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Sample records for gallbladder ulcer erosion

  1. [Treatment of disbacteriosis of gastroduodenal mucous microflora in mucosa inflammation, ulcer and erosion].

    PubMed

    Chernin, V V; Chernivets, V M; Bondarenko, V M; Bazlov, S N

    2011-01-01

    To propose pharmacotherapy of disbacteriosis of gastroduodenal mucous microflora in gastroduodenal inflammation, erosion and ulcer. The study enrolled 30 healthy volunteers, 130 ulcer patients and 36 patients with chronic gastritis (27% of the latter had chronic duodenitis). In addition to general clinical examination, fibrogastroduodenoscopy, we made histological and microbiological examinations of biopsy specimens of the mucosa from different parts of the stomach and duodenum, determined sensitivity of the microflora to antibacterial drugs. We found that recurrent ulcer, chronic gastritis and duodenitis are accompanied with overgrowth of pathogenic microflora in gastric and duodenal mucosa. We developed an effective method of the treatment of gastroduodenal mucosa microflora disbacteriosis in gastroduodenal inflammation, erosion and ulcer including antibacterial, antifungal drugs and probiotics.

  2. Gallbladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  3. Efficacy of mometasone furoate microemulsion in the treatment of erosive-ulcerative oral lichen planus: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J M; Bagán, J V; Rodriguez, C; Jimenez, Y; Martínez-Conde, R; Díaz de Rojas, F; Ponte, A

    2004-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a frequent immunological chronic disease, having different clinical forms: asymptomatic and symptomatic. Symptomatic OLP has been palliated with topical corticosteroids with different levels of efficacy and safety. The purpose of this pilot phase II clinical trial was to determine the efficacy of mometasone furoate microemulsion upon the symptoms and signs of erosive-ulcerative OLP. Forty-nine patients with clinical and histologically confirmed erosive-ulcerative OLP were enrolled in this study (36 women and 13 men). Their average age was 56.4 years (from 28 to 78). The treatment consisted of 0.1% mometasone furoate microemulsion mouthwash three times a day over 30 days. Pain, erythema and ulceration were assessed after 15 and 30 days of treatment. The data was processed and statistically analysed by student's t-test for paired samples. Mometasone caused a statistically significant reduction in pain (3.58 vs. 0.65, P = 0.0000). Treatment significantly reduced the surface area of erythema (155.2 vs. 21.9 mm(2), P = 0.0001) and ulceration (30.7 vs. 7.3 mm(2), P = 0.0000). None of these patients suffered severe adverse effects. Mometasone furoate microemulsion is a safe and effective therapy in the treatment of symptomatic erosive-ulcerative OLP.

  4. [Correction of syndrome-associated metabolic disturbances in patients with erosive and ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal system].

    PubMed

    Kaĭsinova, A S; Efimenko, N V

    2009-01-01

    Correction of syndrome-associated metabolic disturbances in patients with erosive and ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal system was achieved by inclusion of moderately mineralized drinking water (Essentuki No 4 and the like), low-sulfide mineral baths, and essential phospholipids in the system of combined sanatorium-and-spa treatment. This approach allowed metabolic status of the patients to be improved and peroxide homeostasis stabilized. Moreover, it had generalized beneficial effect on the pathological process.

  5. Erosion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Erosion is the detachment of soil particles and transportation to another location. Wind erosion occurs when wind speed exceeds a critical threshold level, and loose soil particles or soil particles removed by abrasion then move in one of three ways: creep, saltation, and suspension. Erosion by wate...

  6. Ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include both regular and decaffeinated coffee, tea, chocolate, meat extracts, alcohol, black pepper, chili powder, mustard ... Disease, peptic ulcers, proton pump inhibitor, sucralfate, triple therapy January 1, 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family ...

  7. Tracheobronchial lesions following esophagectomy: erosions, ulcers, and fistulae, and the predictive value of lymph node-related factors.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Kiyotomi; Motoyama, Satoru; Sato, Yusuke; Hayashi, Kaori; Usami, Shuetu; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Jun-ichi

    2009-04-01

    Following esophagectomy, tracheobronchial lesions (TBLs) can occur as a result of ischemia caused by extensive dissection around the tracheobronchus. In this study we assessed the causes and clinical features of these complications, paying particular attention to lymph node (LN)-related factors. Between January 2000 and March 2007, 305 consecutive patients underwent subtotal esophagectomy using a transthoracic approach with LN dissection for thoracic esophageal cancer. TBLs, including erosions, ulcers, and fistulae, without traumatic injury during the operation, were detected during bronchoscopic examinations performed twice daily after the operation. The correlation between TBLs and tumor or surgical factors were analyzed. TBLs were observed in 14 patients, accounting for an overall incidence of 5%; these included 6 fistulae, 5 ulcers, and 3 erosions. Cases with TBLs significantly more often involved three-field LN dissections (3FLD) than those without TBLs. Six (43%) patients with TBLs had more than four metastatic lymph nodes, while 9 (64%) had cervical and upper-mediastinal LN metastasis (p=0.034 and 0.041, respectively). More than 60 LNs were dissected from 10 (71%) patients with TBLs (p=0.021), and logistic regression analysis revealed that dissection of more than 60 lymph nodes and 3FLD were independent predictors of TBLs. Esophageal cancer patients requiring extensive LN dissection of more than 60 nodes and/or 3FLD have an increased risk of developing a TBL during their postoperative course.

  8. Carcinoma gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Biswas, P K

    2010-07-01

    Carcinoma gallbladder (CaGb) is a rare disease. The aetiology of CaGb is yet not known. However the risk of CaGb is increased in anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction (APBDJ), gall stones, xanthogranulomatus cholecystitis, calcified or porcelain gallbladder, cholelithiasis with typhoid carriers, gallbladder adenoma, red meat consumption and tobacco uses. There are protective effects of vegetables on CaGb. Most of the cases present with advanced disease. In early carcinoma of a gallbladder sign and symptoms mimic benign disease. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography, computerized tomography and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Biochemical tests are of very little value in making a diagnosis. The treatment depends on the clinical stage at presentation. Surgery offers the best chance of cure. In stage T1a, laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy alone is curative, and in T1b, cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection without combined resection of an adjacent organ is required. Segment S4a+5 hepatectomy combined with extrahepatic bile duct resection (BDR) and D2 lymph node dissection is a highly recommended operation for the treatment of T2 and T3 CaGb. The dye injection method is useful in determining the appropriate extent of hepatic resection for advanced CaGb. Resurgery is required only in those cases where tumour has invaded the serosa and/ or adjacent structures when diagnosed postoperatively. Biliary bypass is required for palliation. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and appropriate surgical excision.

  9. Gallbladder removal - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100021.htm Gallbladder removal - Series—Normal anatomy To use the ... gallbladder is located in the abdomen, on the right side, underneath the liver. The gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver, ...

  10. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy; HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... test results. This test is combined with other imaging (such as CT or ultrasound). After the gallbladder ...

  11. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    Cholecystectomy - open; Gallbladder - open cholecystectomy; Cholecystitis - open cholecystectomy; Gallstones - open cholecystectomy ... a medical instrument called a laparoscope ( laparoscopic ... Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot ...

  12. Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have nausea and vomiting Images Gallbladder Gallbladder anatomy Laparoscopic surgery - series References Jackson PG, Evans SRT. Biliary system. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical ...

  13. Gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gourgiotis, Stavros; Kocher, Hemant M; Solaini, Leonardo; Yarollahi, Arvin; Tsiambas, Evangelos; Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2008-08-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GC) is a relatively rare but highly lethal neoplasm. We review the epidemiology, etiology, pathology, symptoms, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and prognosis of GC. A Pubmed database search between 1971 and February 2007 was performed. All abstracts were reviewed and articles with GC obtained; further references were extracted by hand-searching the bibliography. The database search was done in the English language. The accurate etiology of GC remains unclear, while the symptoms associated with primary GC are not specific. Treatment with radical cholecystectomy is curative but possible in only 10% to 30% of patients. For patients whose cancer is an incidental finding on pathologic review, re-resection is indicated, where feasible, for all disease except T1a. Patients with advanced disease should receive palliative treatment. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is contraindicated in the presence of GC. Prognosis generally is extremely poor. Improvements in the outcome of surgical resection have caused this approach to be re-evaluated, while the role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy remains controversial.

  14. Anti-ulcer Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explains the procedure of ethanol-induced ulcer to check the protective effect of drugs over induced ulcer in rats. Ulcer is defined as the erosion in the lining of the stomach or duodenum and is caused by the disruptions of the gastric mucosal defence and repair systems. Ulceration of stomach is called gastric ulcer and that of duodenum is called duodenal ulcer and together peptic ulcer. In clinical practice, peptic ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders, which commonly occurs in developed countries.

  15. No association of coffee consumption with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, reflux esophagitis, and non-erosive reflux disease: a cross-sectional study of 8,013 healthy subjects in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Takeshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Kodashima, Shinya; Takahashi, Yu; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Oka, Masashi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Probably due to caffeine-induced gastric acid secretion, negative effects of coffee upon various upper-gastrointestinal diseases have been precariously accepted, despite the inadequate epidemiological evidence. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of coffee consumption on four major acid-related diseases: gastric ulcer (GU), duodenal ulcer (DU), reflux esophagitis (RE), and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) based on the large-scale multivariate analysis. Of the 9,517 healthy adults, GU, DU, and RE were diagnosed by endoscopy, and NERD was diagnosed by the symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation without esophageal erosion. Associations between coffee consumption and the four disorders were evaluated, together with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection status, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, and alcohol. We further performed meta-analysis using the random effects model to redefine the relationship between coffee intake and peptic ulcer disease. The eligible 8,013 study subjects comprised of 5,451 coffee drinkers and 2,562 non-coffee drinkers. By univariate analysis, age, BMI, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, and alcohol showed significant associations with coffee consumption. By multiple logistic regression analysis, positively correlated factors with significance were HP infection, current smoking, BMI, and pepsinogen I/II ratio for GU; HP infection, pepsinogen I/II ratio, and current smoking for DU; HP non-infection, male, BMI, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, age, and alcohol for RE; younger age, smoking, and female for NERD. The meta-analyses could detect any association of coffee consumption with neither GU nor DU. In conclusion, there are no significant relationship between coffee consumption and the four major acid-related upper gastrointestinal disorders.

  16. Gallbladder mucin production and calcium carbonate gallstones in children.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Craig; Wyatt, Judy; Soloway, Roger D; Taylor, Donald R; Stringer, Mark D

    2007-03-01

    In contrast to adults, calcium carbonate gallstones are relatively common in children. Their pathogenesis is poorly understood. Cystic duct obstruction promotes calcium carbonate formation in bile and increases gallbladder mucin production. We tested the hypothesis that mucin producing epithelial cells would be increased in gallbladders of children with calcium carbonate gallstones. Archival gallbladder specimens from 20 consecutive children who had undergone elective cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis were examined. In each case, gallstone composition was determined by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. Gallbladder specimens from six children who had undergone cholecystectomy for conditions other than cholelithiasis during the same period were used as controls. Multiple sections were examined in a blinded fashion and scored semiquantitatively for mucin production using two stains (alcian blue and periodic acid-Schiff). Increased mucin staining was observed in 50% or more epithelial cells in five gallbladder specimens from seven children with calcium carbonate stones, compared to 5 of 13 with other stone types (P = 0.17) and none of the control gallbladders (P = 0.02). Gallbladders containing calcium carbonate stones were significantly more likely than those containing other stone types or controls to contain epithelial cells with the greatest mucin content (P = 0.03). Gallbladders containing calcium carbonate stones were also more likely to show the ulcer-associated cell lineage. These results demonstrate an increase in mucin producing epithelial cells in gallbladders from children containing calcium carbonate stones. This supports the hypothesis that cystic duct obstruction leading to increased gallbladder mucin production may play a role in the development of calcium carbonate gallstones in children.

  17. Management of symptomatic erosive-ulcerative lesions of oral lichen planus in an adult Egyptian population using Selenium-ACE combined with topical corticosteroids plus antifungal agent

    PubMed Central

    Belal, Mahmoud Helmy

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease with an immunological etiology. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium combined with Vitamins A, C & E (Selenium-ACE) in the treatment of erosive-ulcerative OLP as an adjunctive to topical corticosteroids plus antifungal agent. Subjects and Methods: Thirty patients with a confirmed clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OLP participated in this clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated into one of three groups and treated as follows: (I) Topical corticosteroids, (II) topical corticosteroids plus antifungal, and (III) SE-ACE combined with topical corticosteroids plus antifungal. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. The pain and severity of the lesions were recorded at the initial and follow-up visits. All recorded data were analyzed using paired t-test and ANOVA test. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The experimental groups showed a marked reduction in pain sensation and size of lesions, particularly in the final follow-up period, but there was no significant difference between the first two Groups I and II. However, healing of lesions and improvement of pain sensation was effective in Group III since a significant difference was found favoring Group III over both Groups I and II. Conclusion: No significant difference was found in treating erosive-ulcerative lesions of OLP by topical corticosteroids alone or combined with antifungal. However, when using SE-ACE in combination with topical corticosteroids plus antifungal, this approach may be effective in managing ulcerative lesions of OLP; but more research with a larger sample size and a longer evaluation period may be recommended. PMID:26681847

  18. Spontaneous asymptomatic gallbladder perforation

    PubMed Central

    Seçil, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease is common. However, a proportion of patients are asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed until the occurrence of complications. Common complications include acute cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, acute pancreatitis and cholangitis. Severe complications include gallbladder perforation, Mirizzi syndrome and fistula formation are usually associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of asymptomatic spotaneous gallbladder perforation due to acute cholecystitis. PMID:24914424

  19. Gallbladder Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer that arises in the gallbladder is uncommon. Almost all gallbladder cancers are adenocarcinomas. The most common symptoms caused by gallbladder cancer are jaundice, pain, and fever. Find evidence-based information on gallbladder cancer treatment.

  20. [The spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation].

    PubMed

    Efimenko, N V; Kaĭsinova, A S

    2014-01-01

    To develop a new medical technology for the spa-and-health resort-based treatment of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation. A total of 100 patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation were available for the examination that included detailed investigations of the clinical picture, characteristics of the immune status, and psychological testing before and after a course of the spa-and-health resort-based treatment. The effectiveness of two therapeutic modalities was evaluated. One of them (control) prescribed to 50 patients consisted of standard antiulcer pharmacotherapy in combination with Essentuki Novaya drinking mineral water and carbon dioxide mineral baths, the other given to 50 patients included radon baths instead of carbon dioxide mineral baths. The combined application of drinking mineral waters, radon baths, and standard antiulcer pharmacotherapy produced the most conspicuous clinical effect in the framework of spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum in the phase of subsiding exacerbation as confirmed by positive dynamics of their psychoemotional status in 97.7% of the cases, regression of pain syndrome (91.5%), and improvement of humoral and cellular immunity (94%). An important result of the spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation is the intensification of the reparative processes in gastroduodenal mucosa responsible for the healing of ulcers and erosions in 94.7% of the patients. The spa-and-health resort-based rehabilitation is a pathogenetically sound and efficacious approach to the management of the patients presenting with frequently recurring erosive and ulcerative lesions in the

  1. Gallbladder radionuclide scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gallbladder radionuclide scan is performed by injecting a tracer (radioactive chemical) into the bloodstream. A gamma camera ... detect the gamma rays being emitted from the tracer, and the image of where the tracer is ...

  2. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Gallbladder and Biliary Tract ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Digestive System Overview of the Digestive ...

  3. [Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of a new composition of tizol with triamcinolon in complex treatment of patients with erosive ulcerous form of lichen planus of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Ron', G I; Akmalova, G M; Emel'yanova, I V

    2015-01-01

    The most significant of the primary stages of complex therapy of oral lichen planus (OLP), among causal and pathogenetic therapy is a local conservative treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the local use of the new compositions TIZOL with triamcinolon in complex therapy of erosive-ulcerous forms OLP oral mucosa. The study was performed with 47 patients with lichen planus in age from 24 to 70 years with erosive-ulcerous form OLP whose diagnosis was confirmed histologically. The first group included 25 patients in the complex treatment of locally applied composition TIZOL with triamcinolon. The second group of 22 people, who in the complex treatment applied locally 0.5% prednisone ointment. The high efficiency of topical TIZOL with a highly topical steroid in the complex therapy of erosive-ulcerous forms OLP, which was confirmed by the positive clinical dynamics in all patients (100%) and high self-esteem of patients (84% positive ratings), reduced life complete epithelialization of erosions.

  4. Achievement of sustained deep remission with adalimumab in a patient with both refractory ulcerative colitis and seronegative erosive rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Andrisani, G; Gremese, E; Guidi, L; Papa, A; Marzo, M; Felice, C; Pugliese, D; Armuzzi, A

    2013-05-27

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is commonly associated with peripheral inflammatory arthritis, and it has been estimated that as many as 12% of IBD patients report these manifestations. However, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is rarely associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). Among all the biological agents available, nine have been currently approved for the treatment of RA. Conversely, only Infliximab and recently Adalimumab have been approved for UC. In particular, the efficacy of Adalimumab in UC has been demonstrated by both recent randomized controlled trials and real-life studies. Moreover, Adalimumab is a well-established treatment for RA. Herein, we describe a patient with RA and UC treated successfully with ADA.

  5. [Gallbladder agenesis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Cavazos-García, Ricardo; Díaz-Elizondo, José Antonio; Flores-Villalba, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Héctor Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder agenesis is a very rare congenital abnormality of the biliary tract. The diagnosis is made during surgery, because all preoperative studies have failed to identify this malformation. The purpose of this article is to present a case of gallbladder agenesis diagnosed during surgery, its management, and a review of the literature. The case involves a sixty-two year- old female, referring to repeated biliary colic symptoms. The abdominal ultrasound diagnosed cholelithiasis. It was impossible to identify the gallbladder during surgery. Diagnosis was confirmed by intra-operative cholangiography. Preoperative diagnostic workup has failed to recognise patients with gallbladder agenesis. It is currently recommended to abandon the surgery once this diagnosis is suspected and confirm it by a cholangio-magnetic resonance scan in order to avoid a bile duct injury. Agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare congenital abnormality of the biliary tree. Every surgeon must keep this rare entity in mind when a "difficult dissection" or an anatomic variant is identified during surgery, and make use of an intra-operative cholangiography, mainly to prevent a bile duct injury. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Gallbladder Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Gallbladder cancer is a rare cancer that is usually diagnosed late due a to lack of early signs and symptoms. It is sometimes found when the gallbladder is checked for gallstones or removed. Start here to find information on gallbladder cancer treatment.

  7. [Treatment and prevention of erosive and ulcerative lesions in the stomach and duodenum caused by intake of non-steroidalanti-inflammatory drugs].

    PubMed

    Luzina, E V

    2014-01-01

    Therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is a diffcult task. Good anti-inflammatory effect increases the risk of gastrointestinal complications with a frequency of 10-50%. The risk further increases with age (above 60-70 yr), the history of ulcer disease concomitant intake of acetylsalicylic acid, anticoagulants, and glucocorticosteroids. Long-term antisecretory therapy with proton pump inhibitors, e.g., esomeprazole, was shown to be an effective prophylactic tool. This drug maintains the intragastric pH value above 4 for 15 hr on the average. The risk of erosive and ulceraive lesions in the stomach and duodenum significantly decreases by selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, e.g., coxibs, that however increase the risk of thrombotic cardiovascular complications. The author proposes recommendations on the use of NSAIDs in the patients at risk of serious gastrointestinal and cardiovascular pathology. Naproxen in combination with proton pitmp inhibitors is the drug of choice among NSAIDs. Vimovo is a fixed combination of naproxen and esomeprazole. Results of comparative studies on the efficacy of vimovo and celecoxib are presented along with the data on the safety of this. combination compared with that of naproxen monotherapy

  8. Gallbladder Polyps in Metachromatic Leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Quadri, Asif; Albawardi, Alia

    2018-04-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, caused by a deficiency of arylsulfatase A, and leads to demyelination of the nervous system. A putative association between MLD and gallbladder pathology including malignancy is documented in the medical literature. A 10-year-old boy with MLD was found to have a papillary growth within a cystically dilated gallbladder. The lesion was confirmed to be papillomatosis/polyp with focal intestinal metaplasia. Dysplasia was not identified. MLD may be associated with a spectrum of gallbladder pathology including neoplastic conditions. Pathologists and clinicians should be aware of this association/risk. The patient may be offered regular ultrasound screening of the gallbladder.

  9. Complex therapeutic-diagnostic endoscopy with laser irradiation and in-Situ spectrophotometry of erosive-ulcerative impairments of upper part of the gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Tereschenko, Sergey G.; Lapaeva, Ludmila G.; Gorenkov, Roman V.

    2002-05-01

    Today in the world there are a lot of effective methods to treat different disease with the use of low-level laser (LLL) radiation. And there are a number of well-known effective noninvasive optical diagnostic techniques, such as a laser fluorescence spectroscopy (LFS), elastic-scattering spectroscopy (ESS), absorption spectroscopy (ABSS), etc. In this paper the first experience of the complex laser-optical therapeutic-diagnostic treatment for the erosive-ulcerative impairments (EUI) of the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract (UPGT) are discussed. The EUI of the UPGT very often have a resistance to a medicamentous therapy and the treatment of that is very difficult in this case. The method of LLL irradiation through an endoscope has been used to increase the efficiency of LLL-therapy and to monitor a general process of recovery respectively. The standard biopsy was investigated to estimate the effect of care as well. As it is shown in this paper the in-situ ABSS allows to optimize the LLL treatment parameters for each patient and for each procedure if the laser has effect on a blood circulation in the irradiated zone. In this case the doctors can see the considerable effect and the reduction period of the cure for EUI. Otherwise, the ABSS indicates that there will be no any effect of LLL therapy for such patient and another methods of treatment are needed. The LFS in this case shows the absence of effect during the care course too. On the basis of analysis of the obtained results this paper presents our current understanding of mechanisms of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics and LLL therapy effect for EUI of the UPGT. Today this technique has the official approval of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation.

  10. [Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder calculi].

    PubMed

    Kühner, W; Frimberger, E; Ottenjann, R

    1984-06-29

    Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder stones were performed, as far as we know for the first time, in three patients with combined choledochocystolithiasis. Following endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) and subsequent mechanical lithotripsy of multiple choledochal concrements measuring up to 3 cm the gallbladder stones were successfully extracted with a Dormia basket through the cystic duct. The patients have remained free of complications after the endoscopic intervention.

  11. [Polyps of the gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Oestmann, A

    2012-04-25

    Gallbladder polyps are a common incidental finding in ultrasound. They may be clinically significant, because adenomas have a malignant potential, in contrast to the benign cholesterol polyps occuring more frequently. As non-neoplastic polyps and neoplastic polyps cannot be morphologically discriminated in ultrasound, maximal diameter of a polyp has proven to be the best predictor for malignancy. Cholecystectomy is widely accepted as the treatment of choice for patients with polyps >1 cm. Patients with polyps <1 cm should have a follow-up check for a longer period of time (with the exception of very small polyps).

  12. Courvoisier's gallbladder: law or sign?

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J Edward F; White, Matthew J; Lobo, Dileep N

    2009-04-01

    Variously described as Courvoisier's law, sign, or even gallbladder, this eponymous "law" has been taught to medical students since the publication of Courvoisier's treatise in 1890. We reviewed Courvoisier's original "law," the modern misconceptions surrounding it, and the contemporary evidence supporting and explaining his observations. Courvoisier never stated a "law" in the context of a jaundiced patient with a palpable gallbladder. He described 187 cases of common bile duct obstruction, observing that gallbladder dilatation seldom occurred with stone obstruction of the bile duct. The classic explanation for Courvoisier's finding is based on the underlying pathologic process. With the presence of gallstones come repeated episodes of infection and subsequent fibrosis of the gallbladder. In the event that a gallstone causes the obstruction, the gallbladder is shrunken owing to fibrosis and is unlikely to be distensible and, hence, palpable. With other causes of obstruction, the gallbladder distends as a result of the back-pressure from obstructed bile flow. However, recent experiments show that gallbladders are equally distensible in vitro, irrespective of the pathology, suggesting that chronicity of the obstruction is the key. Chronically elevated intraductal pressures are more likely to develop with malignant obstruction owing to the progressive nature of the disease. Gallstones cause obstruction in an intermittent fashion, which is generally not consistent enough to produce such a chronic rise in pressure. We hope that reminding clinicians of Courvoisier's actual observations will reestablish the usefulness of this clinical sign in the way he intended.

  13. Ulcerative Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ulcerative colitis care at Mayo Clinic Symptoms Ulcerative colitis symptoms can vary, depending on the severity of inflammation ... children, failure to grow Most people with ulcerative colitis have mild to moderate symptoms. The course of ulcerative colitis may vary, with ...

  14. Preneoplastic lesions in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Roa, Iván; de Aretxabala, Xabier; Araya, Juan C; Roa, Juan

    2006-06-15

    Gallbladder cancer is an uncommon disease except in countries like Chile and areas of India and Japan. The knowledge regarding the etiology and mechanisms through which this neoplasia is developed is significantly less compared to other malignant tumors. The epithelial lesions involved in gallbladder carcinogenesis are dysplasia and adenomas that represent two biologically distinct carcinogenetic models. Dysplasia progresses to carcinoma in situ (CIS) and subsequently becomes invasive. Over 80% of invasive gallbladder cancers present areas adjacent to the CIS and epithelial dysplasia. Other authors have demonstrated adenomatous areas in carcinomas, or malignant transformation in an adenoma. The low incidence of gallbladder adenomas (0.14% of cholecystectomies) and the presence of adenomatous remnants in the neighboring mucosa to early carcinomas in less than 3% of the cases suggest the limited importance of this carcinogenic pathway. Epithelial dysplasia which is not associated with gallbladder cancer is observed in approximately 1% of cholecystectomies for symptomatic lithiasis. Metaplasia, dysplasia, and CIS are present in the mucosa adjacent to the cancer in 66%, 81.3%, and 69%, respectively. The average ages of patients with dysplasia not associated to cancer (51.9 years), early carcinomas (56.8 years), and advanced carcinomas (62.9 years) demonstrate a gradient which suggests the progression of these lesions. From the morphological point of view, the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence is the most plausible carcinogenic pathway for gallbladder cancer, a process which would require a period of approximately 10 years. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radon What We Know What States Can Do Case Study: Reducing Radon in Illinois What Comprehensive Cancer Control ... Quick Facts About Gallbladder Cancer Gallbladder cancer is one of the few cancers more common among women ...

  16. [Fortuitous discovery of gallbladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Chiche, L; Metairie, S

    2001-12-01

    The prognosis of gallbladder cancer is basically dependent on the histological stage at diagnosis. In practice, the discovery of a small cancer of the bladder, generally during cholecystectomy give the patient a better care for curative treatment. The advent of laparoscopy has increased the number of cholecstectomies and could increase the frequency of this situation but also raises the difficult problem of metastatic dissemination. In the literature the figures on parietal metastasis after laparoscopy have ranged from 125% to 19%. The median delay to diagnosis of recurrence is 6 months. The cause of this phenomenon (role of the pneumoperitoneum) remains poorly elucidated. Risk factors for the development of a metastasis on the trocar orifice are: rupture of the gallbladder perioperatively and extraction of the gallbladder without protection. It is important to keep in mind this exceptional but serious risk and apply rigorous operative technique. In case of suspected gallbladder we do not advocate laparoscopy. Surgery (hepatectomy, lymphodenectomy, possibly resection of the biliary tract) would be indicted for all stages except pTis and T1a, taking into consideration the localization of the tumor and the patient's general status. It is also classical to recommend resection of the trocar orifices after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a dual challenge today for small-sized gallbladder cancer: improving treatment and avoiding poorer prognosis due to the specific problems raised by laparoscopy.

  17. Gallbladder Agenesis with Refractory Choledocholithiasis.

    PubMed

    Tjaden, Jamie; Patel, Kevin; Aadam, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Congenital agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare anomaly which is usually asymptomatic and found incidentally. In some cases, however, patients are symptomatic. Common symptoms include right upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Jaundice is present in some symptomatic cases and is due to associated choledocholithiasis (Fiaschetti et al. 2009). In this case, a 63-year-old female presents with jaundice and episodic right upper quadrant abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting. Bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were found to be markedly elevated. Upper endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) revealed choledocholithiasis, and the patient required multiple endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) sessions before successful extraction of all stones. Subsequent surgical exploration revealed congenital agenesis of the gallbladder. Although this is a rare finding, patients with agenesis of the gallbladder are at increased risk of developing de novo choledocholithiasis which may be challenging to extract.

  18. Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hundal, Rajveer; Shaffer, Eldon A

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%–95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities – inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier

  19. Ugh! Ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... people talk about ulcers, though, they usually mean peptic ulcers . These form in the stomach or the upper ... pain go away. Kids don't usually get peptic ulcers, but they're common in adults. Doctors say ...

  20. Gallbladder adenoma with focal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, S; Matei, E; Petrisor, P; Luca, L; Boros, Mirela; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2008-01-01

    The majority of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are cholesterolosis pseudopolyps. True neoplastic GB polyps are represented mainly by adenomas. The case of a 52-year old male patient with an adenomatous polyp of the GB with focal adenocarcinoma is presented.

  1. Gallbladder Cancer: expert consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, Thomas A; Járufe, Nicolas; Javle, Milind; Maithel, Shishir K; Roa, Juan C; Adsay, Volkan; Coimbra, Felipe J F; Jarnagin, William R

    2015-01-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists was convened on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of gallbladder carcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines. In summary, within high incidence areas, the assessment of routine gallbladder specimens should include the microscopic evaluation of a minimum of three sections and the cystic duct margin; specimens with dysplasia or proven cancer should be extensively sampled. Provided the patient is medically fit for surgery, data support the resection of all gallbladder polyps of >1.0 cm in diameter and those with imaging evidence of vascular stalks. The minimum staging evaluation of patients with suspected or proven gallbladder cancer includes contrasted cross-sectional imaging and diagnostic laparoscopy. Adequate lymphadenectomy includes assessment of any suspicious regional nodes, evaluation of the aortocaval nodal basin, and a goal recovery of at least six nodes. Patients with confirmed metastases to N2 nodal stations do not benefit from radical resection and should receive systemic and/or palliative treatments. Primary resection of patients with early T-stage (T1b–2) disease should include en bloc resection of adjacent liver parenchyma. Patients with T1b, T2 or T3 disease that is incidentally identified in a cholecystectomy specimen should undergo re-resection unless this is contraindicated by advanced disease or poor performance status. Re-resection should include complete portal lymphadenectomy and bile duct resection only when needed to achieve a negative margin (R0) resection. Patients with preoperatively staged T3 or T4 N1 disease should be considered for clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Following R0 resection of T2–4 disease in N1 gallbladder cancer, patients should be considered for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26172135

  2. Gallbladder cancer: expert consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Aloia, Thomas A; Járufe, Nicolas; Javle, Milind; Maithel, Shishir K; Roa, Juan C; Adsay, Volkan; Coimbra, Felipe J F; Jarnagin, William R

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists was convened on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of gallbladder carcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines. In summary, within high incidence areas, the assessment of routine gallbladder specimens should include the microscopic evaluation of a minimum of three sections and the cystic duct margin; specimens with dysplasia or proven cancer should be extensively sampled. Provided the patient is medically fit for surgery, data support the resection of all gallbladder polyps of >1.0 cm in diameter and those with imaging evidence of vascular stalks. The minimum staging evaluation of patients with suspected or proven gallbladder cancer includes contrasted cross-sectional imaging and diagnostic laparoscopy. Adequate lymphadenectomy includes assessment of any suspicious regional nodes, evaluation of the aortocaval nodal basin, and a goal recovery of at least six nodes. Patients with confirmed metastases to N2 nodal stations do not benefit from radical resection and should receive systemic and/or palliative treatments. Primary resection of patients with early T-stage (T1b-2) disease should include en bloc resection of adjacent liver parenchyma. Patients with T1b, T2 or T3 disease that is incidentally identified in a cholecystectomy specimen should undergo re-resection unless this is contraindicated by advanced disease or poor performance status. Re-resection should include complete portal lymphadenectomy and bile duct resection only when needed to achieve a negative margin (R0) resection. Patients with preoperatively staged T3 or T4 N1 disease should be considered for clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Following R0 resection of T2-4 disease in N1 gallbladder cancer, patients should be considered for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  3. Gallbladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Gallbladder cancer treatment for cancer found during routine gallbladder surgery is often surgery alone. Unresectable, recurrent or metastatic gallbladder cancer treatment options include relief of biliary obstruction, radiation, and chemotherapy. Get more information in this clinician summary.

  4. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  5. [Erosive petechial gastritis].

    PubMed

    Llorens, P

    1988-01-01

    We studied 20 patients in which a variety of erosive gastritis is described. We named it petechial erosive gastritis. We have to bring up that its sequence is due to the presence of the petechiae in the center of the mucosal area. Then in degrees of higher intensity erosions occur also at the center of the area mucosa. Occasionally the erosions meet, become larger and may bleed. An endoscopic classification of petechial erosive gastritis is established it rates mild, moderate, severe and hemorrhagic degrees. Even if the histopathologic study does not keep a strict correspondence with the severity of endoscopic observation of the lesions, it is possible to separate easily a petechial stage from an erosive stage. Demonstration of these lesions at their sequence from petechial to bleeding erosion constitutes an important contribution to the study of acute gastric lesions and it might open a way to a better study of the alterations of the irrigation of the gastric mucosa and the etiology of erosive lesions and acute ulcer.

  6. Gallbladder Duplication: Evaluation, Treatment, and Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    2009; revised 16 December 2009; accepted 16 December 2009h o th 0 d Key words: Duplicate gallbladder; Hepatobiliary embryology ; Multiple gallbladders...anatomic variations [5]. These three types vary depending upon the embryologic development and occur in the same manner as duplicated gallbladders. Given... embryology and adds a third group that occurs when there is a combination of types 1 and 2 anatomy. The triple combined group occurs from a split in

  7. Diagnosis and management of gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Andrén-Sandberg, Ake

    2012-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a rather uncommon disease, when it gives symptoms it has usually reached an incurable stage. Therefore, every attempt must be made to find the asymptomatic stages and look for premalignant gallbladder polyps. Even if gallbladder cancer is a rare disease, gallbladder polyps are common, only a few polyps develop to cancer. This makes gallbladder polyps another problem: which are the polyps that must be surgically removed, which shall be followed-up, or for how long? The author used the keyword "gallbladder polypsn" in PubMed and reviewed the scientific literatures published from January 2000 to December 2011. The present review article has summarized almost all respects of gallbladder polyp, including the risk factors, clinical diagnosis and management, and comments made from the author, in which clinical treatments are recommended. It is author's purpose that the 11-year-knowledge about gallbladder polyps summarized from all worlds' literatures is enough to know how clinicians will handle the next patient with gallbladder polyp.

  8. Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a rather uncommon disease, when it gives symptoms it has usually reached an incurable stage. Therefore, every attempt must be made to find the asymptomatic stages and look for premalignant gallbladder polyps. Even if gallbladder cancer is a rare disease, gallbladder polyps are common, only a few polyps develop to cancer. This makes gallbladder polyps another problem: which are the polyps that must be surgically removed, which shall be followed-up, or for how long? The author used the keyword “gallbladder polypsn” in PubMed and reviewed the scientific literatures published from January 2000 to December 2011. The present review article has summarized almost all respects of gallbladder polyp, including the risk factors, clinical diagnosis and management, and comments made from the author, in which clinical treatments are recommended. It is author's purpose that the 11-year-knowledge about gallbladder polyps summarized from all worlds’ literatures is enough to know how clinicians will handle the next patient with gallbladder polyp. PMID:22655278

  9. Endoscopic Gallbladder Drainage for Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Jessica; Alvarez, Paloma; Sharaiha, Reem Z.; Gossain, Sonia; Kedia, Prashant; Sarkaria, Savreet; Sethi, Amrita; Turner, Brian G.; Millman, Jennifer; Lieberman, Michael; Nandakumar, Govind; Umrania, Hiren; Gaidhane, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for cholecystitis. However, gallbladder stenting (GBS) has shown promise in debilitated or high-risk patients. Endoscopic transpapillary GBS and endoscopic ultrasound-guided GBS (EUS-GBS) have been proposed as safe and effective modalities for gallbladder drainage. Methods Data from patients with cholecystitis were prospectively collected from August 2004 to May 2013 from two United States academic university hospitals and analyzed retrospectively. The following treatment algorithm was adopted. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and cystic duct stenting was initially attempted. If deemed feasible by the endoscopist, EUS-GBS was then pursued. Results During the study period, 139 patients underwent endoscopic gallbladder drainage. Among these, drainage was performed in 94 and 45 cases for benign and malignant indications, respectively. Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was defined as decompression of the gallbladder without incidence of cholecystitis, and was achieved with ERCP and cystic duct stenting in 117 of 128 cases (91%). Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was also achieved with EUS-guided gallbladder drainage using transmural stent placement in 11 of 11 cases (100%). Complications occurred in 11 cases (8%). Conclusions Endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques are safe and efficacious methods for gallbladder decompression in non-surgical patients with comorbidities. PMID:26473125

  10. Gallbladder stones and gallbladder polyps associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma in men.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Ling; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lin, Wan-Ju; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2018-04-01

    Most cases of colorectal cancer develop via an adenoma to carcinoma sequence. Gallbladder polyps share some risk factors with colorectal polyps. Little is known about the relationship between gallbladder diseases and different status of colorectal polyps by gender. This study was to investigate the association of gallbladder stones and polyps with colorectal adenomas by gender in a Taiwanese population. A total of 7066 eligible subjects who underwent a total colonoscopy as a part of health check-up between January 2001 and August 2009 were recruited. Colonoscopic findings were classified into polyp-free, non-neoplastic polyps and colorectal adenomas. Gallbladder stones and gallbladder polyps were diagnosed based on ultrasonographic findings. There was a significant difference in the status of colon polyps between subjects with and without gallbladder polyps. However, the status of colon polyps was not significantly different between subjects with or without gallbladder stones. After adjusting obesity, fasting plasma glucose, and other variables, there was a positive relationship between gallbladder polyps and colorectal adenomas (odds ratio [OR]: 1.396, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.115-1.747) but not non-neoplastic polyps in all subjects. In men, gallbladder polyps (OR: 1.560, 95% CI: 1.204-2.019) and gallbladder stones (OR: 1.465, 95% CI 1.081-1.984) were positively associated with colorectal adenomas. In women, neither gallbladder polyps nor gallbladder stones were significantly related to colon polyps. Both gallbladder polyps and gallbladder stones were associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas in men but not in women. Gender difference was significant for the association between gallbladder lesions and colorectal polyps. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  12. Effects of peptide YY on gallbladder motility

    SciTech Connect

    Conter, R.L.; Roslyn, J.J.; Taylor, I.L.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of peptide YY (PYY) on cholecystokinin-stimulated gallbladder contraction were investigated in the prairie dog model. Twelve animals underwent laparotomy with catheter placement into the gallbladder and common bile duct (vent). The gallbladder was continuously perfused with (/sup 14/C)polyethylene glycol-labeled lactated Ringer at 0.03 ml/min, and vent effluent was collected at 2.5-min intervals. All animals received 20 min of intravenous infusion of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP), 2.5 ng x kg/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/, immediately followed by 60-min infusions of either lactated Ringer (LR) or synthetic PYY, 10 or 50 ng x kg/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/. When LR wasmore » infused after CCK-OP, gallbladder filling increased by 15.4 +/- 10.5% with minimal changes in gallbladder pressure. Infusion of PYY/sub 10/ resulted in a significant increase in gallbladder volume and filling with a significant decrease in intragallbladder pressure. Similar findings were noted with PYY/sub 50/. These data indicate that synthetic PYY significantly augments gallbladder filling after CCK-OP-stimulated gallbladder contraction. These finding, coupled with the observation that PYY inhibits pancreatic secretion, suggest that this peptide may be the anti-CCK hormone and may have an important role in regulating biliary activity postprandially.« less

  13. Diagnosis and management of gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Gallahan, William C; Conway, Jason D

    2010-06-01

    Gallbladder polyps are frequently encountered on cross-sectional imaging, often in asymptomatic patients. Most are benign and of little clinical importance. However, some polyps do have a malignant potential. This article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and natural history of gallbladder polyps and risk factors for malignant polyps and indications for cholecystectomy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic Diarrhea: A Concern After Gallbladder Removal?

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic diarrhea: A concern after gallbladder removal? I had my gallbladder removed six months ago, and I'm still having diarrhea. Is this ... mild diarrhea after cholecystectomy is not cause for concern, but speak to your doctor if you are ...

  15. The role of the gallbladder in humans.

    PubMed

    Turumin, J L; Shanturov, V A; Turumina, H E

    2013-01-01

    The basic function of the gallbladder in humans is one of protection. The accumulation of the primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) in the gallbladder reduces the formation of the secondary bile acids (deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid), thus diminishing their concentration in the so-called gallbladder-independent enterohepatic circulation and protecting the liver, the stomach mucosa, the gallbladder, and the colon from their toxic hydrophobic effects. The presence or absence of the gallbladder in mammals is a determining factor in the synthesis of hydrophobic or hydrophilic bile acids. Because the gallbladder contracts 5-20 min after food is in the stomach and the "gastric chyme" moves from the stomach to the duodenum 1-3 h later, the function of the gallbladder bile in digestion may be insignificant. The aim of this article was to provide a detailed review of the role of the gallbladder and the mechanisms related to bile formation in humans. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Peptic Ulcer

    MedlinePlus

    A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of your stomach or your duodenum, the first part of your ... Comes and goes for several days or weeks Peptic ulcers happen when the acids that help you digest ...

  17. Peptic ulcer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcers: Drinking too much alcohol Regular use of aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( ... pylori infection. Your ulcer is caused by taking aspirin or NSAIDs. Your doctor may also prescribe this ...

