of the first true leaves, taproot and lateral roots in seedlings.

  9. Reversion of hyperhydricity in pink (Dianthus chinensis L.) plantlets by AgNO3 and its associated mechanism during in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongyang; Xia, Xiuying; An, Lijia; Xin, Xin; Liang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhydricity occurs frequently in plant tissue culture and can severely affect commercial micropropagation and genetic improvement of the cultured plantlets. Hyperhydric shoots are charaterzized by high water content, but how this occurs is still a subject of investigation. Silver ion (Ag + ) can reduce the extent of hyperhydricity in plants, but its effect on the reversion of hyperhydric plantlets and the underlying mechanism of reversion has not been clarified. In this study, about 67% of the hyperhydric Dianthus chinensis L. plantlets were found to revert to normal condition when the plantlets were cultured in medium supplemented with 29.4μmolL -1 AgNO 3 . Water content and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content in the guard cells of these plantlets were reduced, while stomatal aperture and water loss rate were increased. AgNO 3 also reduced the content of endogenous ethylene and expression of ethylene synthesis and ethylene signal transduction-associated genes. Reduced accumulation of ethylene consequently led to an increase in stomatal aperture mediated by decreased H 2 O 2 content in the guard cells. These results adequately verified the role of AgNO 3 in the reversion of hyperhydricity in D. chinensis L. and also provided clues for exploring the cause of excessive water accumulation in hyperhydric plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of two invasive Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) lineages based on two mitochondrial sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphism of cytochrome oxidase I amplicon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsien-Chung; Yang, Man-Miao; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2008-08-01

    The occurrence of pear decline, a disease found in some pear (Pyrus spp.) orchards of Taiwan in recent years, is accompanied by an outbreak of Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang & Li). Two major morphological forms (summer and winter forms) with a variety of intermediate body color and two phylogenetic lineages of this psyllid have been described. The work herein used sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rDNA regions to delineate the genetic differentiation of this color-variable insect and to elucidate their relationship. Sequence divergence and phylogenetic analysis have shown that C. chinensis individuals could be divided into two lineages with 3.3 and 2.3% divergence of COI and 16S rDNA, respectively. All specimens from China were found to belong to lineage I. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of COI with restriction enzymes AcuI, AseI, BccI, and FokI on 263 specimens of six populations from Taiwan produced two digestion patterns, which are in agreement with the two lineages described above. Both patterns could be found in each population, with most individuals belonging to lineage I and 5-21% of the individuals belonging to lineage II. Because these two lineages included summer as well as winter morphological forms, the lineage differentiation is apparently not related to morphological characters of this psyllid. Because the invasive records are not in favor of a sympatric differentiation, this psyllid is more likely introduced as different populations from countries in temperate regions.

  11. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Riqing; He, Xuan; Tu, Qin; Chen, Laiguo; Wu, Yuping

    2014-11-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are apex predators in the Pearl River Estuary waters (PRE) of China. PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (e.g., HCHs, HCB, mirex and dieldrin) were analysed in blubber samples of 45 dolphins and 10 prey fishes of S. chinensis collected from 2004 to 2013 in the PRE region to investigate the bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). DDTs were the most abundant residue in the dolphins, with an average of 6,2700 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), followed by PCBs (average: 1,790 ng g(-1) ww) and other OCPs including ∑HCHs, mirex, endrin, ∑chlordanes, HCB, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and pentachlorobenzene. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in male dolphins significantly increased with age and length. In contrast, female dolphins did not show obvious bioaccumulation trends with age and body length, possibly due to the lactational and parturitional transfer of these compounds. Compared with the POP residues in the prey fishes, the concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs in the dolphin blubber increased by factors of 99, 212, and 5, respectively, whereas the residue levels of the other OCPs increased 2-185 times, indicating a potentially significant biomagnification in the top predators. The potential biomagnification factors calculated for most POPs were significantly higher than those in the cetacean species from other regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Analysis and characterization of Belamcanda chinensis with space mutagenesis breeding by X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray diffraction].

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying; Ding, Xi-Feng; Wang, Wen-Jing; Guo, Xi-Hua; Zhu, Yan-Ying

    2008-02-01

    The contents of various elements in the fourth generation Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. with space mutagenesis breeding were analyzed and characterized. X-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis (XRF) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were applied jointly. It was found that the content of K element in the space flight mutagenesis increases 1.03 and 0.31 times, Mg enhances 1.44 and 0.06 times, but Al reduces 38.5% and 85.5% respectively compared to the contents in the ground group and the comparison group, while those of Ca, Mn and Fe enhance 0.95, 0.30 and 0.29 times respectively contrasted to the ground group. Besides, there was discovered the crystal of whewellite in the Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. and the content in the ground group is less than that of the outer space and the outer space group, which in turn is less than that of the comparison group. It is concluded that the contents of mineral elements indispensable to body in the space group are closer or superior to the comparison, group as compared to the ground group. In the present paper, a quick and simple appraising method is offered, which may be of great significance to the popularization of the planting outer space Chinese traditional medicine to filtrate more excellent breed and set up norm of quality appraisal.

  13. Morphology and phylogeny of three karyorelictean ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora), including two novel species, Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n. and Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Yan, Ying; Li, Lifang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the morphology and infraciliature of three karyorelictean ciliates, Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n., Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n. and a rarely known form, Geleia acuta (Dragesco, 1960) Foissner, 1998, which were isolated from the intertidal zone of sandy beaches at Zhanjiang and Qingdao, China. Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n. is distinguished from related forms by having 26-30 somatic kineties, a narrow glabrous stripe and a single nuclear group composed of approximately four to six macronuclei and two micronuclei. Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n. can be recognized through its 14-22 somatic kineties, wide glabrous stripe and a single nuclear group composed of about four macronuclei. Phylogenetic analyses based on small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences indicated that the genera Trachelocerca and Tracheloraphis are closely related but that neither of them appears to be a clearly monophyletic group. Nonetheless, the monophyly of Trachelocerca is not rejected by the approximately unbiased (AU) test (P = 0.143, >0.05), although that of Tracheloraphis is rejected (P = 0.011, <0.05). Geleia acuta, meanwhile, branched with Geleia fossata and falls in the Geleia clade. © 2014 IUMS.

  14. Regulation of nitrate reductase by nitric oxide in Chinese cabbage pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Du, Shaoting; Zhang, Yongsong; Lin, Xianyong; Wang, Yue; Tang, Caixian

    2008-02-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR), a committed enzyme in nitrate assimilation, involves generation of nitric oxide (NO) in plants. Here we show that the NR activity was significantly enhanced by the addition of NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and NONOate (diethylamine NONOate sodium) to the culturing solution, whereas it was decreased by NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO). Interestingly, both NO gas and SNP directly enhanced but cPTIO inhibited the NR activities of crude enzyme extracts and purified NR enzyme. The cPTIO terminated the interaction between NR-generated NO and the NR itself. Furthermore, the NR protein content was not affected by the SNP treatment. The investigation of the partial reactions catalysed by purified NR using various electron donors and acceptors indicated that the haem and molybdenum centres in NR were the two sites activated by NO. The results suggest that the activation of NR activity by NO is regulated at the post-translational level, probably via a direct interaction mechanism. Accordingly, the concentration of nitrate both in leaves and roots was decreased after 2 weeks of cultivation with SNP. The present study identifies a new mechanism of NR regulation and nitrate assimilation, which provides important new insights into the complex regulation of N-metabolism in plants.

  15. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a putative C-type lectin (Fclectin) gene in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Chen; Li, Fu-Hua; Dong, Bo; Wang, Bing; Luan, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Liu-Suo; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2007-01-01

    Lectin is regarded as a potential molecule involved in immune recognition and phagocytosis through opsonization in crustacean. Knowledge on lectin at molecular level would help us to understand its regulation mechanism in crustacean immune system. A novel C-type lectin gene (Fclectin) was cloned from hemocytes of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis by 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. The full-length cDNA consists of 1482 bp with an 861 bp open reading frame, encoding 287 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids. It also contains two carbohydrate recognition domains/C-type lectin-like domains (CRD1 and CRD2), which share 78% identity with each other. CRD1 and CRD2 showed 34% and 30% identity with that of mannose-binding lectin from Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum), respectively. Both CRD1 and CRD2 of Fclectin have 11 amino acids residues, which are relatively invariant in animals' C-type lectin CRDs. Five residues at Ca2+ binding site 1 are conserved in Fclectin. The potential Ca2+/carbohydrate-binding (site 2) motif QPD, E, NP (Gln-Pro-Asp, Glu, Asn-Pro) presented in the two CRDs of Fclectin may support its ability to bind galactose-type sugars. It could be deduced that Fclectin is a member of C-type lectin superfamily. Transcripts of Fclectin were found only in hemocytes by Northern blotting and RNA in situ hybridization. The variation of mRNA transcription level in hemocytes during artificial infection with bacteria and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was quantitated by capillary electrophoresis after RT-PCR. An exploration of mRNA expression variation after LPS stimulation was carried out in primarily cultured hemocytes in vitro. Expression profiles of Fclectin gene were greatly modified after bacteria, LPS or WSSV challenge. The above-stated data can provide us clues to understand the probable role of C-type lectin in innate immunity of shrimp and would be helpful to

  16. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  17. Effects of Heavy Metals from Soil and Dust Source on DNA Damage of the Leymus chinensis Leaves in Coal-Mining Area in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Lu, Zhongming; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Mumbengegwi, Dzivaidzo; Crittenden, John

    2016-01-01

    Air and soil pollution from mining activities has been considered as a critical issue to the health of living organisms. However, few efforts have been made in distinguishing the main pathway of organism genetic damage by heavy metals related to mining activities. Therefore, we investigated the genetic damage of Leymus chinensis leaf cells, the air particulate matter (PM) contents, and concentrations of the main heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg) in soil and foliar dust samples collected from seven experiment points at the core mining area and one control point 20 kilometers away from the core mining area in Inner Mongolia in 2013. Comet assay was used to test the genetic damage of the Leymus chinensis leaf cells; the Tail DNA% and Tail Moment were used to characterize the genetic damage degree of the plant cells. The comet assay results showed that the cell genetic damage ratio was up to 77.0% in experiment points but was only 35.0% in control point. The control point also had the slight Tail DNA% and Tail Moment values than other experiment groups. The cell damage degree of the control group was 0.935 and experiment groups were 1.299–1.815. The geo-accumulation index and comperehensive pollution index(CPI) were used to characterize heavy metal pollution in foliar dust samples, and single factor pollution index and CPI were used to characterize the heavy metal pollution in soil samples. The CPIfoliar dust of control group was 0.36 and experiment groups were 1.45–2.57; the CPIsoil of control group was 0.04 and experiment groups were 0.07–0.12. The results of correlation analyze showed that Air Quality Index (AQI) -CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.955**)>Damage degree-CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.923**)>Damage degree-AQI(r = 0.908**)>Damage degree-CPIsoil (r = 0.824*). The present research proved that mining activity had a high level of positive correlation with organism genetic damage caused by heavy metals through comparing with the control point; soil and atmosphere were both the

  18. Effects of Heavy Metals from Soil and Dust Source on DNA Damage of the Leymus chinensis Leaves in Coal-Mining Area in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianxin; Zhang, Minjie; Lu, Zhongming; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Mumbengegwi, Dzivaidzo; Crittenden, John

    2016-01-01

    Air and soil pollution from mining activities has been considered as a critical issue to the health of living organisms. However, few efforts have been made in distinguishing the main pathway of organism genetic damage by heavy metals related to mining activities. Therefore, we investigated the genetic damage of Leymus chinensis leaf cells, the air particulate matter (PM) contents, and concentrations of the main heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg) in soil and foliar dust samples collected from seven experiment points at the core mining area and one control point 20 kilometers away from the core mining area in Inner Mongolia in 2013. Comet assay was used to test the genetic damage of the Leymus chinensis leaf cells; the Tail DNA% and Tail Moment were used to characterize the genetic damage degree of the plant cells. The comet assay results showed that the cell genetic damage ratio was up to 77.0% in experiment points but was only 35.0% in control point. The control point also had the slight Tail DNA% and Tail Moment values than other experiment groups. The cell damage degree of the control group was 0.935 and experiment groups were 1.299-1.815. The geo-accumulation index and comperehensive pollution index(CPI) were used to characterize heavy metal pollution in foliar dust samples, and single factor pollution index and CPI were used to characterize the heavy metal pollution in soil samples. The CPIfoliar dust of control group was 0.36 and experiment groups were 1.45-2.57; the CPIsoil of control group was 0.04 and experiment groups were 0.07-0.12. The results of correlation analyze showed that Air Quality Index (AQI) -CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.955**)>Damage degree-CPIfoliar dust(r = 0.923**)>Damage degree-AQI(r = 0.908**)>Damage degree-CPIsoil (r = 0.824*). The present research proved that mining activity had a high level of positive correlation with organism genetic damage caused by heavy metals through comparing with the control point; soil and atmosphere were both the

  19. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  20. Growth performance and immunological and antioxidant status of Chinese shrimp, Fennerpenaeus chinensis reared in bio-floc culture system using probiotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Su; Min, EunYoung; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Koo, Ja-Keun; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2015-11-01

    Chinese shrimp Fennerpenaeus chinensis (mean length 1.86 ± 0.15 cm, and weight 137.4 ± 12.7 mg) were reared in the different concentrations of bio-floc (control, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140%) for 90 days. The growth rate was significantly increased over 100% bio-floc concentrations. In the immunological parameters, the gene expression of proPO and lysozyme was considerably increased over 120% bio-floc concentrations. The gene expression of SP was notably elevated at 140% bio-floc concentration. In the antioxidant enzymes, the activity of SOD was considerably decreased over 80% bio-floc concentrations. A notable decline in the activity of CAT was observed over 120% bio-floc concentrations. The results indicate that rearing of Chinese shrimp in bio-floc system can induce the increase of growth performance, enhancement of immune responses, and reduction of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effect of total flavones from Cuscuta chinensis on expression of Fas/FasL, PCNA and HB-EGF in SD rats model with bromocriptine-induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Xia; You, Zhao-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2008-11-01

    To explore the effect of total flavones from cuscuta chinensis (TFCC) on expression of Fas, PCNA and HB-EGF in SD rats model with bromocriptine-induced abortion. The model rats of bromocriptine during 6-8 d of pregnancy induced early abortion was established, adopting respectively herbs in high and low dosage and progesterone affect model rat and after 12 d, Immunohistochemical was applied to determine Fas, HB-EGF and PCNA in deciduas and placenta. Expression of PCNA on trophoblast and deciduas, HB-EGF on trophoblast, PR on deciduas in the model used Semen cuscutae flavonoid, proesterone and normal pregnacy, were significantlly higher than those of the pure model. Expression of Fas on trophoblast and deciduas in above four groups, were significantlly lower than those of the pure model. There were no expression of HB-EGF on deciduas. TFCC regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of the deciduas and cytotrophoblasts and prevents spontaneous abortions.