  18. Value of gallbladder B-scan ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Tabrisky, J; Lindstrom, R R; Herman, M W; Castagna, J; Sarti, D

    1975-05-01

    The gallbladder B-scans of 20 patients who had subsequent surgery were separated into three categories based upon certain sonographic criteria. Our data, in this limited series, revealed gallbladder pathology in each patient who had any one or combination of the following scan characteristics: (1) internal echos, (2) irregular wall, or (3) absence of recognizable gallbladder sonolucency. The category which demonstrated a normal sonographic gallbladder, namely a smooth wall and no internal echos, contained a number of false negatives which proved to have either small stone cholelithiasis or extraphepatic ductal obstruction. Within the described limitations, the B-scan can be a valuable test in confirming the significance of a radiographically nonvisualized gallbladder or in detecting a biliary tract lesion in a patient with a disease entity that precludes radiographic visualization by conventional techniques.

  19. BMS-247550 in Treating Patients With Liver or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-13

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  20. [Surgical indications in gallbladder polyps].

    PubMed

    Morera-Ocón, Francisco José; Ballestín-Vicente, Javier; Calatayud-Blas, Ana María; de Tursi-Rispoli, Leonardo Cataldo; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The surgery of gallbladder polyps is not well defined due to the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines. To analyse the management of polyps in Spain, and a review of the literature and treatment standards. The reports on cholecystectomy with gallbladder polyps (GBP) were extracted from the Pathology data base. Patients subjected to surgery with a diagnosis of GBP were identified in the Surgery data base. A single list was prepared and a review was made of the clinical histories, including, age, gender, clinical data, ultrasound report, and histopathology report. A total of 30 patients, with a median age of 51 years (range 22-83), 21 of whom were female, were included. The ultrasound diagnosis was GBP in 19 patients, GBP and calculi in 7 cases, and calculi with no polyps in 4 cases. Other diagnoses concurrent with GBP were multiple haemangiomas (3), large single simple cyst (1), and multiple simple cysts (1). Eleven patients had typical pain (biliary origin), 5 of which showed no calculi on ultrasound. Eight had non-specific pain, which persisted in 3 cases after the cholecystectomy. Pseudopolyps were found in 20 gallbladders, and true polyps in 4 cases. In 3 cases, polyps were not found in the pathology study. The ultrasound report must specify the size, shape, and number of polyps. Patients with biliary type pain would benefit from a cholecystectomy. The probability of malignancy is minimum if the GBP is less than 10mm and aged under 50 years, and a cholecystectomy is not required. A GBP greater than 10mm should be an indication of cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasound diagnosis of gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Dragan V; Marković, Aleksandra R Pavlović; Alempijević, Tamara M; Davidović, Dragana B; Prsić, Daliborka R; Vucković, Maja S

    2011-01-01

    The most frequent benign gallbladder polyps are cholesterol polyps. Next in frequency were adenomas, which may have malignant potential. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of ultrasonography in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cholesterol polyps compared to adenomas. Patients were examined during the period from October 2006. to December 2008. In Department of Ultrasound, Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Belgrade. The group of 54 patients analyzed consisted of 30 women (56%) and 24 men (44%). Most (59%) had solitary polyps. In 92.6% of patients the size of polyps was below 10 mm. 74% of respondents were over 50 years. Ultrasonography is the method of choice and gold standard in diagnosis of gallbladder polyps. Based on echoic properties cholesterol polyps can not be distinguished from adenomas. Malignant alteration of polyps also could not be detected. Appropriate ultrasonographic characteristics such as size of polyps, appearance of a broad base that sits on the wall, concomitant lithiasis findings and patient age may be indicative for malignancy.

  2. Single-Organ Gallbladder Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Tan, Carmela D.; Rodríguez, E. René; Hoffman, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Systemic vasculitis (SV) involving abdominal structures usually has a poor prognosis. Gallbladder vasculitis (GV) has been reported as part of SV (GB-SV) and focal single-organ vasculitis (GB-SOV). We analyzed clinical and histologic characteristics of patients with GV to identify features that differentiate GB-SOV from the systemic forms of GV. To identify affected patients with GV we used pathology databases from our institution and an English-language PubMed search. Clinical manifestations, laboratory and histologic features, treatment administered, and outcomes were recorded. Patients were divided in 2 groups, GB-SOV and GB-SV. As in previous studies of single-organ vasculitis, GB-SOV was only considered to be a sustainable diagnosis if disease beyond the gallbladder was not apparent after a follow-up period of at least 6 months. Sixty-one well-characterized patients with GV were included (6 from our institution). There was no significant sex bias (32 female patients, 29 male). Median age was 52 years (range, 18–94 yr). GB-SOV was found in 20 (33%) and GB-SV in 41 (67%) patients. No differences were observed in age, sex frequency, or duration of gallbladder symptoms between groups. Past episodes of recurrent right-upper quadrant or abdominal pain and lithiasic cholecystitis were more frequent in GB-SOV patients, whereas acalculous cholecystitis occurred more often in GB-SV. In GB-SV, gallbladder-related symptoms occurred more often concomitantly with or after the systemic features, but they sometimes appeared before SV was fully developed (13.5%). Constitutional and musculoskeletal symptoms were reported only in GB-SV patients. Compared to GB-SOV, GB-SV patients presented more often with fever (62.5% vs 20%; p = 0.003) and exhibited higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels (80 ± 28 vs 37 ± 25 mm/h, respectively; p = 0.006). All GB-SV patients required glucocorticoids and 50% of them also received cytotoxic agents. Mortality in

  3. [Factors associated with malignancy in gallbladder polyps without gallbladder stone].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Kyu Taek; Jung, Jae Hong; Ok, Sung Wook; Choi, Sung Chul; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Jong Kyun; Heo, Jin Seok; Choi, Seong Ho; Rhee, Jong Chul

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the factors predicting the neoplastic polyp of gallbladder and analyze the size criteria associated with malignancy. A total of 354 subjects with gallbladder polyps confirmed by tissue pathology were included for the analysis. The clinical and radiological features of the polyps were compared between the two groups (neoplastic vs. non-neoplastic) and in the three groups (non-neoplastic vs. adenoma vs. adenocarcinoma). The independent factors associated with malignancy were studied. Of 354 patients, non-neoplastic polyps were observed in 229 (64.7%) patents, adenoma in 85 (24.0%) and adenocarcinoma in 40 (11.3%). The mean diameter of non-neoplastic polyp, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma were 11.3+/-2.8 mm, 16.0+/-7.2 mm, and 27.0+/-8.9 mm, respectively. The mean age of patients with non-neoplastic polyp, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma were 44.8+/-11.3, 49.9+/-12.5, and 60.8+/-9.6, respectively. Age, size of polyp, number of polyp, presence of diabetes, and presence of symptom showed statistically significant difference between the neoplastic polyp and non-neoplastic polyp groups. But only age, size of polyp, number of polyp were statistically independent factors associated with neoplastic polyp (p<0.05). To predict the neoplastic polyp, sensitivity was 94.4%, but specificity was 18.3% on the basis of 10 mm criteria. whereas sensitivity and specificity was 76.0% and 55.5% on the 12 mm-criteria. On the basis of our analysis, the size of polyp is the most important factor to predict the malignancy. In the 10 mm criteria, sensitivity is satisfactory but specificity is very low. Therefore 10 mm size should not be considered to be the absolute size-criterion for surgery.

  4. Sorafenib Tosylate and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Unresectable, or Metastatic Gallbladder Cancer or Cholangiocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Extrahepatic Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma; Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma; Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma With Squamous Metaplasia; Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Gallbladder Carcinoma; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Unresectable Gallbladder Carcinoma

  5. A comprehensive review on Primary gallbladder tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Gupta, Amit; Anjum, Rohik; Agrawal, Saumya; Mallik, Dhiraj

    2018-04-30

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that can affect any organ system of the body. Abdominal TB can be gastrointestinal, lymph nodal, visceral or peritoneal. The gallbladder (GB) is rarely involved in abdominal TB as a primary organ. Extensive research literature on gallbladder TB is limited to case reports. There has been no review on this rare abdominal pathology. GB tuberculosis is a difficult diagnosis preoperatively. It is a rare differential among the more common gallbladder pathologies such as cholelithiasis, or a gallbladder malignancy. Typical histopathology of the resected specimen helps to establish this rare diagnosis. Subjecting every specimen to histopathological examination followed by medical treatment offers the chance of cure. Through this review, the authors attempt to provide an insight into this disease entity.

  6. Ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Total colectomy or proctocolectomy - ... Clinical practice guidelines for the medical management of nonhospitalized ulcerative colitis: the Toronto consensus. Gastroenterology . ...

  7. Current Management of Gallbladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Theodore S.; Hezel, Aram F.; Kooby, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) represents the most common and aggressive type among the biliary tree cancers (BTCs). Complete surgical resection offers the only chance for cure; however, only 10% of patients with GBC present with early-stage disease and are considered surgical candidates. Among those patients who do undergo “curative” resection, recurrence rates are high. There are no established adjuvant treatments in this setting. Patients with unresectable or metastatic GBC have a poor prognosis. There has been a paucity of randomized phase III data in this field. A recent report demonstrated longer overall survival with gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin than with gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced or metastatic BTCs. Molecularly targeted agents are under development. In this review, we attempt to discuss the current status and key issues involved in the management of GBC. PMID:20147507

  8. The Systematic Classification of Gallbladder Stones

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. Methodology A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. Principal Findings Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297), pigment stones (217), calcium carbonate stones (139), phosphate stones (12), calcium stearate stones (9), protein stones (3), cystine stones (1) and mixed stones (129). Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05), however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. Conclusion The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones. PMID:24124459

  9. Multiple metastatic malignant melanoma presenting intraluminal gallbladder bleeding.

    PubMed

    Onozawa, Hisashi; Saito, Motonobu; Yoshida, Sayaka; Sakuma, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Masami; Katagata, Naoto; Watanabe, Fumiaki; Yamaguchi, Yoshiko; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Nomizu, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of malignant melanoma of unknown primary origin presenting metastasis in various organs as well as intraluminal gallbladder bleeding due to gallbladder metastasis. A 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with stage IV metastatic malignant melanoma. Because she exhibited acute cholecystitis and hemobilia due to malignant melanoma of the gallbladder, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed to relieve the symptoms. The resected gallbladder specimen showed a pedunculated black mass indicating malignant melanoma. Pathologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis revealed malignant melanoma of the gallbladder. Only a few cases of gallbladder malignant melanoma presenting hemobilia have been reported; here we present our case, including the experience of multidisciplinary treatment.

  10. A new exploration for gallbladder polyps: gallbladder polypectomy by endolap technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, JingMin; Tan, YuYan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Dong; Ji, ZhenLing

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Gallbladder polyps are most commonly treated with cholecystectomy, which is associated with various complications. For benign disease, preserving the gallbladder is preferable. Since 1994, we have been exploring percutaneous polypectomy and have recently developed an improved new technique. This study reports a new endoscopic-laparoscopic (Endolap) technique for the removal of polyps and the preservation of the gallbladder. Nine Chinese mini-pigs were used to observe mucosal regeneration. Microwaves of 50-70 mA for 9 seconds were safe, and the gallbladder mucosa of pigs recovered to nearly normal 2 weeks later. In the clinical cases, 60 patients with gallbladder polyps were studied. With the patient under general anesthesia, each polyp stem was coagulated, and then the polyp was removed. All procedures were successful at between 60 and 135 minutes. The success rate was 93.33% (56/60). A retrospective analysis was conducted to assess the recovery of gallbladder function. All patients were followed up and symptom-free, without recurrence of the polyps; 3 months after the operation, the volume and contraction of the gallbladder recovered to preoperative levels. Thus the Endolap technique is reliable for removing benign gallbladder polyps and is applicable to a wider range of clinical situations than percutaneous polypectomy.

  11. Management of cancer gallbladder found as a surprise on a resected gallbladder specimen.

    PubMed

    Misra, Mahesh Chandra; Guleria, Sandeep

    2006-06-15

    Carcinoma gallbladder is associated with an overall 5-year survival rate reported less than 5% due to late diagnosis. Advent of ultrasound scanning may help in detecting gallbladder polyps and an early gallbladder cancer. Excellent 5-year survival (up to 100%) has been reported for Stage Ia disease and the survival has significantly improved for Stage Ib, II, and III if appropriate re-operation is carried out soon after the incidental detection of gallbladder cancer. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is contraindicated in the presence of gallbladder cancer. It is recommended to excise all laparoscopic port sites, at the time of re-operation. Re-operation for Stage II gallbladder cancer is associated with a 90-100% 3-year survival rate. Patients with Stage III and IV tumors also benefit from an extended cholecystectomy. Patients with bulky primary tumors without lymph node metastases (T4N0) seem to have a better prognosis than those with distant lymph node metastases, and should be treated aggressively. It is advantageous to perform the appropriate extent of surgery for gallbladder cancer at the initial operation. Heightened awareness of the presence of cancer and the knowledge of appropriate management are important. For patients whose cancer is an incidental finding on pathologic review, re-resection is indicated for all disease except Stage Ia. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy have not been found effective as an adjuvant or palliative therapy in gallbladder cancer. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Maintenance therapy with sucralfate in duodenal ulcer: genuine prevention or accelerated healing of ulcer recurrence?

    PubMed

    Bynum, T E; Koch, G G

    1991-08-08

    We sought to compare the efficacy of sucralfate to placebo for the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence and to determine that the efficacy of sucralfate was due to a true reduction in ulcer prevalence and not due to secondary effects such as analgesic activity or accelerated healing. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, multicenter clinical study with 254 patients. All patients had a past history of at least two duodenal ulcers with at least one ulcer diagnosed by endoscopic examination 3 months or less before the start of the study. Complete ulcer healing without erosions was required to enter the study. Sucralfate or placebo were dosed as a 1-g tablet twice a day for 4 months, or until ulcer recurrence. Endoscopic examinations once a month and when symptoms developed determined the presence or absence of duodenal ulcers. If a patient developed an ulcer between monthly scheduled visits, the patient was dosed with a 1-g sucralfate tablet twice a day until the next scheduled visit. Statistical analyses of the results determined the efficacy of sucralfate compared with placebo for preventing duodenal ulcer recurrence. Comparisons of therapeutic agents for preventing duodenal ulcers have usually been made by testing for statistical differences in the cumulative rates for all ulcers developed during a follow-up period, regardless of the time of detection. Statistical experts at the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and on the FDA Advisory Panel expressed doubts about clinical study results based on this type of analysis. They suggested three possible mechanisms for reducing the number of observed ulcers: (a) analgesic effects, (b) accelerated healing, and (c) true ulcer prevention. Traditional ulcer analysis could miss recurring ulcers due to an analgesic effect or accelerated healing. Point-prevalence analysis could miss recurring ulcers due to accelerated healing between endoscopic examinations. Maximum ulcer

  13. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2

  14. Epidemiology of Gallbladder Disease: Cholelithiasis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stinton, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of the gallbladder are common and costly. The best epidemiological screening method to accurately determine point prevalence of gallstone disease is ultrasonography. Many risk factors for cholesterol gallstone formation are not modifiable such as ethnic background, increasing age, female gender and family history or genetics. Conversely, the modifiable risks for cholesterol gallstones are obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The rising epidemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome predicts an escalation of cholesterol gallstone frequency. Risk factors for biliary sludge include pregnancy, drugs like ceftiaxone, octreotide and thiazide diuretics, and total parenteral nutrition or fasting. Diseases like cirrhosis, chronic hemolysis and ileal Crohn's disease are risk factors for black pigment stones. Gallstone disease in childhood, once considered rare, has become increasingly recognized with similar risk factors as those in adults, particularly obesity. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in developed countries. In the U.S., it accounts for only ~ 5,000 cases per year. Elsewhere, high incidence rates occur in North and South American Indians. Other than ethnicity and female gender, additional risk factors for gallbladder cancer include cholelithiasis, advancing age, chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gallbladder, congenital biliary abnormalities, and diagnostic confusion over gallbladder polyps. PMID:22570746

  15. Gallbladder cancer: South American experience.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Gerardo F; Gentile, Alberto; Parada, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Large differences in terms of incidence and mortality due to gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been reported worldwide. Moreover, it seems that GBC has unique characteristics in South America. We surveyed the literature looking for information about the epidemiology, basic and translational research, and clinical trials performed in South America in order to critically analyze the magnitude of this health problem in the region. Compared to other geographic areas, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for GBC in women are very high, particularly in many western areas of South America. Genetic, as well as dietary and environmental factors likely contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease in the area. Compared to other regions the profile of abnormalities of key genes such as KRAS and TP53 in GBC seems to slightly differ in South America, while the clinical behavior appears to be similar with a median overall survival (OS) of 6.5 to 8 months in advanced GBC. In contrast to Europe and USA, prophylactic cholecystectomy is a common practice in western areas of South America. GBC particularly affects women in South America, and represents a significant public health problem. It appears to have peculiarities that pose an urgent need for additional research aimed to discover risk factors, molecular events associated with its development and new treatment options for this lethal disease.

  16. Gallbladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Types of treatment for gallbladder cancer include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Treatment of gallbladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, cannot be removed by surgery, or has come back after treatment is often within a clinical trial. Find out about treatment options for gallbladder cancer.

  17. Bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge. ANIMALS 18 dogs with gallbladder mucocele (GBM group), 8 dogs with immobile biliary sludge (i-BS group), 17 dogs with mobile biliary sludge (m-BS group), and 14 healthy dogs (control group). PROCEDURES Samples of gallbladder contents were obtained by use of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis or during cholecystectomy or necropsy. Concentrations of 15 bile acids were determined by use of highperformance liquid chromatography, and a bile acid compositional ratio was calculated for each group. RESULTS Concentrations of most bile acids in the GBM group were significantly lower than those in the control and m-BS groups. Compositional ratio of taurodeoxycholic acid, which is 1 of 3 major bile acids in dogs, was significantly lower in the GBM and i-BS groups, compared with ratios for the control and m-BS groups. The compositional ratio of taurocholic acid was significantly higher and that of taurochenodeoxycholic acid significantly lower in the i-BS group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, concentrations and fractions of bile acids in gallbladder contents were significantly different in dogs with gallbladder mucocele or immobile biliary sludge, compared with results for healthy control dogs. Studies are needed to determine whether changes in bile acid composition are primary or secondary events of gallbladder abnormalities.

  18. The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Brooks, F P

    1985-11-01

    Heterogeneity is the most important consideration in the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease. Acute ulcers and erosions present clinically with gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation. If they heal there is no predictable recurrence. Factors concerned with mucosal defense are relatively more important than aggressive factors such as acid and pepsin. Local ischemia is the earliest recognizable gross lesion. The gastric mucosa is at least as vulnerable as the duodenal mucosa and probably more so. Most drug-induced ulcers occur in the stomach. Chronic or recurrent true peptic ulcers (penetrating the muscularis mucosae) usually present with abdominal pain. Many duodenal ulcer patients report that the pain occurs when the stomach is empty or is relieved by food, and follows a pattern of relatively long periods of freedom from symptoms between recurrences. Approximately 50% of patients experience a recurrence within a year if anti-ulcer medication is stopped. In most western countries recurrent duodenal ulcer is more common than gastric ulcer. Peptic ulcer disease is also more common in men. Recent evidence indicates genetic and familial factors in duodenal ulcer and increased acid-pepsin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli. However, it is also becoming clear that of all the abnormal functions noted, few are present in all subjects and many are clustered in subgroups. In chronic gastric ulcer of the corpus, defective defense mechanisms, such as duodenogastric reflux and atrophic gastritis, seem to be more important than aggressive factors. Nevertheless, antisecretory medications accelerate the healing of such ulcers. It remains to be seen whether prostaglandins, mucus secretion, or gastric mucosal blood flow are impaired in chronic ulcer disease.

  19. The Incidence of Gastric Metaplasia in Patients with Duodenal Ulcer*

    PubMed Central

    Min, Young II; Lee, Byoung Wook; Chang, Young Woon; Chi, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung Kook

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of duodenal gastric metaplasia and its underlying gastric or duodenal diseases, the authors obtained endoscopic biopsy specimens from the duodenal bulb at random sites during endoscopy from 19 normal subjects, 11 patients with gastric ulcer, 18 with duodenal and/or prepyloric ulcer (s), 7 with duodenitis and 8 with gastric erosions. The biopsy specimens were assessed with PAS staining to confirm gastric metaplasia. The incidence of duodenal gastric metaplasia was 72.2% in patients with duodenal and/or prepyloric ulcer (s), which contrasted with the patients with gastric ulcers (36.4%), duodenitis (42.9%), gastric erosions (12.5%), and normal subjects (5.3%). In conclusion, the results suggest that gastric metaplasia seen predominantly in patients with duodenal ulcer, seems to be related to hyperacidity and it plays some role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer in duodenum. PMID:3154823

  20. Primary neuroendocrine neoplasm of the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Kasaraneni, Ramesh; Smith, David A; Goulbourne, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Carcinoid tumours are distinct neuroendocrine tumours with characteristic clinical and histological behavioural properties which arise mainly in the gastrointestinal tract (73.7%) or bronchopulmonary system (25.1%). Neuroendocrine tumours of the gallbladder are rare—to date there have been only 42 cases reported in the literature. This case was an incidental finding which was recognised during routine histopathological examination after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. The patient recovered well from the operation. There were no concurrent lesions or metastases noted on further investigations, and the final diagnosis was a primary neuroendocrine tumour of the gallbladder. PMID:21686357

  1. Primary neuroendocrine neoplasm of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Kasaraneni, Ramesh; Smith, David A; Goulbourne, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Carcinoid tumours are distinct neuroendocrine tumours with characteristic clinical and histological behavioural properties which arise mainly in the gastrointestinal tract (73.7%) or bronchopulmonary system (25.1%). Neuroendocrine tumours of the gallbladder are rare-to date there have been only 42 cases reported in the literature. This case was an incidental finding which was recognised during routine histopathological examination after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. The patient recovered well from the operation. There were no concurrent lesions or metastases noted on further investigations, and the final diagnosis was a primary neuroendocrine tumour of the gallbladder.

  2. Gallbladder Boundary Segmentation from Ultrasound Images Using Active Contour Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciecholewski, Marcin

    Extracting the shape of the gallbladder from an ultrasonography (US) image allows superfluous information which is immaterial in the diagnostic process to be eliminated. In this project an active contour model was used to extract the shape of the gallbladder, both for cases free of lesions, and for those showing specific disease units, namely: lithiasis, polyps and changes in the shape of the organ, such as folds or turns of the gallbladder. The approximate shape of the gallbladder was found by applying the motion equation model. The tests conducted have shown that for the 220 US images of the gallbladder, the area error rate (AER) amounted to 18.15%.

  3. [AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS GASTRO-DUODENALES ULCERATIVE LESIONS IN ELDERLY].

    PubMed

    Chernekhovskaya, N E; Povalayev, A V; Layshenko, G A

    2015-01-01

    In review today conceptions of view to aetiology and pathogenesis gastro-duodenales ulcerative lesions in elderly. Atherosclerosis, ischemic disease of the heart and hypertension are reasons of acute ulcers and erosions in elderly. The breaking of microcirculation are very importance.

  4. Direct Gallbladder Indocyanine Green Injection Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Graves, Claire; Ely, Sora; Idowu, Olajire; Newton, Christopher; Kim, Sunghoon

    2017-10-01

    Intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) is used to illuminate extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Fluorescence of biliary structures may lower surgical complications that can arise due to inadvertent injury to the common bile duct. We describe a method of injecting ICG directly into the gallbladder to define the cystic duct and common bile duct anatomy. A standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed using a laparoscope with near-infrared imaging capability. Before dissection, the gallbladder was punctured with a cholangiogram catheter or a pigtail catheter to aspirate the bile within the gallbladder. The aspirated bile is mixed with ICG solution, which is reinjected into the gallbladder to fluoresce the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct structures. Eleven patients underwent direct gallbladder ICG injection for fluorescence cholangiography during cholecystectomy. Direct gallbladder ICG injection clearly defined the extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including the cystic duct-common bile duct junction, by fluorescence. In addition, the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver is highlighted with the gallbladder ICG fluorescence. Direct gallbladder ICG injection provides immediate visualization of extrahepatic biliary structures and clarifies the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver bed.

  5. Role of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Ding, You-Ming; Wang, Chun-Tao; Wang, Wei-Xing

    2015-08-01

    Cholelithiasis is a common medical condition whose incidence rate is increasing yearly, while its pathogenesis has yet to be elucidated. The present study assessed the expression of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in gallbladder smooth muscles and its effect on the contractile function of gallbladder smooth muscles during gallstone formation. Thirty male guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: The control group, the gallstone model group and the fasudil interference group. The fasting volume (FV) and bile capacity of the gallbladder (FB) as well as the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents of the gallbladder bile were determined. In addition, the gallbladder was dissected to identify whether any gallstones had formed. Part of the gallbladder tissue specimens were used for immunohistochemical analysis of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscles. The results showed that four guinea pigs in the model group and eight in the fasudil group displayed gallstone formation, while there was no gallstone formation in the control group. The FV and FB were significantly increased in the model and fasudil groups. Similarly, the TC and TG contents of gallbladder bile were increased in these groups. The positive expression rate of ROCK in gallbladder smooth muscles in the model and fasudil groups was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that the reduction of ROCK expression in guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscles weakened gallbladder contraction and thereby promoted gallstone formation.

  6. Identification of Helicobacter spp. in bile and gallbladder tissue of patients with symptomatic gallbladder disease

    PubMed Central

    Sabbaghian, M Shirin; Ranaudo, Jeffrey; Zeng, Lin; Alongi, Alexandra P; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Shamamian, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was designed to determine if Helicobacter spp. contribute to benign gallbladder disease using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Methods: Patients with benign gallbladder disease scheduled for elective cholecystectomy at New York University Langone Medical Center were recruited from February to May 2008. Bile, gallbladder tissue and gallstones were collected. DNA was isolated from these specimens and amplified via PCR using C97F and C98R primers specific for Helicobacter spp. Appropriate positive and negative controls were used. Products were analysed with agarose gel electrophoresis, sequenced and results aligned using sequencher. Plasma was collected for detection of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Of 36 patients, 12 patients' bile and/or tissue were positive for Helicobacter spp. by PCR. Species were most homologous with H. pylori, although other Helicobacter spp. were suggested. Six of 12 patients demonstrated anti-Helicobacter antibodies in plasma, suggesting that the remaining six might have demonstrated other species besides H. pylori. Four of six plasma samples with anti-Helicobacter antibodies were anti-CagA (cytotoxin associated gene) negative. Discussion: Helicobacter spp. can be detected in bile and gallbladder tissue of patients with benign gallbladder disease. The contribution of these bacteria to the pathophysiology of gallbladder disease and gallstone formation requires further study. PMID:20495657

  7. [Severe acute pancreatitis associated with gallbladder gangrene].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Sánchez, Abel S; Aguirre-Mejía, Rosa Y; Echenique-Martínez, Sergio E

    2014-01-01

    We present a diabetic patient who developed severe acute pancreatitis associated to gallbladder gangrene, in this case we assessed the applicability of classification criteria and management of the pathways for acute pancreatitis and also we suggest some topics that could be investigated in the future.

  8. [Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Ujiie, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Kotaro; Onozawa, Hisashi; Hoshi, Nobuhiro; Nakayama, Koichi; Urazumi, Kojiro; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Kusakabe, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder is a rare disease, and 37 cases have been reported in the literature.The current patient was a 78-year-old man who was admitted with a pelvic tumor and left leg edema due to compression of the external iliac vein by the pelvic tumor.The edema improved following resection of the tumor, which was diagnosed at pathology as a malignant melanoma.After surgery, the patient became anorexic and complained of discomfort in the upper right abdomen.A whole body FDG-PET scan demonstrated significant uptake in the gallbladder and in the lymph nodes of the lower abdomen.The patient underwent open cholecystectomy, and the pathological diagnosis was malignant melanoma. Junctional activity was seen in the gallbladder, suggesting that this was the primary site.No melanocytic lesions of the skin or eyes were detected, further supporting the diagnosis of primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder.Chemotherapy was initiated, but the patient died on February 28, 2016.

  9. Type 1 free perforation of the gallbladder.

    PubMed Central

    Harland, C; Mayberry, J F; Toghill, P J

    1985-01-01

    A series of 4 cases of free perforation of the gallbladder into the peritoneal cavity associated with peritonitis are reported. Two were diagnosed at laparotomy and 2 at post-mortem. The 3 patients who died were men who were either elderly or had serous concomitant diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis or alcoholism. The sole survivor was a fit young woman. PMID:4045903

  10. Irrigation: Erosion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigation is essential for global food production. However, irrigation erosion can limit the ability of irrigation systems to reliably produce food and fiber in the future. The factors affecting soil erosion from irrigation are the same as rainfall—water detaches and transports sediment. However, t...

  11. CT biliary cystoscopy of gallbladder polyps

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Ming-Wu; Hu, Wei-Dong; Fan, Yi; Chen, Jin-Hua; E, Zhan-Sen; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: CT virtual endoscopy has been used in the study of various organs of body including the biliary tract, however, CT virtual endoseopy in diagnosis of gallbladder polyps has not yet been reported. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT virtual endoscopy in polyps of the gallbladder. METHODS: Thirty-two cases of gallbladder polyps were examined by CT virtual endoscopy, ultrasound, CT scan with oral biliary contrast separately and confirmed by operation and pathology. CT biliary cystoscopic findings were analyzed and compared with those of ultrasound and CT scan with oral biliary contrast, and evaluated in comparison with operative and pathologic findings in all cases. RESULTS: The detection rate of gallbladder polyps was 93.8%(90/96), 96.9%(93/96) and 79.2%(76/96) for CT cystoscopy, ultrasound and CT scan with oral contrast, respectively. CT biliary cystoscopy corresponded well with ultrasound as well as pathology in demonstrating the location, size and configuration of polyps. CT endoscopy was superior to ultrasound in viewing the polyps in a more precise way, 3 dimensionally from any angle in space, and showing the surface in details. CT biliary cystoscopy was also superior to CT scan with oral biliary contrast in terms of observation of the base of polyps for the presence of a pedicle, detection rates as well as image quality. The smallest polyp detected by CT biliary cystoscopy was measured 1.5 mm×2.2 mm×2.5 mm. CONCLUSION: CT biliary cystoscopy is a non-invasive and accurate technique for diagnosis and management of gallbladder polyps. PMID:15069726

  12. [Gallbladder polyps: prevalence and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Kratzer, W; Schmid, A; Akinli, A S; Thiel, R; Mason, R A; Schuler, A; Haenle, M M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of gallbladder polyps and possible risk factors in a random population sample of an urban population. A total of 2099 subjects (1072 women, 1027 men; aged 19 - 65 years, mean age 42.1 (SD ± 12.8 years) were prospectively examined using ultrasound, a standardized questionnaire and laboratory studies. Gallbladder polyps were identified in 6.1 % (128 / 2099) of all subjects (women: 6.1 % [63 / 1027]); men: 6.1 % [65 / 1072]). Solitary polyps were found in 52.4 % (65 / 124), two polyps in 16.1 % (20 / 124), three polyps in 6.5 % (8 / 124), several polyps in 22.6 % (28 / 124) and multiple polyps in 2.4 % (3 / 124) of subjects. The mean polyp diameter was 4.7 mm (SD ± 2.2; range 2 - 20 mm). The polyp diameter was ≤ 7 mm in 94.5 % of subjects. The polyps were described as pedunculate in 82.3 % (102 / 124). The polyps were broad-based in 11.3 % of subjects (14 / 124; men: 18 % women: 4.8 %). The polyps were homogeneously echogenic in 100 % of cases and with irregular contours in only one male subject. Multiple logistic regression failed to demonstrate an influence on the increased occurrence of gallbladder polyps for the risk factors of male sex, age, body-mass index (BMI), alcohol, nicotine or caffeine consumption or diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of gallbladder polyps reported in the present study (6.1 %) is higher than figures previously published for populations in Germany or Europe. The majority of polyps were pedunculate and solitary. A typical risk factor profile for gallbladder polyps could not be identified in the present population sample. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Gallbladder microbiota variability in Colombian gallstones patients.

    PubMed

    Arteta, Ariel Antonio; Carvajal-Restrepo, Hernan; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan Margot; Diaz-Rodriguez, Sergio; Cardona-Castro, Nora

    2017-03-31

    Gallbladder stones are a very frequently occurring condition. Despite bile bactericidal activity, many bacteria have been detected inside the gallbladder, and gallstones facilitate their presence. Between 3% and 5% of the patients with Salmonella spp. infection develop the carrier stage, with the bacteria persisting inside the gallbladder, shedding bacteria in their feces without signs of infection. The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria from Colombian patients with gallstones, using standard culturing methods, and to identify Salmonella spp. carriers by molecular techniques. A total of 149 patients (120 female and 29 male) diagnosed with gallstones who underwent cholecystectomy and who did not have symptoms of acute inflammation were included. Gallbladder tissue and bile were cultured and used for DNA extraction and Salmonella spp. hilA gene detection. Of the 149 patients 28 (19%) had positive cultures. Twenty-one (75%) patients with positive cultures were from Medellin's metropolitan area. In this geographical location, the most frequent isolations were Pseudomonas spp. (38%), Klebsiella spp. (23%), and Proteus spp. (9%) in addition to unique cases of other bacteria. In Apartado, the isolates found were Enterobacter cloacae (50%), Raoultella terrigena (32%), and both Enterobacter cloacae and Raoultella terrigena were isolated in one (18%) male patient. Five (3.3%) of the 149 patients had positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for the hilA gene of Salmonella spp., all of whom were female and residents of the Medellín metropolitan area. The gallbladder microbiota variability found could be related to geographical, ethnic, and environmental conditions.

  14. Characteristics of gallbladder cancer in South India.

    PubMed

    Sachidananda, Sandeep; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Janani, K; Alexander, P C; Velayutham, Vimalraj; Rajagopal, Surendran; Venkataraman, Jayanthi

    2012-09-01

    Gallbladder cancer is common in north India. It is also a well established fact that gall bladder cancer is frequently associated with gallstone disease in north India, similar to reports from the West. The magnitude of the problem of gallbladder cancer in south India and its link to gallstone disease is not clearly established. The aim of the study was to determine retrospectively, the characteristics of individuals with GBC in south India and to determine its association with gallstone disease. Retrospective data was obtained from records of proven cases of gallbladder cancer and patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstone disease between Jan 2001 and Dec 2010. Data retrieved included age, gender, and clinical presentation, findings on imaging, histology and details of management. The number of proven cases of gallbladder cancer each year ranged from 8 to 17. There were 38 men and 23 women. Male female ratio was 1.6:1. There were more men in the successive decades. Right upper quadrant pain (42 %) followed by jaundice (27 %) and a presence of a palpable mass (12 %) were the common clinical presentation. Pre-operative diagnosis of gall bladder cancer was possible in 80 %. Twelve patients had co-existing gallstones (19.6 %). Forty patients (50 %) had stage IV disease; only 6 patients had Stage I operable disease (9.8 %). During the same time 758 patients had cholecystectomy for gallstone disease. Only one patient had an incidental gall bladder cancer, who had an extended cholecystectomy. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in south India and its association with gallstone is also low.

  15. Nonsurgical resolution of gallbladder mucocele in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Walter, Romanie; Dunn, Marilyn E; d'Anjou, Marc-André; Lécuyer, Manon

    2008-06-01

    A gallbladder mucocele was diagnosed in 2 dogs. In both dogs, the mucocele resolved with medical treatment but without the need for surgical intervention. A 12-year-old spayed female Miniature Schnauzer had a history of signs of gastrointestinal tract disease and high serum liver enzyme activities. Gallbladder mucocele and hypothyroidism were diagnosed. A 6-year-old neutered mixed-breed dog had chronic intermittent diarrhea and recurrent otitis; gallbladder mucocele and hypothyroidism were diagnosed. The first dog was treated with S-adenosyl-methionine, omega-3 fatty acids, famotidine, ursodiol, and levothyroxine. Substantial improvement in the gastrointestinal tract condition and complete resolution of the gallbladder mucocele within 3 months were evident, but the dog was not available for further follow-up monitoring. The second dog was treated with fenbendazole, ursodiol, and levothyroxine and fed a hypoallergenic diet. One month after evaluation, abdominal ultrasonography revealed that the gallbladder mucocele was resolving, and treatment was continued. Ultrasonographic evaluation 2 and 4 months later revealed complete resolution of the mucocele. Review of the clinical course of 2 dogs in which there was nonsurgical resolution of gallbladder mucocele revealed that surgery is not necessary in all dogs with gallbladder mucocele. Hypothyroidism may have resulted in delayed gallbladder emptying, and its role in the pathogenesis of gallbladder mucocele merits investigation. Despite this information, until further prospective trials with a control group and standardized treatments and follow-up monitoring can be performed, the authors recommend surgical intervention for treatment of dogs with gallbladder mucocele.

  16. Concanavalin A-binding cholesterol crystallization inhibiting and promoting activity in bile from patients with Crohn's disease compared to patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Keulemans, Y C; Mok, K S; Slors, J F; Brink, M A; Gouma, D J; Tytgat, G N; Groen, A K

    1999-10-01

    Crohn's disease is a risk factor for gallstone formation. In contrast, patients with ulcerative colitis have an incidence of gallstone formation comparable to the general population. The reason for this difference is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors controlling cholesterol crystallization in gallbladder bile of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Gallbladder bile was obtained by aspiration during bowel resections (26 Crohn's disease patients, 20 ulcerative colitis patients). Biliary lipid composition, crystal detection time and the effect of extraction of the concanavalin A-binding fraction on crystal formation were determined. Cholesterol crystals were present in seven of the 26 bile samples of Crohn's disease-patients and one of the 20 ulcerative colitis patients. Four of the bile samples of Crohn's disease patients were fast nucleating. None of the 20 ulcerative colitis patients had fast nucleating bile. Lipid composition, total lipid concentration and CSI were not significantly different between the two groups. In Crohn's disease patients extraction of concanavalin A-binding fraction decreased crystallization in 10 bile samples but accelerated crystallization in one bile sample. In eight bile samples from ulcerative colitis patients crystallization increased after concanavalin A-binding fraction extraction. Compared to ulcerative colitis patients, gallbladder bile of Crohn's disease patients showed increased cholesterol crystallization despite comparable lipid composition and cholesterol saturation index. This difference is caused by increased cholesterol crystallization-promoting activity. Bile from ulcerative colitis patients contains a Con A-binding factor which inhibits cholesterol crystallization.

  17. Mouth ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A skin sore caused by histoplasmosis may ... mouth Images Oral thrush Canker sore (aphthous ulcer) Lichen planus on the oral mucosa Mouth sores References Daniels TE, Jordan RC. ...

  18. MUC Expression in Gallbladder Epithelial Tissues in Cholesterol-Associated Gallbladder Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Choi, Ho Soon; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Gallstone pathogenesis is linked to mucin hypersecretion and bacterial infection. Several mucin genes have been identified in gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs). We investigated MUC expression in cholesterol-associated gallbladder disease and evaluated the relationship between mucin and bacterial infection. Methods The present study involved 20 patients with cholesterol stones with cholecystitis, five with cholesterol stones with cholesterolosis, six with cholesterol polyps, two with gallbladder cancer, and six controls. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide were also studied. MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 antibodies were used for dot/slot immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies of the gallbladder epithelial tissues, canine GBECs, and bile. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate MUC3 and MUC5B expression. Results MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 were expressed in the normal gallbladder epithelium, and of those, MUC3 and MUC5B exhibited the highest expression levels. Greatly increased levels of MUC3 and MUC5B expression were observed in the cholesterol stone group, and slightly increased levels were observed in the cholesterol polyp group; MUC3 and MUC5B mRNA was also upregulated in those groups. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide also showed upregulation of MUC3 and MUC5B. Conclusions The mucin genes with the highest expression levels in gallbladder tissue in cholesterol-associated diseases were MUC3 and MUC5B. Cholesterol stones and gallbladder infections were associated with increased MUC3 and MUC5B expression. PMID:27563024

  19. Gallbladder Cancer Symptoms, Tests, Prognosis, and Stages (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Gallbladder cancer is rare. There are no signs or symptoms of gallbladder cancer in the early stages which makes it hard to diagnose. Learn more about possible symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, and staging for gallbladder cancer.

  20. Gallbladder perforation: case series and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Date, Ravindra S; Thrumurthy, Sri G; Whiteside, Sigrid; Umer, Mohammed A; Pursnani, Kishore G; Ward, Jeremy B; Mughal, M Muntzer

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder perforation is a serious complication of acute cholecystitis. Its management has evolved considerably since its classification by Niemeier in 1934. This review summarises the evidence surrounding the natural progression of this condition and potential problems with Niemeier's classification, and proposes a management algorithm for the more complex type II perforation. Data from a retrospective case series and a systematic review were combined. The case series included all patients with gallbladder perforations from 2004 to 2008 at a British teaching hospital. The systematic review searched for gallbladder perforation using the MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library (2011 Issue 4) databases, as well as recent conference abstracts. The outcome data were analysed using SPSS version 15. No adjustments were made for multiple testing. 198 patients (including 19 patients from the present series) with a mean age of 62.1+/-9.7 years and male gender proportion of 55.4% (range 33.3-76.7%) were included. The most common gallbladder perforations were type II (median 46.2%, range 7.4-83.3%), followed by type I (median 40.6%, range 16.7-70.0%) and type III (median 10.1%, range 0-48.1%). Perforation was associated with cholelithiasis in 86.6% (range 78.9-90.6%) of patients, and the overall median mortality rate was 10.8% (range 0-12.5%). Male gender was weakly associated with mortality (p = 0.089) but age (p = 0.877) and cholelithiasis (p = 0.425) were not. Mortality did not vary significantly with perforation type. Gallbladder perforation should be reported according to the original Neimeier's classification to avoid heterogeneity in data (e.g. varying rates of perforation types). The algorithm proposed in this study aims to guide the management of complex type II gallbladder perforations to minimise subsequent morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Erosion Effects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-22

    The impact crater in this NASA Mars Odyssey image is a model illustration of the effects of erosion on Mars. The degraded crater rim and several landslides observed in crater walls are evidence of the mass wasting of materials.