  2. An improved pollen collection and cryopreservation method for highly recalcitrant tropical fruit species of mango (Mangifera indica L.) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.).

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Rekha; Malik, S K; Rajan, S

    2010-01-01

    An improved method for pollen collection from freshly dehiscing anthers of mango (Mangifera indica L.) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) using the organic solvent cyclohexane has been devised. Using this method pollen quantity sufficient for large scale pollinations could be collected and stored for future use. Transport of pollen in viable conditions over long distances, from site of collection (field genebank) to cryolab was successfully devised for both these fruit species. Cryopreservation was successfully applied to achieve long-term pollen storage over periods of up to four years. Pollen viability was tested using in vitro germination, the fluorochromatic reaction (FCR) method and by fruit set following field pollination. On retesting, four year cryostored pollen of different mango and litchi varieties showed high percentage viability as good as fresh control pollens. Pollens of more than 180 cultivars of mango and 19 cultivars of litchi have been stored in the cryogenebank using the technology developed, thus facilitating breeding programmes over the long-term.

  3. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injectionmore » of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress.« less

  4. Determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by enhanced chemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots on calcein/K3Fe(CN)6 system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jing; Li, Xuwen; Geng, Jiayang; Han, Lu; Tang, Jieli; Jin, Yongri; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, 3-mercaptocarboxylic acid (MPA) modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were used as sensitizers, to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system. A new CL system of CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was developed. The effects of reactant concentrations and the particle sizes of CdTe QDs on the CL emission were investigated in detail. The possible enhancement mechanism of the CL was also further investigated based on the photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra. Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, hyperin, catechin and kaempferol, were observed to inhibit the CL signal of the CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system and determined by the proposed method. The proposed method was applied to the determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and the results obtained were satisfactory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Molecular cloning and characterization of BcMYBogu, a novel member of the MYB family involved in OguCMS in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xun; Cao, Jia-Shu; Ye, Wan-Zhi; Cui, Hui-Mei; Yu, Jian-Nong

    2007-05-01

    In the attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanism of CMS. Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (OguCMS) lines were obtained in Chinese cabbage after interspecific hybridization between Brassica. napus L. OguCMS and B. campestris ssp. chinensis followed by recurrent backcross with B. campestris ssp. chinensis as the pollen donor. The CMS lines were significantly characterized by the whitish anther and indehiscence of anther. The tapetal hypertrophy with excess vacuola-tion was the first observed defective soon after the tetrad stage, subsequently the microspores defected in pollen wall forma-tion, and later the cytoplasm detached from the exine wall and underwent degeneration. With aid of cDNA-AFLP and RACE approaches, we cloned the BcMYBogu(GenBank accession No: EF127861) in Chinese cabbage, which is premature expressed in early and middle stage floral buds of OguCMS lines, and predicted to encode a novel protein with a DNA binding domain: SH[AL]QKY[RF] motif at the N-terminus. Phylogenetic comparison revealed that the BcMYBogu was clustered with AtMYB32, AtMYB26 and AtMYB4, which were indicated to be involved in male sterility in Arabidopsis thaliana. The BcMYBogu transcript was detected in rosette leaves, floral buds and stems by RT-PCR analysis. Compared with the maintainer, the expression level of BcMYBogu was increased in these organs, especially in floral buds of OguCMS lines. Our investigation suggests that BcMYBogu is a new member of the MYB family involved in male sterility in Chinese cabbage.

  6. Functional identification of genes responsible for the biosynthesis of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl-glucosinolate in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brassica vegetables contain a class of secondary metabolites, the glucosinolates (GS), whose specific degradation products determine the characteristic flavor and smell. While some of the respective degradation products of particular GS are recognized as health promoting substances for humans, recent studies also show evidence that namely the 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS might be deleterious by forming characteristic DNA adducts. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of aspects involved in the biosynthesis of indole GS is crucial to design vegetables with an improved secondary metabolite profile. Results Initially the leafy Brassica vegetable pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) was established as suitable tool to elicit very high concentrations of 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS by application of methyl jasmonate. Differentially expressed candidate genes were discovered in a comparative microarray analysis using the 2 × 104 K format Brassica Array and compared to available gene expression data from the Arabidopsis AtGenExpress effort. Arabidopsis knock out mutants of the respective candidate gene homologs were subjected to a comprehensive examination of their GS profiles and confirmed the exclusive involvement of polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F in 1-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl GS biosynthesis. Functional characterization of the two identified isoforms coding for CYP81F4 in the Brassica rapa genome was performed using expression analysis and heterologous complementation of the respective Arabidopsis mutant. Conclusions Specific differences discovered in a comparative microarray and glucosinolate profiling analysis enables the functional attribution of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis genes coding for polypeptide 4 of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase subfamily CYP81F to their metabolic role in indole glucosinolate biosynthesis. These new identified Brassica genes will enable the development of genetic tools for breeding

  7. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of the DEAD-box family genes, Fc-vasa and Fc-PL10a, in Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qianru; Shao, Mingyu; Qin, Zhenkui; Kyoung, Ho Kang; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2010-01-01

    RNA helicases of the DEAD-box and related families are involved in various cellular processes including DNA replication, DNA repair, and RNA processing. However, the function of DEAD-box proteins in aquaculture species is poorly understood at molecular level. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequences of two genes encoding helicase-related proteins, Fc-vasa and Fc-PL10a, from the testes of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The two predicted amino acid sequences contain all the conserved motifs characterized by the DEAD-box family and several RGG repeats in the N-terminal regions. Homology and phylogenetic analyses indicate that they belong to the vasa and PL10 subfamilies. The three-dimensional structures of the two proteins were predicted with a homology modeling approach. Both core proteins consist of two tandem RecA-like domains similar to those of the DEAD-box RNA helicase. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR we found that Fc-vasa was expressed specifically in the adult gonads. Transcription decreased in the ovary but increased in the testis during gonadal development. Fc-PL10a expression was widely distributed in the tissues we examined. Using in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that the Fc-vasa transcript is localized to the cytoplasm of the spermatogonia and oocytes. Thus, our results suggest that Fc-vasa plays an important role in germ-line development, and has utility as a germ cell lineage marker which will help to generate new insight into the origin and differentiation of germ cells as well as the regulation of reproduction in F. chinensis.

  8. Response and Defense Mechanisms of Taxus chinensis Leaves Under UV-A Radiation are Revealed Using Comparative Proteomics and Metabolomics Analyses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen; Komatsu, Setsuko; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ximin; Cui, Lei; Tian, Jingkui

    2016-09-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is a species endemic to south-eastern China and one of the natural sources for the anticancer medicine paclitaxel. To investigate the molecular response and defense mechanisms of T. chinensis leaves to enhanced ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation, gel-free/label-free and gel-based proteomics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed. The transmission electron microscopy results indicated damage to the chloroplast under UV-A radiation. Proteomics analyses in leaves and chloroplasts showed that photosynthesis-, glycolysis-, secondary metabolism-, stress-, and protein synthesis-, degradation- and activation-related systems were mainly changed under UV-A radiation. Forty-seven PSII proteins and six PSI proteins were identified as being changed in leaves and chloroplasts under UV-A treatment. This indicated that PSII was more sensitive to UV-A than PSI as the target of UV-A light. Enhanced glycolysis, with four glycolysis-related key enzymes increased, provided precursors for secondary metabolism. The 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase were identified as being significantly increased during UV-A radiation, which resulted in paclitaxel enhancement. Additionally, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway indicated a down-regulation under UV-A irradiation and up-regulation in dark incubation. These results reveal that a short-term high dose of UV-A radiation could stimulate the plant stress defense system and paclitaxel production. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  10. Female mating receptivity after injection of male-derived extracts in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa; Kimura, Yoshinobu

    2008-12-01

    The effects of male-derived extracts on female receptivity were investigated in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Injection of aqueous extracts of the male reproductive tract into the abdomen of females reduced receptivity. Aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts were divided to three molecular weight (MW) fractions by ultrafiltration: Fractions: (I) MW<3 kDa, (II) 3-14 kDa, and (III)>14 kDa. Fraction II reduced female receptivity from 3h after injection, and Fraction III reduced female receptivity from 2 days after injection. On the other hand, no effect on receptivity was found for Fraction I. Furthermore, male reproductive tract organs were divided into accessory gland, testis, and seminal vesicle including the ejaculatory duct. Aqueous extracts of the seminal vesicle reduced receptivity of females immediately following injection, while aqueous extracts of the accessory gland reduced receptivity at the second day. The results suggest that the components of Fraction II existed in the seminal vesicle, and those of Fraction III in the accessory gland. The results of the present and the previous studies in Callosobruchus chinensis, a species closely related to C. maculatus, were compared and are discussed from the viewpoint of the significance of ejaculation in the two species.

  11. Evaluation of the RNase H Inhibitory Properties of Vietnamese Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Bui Huu; Nhut, Nguyen Duy; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Quang, Tran Hong; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Huong, Tran Thu; Wilson, Jennifer; Beutler, John A.; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    In research on anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents from natural sources, thirty two extracts of Vietnamese plants and twenty five isolated compounds were screened for their inhibitory effect against the ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the cytopathic effect of the HIV virus. At a concentration of 50 μg/mL, eleven plant extracts and five isolated compounds inhibited over 90 percent of RNase H enzymatic activity. Of these, the methanol extracts from the leaves of Phyllanthus reticulatus and Aglaia aphanamixis highly inhibited RNase H activity by 99% and 98%, respectively. Several fucoidans isolated from seaweeds Sargassum kuetzingii, Sargassum polycystum, and Gelidiella acerosa, as well as epigallocatechin-3-gallate isolated from Camellia chinensis also showed strong inhibitory effects over ninety percent. Sixteen plant extracts with inhibition of over seventy five percent in the RNase H assay were tested in a cellular model of HIV-1 cytopathicity; four extracts showed modest activity in protecting against the cytopathic effect of the HIV virus. PMID:21595586

  12. A novel cold-inducible gene from Pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis), BcWRKY46, enhances the cold, salt and dehydration stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hou, Xilin; Tang, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Shuming; Jiang, Fangling; Li, Ying

    2012-04-01

    WRKY TFs belong to one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants and form integral parts of signaling webs that modulate many plant processes. BcWRKY46, a cDNA clone encoding a polypeptide of 284 amino acids and exhibited the structural features of group III of WRKY protein family, was isolated from the cold-treated leaves of Pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) using the cDNA-AFLP technique. Expression of this gene was induced quickly and strongly in response to various environmental stresses, including low temperatures, ABA, salt and dehydration. Constitutive expression of BcWRKY46 in tobacco under the control of the CaMV35S promoter reduced the susceptibility of transgenic tobacco to freezing, ABA, salt and dehydration stresses. Our studies suggest that BcWRKY46 plays an important role in responding to ABA and abiotic stress.