  2. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula as a primary manifestation of gallbladder adenocarcinoma associated with gallbladder lithiasis - case report.

    PubMed

    Micu, Bogdan Vasile; Andercou, Octavian Aurel; Micu, Carmen Maria; Militaru, Valentin; Jeican, IonuŢ Isaia; Bungărdean, Cătălina Ileana; Mogoantă, Stelian ŞtefăniŢă; Miclăuş, Dan Radu; Pop, Tudor Radu

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula (SCF) is a rare complication of neglected calculous biliary disease and also an extremely rare complication of gallbladder neoplasm. This pathology has become even rarer because of prompt diagnosis and expedient surgical intervention for gallstones. So far, there is one published report of a SCF due to gallbladder adenocarcinoma. We present the case of a woman aged 87 years, admitted to the Vth Department of Surgery, Clinical Municipal Hospital of Cluj-Napoca (Romania) for a tumoral mass located in the epigastrium. In the epigastrium, the patient had three skin orifices of about 1-2 mm each, through which purulent secretion occurred. The abdominal ultrasound highlighted a cholecystocutaneous fistula with the presence of a subcutaneous gallstone. Intraoperatively, we found a cholecystocutaneous fistula, a 1 cm subcutaneous gallstone, gallbladder with thickened walls containing a cylinder-shaped gallstone of 5÷3 cm. Fistulectomy, gallstones extraction and cholecystectomy were performed. The histopathological examination highlighted gallbladder adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, SCF can be the first significant manifestation of gallbladder cancer associated with neglected calculous biliary disease.

  3. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosis of gallbladder adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hai-Xia; Cao, Jia-Ying; Kong, Wen-Tao; Xia, Han-Sheng; Wang, Xi; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Gallbladder adenoma is a pre-cancerous neoplasm and needs surgical resection. It is difficult to differentiate adenoma from other gallbladder polyps using imaging examinations. The study aimed to illustrate characteristics of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and its diagnostic value in gallbladder adenoma. Thirty-seven patients with 39 gallbladder adenomatoid lesions (maximal diameter ≥10 mm and without metastasis) were enrolled in this study. Lesion appearances in conventional ultrasound and CEUS were documented. The imaging features were compared individually among gallbladder cholesterol polyp, gallbladder adenoma and malignant lesion. Adenoma lesions showed iso-echogenicity in ultrasound, and an eccentric enhancement pattern, "fast-in and synchronous-out" contrast enhancement pattern and homogeneous at peak-time enhancement in CEUS. The homogenicity at peak-time enhancement showed the highest diagnostic ability in differentiating gallbladder adenoma from cholesterol polyps. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and Youden index were 100%, 90.9%, 92.9%, 100%, 95.8% and 0.91, respectively. The characteristic of continuous gallbladder wall shown by CEUS had the highest diagnostic ability in differentiating adenoma from malignant lesion (100%, 86.7%, 86.7%, 100%, 92.9% and 0.87, respectively). The characteristic of the eccentric enhancement pattern had the highest diagnostic ability in differentiating adenoma from cholesterol polyp and malignant lesion, with corresponding indices of 69.2%, 88.5%, 75.0%, 85.2%, 82.1% and 0.58, respectively. CEUS is valuable in differentiating gallbladder adenoma from other gallbladder polyps (≥10 mm in diameter). Homogeneous echogenicity on peak-time enhancement, a continuous gallbladder wall, and the eccentric enhancement pattern are important indicators of gallbladder adenoma on CEUS.

  4. Megalin and cubilin in the human gallbladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Tsaroucha, Alexandra K; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Lambropoulou, Maria; Despoudi, Kaliopi; Laftsidis, Prodromos; Charsou, Chara; Polychronidis, Alexandros; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Simopoulos, Constantinos E

    2008-09-01

    Although the role of cholesterol absorption by the gallbladder epithelium in gallstone formation is well established, the exact process is poorly understood. Potential candidates for regulation of transepithelial cholesterol transport are suggested to be two large membrane multiple ligand receptors, megalin and cubilin. We studied the expression of these two proteins in both acalculous and calculous human gallbladder epithelia. Adult human gallbladder tissues were received from 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) who had undergone cholecystectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (calculous gallbladder group; 5 men, 6 women; mean age 64.4 +/- 11.1 years) with cholelithiasis, and group B (acalculous gallbladder group; 4 men, 6 women; mean age 55.3 +/- 16.1 years). In the gallbladder tissues megalin and cubilin expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and conventional RT-PCR, and gene expression levels were estimated by real-time RT-PCR. Both megalin and cubilin gene transcripts were found in total RNA preparations from acalculous gallbladder. In contrast, in preparations from calculous gallbladder, none or only one of the proteins was detected. Immunoreactive proteins were detected in the simple columnar acalculous gallbladder epithelium but not in the calculous gallbladder epithelium. Our results show different expression patterns of the two proteins in calculous gallbladders and acalculous gallbladders. In the latter both proteins are expressed, suggesting an association with gallstone formation and implying a putative role of the two proteins in cholesterol endocytosis. In other words, the presence of both proteins may be essential for the prevention of stone formation.

  5. Isolated gallbladder injury in a case of blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Birn, Jeffrey; Jung, Melissa; Dearing, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of blunt injury to the gallbladder may constitute a significant challenge to the diagnostician. There is often a delay in presentation with non-specific clinical symptoms. In the absence of reliable clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging becomes an invaluable tool in the rapid identification of gallbladder injury. We present a case of isolated gallbladder injury following blunt abdominal trauma which was diagnosed by computed tomography and subsequently confirmed by cholecystectomy.

  6. Diabetes - foot ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce chemicals that help the ulcer heal. Taking Pressure off Your Foot Ulcer Foot ulcers are partly caused by too much ... ulcer has healed. These devices will take the pressure off of the ulcer area. This will help speed healing. Be sure ...

  7. Cancer of the gallbladder-Chilean statistics.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Chile has the world's highest rate of incidence as well as death from cancer of the gallbladder and biliary ducts. The problem is most acute in the southern provinces. These areas constitute the low average income associated with low educational attainment and a high rate of obesity compared with the rest of Chile. We could also include genetic factors related to processes of lithogenesis to these elements which are more common among the Mapuche. This population sub-group could benefit from special government programmes for early diagnosis and treatment of lithiasic disease and for the management of risk factors such as obesity. In this way, we could reduce the mortality rate of gallbladder cancer.

  8. Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Caprini, J.A.; Partsch, H.; Simman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence. PMID:26236636

  9. [Research of conjugated bile acids in gallbladder bile of patients with polypoid lesions of gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunlin; Sun, Tao; Meng, Jingjuan; Wang, Kun; Huang, Peng

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the difference in conjugated bile acids in the gallbladder bile between gallbladder cholesterol polyps and adenomatous polyps patients, and screen the differential diagnosis-markers for polypoid lesions of gallbladder (PLG). From January to June 2013, the 20 cholesterol polyps patients, 10 adenomatous polyps patients and 10 patients without gallbladder diseases were enrolled. High performance liquid chromatography assay with ultraviolet detection was used to test 8 conjugated bile acids in gallbladder bile. The 8 conjugated bile acids were completely analyzed in 10 minutes, and the assay was liner in the range 8-500 µg/ml. The correlation coeffients for linear regression was from 0.9996-0.9999 and the detection limits ranged from 3.90-7.81 µg/ml. The level of taurocholic acid (TCA) in adenomatous polyps group ((75 ± 51) µg/ml) was significantly lower than that in the cholesterol polyps ((228 ± 206) µg/ml, q = 3.120, P = 0.014) and control groups ((104 ± 40) µg/ml, q = 2.950, P = 0.027). The level of taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) in cholesterol polyps group ((604 ± 444) µg/ml) was significantly higher than that in the adenomatous polyps ((310 ± 182) µg/ml, q = 2.560, P = 0.048) and control groups ((308 ± 21) µg/ml, q = 2.970, P = 0.023). The levels of TCA and TCDCA in the gallbladder biles in cholesterol polyps patients were higher than those in adenomatous polyps patients, which may be the differential diagnosis-markers for PLG.

  10. High-resolution sonography for distinguishing neoplastic gallbladder polyps and staging gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Young; Baek, Jee Hyun; Eun, Hyo Won; Kim, Young Jae; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this study were to compare staging accuracy of high-resolution sonography (HRUS) with combined low- and high-MHz transducers with that of conventional sonography for gallbladder cancer and to investigate the differences in the imaging findings of neoplastic and nonneoplastic gallbladder polyps. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Our study included 37 surgically proven gallbladder cancer (T1a = 7, T1b = 2, T2 = 22, T3 = 6), including 15 malignant neoplastic polyps and 73 surgically proven polyps (neoplastic = 31, nonneoplastic = 42) that underwent HRUS and conventional transabdominal sonography. Two radiologists assessed T-category and predefined polyp findings on HRUS and conventional transabdominal sonography. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square and McNemar tests. RESULTS. The diagnostic accuracy for the T category was T1a = 92-95%, T1b = 89-95%, T2 = 78-86%, and T3 = 84-89%, all with good agreement (κ = 0.642) using HRUS. The diagnostic accuracy for differentiating T1 from T2 or greater than T2 was 92% and 89% on HRUS and 65% and 70% with conventional transabdominal sonography. Statistically common findings for neoplastic polyps included size greater than 1 cm, single lobular surface, vascular core, hypoechoic polyp, and hypoechoic foci (p < 0.05). The value of HRUS in the differential diagnosis of a gallbladder polyp was more clearly depicted internal echo foci than conventional transabdominal sonography (39 vs 21). A polyp size greater than 1 cm was independently associated with a neoplastic polyp (odds ratio = 7.5, p = 0.02). The AUC of a polyp size greater than 1 cm was 0.877. The sensitivity and specificity were 66.67% and 89.13%, respectively. CONCLUSION. HRUS is a simple method that enables accurate T categorization of gallbladder carcinoma. It provides high-resolution images of gallbladder polyps and may have a role in stratifying the risk for malignancy.

  11. Usefulness of lavage cytology during endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yoshiki; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Kawahara, Akihiko; Taira, Tomoki; Isida, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryouhei; Sata, Michio; Ureshino, Hiroki; Mikagi, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Yasumoto, Makiko; Kusano, Hironori; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2009-06-01

    Many studies have reported methods of cell collection involving percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. However, few studies have described the use of a transpapillary approach, i.e., endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder (ETCG). In this study, we analyzed cells collected by ETCG to evaluate its usefulness in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease. The subjects were 19 patients who had undergone ETCG for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. Of these patients, 11 and 8 had gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder disease, respectively. We also evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology performed in 15 patients with gallbladder cancer.Specimens were cytologically diagnosed as normal or benign, indeterminate, suspected malignancy, malignant, and inadequate in 47% (9/19), 11% (2/19), 0% (0/19), 37% (7/19), and 5% (1/19) of patients, respectively. Specimens were diagnosed as malignant, indeterminate, normal or benign, and inadequate in 7, 2, 1, and 1, respectively, of the 11 patients diagnosed with gallbladder cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of ETCG cytology were 78 and 100%, respectively, whereas the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology was 20% (3/15). None of the patients developed complications of ETCG. Despite its technical difficulty, ETCG for bile cytology allows the collection of adequate cell numbers from patients with benign disease or gallbladder cancer and facilitates a cytological diagnosis, making it a useful method for collecting cells. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The clinical application of the hard gallbladder endoscope combined with soft choledochoscope in the surgery of laparoscopic microscopic trauma for the removal of calculi and preservation of gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shaohua

    2013-02-01

    To explore the value of minimally invasive surgery for the removal of calculus and preservation of the gallbladder with the combination of a hard gallbladder endoscope and a soft choledochoscope. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the clinical data of 42 patients with cholecystolithiasis who underwent minimally invasive surgery for the removal of calculus and preservation of the gallbladder from April 2009 to April 2011. None of the 42 cases had bile flowing from the gallbladder neck tube to the gallbladder lumen after removal of stones in the gallbladder lumen by the hard gallbladder endoscope; all the 42 cases had residual stones in the gallbladder tube when probed by the soft choledochoscope. The numbers of stones range from one to three, while the diameters of the stones range from 0.5 cm to 1.0 cm. In 8 cases, there was one calculus embedded. In 39 cases, the calculi were taken out through the soft choledochoscope, and the gallbladders were preserved successfully; yet the other 3 cases failed to receive surgery to preserve the gallbladder because of calculi embedded in the gallbladder tube, which were finally treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A hard gallbladder endoscope combined with a soft choledochoscope for removing calculi and preserving the gallbladder in laparoscopic microscopic trauma surgery can effectively find residual stones in the gallbladder tube and help to increase the rate of complete removal of calculi and preserving the gallbladder.

  13. Stasis dermatitis and ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcers; Ulcers - venous; Venous ulcer; Venous insufficiency - stasis dermatitis; Vein - stasis dermatitis ... veins. Some people with venous insufficiency develop stasis dermatitis. Blood pools in the veins of the lower ...

  14. Venous ulcer review

    PubMed Central

    Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers? Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recurrence. Implementation: Potential pitfalls to avoid are: Failure to exclude underlying arterial disease before application of compression.Unusual-looking ulcers or those slow to heal should be biopsied to exclude malignant transformation. PMID:21673869

  15. Clinical, pathological and sonographic characteristics of unexpected gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Huan; Liu, Bo-Ji; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Sun, Li-Ping; Li, Dan-Dan; Guo, Le-Hang; Liu, Lin-Na; Xu, Xiao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical, pathological, and sonographic characteristics of unexpected gallbladder carcinoma (UGC). Methods: Of 5424 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy from December 2006 to October 2013, 54 patients with primary gallbladder carcinomas confirmed by pathological diagnosis were identified. The patients were divided into two groups: diagnosed before operation (n=34) and UGC groups (n=20), of whom the clinical, pathological, and sonographic characteristics were compared. Results: No significant differences in age, gender, location of lesion, histological type, length of the gallbladder, existence of biliary sludge, and intestinal gas interference between the two groups were found (all P>0.05). The clinical symptoms, laboratory abnormalities, tumor markers, coexisting gallbladder stones, lesion size, lesion type, degree of differentiation, and tumor staging showed statistically significant differences between the two groups (all P<0.05). On ultrasound, the width of the gallbladder, gallbladder wall thickness, vascularity on color Doppler ultrasound, and bile volume in the gallbladder showed significant differences (all P<0.05). Conclusions: UGCs are commonly found at an early stage, often well-differentiated, wall thickened, and are generally accompanied with cholelithiasis. UGCs should be taken into consideration in cases with cholelithiasis or small gallbladder on ultrasound. PMID:26379911

  16. Gallbladder mucocoele and concurrent hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S L; Milne, M; Slocombe, R F; Landon, B P

    2007-10-01

    A 3-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with weight loss, anorexia and icterus. Feline hepatic lipidosis and gallbladder mucocoele were diagnosed; this is the first report of gallbladder mucocoele in the cat. The case was managed successfully with cholecystojejunostomy, gastrostomy tube placement and tube feeding for 3 months. The cat has survived over the long term with minimal complications.

  17. Are histological alterations observed in the gallbladder precancerous lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles-Costa, Adriana Lúcia Agnelli; Bresciani, Claudio José Caldas; Perez, Rodrigo Oliva; Bresciani, Barbara Helou; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida C.; Cecconello, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gallbladder cancer, which is characterized by rapid progression and a poor prognosis, is a complex disease to treat. Unfortunately, little is known currently about its etiology or pathogenesis. A better understanding of its carcinogenesis and determining risk factors that lead to its development could help improve the available treatment options. METHOD Based on this better understanding, the histological alterations (such as acute cholecystitis, adenomyomatosis, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, polyps, pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, cancer and others) in gallbladders from 1,689 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystolithiasis were analyzed. The association of these gallbladder histological alterations with clinical data was studied. RESULTS Gender analysis revealed a greater incidence of inflammatory changes in males, while dysplasia and cancer were only found in women. The incidence of cholesterolosis was greater in the patients 60 years of age and under, and the incidence of adenomyomatosis and gangrene was greater in the elderly patients. A progressive increase in the average age was observed as alterations progressed through pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and then cancer, suggesting that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence may occur in gallbladder cancer. Gallbladder histological alterations were also observed in asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that there could be an association between some histological alterations of gallbladder and cancer, and they also suggest that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence could in fact be true in the case of gallbladder cancer. Nevertheless, further studies directed towards a perfect understanding of gallbladder carcinogenesis are required. PMID:20186297

  18. Rare combination of familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasuhisa; Sato, Norihiro; Matayoshi, Nobutaka; Tamura, Toshihisa; Minagawa, Noritaka; Shibao, Kazunori; Higure, Aiichiro; Nakamoto, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2014-12-14

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high incidence of malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract (particularly ampullary adenocarcinomas). However, few reports have described a correlation between familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder neoplasms. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis who presented with an elevated mass in the neck of the gallbladder (measuring 16 mm × 8 mm in diameter) and multiple small cholecystic polyps. She had undergone a total colectomy for ascending colon cancer associated with familial adenomatous polyposis 22 years previously. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of multifocal gallbladder polyps. Pathologic examination of the resected gallbladder revealed more than 70 adenomatous lesions, a feature consistent with adenoma of the gallbladder. This case suggests a requirement for long-term surveillance of the biliary system in addition to the gastrointestinal tract in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

  19. Gallbladder torsion with acute cholecystitis and gross necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalili, Eyas; Bencsath, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of worsening right-sided abdominal pain. On examination she had right mid-abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies demonstrated leukocytosis with normal liver function tests. A CT of the abdomen was remarkable for a large fluid collection in the right abdomen and no discernible gallbladder in the gallbladder fossa. An ultrasound confirmed the suspicion of a distended, floating gallbladder. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gallbladder was found to have volvulised in a counter -clockwise manner around its pedicle, with gross necrosis of the gallbladder. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pathological examination revealed acute necrotising calculus cholecystitis. PMID:24862426

  20. Metastatic polyp of the gallbladder from renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shyr, Bor-Uei; Chen, Shih-Chin; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Wang, Shin-E

    2017-04-04

    Gallbladder metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is extremely rare. The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of metastatic RCC to gallbladder. The pooled data for analysis were collected from the case of metastatic RCC to gallbladder encountered by our institution along with sporadic cases reported in literature from 1991 to 2015. A total of 50 cases of metastatic RCC to gallbladder were recruited for study. Fifty-seven percentage of the primary RCC was from the right kidney and 43% from the left. The median interval between diagnoses of primary and metastatic RCC to gallbladder was 36 months, with the longest duration up to 324 months. Most (70%) were asymptomatic. The size of metastatic RCC to gallbladder ranged from 0.8 cm to 9 cm, with median of 2.6 cm. Majority (91%) of the metastatic RCCs presented as a polypoid mass with narrow stalk, and 82% were hypervascular lesion. The overall 1 year, 3 year and 5 year survival rate was 91.5%, 76.2% and 59.3% respectively, with a median of 26.5 months. Number of the metastatic site, timing of gallbladder metastasis, symptom, tumor size and operation type of cholecystectomy seemed to have no impact on survival. Metastatic RCC to the gallbladder should be taken into account for a gallbladder polypoid mass with narrow hypervascular stalk during the diagnosis and/or follow-up of primary RCC. Gallbladder metastasis from RCC is not necessarily to be an advanced stage with poor outcome, and cholecystectomy is recommended whenever possible.

  1. Effect of a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet on gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-12-01

    OBJCTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary lipid overload on bile acid metabolism and gallbladder motility in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) for a period of 2 weeks. After a 4-month washout period, dogs were fed the other diet for 2 weeks. Before and at the end of each feeding period, the concentrations of each of the gallbladder bile acids, cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced gallbladder motility, and bile acid metabolism-related hepatic gene expression were examined in all dogs. RESULTS The HFCD significantly increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations. The HFCD also increased the concentration of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and decreased the concentration of taurocholic acid in bile and reduced gallbladder contractility, whereas the LFD significantly decreased the concentration of taurodeoxycholic acid in bile. Gene expression analysis revealed significant elevation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA expression after feeding the HFCD for 2 weeks, but the expression of other genes was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Feeding the HFCD and LFD for 2 weeks induced changes in gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs. In particular, feeding the HFCD caused an increase in plasma total cholesterol concentration, an increase of hydrophobic bile acid concentration in bile, and a decrease in gallbladder sensitivity to CCK. These results suggested that similar bile acid compositional changes and gallbladder hypomotility might be evident in dogs with hyperlipidemia.

  2. Increased prevalence of gallbladder polyps in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Anand K; Gayton, Emma L; Webb, Alison; Halsall, David J; Rice, Caiomhe; Ibram, Ferda; Chaudhry, Afzal N; Simpson, Helen L; Berman, Laurence; Gurnell, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an increased prevalence of benign and malignant tumors in acromegaly, particularly colonic neoplasms. The gallbladder's epithelial similarity to the colon raises the possibility that gallbladder polyps (GBP) may occur more frequently in acromegaly. Thirty-one patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly (14 females, 17 males; mean age 54.7 yr, range 27-76 yr) were referred to our center between 2004 and 2008. All had pituitary adenomas and were treated with somatostatin analogs prior to transsphenoidal surgery. Biliary ultrasonography was performed at the time of referral. In a retrospective case-cohort study, we compared the prevalence of GBP in these scans with those of 13,234 consecutive patients (age range 20-80 yr) presenting at the hospital for abdominal/biliary ultrasound during the same time interval. Associations between GH and IGF-I levels and GBP in acromegaly were also examined. There was a higher prevalence of GBP in patients with acromegaly compared with controls (29.03 vs 4.62%, P = 0.000008); relative risk was 6.29 (95% confidence interval 3.61-10.96). Eight of nine patients with acromegaly and GBP were older than 50 yr of age. GH levels were higher in those with GBP (median 30.8 μg/liter, interquartile range 10.9-39.1) than those without (8.2 μg/liter, interquartile range 6.0-16.0), but IGF-I levels were comparable. This is the first study to demonstrate an increased prevalence of GBP in patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly. Further studies are required to determine whether these patients are at increased risk of developing gallbladder carcinoma and to define the role, if any, of biliary ultrasound surveillance.

  3. Promoter methylation profile in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan Carlos; Anabalón, Leonardo; Roa, Iván; Melo, Angélica; Araya, Juan Carlos; Tapia, Oscar; de Aretxabala, Xavier; Muñoz, Sergio; Schneider, Barbara

    2006-03-01

    Methylation in the promoter region of genes is an important mechanism of inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Our objective was to analyze the methylation pattern of some of the genes involved in carcinogenesis of the gallbladder, examining the immunohistochemical expression of proteins, clinical features, and patient survival time. Twenty cases of gallbladder cancer were selected from the frozen tumor bank. The DNA extracted was analyzed by means of a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction test for the CDKN2A (p16), MLH1, APC, FHIT, and CDH1 (E-cadherin) genes. Morphological and clinical data and follow-up information were obtained. All cases were in an advanced stage: histologically moderate or poorly differentiated tumors (95%). Methylation of the promoter area of genes was observed in 5%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 65% of cases, and an altered immunohistochemical pattern (AIP) in 5%, 35%, 21%, 25%, and 66% for the MLH1, CDKN2A, FHIT, APC, and CDH1 genes, respectively. The Kappa concordance index between methylation of the promoter area and AIP for the MLH1 and CDH1 genes was very high (K > 0.75) and substantial for APC (K > 0.45). No correlation was found between survival time and the methylation of the genes studied. The high frequency of gene methylation (with the exception of MLH1) and the high agreement between AIP and methylation of the gene promoter area for the MLH1, APC, and CDH1 genes suggest that the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and of the genes related to the control of cellular proliferation through this mechanism is involved in gallbladder carcinogenesis.

  4. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for melanoma metastatic to the gallbladder: is it an adequate surgical procedure? Report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marone, Ugo; Caracò, Corrado; Losito, Simona; Daponte, Antonio; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Mori, Stefano; Cerra, Rocco; Pezzullo, Luciano; Mozzillo, Nicola

    2007-12-11

    Only 2% to 4% of patients with melanoma will be diagnosed with gastrointestinal metastasis during the course of their disease. The most common sites of gastrointestinal metastases from melanoma include the small bowel (35%-67%), colon (9%-15%) and stomach (5%-7%), with a median survival of 6-10 months after surgery, and 18% survival at five years. Metastatic melanoma to the gallbladder is extremely rare and it is associated with a very poor prognosis. We report a case of a 54-year old man presented to observation with diagnosis of 6.1 mm thick, Clark's level IV, ulcerated melanoma of the trunk, developing in the course of the disease metastatic involvement of the gallbladder as first site of recurrence, treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. To date only few cases of patients with metastatic melanoma of the gallbladder treated by this surgical procedure have been reported in literature. Gallbladder metastasis represents a rare event as a first site of recurrence. It must be considered a possible expression of systemic disease also despite radiological absence of other metastatic lesions. Laparoscopic approach has a possible therapeutic role, but open surgery has also a concomitant diagnostic purpose because gives the possibility of manual exploration of abdominal cavity, useful particularly to reveal bowel metastatic lesions, not easily identifiable by preoperative imaging examinations.

  5. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for melanoma metastatic to the gallbladder: is it an adequate surgical procedure? Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Marone, Ugo; Caracò, Corrado; Losito, Simona; Daponte, Antonio; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Mori, Stefano; Cerra, Rocco; Pezzullo, Luciano; Mozzillo, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background Only 2% to 4% of patients with melanoma will be diagnosed with gastrointestinal metastasis during the course of their disease. The most common sites of gastrointestinal metastases from melanoma include the small bowel (35%–67%), colon (9%–15%) and stomach (5%–7%), with a median survival of 6–10 months after surgery, and 18% survival at five years. Metastatic melanoma to the gallbladder is extremely rare and it is associated with a very poor prognosis. Case presentation We report a case of a 54-year old man presented to observation with diagnosis of 6.1 mm thick, Clark's level IV, ulcerated melanoma of the trunk, developing in the course of the disease metastatic involvement of the gallbladder as first site of recurrence, treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. To date only few cases of patients with metastatic melanoma of the gallbladder treated by this surgical procedure have been reported in literature. Conclusion Gallbladder metastasis represents a rare event as a first site of recurrence. It must be considered a possible expression of systemic disease also despite radiological absence of other metastatic lesions. Laparoscopic approach has a possible therapeutic role, but open surgery has also a concomitant diagnostic purpose because gives the possibility of manual exploration of abdominal cavity, useful particularly to reveal bowel metastatic lesions, not easily identifiable by preoperative imaging examinations. PMID:18072972

  6. [Cancer of the gallbladder in Chile].

    PubMed

    Nervi, F

    2001-09-01

    This issue of the Revista brings two articles relayed to gallbladder cancer (GC), a highly prevalent cancer among Chileans. The first papaer relates to therapy for Stage II NO GC. Authors from Universidad de la Frontera corroborate the bad results usually obatined with adjunct chemotheraphy and radiotheraphy, associated to a second operation. The second paper discusses the negative influences that the new Xth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases might have on GC control. This cancer appears now with a dramatic 100% decrease in mortality rate in the last 3 years, associated to a simultaneous increase of the digit related to biliary tract cancer of "undefined orgin", which in the great majority of cases truly corresponds to GC throughout the world. This involuntary bias could have a strong negative effect on health policy makers, because health resources will not be derived to perform more cholecystectomies needed to significantly decrease the number of gallbladders at risk. This is a major issue for the Chilean health system, since GC represents the first cause of deaths due to cancer among Chilean women.

  7. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: disease spectrum with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Menias, Christine O; Sandrasegaran, Kumar; Hara, Amy K; Kielar, Ania Z; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Doyle, Maria B Majella; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Elsayes, Khaled M

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder polyps are seen on as many as 7% of gallbladder ultrasonographic images. The differential diagnosis for a polypoid gallbladder mass is wide and includes pseudotumors, as well as benign and malignant tumors. Tumefactive sludge may be mistaken for a gallbladder polyp. Pseudotumors include cholesterol polyps, adenomyomatosis, and inflammatory polyps, and they occur in that order of frequency. The most common benign and malignant tumors are adenomas and primary adenocarcinoma, respectively. Polyp size, shape, and other ancillary imaging findings, such as a wide base, wall thickening, and coexistent gallstones, are pertinent items to report when gallbladder polyps are discovered. These findings, as well as patient age and risk factors for gallbladder cancer, guide clinical decision making. Symptomatic polyps without other cause for symptoms, an age over 50 years, and the presence of gallstones are generally considered indications for cholecystectomy. Incidentally noted pedunculated polyps smaller than 5 mm generally do not require follow-up. Polyps that are 6-10 mm require follow-up, although neither the frequency nor the length of follow-up has been established. Polyps that are larger than 10 mm are typically excised, although lower size thresholds for cholecystectomy may be considered for patients with increased risk for gallbladder carcinoma, such as patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  8. Diagnosis of incidental gallbladder cancer after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: our experience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare high malignancy neoplasm. The incidence of intra or post-operative incidental gallbladder carcinoma diagnosis is estimated between 0,2 and 2,8%. Primary aim of our study is to evaluate incidental gallbladder carcinoma's incidence in our experience. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our Surgery Division's experience about the totality of laparoscopic cholecystectomies with post-operative histological evidence of incidental gallbladder cancer. We evaluated patients' characteristics, surgical related variables, histological response, surgivcal radicalization characteristics and surgical outcome. Results In the considered sample we observed 7 accidental gallbladder adenocarcinomas in post-operative histological examination. Pathological results were:1 pT1b N0 (G1), 2 pT2 N0 (G2), 2 pT2 N1 (G3b), 2 pT3 N1 (G3b) (Table 1). In 5 cases we performed neoplasm radicalization surgery with standard procedure revision. Two patients died before radicalization. Median global survival was 34 months. Conclusion With the increase of laparoscopic cholecystectomies both elective and urgent performed in our centre we observed also an increase of incidentally diagnosed gallbladder neoplasms. Early diagnosis, meticulous peri-operative study and accurate surgical strategy are essential factors to obtain good results in incidental gallbladder cancer. PMID:24268097

  9. Porcelain Gallbladder: Is Observation a Safe Option in Select Populations?

    PubMed

    DesJardins, Haley; Duy, Lindsay; Scheirey, Christopher; Schnelldorfer, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Management of gallbladder wall calcifications has been controversial for many decades. Although the traditionally perceived strong association with gallbladder cancer mandated prophylactic cholecystectomy, newer evidence suggests a much lesser association and might indicate an observational approach. A retrospective cohort study of 113 patients with gallbladder wall calcifications diagnosed between 2004 and 2016 at a single institution was conducted. Radiographic re-review identified patients with definitive (n = 70) and highly probable (n = 43) gallbladder wall calcifications. Patients were categorized according to their designated treatment plan. In the observation group (n = 90), delayed cholecystectomy for gallbladder-related symptoms was necessary in 4 patients (4%). None of the patients in this group were diagnosed with a gallbladder malignancy during a mean of 3.2 ± 3.2 years follow-up. In the operative group (n = 23), peri-operative complications occurred in 13%, and gallbladder malignancy was found in 2 patients. In comparison, although patients in the observation group were older and had more comorbidities, the rate of adverse events was not significantly different (4% vs 13%; p = 0.15) with an overall low risk for potentially life-threatening complications to the patient when observed clinically. For management of gallbladder wall calcifications, observation appears to provide no significant difference in adverse events, including the risk of gallbladder malignancy developing, compared with an operative approach. Although there is a need for intervention in the presence of symptoms and findings suggestive of malignancy, prophylactic cholecystectomy should be avoided in patients with limited life expectancy and significant comorbidities. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Hydrops of the gallbladder and hepatitis associated with scarlet fever].

    PubMed

    Rocco, Roberto; Benedetti, Laura; Escudero, Gabriela; Jordán, Federico

    2010-03-01

    Hydrops of the gallbladder is a rare pediatric disease. It consists of acute distension of the gallbladder without associated congenital anomalies, biliary calculi or acute local inflammation. Although the etiology is unknown, it appears frequently associated with systemic illnesses. Hepatitis is a rare complication of scarlet fever in the pediatric population. We report a four years old girl with gallbladder hydrops and hepatitis associated to scarlet fever. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report in the medical literature describing an association of these three conditions

  11. Metagenomics of Microbial Communities in Gallbladder Bile from Patients with Gallbladder Cancer or Cholelithiasis

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Loza, Ernest; Villa-Gomez, Guido; Trujillo, Carlos C; Baez, Sergio; Asai, Takao; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Endoh, Kazuo; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2018-04-25

    Salmonella typhi and Helicobacter infections have been shown to increase risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC), but findings have been inconsistent. Other bacterial infections may also be associated with GBC. However, information on microbial pathogens in gallbladder bile of GBC patients is scarce. We aimed to investigate the microbial communities in gallbladder bile of patients with GBC and cholelithiasis (CL). Seven GBC patients and 30 CL patients were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from bile and the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA was amplified. The sequencing results were compared with the 16S database, and the bacteria were identified by homology searches and phylogenetic analysis. DNA was detected in the bile of three GBC (42.9%; Bolivia, 1; Chile, 2) and four CL patients (13.3%; Bolivia, 1; Chile, 3). Of the 37 patients, 30 (81.1%) were negative and unable to analyze. Salmonella typhi and Helicobacter sp. were not detected in bile from any GBC patients. As the predominant species, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Escherichia coli, and Enetrobacter sp. were detected in bile from GBC patients. Those in bile from CL patients were Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., and Enerococcus gallinarum. Escherichia coli was detected in bile samples from both GBC and CL patients. Whether the bacteria detected in bile from GBC patients would associated with the development of GBC warrant further investigation. Creative Commons Attribution License

  12. Gallbladder perforation complicating typhoid fever: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gali, B M; Ali, N; Agbese, G O; Duna, V D; Dawha, S D; Ismai, G I; Mohammed, M

    2011-01-01

    Gallbladder perforation (GBP) is rare and as a complication of typhoid fever is extremely rare. We present two consecutive patients with GBP diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. Information on the management of two patients with gallbladder perforation seen at Federal Medical Centre Azare in June and October 2008 was extracted from their case records. The two patients were both males aged 13 years and 16 years. They both presented with high fever of more than 2 weeks duration; and abdominal pain and distension. Both patients had features of generalised peritonitis. Pre-operative diagnoses of typhoid enteric perforation were made based on a positive Widal test. Intra-operative findings however, were that of bile peritonitis and gallbladder perforation. Both had cholecystectomy. Culture of the bile aspirate yielded Salmonella typhi. Gallbladder perforation secondary to typhoid fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with suspected typhoid enteric perforation in typhoid fever endemic region.

  13. Exposure to Mold Toxin Linked to Gallbladder Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    A study by the National Cancer Institute reports an association between a marker of exposure to aflatoxin, a poisonous chemical produced by a type of mold, and gallbladder cancer in a population of men and women in Shanghai, China.

  14. Delayed rupture of gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Agarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Krittika; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation.

  15. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for a left-sided gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Mazen E; Radzio, Agnes; Krikhely, Merab; Leitman, I Michael

    2013-09-21

    Cholecystectomy is a common procedure. Abnormalities in the anatomy of the biliary system are common but an abnormal location of the gallbladder is much rarer. Despite frequent pre-operative imaging, the aberrant location of the gallbladder is commonly discovered at surgery. This article presents a case of a patient with the gallbladder located to the left of the falciform ligament in the absence of situs inversus totalis that presented with right upper quadrant pain. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and it was noted that the cystic duct originated from the right side. The presence of a left sided gall bladder is often associated with various biliary, portal venous and other anomalies that might lead to intra-operative injuries. The spectrum of unusual positions and anatomical gallbladder abnormalities is reviewed in order to facilitate elective and emergent cholecystectomy as well as other hepatobiliary procedures. With proper identification of the anatomy, minimally invasive approaches are still considered safe.

  16. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for a left-sided gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Mazen E; Radzio, Agnes; Krikhely, Merab; Leitman, I Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cholecystectomy is a common procedure. Abnormalities in the anatomy of the biliary system are common but an abnormal location of the gallbladder is much rarer. Despite frequent pre-operative imaging, the aberrant location of the gallbladder is commonly discovered at surgery. This article presents a case of a patient with the gallbladder located to the left of the falciform ligament in the absence of situs inversus totalis that presented with right upper quadrant pain. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and it was noted that the cystic duct originated from the right side. The presence of a left sided gall bladder is often associated with various biliary, portal venous and other anomalies that might lead to intra-operative injuries. The spectrum of unusual positions and anatomical gallbladder abnormalities is reviewed in order to facilitate elective and emergent cholecystectomy as well as other hepatobiliary procedures. With proper identification of the anatomy, minimally invasive approaches are still considered safe. PMID:24124340

  17. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  18. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with transgastric gallbladder extraction].

    PubMed

    Jurczak, Florent

    2011-11-01

    To describe and evaluate a new cholecystectomy technique combining classical dissection with currently available mini-instrumentation (3 and 5 mm) and gallbladder removal through a short gastrotomy. After a feasibility study, we set up a protocol for this procedure using instrumentation currently available on the market. We performed 106 procedures, including 99 in a prospective study between January 2008 and July 2010. Cholecystectomy was performed with the described technique in 99 of 106 eligible patients (22 males and 77 females, mean age 45.8 years (range 18-77); median BMI 26.4 kg/m2 (range 22-36)). Forty-eight patients had at least one gallstone larger than 10 mm. There were no postoperative gastric complications and recovery was always rapid. This procedure is technically feasible, safe and reproducible. The results are good, with minimal abdominal wall trauma. Normal physical activity can be resumed rapidly with no risk of incisional hernia.

  19. Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Randi, Giorgia; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2006-04-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a relatively rare neoplasm that shows, however, high incidence rates in certain world populations. The interplay of genetic susceptibility, lifestyle factors and infections in gallbladder carcinogenesis is still poorly understood. Age-adjusted rates were calculated by cancer registry-based data. Epidemiological studies on gallbladder cancer were selected through searches of literature, and relative risks were abstracted for major risk factors. The highest gallbladder cancer incidence rates worldwide were reported for women in Delhi, India (21.5/100,000), South Karachi, Pakistan (13.8/100,000) and Quito, Ecuador (12.9/100,000). High incidence was found in Korea and Japan and some central and eastern European countries. Female-to-male incidence ratios were generally around 3, but ranged from 1 in Far East Asia to over 5 in Spain and Colombia. History of gallstones was the strongest risk factor for gallbladder cancer, with a pooled relative risk (RR) of 4.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-7.4]. Consistent associations were also present with obesity, multiparity and chronic infections like Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi [pooled RR 4.8 (95% CI: 1.4-17.3)] and Helicobacter bilis and H. pylori [pooled RR 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-8.8)]. Differences in incidence ratios point to variations in gallbladder cancer aetiology in different populations. Diagnosis of gallstones and removal of gallbladder currently represent the keystone to gallbladder cancer prevention, but interventions able to prevent obesity, cholecystitis and gallstone formation should be assessed.

  20. Mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in the human gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Lee, Ming-Che; Tey, Shu-Leei; Liu, Ching-Wen; Huang, Shih-Che

    2017-05-08

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound extracted from plants and is also a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol produces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Although resveratrol has been reported to cause relaxation of the guinea pig gallbladder, limited data are available about the effect of resveratrol on the gallbladder smooth muscle in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relaxation effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. We studied the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder. In addition, we also investigated mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder by tetraethylammonium (a non-selective potassium channels blocker), iberiotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker), charybdotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and slowly inactivating voltage-gated potassium channels), apamine (a selective inhibitor of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), KT 5720 (a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor), KT 5823 (a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G inhibitor), NG-Nitro-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), tetrodotoxin (a selective neuronal Na + channel blocker), and ω-conotoxin GVIA (a selective neuronal Ca 2+ channel blocker). The present study showed that resveratrol has relaxant effects in human gallbladder muscle strips. In addition, we found that resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder is associated with nitric oxide, ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel pathways. This study provides the first evidence concerning the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that resveratrol is a potential new drug or health supplement in the treatment of

  1. Bovine gallbladder muscularis: Source of a myogenic receptor for cholecystokinin

    SciTech Connect

    Schjoldager, B.; Shaw, M.J.; Powers, S.P.