  13. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  14. Repellent activity of some essential oils against two stored product beetles Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with reference to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oil for the safety of pigeon pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, N N

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils from 35 aromatic and medicinal plant species of Gorakhpur Division (U. P., India) were evaluated for their repellent activity against pulse bruchids Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. of stored pigeon pea seeds. The oil concentration was at 0.36 μl/ml. Out of 35 essential oils, Adhatoda vasica Ness and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oils showed absolute (100 %) insect repellency. Chenopodium oil exhibited 100 % mortality for both the test insects at 10 μl concentration (LD50 = 2.8 μl for C. chinensis & 2.5 μl for C. maculatus) and more toxic than Adhatoda oil (LD50 = 6.8 μl for C. chinensis & 8.4 μl for C. maculatus). During in vivo evaluation, 0.29 and 0.58 μl/ml of Chenopodium oil significantly enhanced feeding deterrence in insects and reduced the seed damage as well as weight loss of fumigated pigeon pea seeds up to 6 months of storage as compared to control set. Thus, Chenopodium oil can be used as an effective option of commercial fumigants for the storage of pigeon pea seeds against pulse bruchids.

  15. Molecular Cloning and mRNA Expression of Heat Shock Protein Genes and Their Response to Cadmium Stress in the Grasshopper Oxya chinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Liu, Yaoming; Zhang, Jianzhen; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly conserved molecular chaperones that are synthesized in response to stress. In this study, we cloned the full-length sequences of the Grp78 (glucose-regulated protein 78), Hsp70, Hsp90, and Hsp40 genes from the Chinese rice grasshopper Oxya chinensis. The full-length cDNA sequences of OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 contain open reading frames of 1947, 1920, 2172, and 1042 bp that encode proteins of 649, 640, 724, and 347 amino acids, respectively. Fluorescent real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to quantify the relative transcript levels of these Hsp genes in different tissues and developmental stages. The mRNAs encoding these four Hsp genes were present at all developmental stages and in all tissues examined but were expressed at varying levels. Additionally, we investigated the mRNA expression profiles of these four Hsps in O. chinensis subjected to Cadmium (Cd) stress. OcGrp78, OcHsp70, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 mRNA expression was induced under acute Cd stress; the levels reached a maximum within a short time (6 h), were reduced significantly at 12 h, and were lowered to or below control levels by 48 h. Regarding induction efficiency, OcHsp70 was the most sensitive gene to acute Cd stress. Chronic Cd exposure showed that dietary Cd treatment induced increased OcGrp78, OcHsp90, and OcHsp40 expression. However, dietary Cd induced a significant reduction of OcHsp70 expression. In the period tested, no significant difference in the mortality of the grasshoppers was observed. Our results suggest that these four Hsps genes, especially OcHsp70, are sensitive to acute Cd stress and could be used as molecular markers for toxicology studies. However, our results also indicate that OcHsp70 is not suitable for use as a molecular marker of chronic Cd contamination.

  16. Determination of Alkaloid Contents in Various Tissues of Coptis Chinensis Franch. by Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanfang; Peng, Jingling; Li, Fangping; Liu, Xin; Deng, Meng; Wu, Hezhen

    2017-05-01

    A simple and intuitive method for optimizing the chemical constituents of Coptis Chinensis Franch. is important to assess its quality and clinical efficacy. An high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometry method was developed for the determination of berberine hydrochloride, palmatine chloride, jatrorrhizine hydrochloride, epiberberine, coptisine, columbamine and magnoflorine in various tissues (i.e., phloem, xylem and medulla) and rizhome of C. Chinensis Franch. The transection of rhizome from outside-in includes cork layer, cortex, phloem, cambium, xylem and medulla. Cork layer consists of dead cells, and therefore is not of any research significance. Cortex, phloem and cambium were almost impossible to separate, therefore they were studied as a whole in our experiments. They were collectively referred to as "phloem". The analytes were separated on a Gemini-NX C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) reversed phase column using a gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.03 mol/L ammonium acetate solution (containing 0.1% triethylamine and 0.6% ammonium hydroxide) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 270 nm. The method allowing the simultaneous quantification of seven major active constituents was optimized and validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification. The LOD ranged from 0.102 to 0.651 mg/mL (r ≥ 0.9993). Accuracy, precision and recovery were all within the required limits. The average recovery was between 100.14% and 102.75% and the relative standard deviations were <3.34%. At the same time, the absorbance was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 345 nm wavelength. Based on contents of the seven constituents and clustering result, this investigation suggests that there are significant differences in the distribution of seven alkaloids in the tissues examined. Furthermore, the total alkaloid content in xylem is relatively lower than that in phloem, medulla and

  17. A Homogeneous Polysaccharide from Fructus Schisandra chinensis (Turz.) Baill Induces Mitochondrial Apoptosis through the Hsp90/AKT Signalling Pathway in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonglin; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Huijun; Li, Ning; Su, Juan; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Shunchun

    2016-06-28

    According to the potential anti-hepatoma therapeutic effect of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharides presented in previous studies, a bioactive constituent, homogeneous Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide-0-1 (SCP-0-1), molecular weight (MW) circa 69.980 kDa, was isolated and purified. We assessed the efficacy of SCP-0-1 against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to investigate the effects of its antitumour activity and molecular mechanisms. Anticancer activity was evaluated using microscopy, 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, acridine orange (AO) staining, flow cytometry (FCM), and cell-cycle analysis. SCP-0-1 inhibited the HepG2 cells' growth via inducing apoptosis and second gap/mitosis (G2/M) arrest dose-dependently, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 479.63 µg/mL. Western blotting of key proteins revealed the apoptotic and autophagic potential of SCP-0-1. Besides, SCP-0-1 upregulated Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax) and downregulated B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in the HepG2 cells. The expression of caspase-3, -8, and -9; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP); cytochrome c (Cyt C); tumor protein 53 (p53); survivin; sequestosome 1 (p62); microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (LC3B); mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38); extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK); c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); protein kinase B (AKT); and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) were evaluated using Western blotting. Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism through which SCP-0-1 exerts its antiproliferative activity and induces mitochondrial apoptosis rather than autophagy. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis was attributed to the inhibition of the Hsp90/AKT signalling pathway in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. The results also provide initial evidence on a molecular basis that SCP-0-1 can be used as an anti

  18. The large-scale investigation of gene expression in Leymus chinensis stigmas provides a valuable resource for understanding the mechanisms of poaceae self-incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingyuan; Jia, Junting; Huang, Xing; Yan, Xueqing; Cheng, Liqin; Chen, Shuangyan; Li, Xiaoxia; Peng, Xianjun; Liu, Gongshe

    2014-05-26

    Many Poaceae species show a gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, which is controlled by at least two independent and multiallelic loci, S and Z. Until currently, the gene products for S and Z were unknown. Grass SI plant stigmas discriminate between pollen grains that land on its surface and support compatible pollen tube growth and penetration into the stigma, whereas recognizing incompatible pollen and thus inhibiting pollination behaviors. Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. (sheepgrass) is a Poaceae SI species. A comprehensive analysis of sheepgrass stigma transcriptome may provide valuable information for understanding the mechanism of pollen-stigma interactions and grass SI. The transcript abundance profiles of mature stigmas, mature ovaries and leaves were examined using high-throughput next generation sequencing technology. A comparative transcriptomic analysis of these tissues identified 1,025 specifically or preferentially expressed genes in sheepgrass stigmas. These genes contained a significant proportion of genes predicted to function in cell-cell communication and signal transduction. We identified 111 putative transcription factors (TFs) genes and the most abundant groups were MYB, C2H2, C3H, FAR1, MADS. Comparative analysis of the sheepgrass, rice and Arabidopsis stigma-specific or preferential datasets showed broad similarities and some differences in the proportion of genes in the Gene Ontology (GO) functional categories. Potential SI candidate genes identified in other grasses were also detected in the sheepgrass stigma-specific or preferential dataset. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments validated the expression pattern of stigma preferential genes including homologous grass SI candidate genes. This study represents the first large-scale investigation of gene expression in the stigmas of an SI grass species. We uncovered many notable genes that are potentially involved in pollen-stigma interactions and SI mechanisms, including genes

  19. Characterization of Active Anthocyanin Degradation in the Petals of Rosa chinensis and Brunfelsia calycina Reveals the Effect of Gallated Catechins on Pigment Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Honghui; Deng, Shuangfan; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Xuelian; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Pang, Xuequn

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanin degradation decreases ornamental or nutritional values of horticultural products. To investigate factors that may influence colour change in flower development, anthocyanin degradation was compared between the flowers of Brunfelsia calycina and Rosa chinensis, which show rapid and slow degradation, respectively. In-gel activity assays, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of tannins, enzyme kinetics measurement and immune-detection of anthocyanin degradation related-perioxidases (PODs) were carried out for the comparison. Rose petals possessed significantly lower anthocyanin degradation-related POD activities than Brunfelsia petals, which may be related to the high tannin contents. Epicatechin gallate (ECG) and gallocatechin gallate (GCG) were detected in rose as 161.3 ± 12.34 and 273.56 ± 41.23 μg/g FW (Fresh Weight) respectively, while not detected in Brunfelsia. ECG and GCG inhibited the activities of the Brunfelsia POD with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) as 21.5 and 29.7 μM respectively, and increased the colour intensities of the anthocyanins. Catechin and epicatechin did not inhibit the POD activity, while serving as POD substrates, with Km (the Michaelis constant) as 0.48 and 1.23 mM. Similar protein levels of the anthocyanin degradation-related 40-kDa PODs were detected in Brunfelsia and rose. In summary, high amount of tannins, particularly ECG and GCG, in red rose petals may inhibit the degradation-related enzymes, leading to the maintenance of anthocyanins in vivo. PMID:28346355

  20. Identification of a novel compound that inhibits iNOS and COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages from Schisandra chinensis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, You Jin; Park, Sun Young; Kim, Sun Gun

    2010-01-22

    A novel {alpha}-iso-cubebenol, which has anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis. {alpha}-iso-cubebenol inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production. Consistent with these findings, {alpha}-iso-cubebenol also reduced the LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner. {alpha}-iso-cubebenol also inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation of the NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit. Furthermore, {alpha}-iso-cubebenol suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 kinase induced by LPS. Since the novel {alpha}-iso-cubebenol blocked the production of several pro-inflammatory mediators induced by LPSmore » in macrophages, the molecule can be useful material for the development of anti-inflammatory agents against bacterial infections or endotoxin.« less

  1. Glutamine nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen supplied as a nitrogen source is not converted into nitrate nitrogen of plant tissues of hydroponically grown pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, H-J; Wu, L-H; Tao, Q-N; Miller, D D; Welch, R M

    2009-03-01

    Many vegetables, especially leafy vegetables, accumulate NO(-) (3)-N in their edible portions. High nitrate levels in vegetables constitute a health hazard, such as cancers and blue baby syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine if (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH(+) (4)-N) and glutamine-nitrogen (Gln-N) absorbed by plant roots is converted into nitrate-nitrogen of pak-choi (Brassica chinensis L.) tissues, and (2) if nitrate-nitrogen (NO(-) (3)-N) accumulation and concentration of pak-choi tissues linearly increase with increasing NO(-) (3)-N supply when grown in nutrient solution. In experiment 1, 4 different nitrogen treatments (no nitrogen, NH(+) (4)-N, Gln-N, and NO(-) (3)-N) with equal total N concentrations in treatments with added N were applied under sterile nutrient medium culture conditions. In experiment 2, 5 concentrations of N (from 0 to 48 mM), supplied as NO(-) (3)-N in the nutrient solution, were tested. The results showed that Gln-N and NH(+) (4)-N added to the nutrient media were not converted into nitrate-nitrogen of plant tissues. Also, NO(-) (3)-N accumulation in the pak-choi tissues was the highest when plants were supplied 24 mM NO(-) (3)-N in the media. The NO(-) (3)-N concentration in plant tissues was quadratically correlated to the NO(-) (3)-N concentration supplied in the nutrient solution.

  2. Inhibitory effects of 1-O-methyl-fructofuranose from Schisandra chinensis fruit on melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun Young; Jang, Ji Yeon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Choi, Young Whan; Choi, Byung Tae

    2010-10-28

    1-O-methyl-fructofuranose (1-O-MFF) from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis is a traditional Korean medicinal herb that has a variety of beneficial properties. The effect of purified 1-O-MFF on melanogenesis including the activation of related signaling pathways was investigated. The inhibitory activities of 1-O-MFF were examined by melanin synthesis, tyrosinase activity assay, Western blot and flow cytometric analyses in B16F0 mouse melanoma cells. 1-O-MFF significantly inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and reduced the expression of melanogenic proteins including microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1. 1-O-MFF phosphorylated and activated melanogenesis inhibitory proteins such as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt. Flow cytometry confirmed that 1-O-MFF phosphorylated ERK and Akt proteins and recovered partially phosphorylated forms in cells treated with the MEK/ERK inhibitor compound PD98059 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inhibitor compound LY294002. The suppressive effects of 1-O-MFF on melanogenesis may involve down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signal pathway via the activation of MEK/ERK or PI3K/Akt. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A preliminary risk assessment of trace elements accumulated in fish to the Indo-Pacific Humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the northwestern waters of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Hung, C L H; So, M K; Connell, D W; Fung, C N; Lam, M H W; Nicholson, S; Richardson, B J; Lam, P K S

    2004-08-01

    In order to assess the potential risks associated with consumption of contaminated prey items to the Indo-Pacific Humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), fish species (Collichthys lucida, Pseudosciaena crocea, Johnius sp., Thryssa sp., Mugil sp. and Trichiurus sp.) representing the main food items of the dolphin were collected from the northwestern waters of Hong Kong, including the Sha Chau and Lung Kwu Chau Marine Park, which form the main habitat of the dolphin in Hong Kong. Within these waters, there are several potential sources of pollution including significant inputs from the Pearl River catchment, several major sewage outfalls and a series of mud pits that receive contaminated dredged sediments. Concentrations of thirteen trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, V, and Zn) in the fish tissue were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). An assessment of the risks of adverse effects on the dolphin due to consumption of tainted fish was undertaken using two toxic reference benchmarks, namely the reference dose (RfD) and toxicity reference value (TRV). The risk quotient (RQ) calculated for each element showed that the risks from consumption of fish were generally low and within safe limits. The risks associated with arsenic, cadmium and mercury were, however, elevated. The highest calculated RQ was associated with total arsenic; however, the majority of arsenic in marine organisms tends to be in the non-toxic organic form, and the actual risk to the dolphin due to this metalloid is likely to be lower.

  4. Appetite and Gut Hormones Response to a Putative α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, Salacia Chinensis, in Overweight/Obese Adults: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lihong; Schlussel, Yvette; Fieselmann, Krista; Schneider, Stephen H; Shapses, Sue A

    2017-08-12

    Animal studies indicate Salacia reduces body weight, possibly due to its α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) properties, but this has not been examined previously. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over design was used to evaluate whether Salacia Chinensis (SC) reduces appetite in healthy overweight/obese individuals (body mass index 28.8 ±3.6 kg/m²; 32 ± 12 years). Forty-eight participants were fasted overnight and consumed a dose of SC (300 or 500 mg) or placebo with a fixed breakfast meal at each visit. Appetite sensations, glycemic indices and gastrointestinal peptides were measured. Results indicated that SC had no effect on postprandial appetite. However, in women, hunger was reduced by SC compared to placebo at multiple time points (300 mg; p < 0.05), but not in men. Area under the curve (AUC) for serum glucose, insulin and amylin was attenuated with SC compared to placebo ( p < 0.05). Glucagon like peptide-1 had two peaks after the meal, but the AUC did not differ between groups. The AUC of peak areas for peptide YY and ghrelin were greater for SC than placebo ( p < 0.05). These findings indicate that Salacia decreases glycemic indices supporting its role as an α-GI, and affects certain gastrointestinal peptides suggesting it may be an appetite modulator.

  5. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zheng-miao; Wang, Bi-ling; Sun, Ye-fang; Li, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phytoavailability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m2 soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment. PMID:16365925

  6. Characterization of Active Anthocyanin Degradation in the Petals of Rosa chinensis and Brunfelsia calycina Reveals the Effect of Gallated Catechins on Pigment Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Luo, Honghui; Deng, Shuangfan; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Xuelian; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Pang, Xuequn

    2017-03-25

    Anthocyanin degradation decreases ornamental or nutritional values of horticultural products. To investigate factors that may influence colour change in flower development, anthocyanin degradation was compared between the flowers of Brunfelsia calycina and Rosa chinensis , which show rapid and slow degradation, respectively. In-gel activity assays, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of tannins, enzyme kinetics measurement and immune-detection of anthocyanin degradation related-perioxidases (PODs) were carried out for the comparison. Rose petals possessed significantly lower anthocyanin degradation-related POD activities than Brunfelsia petals, which may be related to the high tannin contents. Epicatechin gallate (ECG) and gallocatechin gallate (GCG) were detected in rose as 161.3 ± 12.34 and 273.56 ± 41.23 μg/g FW (Fresh Weight) respectively, while not detected in Brunfelsia . ECG and GCG inhibited the activities of the Brunfelsia POD with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) as 21.5 and 29.7 μM respectively, and increased the colour intensities of the anthocyanins. Catechin and epicatechin did not inhibit the POD activity, while serving as POD substrates, with K m (the Michaelis constant) as 0.48 and 1.23 mM. Similar protein levels of the anthocyanin degradation-related 40-kDa PODs were detected in Brunfelsia and rose. In summary, high amount of tannins, particularly ECG and GCG, in red rose petals may inhibit the degradation-related enzymes, leading to the maintenance of anthocyanins in vivo.

  7. Hybridization of Tamarix ramosissima and T. chinensis (saltcedars) with T. aphylla (athel) (tamaricaceae) in the southwestern USA dertermined from DNA sequence data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaskin, John F.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2005-01-01

    Morphological intermediates between Tamarix ramosissima or T. chinensis (saltcedars) and T. aphylla (athel) were found recently in three locations in the southwestern USA, and were assumed to be hybrids or a previously unreported species. We sequenced chloroplast and nuclear DNA from putative parental and hybrid morphotypes and hybrid status of morphological intermediates was supported. Chloroplast data suggest that the seed source for these hybrids is T. aphylla. Invasive T. aphylla genotypes found in Australia match those found in the USA. Seed was collected from one of the hybrids, and a low percentage of it was viable. This hybrid combination has not been previously reported in the USA or the native ranges of the species. Although populations of this novel Tamarix hybrid appear to be uncommon at present, both parental species are considered invasive (saltcedars in North America; athel in Australia), and it is possible that more aggressive hybrid genotypes could be produced. Therefore, natural resource managers concerned with the potential spread of non-native species should be aware of the existence of these plants and monitor their future spread.

  8. The influence of EDTA application on the interactions of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake of rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis).

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2006-10-11

    Soil used in this study was artificially contaminated with Cd, Zn, Pb, or applied in combinations (Cd-Zn, Cd-Pb, Zn-Pb, or Cd-Zn-Pb) to study the interactions of metals in soil contaminated with multiple metals. After planting rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis) in these soils for 21 days, three different concentrations of ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were added to study the effect of applying EDTA on the interactions among these metals. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in the soil solutions of different metals-treated soils increased significantly after applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil (p<0.05). The potential of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it is not recommended to be in situ used or have to use very carefully. The existence of Pb in the Cd-contaminated soil enhanced the uptake of Cd in rainbow pink in the treatments of control and 2 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil. Cadmium inhibited the concentration of Zn without applying EDTA. However, whether the application of EDTA or not and the applied EDTA concentration had the greatest effect on the uptake of Pb when compared to Cd and Zn. After applying 5 mmol EDTA kg(-1) soil, Cd or Zn in the Pb-contaminated soil inhibited the uptake of Pb in rainbow pink, but there were no effect in other treatments.

  9. Establishment and reliability evaluation of the design space for HPLC analysis of six alkaloids in Coptis chinensis (Huanglian) using Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Dai, Sheng-Yun; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jian-Yu; Sun, Fei; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Coptis chinensis (Huanglian) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb and alkaloids are the most important chemical constituents in it. In the present study, an isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method allowing the separation of six alkaloids in Huanglian was for the first time developed under the quality by design (QbD) principles. First, five chromatographic parameters were identified to construct a Plackett-Burman experimental design. The critical resolution, analysis time, and peak width were responses modeled by multivariate linear regression. The results showed that the percentage of acetonitrile, concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and concentration of potassium phosphate monobasic were statistically significant parameters (P < 0.05). Then, the Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to further evaluate the interactions between the three parameters on selected responses. Full quadratic models were built and used to establish the analytical design space. Moreover, the reliability of design space was estimated by the Bayesian posterior predictive distribution. The optimal separation was predicted at 40% acetonitrile, 1.7 g·mL(-1) of sodium dodecyl sulfate and 0.03 mol·mL(-1) of potassium phosphate monobasic. Finally, the accuracy profile methodology was used to validate the established HPLC method. The results demonstrated that the QbD concept could be efficiently used to develop a robust RP-HPLC analytical method for Huanglian. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of genetic diversity of Brassica rapa var. chinensis using ISSR markers and development of SCAR marker specific for Fragrant Bok Choy, a product of geographic indication.

    PubMed

    Shen, X L; Zhang, Y M; Xue, J Y; Li, M M; Lin, Y B; Sun, X Q; Hang, Y Y

    2016-04-25

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa var. chinensis (Linnaeus) Kitamura] is a popular vegetable and is also used as a medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine. Fragrant Bok Choy is a unique accession of non-heading Chinese cabbage and a product of geographic indication certified by the Ministry of Agriculture of China, which is noted for its rich aromatic flavor. However, transitional and overlapping morphological traits can make it difficult to distinguish this accession from other non-heading Chinese cabbages. This study aimed to develop a molecular method for efficient identification of Fragrant Bok Choy. Genetic diversity analysis, based on inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers, was conducted for 11 non-heading Chinese cabbage accessions grown in the Yangtze River Delta region. Genetic similarity coefficients between the 11 accessions ranged from 0.5455 to 0.8961, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0755 to 0.4475. Cluster analysis divided the 11 accessions into two major groups. The primer ISSR-840 amplified a fragment specific for Fragrant Bok Choy. A pair of specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers based on this fragment amplified a target band in Fragrant Bok Choy individuals, but no band was detected in individuals of other accessions. In conclusion, this study has developed an efficient strategy for authentication of Fragrant Bok Choy. The SCAR marker described here will facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique non-heading Chinese cabbage germplasm resource.

  11. Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Asea, Alexzander; Kaur, Punit; Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Karl Georg

    2013-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that ADAPT-232, a fixed combination of adaptogenic substances derived from Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract, Schisandra chinensis berry extract, Rhodiola rosea root extract stimulated the expression and release of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and molecular chaperone Hsp72 from isolated human neurolgia cells. Both of these mediators of stress response are known to play an important role in regulation of neuroendocrine system and immune response. We further demonstrated that ADAPT-232 induced release of Hsp70 is mediated by NPY, suggesting an existence of NPY-mediated pathway of activation of Hsp72 release into the blood circulation system. The objective of this study was to determine whether this pathway is common for adaptogens and whether NPY and/or Hsp72 can be considered as necessary specific biomarkers for adaptogenic activity. The release of NPY and Hsp72 from neuroglia cells in response to treatment with various plant extracts (n=23) including selected validated adaptogens, partly validated adaptogens, claimed but negligibly validated adaptogens and some other plant extracts affecting neuroendocrine and immune systems but never considered as adaptogens was measured using high throughput ELISA techniques. We demonstrated that adaptogens, e.g. R. rosea, S. chinensis and E. senticosus stimulate both NPY and Hsp70 release from neuroblastoma cells, while tonics and stimulants have no significant effect on NPY in this in vitro test. In the groups of partly validated adaptogens the effect of Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera was not statistically significant both on NPY and Hsp70 release, while the activating effect of Bryonia alba and Rhaponticum cartamoides was significant only on Hsp70. In contrast, all tested non-adaptogens, such as antiinflammatoty plant extracts Matricaria recutita, Pelargonium sidoides, Hedera helix and Vitis vinifera significantly inhibit Hsp70 release and have no influence on NPY release from neuroblastoma

  12. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis) procyanidin A2 on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in ICR mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Tsay, Jwu-Guh; Weng, Brian Bor-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Drug tolerance, lacking liver regenerative activity and inconclusive inhibition of steatosis and cirrhosis by silymarin treatment during chronic liver injury have increased the demand for novel alternative or synergistic treatments for liver damage. Litchi fruit is abundant in polyphenolic compounds and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatments that include the strengthening of hepatic and pancreatic functions. Unique polyphenolic compounds obtained from litchi pericarp extract (LPE) were studied in vitro and in vivo for hepatoprotection. Epicatechin (EC) and procyanidin A2 (PA2) of LPE were obtained by fractionated-extraction from pulverized litchi pericarps. All fractions, including LPE, were screened against silymarin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated murine embryonic liver cell line (BNL). The effects of daily gavage-feeding of LPE, silymarin (200 mg/kg body weight) or H2O in CCl4-intoxicated male ICR mice were evaluated by studying serum chemicals, liver pathology and glutathione antioxidative enzymes. The effects of EC and PA2 on liver cell regenerative activity were investigated using a scratch wound healing assay and flow cytometric cell cycle analysis; the results of which demonstrated that LPE protected BNL from CCl4-intoxication. Gavage-feeding of LPE decreased serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels, and exhibited superior retention of the hexagonal structure of hepatocytes and reduced necrotic cells following liver histopathological examinations in CCl4-intoxicated ICR mice. Glutathione peroxidise and glutathione reductase activities were preserved as the normal control level in LPE groups. EC and PA2 were principle components of LPE. PA2 demonstrated liver cell regenerative activity in scratch wound healing assays and alcohol-induced liver cell injury in vitro. The present findings suggest that litchi pericarp polyphenolic extracts, including EC and PA2, may be a synergistic alternative to