    1988-03-01

    Despite being a classic target for the gastrointestinal peptide hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), the gallbladder CCK receptor is not well characterized. Pharmacological studies of small species suggest that CCK action can be mediated by direct myogenic or by both myogenic and neurogenic receptors. To prepare for the biochemical characterization of a gallbladder CCK receptor and to define the subtype of the receptor being studied. The authors have performed autoradiographic localization and pharmacological characterization of CCK receptors on bovine gallbladder. Autoradiography demonstrated high-affinity specific CCK-binding sites only on the muscularis. CCK-8 stimulated tonic contraction of longitudinal strips of gallbladder muscularis in amore » concentration-dependent manner. Antagonism at the cholinergic receptor with 1{mu}M atropine or axonal transmission with 1{mu}M tetrodotoxin did not modify CCK-induced contraction, supporting a direct myogenic effect of this hormone. Optimal electrical field stimulation to elicit a neuronal response resulted in muscle strip relaxation, which was abolished with adrenergic blockade. Although acetylcholine administration stimulated contraction, electrical field stimulation did not, even in the presence of phentolamine, propranolol, and/or CCK. Thus, in bovine gallbladder muscularis, there is evidence for a functional CCK receptor only on smooth muscle cells. Demonstration of a single, high-affinity specific CCK-binding site on an enriched plasma membrane preparation of bovine gallbladder muscularis is consistent with this representing a myogenic CCK receptor.« less

  2. Gallbladder cancer epidemiology, pathogenesis and molecular genetics: Recent update

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aarti; Sharma, Kiran Lata; Gupta, Annapurna; Yadav, Alka; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a malignancy of biliary tract which is infrequent in developed countries but common in some specific geographical regions of developing countries. Late diagnosis and deprived prognosis are major problems for treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The dramatic associations of this orphan cancer with various genetic and environmental factors are responsible for its poorly defined pathogenesis. An understanding to the relationship between epidemiology, molecular genetics and pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer can add new insights to its undetermined pathophysiology. Present review article provides a recent update regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular genetics of gallbladder cancer. We systematically reviewed published literature on gallbladder cancer from online search engine PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Various keywords used for retrieval of articles were Gallbladder, cancer Epidemiology, molecular genetics and bullion operators like AND, OR, NOT. Cross references were manually searched from various online search engines (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed,https://scholar.google.co.in/, http://www.medline.com/home.jsp). Most of the articles published from 1982 to 2015 in peer reviewed journals have been included in this review. PMID:28652652

  3. Gallbladder shape extraction from ultrasound images using active contour models.

    PubMed

    Ciecholewski, Marcin; Chochołowicz, Jakub

    2013-12-01

    Gallbladder function is routinely assessed using ultrasonographic (USG) examinations. In clinical practice, doctors very often analyse the gallbladder shape when diagnosing selected disorders, e.g. if there are turns or folds of the gallbladder, so extracting its shape from USG images using supporting software can simplify a diagnosis that is often difficult to make. The paper describes two active contour models: the edge-based model and the region-based model making use of a morphological approach, both designed for extracting the gallbladder shape from USG images. The active contour models were applied to USG images without lesions and to those showing specific disease units, namely, anatomical changes like folds and turns of the gallbladder as well as polyps and gallstones. This paper also presents modifications of the edge-based model, such as the method for removing self-crossings and loops or the method of dampening the inflation force which moves nodes if they approach the edge being determined. The user is also able to add a fragment of the approximated edge beyond which neither active contour model will move if this edge is incomplete in the USG image. The modifications of the edge-based model presented here allow more precise results to be obtained when extracting the shape of the gallbladder from USG images than if the morphological model is used. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.

  5. Gallbladder cancer epidemiology, pathogenesis and molecular genetics: Recent update.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aarti; Sharma, Kiran Lata; Gupta, Annapurna; Yadav, Alka; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-06-14

    Gallbladder cancer is a malignancy of biliary tract which is infrequent in developed countries but common in some specific geographical regions of developing countries. Late diagnosis and deprived prognosis are major problems for treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The dramatic associations of this orphan cancer with various genetic and environmental factors are responsible for its poorly defined pathogenesis. An understanding to the relationship between epidemiology, molecular genetics and pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer can add new insights to its undetermined pathophysiology. Present review article provides a recent update regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular genetics of gallbladder cancer. We systematically reviewed published literature on gallbladder cancer from online search engine PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Various keywords used for retrieval of articles were Gallbladder, cancer Epidemiology, molecular genetics and bullion operators like AND, OR, NOT. Cross references were manually searched from various online search engines (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed,https://scholar.google.co.in/, http://www.medline.com/home.jsp). Most of the articles published from 1982 to 2015 in peer reviewed journals have been included in this review.

  6. Biologics in oral medicine: ulcerative disorders.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, I D; Scully, C

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory ulcerative diseases of the oral mucosa are wide ranging but include especially aphthous and aphthous-like ulceration, vesiculobullous disorders and erosive lichen planus (LP). While most patients with these conditions respond to conventional topical and/or systemic immunosuppressive agents, treatment-resistant cases remain challenging. In these, the use of biologics such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors or rituximab may be of benefit. This article reviews the use of biologics in ulcerative oral conditions, highlighting potential benefits, adverse effects and principles of use and future developments. TNF-α inhibitors such as infliximab can be effective in inducing resolution in oral aphthous and aphthous-like ulcers and may be an appropriate therapy in those patients in which disease is severe and refractory to, or patients are intolerant of, traditional immunomodulatory regimens. There would also seem support and rationale for use of biologics (mainly rituximab) in pemphigus but not in oral LP or other oral ulcerative conditions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... This is because a very small number of gastric ulcers might contain cancer. Duodenal ulcers (at the beginning of the small ... They are sometimes used to treat duodenal (not gastric) ulcers. They are also often ... a risk factor for stomach cancer. If prescribed, it is very important to complete ...

  8. Genital ulcers as diagnostic clue for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Sina D; Krause, Stefan W; Erfurt-Berge, Cornelia

    2018-04-23

    Acute myeloid leukaemia is a myeloid neoplasm with an extremely varying clinical appearance. Skin lesions are common for specific subtypes of acute myeloid leukaemia but are often misinterpreted. Here, we present a case of acute myeloid leukaemia in a young woman exhibiting genital ulcerations and gingival erosions. © 2018 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Gastric ulcer and the anti-arthritic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, J. H.; Montgomery, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Sixteen cases are described of gastric ulcer in patients receiving anti-arthritic drugs. Half of the ulcers were in the antrum or on the greater curve. Ten patients were under treatment with indomethacin and/or prednisone, seven of them receiving both drugs. The ulcers healed readily when the drugs were withdrawn, and in the case of prednisone a continued daily dose of 10 mg or less did not prevent healing. All the patients with haemorrhage were taking aspirin, with or without other drugs. The literature is reviewed, and it is suggested that the increased incidence of peptic ulcer in patients receiving anti-arthritic drugs is confined to gastric ulcer. There is suggestive evidence of an increased susceptibility to antral ulcer in severe rheumatoid disease, which may largely account for the ‘steroid ulcer’. Indomethacin is potentially ulcerogenic, and its combined use with steroids may be inadvisable. Apart from its tendency to produce haemorrhagic erosions, the role of aspirin in the aetiology of chronic ulcer remains doubtful. No serious ill-effects have been reported in the use of ibuprofen or Distalgesic in ulcer subjects. PMID:5576491

  10. Erosion Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The impact crater in this THEMIS image is a model illustration to the effects of erosion on Mars. The degraded crater rim and several landslides observed in crater walls is evidence to the mass wasting of materials. Layering in crater walls also suggests the presence of materials that erode at varying rates.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.6, Longitude 44.3 East (315.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  11. True left-sided gallbladder with variations of bile duct and cholecystic vein.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akinori; Onishi, Mie; Takao, Koji; Maruyama, Takahiro; Taiyoh, Hiroaki; Araki, Yasunobu; Shimizu, Takeshi; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamane, Tetsuro

    2015-06-07

    A left-sided gallbladder without a right-sided round ligament, which is called a true left-sided gallbladder, is extremely rare. A 71-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a gallbladder polyp. Computed tomography (CT) revealed not only a gallbladder polyp but also the gallbladder located to the left of the round ligament connected to the left umbilical portion. CT portography revealed that the main portal vein diverged into the right posterior portal vein and the common trunk of the left portal vein and right anterior portal vein. CT cholangiography revealed that the infraportal bile duct of segment 2 joined the common bile duct. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed for a gallbladder polyp, and the intraoperative finding showed that the cholecystic veins joined the round ligament. A true left-sided gallbladder is closely associated with several anomalies; therefore, surgeons encountering a true left-sided gallbladder should be aware of the potential for these anomalies.

  12. Isolated rupture of the gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; da Silva, Dorivaldo Lopes; Elias, Naim Carlos; Sica, Gustavo Tricta Augusto; Fávaro, Murillo de Lima; Ribeiro, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is a rare event recognized on evaluation and treatment of other visceral injuries during laparotomy. Isolated gallbladder rupture secondary to blunt abdominal trauma is even more uncommon. The clinical presentation of gallbladder injury is variable, resulting in a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a patient who suffered an isolated gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:23843066

  13. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in double gallbladder with dual pathology.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Double gallbladder is a rare embryological anomaly of clinical significance. Despite availability of modern imaging, only 50% of recently reported cases had preoperative diagnosis, which is desirable in every case to avoid serious operative complications. Double pathology in double gallbladder is extremely rare with only 3 reporting's available till date to the best of author's knowledge. With a preoperative diagnosis of double gallbladder, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely and successfully performed with meticulous dissection, aided by operative cholangiogram. However in all such attempts a lower threshold should be kept for conversion to open surgery. Awareness about this anomaly amongst radiologists and surgeons is of crucial importance. Double gallbladder does not present with any specific symptom, neither it increases disease possibility in either lobe. Prophylactic cholecystectomy has no role in asymptomatic cases diagnosed accidentally. Author reports a case of a symptomatic young male with double gallbladder who presented with short history of dyspepsia, abdominal pain and fever. Definite preoperative diagnosis was reached with ultrasound scan and magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography and subsequently dealt with laparoscopically. Calculous cholecystitis affected one lobe and acalculous empyema the other. While the 1st lobe drained though a cystic duct into common bile duct (CBD), the 2nd was without any communication with either CBD or its counterpart, thus remained as a blind vesicle.

  14. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  15. New approach to gallbladder ultrasonic images analysis and lesions recognition.

    PubMed

    Bodzioch, Sławomir; Ogiela, Marek R

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach to gallbladder ultrasonic image processing and analysis towards detection of disease symptoms on processed images. First, in this paper, there is presented a new method of filtering gallbladder contours from USG images. A major stage in this filtration is to segment and section off areas occupied by the said organ. In most cases this procedure is based on filtration that plays a key role in the process of diagnosing pathological changes. Unfortunately ultrasound images present among the most troublesome methods of analysis owing to the echogenic inconsistency of structures under observation. This paper provides for an inventive algorithm for the holistic extraction of gallbladder image contours. The algorithm is based on rank filtration, as well as on the analysis of histogram sections on tested organs. The second part concerns detecting lesion symptoms of the gallbladder. Automating a process of diagnosis always comes down to developing algorithms used to analyze the object of such diagnosis and verify the occurrence of symptoms related to given affection. Usually the final stage is to make a diagnosis based on the detected symptoms. This last stage can be carried out through either dedicated expert systems or more classic pattern analysis approach like using rules to determine illness basing on detected symptoms. This paper discusses the pattern analysis algorithms for gallbladder image interpretation towards classification of the most frequent illness symptoms of this organ.

  16. Estrogen-dependent gallbladder carcinogenesis in LXRbeta-/- female mice.

    PubMed

    Gabbi, Chiara; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Barros, Rodrigo; Korach-Andrè, Marion; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2010-08-17

    Gallbladder cancer is a highly aggressive disease with poor prognosis that is two to six times more frequent in women than men. The development of gallbladder cancer occurs over a long time (more than 15 y) and evolves from chronic inflammation to dysplasia/metaplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In the present study we found that, in female mice in which the oxysterol receptor liver X receptor-beta (LXRbeta) has been inactivated, preneoplastic lesions of the gallbladder developed and evolved to cancer in old animals. LXRbeta is a nuclear receptor involved in the control of lipid homeostasis, glucose metabolism, inflammation, proliferation, and CNS development. LXRbeta(-/-) female gallbladders were severely inflamed, with regions of dysplasia and high cell density, hyperchromasia, metaplasia, and adenomas. No abnormalities were evident in male mice, nor in LXRalpha(-/-) or LXRalpha(-/-)beta(-/-) animals of either sex. Interestingly, the elimination of estrogens with ovariectomy prevented development of preneoplastic lesions in LXRbeta(-/-) mice. The etiopathological mechanism seems to involve TGF-beta signaling, as the precancerous lesions were characterized by strong nuclear reactivity of phospho-SMAD-2 and SMAD-4 and loss of E-cadherin expression. Upon ovariectomy, E-cadherin was reexpressed on the cell membranes and immunoreactivity of pSMAD-2 in the nuclei was reduced. These findings suggest that LXRbeta in a complex interplay with estrogens and TGF-beta could play a crucial role in the malignant transformation of the gallbladder epithelium.

  17. Shifting prevalence of gallbladder polyps in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Kim, Eun Soo; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin; Hwang, Jae Seok

    2014-09-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated the population-adjusted prevalence of gallbladder polyps (GBP). This study aimed to evaluate the changes in GBP prevalence and risk factors at a single health screening center in Korea from 2002 to 2012. Of 48,591 adults who underwent health screening between 2002 and 2012, 14,250 age- and gender-matched subjects were randomly selected to evaluate prevalence. Risk factors were analyzed between the GBP-positive and GBP-negative groups during 2002-2004 (Period A) and 2010-2012 (Period B). The annual prevalence of GBP over the 11-yr period was 5.4%. Annual prevalence increased from 3.8% in Period A to 7.1% in Period B. Male gender and obesity were independent risk factors for GBP in both periods. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was a risk factor for GBP in Period A but not in Period B. The risk factors for GBP changed from HBsAg positivity to lipid profile abnormalities. Other variables including age, hypertension, diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, chronic hepatitis C virus infection, and liver function tests did not correlate with GBP. In conclusion, GBP prevalence is increasing and risk factors for GBP have changed in Korea. More attention should be paid to this issue in the future.

  18. Visceral Obesity Is Associated with Gallbladder Polyps.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Kyu; Hahn, Suk Jae; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Jung, Jae Gu; Choi, Han Seok; Lee, Jin Ho; Han, In Woong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder polyps (GBP) are a common clinical finding and may possess malignant potential. We conducted this study to determine whether visceral obesity is a risk factor for GBP. We retrospectively reviewed records of subjects who received both ultrasonography and computed tomography with measurements of the areas of visceral adipose tissue and total adipose tissue (TAT) on the same day as health checkups. Ninety-three of 1,615 subjects (5.8%) had GBP and were compared with 186 age- and sex-matched controls. VAT (odds ratio [OR], 2.941; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.325 to 6.529; p=0.008 for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile) and TAT (OR, 3.568; 95% CI, 1.625 to 7.833; p=0.002 for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile) were independent risk factors together with hypertension (OR, 2.512; 95% CI, 1.381 to 4.569; p=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.942; 95% CI, 1.061 to 8.158; p=0.038), hepatitis B virus positivity (OR, 3.548; 95% CI, 1.295 to 9.716; p=0.014), and a higher level of total cholesterol (OR, 2.232; 95% CI, 1.043 to 4.778; p=0.039 for. Visceral obesity measured by VAT and TAT was associated with GBP irrespective of body mass index or waist circumference.

  19. Implications of gallbladder cholesterolosis and cholesterol polyps?

    PubMed

    Dairi, Saif; Demeusy, Andrew; Sill, Anne M; Patel, Shirali T; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C

    2016-02-01

    The clinical significance of cholesterolosis has not been well established but there are some provocative, if not robust, studies of the role it may play in the pathophysiology of pancreatitis and biliary dyskinesia, as well as hypercholesterolemia. Our aim was to take advantage of a very large cholecystectomy (CCY) database to support or refute these potentially important reported associations. A retrospective review of 6868 patients who underwent CCY from 2001-2013 was performed. Comparisons were made using the student t-test for continuous and chi-square analysis for categorical, variables. Among patients for whom the CCY was the primary operation, 1053 (18%) had cholesterolosis and 4596 did not. Compared to those without cholesterolosis, those with cholesterolosis were no more likely to have elevated cholesterol levels (P = 0.64) nor low gallbladder ejection fraction (P = 0.2). To evaluate cholesterolosis as a cause of pancreatitis, all patients with gallstones were eliminated, leaving 639 patients. Among these, not only was cholesterolosis not associated with more pancreatitis, but rather there was not a single patient with or without cholesterolosis who had pancreatitis. Despite prior reports of associations between cholesterolosis and elevated serum cholesterol, depressed ejection fraction, and increased risk of pancreatitis, careful analysis of this current, larger data set does not support these associations. Any patient with stones or sludge, or with biliary dyskinesia, and appropriate symptoms, should be considered for CCY, with or without suspected cholesterolosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Shifting Prevalence of Gallbladder Polyps in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated the population-adjusted prevalence of gallbladder polyps (GBP). This study aimed to evaluate the changes in GBP prevalence and risk factors at a single health screening center in Korea from 2002 to 2012. Of 48,591 adults who underwent health screening between 2002 and 2012, 14,250 age- and gender-matched subjects were randomly selected to evaluate prevalence. Risk factors were analyzed between the GBP-positive and GBP-negative groups during 2002-2004 (Period A) and 2010-2012 (Period B). The annual prevalence of GBP over the 11-yr period was 5.4%. Annual prevalence increased from 3.8% in Period A to 7.1% in Period B. Male gender and obesity were independent risk factors for GBP in both periods. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was a risk factor for GBP in Period A but not in Period B. The risk factors for GBP changed from HBsAg positivity to lipid profile abnormalities. Other variables including age, hypertension, diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, chronic hepatitis C virus infection, and liver function tests did not correlate with GBP. In conclusion, GBP prevalence is increasing and risk factors for GBP have changed in Korea. More attention should be paid to this issue in the future. PMID:25246743

  1. The use of real-time elastography in the assessment of gallbladder polyps: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Teber, Mehmet Akif; Tan, Sinan; Dönmez, Uğur; İpek, Ali; Uçar, Ali Erkan; Yıldırım, Halil; Aslan, Ahmet; Arslan, Halil

    2014-12-01

    Gallbladder polyps often have a benign nature. Current guidelines suggest surgical removal of polyps greater than 10 mm. However, the accuracy of the size criteria is limited because neoplasia can be found in gallbladder polyps less than 10 mm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of real time elastography for gallbladder polyps and to demonstrate the elasticity properties of the polyps. Fifty-three polypoid lesions of the gallbladder were prospectively examined with real-time elastography. Of these patients, 52 had a diagnosis of benign gallbladder polyps and one patient was accepted as a gallbladder carcinoma due to its clinical and radiological findings. B-mode and real-time elastographic images were simultaneously presented as a two-panel image, and the elastogram was displayed in a color scale that ranged from red (greatest strain, softest component), to green (average strain, intermediate component), to blue (no strain, hardest component). The mean size for benign gallbladder polyps was 7.2 +/- 3 mm (range, 5-21 mm). All benign gallbladder polyps on consecutive real-time elastographic images appeared as having a high-strain elastographic pattern. Only one patient who was accepted with gallbladder carcinoma had a gallbladder polyp with low elasticity properties. Our study showed that real time elastography of gallbladder polyps is feasible. This novel approach may be useful for the characterization of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder.

  2. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Unresectable Liver, Bile Duct, or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  3. Preoperative predictive factors for gallbladder cholesterol polyp diagnosed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for polypoid lesions of gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyojin; Park, Inseok; Cho, Hyunjin; Gwak, Geumhee; Yang, Keunho; Bae, Byung-Noe; Kim, Hong-Ju; Kim, Young Duk

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims We investigated patients' clinical and radiological data to determine preoperative factors that predict cholesterol gallbladder (GB) polyps of large size, which can be helpful for decision on further diagnostic tools. Methods In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 126 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for GB polyps >10 mm diagnosed preoperatively by abdominal ultrasonography between February 2002 and February 2016 in Department of Surgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital. Patients were divided into non-cholesterol polyps group and cholesterol polyps group, based on the postoperative pathologic diagnosis. Clinical and radiological data, such as gender, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), laboratory findings, size, number and shape of the polypoid lesions, and presence of the concurrent GB stone were compared between the two groups. Results Of the 126 cases, 73 had cholesterol polyps (57.9%) and 53 cases were non-cholesterol polyps (42.1%). The younger age (<48.5 years), size of polyp <13.25 mm and multiple polyps were independent predictive variables for cholesterol polyps, with odd ratios (OR) of 2.352 (p=0.045), 5.429 (p<0.001) and 0.472 (p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Age, size and polyp number were used to predict cholesterol GB polyp among polypoid lesions of the gallbladder >10 mm. For cases in which these factors are not applicable, it is strongly recommended to evaluate further diagnostic tools, such as computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography and tumor markers. PMID:28261697

  4. Effect of psychotropic drugs on gastric ulcers induced by immobilization: Increased protective effect of amitriptyline caused by chlordiazepoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, J. E.; Huerlimann, A.

    1980-01-01

    Amitriptyline, but not chlordiazepoxide, protects rats from the occurrence of gastric erosions and ulcers following immobilization. When, however, chlordiazepoxide is given together with amitriptyline the protective effect of the latter is markedly increased.

  5. Gastroduodenitis associated with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kazutoshi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Nakano, Hiroki; Uchino, Motoi; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Hida, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2008-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is regarded as confined to the colorectum; however, there are several case reports showing upper gastrointestinal involvement. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of gastroduodenitis associated with UC (GDUC). Esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies was prospectively performed on 250 UC patients (134 men, 116 women; mean age, 42 years; 162 with colectomy, 163 with pancolitis). Criteria for GDUC were created on the basis of endoscopic and histological comparisons with non-UC controls, and the prevalence and characteristics were statistically analyzed. GDUC was defined endoscopically as friable mucosa (erosive or ulcerative mucosa with contact or spontaneous bleeding), granular mucosa (multiple white spots almost without a red halo), or, conditionally, multiple aphthae (multiple white spots surrounded by a red halo, clinically excluding other disorders such as Crohn's disease). The prevalence of GDUC was 19/250 (7.6%). The clinical characteristics included more extensive colitis, lower dose of prednisolone, higher prevalence of pouchitis, and longer postoperative period. In our population, the presence of pancolitis and a lower dose of prednisolone were significant risk factors for developing GDUC in multivariate analysis. The high prevalence of GDUC suggests that the gut inflammatory reaction in UC may not be restricted to the large intestine. Administered steroids might conceal GDUC, and more aggressive UC such as active pancolitis may be related to the development of GDUC.

  6. Parietal seeding of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Marmorale, C; Scibé, R; Siquini, W; Massa, M; Brunelli, A; Landi, E

    1998-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (VALC) represents the treatment of choice for the symptomatic gallstones. However the occurrence of an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder results a controindication for this surgical technique. We present a case of a 52 years old woman who underwent a VALC; histology revealed a gallbladder adenocarcinoma. For this reason the patient underwent a second operation that is right hepatic trisegmentectomy. Six months later the patient presented with a parietal recurrence at the extraction site of the gallbladder. We discuss the possible mechanism responsible for carcinomatous dissemination during laparoscopic surgery and we raccommend the use of some procedures in order to limit the risk and eventually to treat a neoplastic parietal seeding. These complications suggest the problem about the utility and the future played by video assisted laparoscopic surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of intraabdominal malignancies.

  7. The Difficult Gallbladder: A Safe Approach to a Dangerous Problem.

    PubMed

    Santos, B Fernando; Brunt, L Michael; Pucci, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a common surgical procedure, and remains the gold standard for the management of benign gallbladder and biliary disease. While this procedure can be technically straightforward, it can also represent one of the most challenging operations facing surgeons. This dichotomy of a routine operation performed so commonly that poses such a hidden risk of severe complications, such as bile duct injury, must keep surgeons steadfast in the pursuit of safety. The "difficult gallbladder" requires strict adherence to the Culture of Safety in Cholecystectomy, which promotes safety first and assists surgeons in managing or avoiding difficult operative situations. This review will discuss the management of the difficult gallbladder and propose the use of subtotal fenestrating cholecystectomy as a definitive option during this dangerous situation.

  8. Selumetinib and Akt Inhibitor MK-2206 in Treating Patients With Refractory or Advanced Gallbladder or Bile Duct Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-08

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Adenocarcinoma With Squamous Metaplasia of the Gallbladder; Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Stage II Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

  9. Laparoscopic completion radical cholecystectomy for T2 gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gumbs, Andrew A; Hoffman, John P

    2010-12-01

    The role of minimally invasive surgery in the surgical management of gallbladder cancer is a matter of controversy. Because of the authors' growing experience with laparoscopic liver and pancreatic surgery, they have begun offering patients laparoscopic completion partial hepatectomies of the gallbladder bed with laparoscopic hepatoduodenal lymphadenectomy. The video shows the steps needed to perform laparoscopic resection of the residual gallbladder bed, the hepatoduodenal lymph node nodes, and the residual cystic duct stump in a setting with a positive cystic stump margin. The skin and fascia around the previous extraction site are resected, and this site is used for specimen retrieval during the second operation. To date, three patients have undergone laparoscopic radical cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection for gallbladder cancer. The average number of lymph nodes retrieved was 3 (range, 1-6), and the average estimated blood loss was 117 ml (range, 50-200 ml). The average operative time was 227 min (range, 120-360 min), and the average hospital length of stay was 4 days (range, 3-5 days). No morbidity or mortality was observed during 90 days of follow-up for each patient. Although controversy exists as to the best surgical approach for gallbladder cancer diagnosed after routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the minimally invasive approach seems feasible and safe, even after previous hepatobiliary surgery. If the previous extraction site cannot be ascertained, all port sites can be excised locally. Larger studies are needed to determine whether the minimally invasive approach to postoperatively diagnosed early-stage gallbladder cancer has any drawbacks.

  10. [Syncrhonous carcinosarcoma of the extrahepatic bile duct and gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Páramo, Ana Alberca; Valverde, David Padilla; Campos, Pedro Villarejo; Santos, Esther Pilar Garcia; Puche, Jose Luis Bertelli; Guerrero, Paloma Núńez; Delgado, Margarita; Fernindez, Jesus Martin

    2016-03-01

    Carcinosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm characterized for intermingled epithelial and mesenchymal components. A preoperative suspected diagnosis will allow a radical therapy avoiding a very bad prognosis. We report on a male patient who was operated in our Service with diagnosis of synchronous carcinosarcoma of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct and a review of the Medical Literature. A gallblader carcinosarcoma showing extension into common bile duct is very rare, a carcinosarcoma of the bile duct is exceptional, and a synchronous carcinosarcoma ofthe bile duct and gallbladder has not been reported previously.

  11. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    PubMed Central

    Sarkut, Pinar; Kilicturgay, Sadik; Ozer, Ali; Ozturk, Ersin; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old) and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm) and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps). χ2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85) years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85) years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001). Of 138 patients in whom surgery were performed, 112 had ultrasonographic polyps with diameters < 10 mm. Of the other 26 patients who also had polyps with diameters > 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001); however it was only 66% in polyps with diameters < 10 mm. CONCLUSION: The risk of malignancy was high in the patients over 50 years old who had single polyps with diameters > 10 mm. PMID:23901228

  12. Visceral Obesity If Associated with Gallbladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Kyu; Hahn, Suk Jae; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Jung, Jae Gu; Choi, Han Seok; Lee, Jin Ho; Han, In Woong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Gallbladder polyps (GBP) are a common clinical finding and may possess malignant potential. We conducted this study to determine whether visceral obesity is a risk factor for GBP. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of subjects who received both ultrasonography and computed tomography with measurements of the areas of visceral adipose tissue and total adipose tissue (TAT) on the same day as health checkups. Results Ninety-three of 1,615 subjects (5.8%) had GBP and were compared with 186 age- and sex-matched controls. VAT (odds ratio [OR], 2.941; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.325 to 6.529; p=0.008 for the highest quartile vs the lowest quartile) and TAT (OR, 3.568; 95% CI, 1.625 to 7.833; p=0.002 for the highest quartile vs the lowest quartile) were independent risk factors together with hypertension (OR, 2.512; 95% CI, 1.381 to 4.569; p=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.942; 95% CI, 1.061 to 8.158; p=0.038), hepatitis B virus positivity (OR, 3.548; 95% CI, 1.295 to 9.716; p=0.014), and a higher level of total cholesterol (OR, 2.232; 95% CI, 1.043 to 4.778; p=0.039 for <200 mg/dL vs ≥240 mg/dL). Body mass index and waist circumference were not meaningful variables. Conclusions Visceral obesity measured by VAT and TAT was associated with GBP irrespective of body mass index or waist circumference. PMID:26260756

  13. Gallbladder polyps: factors affecting surgical decision.

    PubMed

    Sarkut, Pinar; Kilicturgay, Sadik; Ozer, Ali; Ozturk, Ersin; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2013-07-28

    To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old) and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm) and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps). χ(2) tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. The median age was 50 (26-85) years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85) years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001). Of 138 patients in whom surgery were performed, 112 had ultrasonographic polyps with diameters < 10 mm. Of the other 26 patients who also had polyps with diameters > 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001); however it was only 66% in polyps with diameters < 10 mm. The risk of malignancy was high in the patients over 50 years old who had single polyps with diameters > 10 mm.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... colitis is most common in North America and Western Europe; however the prevalence is increasing in other ... 3 links) Encyclopedia: Ulcerative Colitis Encyclopedia: Ulcerative Colitis (Image) Health Topic: Ulcerative Colitis Additional NIH Resources (1 ...

  15. Treatment for Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... NSAID-induced peptic ulcer when you have an H. pylori infection? If you have an H. pylori ... ulcers are healing. How do doctors treat an H.pylori -induced peptic ulcer? Doctors may prescribe triple ...

  16. Helicobacter Pylori infection of the gallbladder and the risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cen, Li; Pan, Jiaqi; Zhou, Boyan; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming; Chen, Weixing; Shen, Zhe

    2018-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is coexisted with various diseases, including chronic gastritis, ulcer, and gastric cancer. Besides, chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis are extremely widespread over the world, which are considered as high health-care cost burdens of digestive diseases. Epidemiologic evidence on Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder increasing the risk of biliary diseases has been contradictory. Conduct a meta-analysis of overall studies and investigate an association between Helicobacter pylori infection of the gallbladder with chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis. We used PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases to identify all published studies before August 2017. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using the random effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity, and stratified analyses were also performed. Eighteen studies involving 1544 participants and 1061 biliary cases with chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis were included. Helicobacter pylori infection of the gallbladder was significantly associated with an increased risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholecystitis (OR = 3.022; 95% CI, 1.897-4.815; I 2  = 20.1%). In addition, country-based subgroup analysis also showed a positive association between Helicobacter pylori positivity and chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis risk. The ORs (95% CIs) for Asian and non-Asian region studies were 3.75 (1.83-7.71) and 2.25 (1.29-3.89), respectively. This meta-analysis suggests that infection of the gallbladder with Helicobacter pylori is closely related to an increased risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of gallbladder lesion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Ping; Bai, Min; Gu, Ji-Ying; He, Ying-Qian; Qiao, Xiao-Hui; Du, Lian-Fang

    2018-01-01

    AIM To describe contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features and evaluate differential diagnosis value of CEUS and conventional ultrasound for patients with benign and malignant gallbladder lesions. METHODS This study included 105 gallbladder lesions. Before surgical resection and pathological examination, conventional ultrasound and CEUS were performed to examine for lesions. Then, all the lesions were diagnosed as (1) benign, (2) probably benign, (3) probably malignant or (4) malignant using both conventional ultrasound and CEUS. The CEUS features of these gallbladder lesions were analyzed and diagnostic efficiency between conventional ultrasound and CEUS was compared. RESULTS There were total 17 cases of gallbladder cancer and 88 cases of benign lesion. Some gallbladder lesions had typical characteristics on CEUS (e.g., gallbladder adenomyomatosis had typical characteristics of small nonenhanced areas on CEUS). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of CEUS were 94.1%, 95.5%, 80.0%, 98.8% and 95.2%, respectively. These were significantly higher than conventional ultrasound (82.4%, 89.8%, 60.9%, 96.3% and 88.6%, respectively). CEUS had an accuracy of 100% for gallbladder sludge and CEUS helped in differential diagnosis among gallbladder polyps, gallbladder adenoma and gallbladder cancer. CONCLUSION CEUS may provide more useful information and improve the diagnosis efficiency for the diagnosis of gallbladder lesions than conventional ultrasound. PMID:29456413

  18. Monopolar electrocautery versus ultrasonic dissection of the gallbladder from the gallbladder bed in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahabaleshwar, Varun; Kaman, Lileswar; Iqbal, Javid; Singh, Rajinder

    2012-01-01

    Background Ultrasonic dissection has been suggested as an alternative to monopolar electrocautery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy because it generates less tissue damage and may have a lower incidence of gallbladder perforation. We compared the 2 methods to determine the incidence of gallbladder perforation and its intraoperative consequences. Methods We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial between July 2008 and December 2009 involving adult patients with symptomatic gall stone disease who were eligible for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomly assigned before administration of anesthesia to electrocautery or ultrasonic dissection. Both groups were compared for incidence of gallbladder perforation during dissection, bile leak, stones spillage, lens cleaning, duration of surgery and estimation of risk of gall-bladder in the presence of complicating factors. Results We included 60 adult patients in our study. The groups were comparable with respect to demographic characteristics, symptomatology, comorbidities, previous abdominal surgeries, preoperative ultrasonography findings and intraoperative complications. The overall incidence of gallbladder perforation was 28.3% (40.0% in the electrocautery v. 16.7% in the ultrasonic dissection group, p = 0.045). Bile leak occurred in 40.0% of patients in the electrocautery group and 16.7% of patients in ultrasonic group (p = 0.045). Lens cleaning time (p = 0.015) and duration of surgery (p = 0.001) were longer in the electrocautery than the ultrasonic dissection group. There was no statistical difference in stone spillage between the groups (p = 0.62). Conclusion Ultrasonic dissection is safe and effective, and it improves the operative course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy by reducing the incidence of gallbladder perforation. PMID:22854110

  19. Monopolar electrocautery versus ultrasonic dissection of the gallbladder from the gallbladder bed in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mahabaleshwar, Varun; Kaman, Lileswar; Iqbal, Javid; Singh, Rajinder

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasonic dissection has been suggested as an alternative to monopolar electrocautery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy because it generates less tissue damage and may have a lower incidence of gallbladder perforation. We compared the 2 methods to determine the incidence of gallbladder perforation and its intraoperative consequences. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial between July 2008 and December 2009 involving adult patients with symptomatic gall stone disease who were eligible for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomly assigned before administration of anesthesia to electrocautery or ultrasonic dissection. Both groups were compared for incidence of gallbladder perforation during dissection, bile leak, stones spillage, lens cleaning, duration of surgery and estimation of risk of gallbladder in the presence of complicating factors. We included 60 adult patients in our study. The groups were comparable with respect to demographic characteristics, symptomatology, comorbidities, previous abdominal surgeries, preoperative ultrasonography findings and intraoperative complications. The overall incidence of gallbladder perforation was 28.3% (40.0% in the electrocautery v. 16.7% in the ultrasonic dissection group, p = 0.045). Bile leak occurred in 40.0% of patients in the electrocautery group and 16.7% of patients in ultrasonic group (p = 0.045). Lens cleaning time (p = 0.015) and duration of surgery (p = 0.001) were longer in the electrocautery than the ultrasonic dissection group. There was no statistical difference in stone spillage between the groups (p = 0.62). Ultrasonic dissection is safe and effective, and it improves the operative course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy by reducing the incidence of gallbladder perforation.

  20. Spontaneous Intrahepatic Type II Gallbladder Perforation: A Rare Cause of Liver Abscess – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kumkum; Singh, Amit; Vidyarthi, Shivaji H; Jindal, Satyaprakash; Thounaojam, Chandra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A liver abscess formation is a rare complication of a gallbladder perforation, with a cholecystohepatic communication. Niemeier, in 1934, classified free gallbladder perforations and generalised biliary peritonitis as an acute or a Type I gallbladder perforation, a pericholecystic abscess and localised peritonitis as a subacute or a Type II gallbladder perforation, and cholecystoenteric fistulas as chronic or Type III gallbladder perforations. We are describing a 50–year–old male patient who presented with right upper quadrant pain and was found to have an intrahepatic perforation of the gallbladder. Our patient had a Type II perforation. We have discussed the diagnostic work-up and the management of this rare entity. Due to the high mortality that can be caused by a delay in making the correct diagnosis, a gallbladder perforation represents a special diagnostic and surgical challenge. PMID:24179927

  1. Spontaneous acalculous gallbladder perforation in a man secondary to chemotherapy and radiation: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jungang; Shen, Guoliang; Shi, Ying; Zhang, Chengwu; Hong, Defei; Jin, Li; Yang, Hongguo; Sun, Wei; Cai, Hanhui; Hu, Zhiming; Wu, Weiding

    2018-05-01

    Gallbladder perforation is a serious clinical condition and associated with high morbidity and mortality. A definitive diagnosis is contentious before surgery. We herein report a case of perforation of the gallbladder neck secondary to chemotherapy and radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient. Gallbladder perforation secondary to chemotherapy and radiation. To decrease the mortality associated with gallbladder perforation, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and peritoneal lavage were performed followed for gallbladder perforation patient because of chemotherapy and radiation. The patient recovered fully without serious complication and discharged on the 10th postoperative day. A pathological examination of the resected gallbladder revealed cholecystitis in the thinning of the neck. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention of gallbladder perforation in relation to asopharyngeal carcinoma chemotherapy and radiation are of prime importance. The laparoscopic procedure is safe and feasible in the selected patients.

  2. Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 and 2 receptor mRNA in gallbladder tissue of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Gao, Hong; Shi, Gang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Kong, Jing; Tian, Zhong; Su, Yang

    2006-03-07

    To detect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor 1 (VPCAP1-R)and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps. The expression of VPCAP1-R and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues was detected in 25 patients with gallstone,8 patients with gallbladder polyps and 7 donors of liver transplantation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The VPCAP2-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.09+/-0.58) was lower than that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.64+/-0.56) and the gallstone group (1.55+/-0.45) (P<0.05) while the VPCAP1-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.15+/-0.23) was not apparently different from that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.28+/-0.56) and the gallstone group (1.27+/-0.38). The abnormal expression of VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissue may play a role in the formation of gallbladder stone and gallbladder polyps.

  3. Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 and 2 receptor mRNA in gallbladder tissue of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Gao, Hong; Shi, Gang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Kong, Jing; Tian, Zhong; Su, Yang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor 1 (VPCAP1-R) and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps. METHODS: The expression of VPCAP1-R and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues was detected in 25 patients with gallstone, 8 patients with gallbladder polyps and 7 donors of liver transplantation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: The VPCAP2-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.09±0.58) was lower than that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.64 ± 0.56) and the gallstone group (1.55±0.45) (P < 0.05) while the VPCAP1-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.15 ± 0.23) was not apparently different from that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.28±0.56) and the gallstone group (1.27 ± 0.38). CONCLUSION: The abnormal expression of VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissue may play a role in the formation of gallbladder stone and gallbladder polyps. PMID:16552823

  4. Symptoms and Causes of Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcer. How do H. pylori cause a peptic ulcer and peptic ulcer disease? H. pylori are spiral-shaped bacteria that ... peptic ulcer. How do tumors from ZES cause peptic ulcers? Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare disorder that ...

  5. Gastroduodenal ulceration in foals.

    PubMed

    Becht, J L; Byars, T D

    1986-07-01

    Gastroduodenal ulceration is becoming recognised as an important disease in foals during the first few months of life. Aetiopathogenesis is presumed to be similar to peptic disease in humans associated with back diffusion of hydrogen ions into the mucosa. Many factors have been incriminated as predisposing foals to ulceration but few have been proven. To date, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents has been the only documented cause of gastroduodenal ulceration in foals. The clustering of affected foals on certain farms suggests an infectious aetiology but attempts to identify a causative organism have been unsuccessful. Four clinical syndromes defined for foals with gastroduodenal ulceration include: silent ulcers, which occur most often in the non-glandular stomach along the margo plicatus and are identified as incidental findings at necropsy; active ulcers which are often manifested by abdominal pain, excessive salivation and bruxism; perforating ulcers which usually result in a severe, diffuse peritonitis; and pyloric or duodenal obstruction from a healing ulcer. General approaches to therapy of a foal with active ulceration consist of reduction of gastric acidity and enhancement of mucosal protection. Antacids and type 2 histamine receptor antagonists are used most often to neutralise or decrease acid secretion, respectively. Sucralfate, a locally active sulphated sucrose preparation, is commonly used as a cytoprotective agent. The efficacy and safety of many products used have not been evaluated adequately in foals. Perforating ulcers are usually associated with death or humane destruction of the foal because of fulminating peritonitis. Surgical intervention and bypass procedures are indicated in foals that develop pyloric or duodenal obstructions from healing ulcers.

  6. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described.

  7. Erosion resistant coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falco, L.; Cushini, A.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring the resistance of materials to erosion is examined and a scheme for standardization of the test parameters is described. Current materials being used for protecting aircraft parts from erosion are surveyed, their chief characteristics being given. The superior properties of urethane coatings are pointed out. The complete cycle for painting areas subject to erosion is described.

  8. PREDICTING MINESOIL EROSION POTENTIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two experimental plots were instrumented with erosion pins to study the correspondence between point erosion and erosion over an area on strip mine soil. Using a rotating boom rainfall simulator, data were collected by sampling the runoff every five minutes for the duration of th...

  9. Salmonella Extracellular Matrix Components Influence Biofilm Formation and Gallbladder Colonization.

    PubMed

    Adcox, Haley E; Vasicek, Erin M; Dwivedi, Varun; Hoang, Ky V; Turner, Joanne; Gunn, John S

    2016-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans, forms biofilms encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). Biofilms facilitate colonization and persistent infection in gallbladders of humans and mouse models of chronic carriage. Individual roles of matrix components have not been completely elucidated in vitro or in vivo To examine individual functions, strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the murine model of S Typhi, in which various ECM genes were deleted or added, were created to examine biofilm formation, colonization, and persistence in the gallbladder. Studies show that curli contributes most significantly to biofilm formation. Expression of Vi antigen decreased biofilm formation in vitro and virulence and bacterial survival in vivo without altering the examined gallbladder pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. Oppositely, loss of all ECM components (ΔwcaM ΔcsgA ΔyihO ΔbcsE) increased virulence and bacterial survival in vivo and reduced gallbladder interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Colanic acid and curli mutants had the largest defects in biofilm-forming ability and contributed most significantly to the virulence increase of the ΔwcaM ΔcsgA ΔyihO ΔbcsE mutant strain. While the ΔwcaM ΔcsgA ΔyihO ΔbcsE mutant was not altered in resistance to complement or growth in macrophages, it attached and invaded macrophages better than the wild-type (WT) strain. These data suggest that ECM components have various levels of importance in biofilm formation and gallbladder colonization and that the ECM diminishes disseminated disease in our model, perhaps by reducing cell attachment/invasion and dampening inflammation by maintaining/inducing IL-10 production. Understanding how ECM components aid acute disease and persistence could lead to improvements in therapeutic treatment of typhoid fever patients. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. [Gallbladder polyps: correlation between ultrasonographic and histopathological findings].

    PubMed

    Escalona, Alex; León, Francisca; Bellolio, Felipe; Pimentel, Fernando; Guajardo, Matías; Gennero, Rubén; Cruz, Juan Pablo; Viviani, Paola; Ibáñez, Luis

    2006-10-01

    Gallbladder polyps are becoming a common finding. The management of these polyps is complicated considering that they can bear malignant lesions. To analyze the ultrasonographic and histopathologic findings of patients operated due to gallbladder polyps. The records of patients with ultrasonographic diagnosis of gallbladder polyp and that underwent cholecystectomy in a thirteen years period were reviewed, collecting their demographic, ultrasonographic and histopathological data. One hundred and twenty three patients were operated. The mean age was 44+/-13 years, and 69% were women. The mean size of polyps in ultrasonography was 7.3+/-5 mm. Histopathology confirmed the presence of polyps in 79% of patients, with a mean size and number of lesions of 5.1+/-3.8 mm and 2.1+/-2, respectively. Nine percent of polyps were greater than 10 mm, and single polyps were significantly larger than the multiple ones (p =0.003). Four cases of adenoma (3.2%) were diagnosed; one of them had in situ carcinoma. All were single and larger than 10 mm. We found a significant correlation between ultrasonographic and histopathological polyp size determination (r =0.47; p =0.002). Polyp size was also a predictor of the presence of adenoma (p =0.043; confidence intervals: 1.006-1.424). There is a good correlation between the size of the gallbladder polyp in ultrasonography and the size in the histopathology report. Gallbladder adenoma is uncommon and it correlates with the size of the polyp. In this series, size was the only predictor of the presence of adenoma.

  11. Gallbladder motility and the sex of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kline, Loren; Karpinski, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Progesterone (P), 17β-estradiol (E2), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) affect gallbladder motility. When gallbladders were taken from women and men, women had more estrogen and P receptors than men. Both P and E2 had an inhibitory effect upon gallbladder contractility in men and premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Similar findings have been reported in gallbladder strips from male and female guinea pigs. In the present study, there was no significant difference in the amount of E2-, P-, or DHT-induced relaxation of CCK-induced tension when the responses in gallbladder strips from male and female guinea pigs were compared. Three metabolites of P were used: 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-P), 20α-hydroxyprogesterone (20-P), and 21-hydroxyprogesterone (21-P). There was no significant difference in the responses from strips from male and female guinea pigs. In order to determine if the effects of E2 and P were additive, strips from male animals were exposed to either E2 or P and the amount of relaxation recorded. After recovery, the strips were exposed to E2 or P in reverse order to ensure the order of treatment had no effect. Then, the strips were treated with both E2 and P simultaneously and the relaxation recorded. This procedure was repeated with strips from female guinea pigs. The effect of E2 and P was found to be additive; however, the response of the strips from each sex were not significantly different. It is concluded that the sex of the guinea pig has no significant effect on the response to the sex hormones used. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography for gallbladder polyps: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erin; Gill, Richdeep; Debru, Estifanos

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has shown variable but generally poor accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of gallbladder polyps. We performed a systematic review of the literature with the aim of helping surgeons interpret and apply these findings in the preoperative assessment and counselling of their patients. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane database using the keywords "gallbladder," "polyp," "ultrasound," "pathology" and "diagnosis" for English-language articles published after 1990 with the full-text article available through our institutional subscriptions. Polyps were defined as immobile features that on transabdominal ultrasonography appear to arise from the mucosa and that lack an acoustic shadow, and pseudopolyps were defined as features such as inflammation, hyperplasia, cholesterolosis and adenomyomatosis that convey no risk of malignant transformation. The search returned 1816 articles, which were narrowed down to 14 primary sources involving 15 497 (range 23-13 703) patients who had preoperative transabdominal ultrasonography, underwent cholecystectomy and had postoperative pathology results available. Among the 1259 patients in whom a gallbladder polyp was diagnosed on ultrasonography, 188 polyps were confirmed as true polyps on pathologic examination, and 81 of these were found to be malignant. Of the 14 238 patients for whom a polyp was not seen on ultrasonography, 38 had a true polyp on pathologic examination, none of which were malignant. For true gallbladder polyps, transabdominal ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 83.1%, specificity of 96.3%, positive predictive value of 14.9% (7.0% for malignant polyps) and negative predictive value of 99.7%. Transabdominal ultrasonography has a high false-positive rate (85.1%) for the diagnosis of gallbladder polyps. Further study of alternative imaging modalities and reevaluation of existing management guidelines are warranted.

  13. Gallbladder filling and emptying during cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog. A cholescintigraphic study

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Ryan, T.; Broderick, W.

    1986-01-01

    We studied gallbladder bile flow before, during, and after cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog using infusion cholescintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-diethyl iminodiacetic acid. In 18 fasting animals partitioning of bile between gallbladder and intestine was determined every 15 min for 140 min, and gallbladder response to cholecystokinin (5 U/kg X h) was calculated from the gallbladder ejection fraction. Ten prairie dogs were then placed on a 0.4% cholesterol diet and 8 on a regular diet, and the studies were repeated 1, 2, and 6 wk later. The proportion of hepatic bile that entered the gallbladder relative to the intestinemore » varied from one 15-min period to the next, and averaged 28.2% +/- 5.1% at 140 min. Partial spontaneous gallbladder emptying (ejection fraction 11.5% +/- 5.6%) was intermittently observed. Neither the number nor the ejection fraction of spontaneous gallbladder contractions changed during gallstone formation. By contrast, the percent of gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin decreased from 72.1% +/- 5% to 25.9% +/- 9.3% (p less than 0.025) in the first week and was 14.3% +/- 5.5% at 6 wk (p less than 0.01 from prediet values, not significant from first week). Gallbladder filling decreased from 28.2% +/- 5.1% to 6.7% +/- 3% (p less than 0.01), but this change was only observed after 6 wk, when gallstones had formed. This study shows that bile flow into the gallbladder during fasting is not constant; the gallbladder contracts intermittently; gallbladder emptying in response to exogenous cholecystokinin is altered very early during gallstone formation; and gallbladder filling remains unaffected until later stages, when gallstones have formed.« less

  14. Connective tissue ulcers.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Ganary; Falanga, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Connective tissue disorders (CTD), which are often also termed collagen vascular diseases, include a number of related inflammatory conditions. Some of these diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), localized scleroderma (morphea variants localized to the skin), Sjogren's syndrome, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. In addition to the systemic manifestations of these diseases, there are a number of cutaneous features that make these conditions recognizable on physical exam. Lower extremity ulcers and digital ulcers are an infrequent but disabling complication of long-standing connective tissue disease. The exact frequency with which these ulcers occur is not known, and the cause of the ulcerations is often multifactorial. Moreover, a challenging component of CTD ulcerations is that there are still no established guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment. The morbidity associated with these ulcerations and their underlying conditions is very substantial. Indeed, these less common but intractable ulcers represent a major medical and economic problem for patients, physicians and nurses, and even well organized multidisciplinary wound healing centers. Copyright © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Managing dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Donald A; Jayanetti, Jay; Chu, Raymond; Staninec, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The clinical signs of dental erosion are initially subtle, yet often progress because the patient remains asymptomatic, unaware and uninformed. Erosion typically works synergistically with abrasion and attrition to cause loss of tooth structure, making diagnosis and management complex. The purpose of this article is to outline clinical examples of patients with dental erosion that highlight the strategy of early identification, patient education and conservative restorative management. Dental erosion is defined as the pathologic chronic loss of dental hard tissues as a result of the chemical influence of exogenous or endogenous acids without bacterial involvement. Like caries or periodontal disease, erosion has a multifactorial etiology and requires a thorough history and examination for diagnosis. It also requires patient understanding and compliance for improved outcomes. Erosion can affect the loss of tooth structure in isolation of other cofactors, but most often works in synergy with abrasion and attrition in the loss of tooth structure (Table 1). Although erosion is thought to be an underlying etiology of dentin sensitivity, erosion and loss of tooth structure often occurs with few symptoms. The purpose of this article is threefold: first, to outline existing barriers that may limit early management of dental erosion. Second, to review the clinical assessment required to establish a diagnosis of erosion. And third, to outline clinical examples that review options to restore lost tooth structure. The authors have included illustrations they hope will be used to improve patient understanding and motivation in the early management of dental erosion.

  16. Prognostic significance of muc4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon Kook; Cho, Min-Sun; Kim, Tae Hun

    2012-10-27

    Mucins are high molecular glycoproteins and play protective and lubricating roles in various epithelial tissues. Deregulated expression of mucins is involved in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion. MUC4 expression has been identified as a poor prognostic factor in pancreatobiliary carcinomas. To date, the relation between MUC4 expression and prognosis in gallbladder carcinoma remains to be determined. Authors examined MUC4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma and investigated its impact on prognosis. The expression profiles of MUC4, MUC1, MUC2 mucins in gallbladder carcinoma tissues from 63 patients were investigated using immunohistochemical staining. For gallbladder carcinoma, positive staining of MUC4, MUC1, and MUC2 was 55.6%, 81.0%, 28.6%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the expression of MUC4 and the expression of MUC1 or MUC2 (p = 0.004, p = 0.009, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that MUC4 expression (p = 0.047), differentiation (p < 0.05), T-stage (p < 0.05) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with poor survival. Expression of MUC1 and MUC2 was not correlated to survival. The backward stepwise multivariate analysis showed that MUC4 expression (p = 0.039) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001) were significant independent risk factors. In combined assessment of MUC4 and MUC2 expression, MUC4 positive and MUC2 negative group showed a significantly worse outcome than MUC4 negative groups(MUC4-/MUC2+ and MUC4-/MUC2-) and MUC4/MUC2 co-expression group(MUC4+/MUC2+) (p < 0.05). MUC4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma is an independent poor prognostic factor. Therefore, MUC4 expression may be a useful marker to predict the outcome of patients with surgically resected gallbladder carcinoma. MUC2 expression may have prognostic value when combined with MUC4 expression.

  17. Prognostic significance of muc4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mucins are high molecular glycoproteins and play protective and lubricating roles in various epithelial tissues. Deregulated expression of mucins is involved in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion. MUC4 expression has been identified as a poor prognostic factor in pancreatobiliary carcinomas. To date, the relation between MUC4 expression and prognosis in gallbladder carcinoma remains to be determined. Authors examined MUC4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma and investigated its impact on prognosis. Methods The expression profiles of MUC4, MUC1, MUC2 mucins in gallbladder carcinoma tissues from 63 patients were investigated using immunohistochemical staining. Results For gallbladder carcinoma, positive staining of MUC4, MUC1, and MUC2 was 55.6%, 81.0%, 28.6%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the expression of MUC4 and the expression of MUC1 or MUC2 (p = 0.004, p = 0.009, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that MUC4 expression (p = 0.047), differentiation (p < 0.05), T-stage (p < 0.05) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with poor survival. Expression of MUC1 and MUC2 was not correlated to survival. The backward stepwise multivariate analysis showed that MUC4 expression (p = 0.039) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001) were significant independent risk factors. In combined assessment of MUC4 and MUC2 expression, MUC4 positive and MUC2 negative group showed a significantly worse outcome than MUC4 negative groups(MUC4-/MUC2+ and MUC4-/MUC2-) and MUC4/MUC2 co-expression group(MUC4+/MUC2+) (p < 0.05). Conclusions MUC4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma is an independent poor prognostic factor. Therefore, MUC4 expression may be a useful marker to predict the outcome of patients with surgically resected gallbladder carcinoma. MUC2 expression may have prognostic value when combined with MUC4 expression. PMID:23101681

  18. Double Gallbladder Originating from Left Hepatic Duct: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gorecki, Piotr J.; Andrei, Valeriu E; Musacchio, Tito

    1998-01-01

    Background: Double gallbladder is a rare anomaly of the biliary tract. Double gallbladder arising from the left hepatic duct was previously reported only once in the literature. Case Report: A case of symptomatic cholelithiasis in a double gallbladder, diagnosed on preoperative ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) is reported. At laparoscopic cholangiography via the accessory gallbladder no accessory cystic duct was visualized. After conversion to open cholecystectomy, the duplicated gallbladder was found to arise directly from the left hepatic duct; it was resected and the duct repaired. Conclusions: We emphasize that a careful intraoperative cholangiographic evaluation of the accessory gallbladder is mandatory in order to prevent inadvertent injury to bile ducts, since a large variety of ductal abnormality may exist. PMID:10036124

  19. Hepatobiliary and gallium imaging findings in gallbladder perforation: A case report and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, E.; Chen, D.C.; Siegel, M.E.

    1989-02-01

    Gallbladder perforation is an unusual condition with a high mortality rate. Early detection with prompt surgical intervention can increase the survival rate. Hepatobiliary imaging using Technetium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid has been used for the diagnosis of gallbladder perforation. However, the results vary and are somewhat confusing. The authors report a case of gallbladder perforation with hepatobiliary imaging and an unusual gallium image; review the literature; and propose a classification of three different imaging patterns: (1) visualization of the gallbladder with bile leakage, (2) nonvisualization of the gallbladder with a photopenic fluid collection, and (3) nonvisualization of the gallbladder with bile leakage.more » These patterns may provide pathophysiologic information for the surgeon. 27 references.« less

  20. [Detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in the ground gallbladder stones by microscopy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Qiao, Tie; Luo, Xiao-Bing

    2012-08-30

    Sera, feces, bile and gallbladder stones were collected from 179 patients who accepted gallbladder-preserving cholelithotomy during the period of January to June 2010 at the general surgery department in the Second People's Hospital of Panyu District in Guangzhou. Rapid colloidal gold immunochromatography was used to detect IgG against Clonorchis sinensis. C. sinensis eggs were examined by fecal direct smear, and in bile sediments and ground gallbladder stones. The results showed that the positive rate of rapid colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay for IgG was 51.4%, and the egg positive rate in feces, bile sediments and gallbladder stones was 30.7%, 44.7% and 69.8%, respectively. The detection rate of fecal direct smear was the lowest, while that of the gallbladder stone examination was the highest (P < 0.05). Those patients with egg-positive feces and/or bile sediments were all with egg-positive gallbladder stones.

  1. [Surgical treatment of ulcer].

    PubMed

    Ungeheuer, E; Schröder, D; Lüders, K

    1978-04-27

    The standard of today in surgical treatment of the duodenal and gastric ulcer in Germany is shown. Positive and negative aspects of the different methods are discussed. Special technics are recommended for the different types of gastroduodenal ulcera.

  2. Peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Lanas, Angel; Chan, Francis K L

    2017-08-05

    The rapidly declining prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and widespread use of potent anti-secretory drugs means peptic ulcer disease has become substantially less prevalent than it was two decades ago. Management has, however, become more challenging than ever because of the threat of increasing antimicrobial resistance worldwide and widespread use of complex anti-thrombotic therapy in the ageing population. Peptic ulcers not associated with H pylori infection or the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are now also imposing substantial diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This Seminar aims to provide a balanced overview of the latest advances in the pathogenetic mechanisms of peptic ulcers, guidelines on therapies targeting H pylori infection, approaches to treatment of peptic ulcer complications associated with anti-inflammatory analgesics and anti-thrombotic agents, and the unmet needs in terms of our knowledge and management of this increasingly challenging condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multidetector CT diagnosis of massive hemobilia due to gallbladder polyposis in a child with metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Matthew R; Karmazyn, Boaz; Fan, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Hemobilia secondary to gallbladder polyposis is rare in children but has been reported in a few children with metachromatic leukodystrophy. We present a case with preoperative multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) diagnosis of massive hemobilia caused by gallbladder polyposis in a patient with metachromatic leukodystrophy. Our report highlights the importance of both awareness of the association of gallbladder polyposis with other syndromes such as metachromatic leukodystrophy as well as the possibility of this entity presenting with life-threatening bleeding.

  4. Is it necessary to perform prophylactic cholecystectomy for asymptomatic subjects with gallbladder polyps and gallstones?

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Youn; Kim, Tae Sun; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the clinical characteristics of subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis compared with those with gallbladder polyps only. Between August 1999 and December 2005, 176 subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis (study group) by transabdominal ultrasonography performed during a medical check-up at our institution were recruited and compared with a control group of 185 subjects who had gallbladder polyps only. No significant difference in the mean interval change (delta) of polyp size during the follow-up period between the study and control groups (0.85 +/- 1.39 mm vs 0.84 +/- 1.58 mm, respectively, P = 0.927) was noted. A significantly higher proportion (9/176 [5.1%]) of examinees in the study group had attacks of acute cholecystitis compared with the control group (1/185 [0.5%], P < 0.01). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, gallbladder wall thickening on initial ultrasonography (odds ratio, 13.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-178.0; P = 0.046) and the interval increase in the size of the gallbladder polyps (odds ratio, 14.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-126.9; P = 0.014) were independent risk factors for cholecystectomy. No gallbladder cancer occurred during the follow-up period. There was no significant difference in delta polyp size between the examinees with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis and those with gallbladder polyps only. Hence, a small proportion of subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis, such as those with thickened gallbladder walls and an interval increase in the size of the gallbladder polyps are candidates for prophylactic cholecytectomy.

  5. A quadriplegic patient's cholescintigraphic findings: delayed gallbladder visualization and common bile duct dilation.

    PubMed Central

    Shih, W. J.; Magoun, S.; Lu, G.

    1996-01-01

    A Tc-99m DISIDA cholescintigraphic study of a 37-year-old patient with a 20-year history of quadriplegia demonstrated dilation of the common bile duct and delayed gallbladder visualization. A concurrent sonographic study showed an enlarged gallbladder with stones and dilation of the common bile duct. These findings were proved by autopsy. Quadriplegia secondary to a high level of spinal cord injury may result in gallbladder dysfunction. Images Figure PMID:8776068

  6. Ulcer dressings and management.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Geoff

    2014-09-01

    Chronic leg ulcers caused by venous disease, arterial disease or a combination of both need to be clearly identified before treatment can be commenced. Their management will depend on the diagnosis, combining direct management of the ulcer as well as management of patient factors. Other chronic wounds commonly observed in practice include pressure wounds, skin tears, atypical leg ulcers. This paper will outline a simple way to manage people with chronic ulcers. Conclusion The prevalence of chronic wounds is expected to rise given that people are living longer and that the incidence of diabetes is increasing. There is a need is to clearly identify the underlying cause of any wound, including factors that may delay healing, and to treat appropriately. Treatment should address the wound environment, tissue base, presence of bacteria and the level of slough. If there is no improvement in wound healing after 4 weeks then seek help from a wound specialist. The prevalence of chronic ulcers in Australia has been estimated at 2-5%. Comprehensive assessment of the ulcer, the region and the whole person is an important first step in treatment. The aim of management is to promote healing and minimise the impact on the patient.

  7. Carcinoma of the gallbladder. The Roswell Park experience.

    PubMed

    Silk, Y N; Douglass, H O; Nava, H R; Driscoll, D L; Tartarian, G

    1989-12-01

    The median survival, from diagnosis, of patients with cancer of the gallbladder is 6 months. Our purpose in reviewing our experience was to identify factors, either in patient characteristics or treatment, that influence this statistic. In 22 years 71 cases of gallbladder carcinoma were referred to Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo, New York. Most had a cholecystectomy that revealed an unsuspected neoplasm, before referral. Mean age was 62 years and 75% were female. Symptoms, signs, and laboratory and imaging studies were uniformly unhelpful in determining the diagnosis. Early diagnosis at a stage amenable to surgical excision remains the sole salvation. Patients who receive chemotherapy did better than those who did not, but this is probably a reflection of patient selection. Newer treatment modalities are urgently needed.

  8. Carcinoma of the gallbladder. The Roswell Park experience.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Y N; Douglass, H O; Nava, H R; Driscoll, D L; Tartarian, G

    1989-01-01

    The median survival, from diagnosis, of patients with cancer of the gallbladder is 6 months. Our purpose in reviewing our experience was to identify factors, either in patient characteristics or treatment, that influence this statistic. In 22 years 71 cases of gallbladder carcinoma were referred to Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo, New York. Most had a cholecystectomy that revealed an unsuspected neoplasm, before referral. Mean age was 62 years and 75% were female. Symptoms, signs, and laboratory and imaging studies were uniformly unhelpful in determining the diagnosis. Early diagnosis at a stage amenable to surgical excision remains the sole salvation. Patients who receive chemotherapy did better than those who did not, but this is probably a reflection of patient selection. Newer treatment modalities are urgently needed. PMID:2589888

  9. On the growth rate of gallstones in the human gallbladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nudelman, I.

    1993-05-01

    The growth rate of a single symmetrically oval shaped gallbladder stone weighing 10.8 g was recorded over a period of six years before surgery and removal. The length of the stone was measured by ultrasonography and the growth rate was found to be linear with time, with a value of 0.4 mm/year. A smaller stone growing in the wall of the gallbladder was detected only three years before removal and grew at a rate of ˜ 1.33 mm/year. The morphology and metallic ion chemical composition of the large stone and of a randomly selected small stone weighing about 1.1 g, extracted from another patient, were analyzed and compared. It was found that the large stone contained besides calcium also lead, whereas the small stone contained mainly calcium. It is possible that the lead causes a difference in mechanism between the growth of a single large and growth of multiple small gallstones.

  10. Comparison between ultrasonographic and clinical findings in 43 dogs with gallbladder mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Kim, Ahyoung; Keh, Seoyeon; Oh, Juyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Yoon, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    Cholecystectomy is the current standard recommended treatment for dogs with gallbladder mucoceles. However, medical management with monitoring has also been recommended for asymptomatic dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare ultrasonographic patterns of gallbladder mucoceles with clinical disease status in a group of dogs. For each included dog, the ultrasonographic pattern of the mucocele was classified into one of six types: type 1, immobile echogenic bile; type 2, incomplete stellate pattern; type 3, typical stellate pattern; type 4, kiwi like pattern and stellate combination; type 5, kiwi like pattern with residual central echogenic bile; and type 6, kiwi like pattern. A total of 43 dogs were included. Twenty-four dogs, including 11 dogs with gallbladder rupture, were symptomatic. Nineteen dogs were asymptomatic. Cholecystectomy (n = 19), medical therapy (n = 17), or monitoring (n = 6) treatments were applied according to clinical signs and owners' requests. One dog suspected of having gallbladder rupture was euthanized. Frequencies of gallbladder mucocele patterns were as follows: type 1 = 10 (23%), type 2 = 13 (30%), type 3 = 5 (12%), type 4 = 11 (26%), type 5 = 4 (9%), and type 6 = 0. In dogs with gallbladder rupture, type 2 (8/13) was the most common. No significant correlations were found between ultrasonographic patterns of gallbladder mucoceles and clinical disease status or gallbladder rupture. Findings indicated that ultrasonographic patterns of gallbladder mucoceles may not be valid bases for treatment recommendations in dogs. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. A Mimicker of Gallbladder Carcinoma: Cystic Gastric Heterotopia with Intestinal Metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Özgün, Gonca; Adim, Şaduman Balaban; Uğraş, Nesrin; Kiliçturgay, Sadık

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder is an unusual entity and is usually clinically silent. We report a 75-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent upper abdomial pain radiating to the back. Abdominal imaging studies showed a sessile polypoid lesion and a gallstone in the gallbladder. Gallbladder carcinoma was suspected and cholecystectomy performed. Intraoperative frozen section examination suggested mucinous tumor, suspicious for malignancy. However, the permanent sections revealed aberrant gastric tissue consisted of gastric pyloric and fundic glands of heterotopic gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder.

  12. A powder-free surgical glove bag for retraction of the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Holme, Jørgen Bendix; Mortensen, Frank Viborg

    2005-08-01

    To test the use of a simple and cheap powder-free glove bag to extract the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The medical records of 142 consecutive patients who had their gallbladder removed using a powder-free glove bag were reviewed. No complications in the form of bile or stone spillage during extraction were observed. The absence of complications and the low cost make routine use of the glove bag a wise option for extracting the gallbladder during LC. The use of the glove bag seems to reduce the risk of contamination with bacteria, bile, and gallstones and may reduce contamination by malignant cells in case of unexpected gallbladder carcinoma.

  13. Guadecitabine and Durvalumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Liver, Pancreatic, Bile Duct, or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-27

    Extrahepatic Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma, Biliary Type; Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma, Biliary Type; Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma; Stage III Gallbladder Cancer AJCC V7; Stage III Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Unresectable Gallbladder Carcinoma; Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma

  14. Gallbladder and cystic duct absence. An infrequent malformation in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cabajo Caballero, M A; Martin del Olmo, J C; Blanco Alvarez, J I; Atienza Sanchez, R

    1997-05-01

    Gallbladder absence is an infrequent anomaly normally accompanied by lack of the cystic duct. Of unknown etiology, in general it is accepted to be a congenital malformation. A male patient (age 59) diagnosed with nonfunctional symptomatic scleroatrophic gallbladder by echography and ERCP was operated on using a laparoscopic approach. Gallbladder and cystic absence was diagnosed during the procedure. A new case of gallbladder and cystic duct absence, diagnosed by laparoscopy, is presented. This type of extrahepatic bile duct malformation is quite rare, but it must be taken into account due to the generalization of laparoscopic surgery in biliar pathology because of the high risk of serious lesions to the hepatocholedochal system.

  15. Arctigenin induced gallbladder cancer senescence through modulating epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingdi; Cai, Shizhong; Zuo, Bin; Gong, Wei; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Di; Weng, Mingzhe; Qin, Yiyu; Wang, Shouhua; Liu, Jun; Ma, Fei; Quan, Zhiwei

    2017-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer has poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor were examined in 100 matched pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues. A positive correlation between high epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels and poor prognosis was observed in gallbladder cancer tissues. Pharmacological inhibition or inhibition via RNA interference of epidermal growth factor receptor induced cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer cells. The antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer cells was primarily achieved by inducing cellular senescence. In gallbladder cancer cells treated with arctigenin, the expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor significantly decreased. The analysis of the activity of the kinases downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed that the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the cellular senescence induced by arctigenin could be reverted by pcDNA-epidermal growth factor receptor. Arctigenin also potently inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts, which was accompanied by the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and induction of senescence. This study demonstrates arctigenin could induce cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer through the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. These data identify epidermal growth factor receptor as a key regulator in arctigenin-induced gallbladder cancer senescence.

  16. [Ulcerating Herpes simplex infections in intensive care patients].

    PubMed

    Fischer, M; Wohlrab, J; Radke, J; Marsch, W C; Soukup, J

    2002-11-01

    Herpes simplex infections are potentially a life-threatening situation for immunocompromised as well as critically ill patients. The correct diagnosis is made more difficult in comatose patients by the fact that the characteristic symptom of extreme pain cannot be registered. The clinical dermatological findings (polycyclic configuration, easily bleeding ulcers) are thus especially important in patients under intensive care conditions. As examples, the cases of 3 critically ill patients (subarachnoid bleeding or head injury) developing therapy-resistant, flat sacral or perioral skin ulcers with peripheral blisters are presented. Herpes simplex virus was confirmed immunohistologically and in the smear test. All patients subsequently died. These cases emphasize that patients in the intensive care unit are in danger of developing a chronic persistent Herpes simplex infection due to latent immunosuppression. Chronic persistent Herpes infections may be underrated in intensive therapy, and must always be ruled out in case of therapy-resistant erosions or ulcerations.

  17. An alternative gallbladder extraction technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Tang, C N; Wong, D C T

    2006-05-01

    In this era of minimally invasive surgery, the challenge remains in finding techniques to reduce access trauma in terms of fewer and smaller size trocar ports. Our new described technique will allow a smaller subxiphoid port to be used to achieve extraction of the gallbladder without the need to change to a 5 mm laparoscope. We believe this method is easy to learn, safe and with no observable complications from our experience.

  18. Can endoscopic ultrasonography differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic gallbladder polyps?

    PubMed

    Akatsu, Tomotaka; Aiura, Koichi; Shimazu, Motohide; Ueda, Masakazu; Wakabayashi, Go; Tanabe, Minoru; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Kitajima, Masaki

    2006-02-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) features of nonneoplastic (cholesterol polyps and adenomyomatosis) and neoplastic (adenoma and adenocarcinoma) gallbladder polyps and to evaluate the effectiveness and limitation of EUS in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. We retrospectively compared EUS images with histologic findings in 29 surgical cases with gallbladder polyps with a diameter of 10 to 20 mm. Those cases were indicated for surgery based on the findings of a sessile appearance, a solitary lesion, low echogenicity, and/or a lobulated surface. Six of 10 cholesterol polyps were atypically seen as partially or completely hypoechoic due to predominant proliferation of glandular epithelia. Nine of 10 cholesterol polyps demonstrated an aggregation of hyperechoic spots, which represented multiple granules of cholesterosis. All adenomyomatoses (n = 10) showed multiple microcysts, which corresponded to proliferated Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. However, three of nine neoplastic lesions (three adenomas and six adenocarcinomas) showed one of these signs due to concomitant cholesterosis (n = 2) or proliferated Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (n = 1). In conclusion, 69% (20/29) of gallbladder polyps larger than 10 mm that were preoperatively suspected of malignancy were nonneoplastic. An aggregation of hyperechoic spots and multiple microcysts are considered to be important predictive factors for cholesterol polyps and adenomyomatosis, respectively. However, we should caution that these findings can also occur in neoplastic polyps when they contain a concomitant nonneoplastic component (cholesterosis or proliferated Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses).

  19. Agenesis of the gallbladder: A dangerously misdiagnosed malformation

    PubMed Central

    Peloponissios, Nicolas; Gillet, Michel; Cavin, René; Halkic, Nermin

    2005-01-01

    Isolated agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare anomaly, often asymptomatic. However, one patient out of four presented with right upper abdominal pain, nausea, and fatty food intolerance. The condition is frequently mistaken with an excluded or sclero-atrophic gallbladder, regardless of the imaging modality used. Consequently, AG often leads to unnecessary and potentially dangerous laparoscopic surgery as described in a few case reports over the last 10 years. The aim of this study is to clarify the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of this unusual pathology. Two cases seen in our institutions were retrospectively reviewed, together with a review of the American and European literature. During laparoscopy, the absence of normal anatomical structures and the impossibility of pulling on the gallbladder to expose and dissect the triangle of Callot increases the risk of iatrogenic injury to biliary or portal structures. Depending on the experiment of the surgeon in laparoscopic procedure, this has to be taken into account to decide a conversion to laparotomy. A high index of suspicion is necessary when interpreting the radiological images. In case of doubt, a MRI-cholangiography is mandatory. Because of possible inherited transmission, relatives with a history of biliary symptoms should be investigated. PMID:16273658

  20. Primary carcinoma of the gallbladder--review of 143 cases.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, J P; Casa, C; Georgeac, C; Serra-Maudet, V; Jacob, J P; Ronceray, J; Bergamaschi, R

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed a consecutive series of patients with primary cancer of the gallbladder and looked for specific symptoms, signs, laboratory tests, radiological examinations, operative procedures, operative findings and survival. The records of 143 patients with gallbladder carcinoma operatively treated between 1975 and 1990 were retrospectively reviewed. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom and present in 72% of our patients. Jaundice was present in 83 patients (58%) and weight loss in 68 (47.5%). The pre-operative diagnosis was made in only 28.7 per cent of the cases. Surgical procedures included cholecystectomy alone (24 patients), cholecystectomy and resection of the hepatic bed (17 patients), and exploration with biopsy or bypass (20 patients). Only 21.5% of patients underwent curative surgery. Overall five year survival rate was 11%. For patients whose tumor was limited to the gallbladder wall (T1, T2, T3), the acturial 5-year survival rate was respectively 100%, 29% and 23%. For patients with T4 and T5 tumor, the 5 year survival rate was nil.

  1. Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2014-10-01

    Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of MUC1 and MUC4 in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Mi; Oh, Sun-Ju; Hur, Bang

    2012-10-01

    Recent reports have indicated that overexpression of mucin (MUC) 1 and/or MUC4 correlates with the occurrence and progression of extra-hepatobiliary malignancy. In this study, we investigated the expression of MUC1 and MUC4 and their prognostic significance in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. We examined 54 surgical gallbladder adenocarcinoma samples by immunohistochemistry for MUC1 and MUC4 expression. Staining was evaluated as a sum score of extent and intensity, dividing the samples into low and high expression groups. The low expression group for both MUC1 and MUC4 was 10 samples (18.5%), and the high expression group was 44 samples (81.5%). High MUC1 expression was significantly correlated with more differentiated tumors (p=0.033), whereas high expression of MUC4 correlated with negative nodal status (p=0.012). Other pathological features were not correlated with MUC expression. Multivariate cox regression analysis showed that neither MUC1 nor MUC4 expression correlated with survival. Although there were some correlations found, a prognostic role for either MUC1 or MUC4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma was not identified in this study. Further investigation is required.

  3. Clinical characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Seema; Lopez, Monica E; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Mazziotti, Mark V; Brandt, Mary L; Fishman, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Our center previously reported its experience with pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies from 1980 to 1996. We aimed to determine the current clinical characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies and compare these findings with our historical series. Retrospective, cross-sectional study of children, 0 to 18 years of age, who underwent a cholecystectomy from January 2005 to October 2008. We evaluated 404 patients: 73% girls; 39% Hispanic and 35% white. The mean age was 13.10 ± 0.91 years. The primary indications for surgery in patients 3 years or older were symptomatic cholelithiasis (53%), obstructive disease (28%), and biliary dyskinesia (16%). The median BMI percentile was 89%; 39% were classified as obese. Of the patients with nonhemolytic gallstone disease, 35% were obese and 18% were severely obese; BMI percentile was 99% or higher. Gallstone disease was associated with hemolytic disease in 23% (73/324) of patients and with obesity in 39% (126/324). Logistic regression demonstrated older age (P = .019) and Hispanic ethnicity (P < .0001) as independent risk factors for nonhemolytic gallstone disease. Compared with our historical series, children undergoing cholecystectomy are more likely to be Hispanic (P = .003) and severely obese (P < .0279). Obesity and Hispanic ethnicity are strongly correlated with symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease. In comparison with our historical series, hemolytic disease is no longer the predominant risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease in children.

  4. Clinicopathologic Features of Polypoid Lesions of the Gallbladder and Risk Factors of Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Wooil; Lee, Seung Eun; Hwang, Dae Wook; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to differentiate benign and malignancy in polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLG) by solely depending on imaging studies. Therefore clinicopathologic features of benign and malignant polyps are compared in an attempt to identify the risk factors of malignant polypoid lesions. The medical records of 291 patients who were confirmed to have PLG through cholecystectomy were reviewed and analyzed for age, sex, symptom, associated gallstone, morphology of PLG, size of PLG, number of PLG, and preoperative tumor markers. Benign PLG was found in 256 patients (88.0%) and malignant PLG in 35 patients (12.0%). Compared with benign group, the malignant group were older (61.1 yr vs. 47.1 yr, P<0.001), more often accompanied with symptoms (62.9% vs. 28.9%, P<0.001). Malignant PLG tended to be sessile (60.0% vs. 10.5%, P<0.001), larger (28.0 mm vs. 8.6 mm, P<0.001) and single lesion (65.7% vs. 44.1%, P<0.016). Age over 60 yr (P=0.021, odds ratio [OR], 8.16), sessile morphology (P<0.001, OR, 7.70), and size over 10 mm (P=0.009, OR, 8.87) were identified as risk factors for malignant PLG. Careful decision making on therapeutic plans should be made with consideration of malignancy for patients over 60 yr, with sessile morphology of PLG, and with PLG size of over 10 mm. PMID:19543513

  5. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9

  6. Protection from erosion following wildfire

    Treesearch

    Peter R. Robichaud; William J. Elliot

    2006-01-01

    Erosion in the first year after a wildfire can be up to three orders of magnitude greater than the erosion from undisturbed forests. To mitigate potential postfire erosion, various erosion control treatments are applied on highly erodible areas with downstream resources in need of protection. Because postfire erosion rates generally decline by an order of magnitude for...

  7. Trends in management of gallbladder disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Vicente, H L

    1997-07-01

    Gallbladder disorders have been recognized with increasing frequency in pediatric patients. This study aimed to identify recent trends in management and compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic (LC) over open cholecystectomy (OC) by a retrospective chart analysis of all cholecystectomies from 1990 through 1995. Information obtained included demographics, symptoms, predisposing conditions, associated illnesses, family history, imaging studies, type of cholecystectomy, complications, operative time, pain medication, diet recommencement, pathologic findings, and length of hospital stay. The type of cholecystectomy (OC vs. LC) was compared with the clinical variables using standard statistics. Eighty-three patients between 21 months and 18 years of age were identified; their mean age was 14.8 years. Females (76%) with classic biliary symptoms predominated;12% of the patients developed gallstone pancreatitis and 7% jaundice. Abnormal liver chemistry values, obesity, and elevated triglyceride levels comprised the most significant predisposing factors. Indications for surgery were cholelithiasis in 71 patients (86%), gallbladder dyskinesia in 10 (12%), and sludge/polyp in 2. Fifty-nine cholecystectomies (71%) were done laparoscopically and 24 (29%) open. Choledocholithiasis in 6 children (7%) was managed by open extraction with t-tube placement or endoscopic papillotomy followed by LC. No major ductal complication was identified. The predominant pathologic finding was chronic cholecystitis, including the subgroup with biliary dyskinesia. Statistical comparison showed that LC is superior to OC in regard to length of stay, diet resumption, use of pain medication, operating time, and cosmetic results. It is concluded that a contemporary diet, obesity, and abnormal liver chemistry are the main predisposing conditions of gallbladder disease in children in this decade. Females in their teenage years with typical symptoms continue to be the most commonly affected group

  8. Gallstones and gallbladder cancer-volume and weight of gallstones are associated with gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Roa, Iván; Ibacache, Gilda; Roa, Juan; Araya, Juan; de Aretxabala, Xabier; Muñoz, Sergio

    2006-06-15

    Gallstones are considered the most important risk factor for gallbladder cancer. To identify differences in the number, weight, volume, and density of gallstones associated with chronic cholecystitis (CC), gallbladder dysplasia (GD), and gallbladder cancer (GBC). A total of 125 cases were selected, of which 93 had gallstones associated with GBC and 31 had gallstones associated with GD. The controls were those with CC, matched by sex and age. The number, weight, volume, and density of these gallstones were examined in order to determine differences and relative cancer risk. Number: Multiple gallstones were present in over 76% of cases (GBC and GD) and controls (P = ns). The average number of multiple stones was 21 in GBC versus 14 in controls (P < 0.01). Weight: The average weight of the gallstones was 9.6 g in GBC versus 6.0 g in controls (P = 0.0004). The average weight in multiple stones over 10 g had strong association with GBC (P = 0.0006). Volume: The average volume was 11.7 and 6.48 ml in GBC and controls (P = 0.0002). Average volumes of 6, 8, and 10 ml had a relative cancer risk of 5, 7, and 11 times, respectively. Size: No differences were shown between GBC, GD, and controls. The volume of gallstones associated with other risk factors of GBC may be helpful in prioritizing cholecystectomies in symptomatic patients. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Laparoscopic Radical Cholecystectomy for Primary or Incidental Early Gallbladder Cancer: The New Rules Governing the Treatment of Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Piozzi, Guglielmo Niccolò

    2017-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the technical feasibility and oncologic safety of laparoscopic radical cholecystectomy (LRC) for primary or incidental early gallbladder cancer (GBC) treatment. Methods Articles reporting LRC for GBC were reviewed from the first case reported in 2010 to 2015 (129 patients). 116 patients had a preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder cancer (primary GBC). 13 patients were incidental cases (IGBC) discovered during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results The majority of patients who underwent LRC were pT2 (62.7% GBC and 63.6% IGBC). Parenchyma-sparing operation with wedge resection of the gallbladder bed or resection of segments IVb-V were performed principally. Laparoscopic lymphadenectomy was carried out according to the reported depth of neoplasm invasion. Lymph node retrieved ranged from 3 to 21. Some authors performed routine sampling biopsy of the inter-aorto-caval lymph nodes (16b1 station) before the radical treatment. No postoperative mortality was documented. Discharge mean day was POD 5th. 16 patients had post operative morbidities. Bile leakage was the most frequent post-operative complication. 5 y-survival rate ranged from 68.75 to 90.7 months. Conclusion Laparoscopy can not be considered as a dogmatic contraindication to GBC but a primary approach for early case (pT1b and pT2) treatment. PMID:28690639

  10. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E., E-mail: jloper@lsuhsc.edu; Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiogramsmore » were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.« less

  11. Percutaneous transcholecystic biliary interventions using gallbladder anchors: feasibility study in the swine.

    PubMed

    Lopera, Jorge E; Kirsch, David; Qian, Zhong; Ruiz, Bernardo; Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.

  12. A study on the protective activity of kefir against gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Yahya T; Karagözlü, Cem; Sarioğlu, Sülen; Yilmaz, Osman; Murat, Nergiz; Gıdener, Sedef

    2012-08-01

    The effect of kefir on peptic ulcer disease was evaluated in an experimental model, with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, together with the determination of gastric mucus secretion by quantitative digital histochemistry. The experimental group included 28 male albino Wistar rats. After a diet with standard rat bait for 7 days, 14 rats were fed with kefir for 7 days while the others were kept on the same diet. At the 14th day, indomethacin was injected to 7 of the rats fed on kefir and to 7 of the rats on standard rat bait. All the rats were sacrificed after 4 hours. Gastric erosion and ulceration were scored histopathologically. Mucosal mucus was quantified by image analysis, and periodic acid-Schiff stained area percentage was determined. Erosion and ulceration were identified only in cases that received indomethacin. In the cases on kefir, erosion was identified in 6 cases (86%) and ulceration in 1 case. Rats fed on standard diet had erosion in 4 cases (57%) and ulceration in 3 (43%), but the difference was statistically insignificant (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.25). The stained area percentage for gastric mucus was not different between the four groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, p=0.313). These findings suggest that kefir does not change gastric mucus secretion. Although statistically insignificant, as there were more cases with ulceration in cases on the rat diet, kefir might have a beneficial effect on peptic ulcer disease induced by non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug. This requires further evaluation in larger series.