  14. Hepatoprotective effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis) procyanidin A2 on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Tsay, Jwu-Guh; Weng, Brian Bor-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Drug tolerance, lacking liver regenerative activity and inconclusive inhibition of steatosis and cirrhosis by silymarin treatment during chronic liver injury have increased the demand for novel alternative or synergistic treatments for liver damage. Litchi fruit is abundant in polyphenolic compounds and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatments that include the strengthening of hepatic and pancreatic functions. Unique polyphenolic compounds obtained from litchi pericarp extract (LPE) were studied in vitro and in vivo for hepatoprotection. Epicatechin (EC) and procyanidin A2 (PA2) of LPE were obtained by fractionated-extraction from pulverized litchi pericarps. All fractions, including LPE, were screened against silymarin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-treated murine embryonic liver cell line (BNL). The effects of daily gavage-feeding of LPE, silymarin (200 mg/kg body weight) or H 2 O in CCl 4 -intoxicated male ICR mice were evaluated by studying serum chemicals, liver pathology and glutathione antioxidative enzymes. The effects of EC and PA2 on liver cell regenerative activity were investigated using a scratch wound healing assay and flow cytometric cell cycle analysis; the results of which demonstrated that LPE protected BNL from CCl 4 -intoxication. Gavage-feeding of LPE decreased serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels, and exhibited superior retention of the hexagonal structure of hepatocytes and reduced necrotic cells following liver histopathological examinations in CCl 4- intoxicated ICR mice. Glutathione peroxidise and glutathione reductase activities were preserved as the normal control level in LPE groups. EC and PA2 were principle components of LPE. PA2 demonstrated liver cell regenerative activity in scratch wound healing assays and alcohol-induced liver cell injury in vitro . The present findings suggest that litchi pericarp polyphenolic extracts, including EC and PA2, may be a synergistic

  15. Does landscape fragmentation influence sex ratio of dioecious plants? A case study of Pistacia chinensis in the Thousand-Island Lake region of China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; Lu, Jianbo

    2011-01-01

    The Thousand-Island Lake region in Zhejiang Province, China is a highly fragmented landscape with a clear point-in-time of fragmentation as a result of flooding to form the reservoir. Islands in the artificial lake were surveyed to examine how population sex ratio of a dioecious plant specie Pistacia chinensis B. was affected by landscape fragmentation. A natural population on the mainland near the lake was also surveyed for comparison. Population size, sex ratio and diameter at breast height (DBH) of individuals were measured over 2 years. More than 1,500 individuals, distributed in 31 populations, were studied. Soil nitrogen in the different populations was measured to identify the relationship between sex ratio and micro-environmental conditions. In accordance with the results of many other reports on biased sex ratio in relation to environmental gradient, we found that poor soil nitrogen areas fostered male-biased populations. In addition, the degree of sex ratio bias increased with decreasing population size and population connectivity. The biased sex ratios were only found in younger individuals (less than 50 years old) in small populations, while a stable 1∶1 sex ratio was found in the large population on the mainland. We concluded that the effects of landscape fragmentation on the dioecious population sex ratio were mainly achieved in relation to changing soil nitrogen conditions in patches and pollen limitation within and among populations. Large populations could maintain a more suitable environment in terms of nutrient conditions and pollen flow, subsequently maintaining a stable sex ratio in dioecious plant populations. Both micro-environmental factors and spatial structure should be considered in fragmented landscape for the conservation of dioecious plant species.

  16. Ecological effects of co-culturing the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus with the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in an earthen pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shun; Ren, Yichao; Pearce, Christopher M.; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Using net enclosures in an earthen pond, we established three culture treatments with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis: monoculture of sea cucumbers (C), monoculture of shrimp (S), and co-culture of the two species (CS). We measured levels of suspended particulate matter in the water column; total organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratios in both settling particles and the sediment; and chlorophyll a levels in the sediment. We then compared these variables between the three treatments. We also examined growth, survival, and yield of the two species in the different treatments. From June to September, the mean monthly suspended particulate matter sedimentation rates in the CS and S treatments were significantly ( P<0.05) greater than those in the C treatment. From August to November, the mean monthly total organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and chlorophyll a contents in the sediment in the CS and S treatments were significantly ( P <0.05) greater than those in the C treatment. Final wet weight, specific growth rate, survival rate, and total yield of sea cucumbers in co-culture were all significantly greater than those of sea cucumbers in monoculture. There were no significant differences among any of these variables for shrimp reared in the two systems. The bioturbation of the sediment and fecal production of the shrimp likely supplied natural food for the sea cucumbers. Co-culture of the two species is a viable option for increasing yield per unit area, maximizing use of the water body, and diversifying crop production.

  17. A methylene chloride fraction of Saururus chinensis induces apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3 in prostate and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Young; Choi, Tae Won; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sung-Moo; Park, Kyung-Ran; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Chul Young; Jung, Sang Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2011-05-15

    The aerial parts of Saururus chinensis (SC) have been used for the treatment of edema, fever, jaundice, and inflammatory diseases in Korean folk medicine for centuries. However, the mechanism by which SC exerts these anti-tumorigenic activities in human prostate and breast cancer cells has not yet been fully understood. In this study, we report on the methylene chloride fraction from SC exerting cytotoxicity against prostate and breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Specifically, SC exerted the most potent cytotoxicity in LNCaP and MCF-7 cells. SC was shown to down-regulate various angiogenetic (VEGF), proliferative (Cyclin D₁, anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) gene products in these cells. SC also increased the number of annexin V-positive apoptotic bodies and the sub-G1 DNA contents of the cell cycle undergoing apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in both LNCaP and MCF-7 cells. We further confirmed that caspase-3 plays an important role in SC-induced apoptosis in LNCaP and MCF-7 cells through the use of the caspase-3 inhibitor. Moreover, we observed that SC potentiated paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and sauchinone is a major active constituent of SC, which could induce apoptosis in the cells. Taken together, our data provide the evidence that SC induces apoptosis depending on caspase-3 activation and overcomes the natural biological resistance to chemotherapy found in human prostate and breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Schisandra chinensis fruit modulates the gut microbiota composition in association with metabolic markers in obese women: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-young; Wang, Jing-hua; Eom, Taewoong; Kim, Hojun

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit (SCF) is known to have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, including obesity, and to affect gut microbiota in in vivo studies. However, in human research, there have been a few studies in terms of its clinical roles in lipid metabolism and modulation of gut microbiota. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 28 obese women with SCF or placebo was conducted for 12 weeks. Anthropometry and blood and fecal sampling were performed before and after treatment. Analysis of the gut microbiota in feces was performed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the values did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, the SCF group tended to show a greater decrease in waist circumference, fat mass, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase than the placebo group. Clustering of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints for total bacteria before and after treatment indicated more separate clustering in SCF group than placebo. In correlation analysis, Bacteroides and Bacteroidetes (both increased by SCF) showed significant negative correlation with fat mass, aspartate aminotransferase, and/or alanine aminotransferase, respectively. Ruminococcus (decreased by SCF) showed negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. In conclusion, administration of SCF for 12 weeks resulted in modulation of the gut microbiota composition in Korean obese women, and significant correlations with some bacterial genera and metabolic parameters were noted. However, in general, SCF was not sufficient to induce significant changes in obesity-related parameters compared with placebo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Capsicum chinensis L. growth and nutraceutical properties are enhanced by biostimulants in a long-term period: chemical and metabolomic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ertani, Andrea; Pizzeghello, Diego; Francioso, Ornella; Sambo, Paolo; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago; Nardi, Serenella

    2014-01-01

    Two biostimulants, one derived from alfalfa plants (AH) and the other obtained from red grape (RG), were chemically characterized using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Two doses (50 and 100 mL L−1 for RG, and 25 and 50 mL L−1 for AH) of biostimulants were applied to Capsicum chinensis L. plants cultivated in pots inside a tunnel. The experimental design consisted of the factorial combination of treatment (no biostimulant, plus AH, plus RG) at three doses (zero, low, and high) and two time-course applications (at the second and fourth week after transplantation) and the effects were recorded at flowering and maturity. Both biostimulants contained different amounts of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine; the AH spectra exhibited amino acid functional groups in the peptidic structure, while the RG spectra showed the presence of polyphenols, such as resveratrol. These results revealed that at flowering, RG and AH increased the weights of fresh leaves and fruits and the number of green fruits, whereas at maturity, the biostimulants most affected the fresh weight and number of red fruits. At flowering, the leaves of the treated plants contained high amounts of epicatechin, ascorbic acid, quercetin, and dihydrocapsaicin. At maturity, the leaves of the treated plants exhibited elevated amounts of fructose, glucose, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids. Moreover, green fruits exhibited a high content of chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and antioxidant activity, while both AH- and RG-treated red fruits were highly endowed in capsaicin. The 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of red fruits revealed that both products induced a high amount of NADP+, whereas RG also increased glucose, fumarate, ascorbate, thymidine and high molecular weight species. Our results suggested that AH and RG promoted plant growth and the production of

  20. Analysis of novel high-molecular-weight prolamins from Leymus multicaulis (Kar. et Kir.) Tzvelev and L. chinensis (Trin. ex Bunge) Tzvelev.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinkun; Dai, Shoufen; Song, Zhongping; Xu, Dongyang; Wen, Zhaojin; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Dengcai; Zheng, Youliang; Yan, Zehong

    2018-06-01

    Nine novel high-molecular-weight prolamins (HMW-prolamins) were isolated from Leymus multicaulis and L. chinensis. Based on the structure of the repetitive domains, all nine genes were classified as D-hordeins but not high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) that have been previously isolated in Leymus spp. Four genes, Lmul 1.2, 2.4, 2.7, and Lchi 2.5 were verified by bacterial expression, whereas the other five sequences (1.3 types) were classified as pseudogenes. The four Leymus D-hordein proteins had longer N-termini than those of Hordeum spp. [116/118 vs. 110 amino acid (AA) residues], whereas three (Lmul 1.2, 2.4, and 2.7) contained shorter N-termini than those of the Ps. juncea (116 vs. 118 AA residues). Furthermore, Lmul 1.2 was identified as the smallest D-hordein, and Lmul 1.2 and 2.7 had an additional cysteines. Phylogenetic analysis supported that the nine D-hordeins of Leymus formed two independent clades, with all the 1.3 types clustered with Ps. juncea Ns 1.3, whereas the others were clustered together with the D-hordeins from Hordeum and Ps. juncea and the HMW-GSs from Leymus. Within the clade of four D-hordein genes and HMW-GSs, the HMW-GSs of Leymus formed a separated branch that served as an intermediate between the D-hordeins of Ps. juncea and Leymus. These novel D-hordeins may be potentially utilized in the improvement of food processing properties particularly those relating to extra cysteine residues. The findings of the present study also provide basic information for understanding the HMW-prolamins among Triticeae species, as well as expand the sources of D-hordeins from Hordeum to Leymus.

  1. A novel C-type lectin with two CRD domains from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis functions as a pattern recognition protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Wen-Teng; Wang, Xian-Wei; Mu, Yi; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2009-05-01

    Lectins are regarded as potential immune recognition proteins. In this study, a novel C-type lectin (Fc-Lec2) was cloned from the hepatopancreas of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The cDNA of Fc-Lec2 is 1219 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1002 bp that encodes a protein of 333 amino acids. Fc-Lec2 contains a signal peptide and two different carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) arranged in tandem. The first CRD contains a QPD (Gln-Pro-Asp) motif that has a predicted binding specificity for galactose and the second CRD contains a EPN (Glu-Pro-Asn) motif for mannose. Fc-Lec2 was constitutively expressed in the hepatopancreas of normal shrimp, and its expression was up-regulated in the hepatopancreas of shrimp challenged with bacteria or viruses. Recombinant mature Fc-Lec2 and its two individual CRDs (CRD1 and 2) did not have hemagglutinating activity against animal red blood cells, but agglutinated some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in a calcium-dependent manner. The three recombinant proteins also bound to bacteria in the absence of calcium. Fc-Lec2 seems to have broader specificity and higher affinity for bacteria and polysaccharides (peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid and lipopolysaccharide) than each of the two individual CRDs. These data suggest that the two CRDs have synergistic effect, and the intact lectin may be more effective in response to bacterial infection, the Fc-Lec2 performs its pattern recognition function by binding to polysaccharides of pathogen cells.

  2. Leaf Extracts of Selected Gardening Trees Can Attenuate Quorum Sensing and Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Niu, Kaimin; Kuk, Min; Jung, Haein; Chan, Kokgan; Kim, Sooki

    2017-09-01

    An increasing concern on resistance to multiple-antibiotics has led to the discovery of novel agents and the establishment of new precaution strategy. Numerous plant sources have been widely studied to reduce virulence of pathogenic bacteria by interfering cell-to-cell based communication called quorum sensing (QS). Leaf extracts of 17 gardening trees were collected and investigated for their anti-QS effects using a sensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Methanolic extracts of K4 ( Acer palmatum ), K9 ( Acer pseudosieboldianum ) and K13 ( Cercis chinensis ) leaves were selected for further experiments based on their antagonism effect on QS without inhibiting C. violaceum CV026 growth. Subsequently, the leaf extracts on QS-mediated virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 involved in biofilm formation, motility, bioluminescence, pyocyanin production, QS molecules production, and Caenorhabditis elegans killing activity were evaluated. The biofilm formation ability and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa PAO1 were decreased approximately 50% in the presence of these leaf extracts at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The expression level of lecA::lux of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and pyocyanin production were also reduced. The three leaf extracts also decreased autoinducer (AI) production in P. aeruginosa PAO1 without direct degradation, suggesting that AI synthesis might have been suppressed by these extracts. The three leaf extracts also showed anti-infection activity in C. elegans model. Taken together, these results suggest that methanolic leaf extracts of K4, K9 and K13 have the potential to attenuate the virulence of P. aeruginosa PAO1.

  3. Natural Antimicrobials and Oral Microorganisms: A Systematic Review on Herbal Interventions for the Eradication of Multispecies Oral Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Anderson, Annette C; Skaltsounis, Alexios L

    2015-01-01

    Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CAMbase) and the electronic archives of five German journals from the times of their establishment until October 10th, 2014, with the search terms "(plant extracts OR herbal extracts OR plant OR herb) AND (oral biofilm OR dental biofilm OR dental plaque OR oral disease OR dental disease)." The pooled data were assessed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PRISMA). Initially, 1848 articles were identified, out of which 585 full-text articles were screened, 149 articles were reevaluated for eligibility and finally, 14 articles met all inclusion criteria. The data of 14 reports disclosed enhanced antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity by the plant extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera, Pinus spp., Coffea canephora, Camellia sinensis, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Galla chinensis, Caesalpinia ferrea Martius, Psidium cattleianum, representative Brazilian plants and manuka honey. Overall, a positive correlation was revealed between herb-based therapies and elimination rates of all types of multispecies oral biofilms. In that context, integrating or even replacing conventional dental therapy protocols with herbal-inspired treatments can allow effective antimicrobial control of oral biofilms and thus, dental diseases.

  4. Natural Antimicrobials and Oral Microorganisms: A Systematic Review on Herbal Interventions for the Eradication of Multispecies Oral Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Anderson, Annette C.; Skaltsounis, Alexios L.

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. Antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. Hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. Searches were performed in three English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CAMbase) and the electronic archives of five German journals from the times of their establishment until October 10th, 2014, with the search terms “(plant extracts OR herbal extracts OR plant OR herb) AND (oral biofilm OR dental biofilm OR dental plaque OR oral disease OR dental disease).” The pooled data were assessed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PRISMA). Initially, 1848 articles were identified, out of which 585 full-text articles were screened, 149 articles were reevaluated for eligibility and finally, 14 articles met all inclusion criteria. The data of 14 reports disclosed enhanced antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity by the plant extracts obtained from Vitis vinifera, Pinus spp., Coffea canephora, Camellia sinensis, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Galla chinensis, Caesalpinia ferrea Martius, Psidium cattleianum, representative Brazilian plants and manuka honey. Overall, a positive correlation was revealed between herb-based therapies and elimination rates of all types of multispecies oral biofilms. In that context, integrating or even replacing conventional dental therapy protocols with herbal-inspired treatments can allow effective antimicrobial control of oral biofilms and thus, dental diseases. PMID:26834707

  5. Structure of Pigment Metabolic Pathways and Their Contributions to White Tepal Color Formation of Chinese Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis cv Jinzhanyintai

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingwen; Lu, Bingguo; Jiang, Yaping; Chen, Haiyang; Hong, Yuwei; Wu, Binghua; Miao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis) is one of the ten traditional flowers in China and a famous bulb flower in the world flower market. However, only white color tepals are formed in mature flowers of the cultivated varieties, which constrains their applicable occasions. Unfortunately, for lack of genome information of narcissus species, the explanation of tepal color formation of Chinese narcissus is still not clear. Concerning no genome information, the application of transcriptome profile to dissect biological phenomena in plants was reported to be effective. As known, pigments are metabolites of related metabolic pathways, which dominantly decide flower color. In this study, transcriptome profile and pigment metabolite analysis methods were used in the most widely cultivated Chinese narcissus “Jinzhanyintai” to discover the structure of pigment metabolic pathways and their contributions to white tepal color formation during flower development and pigmentation processes. By using comparative KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, three pathways related to flavonoid, carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment metabolism showed significant variations. The structure of flavonoids metabolic pathway was depicted, but, due to the lack of F3ʹ5ʹH gene; the decreased expression of C4H, CHS and ANS genes; and the high expression of FLS gene, the effect of this pathway to synthesize functional anthocyanins in tepals was weak. Similarly, the expression of DXS, MCT and PSY genes in carotenoids synthesis sub-pathway was decreased, while CCD1/CCD4 genes in carotenoids degradation sub-pathway was increased; therefore, the effect of carotenoids metabolic pathway to synthesize adequate color pigments in tepals is restricted. Interestingly, genes in chlorophyll synthesis sub-pathway displayed uniform down-regulated expression, while genes in heme formation and chlorophyll breakdown sub-pathways displayed up-regulated expression, which also indicates negative regulation

  6. A Complex Inoculant of N2-Fixing, P- and K-Solubilizing Bacteria from a Purple Soil Improves the Growth of Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Plantlets

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hong; He, Xinhua; Liu, Yiqing; Chen, Yi; Tang, Jianming; Guo, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available if plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) can promote the growth of fruit crops through improvements in soil fertility. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of PGPB, identified by phenotypic and 16S rRNA sequencing from a vegetable purple soil in Chongqing, China, to increase soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) availability and growth of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). In doing so, three out of 17 bacterial isolates with a high capacity of N2-fixation (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, XD-N-3), P-solubilization (B. pumilus, XD-P-1) or K-solubilization (B. circulans, XD-K-2) were mixed as a complex bacterial inoculant. A pot experiment then examined its effects of this complex inoculant on soil microflora, soil N2-fixation, P- and K-solubility and kiwifruit growth under four treatments. These treatments were (1) no-fertilizer and no-bacterial inoculant (Control), (2) no-bacterial inoculant and a full-rate of chemical NPK fertilizer (CF), (3) the complex inoculant (CI), and (4) a half-rate CF and full CI (1/2CF+CI). Results indicated that significantly greater growth of N2-fixing, P- and K-solubilizing bacteria among treatments ranked from greatest to least as under 1/2CF+CI ≈ CI > CF ≈ Control. Though generally without significant treatment differences in soil total N, P, or K, significantly greater soil available N, P, or K among treatments was, respectively, patterned as under 1/2CF+CI ≈ CI > CF ≈ Control, under 1/2CF+CI > CF > CI > Control or under 1/2CF+CI > CF ≈ CI > Control, indicating an improvement of soil fertility by this complex inoculant. In regards to plant growth, significantly greater total plant biomass and total N, P, and K accumulation among treatments were ranked as 1/2CF+CI ≈ CI > CF > Control. Additionally, significantly greater leaf polyphenol oxidase activity ranked as under CF > 1/2CF+CI ≈ Control ≈ CI, while leaf malondialdehyde contents as under Control > CI ≈ CF > 1/2CF

  7. A Complex Inoculant of N2-Fixing, P- and K-Solubilizing Bacteria from a Purple Soil Improves the Growth of Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Plantlets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong; He, Xinhua; Liu, Yiqing; Chen, Yi; Tang, Jianming; Guo, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available if plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) can promote the growth of fruit crops through improvements in soil fertility. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of PGPB, identified by phenotypic and 16S rRNA sequencing from a vegetable purple soil in Chongqing, China, to increase soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) availability and growth of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). In doing so, three out of 17 bacterial isolates with a high capacity of N2-fixation (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, XD-N-3), P-solubilization (B. pumilus, XD-P-1) or K-solubilization (B. circulans, XD-K-2) were mixed as a complex bacterial inoculant. A pot experiment then examined its effects of this complex inoculant on soil microflora, soil N2-fixation, P- and K-solubility and kiwifruit growth under four treatments. These treatments were (1) no-fertilizer and no-bacterial inoculant (Control), (2) no-bacterial inoculant and a full-rate of chemical NPK fertilizer (CF), (3) the complex inoculant (CI), and (4) a half-rate CF and full CI (1/2CF+CI). Results indicated that significantly greater growth of N2-fixing, P- and K-solubilizing bacteria among treatments ranked from greatest to least as under 1/2CF+CI ≈ CI > CF ≈ Control. Though generally without significant treatment differences in soil total N, P, or K, significantly greater soil available N, P, or K among treatments was, respectively, patterned as under 1/2CF+CI ≈ CI > CF ≈ Control, under 1/2CF+CI > CF > CI > Control or under 1/2CF+CI > CF ≈ CI > Control, indicating an improvement of soil fertility by this complex inoculant. In regards to plant growth, significantly greater total plant biomass and total N, P, and K accumulation among treatments were ranked as 1/2CF+CI ≈ CI > CF > Control. Additionally, significantly greater leaf polyphenol oxidase activity ranked as under CF > 1/2CF+CI ≈ Control ≈ CI, while leaf malondialdehyde contents as under Control > CI ≈ CF > 1/2CF

  8. De novo assembly and characterization of fruit transcriptome in Litchi chinensis Sonn and analysis of differentially regulated genes in fruit in response to shading

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is one of the most important fruit trees cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas. However, a lack of transcriptomic and genomic information hinders our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying fruit set and fruit development in litchi. Shading during early fruit development decreases fruit growth and induces fruit abscission. Here, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was employed for the de novo assembly and characterization of the fruit transcriptome in litchi, and differentially regulated genes, which are responsive to shading, were also investigated using digital transcript abundance(DTA)profiling. Results More than 53 million paired-end reads were generated and assembled into 57,050 unigenes with an average length of 601 bp. These unigenes were annotated by querying against various public databases, with 34,029 unigenes found to be homologous to genes in the NCBI GenBank database and 22,945 unigenes annotated based on known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database. In further orthologous analyses, 5,885 unigenes were assigned with one or more Gene Ontology terms, 10,234 hits were aligned to the 24 Clusters of Orthologous Groups classifications and 15,330 unigenes were classified into 266 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Based on the newly assembled transcriptome, the DTA profiling approach was applied to investigate the differentially expressed genes related to shading stress. A total of 3.6 million and 3.5 million high-quality tags were generated from shaded and non-shaded libraries, respectively. As many as 1,039 unigenes were shown to be significantly differentially regulated. Eleven of the 14 differentially regulated unigenes, which were randomly selected for more detailed expression comparison during the course of shading treatment, were identified as being likely to be involved in the process of fruitlet abscission in litchi. Conclusions The assembled transcriptome of litchi

  9. Promoter difference of LcFT1 is a leading cause of natural variation of flowering timing in different litchi cultivars (Litchi chinensis Sonn.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Feng; Zhang, Shuwei; Chen, Houbin; Su, Zuanxian; Zhang, Rong; Xiao, Qiusheng; Li, Hongli

    2015-12-01

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) is an important subtropical evergreen fruit crop with high commercial value due to its high nutritional values and favorable tastes. However, irregular bearing attributed to unstable flowering is a major ongoing problem for litchi producers. There is a need to better understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the reproductive process in litchi. In a previous study, our laboratory had analyzed the transcriptome of litchi leaves before and after low-temperature treatment with RNA-seq technology. Herein, we demonstrated that litchi flowering was induced by low-temperature and identified two FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologue genes named LcFT1 and LcFT2, respectively. We found that low-temperature could only induce LcFT1 expression in leaves, but could not induce LcFT2 expression. Heterologous expression of LcFT1 in transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants induced their precocious flowering. These results indicate that LcFT1 plays a pivotal role in litchi floral induction by low-temperature. In addition, we found that two types of LcFT1 promoter existed in different litchi cultivars. The LcFT1 promoters in the early-flowering cultivars belonged to one type whereas LcFT1 promoters in the late-flowering belonged to another one. LcFT1 promoter in the early-flowering cultivars was more sensitive to low-temperature than that of the late-flowering cultivars was, which may be caused by the different cis-acting elements, including MYC, MYB, ABRE, and WRKY cis-acting elements, which were found to be present in the LcFT1 promoter sequences of the early-flowering cultivars. This difference may be responsible for the different requirements of low-temperature for floral induction in the early- and late-flowering cultivars of litchi. Taken together, the difference in LcFT1 promoter sequences may be one of the leading cause for the natural variation of flowering timing in different litchi cultivars. Our study has provided valuable genetic

  10. Population Differentiation and Hybridisation of Australian Snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa chinensis) Dolphins in North-Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins (‘snubfin’ and ‘humpback dolphins’, hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as ‘near threatened’ by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (F ST = 0.05–0.09; P<0.001) and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (F ST = 0.50–0.70; P<0.001). The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00–0.06) to 0.13 (0.03–0.24). These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide

  11. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexander M; Kopps, Anna M; Allen, Simon J; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; P<0.001) and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (FST = 0.50-0.70; P<0.001). The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00-0.06) to 0.13 (0.03-0.24). These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the

  12. Structure of Pigment Metabolic Pathways and Their Contributions to White Tepal Color Formation of Chinese Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis cv Jinzhanyintai.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yujun; Yang, Jingwen; Lu, Bingguo; Jiang, Yaping; Chen, Haiyang; Hong, Yuwei; Wu, Binghua; Miao, Ying

    2017-09-08

    Chinese narcissus ( Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis ) is one of the ten traditional flowers in China and a famous bulb flower in the world flower market. However, only white color tepals are formed in mature flowers of the cultivated varieties, which constrains their applicable occasions. Unfortunately, for lack of genome information of narcissus species, the explanation of tepal color formation of Chinese narcissus is still not clear. Concerning no genome information, the application of transcriptome profile to dissect biological phenomena in plants was reported to be effective. As known, pigments are metabolites of related metabolic pathways, which dominantly decide flower color. In this study, transcriptome profile and pigment metabolite analysis methods were used in the most widely cultivated Chinese narcissus "Jinzhanyintai" to discover the structure of pigment metabolic pathways and their contributions to white tepal color formation during flower development and pigmentation processes. By using comparative KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, three pathways related to flavonoid, carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment metabolism showed significant variations. The structure of flavonoids metabolic pathway was depicted, but, due to the lack of F3'5'H gene; the decreased expression of C4H , CHS and ANS genes; and the high expression of FLS gene, the effect of this pathway to synthesize functional anthocyanins in tepals was weak. Similarly, the expression of DXS , MCT and PSY genes in carotenoids synthesis sub-pathway was decreased, while CCD1 / CCD4 genes in carotenoids degradation sub-pathway was increased; therefore, the effect of carotenoids metabolic pathway to synthesize adequate color pigments in tepals is restricted. Interestingly, genes in chlorophyll synthesis sub-pathway displayed uniform down-regulated expression, while genes in heme formation and chlorophyll breakdown sub-pathways displayed up-regulated expression, which also indicates negative regulation

  13. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  14. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  15. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  16. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  17. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  18. Screening for lead compounds and herbal extracts with potential anti-influenza viral activity.