  13. Saliva and dental erosion

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Angélicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

  14. Saliva and dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Hannas, Angélicas Reis; Kato, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  15. Scales and erosion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a need to develop scale explicit understanding of erosion to overcome existing conceptual and methodological flaws in our modelling methods currently applied to understand the process of erosion, transport and deposition at the catchment scale. These models need to be based on a sound under...

  16. Introduction to tillage erosion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tillage as a source of erosion Tillage erosion is the downslope movement of soil by tillage. During tillage, soil is lifted and gravity moves soil downslope. Soil movement by tillage increases with slope steepness. However, net soil transport by tillage is determined by the change in slope. Soil mov...

  17. [Action mechanism of electroacupuncture at stomach meridian acupoints for oxidative damage in rats with gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zongbao; Wang, Yadong; Liu, Qiong; Liu, Mi; Chen, Huijuan; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-06-12

    To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at stomach meridian acupoints on expression of oxidation damage factors in serum and gastric mucosal cells in rats with gastric ulcer, and to explore the mechanism of EA at stomach meridian acupoints for oxidative damage in rats with gastric ulcer. Forty clean-grade SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a stomach meridian group and a gallbladder meridian group, ten rats in each one. Except the normal group, rats in the remaining groups were applied the restraint-cold stress method to establish the model of gastric ulcer. Rats in the normal group and model group received no treatment; rats in the stomach meridian group were treated with EA at "Liangmen" (ST 21) and "Zusanli" (ST 36); rats in the gallbladder meridian group were treated with EA at "Riyue" (GB 24) and "Yanglingquan" (GB 34). The EA was given for 30 min, once a day for 7 days totally. The change of gastric mucosal morphology was observed by routine light microscope; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expressions of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2(IL-2), interleukin-6(IL-6) in serum and gastric mucosal cells of rats. After treatment, compared with the model group, the gastric mucosal damage index was decreased in the stomach meridian group and gallbladder meridian group (both P <0.05), the expressions of MDA, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 in serum and gastric mucosal cells were significantly decreased in the stomach meridian group (all P <0.01), but the contents of GSH-Px in serum and gastric mucosal cells were increased significantly (both P <0.01). Compared with the gallbladder meridian group, the gastric mucosal damage index as well as the expressions of MDA,TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6 in serum and gastric mucosal cells were significantly decreased in the stomach meridian group rats ( P <0.05, P <0.01), and the contents of GSH-px in serum and

  18. Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Unresectable Locally Advanced or Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Bile Duct or Gallbladder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-13

    Adenocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  19. Pathophysiology diabetic foot ulcer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafril, S.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to have many complications. Diabetes and its complications are rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and one of the most distressing is Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU). Chronic wound complications are a growing concern worldwide, and the effect is a warning to public health and the economy. The etiology of a DFU is multifaceted, and several components cause added together create a sufficient impact on ulceration: neuropathy, vasculopathy, immunopathy, mechanical stress, and neuroarthropathy. There are many classifications of the diabetic foot. About 50% of patients with foot ulcers due to DM present clinical signs of infection. It is essential to manage multifactorial etiology of DFU to get a good outcome.

  20. Understanding non ulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Loh, K Y; Siang, T K

    2008-06-01

    Non ulcer dyspepsia is one of the most common problems encountered in primary care practice. The underlying pathophysiology of non ulcer dyspepsia is not fully understood, but it is known that this condition is associated with H. pylori infection and motility disorder. The presenting abdominal symptoms are non specific: they include bloating, belching, flatulence, excessive fullness after eating and nausea. Psychological condition such as anxiety, depression and stress do play a role in the recurrence of symptoms. Upper GI endoscopy is necessary in patients who presents with alarm symptoms suggestive of possible underlying organic condition before one makes the diagnosis of non ulcer dyspepsia. Pharmacological therapy using H2 receptor antagonist and proton pump inhibitors are effective for symptom relief. Patient's education and supportive care should be part of the management strategy in recurrent chronic dyspepsia.

  1. Ulcer disease of trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1934-01-01

    During the summer of 1933, lesions of a disease were noted among some fingerling brook, rainbow, blackspotted, and lake trout at the Cortland (New York) trout hatchery. Although these lesions bore a marked superficial resemblance to those of furunculosis, they were sufficiently atypical to warrant further investigation. A more detailed examination of the lesions proved them to be of a distinct disease, which for lack of a better name is herein called "ulcer disease," for the lesions closely resemble those described by Calkins (1899) under this name. Because of the marked resemblance to furunculosis, ulcer disease has not been generally recognized by trout culturists, and any ulcer appearing on fish has been ascribed by them to furunculosis without further question.

  2. Routine histological analysis of a macroscopically normal gallbladder--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jamal, K; Ratansingham, K; Siddique, M; Nehra, D

    2014-01-01

    70,000 cholecystectomies were performed in the United Kingdom in 2011-2012. Currently it is standard practice to submit all gallbladder specimens for routine histology to exclude malignancy. The aim of this systematic review was to establish whether a normal macroscopic appearance to the gallbladder at the time of cholecystectomy is sufficient to rule out malignancy and therefore negate the need for routine histology. Relevant articles that were published between 1966 and January 2013 were identified through electronic databases. 21 studies reported on 34,499 histologically analysed specimens. 172/187 (92%) of gallbladder cancers demonstrated intra-operative macroscopic abnormality. Studies that opened the specimens intra-operatively identified all cancers, whereas gross macroscopic visualization resulted in 15 potentially missed cancers (p = 0.10). In patients of European ethnicity, gallbladder cancer in a macroscopically normal looking gallbladder was identified in only one study; however all of these patients were above the age of 60. The incidence of gallbladder cancer was significantly raised in ethnic groups from high risk areas (p = 0.0001). A macroscopically normal gallbladder in patients of European ethnicity under the age of 60 may not require formal histopathology. The best method for intra-operative examination may involve opening the specimen to allow inspection of the mucosa and wall, however this needs further investigation. In the context of the volume of gallbladder surgery being performed there is the potential for significant cost and time savings. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Infected Peri-Pancreatic Necrosis Causing Gallbladder Necrosis by Direct Extension

    PubMed Central

    Assalia, Ahmad; Schmulevski, Pavel; Meislin, Vladimir; Hashmonai, Moshe

    1993-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis may develop in patients suffering from necrotizing pancreatitis. Conversely, acute pancreatitis may complicate acute gallbladder disease. We present a case that lends support to the existence of another possibility: gallbladder necrosis caused by direct extension of the necrotizing pancreatitic process. PMID:8260438

  4. Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder with multiple metastases: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Ke; Su, Fei; Ma, Wen-Jie; Hu, Hai-Jie; Yang, Qin; Liu, Fei; Li, Quan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder is an extremely rare tumor, with fewer than 40 cases reported in the literature worldwide. The majority of patients presented as a solitary lesion in the gallbladder. To our knowledge, only one case of primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder with multiple metastases has been reported, which involved the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, jejunum and a mesenteric lymph node. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder with metastases to the duodenal bulb, right adrenal and a celiac lymph node. Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder with multiple metastases. Gastrojejunostomy, cholecystectomy, and biopsy of the three metastatic lesions were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed melanin pigments were within the tumor cells of the four lesions, however, junctional activity was noted only in the gallbladder, supporting that the gallbladder was the primary site. No pigmented lesions were detected on the skin or eyes. The postoperative recovery was uneventful, and subsequently, chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin was administered. The patient survived for 16 months due to tumor. progression. The current case was unique due to the adrenal involvement. For patients with multiple metastases of malignant melanoma, gallbladder origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis from cutaneous origin.

  5. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment in Proximity to the Gallbladder Without Subsequent Acute Cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Patti, Jay W.; Neeman, Ziv, E-mail: zneeman@cc.hih.gov; Wood, Bradford J.

    2003-08-15

    Initial reports have suggested that proximity of liver tumors to the gallbladder may increase the risk for cholecystitis after radiofrequency ablation. A colon adenocarcinoma metastasis to the liver in contact with the gallbladder was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation without subsequent cholecystitis.

  6. Gallbladder and the risk of polyps and carcinoma in metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    van Rappard, Diane F; Bugiani, Marianna; Boelens, Jaap J; van der Steeg, Alida F W; Daams, Freek; de Meij, Tim G J; van Doorn, Martine M A C; van Hasselt, Peter M; Gouma, Dirk J; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Hollak, Carla E M; van Hecke, Wim; Salomons, Gajja S; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Wolf, Nicole I

    2016-07-05

    To assess frequency of gallbladder polyposis and carcinoma in metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). We evaluated 34 patients with MLD (average age 16.7 years, age range 2-39 years) screened for gallbladder abnormalities by ultrasound. In the case of cholecystectomy, findings at pathology were reviewed. Only 8 of 34 patients (23%) had a normal gallbladder at ultrasound. Gallbladder polyps were visible in 8 patients (23%). Cholecystectomy was performed in 11 patients (32%). In these, pathology revealed various abnormalities, including hyperplastic polyps, intestinal metaplasia, prominent Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses, and sulfatide storage. Our results demonstrate that gallbladder involvement is the rule rather than the exception in MLD. The high prevalence of hyperplastic polyps, a known precancerous condition, and one death from gallbladder carcinoma at a young age suggest that MLD predisposes to neoplastic gallbladder abnormalities. As novel therapies for this patient group are emerging leading to increased life expectancy, we recommend screening for gallbladder abnormalities by ultrasound in order to prevent early death. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. True left-sided gallbladder with variations of bile duct and cholecystic vein

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akinori; Onishi, Mie; Takao, Koji; Maruyama, Takahiro; Taiyoh, Hiroaki; Araki, Yasunobu; Shimizu, Takeshi; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamane, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    A left-sided gallbladder without a right-sided round ligament, which is called a true left-sided gallbladder, is extremely rare. A 71-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a gallbladder polyp. Computed tomography (CT) revealed not only a gallbladder polyp but also the gallbladder located to the left of the round ligament connected to the left umbilical portion. CT portography revealed that the main portal vein diverged into the right posterior portal vein and the common trunk of the left portal vein and right anterior portal vein. CT cholangiography revealed that the infraportal bile duct of segment 2 joined the common bile duct. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed for a gallbladder polyp, and the intraoperative finding showed that the cholecystic veins joined the round ligament. A true left-sided gallbladder is closely associated with several anomalies; therefore, surgeons encountering a true left-sided gallbladder should be aware of the potential for these anomalies. PMID:26074714

  8. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: management strategies for gallbladder drainage in patients with acute cholecystitis (with videos).

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasuhisa; Itoi, Takao; Baron, Todd H; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M; Pitt, Henry A; Ukai, Tomohiko; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Asbun, Horacio J; Endo, Itaru; Yokoe, Masamichi; Miura, Fumihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Wakabayashi, Go; Han, Ho-Seong; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Chen, Miin-Fu; Garden, O James; Singh, Harjit; Liau, Kui-Hin; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Gouma, Dirk J; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Windsor, John A; Lau, Wan Yee; Cherqui, Daniel; Jagannath, Palepu; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Deziel, Daniel J; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Jonas, Eduard; Padbury, Robert; Mukai, Shuntaro; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; Asai, Koji; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Hirata, Koichi; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of the Tokyo Guidelines in 2007 and their revision in 2013, appropriate management for acute cholecystitis has been more clearly established. Since the last revision, several manuscripts, especially for alternative endoscopic techniques, have been reported; therefore, additional evaluation and refinement of the 2013 Guidelines is required. We describe a standard drainage method for surgically high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis and the latest developed endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques described in the updated Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18). Our study confirmed that percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage should be considered the first alternative to surgical intervention in surgically high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Also, endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage or endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage can be considered in high-volume institutes by skilled endoscopists. In the endoscopic transpapillary approach, either endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage or gallbladder stenting can be considered for gallbladder drainage. We also introduce special techniques and the latest outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage studies. Free full articles and mobile app of TG18 are available at: http://www.jshbps.jp/modules/en/index.php?content_id=47. Related clinical questions and references are also included. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  9. The G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor, TGR5, Stimulates Gallbladder Filling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Holmstrom, Sam R.; Kir, Serkan; Umetani, Michihisa; Schmidt, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    TGR5 is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor present in brown adipose tissue and intestine, where its agonism increases energy expenditure and lowers blood glucose. Thus, it is an attractive drug target for treating human metabolic disease. However, TGR5 is also highly expressed in gallbladder, where its functions are less well characterized. Here, we demonstrate that TGR5 stimulates the filling of the gallbladder with bile. Gallbladder volume was increased in wild-type but not Tgr5−/− mice by administration of either the naturally occurring TGR5 agonist, lithocholic acid, or the synthetic TGR5 agonist, INT-777. These effects were independent of fibroblast growth factor 15, an enteric hormone previously shown to stimulate gallbladder filling. Ex vivo analyses using gallbladder tissue showed that TGR5 activation increased cAMP concentrations and caused smooth muscle relaxation in a TGR5-dependent manner. These data reveal a novel, gallbladder-intrinsic mechanism for regulating gallbladder contractility. They further suggest that TGR5 agonists should be assessed for effects on human gallbladder as they are developed for treating metabolic disease. PMID:21454404

  10. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2013-06-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  11. Intraabdominal contamination after gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and its complications.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Goto, H; Takeuchi, Y; Yoshida, M; Kobayashi, T; Sakuramachi, S; Harada, Y

    1996-09-01

    Gallbladder perforation often occurs during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The frequency and causes of gallbladder perforation as well as the relevant clinical background factors were investigated in 110 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We also evaluated intraperitoneal contamination by bacteria and gallstones at the time of gallbladder perforation and investigated whether perforation caused early or late postoperative complications. Intraoperative gallbladder perforation occurred in 29 of the 110 patients (26.3%). It was caused by injury with an electric knife during dissection of the gallbladder bed, injury during gallbladder retraction with grasping forceps, injury during gallbladder extraction from the abdomen, and slippage of cystic duct clips (potentially causing bile and stone spillage). Perforation was more frequent in patients with positive bile cultures and in those with pigment stones (p < 0.02), but not in patients with cholecystitis or cystic duct obstruction. The peritoneal cavity was contaminated by bacteria in 11/29 patients (37.9%) and by spilled stones in 3/29 patients (10.3%). There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between the patients with and without perforation either in the early postoperative period or during follow-up for 24-42 months. Only one patient developed abdominal pain and fever in the early postoperative period, and they were probably related to perforation. Although gallbladder perforation is sometimes unavoidable during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the risk of severe complications appears to be minimized by early closure of perforation, retrieval of as many of the spilled stones as possible, and intraperitoneal lavage.

  12. Microscopic Examination of Gallbladder Stones Improves Rate of Detection of Clonorchis sinensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing

    2013-01-01

    To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were “fresh” and in the gallbladder stones were “old.” Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:23698535

  13. Gallbladder emptying to endogenous and exogenous stimulation in chronic pancreatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Meguro, T; Shimosegawa, T; Kashimura, J; Kikuchi, Y; Koizumi, M; Toyota, T

    1994-02-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the underlying mechanism of gallbladder motor disturbance in chronic pancreatitis patients. Gallbladder emptying to endogenous (oral test meal, Daiyan 13 g) and exogenous stimulation (iv cerulein, 30 ng/kg for 5 min) was examined by real-time ultrasonography in 12 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 10 normal subjects (controls). Plasma cholecystokinin levels during the endogenous stimulation were measured by bioassay. In chronic pancreatitis patients compared with controls, the fasting gallbladder volume was significantly increased (29.5 +/- 2.2 vs. 21.5 +/- 2.8 ml), whereas the gallbladder emptying (percent change of the basal volume) to oral test meal was significantly decreased. Neither cholecystokinin secretion induced by the test meal, nor the gallbladder emptying response to intravenous cerulein, differed significantly between the two groups. However, when chronic pancreatitis patients were divided according to pathogenesis, it became clear that gallbladder emptying to intravenous cerulein was significantly greater in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis than in patients with idiopathic pancreatitis. Gallbladder emptying during the intestinal phase is generally reduced in patients with chronic pancreatitis, but gallbladder responsiveness to exogenous stimulation might be heterogeneous according to the pathogenesis.

  14. Complete body-neck torsion of the gallbladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pu, Ta-Wei; Fu, Chun-Yu; Lu, Huai-En; Cheng, Wei-Tung

    2014-10-14

    Gallbladder torsion is a rare, acute abdominal disease. It was first reported by Wendell in 1898. Since then, only 500 cases have been reported. Gallbladder torsion occurs in all age groups, although it usually appears in the latter stages of life. The occurrence ratio between women and men is 3:1. Most cases are diagnosed during surgery. The main treatment is surgical detorsion and cholecystectomy. Despite progress in radiologic imaging diagnosis, it is not easy to obtain a precise preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder torsion. In previous reports, only 9.8% of all gallbladder torsion cases were diagnosed preoperatively. We present a case of acute body-neck gallbladder torsion in an elderly man, and we review the radiologic findings of magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasonography. The radiologic findings in the present case were helpful in obtaining a preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder torsion. The diagnosis was confirmed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, which showed an intra-gallbladder segment located between the body and neck of the gallbladder, with a notable crease within this segment.

  15. Acute NSAID-related transmural duodenitis and extensive duodenal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Hashash, Jana G; Atweh, Lamya A; Saliba, Teddy; Chakhachiro, Zaher; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad; Tawil, Ayman; Barada, Kassem A

    2007-11-01

    A 40-year-old previously healthy white man presented to the emergency department at American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon, with severe upper abdominal pain of 36-hour duration. The pain started a few hours after the intake of a single tablet of tiaprofenic acid and became more intense after the intake of another tablet 24 hours later. He had no other symptoms. He had no prior upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, ulcer disease, steroidal or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, or ethanol intake. Physical examination revealed mild upper abdominal tenderness. Complete blood count, amylase, lipase, and liver function tests were unremarkable. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed marked thickening of the duodenal wall with surrounding mesenteric streaking. Upper GI endoscopy revealed extensive ulceration involving the duodenal bulb, apex, and proximal D2, as well as a few gastric erosions. Histopathologic examination of duodenal biopsy samples showed extensive epithelial cell necrosis and infiltration of the lamina propria with neutrophils and eosinophils. The patient responded well to rabeprazole 20 mg BID and remains well 5 months later. We performed a literature search of PubMed for all English-language articles published between January 1970 and present (June 2007) using the key words tiaprofenic acid, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAID, duodenitis, duodenal erosion, duodenal ulcer, gastritis, gastric erosion, gastric ulcer, or peptic ulcer. We reviewed all randomized controlled trials involving NSAIDs found using PubMed, with a focus on their GI adverse effects. Based on the PubMed search, there were no published reports of acute transmural duodenitis and complicated duodenal ulcers associated with short-term exposure to tiaprofenic acid or other NSAIDs. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction (ADR) probability scale was used and a score of 6 was obtained, indicating a probable ADR from tiaprofenic acid use. We report a patient

  16. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids

  17. Imaging and Screening of Cancer of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, Kumar; Menias, Christine O

    2017-11-01

    Biliary cancers include gallbladder cancer (GBC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). GBC may appear as a mass replacing the gallbladder, thickened gallbladder wall, or polypoid lesion in the gallbladder. Gallbladder polyps with low risk of GBC (eg, 6- to 10-mm polyps without other risk factors) are screened with sonography. In general, polyps smaller than 5 mm are ignored and those larger than 10 mm require surgical consideration. Screening for CCA is less well-established. On imaging, CCA may be divided into mass-forming, periductal infiltrating, and intraductal types. This review discusses the current state of screening and diagnosis of GBC and CCA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. H pylori exist in the gallbladder mucosa of patients with chronic cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Feng; Hu, Lu; Yi, Ping; Liu, Wei-Wen; Fang, Dian-Chun; Cao, Hong

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study whether H pylori locate in the gallbladder mucosa of patients with chronic cholecystitis. METHODS: Using Warthy-Starry (W-S) silver stain and immunohistochemistry stain with anti-H pylori antibodies, we screened paraffin specimens in 524 cases of cholecystitis. H pylori urease gene A (HPUA) and H pylori urease gene B (HPUB) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the fresh tissue specimens from 81 cases of cholecystitis. RESULTS: H pylori-like bacteria were found in 13.55% of the gallbladders of the cholecystitis patients using W-S stain. Meanwhile, bacteria positive for H pylori antibodies were also found in 7.1% of the gallbladders of patients with cholecystitis by immunohistochemistry. Of 81 gallbladders, 11 were positive for both HPUA and HPUB, 4 were positive for HPUA only and 7 were positive for HPUB only. CONCLUSION: H pylori exist in the gallbladders of patients with chronic cholecystitis. PMID:17461457

  19. Synchronous gallbladder squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, both as primary tumors in one patient.

    PubMed

    Vahedi, Amir; Azimpouran, Mahzad; Ghavidel, Ali; Karbasi, Mahsa; Farhadi, Mehrdad

    2018-01-01

    Synchronous primary carcinomas of gallbladder are extremely rare. In this paper, we report a case of double primary carcinomas in gallbladder CASE REPORT: A 65 year old male was admitted to the hospital for surgical removal of gallbladder, which was diagnosed as cholecystitis in ultrasonography. Macroscopic examination disclosed a single whitish mass in gallbladder neck and another distinct mass in the fundus as wall thickening. Pathologic findings revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the neck and adenocarcinoma in the fundus. This study represents an example of misdiagnosis. Being cautious is mandatory in order to manage the patient properly. Synchronous primary carcinomas of gallbladder are rare. However this diagnosis should be taken into account in patients with cholecystitis features in order to seeking for the best surgical approach. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Human gallbladder carcinoma: Role of neurotrophins, MIB-1, CD34 and CA15-3

    PubMed Central

    Artico, M.; Bronzetti, E.; Alicino, V.; Ionta, B.; Bosco, S.; Grande, C.; Bruno, M.; Tranquilli Leali, F. M.; Ionta, G.; Fumagalli, L.

    2010-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract tumor and the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer. The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor and less than 5% of the patients are still alive five years postoperatively. Gallbladder specimens were obtained during surgical operations performed in eleven patients for resection of a gallbladder carcinoma, and during five autopsies (control cases selected among patients who died from for other causes, excluding those suffering from biliary or hepatic diseases). Immunohistochemical characterization and distribution of neurotrophins, with their respective receptors, were analyzed. The actual role played by these neurotrophic factors in the general regulation, vascular permeability, algic responsiveness, release of locally active substances and potential tumorigenesis in the gallbladder and biliary ducts compartment remains controversial. Our study revealed an increased immunohistochemical expression of NGF and TrKA in the epithelium and in the epithelial glands of the gallbladder carcinoma together with an evident immunoreactivity for BDNF in the same neoplastic areas. An evident immunoreactivity for NGF, TrKA and BDNF was observed in control specimens of gallbladder obtained during autopsies, whereas a weak or quite absent immunoreactivity was observed in the same specimens for NT4, TrKC and p75. On the contrary an appreciable immunoreactivity for p75 was observed in the specimens harvested from patients with gallbladder carcinoma. We also investigated the expression of some known tumor markers such as MIB-1 (anti Ki-67), CD34 and CA15-3, to identify a possible correlation between the expression of these molecular factors and the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma. They resulted highly expressed in the stroma (CD34 and CA 15-3) and in the epithelium/epithelial glands (MIB-1) of the neoplastic areas and appeared to be almost absent in the control cases, suggesting that these markers, taken together

  1. Human gallbladder carcinoma: Role of neurotrophins, MIB-1, CD34 and CA15-3.

    PubMed

    Artico, M; Bronzetti, E; Alicino, V; Ionta, B; Bosco, S; Grande, C; Bruno, M; Tranquilli Leali, F M; Ionta, G; Fumagalli, L

    2010-03-11

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract tumor and the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer .The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor and less than 5% of the patients are still alive five years postoperatively. Gallbladder specimens were obtained during surgical operations performed in eleven patients for resection of a gallbladder carcinoma, and during five autopsies (control cases selected among patients who died from for other causes, excluding those suffering from biliary or hepatic diseases). Immunohistochemical characterization and distribution of neurotrophins, with their respective receptors, were analyzed. The actual role played by these neurotrophic factors in the general regulation, vascular permeability, algic responsiveness, release of locally active substances and potential tumorigenesis in the gallbladder and biliary ducts compartment remains controversial. Our study revealed an increased immunohistochemical expression of NGF and TrKA in the epithelium and in the epithelial glands of the gallbladder carcinoma together with an evident immunoreactivity for BDNF in the same neoplastic areas. An evident immunoreactivity for NGF, TrKA and BDNF was observed in control specimens of gallbladder obtained during autopsies, whereas a weak or quite absent immunoreactivity was observed in the same specimens for NT4, TrKC and p75. On the contrary an appreciable immunoreactivity for p75 was observed in the specimens harvested from patients with gallbladder carcinoma. We also investigated the expression of some known tumor markers such as MIB-1 (anti Ki-67), CD34 and CA15-3, to identify a possible correlation between the expression of these molecular factors and the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma. They resulted highly expressed in the stroma (CD34 and CA 15-3) and in the epithelium/epithelial glands (MIB-1) of the neoplastic areas and appeared to be almost absent in the control cases, suggesting that these markers, taken together

  2. The role of TRPP2 in agonist-induced gallbladder smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xingguo; Fu, Jie; Song, Kai; Xue, Nairui; Gong, Renhua; Sun, Dengqun; Luo, Huilai; He, Wenzhu; Pan, Xiang; Shen, Bing; Du, Juan

    2016-04-01

    TRPP2 channel protein belongs to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and is widely expressed in various tissues, including smooth muscle in digestive gut. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that TRPP2 can mediate Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) stores. However, the functional role of TRPP2 in gallbladder smooth muscle contraction still remains unclear. In this study, we used Ca(2+) imaging and tension measurements to test agonist-induced intracellular Ca(2+) concentration increase and smooth muscle contraction of guinea pig gallbladder, respectively. When TRPP2 protein was knocked down in gallbladder muscle strips from guinea pig, carbachol (CCh)-evoked Ca(2+) release and extracellular Ca(2+) influx were reduced significantly, and gallbladder contractions induced by endothelin 1 and cholecystokinin were suppressed markedly as well. CCh-induced gallbladder contraction was markedly suppressed by pretreatment with U73122, which inhibits phospholipase C to terminate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3) production, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB), which inhibits IP3 recepor (IP3R) to abolish IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release. To confirm the role of Ca(2+) release in CCh-induced gallbladder contraction, we used thapsigargin (TG)-to deplete Ca(2+) stores via inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and eliminate the role of store-operated Ca(2+) entry on the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction. Preincubation with 2 μmol L(-1) TG significantly decreased the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction. In addition, pretreatments with U73122, 2APB or TG abolished the difference of the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction between TRPP2 knockdown and control groups. We conclude that TRPP2 mediates Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, and has an essential role in agonist-induced gallbladder muscle contraction.

  3. Presence and distribution of leptin and leptin receptor in the canine gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungin; Lee, Aeri; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong; Kim, Wan Hee

    2016-09-01

    The hormone leptin is produced by mature adipocytes and plays an important role in regulating food intake and energy metabolism through its interaction with the leptin receptor. In addition to roles in obesity and obesity-related diseases, leptin has been reported to affect the components and secretion of bile in leptin-deficient mice. Furthermore, gallbladder diseases such as cholelithiasis are known to be associated with serum leptin concentrations in humans. We hypothesized that the canine gallbladder is a source of leptin and that the leptin receptor may be localized in the gallbladder, where it plays a role in regulating the function of this organ. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence and expression patterns of leptin and its receptors in normal canine gallbladders using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Clinically normal gallbladder tissue samples were obtained from four healthy beagle dogs with similar body condition scores. RT-PCR and sequencing of the amplified PCR products revealed the presence of leptin mRNA and its receptors in the gallbladder. Immunohistochemical investigations demonstrated the expression of leptin and its receptors in the luminal single columnar and tubuloalveolar glandular epithelial cells. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated the presence of leptin and its receptors in the gallbladders of dogs. Leptin and its receptor were both localized throughout the cytoplasm of luminal and glandular epithelial cells. These results suggested that the gallbladder is not only a source of leptin, but also a target of leptin though autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. The results of this study could increase the understanding of both the normal physiological functions of the gallbladder and the pathophysiological mechanisms of gallbladder diseases characterized by leptin system dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. [A photo-optical observation of gallbladder motility in dogs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kudo, N

    1976-03-01

    A photo-optical observation on gallbladder motility was made with the 16 mm cine-cholangiography. The subjects studied were thirty two mongrel dogs. The gallbladder was exposed by a short upper midline abdominal incision under pentothal anesthesia. Gallbladder bile was aspirated and contrast medium was given into the bladder, through a transhepatic route. The cine-cholangiography was done by an image intensifier at a speed of one frame every 2 to 4 seconds. The cinefilms taken were observed repeatedly by the screen projection at various speeds. The drawings were made by tracing the outline of the image of the gallbladder on each frame and were overlapped. Moreover, a contraction curve was made by the cholecystometry using of film motion analyzer in every case. At the same time bile flow into the duodenum was recorded to study a relationship between the gallbladder contraction and motility of the terminal common bile duct. The results obtained are as follows: 1. In a resting state any contraction of the gallbladder was not seen during 30 minutes, and a peristalsis-like movements of the neck portion was observed. However, there was not a relationship between the contraction curve of the gallbladder and the bile flow into the duodenum. 2. Immediately after giving Caerulein, the contrast medium injected into the gallbladder was rapidly discharged into the common bile duct by a peristalsis-like movement of the neck. The size of the gallbladder was markedly decreased into three fifths of the initial state three minutes after administration. At the same time contrast medium was continuously discharged into the duodenum. 3. After giving pilocarpine a marked contraction with forceful movement of the neck and body was observed, and the size of the gallbladder was decreased into three quarters ot the initial state. Bile discharge into the duodenum was markedly increased with an active open- and closing movement of the terminal common bile duct.

  5. Supraduodenal Branch of the Left Hepatic Artery: A Rare Cause of Bleeding Duodenal Ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, Baljendra S., E-mail: bkapoor@uabmc.ed; Berscheid, Bruce; Saddekni, Souheil

    This is a case report describing a rare cause of massive duodenal ulcer hemorrhage resulting from the erosion of the supraduodenal branch of the left hepatic artery. This arterial branch is not a well known variation and is rarely recognized as a source of duodenal bleeding.

  6. [Gallbladder polyps: how should they be treated and when?].

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana Sofia Bento de; Baptista, Hamilton Neves; Pinheiro, Carlos; Martinho, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the correct therapeutic management for patients with gallbladder polyps (GPs), what type of surveillance should be employed and how to differentiate between benign and malignant polyps in addition to also to providing reassurance in cases of "cancerophobia". This was a 5-years retrospective study. The study was conducted at a Surgery Department at the Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra. We analyzed all patients operated on at the Surgery Service II from January 2003 to December 2007 who had had a preoperative diagnosis of GP. Clinicopathological correlations were traced for all patients. The following were analyzed: demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, associated pathologies, supplementary tests and diagnoses. We studied 93 patients, 91 of whom had benign polyps and two of whom had malignant polyps. Of the 91 benign polyps, 73 (78.5%) were cholesterol polyps, 14 (15%) were hyperplastic and two (2.2%) were adenomas. Two (2.2%) patients had malignant polyps, both adenogallbladder carcinomas. The mean diameter of benign polyps was 6 mm and 40 (43%) patients had multiple lesions. The mean diameter of malignant and premalignant polyps taken together was 18.8 mm, all were single polyps and the mean age of this patient subset was 57.7 years. It was concluded that the surgical option for GPs is cholecystectomy and that this should only be undertaken in cases where there are clinical signs of GP; polyps with diameters greater than 10 mm; fast-growing polyps; sessile polyps or wide-based polyps; polyps with long pedicles; patient aged over 50; concurrent gallstones; polyps of the gallbladder infundibulum or abnormal gallbladder wall ultrasound.

  7. Adjuvant Therapy for Gallbladder Carcinoma: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, Douglas G.; Miller, Robert C.; Haddock, Michael G.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy on gallbladder carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records from consecutive patients who underwent R0 resection of gallbladder carcinoma between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2004. Patients had either Stage I (T1-T2N0M0) or Stage II (T3N0M0 or T1-T3N1M0) disease. Patients undergoing adjuvant therapy received 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy (median dosage, 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions). Adverse prognostic factors and the effect of adjuvant treatment on overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Results: A total of 73 patients were included in the analysis; of these, 25 received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Onmore » univariate analysis, no adverse prognostic factors for OS reached statistical significance, but trends were noted for Stage N1 vs. N0 (p = .06), Nx vs. N0 (p = .09), Stage T3 vs. T1-T2 (p = .06), and histologic findings other than adenocarcinoma (p = .13). The median OS for patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiotherapy vs. surgery alone was 4.8 years and 4.2 years, respectively (log-rank test, p = .56). However, a significantly greater percentage of patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiotherapy had Stage II disease (p <.001). In the multivariate Cox model, increasing T and N category and histologic findings other than adenocarcinoma were significant predictors of decreased OS. Additionally, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was a significant predictor of improved OS after adjusting for these prognostic factors (hazard ratio for death, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.69; p = .004). Conclusion: After adjusting for the stage parameters and histologic findings, our data suggest that adjuvant chemoradiotherapy might improve OS for patients with gallbladder cancer.« less

  8. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri-ulcer

  10. Serrated adenoma of the gallbladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    A case of serrated adenomatous polyp found in a cholecystectomy specimen is reported. The adenoma was built with mucosal crypts exhibiting unlocked serrations lined with up to high-grade dysplastic cells. A desmoplastic sclerotic tissue having multiple stromal hubs with branched thin spokes replaced the subjacent lamina propia, muscularis mucosae, and submucosa. The generous serrated configurations covering a multi-branched sclerotic stroma, gave the adenoma a papillary appearance. Review of the literature indicates that this appears to be the first reported case of serrated adenoma of the gallbladder. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. [Endoscopic sphincterotomy in choledocholithiasis and an intact gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, B; Petkov, R; Viiachki, I; Damianov, D; Iarŭmov, N

    1996-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with extraction of calculi is a basic method of treating choledocholithiasis in post-cholecystectomy patients (8, 9). Endoscopic treatment contributes to a considerable reduction of the indications for reoperation. The existing views concerning ES done in patients with preserved gallbladder, especially in the era of laparoscopic surgery, are still conflicting (3, 6). There are several options: cholecystectomy with removal of calculi in the common bile duct by ES in a subsequent stage, or vice versa-primary ES with ensuring cholecystectomy. The undertaking of independent surgical or endoscopic treatment is likewise practicable (2, 6).

  12. Prostaglandin release from in vitro guinea-pig gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Booker, M L; LaMorte, W W

    1983-02-01

    In order to study prostaglandin release from guinea pig gallbladder, full thickness tissue sections were incubated for one hour in Krebs solution. Extraction and two dimensional chromatography of incubation media obtained in the presence of radio-labelled arachidonic acid demonstrated the presence of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2. These results were supported by radioimmunoassay of incubations conducted in the absence of exogenous arachidonate and in the presence of varying concentrations of unlabelled exogenous arachidonate. The previously reported predominance of PGE2 was only seen at high concentrations of exogenous arachidonate.

  13. Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Persian Oak (Quercus brantii) in Experimentally Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Amirmohammadi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) belongs the family Fagaceae, is a medicinal plant which seed flour is used to treat inflammatory and gastric ulcers by the tribes in south western Iran. The current study was done to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii seed flour for treatment of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in Wistar rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii was tested orally at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/Kg, control group and standard drug (omperazole) on experimentally gastric ulceration. At the 3, 6, 9, and 14th days, ulcer index in mm2 and histopathological findings were evaluated. Results indicated the size of ulcers significantly reduced at 9, and 14 days after of Q. brantii extract treatment. Curative effect in the hydro-alcoholic induced gastric damage was 100% at 1000 mg/Kg and omeprazole, 99.8 % at 500 mg/Kg, and 95.4% at 250 mg/Kg after 14 days. Results of histopathological investigation showed the thickness of ulcerated mucosa was similar to the normal mucosa with 1000 mg/Kg of Q. brantii hydro-alcoholic extract after 14 days but in the groups treated by 250, and 500 mg/Kg, superficial erosions were visible in the central portion of the healed ulcers. In conclusion, the hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii had active components (tannin = 8.2%) that accelerates ulcer healing and thus supported its traditional use. PMID:25276198

  14. Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Persian Oak (Quercus brantii) in Experimentally Gastric Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Amirmohammadi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) belongs the family Fagaceae, is a medicinal plant which seed flour is used to treat inflammatory and gastric ulcers by the tribes in south western Iran. The current study was done to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii seed flour for treatment of gastric ulcers induced by ethanol in Wistar rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii was tested orally at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/Kg, control group and standard drug (omperazole) on experimentally gastric ulceration. At the 3, 6, 9, and 14(th) days, ulcer index in mm(2) and histopathological findings were evaluated. Results indicated the size of ulcers significantly reduced at 9, and 14 days after of Q. brantii extract treatment. Curative effect in the hydro-alcoholic induced gastric damage was 100% at 1000 mg/Kg and omeprazole, 99.8 % at 500 mg/Kg, and 95.4% at 250 mg/Kg after 14 days. Results of histopathological investigation showed the thickness of ulcerated mucosa was similar to the normal mucosa with 1000 mg/Kg of Q. brantii hydro-alcoholic extract after 14 days but in the groups treated by 250, and 500 mg/Kg, superficial erosions were visible in the central portion of the healed ulcers. In conclusion, the hydro-alcoholic extract of Q. brantii had active components (tannin = 8.2%) that accelerates ulcer healing and thus supported its traditional use.

  15. [Endoscopical features of precancer changes of the stomach in patients with chronic gastric erosions and biliary tract disease].

    PubMed

    Solovĭova, H A

    2012-01-01

    Frequency of the precancer changes of the stomach, diagnosed by using zoom-endoscopy, NBI, chromoscopy, in the three groups of patients: with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases, with gastric erosions and duodenal ulcer disease, with gastric erosions and chronic gastritis is compared in the article. It is shown, that patients with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases are characterized by bigger spreading of precancer changes: atrophy, intestinal metaplasia with predominant smalluently intestine in gastric body, intestine metaplasia in antral part of the stomach is revealed more freq in these category of patients. A strong correlation between endoscopical and morphological methods of investigation was demonstrated.

  16. Dental Erosion in Industry

    PubMed Central

    Cate, H. J. Ten Bruggen

    1968-01-01

    Five hundred and fifty-five acid workers were examined between March 1962 and October 1964. One hundred and seventy-six (31·7%) were affected by industrial dental erosion at the first examinations. In 33 cases (6·0%) the dentine was affected. During the period of the survey, 66 (20·4%) of 324 workers examined more than once showed evidence that erosion was progressing. The prevalence and incidence of erosion were highest among battery formation workers, lower among picklers, and least among other processes covered by the survey. The age of workers did not appear to influence their susceptibility to erosion. The habit of working with the lips slightly parted had little effect. Erosion superimposed upon attrition predisposed to more severe loss of tooth structure than either operating alone. Little inconvenience or functional disability was suffered by acid workers due to erosion. Twenty-seven (23·7%) of 114 erosions were considered to be disfiguring. Regular dental treatment was sought less by acid workers than by controls, and the oral hygiene of the latter was superior. There was no evidence to show any difference between caries experience among acid workers and controls. Calculus and periodontal disease were more prevalent among acid workers than among controls, but it was not possible to attribute this to the working environment. Black staining in iron picklers was considered to be due to the working environment. The use of closed acid containers or lip extraction on open acid vats prevented significant atmospheric contamination and diminished the prevalence of erosion. The use of wall fans and detergent foaming agents was helpful. Images PMID:5723349

  17. Does Canoeing Increase Streambank Erosion?

    Treesearch

    Edward A. Hansen

    1975-01-01

    Describes research on the Pine River in Michigan to determine if large increases in canoeing accelerated streambank erosion. Most erosion was natural, but people sliding and camping on streambanks created some erosion. Heavy canoe traffic was not a cause of erosion.

  18. A Clinicopathologic Study of Oral Changes in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Gastritis, and Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Vinesh, E; Masthan, Kmk; Kumar, M Sathish; Jeyapriya, S Marytresa; Babu, Aravindha; Thinakaran, Meera

    2016-11-01

    The aim and objectives of this study are to identify oral changes in certain gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, namely gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcerative colitis, gastritis, and to evaluate these oral symptoms as indicators for assessing GI disorders. In this study, the oral manifestations of various GI disorders were assessed in a varying age group of 250 patients in Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. Out of 250 patients, 142 were affected by GERD, 99 were affected by gastritis, and 9 patients were affected by ulcerative colitis. Of these patients, 177 were males and 73 were females. Evaluation of patients with gastritis revealed that 66.7% affected with gingivitis, 19.2% with dental erosion on the palatal and lingual aspects of maxillary and mandibular teeth predominantly in the anterior region, 10.1% with periodontitis, 2% with gingival erythema. Among the patients with GERD, 44% of the cases showed dental erosion, 25.5% periodontitis, 9.9% gingivitis, 5.7% gingival erythema, 2.8% palatal erythema, 2.1% gingival ulcers, glossitis 2%, 1.4% floor of the mouth erythema, and 0.7% erythema of the tongue. Patients with ulcerative colitis showed 44.4% of gingival erythema, 33.3% of dental erosions, and 22.2% of gingival ulcers and periodontitis. In our study of 250 patients, oral manifestations were observed in 88% of the patients. Both soft tissue and hard tissue changes were evident. There was a high correlation between various GI disease and dental erosion, erythema at various sites of the oral cavity, oral ulcers, gingivitis, periodontitis, and glossitis. Careful evaluation of oral cavity may unveil many GI disorders and help the patient by providing early diagnosis, which further facilitates the prognosis.