    PubMed

    Klaywong, Konrapob; Khutrakul, Gachagorn; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Petcharat, Nantawan; Leckcharoensuk, Porntippa; Ramasoota, Pongrama

    2014-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) contains a conserved RNA binding domain (RBD) that inhibits antiviral functions of host-innate immune response. Dimerization of NS1 forms a central groove and binds to double stranded (ds) RNA. This region might serve as a potential drug target. In this study, three dimensional structure model of NS1 RBD protein was constructed and virtual screening was performed to identify lead compounds that bound within and around the central groove. The virtual screening showed that 5 compounds bound within the central groove with binding energy ranging between -16.05 and -17.36 Kcal/mol. Two commercially available compounds, estradiol and veratridine, were selected for using in an in vitro screening assay. The results showed that neither of the compounds could inhibit the association between dsRNA and NS1 RBD protein. In addition, 34 herbal extracts were examined for their inhibitory effects. Five of them were able to inhibit association between NS1 RBD and dsRNA in electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Four herbs, Terminalia belirica, Salacia chinensis, Zingiber montanum and Peltophorum pterocarpum, could reduce > 50% of infectivity of H5N1 in a cell-based assay, and it is worth further studying their potential use as source of antiviral drugs.

  19. α-Methyl artoflavanocoumarin from Juniperus chinensis exerts anti-diabetic effects by inhibiting PTP1B and activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee Jin; Seong, Su Hui; Ali, Md Yousof; Min, Byung-Sun; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest global health issues and much research effort continues to be directed toward identifying novel therapeutic agents. Insulin resistance is a challenging integrally related topic and molecules capable of overcoming it are of considerable therapeutic interest in the context of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin signaling transduction and is regarded a novel therapeutic target in T2DM. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of α-methyl artoflavanocoumarin (MAFC), a natural flavanocoumarin isolated from Juniperus chinensis, on PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. MAFC was found to potently inhibit PTP1B with an IC 50 of 25.27 ± 0.14 µM, and a kinetics study revealed MAFC is a mixed type PTP1B inhibitor with a K i value of 13.84 µM. Molecular docking simulations demonstrated MAFC can bind to catalytic and allosteric sites of PTP1B. Furthermore, MAFC significantly increased glucose uptake and decreased the expression of PTP1B in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, down-regulated the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 (Ser307), and dose-dependently enhanced the protein levels of IRS-1, phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and ERK1. These results suggest that MAFC from J. chinensis has therapeutic potential in T2DM by inhibiting PTP1B and activating insulin signaling pathways.

  20. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus

  1. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  2. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  3. Efficacy of antimicrobial agents incorporated in orthodontic bonding systems: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, C M; da Rosa, W L O; Meereis, C T W; de Almeida, S M; Ribeiro, J S; da Silva, A F; Lund, Rafael Guerra

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of orthodontic bonding systems containing different antimicrobial agents, as well as the influence of antimicrobial agent incorporation in the bonding properties of these materials. Eight databases were searched: PubMed (Medline), Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, Ibecs, BBO, Scielo and Google Scholar. Any study that evaluated antimicrobial activity in experimental or commercial orthodontic bonding systems was included. Data were tabulated independently and in duplicated by two authors on pre-designed data collection form. The global analysis was carried out using a random-effects model, and pooled-effect estimates were obtained by comparing the standardised mean difference of each antimicrobial orthodontic adhesive with the respective control group. A p-value < .05 was considered as statistically significant. Thirty-two studies were included in the qualitative analysis; of these, 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Antimicrobial agents such as silver nanoparticles, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, triclosan, cetylpyridinium chloride, Galla chinensis extract, acid ursolic, dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine, 1,3,5-triacryloylhexahydro-1,3,5-triazine, zinc oxide and titanium oxide have been incorporated into orthodontic bonding systems. The antimicrobial agent incorporation in orthodontic bonding systems showed higher antimicrobial activity than the control group in agar diffusion (overall standardised mean difference: 3.71; 95% CI 2.98 to 4.43) and optical density tests (0.41; 95% CI -0.05 to 0.86) (p < .05). However, for biofilm, the materials did not present antimicrobial activity (6.78; 95% CI 4.78 to 8.77). Regarding bond strength, the global analysis showed antimicrobial orthodontic bonding systems were statistically similar to the control. Although there is evidence of antibacterial activity from in vitro

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  5. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  6. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  7. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  8. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    PubMed

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles.

  9. Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Tao; Nachtigall, Paul E; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Jian-Chang; Duan, Guo-Qin; Cao, Han-Jiang; Wang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    A growing demand for sustainable energy has led to an increase in construction of offshore windfarms. Guishan windmill farm will be constructed in the Pearl River Estuary, China, which sustains the world's largest known population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Dolphin conservation is an urgent issue in this region. By using passive acoustic monitoring, a baseline distribution of data on this species in the Pearl River Estuary during pre-construction period had been collected. Dolphin biosonar detection and its diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns were examined using a Generalized Linear Model. Significant higher echolocation detections at night than during the day, in winter-spring than in summer-autumn, at high tide than at flood tide were recognized. Significant higher echolocation detections during the new moon were recognized at night time. The diel, lunar and seasonal patterns for the echolocation encounter duration also significantly varied. These patterns could be due to the spatial-temporal variability of dolphin prey and illumination conditions. The baseline information will be useful for driving further effective action on the conservation of this species and in facilitating later assessments of the effects of the offshore windfarm on the dolphins by comparing the baseline to post construction and post mitigation efforts.

  10. Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Tao; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Jian-Chang; Duan, Guo-Qin; Cao, Han-Jiang; Wang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    A growing demand for sustainable energy has led to an increase in construction of offshore windfarms. Guishan windmill farm will be constructed in the Pearl River Estuary, China, which sustains the world’s largest known population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Dolphin conservation is an urgent issue in this region. By using passive acoustic monitoring, a baseline distribution of data on this species in the Pearl River Estuary during pre-construction period had been collected. Dolphin biosonar detection and its diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns were examined using a Generalized Linear Model. Significant higher echolocation detections at night than during the day, in winter-spring than in summer-autumn, at high tide than at flood tide were recognized. Significant higher echolocation detections during the new moon were recognized at night time. The diel, lunar and seasonal patterns for the echolocation encounter duration also significantly varied. These patterns could be due to the spatial-temporal variability of dolphin prey and illumination conditions. The baseline information will be useful for driving further effective action on the conservation of this species and in facilitating later assessments of the effects of the offshore windfarm on the dolphins by comparing the baseline to post construction and post mitigation efforts. PMID:26580966

  11. Actinidia chinensis Planch. Improves the Indices of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammation Status of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Activating Keap1 and Nrf2 via the Upregulation of MicroRNA-424

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofei; Li, Gang; Dai, Bing; Tan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The fruit juice of Actinidia chinensis Planch. has antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the molecular mechanism was unclear. The patients took the juice and the serum level of antioxidant miR-424, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), and biochemical indices were measured. The juice increased the levels of serum microRNA-424, Keap1, and Nrf2 and reduced the levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) beta and IL-6 in T2DM patients. The levels of SOD and GSH were higher while the levels of ALT and AST were lower in the patients consuming the juice when compared to the patients without taking the juice. The Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the serum levels of miR-424 were positively related to Keap1 and Nrf2 levels while Keap1 and Nrf2 levels were positively related to the levels of SOD and GSH and negatively related to IL-1 beta and IL-6. Thus, FJACP improves the indices of antioxidant and anti-inflammation status by activating Keap1 and Nrf2 via the upregulation of miR-424 in the patients with T2DM. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-ONC-17011087 on 04/07/2017. PMID:28642811

  12. The in-capillary DPPH-capillary electrophoresis-the diode array detector combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode for screening and quantifying major antioxidants in Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Tian, Ji; Li, Jin; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2016-07-01

    An in-capillary 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-CE-the DAD (in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD) combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode has been developed to screen and quantify the active antioxidant components of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. The operation parameters were optimized with regard to the pH and concentration of buffer solution, SDS, β-CDs, organic modifier, as well as separation voltage and temperature. Six antioxidants including chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and astragalin were screened and the total antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully evaluated based on the decreased peak area of DPPH by the established DPPH-CE-DAD method. Sensitivity was enhanced under reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode and 10- to 31-fold of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity for each analyte was attained. The results demonstrated that the newly established in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD method combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode could integrate sample concentration, the oxidizing reaction, separation, and detection into one capillary to fully automate the system. It was considered a suitable technique for the separation, screening, and determination of trace antioxidants in natural products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  14. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  15. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  16. Extracting concentrated guided light.

    PubMed

    Ries, H; Segal, A; Karni, J

    1997-05-01

    The maximum concentration of radiation is proportional to the square of the refractive index of the medium in which it propagates. A medium with a high refractive index can also serve as a lightguide for concentrated radiation. However, if concentrated radiation is extracted from one medium, with a high refractive index, to another, whose index is lower (e.g., from fused silica into air), part of the radiation may be lost because of the total internal reflection at the interface. We present polygonal shapes suitable for efficient extraction of the concentrated radiation in a controllable way, without increasing the cross-section area (or diameter) of the lightguide. It is shown analytically and experimentally that the use of a secondary concentrator, followed by such a light extractor, both having a high refractive index, can provide considerably more power to a solar receiver with a specific aperture.

  17. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  18. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  19. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at leastmore » two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.« less

  20. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  1. Understanding extractive bleed : wood extractives: distribution, properties, and classes

    Treesearch

    Edward Burke; Norm Slavik; Tony Bonura; Dennis Connelly; Tom Faris; Arnie Nebelsick; Brent Stuart; Sam Williams; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Color, odor, and natural durability of heartwood are characteristics imparted by a class of chemicals in wood known collectively extractives. Wood is converted by the tree from sapwood to heartwood by the deposition of extractives, typically many years after the growth ring undergoing this change was formed by the tree. Extractives are thus not a part of the wood...

  2. Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2009-09-04

    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures

  3. Efficacy of essential oils of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown and Callistemon lanceolatus (Sm.) Sweet and their major constituents on mortality, oviposition and feeding behaviour of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Prakash, Bhanu; Kumar, Ashok; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2011-09-01

    Pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L., is the most destructive insect pest of pulses under storage in Asia and Africa. Keeping in view the negative impacts of synthetic insecticides and the demands of botanical pesticides, the present investigation explores the repellents, antifeedants, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupaecidal activity of two plant essential oils (EOs) and their major components, geranial and 1,8-cineole, when applied as fumigants for the management of the pulse beetle. EO of Callistemon lanceolatus (Sm.) Sweet caused 100% repellency of pulse beetle in a Y-shaped olfactometer at a dose of 150 µL, while Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown EO and 1,8-cineole showed 76 and 74.7% repellency at the same dose. At 0.1 µL mL(-1) , both the oils and 1,8-cineole provided 100% insect mortality. The EO of C. lanceolatus was recorded as the most effective fumigant, showing 96.03% oviposition deterrency and 100% antifeedant activity at 0.1 µL mL(-1) . The LD(50) of L. alba (11049.2 µL kg(-1) ) and C. lanceolatus (14 626.3 µL kg(-1) ) exhibited their favourable safety profiles when recorded on mice. EOs of L. alba and C. lanceolatus exhibited significant biological activity on the mortality and reproductive behaviour of pulse beetle. Based on their high LD(50) values, the oils could be safely recommended as non-mammalian toxic fumigants in management strategies for pulse beetle. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Comparison of learning ability and memory retention in altricial (Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata var. domestica) and precocial (blue-breasted quail, Coturnix chinensis) birds using a color discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Aki; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2014-02-01