  19. Long-term follow up of gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Youp; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Hong Jeoung; Kim, Hee Man; Cho, Jae Hee; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bock; Bang, Seungmin

    2009-02-01

    The management of gallbladder polyps (GBP) is directly linked to the early diagnosis of gallbladder cancer (GBC). This study aimed to evaluate the malignant risk of GBP. In total, 1558 patients diagnosed with GBP were followed. Neoplastic polyps were defined as GBC and its premalignant lesions. The risk for malignancy was estimated with the cumulative detection rate of neoplastic polyps. Thirty-three cases (2.1%) were diagnosed with neoplastic polyps. The cumulative detection rates of neoplastic polyps were 1.7% at 1 year, 2.8% at 5 years, and 4% at 8 years after diagnosis. The size of GBP and the presence of gallstones were risk factors for neoplastic polyps. Polyps > or = 10 mm had a 24.2 times greater risk of malignancy than polyps < 10 mm. However, 15 of 33 neoplastic polyps (45.5%) were < 10 mm at the time of diagnosis of GBP. During follow up in 36 (3.5%) of 1027 cases, an increase in size was detected; of these, nine (25%) had neoplastic polyps. Even small polyps have a risk of malignancy, and careful long-term follow up of GBP will help detect and treat early GBC.

  20. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with transgastric gallbladder extraction: a new therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Jurczak, F; Pousset, J-P; Raffaitin, P

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate a newly developed cholecystectomy technique which combines classical dissection with currently available mini-instrumentation (3 and 5 mm) and removal of the gallbladder through a short gastrotomy. After a feasibility study, we set up a protocol for this procedure using instrumentation currently available on the market. The resected gallbladder was removed through a short gastrotomy on the anterior gastric wall, thereby minimizing abdominal wall trauma and permitting the patient to resume physical activity more quickly with no risk of trocar herniation. Cholecystectomy was performed by the described technique in 18 of 23 eligible patients between April 2008 and August 2008. There were seven males and 11 females with a mean age of 48 (range: 28-77); median BMI was 30 kg/m2 (range: 22-36). Eleven patients had a gallstone larger than 12 mm. There were no postoperative complications and recovery was rapid for all patients in our study. This procedure is technically feasible, safe and reproducible; results are good with minimal trauma to the abdominal wall. Normal physical activity can be rapidly resumed with no risk of incisional hernia.

  1. [Quality of DNA from archival pathological samples of gallbladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Roa, Iván; de Toro, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Tamara; Slater, Jeannie; Ziegler, Anne Marie; Game, Anakaren; Arellano, Leonardo; Schalper, Kurt; de Aretxabala, Xabier

    2013-12-01

    The quality of the archival samples stored at pathology services could be a limiting factor for molecular biology studies. To determine the quality of DNA extracted from gallbladder cancer samples at different institutions. One hundred ninety four samples coming from five medical centers in Chile, were analyzed. DNA extraction was quantified determining genomic DNA concentration. The integrity of DNA was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of different length fragments of a constitutive gene (β-globin products of 110, 268 and 501 base pairs). The mean DNA concentration obtained in 194 gallbladder cancer samples was 48 ± 43.1 ng/µl. In 22% of samples, no amplification was achieved despite obtaining a mean DNA concentration of 58.3 ng/ul. In 81, 67 and 22% of samples, a DNA amplification of at least 110, 268 or 501 base pairs was obtained, respectively. No differences in DNA concentration according to the source of the samples were demonstrated. However, there were marked differences in DNA integrity among participating centers. Samples from public hospitals were of lower quality than those from private clinics. Despite some limitations, in 80% of cases, the integrity of DNA in archival samples from pathology services in our country would allow the use of molecular biology techniques.

  2. Inflammatory metastatic breast cancer with gallbladder metastasis: an incidental finding.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Hassan; Graham, David; Rice, David; Ribadeneyra, Michael; Thorner, Kim; Shipley, William; Wehmueller, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, with an estimated 231,840 new cases representing 14.0% of all new cancer cases in the United States in 2015. Early screening and modern techniques of imaging and diagnosis have led to a significant improvement in detecting early-stage breast cancers and to a decrease in the incidence of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). About 20%-30% of patients who are initially diagnosed with an early-stage, nonmetastatic breast cancer will subsequently develop a distant metastatic disease. Between 6%-10% of the new breast cancer cases present initially as stage IV, referred to as de novo MBC. The most common sites of breast cancer metastases are lymph nodes, chest wall, skeleton, lung, skin, and the central nervous system (CNS). Lobular carcinoma, in particular, may metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, and retroperitoneum. Gallbladder metastasis from breast cancer is very rare, and only 15-20 cases have been reported in the literature. Most of those cases have been associated particularly with a lobular histology. We report an additional rare case of MBC to the gallbladder, but with a ductal histology. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  3. Current Role of Minimally Invasive Radical Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Alberto; Guerini, Francesca; Ramera, Marco; Aroldi, Francesca; Zaniboni, Alberto; Rosso, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Background. For Tis and T1a gallbladder cancer (GbC), laparoscopic cholecystectomy can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open cholecystectomy. However, for patients affected by resectable T1b or more advanced GbC, open approach radical cholecystectomy (RC), consisting in gallbladder liver bed resection or segment 4b-5 bisegmentectomy, with locoregional lymphadenectomy, is considered the gold standard while minimally invasive RC (MiRC) is skeptically considered. Aim. To analyze current literature on perioperative and oncologic outcomes of MiRC for patients affected by GbC. Methods. A Medline review of published articles until June 2016 concerning MiRC for GbC was performed. Results. Data relevant for this review were presented in 13 articles, including 152 patients undergoing an attempt of MiRC for GbC. No randomized clinical trial was found. The approach was laparoscopic in 147 patients and robotic in five. Conversion was required in 15 (10%) patients. Postoperative complications rate was 10% with no mortality. Long-term survival outcomes were reported by 11 studies, two of them showing similar oncologic results when comparing MiRC with matched open RC. Conclusions. Although randomized clinical trials are still lacking and only descriptive studies reporting on limited number of patients are available, current literature seems suggesting that when performed at highly specialized centers, MiRC for GbC is safe and feasible and has oncologic outcomes comparable to open RC. PMID:27885325

  4. Current Role of Minimally Invasive Radical Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Manzoni, Alberto; Guerini, Francesca; Ramera, Marco; Bertocchi, Paola; Aroldi, Francesca; Zaniboni, Alberto; Rosso, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Background . For Tis and T1a gallbladder cancer (GbC), laparoscopic cholecystectomy can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open cholecystectomy. However, for patients affected by resectable T1b or more advanced GbC, open approach radical cholecystectomy (RC), consisting in gallbladder liver bed resection or segment 4b-5 bisegmentectomy, with locoregional lymphadenectomy, is considered the gold standard while minimally invasive RC (MiRC) is skeptically considered. Aim . To analyze current literature on perioperative and oncologic outcomes of MiRC for patients affected by GbC. Methods . A Medline review of published articles until June 2016 concerning MiRC for GbC was performed. Results . Data relevant for this review were presented in 13 articles, including 152 patients undergoing an attempt of MiRC for GbC. No randomized clinical trial was found. The approach was laparoscopic in 147 patients and robotic in five. Conversion was required in 15 (10%) patients. Postoperative complications rate was 10% with no mortality. Long-term survival outcomes were reported by 11 studies, two of them showing similar oncologic results when comparing MiRC with matched open RC. Conclusions . Although randomized clinical trials are still lacking and only descriptive studies reporting on limited number of patients are available, current literature seems suggesting that when performed at highly specialized centers, MiRC for GbC is safe and feasible and has oncologic outcomes comparable to open RC.

  5. Oedema of gallbladder wall: correlation with chronic hepatitis B on MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian; Zhao, Jian Nong; Han, Fu Gang; Tang, Guang Cai; Luo, Yin Deng; Chen, Xin; Luo, Li

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise gallbladder wall oedema and correlate it with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sixty-seven patients who were clinically and histologically diagnosed with CHB and 18 healthy individuals without any history of liver disease underwent abdominal MR imaging. Hepatic inflammation (grade 0-4) and fibrosis (stage 0-4) for patients were assessed histologically. Gallbladder wall oedema was noted. Twelve patients showed gallbladder wall oedema on MR imaging, including six with grade 3 and six with grade 4 disease. There was a statistically significant difference for the presence of gallbladder wall oedema among groups with grade 0-4 (p=0.000), but not between groups with grades 3 and 4 (p=0.729). Gallbladder wall oedema was related to moderate-severe inflammatory activity (p<0.05), alanine transaminase (ALT) (p=0.012) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p=0.027) levels but not to fibrosis or other laboratory data, including serum quantitative DNA for hepatitis B virus (HBV), with the p=0.105-0.846. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of hepatic moderate-severe inflammation using gallbladder wall oedema were 33.33% and 100%, respectively. Gallbladder wall oedema for patients with CHB can be specifically demonstrated on MR imaging and is correlated with hepatic moderate-severe inflammatory activity, elevated ALT and AST levels but not with fibrosis or other laboratory data, including viremia.

  6. Megalin and cubilin expression in gallbladder epithelium and regulation by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Erranz, Benjamín; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Argraves, W Scott; Barth, Jeremy L; Pimentel, Fernando; Marzolo, María-Paz

    2004-12-01

    Cholesterol crystal formation in the gallbladder is a key step in gallstone pathogenesis. Gallbladder epithelial cells might prevent luminal gallstone formation through a poorly understood cholesterol absorption process. Genetic studies in mice have highlighted potential gallstone susceptibility alleles, Lith genes, which include the gene for megalin. Megalin, in conjunction with the large peripheral membrane protein cubilin, mediates the endocytosis of numerous ligands, including HDL/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Although the bile contains apoA-I and several cholesterol-binding megalin ligands, the expression of megalin and cubilin in the gallbladder has not been investigated. Here, we show that both proteins are expressed by human and mouse gallbladder epithelia. In vitro studies using a megalin-expressing cell line showed that lithocholic acid strongly inhibits and cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids increase megalin expression. The effects of bile acids (BAs) were also demonstrated in vivo, analyzing gallbladder levels of megalin and cubilin from mice fed with different BAs. The BA effects could be mediated by the farnesoid X receptor, expressed in the gallbladder. Megalin protein was also strongly increased after feeding a lithogenic diet. These results indicate a physiological role for megalin and cubilin in the gallbladder and provide support for a role for megalin in gallstone pathogenesis.

  7. Successful elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the gallbladder by conservative medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong Youb; Song, In Kwan; Choi, Hwan Won; Chung, Eun A; Shin, Bong Seok; Song, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Hong Min; Kim, Young Kwan; Lee, Young-Ha; Lee, Gye Sung

    2002-01-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct, and, when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy. A 44-year-old Korean man was admitted because of nausea and right upper quadrant pain that did not respond to medical control and had worsened 1 day before admission. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a long, linear, moving echogenic structure in the distended lumen of the gallbladder, but no abnormal dilation of the bile duct. Computerized tomography showed a linear soft-tissue density in the dependent portion of the gallbladder. The patient presented with eosinophilia, and abnormal liver function results, but no fever or hepatomegaly. Based on these findings, and presuming a diagnosis of gallbladder ascariasis, we administered antiparasitic medication (albendazole 400 mg/day for 1 day). Seven days later, we obtained one adult female A. lumbricoides from the feces. The symptoms were fully resolved, and no moving structure could be visualized in the gallbladder by ultrasonography. We recommend that initial therapy for gallbladder ascariasis should involve conservative treatment, unless an associated disease is present or a complication arises.

  8. Embryonic cholecystitis and defective gallbladder contraction in the Sox17-haploinsufficient mouse model of biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Ko; Igarashi, Hitomi; Imaimatsu, Kenya; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Hirate, Yoshikazu; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Saijoh, Yukio; Kanai-Azuma, Masami

    2017-01-01

    The gallbladder excretes cytotoxic bile acids into the duodenum through the cystic duct and common bile duct system. Sox17 haploinsufficiency causes biliary atresia-like phenotypes and hepatitis in late organogenesis mouse embryos, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. In this study, transcriptomic analyses revealed the early onset of cholecystitis in Sox17+/− embryos, together with the appearance of ectopic cystic duct-like epithelia in their gallbladders. The embryonic hepatitis showed positive correlations with the severity of cholecystitis in individual Sox17+/− embryos. Embryonic hepatitis could be induced by conditional deletion of Sox17 in the primordial gallbladder epithelia but not in fetal liver hepatoblasts. The Sox17+/− gallbladder also showed a drastic reduction in sonic hedgehog expression, leading to aberrant smooth muscle formation and defective contraction of the fetal gallbladder. The defective gallbladder contraction positively correlated with the severity of embryonic hepatitis in Sox17+/− embryos, suggesting a potential contribution of embryonic cholecystitis and fetal gallbladder contraction in the early pathogenesis of congenital biliary atresia. PMID:28432216

  9. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) immunoreactivity in benign, premalignant and malignant lesions of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Legan, Mateja; Tevžič, Spela; Tolar, Ana; Luzar, Boštjan; Marolt, Vera Ferlan

    2011-03-01

    GLUT-1 is a transmembrane glucose transport protein that allows the facilitated transport of glucose into cells, normally expressed in tissues which depend mainly on glucose metabolism. Enhanced expression of GLUT-1 can also be found in a large spectrum of carcinomas. This study aimed to investigate GLUT-1 expression in gallbladder tissue: from normal tissue samples, hyperplasias, low-grade and high-grade dysplasias to gallbladder carcinomas. In all, 115 archived samples of gallbladder tissue from 68 patients, presented after cholecystectomy, were immunohistochemically stained for GLUT-1. According to the intensity of GLUT-1 immunoreactivity, samples were divided into negative (stained 0-10% of cells stained), positive with weak to moderate (10-50%) and positive with strong (>50%) GLUT-1 expression. The GLUT-1 immunoreactivity of the samples showed a characteristic increase from premalignant lesions to carcinomas. Normal gallbladder tissue samples did not express GLUT-1 (100%). Weak expression was shown only focally in hyperplasias, but to a greater extent with low-grade dysplasias (20%), high-grade dysplasias (40%) and carcinomas (51.8%). Normal gallbladder tissue is GLUT-1 negative. GLUT-1 expression in carcinoma tissue is significantly higher than in dysplastic lesions. Strong GLUT-1 expression indicates 100% specificity for detecting gallbladder carcinomas. Therefore, GLUT-1 is a candidate as a diagnostic as well as a tissue prognostic marker in gallbladder carcinoma patients.

  10. Rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Klik, Andreas; Rousseva, Svetla; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Michaelides, Silas; Hrabalíková, Michaela; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Beguería, Santiago; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based on the best available datasets. Data have been collected from 1541 precipitation stations in all European Union (EU) Member States and Switzerland, with temporal resolutions of 5 to 60 min. The R-factor values calculated from precipitation data of different temporal resolutions were normalised to R-factor values with temporal resolutions of 30 min using linear regression functions. Precipitation time series ranged from a minimum of 5 years to a maximum of 40 years. The average time series per precipitation station is around 17.1 years, the most datasets including the first decade of the 21st century. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1 km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months, average temperature), elevation and latitude/longitude. The mean R-factor for the EU plus Switzerland is 722 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1), with the highest values (>1000 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Mediterranean and alpine regions and the lowest (<500 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Nordic countries. The erosivity density (erosivity normalised to annual precipitation amounts) was also the highest in Mediterranean regions which implies high risk for erosive events and floods

  11. Circular RNA HIPK3 promotes gallbladder cancer cell growth by sponging microRNA-124.

    PubMed

    Kai, Ding; Yannian, Liao; Yitian, Chen; Dinghao, Gong; Xin, Zhao; Wu, Ji

    2018-06-18

    Recent studies have implied that circHIPK3, an abundant circular RNA (circRNA), participates in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Its expression and potential functions in human gallbladder cancer were examined in this study. We show that circHIPK3 is upregulated in human gallbladder cancer cells. But its level is low in gallbladder epithelial cells. circHIPK3 silencing by targeted siRNA potently inhibited survival and proliferation of established and primary human gallbladder cancer cells, while inducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, ectopic over-expression of circHIPK3 can further promote cancer cell proliferation. In gallbladder cancer cells, circHIPK3 sponged the tumor-suppressive microRNA-124 (miR-124) to sequester and inhibit its activity, thereby leading to increased expression of miR-124 targets, including ROCK1 (rho-associated protein kinase 1) and CDK6 (rho-associated protein kinase). Ectopic over-expression of miR-124 b y a lentiviral vector mimicked and abolished actions by circHIPK3 siRNA in gallbladder cancer cells. At last, we show that circHIPK3 is upregulated in human gallbladder cancer tissues, which is correlated with miR-124 downregulation and ROCK1-CDK6 upregulation. Together, we conclude that circHIPK3 promotes gallbladder cancer cell growth possibly by sponging miR-124. The over-expressed circHIPK3 could be a novel therapeutic target and diagnosis marker of human gallbladder cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Feasibility of liver graft procurement with donor gallbladder preservation in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Hong; Ye, Sheng; Duan, Wei-Dong; Ji, Wen-Bing; Liang, Yu-Rong

    2015-10-01

    Cholecystectomy is routinely performed at most transplant centers during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of liver graft procurement with donor gallbladder preservation in LDLT. Eighty-nine LDLTs (from June 2006 to Dec 2012) were retrospectively analyzed at our hospital. The surgical approach for liver graft procurement with donor gallbladder preservation was assessed, and the anatomy of the cystic artery, the morphology and contractibility of the preserved gallbladder, postoperative symptoms, and vascular and biliary complications were compared among donors with or without gallbladder preservation. Twenty-eight donors (15 right and 13 left-liver grafts) successfully underwent liver graft procurement with gallbladder preservation. Among the 15 right lobectomy donors, for 12 cases (80.0 %) the cystic artery originated from right hepatic artery. From the left hepatic artery and proper hepatic artery accounted for 6.7 % (1/15), respectively. Postoperative symptoms among these 28 donors were slight, although donors with cholecystectomy often complained of fatty food aversion, dyspepsia, and diarrhea during an average follow-up of 58.6 (44-78) months. The morphology and contractibility of the preserved gallbladders were comparable with normal status; the rate of contraction was 53.8 and 76.7 %, respectively, 30 and 60 min after ingestion of a fatty meal. Biliary and vascular complications among donors and recipients, irrespective of gallbladder preservation, were not significantly different. These data suggest that for donors compliant with anatomical requirements, liver graft procurement with gallbladder preservation for the donor is feasible and safe. The preserved gallbladder was assessed as functioning well and postoperative symptoms as a result of cholecystectomy were significantly reduced during long-term follow-up.

  13. Our experience with a new instrument for laparoscopic gallbladder extraction, the "Bergetrokar".

    PubMed

    Höferlin, A; Höhle, K D

    1993-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a standardized technique within the last years. However, the extraction of the stone-filled gallbladder often becomes a time-consuming and difficult part of the operation. We have developed a new instrument for quick and safe extraction of the stone-filled gallbladder. The instrument, called "Bergetrokar", is a trocar cannula with a trumpet valve and cone-shaped tip which can be spread. The application of this device is simple. After using the "Bergetrokar" in about 180 cases we have not observed any perforation of the gallbladder or loss of stones. Extraction times were reduced.

  14. Ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge. Identification of calcium-ceftriaxone salt as a major component of gallbladder precipitate

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.Z.; Lee, S.P.; Schy, A.L.

    1991-06-01

    Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, is partially excreted into bile. With its clinical use, the formation of gallbladder sludge detected by ultrasonography has been reported. Four surgical specimens were examined and no gallstones were found. Instead, fine precipitates of 20-250 microns were present. Microscopically, there was a small number of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and bilirubin granules among an abundant amount of granular-crystalline material that was not morphologically cholesterol monohydrate crystals. The chemical composition of the precipitates (n = 4) was determined. There was a small amount of cholesterol (1.7% +/- 0.8%) and bilirubin (13.9% +/- 0.74%). The major component of themore » precipitate was a residue. On further analysis using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron microprobe analysis, the residue was identified as a calcium salt of ceftriaxone. The residue also had identical crystal morphology and chromatographic elution profile as authentic calcium-ceftriaxone standards. It is concluded that ceftriaxone, after excretion and being concentrated in the gallbladder bile, can form a precipitate. The major constituent has been identified as a ceftriaxone-calcium salt.« less

  15. [Prevention of pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    Negishi, Kenichi

    2009-12-01

    Even though they have not been diagnosed with a recognized disease, many people have or are at risk of contracting debilitating conditions. They can be referred to as being in the "ill-health zone." For example, many bedridden elderly develop pressure ulcers. The prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers should focus on two main factors: the role of pressure in the development of circulatory disorders; and increased dermal pH. In preventing the development of circulatory disorders resulting in pressure ulcers, using an air or polyurethane mattress is helpful. However, changing the mattress has little effect if the position of the bedridden person is not also changed regularly. To avoid an increase in dermal pH, caregivers should apply moisture-repellent cream and/or oil to the sacral region after careful cleansing. It is important that such preventive measures and treatment be performed daily, and caregivers should be educated on this need and subsequently monitored. Pharmacists have a role in caring for those in the ill-health zone.

  16. Coastal Erosion Control Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, V.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal erosion is bad because the ecosystem there will be washed away and the animals could drown or be displaced and have to adapt to a new ecosystem that they are not prepared for. I'm interested in this problem because if there aren't beaches when I grow up I won't be able to do the things I would really like to do. I would like to be a marine biologist. Secondly, I don't want to see beach houses washed away. I would like to see people live in harmony with their environment. So, to study ways in which to preserve beaches I will make and use models that test different erosion controls. Two different ideas for erosion control I tested are using seaweed or a rock berm. I think the rock berm will work better than the model of seaweed because the seaweed is under water and the waves can carry the sand over the seaweed, and the rock berm will work better because the rocks will help break the waves up before they reach the shore and the waves can not carry the sand over the rocks that are above the water. To investigate this I got a container to use to model the Gulf of Mexico coastline. I performed several test runs using sand and water in the container to mimic the beach and waves from the Gulf of Mexico hitting the shoreline. I did three trials for the control (no erosion control), seaweed and a rock berm. Rock berms are a border of a raised area of rock. The model for seaweed that I used was plastic shopping bags cut into strips and glued to the bottom of my container to mimic seaweed. My results were that the control had the most erosion which ranged from 2.75 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The seaweed was a little better than the control but was very variable and ranged from 1.5 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The rock berm worked the best out of all at controlling erosion with erosion ranging from 1.5 - 2 inches. My hypothesis was correct because the rock berm did best to control erosion compared to the control which had no erosion control and the model with seaweed.

  17. Psychological factors in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1984-04-01

    Almost 50 years ago ulcerative colitis was included among the seven classical psychosomatic diseases. The psychodynamics and personality structures specific to ulcerative colitis sufferers were sought and the main-stay of treatment was psychotherapy. However, for the past decade the psychogenic approach to this disorder has been replaced by physiological and immunological explanations and treatments. The history of medical and psychogenic explanations and treatments of ulcerative colitis has been traced to the present. Ulcerative colitis remains a "riddle," as it was described almost 50 years ago, a complex disorder whose pattern is to flare up and subside, its cause and cure still unknown despite almost 100 years of study.

  18. Pressure ulcer assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, C R; Rodeheaver, G T

    1999-01-01

    A pressure ulcer is an area of localized tissue destruction directly related to prolonged pressure. The loss of skin integrity produces significant consequences not only for the individual, but also for the community, with reported costs of $8.5 billion for pressure-ulcer care. Because of these costs, health care providers should be seeking prevention programs that identify high-risk individuals and implement preventive measures before the ulcer begins. Once the individual develops an ulcer, assessment of healing is critical to determine the appropriate treatment. Successful treatment depends on the principles of debridement, cleansing, bacterial control, wound dressing, and occasionally, surgical intervention.

  19. [Peptic ulcer disease and stress].

    PubMed

    Herszényi, László; Juhász, Márk; Mihály, Emese; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of peptic ulcer disease revolutionised our views on the etiology and treatment of the disease. This discovery has tempted many experts to conclude that psychological factors and, specifically, stress are unimportant. However, Helicobacter pylori infection alone does not explain fully the incidence and prevalence of peptic ulcer disease. It has been demonstrated that stress can cause peptic ulcer disease even in the absence of Helicobacter pylori infection, supporting a multicausal model of peptic ulcer etiology. Psychological stress among other risk factors can function as a cofactor with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  20. Management of bacterial corneal ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Maske, R; Hill, J C; Oliver, S P

    1986-01-01

    A prospective microbiological study of 48 patients with corneal ulcers due to bacterial infection was performed. Positive cultures of corneal ulcer samples were obtained in 60% of all patients; about half of these patients had received antimicrobial treatment prior to sampling. A relatively high incidence of Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated from ulcer patients (27%) compared with normal controls (10%). Gram stains of ulcer samples were positive for organisms in only 27% of all patients and were not considered useful in determining initial therapy in this series. We concluded that treatment should be started with a broad combination of antibiotics while awaiting the culture results. PMID:3082352

  1. Erosion of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    A model for describing the response of uncoated and coated fiber reinforced composites subjected to repeated impingements of liquid (rain) droplets is presented. The model is based on the concept that fatigue is the dominant factor in the erosion process. Algebraic expressions are provided which give the incubation period, the rate of mass loss past the incubation period, and the total mass loss of the material during rain impact. The influence of material properties on erosion damage and the protection offered by different coatings are discussed and the use of the model in the design in the design of structures and components is illustrated.

  2. Erosive Lichen Planus.

    PubMed

    Mauskar, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous condition with a myriad of clinical manifestations. There are 3 forms of lichen planus that effect the vulva: papulosquamous, hypertrophic, and erosive. Erosive lichen planus can progress to vulvar scaring, vaginal stenosis, and squamous cell carcinoma; these long-term sequelae cause sexual distress, depression, and decreased quality of life for patients. Diagnosis is often delayed because of patient embarrassment or clinician misdiagnosis. Early recognition and treatment is essential to decreasing the morbidity of this condition. Multimodal treatment, along with a multidisciplinary approach, will improve outcomes and further clinical advances in studying this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inflammatory fibroid polyp of the gallbladder bearing a platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha mutation.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maurizio; Santoro, Luisa; Familiari, Pietro; Costamagna, Guido; Ricci, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    The inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a benign lesion occurring in the digestive tract, mostly in the stomach and small bowel, composed of fibrovascular tissue infiltrated by inflammatory cells including eosinophils and mastocytes. Its pathogenesis has been controversial (reactive versus neoplastic). The recent finding of mutations in platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) in most gastric and small intestinal IFPs supported their neoplastic etiology, moreover helping in their differential diagnosis. In the only gallbladder IFP reported so far, the diagnosis was based on morphologic and immunohistochemical grounds, which in current standards would probably be considered not fully conclusive. Conversely, the gallbladder IFP we report shows typical pathologic features supported by a PDGFRA mutation, similar to its usual gastric and small intestinal counterparts, constituting the first report of an unequivocal IFP at gallbladder level. Thus, IFPs must be considered in the differential diagnosis of gallbladder mesenchymal masses, and genetic analysis of PDGFRA is a helpful tool for this purpose.

  4. “Adenomatous Polyps Of The Gallbladder” Adenomas oF the Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Antonio; Cetta, Francesco; Sianesi, Mario

    1991-01-01

    The finding of adenomatous polyps of the gallbladder is a rare occurrence and an unusual clinical problem. Among 2,145 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for gallbladder disease only 9 (0.4 per cent) presented with adenomatous polyps. There were 6 women and 3 men, aged 17 to 70 years. Preoperative ultrasonographic diagnosis was made in only 1 of 7 patients with gallstones, in contrast polypoid lesions within a gallbladder without stones were easily confirmed by both ultrasonography and oral cholecystography in the remaining 2 patients. All polyps were 1.0 cm or less in size and without histologic evidence of malignant change. The clinical significance of this rare condition is discussed, with particular reference to a possible role in development of gallbladder carcinoma. Surgical treatment should be advocated regardless of clinical manifestation when the polyp exceeds 1.0 cm in diameter or rapid growth of the lesion is seen on ultrasonographic follow-up examinations. PMID:1859800

  5. Cholecystokinin-Assisted Hydrodissection of the Gallbladder Fossa during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, Sanjit O., E-mail: tewaris@mskcc.org; Petre, Elena N., E-mail: petree@mskcc.org; Osborne, Joseph, E-mail: osbornej@mskcc.org

    2013-12-15

    A 68-year-old female with colorectal cancer developed a metachronous isolated fluorodeoxyglucose-avid (FDG-avid) segment 5/6 gallbladder fossa hepatic lesion and was referred for percutaneous ablation. Pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a distended gallbladder abutting the segment 5/6 hepatic metastasis. In order to perform ablation with clear margins and avoid direct puncture and aspiration of the gallbladder, cholecystokinin was administered intravenously to stimulate gallbladder contraction before hydrodissection. Subsequently, the lesion was ablated successfully with sufficient margins, of greater than 1.0 cm, using microwave with ultrasound and FDG PET/CT guidance. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and was discharged home themore » next day.« less

  6. Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Galled by the Gallbladder? Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ En español Send us your comments Most ... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 ...

  7. Gallbladder carcinoma late metastases and incisional hernia at umbilical port site after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, A; Romeo, G; Genova, G; Tomasello, G; Agnello, G; Cstronovo, Gaetano

    2006-05-01

    A potentially serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the inadvertent dissemination of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma. There are increasing reports of seeding of tumor at the trocar sites following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with unexpected or inapparent gallbladder carcinoma. Although the mechanism of the abdominal wall recurrence is still unclear, laparoscopic handling of the tumor, perforation of the gallbladder, and extraction of the specimen without an endobag may be risk factors for the spreading of malignant cells. The Authors report the case of late development of umbilical metastasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy; the presence of an incisional hernia and the finding of a stone in subcutaneous tissue demonstrate the diffusion of tumor cells into subcutaneous tissue during the extraction of gallbladder. The patient underwent an excision of the metastases. She is disease free two years after surgical treatment.

  8. [Disturbances of gastrointestinal motility of the stomach in patients with chronic gastric erosions and biliary tract disease].

    PubMed

    Svintsitskyĭ, A S; Solovĭova, H A

    2012-12-01

    Article dwells on comparison data about motor function of the stomach in the three groups of patients: with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases, duodenal ulcer disease, chronic gastritis. It is shown, that patients with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases are characterized by slower evacuation function of the stomach, hypotonus of the stomach. Frequency of duodenal reflux in this group of patients is very high (85,9 %).

  9. Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps in a large Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Tao, Lian-yuan; Wu, Qiao; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Feng-liang; Yuan, Li; He, Xiao-dong

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalences of and risk factors associated with the development of gallbladder stones and polyps in a large Chinese population. Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were retrospectively investigated among subjects who underwent a general check-up at the Health Screening Centres of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and Beijing Charity Hospital between January 2007 and June 2010. A total of 60,064 people were enrolled in the study. Overall prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were 4.2% (n= 2527) and 6.9% (n= 4119), respectively. Risk factors associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for the development of biliary stones were female gender (OR = 1.51), age ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.09), history of hypertension (OR = 1.37), thickened gallbladder wall (cholecystitis) (OR = 1.98), fasting blood glucose ≥ 6.10 mmol/l (OR = 1.27), body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (OR = 1.25), systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg (OR = 1.31) and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg (OR = 1.44). Factors associated with gallbladder polyps were female gender (OR = 0.66), thickened gallbladder wall (OR = 2.09), negativity for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and positivity for hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) (OR = 2.61), and positivity for both HBsAg and anti-HBc (OR = 3.21).   Prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps among Chinese people are similar to those reported for other populations. Biliary stones appear to be associated with female gender, age, obesity, blood glucose, blood pressure and cholecystitis. Male gender, hepatitis B virus infection and cholecystitis were strong risk factors for the formation of gallbladder polyps. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  10. Genetic epidemiology of gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans and cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase gene variation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.P.; Hanis, C.L.; Boerwinkle, E.

    1994-09-01

    Among Mexican Americans the prevalence of gallbladder disease is markedly elevated. Previous data from both genetic admixture and family studies indicate that there is genetic component to the occurrence of gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans. However, prior to this study no formal genetic analysis of gallbladder disease had been carried out nor had any contributing gene been identified. The results of complex segregation analysis in a sample of 232 Mexican Americans with age- and gender-specific effects influencing the occurrence of gallbladder disease. The estimated frequency of the allele increasing susceptibility was 0.39. The lifetime probabilities that an individual will bemore » affected by gallbladder disease were 1.0, 0.54, and 0.00 for females of genotypes {open_quotes}AA{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Aa{close_quotes}, and {open_quotes}aa{close_quotes}, respectively, and 0.68, 0.30, and 0.00 for males, respectively. Human cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis. The results of an association study in both a random sample and a matched case/control sample showed that there is a significant association between cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase gene variation and the occurrence of gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans males but not in females. For loci in the 5{prime}-end of the cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase gene, the frequency of the susceptibility alleles was twice as high in gallbladder disease patients compared to controls. The results of a linkage analysis provide evidence that the cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase gene and the inferred gallbladder disease gene are genetically linked.« less

  11. Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps in a large Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Tao, Lian-yuan; Wu, Qiao; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Feng-liang; Yuan, Li; He, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to identify the prevalences of and risk factors associated with the development of gallbladder stones and polyps in a large Chinese population. Methods Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were retrospectively investigated among subjects who underwent a general check-up at the Health Screening Centres of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and Beijing Charity Hospital between January 2007 and June 2010. Results A total of 60 064 people were enrolled in the study. Overall prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were 4.2% (n = 2527) and 6.9% (n = 4119), respectively. Risk factors associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for the development of biliary stones were female gender (OR = 1.51), age ≥50 years (OR = 2.09), history of hypertension (OR = 1.37), thickened gallbladder wall (cholecystitis) (OR = 1.98), fasting blood glucose ≥6.10 mmol/l (OR = 1.27), body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 1.25), systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (OR = 1.31) and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg (OR = 1.44). Factors associated with gallbladder polyps were female gender (OR = 0.66), thickened gallbladder wall (OR = 2.09), negativity for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and positivity for hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) (OR = 2.61), and positivity for both HBsAg and anti-HBc (OR = 3.21). Conclusions Prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps among Chinese people are similar to those reported for other populations. Biliary stones appear to be associated with female gender, age, obesity, blood glucose, blood pressure and cholecystitis. Male gender, hepatitis B virus infection and cholecystitis were strong risk factors for the formation of gallbladder polyps. PMID:22568413

  12. Mucin and phospholipids determine viscosity of gallbladder bile in patients with gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Jüngst, Dieter; Niemeyer, Anna; Müller, Iris; Zündt, Benedikta; Meyer, Günther; Wilhelmi, Martin; del Pozo, Reginald

    2001-01-01

    AIM: An increased viscosity of gallbladder bile has been considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease. Besides lipids and proteins, mucin has been suggested to affect the viscosity of bile. To further clarify these issues we compared mucin, protein and the lipid componEnts of hepatic and gallbladder bile and its viscosity in patients with gallstones. METHODS: Viscosity of bile (mPa.s) was measured using rotation viscosimetry in regard to the non Newtonian property of bile at low shear rates. RESULTS: Biliary viscosity was markedly higher in gallbladder bile of patients with cholesterol (5.00 ± 0.60 mPa.s, mean ± SEM, n = 28) and mixed stones (3.50 ± 0.68 mPa.s; n = 8) compared to hepatic bile (0.92 ± 0.06 mPa.s, n = 6). A positive correlation between mucin and viscosity was found in gallbladder biles (r = 0. 65; P < 0.001) but not in hepatic biles. The addition of physiologic and supraphysiologic amounts of mucin to gallbladder bile resulted in a dose dependent non linear increase of its viscosity. A positive correlation was determined between phospholipid concentration and viscosity (r = 0.34, P < 0.005) in gallbladder biles. However, no correlation was found between total protein or the other lipid concentrations and viscosity in both gallbladder and hepatic biles. CONCLUSION: The viscosity of gallbladder bile is markedly higher than that of hepatic bile in patients with gallstones. The concentration of mucin is the major determinant of biliary viscosity and may contribute by this mechanism to the role of mucin in the pathogenesis of gallstones. PMID:11819761

  13. RNAseq Reveals Complex Response of Campylobacter jejuni to Ovine Bile and In vivo Gallbladder Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kreuder, Amanda J.; Schleining, Jennifer A.; Yaeger, Michael; Zhang, Qijing; Plummer, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Colonization of the gallbladder by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni is thought to play a key role in transmission and persistence of these important zoonotic agents; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that allow for bacterial survival within this harsh environment. Recently, a highly virulent C. jejuni sheep abortion (SA) clone represented by the clinical isolate IA3902 has emerged as the dominant cause for sheep abortion in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that the C. jejuni clone SA can frequently be isolated from the gallbladders of otherwise healthy sheep, suggesting that the gallbladder may serve as an important reservoir for infection. To begin to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with survival in the host gallbladder, C. jejuni IA3902 was exposed for up to 24 h to both the natural ovine host in vivo gallbladder environment, as well as ovine bile in vitro. Following exposure, total RNA was isolated from the bile and high throughput deep sequencing of strand specific rRNA-depleted total RNA was used to characterize the transcriptome of IA3902 under these conditions. Our results demonstrated for the first time the complete transcriptome of C. jejuni IA3902 during exposure to an important host environment, the sheep gallbladder. Exposure to the host environment as compared to in vitro bile alone provided a more robust picture of the complexity of gene regulation required for survival in the host gallbladder. A subset of genes including a large number of protein coding genes as well as seven previously identified non-coding RNAs were confirmed to be differentially expressed within our data, suggesting that they may play a key role in adaptation upon exposure to these conditions. This research provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms that may be utilized by C. jejuni IA3902 to colonize and survive within the inhospitable gallbladder

  14. Association between Gallbladder Ultrasound Findings and Bacterial Culture of Bile in 70 Cats and 202 Dogs.

    PubMed

    Policelli Smith, R; Gookin, J L; Smolski, W; Di Cicco, M F; Correa, M; Seiler, G S

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial cholecystitis often is diagnosed by combination of gallbladder ultrasound (US) findings and positive results of bile culture. The value of gallbladder US in determining the likelihood of bile bacterial infection in cats and dogs with suspected biliary disease is unknown. To determine the value of gallbladder US in predicting bile bacterial culture results, identify most common bacterial isolates from bile, and describe complications after cholecystocentesis in cats and dogs with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Cats (70) and dogs (202) that underwent an abdominal US and submission of bile for culture were included in the study. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the association of gallbladder US abnormalities and the results of bile cultures, and complications of cholecystocentesis. Abnormal gallbladder US had high sensitivity (96%) but low specificity (49%) in cats with positive and negative results of bile bacterial culture, respectively. Cats with normal gallbladder US findings were unlikely to have positive bile bacterial culture (negative predictive value of 96%). Gallbladder US had lower sensitivity (81%), specificity (31%), positive predictive value (20%), and negative predictive value (88%) in dogs. The most common bacterial isolates were of enteric origin, the prevalence being higher in cats. Incidence of complications after cholecystocentesis was 3.4%. Gallbladder US has a high negative predictive value for bile culture results in cats. This modality is less predictive of infection in dogs. Percutaneous US-guided cholecystocentesis has a low complication rate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Hepatitis, gallbladder hydrops, splenomegaly, and ascites in a child with scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Yueh; Young, Ton-Ho

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of scarlet fever associated with hepatitis, gallbladder hydrops, splenomegaly, and ascites in a 15-year-old girl. The girl presented with fever and skin rash. Leukocyte, liver enzyme, and serum C-reactive protein concentrations were elevated. Ultrasonography revealed marked gallbladder wall thickening, diffuse liver parenchymal disease with moderate splenomegaly, and moderate ascites throughout the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Blood cultures for group A β-hemolytic streptococci were negative. Complete recovery was facilitated with antibiotic treatment.

  16. Liver and gallbladder cancer in immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Brandt, Andreas; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan

    2010-03-01

    The changes of cancer incidence upon immigration can be used as an estimator of environmental influence on cancer risk. We studied site-specific liver and biliary cancers in first-generation immigrants to Sweden with an aim to search for aetiological clues and to find evidence for indigenous incidence rates. We used the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) in immigrants compared to native Swedes. A total of 1428 cancers were identified in immigrants whose median ages (years) at immigration were 27 for men and 26 for women and whose median diagnostic ages were 64 and 66, respectively. The highest SIRs of 6.7 for primary liver cancer were observed for men from East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Increased SIRs were recorded for male immigrants from previous Yugoslavia (1.78), Southern Europe (2.91), Turkey (2.15) and Asian Arab countries (2.89). For gallbladder cancer, only women from the Indian subcontinent (3.84) and Chile (2.34) had increased risk while some Northern European immigrants showed decreased risks. Primary liver cancer was increased in immigrants from endemic regions of hepatitis B virus infection but also from large regions lacking cancer incidence data, North Africa, Asian Arab countries, Turkey and previous Yugoslavia; these are probably intermediary risk regions for this infection. The consideration of these regions as risk areas would justify active diagnostic and vaccination programs. The increase in gallbladder cancer in Chileans and Indians suggests that some persistent damage was inflicted before emigration, characterisation of which will be a challenge for aetiological studies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interdigital erosions - tinea pedis?