    The present study sought to assess the potential application of avian models with different developmental modes to studies on cognition and neuroscience. Six altricial Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica), and eight precocial blue-breasted quails (Coturnix chinensis) were presented with color discrimination tasks to compare their respective faculties for learning and memory retention within the context of the two developmental modes. Tasks consisted of presenting birds with discriminative cues in the form of colored feeder lids, and birds were considered to have learned a task when 80% of their attempts at selecting the correctly colored lid in two consecutive blocks of 10 trials were successful. All of the finches successfully performed the required experimental tasks, whereas only half of the quails were able to execute the same tasks. In the learning test, finches required significantly fewer trials than quails to learn the task (finches: 13.5 ± 9.14 trials, quails: 45.8 ± 4.35 trials, P < 0.05), with finches scoring significantly more correct responses than quails (finches: 98.3 ± 4.08%, quails: 85.0 ± 5.77% at the peak of the learning curve). In the memory retention tests, which were conducted 45 days after the learning test, finches retained the ability to discriminate between colors correctly (95.0 ± 4.47%), whereas quails did not retain any memory of the experimental procedure and so could not be tested. These results suggested that altricial and precocial birds both possess the faculty for learning and retaining discrimination-type tasks, but that altricial birds perform better than precocial birds in both faculties. The present findings imply that developmental mode is an important consideration for assessing the suitability of bird species for particular experiments. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Impact of different feedstocks derived biochar amendment with cadmium low uptake affinity cultivar of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssb. chinensis L.) on phytoavoidation of Cd to reduce potential dietary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yasmin Khan, Kiran; Ali, Barkat; Cui, Xiaoqiang; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe; Joseph Stoffella, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Biochar has become eco-friendly amendment used for phytoavoidation with low cadmium (Cd) accumulating cultivars of crops to ensure food safety in Cd contaminated soils. In this study, biochar with different waste feedstock material were evaluated for their effectiveness on essential trace metals mobility, Cd bioavailability and its accumulation in two contrasting Cd accumulating cultivars of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L.) grown in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with plants grown in Cd contaminated soil that had been amended with biochar derived from barley straw, tomato green waste, chicken manure, duck manure and swine manure at application rate of 0%, 2.5% and 5.0% (w/w). The results showed that soil pH was significantly increased by all treatments. Biochar increased plant dry biomass, micronutrients bioavailability with significant differences in the Cd sorption capacity, with the effectiveness higher with increasing biochar application rate. However, tomato green waste (TGW) and chicken manure (CM) derived biochar were more effective than the other biochar in reducing Cd mobilization in soil by 35-54% and 26-43% and reduced its accumulation in shoots of pak choi cultivars by 34-76% and 33-72% in low Cd accumulator cultivar and 64-85% and 55-80% in high Cd accumulator cultivar than the control. Overall, results indicate that TGW and CM biochar can efficiently immobilize Cd, thereby reducing bioavailability in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil to ensure food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Drought Sensitivity of the Carbon Isotope Composition of Leaf Dark-Respired CO2 in C3 (Leymus chinensis) and C4 (Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima) Grasses in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shangzhi; Chai, Hua; Xu, Yueqiao; Li, Yan; Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Whether photosynthetic pathway differences exist in the amplitude of nighttime variations in the carbon isotope composition of leaf dark-respired CO2 (δ13Cl) and respiratory apparent isotope fractionation relative to biomass (ΔR,biomass) in response to drought stress is unclear. These differences, if present, would be important for the partitioning of C3-C4 mixed ecosystem C fluxes. We measured δ13Cl, the δ13C of biomass and of potential respiratory substrates and leaf gas exchange in one C3 (Leymus chinensis) and two C4 (Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima) grasses during a manipulated drought period. For all studied grasses, δ13Cl decreased from 21:00 to 03:00 h. The magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ13Cl decreased with increasing drought stress. The δ13Cl values were correlated with the δ13C of respiratory substrates, whereas the magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ13Cl strongly depended on the daytime carbon assimilation rate and the range of nighttime variations in the respiratory substrate content. The ΔR,biomass in the C3 and C4 grasses varied in opposite directions with the intensification of the drought stress. The contribution of C4 plant-associated carbon flux is likely to be overestimated if carbon isotope signatures are used for the partitioning of ecosystem carbon exchange and the δ13C of biomass is used as a substitute for leaf dark-respired CO2. The detected drought sensitivities in δ13Cl and differences in respiratory apparent isotope fractionation between C3 and C4 grasses have marked implications for isotope partitioning studies at the ecosystem level. PMID:29375587

  7. Drought Sensitivity of the Carbon Isotope Composition of Leaf Dark-Respired CO2 in C3 (Leymus chinensis) and C4 (Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima) Grasses in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shangzhi; Chai, Hua; Xu, Yueqiao; Li, Yan; Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Whether photosynthetic pathway differences exist in the amplitude of nighttime variations in the carbon isotope composition of leaf dark-respired CO 2 (δ 13 C l ) and respiratory apparent isotope fractionation relative to biomass (Δ R,biomass ) in response to drought stress is unclear. These differences, if present, would be important for the partitioning of C 3 -C 4 mixed ecosystem C fluxes. We measured δ 13 C l , the δ 13 C of biomass and of potential respiratory substrates and leaf gas exchange in one C 3 ( Leymus chinensis ) and two C 4 ( Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima ) grasses during a manipulated drought period. For all studied grasses, δ 13 C l decreased from 21:00 to 03:00 h. The magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ 13 C l decreased with increasing drought stress. The δ 13 C l values were correlated with the δ 13 C of respiratory substrates, whereas the magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ 13 C l strongly depended on the daytime carbon assimilation rate and the range of nighttime variations in the respiratory substrate content. The Δ R,biomass in the C 3 and C 4 grasses varied in opposite directions with the intensification of the drought stress. The contribution of C 4 plant-associated carbon flux is likely to be overestimated if carbon isotope signatures are used for the partitioning of ecosystem carbon exchange and the δ 13 C of biomass is used as a substitute for leaf dark-respired CO 2 . The detected drought sensitivities in δ 13 C l and differences in respiratory apparent isotope fractionation between C 3 and C 4 grasses have marked implications for isotope partitioning studies at the ecosystem level.

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  9. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  10. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  11. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  12. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  13. Preparation of molecular imprinted polymers using bi-functional monomer and bi-crosslinker for solid-phase extraction of rutin.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huan; Wang, Yuzhi; Liu, Xiaojie; Kong, Jinhuan; Nie, Chan

    2012-05-15

    Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using rutin as the template, different reagents as the functional monomer and different reagents as the cross-linker by solution polymerization. Several parameters that would influence the performance of MIPs were investigated including the type of functional monomer (single or double) and cross-linker (single or double), and the molar ratio of the template, the functional monomer and the cross-linker. The optimum synthesis conditions of MIPs were found to be bi-monomers (acrylamide-co-2-vinyl pyridine, 3:1) and bi-crosslinker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-co-divinylbenzene, 3:1). The ratio of the template, the functional monomer and the cross-linker was found to be 1:6:20. MIPs synthesized under these conditions were filled into the cartridges as the adsorbents of solid-phase extraction (SPE). A competition test was conducted to authenticate the selectivity and the specificity of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) for rutin using the mixture solution of standard rutin and its structural analogs including quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol. Compared with purchased SPE including C(18), silica and PCX, MISPE showed better selectivity and enrichment property for rutin in the extracted solutions of Chinese medicinal plants than any others. The mean recoveries were 85.93% (RSD: 3.04%, n=3) for Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Bail and 88.61% (RSD: 3.36%, n=3) for Flos Sophorae, respectively, which indicated that the optimized rutin-MIPs possess the value of practical application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Liquefaction for cataract extraction

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  15. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  16. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  17. [Experimental study of bacteriostatic activity of Chinese herbal medicines on primary cariogenic bacteria in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Fan, M; Bian, Z

    2001-09-01

    To screen some Chinese herbal medicines for their inhibitory activity on cariogenic bacteria, and investigate their active ingredients, and measure their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Active components were isolated from every tested Chinese herbal medicine by means of aqueous extraction and ethanolic extraction. Berberine was purified from Coptis chinensis Fra. Disk agar diffusion method was employed in screening herbs with inhibiting effect on cariogenic bacteria. MIC and MBC were determined by broth dilution method. Against Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt, MBCs of Magnolia officinalis ethanolic extract, Berberine, Coptis chinensis Fra aqueous extract and Coptis chinensis Fra ethanolic extract were 0.488, 0.625, 7.800 and 1.950 g/L respectively. Against Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, MBCs of Magnolia extract, Coptis chinensis Fra ethanolic extract, Rhus chinensis Mill ethanolic extract and Phellodendron chinen ethanolic extract were 0.488, 0.625, 1.950, 3.900, 3.900 and 3.900 g/L respectively. Against Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 19246, MBCs of Berberine, Coptis chinensis Fra aqueous extract, Coptis chinensis Fra ethanolic extract, Rheum palmatum L aqueous extract and Rheum palmatum L ethanolic extract were 1.250, 3.900, 3.900, 15.600 and 31.250 g/L respectively. Magnolia officinalis, Coptis chinensis Fran, Rheum palmatum L aqueous extracts exhibit strong inhibition on cariogenic bacteria. Magnolia officinalis ethanolic extract has the strongest bactericidal effects on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.

  18. Apparent source levels and active communication space of whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Tao; W.L. Au, Whitlow; Rendell, Luke; Wu, Hai-Ping; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Jian-Chang; Duan, Guo-Qin; Cao, Han-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of species-specific vocalization characteristics and their associated active communication space, the effective range over which a communication signal can be detected by a conspecific, is critical for understanding the impacts of underwater acoustic pollution, as well as other threats. Methods. We used a two-dimensional cross-shaped hydrophone array system to record the whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in shallow-water environments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and Beibu Gulf (BG), China. Using hyperbolic position fixing, which exploits time differences of arrival of a signal between pairs of hydrophone receivers, we obtained source location estimates for whistles with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR ≥10 dB) and not polluted by other sounds and back-calculated their apparent source levels (ASL). Combining with the masking levels (including simultaneous noise levels, masking tonal threshold, and the Sousa auditory threshold) and the custom made site-specific sound propagation models, we further estimated their active communication space (ACS). Results. Humpback dolphins produced whistles with average root-mean-square ASL of 138.5 ± 6.8 (mean ± standard deviation) and 137.2 ± 7.0 dB re 1 µPa in PRE (N = 33) and BG (N = 209), respectively. We found statistically significant differences in ASLs among different whistle contour types. The mean and maximum ACS of whistles were estimated to be 14.7 ± 2.6 (median ± quartile deviation) and 17.1± 3.5 m in PRE, and 34.2 ± 9.5 and 43.5 ± 12.2 m in BG. Using just the auditory threshold as the masking level produced the mean and maximum ACSat of 24.3 ± 4.8 and 35.7 ± 4.6 m for PRE, and 60.7 ± 18.1 and 74.3 ± 25.3 m for BG. The small ACSs were due to the high ambient noise level. Significant differences in ACSs were also observed among different whistle contour types. Discussion. Besides shedding some light for evaluating appropriate noise exposure

  19. Apparent source levels and active communication space of whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary and Beibu Gulf, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Tao; W L Au, Whitlow; Rendell, Luke; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Wu, Hai-Ping; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Jian-Chang; Duan, Guo-Qin; Cao, Han-Jiang; Wang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of species-specific vocalization characteristics and their associated active communication space, the effective range over which a communication signal can be detected by a conspecific, is critical for understanding the impacts of underwater acoustic pollution, as well as other threats. Methods. We used a two-dimensional cross-shaped hydrophone array system to record the whistles of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in shallow-water environments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and Beibu Gulf (BG), China. Using hyperbolic position fixing, which exploits time differences of arrival of a signal between pairs of hydrophone receivers, we obtained source location estimates for whistles with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR ≥10 dB) and not polluted by other sounds and back-calculated their apparent source levels (ASL). Combining with the masking levels (including simultaneous noise levels, masking tonal threshold, and the Sousa auditory threshold) and the custom made site-specific sound propagation models, we further estimated their active communication space (ACS). Results. Humpback dolphins produced whistles with average root-mean-square ASL of 138.5 ± 6.8 (mean ± standard deviation) and 137.2 ± 7.0 dB re 1 µPa in PRE (N = 33) and BG (N = 209), respectively. We found statistically significant differences in ASLs among different whistle contour types. The mean and maximum ACS of whistles were estimated to be 14.7 ± 2.6 (median ± quartile deviation) and 17.1± 3.5 m in PRE, and 34.2 ± 9.5 and 43.5 ± 12.2 m in BG. Using just the auditory threshold as the masking level produced the mean and maximum ACSat of 24.3 ± 4.8 and 35.7 ± 4.6 m for PRE, and 60.7 ± 18.1 and 74.3 ± 25.3 m for BG. The small ACSs were due to the high ambient noise level. Significant differences in ACSs were also observed among different whistle contour types. Discussion. Besides shedding some light for evaluating appropriate noise exposure

  20. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  1. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  2. [Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder calculi].

    PubMed

    Kühner, W; Frimberger, E; Ottenjann, R

    1984-06-29

    Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder stones were performed, as far as we know for the first time, in three patients with combined choledochocystolithiasis. Following endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) and subsequent mechanical lithotripsy of multiple choledochal concrements measuring up to 3 cm the gallbladder stones were successfully extracted with a Dormia basket through the cystic duct. The patients have remained free of complications after the endoscopic intervention.

  3. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  4. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the