    PubMed

    Orgaz-Molina, Jacinto; Orgaz-Molina, Maria Carmen; Cutugno, Marilena; Arias-Santiago, Salvador

    2012-10-01

    Interdigital erosions are frequently due to tinea pedis. However, other infectious conditions, such as candidiasis, erythrasma or bacterial infections, can generate lesions that cannot be differentiated at the clinical level. Microbiological tests are therefore necessary. This clinical case shows a man with interdigital lesions of 10 months of evolution that are not responding to antifungal treatment.

  18. Economic valuation of erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marupah; Zubair, H.; Rukmana, D.; Baja, S.

    2018-05-01

    Various results of erosion research on highland vegetable farming land indicate that the erosion level is classified as dangerous. This condition cannot be tolerated, because it will cause economic problems in the future both society and government. For farmers who are actively processing potatoes, the longer the farming the greater the cost of production so that the rate of profit gained tends to decrease. For the government, environmental degradation will reduce the possible use of the budget for the development of social welfare because the available funds are used to finance the prevention and handling of environmental disasters such as floods and landslides. The purpose of this study is to find out how many profit opportunities are lost due to erosion occurring in potato farming, using the method of analysis of agricultural systems and then calculate the opportunity price of potato farming system. The results of this study indicate that the value needed to reduce erosion by 0.54 t.ha-1 in one harvest season was IDR. 5,605,556.-. The opportunity to earn a profit of IDR. 5,600,000.- will be lost if farmers do not apply conservation techniques to potato farming in sub-districts Tinggimoncong.

  19. Hydrology and soil erosion

    Treesearch

    Leonard J. Lane; Mary R. Kidwell

    2003-01-01

    We review research on surface water hydrology and soil erosion at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER). Almost all of the research was associated with eight small experimental watersheds established from 1974 to 1975 and operated until the present. Analysis of climatic features of the SRER supports extending research findings from the SRER to broad areas of the...

  20. Erosion of polyurethane insulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, S.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed description of the test program in which erosion of the spray foam insulation used in the S-II stage of the Saturn-V Apollo launch vehicle was investigated. The behavior of the spray foam was investigated at the elevated temperature and static pressure appropriate to the S-II stage environment, but in the absence of the aerodynamic shear stress.

  1. Controlled Ultrasound Tissue Erosion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Ludomirsky, Achiau; Eun, Lucy Y.; Hall, Timothy L.; Tran, Binh C.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of ultrasound to produce highly controlled tissue erosion was investigated. This study is motivated by the need to develop a noninvasive procedure to perforate the neonatal atrial septum as the first step in treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. A total of 232 holes were generated in 40 pieces of excised porcine atrial wall by a 788 kHz single-element transducer. The effects of various parameters [e.g., pulse repetition frequency (PRF), pulse duration (PD), and gas content of liquid] on the erosion rate and energy efficiency were explored. An Isppa of 9000 W/cm2, PDs of 3, 6, 12, and 24 cycles; PRFs between 1.34 kHz and 66.7 kHz; and gas saturation of 40–55% and 79–85% were used. The results show that very short pulses delivered at certain PRFs could maximize the erosion rate and energy efficiency. We show that well-defined perforations can be precisely located in the atrial wall through the controlled ultrasound tissue erosion (CUTE) process. A preliminary in vivo experiment was conducted on a canine subject, and the atrial septum was perforated using CUTE. PMID:15244286

  2. Likelihood of malignancy in gallbladder polyps and outcomes following cholecystectomy in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Eaton, John E; Thackeray, Erin W; Lindor, Keith D

    2012-03-01

    Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) have an increased risk for gallbladder cancer. We aimed to define the postoperative outcomes in PSC patients after cholecystectomy and determine if size of a gallbladder lesion on imaging predicts the presence of neoplasia. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with PSC who underwent cholecystectomy at Mayo Clinic between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2008. Patients with a prior history of a liver transplant or cholangiocarcinoma were excluded. A total of 57 patients were included in our primary analysis during the early postoperative period. The most common indication for undergoing a cholecystectomy was the presence of a gallbladder polyp or mass. The sensitivity and specificity of a gallbladder lesion of 0.80 cm and the presence of gallbladder neoplasia was 100% (95% confidence interval (CI) 77-100%) and 70% (95% CI 35-93%), respectively. Of the patients, 23 (40%) had an early postoperative complication. The Child-Pugh score was the only predictor of postoperative outcomes in the multivariate model (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.11-3.12, P=0.02). Cholecystectomy in patients with PSC is associated with a high morbidity. Gallbladder polyps <0.80 cm are unlikely to be malignant and observation of these small polyps should be considered. A higher Child-Pugh score was associated with early postoperative complications.

  3. Is it necessary to perform prophylactic cholecystectomy for all symptomatic gallbladder polyps diagnosed with ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Çitgez, Bülent; Arıkan, Akif Enes; Ayan, Fadıl

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine the necessity of cholecystectomy in patients with ultrasound diagnosed symptomatic polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. The data of 82 patients with polypoid lesions of the gallbladder who had cholecystectomy between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively with preoperative ultrasound and histopathology results. The mean age was 48.05±11.18 years (range 25-74 years). All patients underwent preoperative ultrasound examination. Eighteen (22%) of the 82 patients were asymptomatic; their polypoid lesions of the gallbladder were detected with ultrasound during a check-up or other reasons. In 45 (55%) of cases pathology reported no polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. Right upper quadrant or epigastric pain was the most common symptom (41.46%) that led to hepatobiliary ultrasound, the other symptom was dyspepsia (36.59%). On preoperative ultrasound evaluation, 22 patients had multiple polyps, and 9 of these 22 patients had at least 3 polyps. There is an inaccuracy of ultrasound to detect polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. After diagnosing polypoid lesions of the gallbladder by using standard ultrasound, further pre-operative diagnostic tests are needed to help discriminating benign lesions from malignant ones, which may prevent unnecessary surgery regardless of symptoms.

  4. A cross-sectional study of cardiorespiratory fitness and gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Changqing; Mikus, Catherine; Ahmed, Ali; Hu, Gang; Xiong, Kaiyu; Zhang, Yimin; Sui, Xuemei

    2017-04-01

    To determine the association of different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), an objective indicator of habitual physical activity, with gallbladder disease. In the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) database, 41,528 men and 13,206 women aged 20-90 years, with body mass index of 18.5 or more and without history of cardiovascular disease and cancer, received a preventive examination at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas, between 1970 and 2003. CRF was quantified as maximal metabolic equivalents and classified as low, moderate, and high based on traditional ACLS cut points. Gallbladder disease was defined as physician-diagnosed gallbladder disease. When compared with low CRF, adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for gallbladder disease for those with moderate and high CRF were 0.74 (0.55-0.99) and 0.59 (0.42-0.82), respectively when adjusted for all the potential confounders. Each one metabolic equivalent increment of CRF was associated with 10% lower odds of gallbladder disease in all participants (P for trend <.001), 13% lower in women (P for trend <.001), and 8% lower in men (P for trend = .08). The association was consistent across age, history of diabetes mellitus, and physical inactivity subgroups. CRF is inversely related to the prevalence of gallbladder disease among relatively healthy men and women in the ACLS cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heparanase overexpression down-regulates syndecan-1 expression in a gallbladder carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hao; Yang, Song; Cao, Hai-ming

    2017-01-01

    Objective To discuss the relevance of heparanase and syndecan-1 and regulation of the heparanase-syndecan1 axis in the invasiveness of gallbladder carcinoma cells. Methods 1. Generation of a gallbladder cancer cell line overexpressing a heparanase (GBD-SD) transgene. 2. Western blot analysis of syndecan-1 levels of GBD-SD and control gallbladder carcinoma (GBC-SD) cells. 3. RT-PCR analysis of syndecan-1 mRNA levels of GBD-SD and GBC-SD. 4. Evaluation of invasion and migration of GBD-SD and GBC-SD cells. Results 1. Heparanase expression in GBD-SD cells was significantly increased. 2. The syndecan-1 mRNA level of GBD-SD cells was significantly lower compared with that of GBC-SD cells. 3. The syndecan-1 DNA copy number in GBD-SD cells was significantly lower compared with that of GBC-SD. 4. The invasiveness and migration of GBD-SD cells were significantly higher compared with GBC-SD cells. Conclusions 1. The expression of heparanase negatively correlated with that of syndecan-1 in a gallbladder carcinoma cell line. 2. The expression of heparanase and syndecan-1 in gallbladder carcinomas negatively correlated, similar to other tumours. 3. The heparanase/syndecan1 axis in gallbladder carcinoma plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis, thus providing a new therapeutic target. 4. Further research is required to identify the detailed mechanisms. PMID:28351285

  6. Expression and subcellular localization of NHE3 in the human gallbladder epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongsheng; Kong, Jing; Wu, Shuodong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Enhanced gallbladder concentrating function is an important factor for the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD), but the mechanism is unknown. Potential candidates for regulation of gallbladder ion absorption are suggested to be Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3). In this study, we investigated the expression and subcellular localization of NHE3 in both acalculous and calculous human gallbladders. Methods: Adult human gallbladder tissue was obtained from 23 patients (7 men, 16 women) who had undergone cholecystectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A (acalculous group) and Group B (calculous group). Gene expression of NHE3 was quantitatively estimated by real-time PCR. Protein expression was studied by Western blotting assays. Furthermore, expression of immunoreactive NHE3 was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results: There was no significant difference in the NHE3 mRNA expression between calculous and acalculous human gallbladders. NHE3 protein expression in gallbladders from patients with cholelithiasis is increased compared to those without gallstones. Immunohistochemistry studies prove that NHE3 is located both on the apical plasma membrane and in the intracellular pool in human GBECs. Conclusions: NHE3 may play a role in the pathogenesis of human CGD. Additional studies are required to further delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25674247

  7. Trends in port-site metastasis after laparoscopic resection of incidental gallbladder cancer: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Berger-Richardson, David; Chesney, Tyler R; Englesakis, Marina; Govindarajan, Anand; Cleary, Sean P; Swallow, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    The risk of port-site metastasis after laparoscopic removal of incidental gallbladder cancer was previously estimated to be 14-30%. The present study was designed to determine the incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer in the modern era (2000-2014) versus the historic era (1991-1999). We also investigated the site of port-site metastasis. Using PRISMA, a systematic review was conducted to identify papers that addressed the development of port-site metastasis after laparoscopic resection of incidental gallbladder cancer. Studies that described cancer-specific outcomes in ≥5 patients were included. A validated quality appraisal tool was used, and a weighted estimate of the incidence of port-site metastasis was calculated. Based on data extracted from 27 papers that met inclusion criteria, the incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer has decreased from 18.6% prior to 2000 (95% confidence interval 15.3-21.9%, n = 7) to 10.3% since then (95% confidence interval 7.9-12.7%, n = 20) (P < .001). The extraction site is at significantly higher risk than nonextraction sites. The incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer has decreased but remains high relative to other primary tumors. Any preoperative finding that raises the suspicion of gallbladder cancer should prompt further investigation and referral to a hepato-pancreato-biliary specialist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Agenesis of the gallbladder with hypoplastic cystic duct diagnosed at laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, A-Hon; Yanagimoto, Hiroaki; Matsui, Yoichi; Imamura, Atsushi

    2006-08-01

    An 86-year-old man was admitted to our department with complaints of intermittent upper abdominal pain. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed dilated extrahepatic bile ducts containing stones; however, the gallbladder was not clearly identified. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed dilated extrahepatic ducts and choledocholithiasis without gallbladder visualization. The stone extraction was performed with endoscopic sphincterotomy. Three-dimensional images using spiral-computed tomography after intravenous-infusion cholangiography clearly demonstrated an obstruction of the cystic duct. The patient was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. At laparoscopy, the gallbladder fossa was not identified on the undersurface of the liver. Despite a thorough examination of the intrahepatic (left-sided within the lesser omentum), retroperitoneal, retrohepatic (within the falciform ligament), retroduodenal, and retropancreatic areas using laparoscopic ultrasonography, the gallbladder was not found. After careful dissection of the hepatoduodenal ligament, the dilated extrahepatic bile duct and a 1-cm length of hypoplastic cystic duct were found. Gallbladder agenesis is usually accompanied by the lack of the cystic duct. The present case is the third report of gallbladder agenesis with a patent or hypoplastic cystic duct.

  9. Computer analysis of gallbladder ultrasonic images towards recognition of pathological lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiela, M. R.; Bodzioch, S.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach to gallbladder ultrasonic image processing and analysis towards automatic detection and interpretation of disease symptoms on processed US images. First, in this paper, there is presented a new heuristic method of filtering gallbladder contours from images. A major stage in this filtration is to segment and section off areas occupied by the said organ. This paper provides for an inventive algorithm for the holistic extraction of gallbladder image contours, based on rank filtration, as well as on the analysis of line profile sections on tested organs. The second part concerns detecting the most important lesion symptoms of the gallbladder. Automating a process of diagnosis always comes down to developing algorithms used to analyze the object of such diagnosis and verify the occurrence of symptoms related to given affection. The methodology of computer analysis of US gallbladder images presented here is clearly utilitarian in nature and after standardising can be used as a technique for supporting the diagnostics of selected gallbladder disorders using the images of this organ.

  10. Can gallbladder polyps predict colorectal adenoma or even neoplasia? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stergios, Konstantinos; Damaskos, Christos; Frountzas, Maximos; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Lalude, Olutunde

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the present systematic review is to identify whether an association between gallbladder polyps and colorectal adenoma or neoplasia exists. We conducted a systematic review searching the Medline (1966-2016), Scopus (2004-2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (2008-2016) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials CENTRAL (1999-2016) databases together with reference lists from included studies. All prospective and retrospective observational cohort studies were included. Four studies were finally included which included 17,437 patients. The association between gallbladder polyps and colorectal adenoma or even neoplasia is not unanimously supported. However, a possible association is clearly depicted. According to one study it seems that this correlation seems to become significant only when the gallbladder polyps exceed the size of 5 mm. However, the impact of size of gallbladder polyps was not investigated in the remaining studies. According to the results of our systematic review there is some evidence to support the hypothesis that gallbladder polyps might adequately predict future risk of colorectal neoplasia. At present, however, current knowledge is very limited and the available data scarce. In this context further studies are necessary to be carried out, before the presence of gallbladder polyps on ultrasound can be recommended as an indication to perform a screening colonoscopy on the same patient. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal and accurate perinatal diagnosis of type 2 H or ductular duplicate gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Umberto; Farris, Giorgio; Carnevali, Alessandra; Borzani, Irene; Clerici, Paola; Agosti, Massimo; Rossi, Giorgio; Leva, Ernesto

    2018-02-07

    Double gallbladder is a rare biliary anomaly. Perinatal diagnosis of the disorder has been reported in only 6 cases, and in 5 of them the diagnosis was based on ultrasound imaging only. However, the ultrasound technique alone does not provide a sufficiently precise description of cystic ducts and biliary anatomy, an information that is crucial for a correct classification and for a possible future surgery. At 21 weeks of gestational age of an uneventful pregnancy in a 38 year old primipara mother, a routine ultrasound screening detected a biliary anomaly in the fetus suggestive of a double gallbladder. A neonatal abdominal ultrasonography performed on postnatal day 2 confirmed the diagnosis. On day 12 the newborn underwent a Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) that clearly characterized the anatomy of the anomaly: both gallbladders had their own cystic duct and both had a separate insertion in the main biliary duct. We report a case of early prenatal suspected duplicate gallbladder that was confirmed by a neonatal precise diagnosis of a Type 2, H or ductular duplicate gallbladder, using for the first time 3D images of Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in a newborn. An accurate anatomical diagnosis is mandatory in patients undergoing a possible future cholecystectomy, to avoid surgical complications or reoperations. Therefore, in case of a perinatal suspicion of a double gallbladder, neonates should undergo a Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. A review of the Literature about this variant is included.

  12. A case report of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Ravi; Cave, Christo; Sarran, Kevin; Bascombe, Nigel; Dan, Dilip; Greaves, Wesley; Warner, Wayne A

    2017-01-01

    Clear cell gallbladder carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of all gallbladder malignancies and demonstrates its unique histopathological characteristics in patients with no prior medical illness or familial predisposition. Here we present a case of a 56-year-old female, with no prior medical conditions presented with a 2-month history of upper abdominal pain. Routine hematological and biochemical tests were unremarkable. An abdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of a gallbladder calculi, and a fundic mass while magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a 8.0cm×3.5cm gallbladder mass. Computed tomography imaging excluded any distant haematogenous metastases. An open cholecystectomy with lymphadenectomy was proceeded by staging laparoscopy. Upon pathologic investigation, the morphologic and immunophenotypic features supported a diagnosis of clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma. Pathological prognostications for primary clear cell gall bladder carcinomas are not well defined due to the rarity of cases and possible misidentification as secondary metastases. Foci of adenocarcinoma within the tumor along with immunohistochemical staining probes can be informative in consideration of differential diagnosis. In these cases, clinical case management should be personalized for increased survival with the possible incorporation of next generation sequencing approaches to guide therapeutic algorithms. We discuss this exceedingly rare case of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma in detail, highlighting some of the diagnostic, and clinical challenges. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Advances in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ament, M E; Berquist, W; Vargas, J

    1988-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is one of the two common chronic inflammatory bowel diseases which affect the colon of children. The disease can occur at any time during infancy and childhood and is far commoner than Crohn's disease of the colon in children less than 6 years old. The Jewish population outside of Israel is at far greater risk of developing the condition than any other ethnic group. The reason for this is unknown. The chances of a family member developing the condition is 2-3 times as great as in the general population. The etiology of the condition remains unknown; however, recent advances in the understanding of the immune mechanisms in the bowel and circulation indicate there are major immunological differences between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Intestinal B cells secrete enormously increased amounts of IgG1 and a lesser increase in IgG3 in ulcerative colitis whereas in Crohn's disease, all IgG subclasses are increased, but especially IgG2. Failure of the gut immune system to control antigen crossing the colonic mucosa may be the basis for the condition. The disease is classified as moderate to severe two thirds of children as opposed to less than one third of adults. Diagnostic testing must include 3 stool cultures negative for bacterial and viral pathogens, 3 stools negative for amebiasis, trichuriasis and other intestinal parasites and absence of clostridium difficile and its toxin in the stool. Flexible proctosigmoidoscopy and/or colonoscopy should be done in every case with biopsies. Barium enema is contraindicated in the severely ill patient. Major improvements in medical treatment being tested involve the development of nonabsorbable corticosteroid enemas and sulfapyridene-free forms of salicylazosulfapyridene for use in enema and oral form. Surgery for ulcerative colitis has made major advances with the development of the Koch pouch (internal ileostomy) and ileoproctostomy. Both procedures although associated with relatively high

  14. Trametinib or Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Refractory or Advanced Biliary or Gallbladder Cancer or That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-11

    Adult Cholangiocarcinoma; Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; BCLC Stage C Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; BCLC Stage D Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma; Localized Non-Resectable Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma; Stage II Gallbladder Cancer; Stage III Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IV Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IV Distal Bile Duct Cancer; Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma

  15. Erosion by an Alpine glacier.

    PubMed

    Herman, Frédéric; Beyssac, Olivier; Brughelli, Mattia; Lane, Stuart N; Leprince, Sébastien; Adatte, Thierry; Lin, Jiao Y Y; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Cox, Simon C

    2015-10-09

    Assessing the impact of glaciation on Earth's surface requires understanding glacial erosion processes. Developing erosion theories is challenging because of the complex nature of the erosion processes and the difficulty of examining the ice/bedrock interface of contemporary glaciers. We demonstrate that the glacial erosion rate is proportional to the ice-sliding velocity squared, by quantifying spatial variations in ice-sliding velocity and the erosion rate of a fast-flowing Alpine glacier. The nonlinear behavior implies a high erosion sensitivity to small variations in topographic slope and precipitation. A nonlinear rate law suggests that abrasion may dominate over other erosion processes in fast-flowing glaciers. It may also explain the wide range of observed glacial erosion rates and, in part, the impact of glaciation on mountainous landscapes during the past few million years. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Categorization of erosion control matting.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-29

    Erosion control is a critical aspect of any Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) : construction project, with the extreme negative impacts of high sediment loads in natural : waterways having been well documented. A variety of erosion control ...

  17. [Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Pavlović-Calić, Nada

    2003-01-01

    There is an enigma of inflammatory bowel diseases, despite significant advantages during last 10 years in medicamentous and surgical treatment. Ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease are chronic with remissions and recidives. Crohns disease involves any part of digestive tube. Histological changes in ulcerative colitis are: inflammation of mucosa and submucosal tissue, crypt abscesses and ulcerations, pseudopolpys, bowel shortening and toxic megacolon in severe inflammation. In Crohns disease, transmural inflammation, "jumping lesions", deeper ulcerations, coble-stone mucosa, progressive fibrosis, granuloma with gigantic epithelial cells. ulcerative colitis: mesalazine, rectal 5-ASA and hydrocortisone enemas, surgery. Crohns disease: mesalazine and prednisolone. For terminal ilcitis, corticosteroid budesonid could be applied. Severe symptomatic disease: hospitalization, parenteral nutrition, antibiotics, prednisone, surgery in partial bowel obstruction, fistulas, abscessus, perforation.

  18. The Pathogenesis of Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Alvin J.

    1955-01-01

    Peptic ulcers of the stomach and duodenum look much alike and the reaction around them is nonspecific, yet other evidence indicates that ulcers in the two locations do not represent the same disease. It is suggested that a common causal factor is the digestive effect of gastric juice, and that hypersecretion may produce duodenal ulcer without any predisposing change in the relatively susceptible duodenum. The development of a gastric ulcer, which may occur without hypersecretion, presumably requires some previous alteration of the normally resistant gastric mucosa. Focal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa to tissue resembling the lining of the small intestine, which is observed frequently in association with gastric ulcer, may be a factor in providing decreased resistance to peptic injury. PMID:13250420

  19. Malignant Degeneration of Gastric Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, H.

    1939-01-01

    Malignant degeneration is the most serious complication of gastric ulcer. Its recognition is difficult both in the early stage and in advanced cases in which only the evidence of a previous ulcer-cavity, and the radiating folds of the mucous membrane indicate progressive development of carcinoma from an original ulcer. It is impossible to say how often gastric ulcer becomes malignant; one can only state the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma, found in gastric resections. One hundred and forty-one personal cases of ulcer-carcinoma are recorded, and are divided into three groups. Group I: 41 which were diagnosed clinically and at operation as cases of ulcer, but in which histological examination showed incipient cancer. Group II: 55 diagnosed clinically as cases of ulcer, but in which a diagnosis of ulcer-carcinoma was made during operation and afterwards histologically confirmed. Group III: 45 diagnosed both clinically and macroscopically (from the typical folding of the mucous membrane) as cases of ulcer-cancer, in which the cancer had entirely overgrown the ulcer. Therefore in the series of 532 resections for gastric ulcer the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma was 20.9%, or 15.2% if the third group is omitted. In a series of 718 resections for gastric cancer, the frequency of ulcer-carcinoma was 19.6% (or 14.2% if the third group is omitted). The mortality in simple two-third resection of the stomach is low (four deaths in 99 cases = 4%). When the pancreas, liver, colon, or œsophagus, is involved, the resection mortality is high (14 deaths in 42 cases = 33.3%), but even in these cases the operation is justifiable because permanent cures were achieved in a number of cases. The prognosis in cases of ulcer-cancer is very grave. In many cases, judging from the author's own experience, patients suffering from incipient ulcer-cancer—only histologically diagnosed as cancer—die from liver metastases, in spite of radical resection. It will thus be seen that the end-results of

  20. Sludge and stone formation in the gallbladder in bedridden elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease: influence of feeding method.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Y; Mizuta, Y; Isomoto, H; Takeshima, F; Murase, K; Miyazaki, M; Ogata, H; Otsuka, K; Murata, I; Kohno, S

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of gallbladder sludge or gallstone formation in bedridden patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains obscure. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, relationship to feeding method, and mechanisms of gallbladder sludge and gallstone formation in elderly patients with CVD. Using ultrasonography, we determined the development of gallbladder sludge and gallstone over a 12-month period, the area of the gallbladder, the gallbladder contractile response to cerulein, and fasting levels of plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) in 40 bedridden elderly patients with CVD. The patients were divided into three groups based on the feeding method: oral ingestion (OI), nasogastric feeding (NF), and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Gallbladder sludge and gallstone were not observed in any of the 14 OI patients, but occurred in 6 and 1 of the 11 NF patients, and in 14 and 3 of the 15 TPN patients, respectively. Fasting gallbladder areas were significantly larger in the TPN group than in the other two groups. The TPN group showed a marked decrease in cerulein-induced gallbladder contractility. Fasting plasma CCK levels were lower in the TPN group than in the OI group. Our results indicate that elderly patients with CVD confined to bed over long periods are not necessarily at risk of gallbladder sludge or gallstone formation, and the development of these features may be associated with the feeding method. The predisposition of CVD patients on TPN to gallbladder disease is probably caused by failure of gallbladder contraction, resulting from insufficient secretion of CCK and impaired sensitivity of the gallbladder to CCK.

  1. Perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Søreide, Kjetil; Thorsen, Kenneth; Harrison, Ewen M; Bingener, Juliane; Møller, Morten H; Ohene-Yeboah, Michael; Søreide, Jon Arne

    2015-09-26

    Perforated peptic ulcer is a common emergency condition worldwide, with associated mortality rates of up to 30%. A scarcity of high-quality studies about the condition limits the knowledge base for clinical decision making, but a few published randomised trials are available. Although Helicobacter pylori and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are common causes, demographic differences in age, sex, perforation location, and underlying causes exist between countries, and mortality rates also vary. Clinical prediction rules are used, but accuracy varies with study population. Early surgery, either by laparoscopic or open repair, and proper sepsis management are essential for good outcome. Selected patients can be managed non-operatively or with novel endoscopic approaches, but validation of such methods in trials is needed. Quality of care, sepsis care bundles, and postoperative monitoring need further assessment. Adequate trials with low risk of bias are urgently needed to provide better evidence. We summarise the evidence for perforated peptic ulcer management and identify directions for future clinical research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparison of symptoms between non-ulcer dyspepsia patients positive and negative for Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Collins, J S; Knill-Jones, R P; Sloan, J M; Hamilton, P W; Watt, P C; Crean, G P; Love, A H

    1991-04-01

    The role of Helicobacter pylori infection in the symptom complex associated with non-ulcer dyspepsia is uncertain, despite the presence of the organism in a high proportion of these patients. In order to exclude physician bias in history taking, 18 patients (9 female) diagnosed as non-ulcer dyspepsia, after endoscopy and gallbladder ultrasonography, underwent computer interrogation using the Glasgow Diagnostic System for Dyspepsia (GLADYS). Five antral and 3 fundal endoscopic biopsies from these patients were also histologically examined for the presence of Helicobacter pylori and quantitatively analysed for polymorph and chronic inflammatory cell densities per mm2 of lamina propria using computer-linked image analysis. In the group of 9/18 patients who were positive for Helicobacter pylori, there were significantly higher antral and fundal inflammatory cell counts than in negative patients. However, analysis of the GLADYS interrogation data showed no significant positive relationships between Helicobacter pylori positivity and any gastrointestinal symptoms. These results confirm a significant association between Helicobacter pylori and superficial gastritis but suggest that non-ulcer dyspepsia in patients with Helicobacter pylori colonisation is probably not a clinically identifiable and distinct syndrome.

  3. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry M.; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  4. Association of BDNF and BMPR1A with clinicopathologic parameters in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurotrophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are synthesized in a variety of neural and non-neuronal cell types and regulate survival, proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inhibit the proliferation of pulmonary large carcinoma cells bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA (BMPR1A). Little is known about the expression of BDNF or BMPR1A in malignant gall bladder lesions. This study was to evaluate BDNF and BMPR1A expression and evaluate the clinicopathological significance in benign and malignant lesions of the gallbladder. Methods The BDNF and BMPR1A expression of gallbladder adenocarcinoma, peritumoral tissues, adenoma, polyp and chronic cholecystitis were Immunohistochemically determined. Results BDNF expression was significantly higher in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than in peritumoral tissues, adenoma, polyps and chronic cholecystitis samples. However, BMPR1A expression was significantly lower in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than in peritumoral tissues, adenomas, polyps and chronic cholecystitis tissues. The specimens with increased expression of BDNF in the benign lesions exhibited moderate- or severe-dysplasia of gallbladder epithelium. BDNF expression was significantly lower in well-differentiated adenocarcinomas with maximum tumor diameter <2 cm, no metastasis to lymph nodes, and no invasion of regional tissues compared to poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas with maximal tumor diameter >2 cm, metastasis of lymph node, and invasiveness of regional tissues in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. BMPR1A expression were significantly higher in the well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with maximal tumor diameter <2 cm, no metastasis of lymph node, and no invasion of regional tissues compared to poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas with maximal tumor diameter >2 cm, metastasis of lymph node, and invasiveness of regional tissues in gallbladder. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated

  5. Skin ulcers related to chronic graft-versus-host disease: clinical findings and associated morbidity.

    PubMed

    Jachiet, M; de Masson, A; Peffault de Latour, R; Rybojad, M; Robin, M; Bourhis, J-H; Xhaard, A; Dhedin, N; Sicre de Fontbrune, F; Suarez, F; Barete, S; Parquet, N; Nguyen, S; Ades, L; Rubio, M-T; Wittnebel, S; Bagot, M; Socié, G; Bouaziz, J-D

    2014-07-01

    According to the National Institutes of Health classification of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), skin ulcers after allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are recorded as having the maximal severity score but published data are scarce. To describe skin ulcers related to cGVHD with an emphasis on clinical findings, associated morbidity, management and evolution. A multicentre retrospective analysis was carried out of patients with a diagnosis of cGVHD skin ulcers. All 25 patients included in the study had sclerotic skin cGVHD and 21 had lichenoid skin lesions associated with the sclerotic skin lesions. Thirteen patients had severe cGVHD without considering the skin, because of the involvement of an extracutaneous organ by cGVHD. The median time from HSCT to the onset of ulcers was 44 months. In addition to scleroderma, initial skin lesions at the site of ulcers were bullous erosive lichen in 21 patients and bullous erosive morphoea in four patients. Fifteen patients had an inaugural oedema. Ulcers were mostly bilateral with a predilection for the lower limbs. They were frequently colonized but few infections occurred. Four patients died during a median follow-up period of 55 months. Chronic graft-versus-host disease skin ulcers occur in patients with sclerodermatous skin cGVHD, are associated with severe cGVHD, often start with bullous lichenoid lesions or bullous morphoea and seem to cause more morbidity than mortality, given the low rate of mortality observed in our series of patients. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. [Study on genetic instability of nm23H1 gene in Chinese with original gallbladder tumor].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai Ying; Zhang, Guo Qiang; Li, Ji Cheng

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of locus D17S396 on chromosome 17 and their influence on the expression of nm23H1 in gallbladder tumors, which may provide experimental basis for the tumor occurrence and metastasis. Techniques such as DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), ordinary silver stain were used to study MSI and LOH of locus D17S396. Envision immunohistochemistry and Leica-Qwin computer imaging techniques were used to assess the expression of gene nm23H1. In our experiment, the frequency of genetic instability of malignant gallbladder tumors was 42.55%, which was higher than that of gallbladder adenomas, while there were no genetic instability occurred in chronic cholecystitis tissue. The frequency of LOH seemed higher with the deteriorism of gallbladder tumor. Among 47 gallbladder carcinomas, the frequency of LOH and MSI were different between different differentiation cases (P < 0.05), and the frequency of LOH in liver and lymph node metastasis cases was significantly higher than those without metastasis (P < 0.01). Moreover, the frequency of LOH was higher in stage Nevin IV and V when compared with stage I, II and III. However, the frequency of MSI showed contrary correlation with some clinicopathologic characteristics. The expression of nm23H1 in gallbladder carcinoma, gallbladder adenoma and chronic cholecystitis tissue were different (P < 0.05). The case with lymph node metastasis showed significantly lower nm23H1 expression than those without lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01). Nevin stage IV and V also exhibited lower nm23H1 expression levels compared with stage I, II and Ill. Furthermore, there was no difference in nm23H1 protein expression intensity analyzed by computer imaging techniques. In gallbladder carcinomas, the positive frequency of nm23H1 protein in LOH positive

  7. Ultrasonographically detected gallbladder polyps: A reason for concern? A seven-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Wolfgang; Haenle, Mark M; Voegtle, Andrea; Mason, Richard A; Akinli, Atilla S; Hirschbuehl, Klaus; Schuler, Andreas; Kaechele, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Background The management of coincidental detected gallbladder polyps (GP) is still nebulous. There are few published data regarding their long-term growth. Objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and growth of gallbladder polyps in a survey of unselected subjects from the general population of a complete rural community. Methods A total of 2,415 subjects (1,261 women; 1,154 men) underwent ultrasound examination of the gallbladder, in November 1996 as part of a prospective study. Subjects in whom GP were detected at the initial survey underwent follow-up ultrasound examinations after 30 and 84 months. Results At the initial survey gallbladder polyps were detected in 34 subjects (1.4%; females: 1.1%, range 14 to 74 years; males: 1.7%, range 19 to 63 years). Median diameter was 5 ± 2.1 mm (range 2 to10 mm) at the initial survey, 5 mm ± 2.8 mm (range 2 to 12 mm) at 30 months and 4 ± 2.3 mm (range 2 to 9 mm) at 84 months. At the time of first follow-up no change in diameter was found in 81.0% (n = 17), reduction in diameter in 4.8% (n = 1) and increase in diameter in 14.3% (n = 3). At the time of second follow-up no increase in polyp diameter was found in 76.9% (n = 10) and reduction in diameter in 7.7% (n = 1). No evidence of malignant disease of the gallbladder was found. Conclusion Over a period of seven years little change was measured in the diameter of gallbladder polyps. There was no evidence of malignant disease of the gallbladder in any subject. PMID:18793401

  8. Ultrasonographically detected gallbladder polyps: a reason for concern? A seven-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, Wolfgang; Haenle, Mark M; Voegtle, Andrea; Mason, Richard A; Akinli, Atilla S; Hirschbuehl, Klaus; Schuler, Andreas; Kaechele, Volker

    2008-09-15

    The management of coincidental detected gallbladder polyps (GP) is still nebulous. There are few published data regarding their long-term growth. Objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and growth of gallbladder polyps in a survey of unselected subjects from the general population of a complete rural community. A total of 2,415 subjects (1,261 women; 1,154 men) underwent ultrasound examination of the gallbladder, in November 1996 as part of a prospective study. Subjects in whom GP were detected at the initial survey underwent follow-up ultrasound examinations after 30 and 84 months. At the initial survey gallbladder polyps were detected in 34 subjects (1.4%; females: 1.1%, range 14 to 74 years; males: 1.7%, range 19 to 63 years). Median diameter was 5 +/- 2.1 mm (range 2 to 10 mm) at the initial survey, 5 mm +/- 2.8 mm (range 2 to 12 mm) at 30 months and 4 +/- 2.3 mm (range 2 to 9 mm) at 84 months. At the time of first follow-up no change in diameter was found in 81.0% (n = 17), reduction in diameter in 4.8% (n = 1) and increase in diameter in 14.3% (n = 3). At the time of second follow-up no increase in polyp diameter was found in 76.9% (n = 10) and reduction in diameter in 7.7% (n = 1). No evidence of malignant disease of the gallbladder was found. Over a period of seven years little change was measured in the diameter of gallbladder polyps. There was no evidence of malignant disease of the gallbladder in any subject.

  9. Expression of CCK Receptors in Carcinoma Gallbladder and Cholelithiasis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Faridi, Mohammad Shazib; Jaiswal, Mahabir Saran Das; Goel, Sudhir K

    2015-07-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are trophic for various gastrointestinal malignancies. Their role in gallbladder cancer has not been widely studied. To identify expression of CCK-A and CCK-B receptors in the tissue and blood of patients suffering from carcinoma (CA) gallbladder and gallstone disease and to compare expression of CCK A and B receptors in the gall bladder tissue and blood of healthy individuals and patients of CA gallbladder, and gallstone diseases. Forty nine subjects of both genders were recruited, comprising of 22 patients of CA gall bladder, 19 cases of cholelithiasis and, 8 normal gallbladders obtained from patients operated for trauma of the biliary system or Whipple's procedure. RNA extraction and cDNA formation for CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were carried out. Real Time PCR was performed on cDNA and threshold cycle (Ct) value of each sample was obtained and ΔCt was calculated. Chi-square test for comparing two groups and ANOVA test for comparing multiple groups were applied and if p<0.05 then Dunnett-C test was performed. Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were expressed irrespective of its origin in all tissues and blood samples studied; be it normal, Cholelithiasis or CA gallbladder and there was no difference among them (p>0.05). This preliminary study showed higher expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of cholelithiasis and decreased expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of CA gallbladder as compared to normal gallbladder although it did not rise to statistical significance.

  10. Expression profiling suggests a regulatory role of gallbladder in lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zuo-Biao; Han, Tian-Quan; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Fei, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Jian; Tian, Zhi-Jie; Shang, Jun; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Cai, Xing-Xing; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Sheng-Dao; Jin, Gang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine expression profile of gallbladder using microarray and to investigate the role of gallbladder in lipid homeostasis. METHODS: 33P-labelled cDNA derived from total RNA of gallbladder tissue was hybridized to a cDNA array representing 17000 cDNA clusters. Genes with intensities ≥2 and variation <0.33 between two samples were considered as positive signals with subtraction of background chosen from an area where no cDNA was spotted. The average gray level of two gallbladders was adopted to analyze its bioinformatics. Identified target genes were confirmed by touch-down polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 11 047 genes expressed in normal gallbladder, which was more than that predicted by another author, and the first 10 genes highly expressed (high gray level in hybridization image), e.g., ARPC5 (2225.88±90.46), LOC55972 (2220.32±446.51) and SLC20A2 (1865.21±98.02), were related to the function of smooth muscle contraction and material transport. Meanwhile, 149 lipid-related genes were expressed in the gallbladder, 89 of which were first identified (with gray level in hybridization image), e.g., FASN (11.42±2.62), APOD (92.61±8.90) and CYP21A2 (246.11±42.36), and they were involved in each step of lipid metabolism pathway. In addition, 19 of those 149 genes were gallstone candidate susceptibility genes (with gray level in hybridization image), e.g., HMGCR (10.98±0.31), NPC1 (34.88±12.12) and NR1H4 (16.8±0.65), which were previously thought to be expressed in the liver and/or intestine tissue only. CONCLUSION: Gallbladder expresses 11 047 genes and takes part in lipid homeostasis. PMID:15810076

  11. Expression of CCK Receptors in Carcinoma Gallbladder and Cholelithiasis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Mahabir Saran Das; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are trophic for various gastrointestinal malignancies. Their role in gallbladder cancer has not been widely studied. Objectives: To identify expression of CCK-A and CCK-B receptors in the tissue and blood of patients suffering from carcinoma (CA) gallbladder and gallstone disease and to compare expression of CCK A and B receptors in the gall bladder tissue and blood of healthy individuals and patients of CA gallbladder, and gallstone diseases. Materials and Methods: Forty nine subjects of both genders were recruited, comprising of 22 patients of CA gall bladder, 19 cases of cholelithiasis and, 8 normal gallbladders obtained from patients operated for trauma of the biliary system or Whipple’s procedure. RNA extraction and cDNA formation for CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were carried out. Real Time PCR was performed on cDNA and threshold cycle (Ct) value of each sample was obtained and ΔCt was calculated. Chi-square test for comparing two groups and ANOVA test for comparing multiple groups were applied and if p<0.05 then Dunnett-C test was performed. Observation and Results: Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were expressed irrespective of its origin in all tissues and blood samples studied; be it normal, Cholelithiasis or CA gallbladder and there was no difference among them (p>0.05). Conclusion: This preliminary study showed higher expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of cholelithiasis and decreased expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of CA gallbladder as compared to normal gallbladder although it did not rise to statistical significance. PMID:26393162

  12. Outcome of gallbladder preservation in surgical management of primary bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ming-Guo; Shi, Wei-Jin; Wen, Xin-Yuan; Yu, Hai-Wen; Huo, Jing-Shan; Zhou, Dong-Feng

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate the methods and outcome of gallbladder preservation in surgical treatment of primary bile duct stones. Thirty-five patients with primary bile duct stones and intact gallbladders received stone extraction by two operative approaches, 23 done through the intrahepatic duct stump (RBD-IDS, the RBD-IDS group) after partial hepatectomy and 12 through the hepatic parenchyma by retrograde puncture (RBD-RP, the RBD-RP group). The gallbladders were preserved and the common bile duct (CBD) incisions were primarily closed. The patients were examined postoperatively by direct cholangiography and followed up by ultrasonography once every six months. In the RBD-IDS group, residual bile duct stones were found in three patients, which were cleared by a combination of fibrocholedochoscopic extraction and lithotripsy through the drainage tracts. The tubes were removed on postoperative day 22 (range: 16-42 days). In the RBD-RP group, one patient developed hemobilia and was cured by conservative therapy. The tubes were removed on postoperative day 8 (range: 7-11 days). Postoperative cholangiography showed that all the gallbladders were well opacified, contractile and smooth. During 54 (range: 6-120 months) months of follow-up, six patients had mildly thickened cholecystic walls without related symptoms and further changes, two underwent laparotomies because of adhesive intestinal obstruction and gastric cancer respectively, three died of cardiopulmonary diseases. No stones were found in all the preserved gallbladders. The intact gallbladders preserved after surgical extraction of primary bile duct stones will not develop gallstones. Retrograde biliary drainage is an optimal approach for gallbladder preservation.

  13. Ulcer osteoma and periosteal reactions to chronic leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Karasick, D; Schweitzer, M E; Deely, D M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the types of periosteal reaction seen in response to long-standing leg ulcers and to differentiate the types associated with osteomyelitis. Over a 10-year span, we retrospectively evaluated the radiographs of 20 patients with lower leg soft-tissue ulceration and adjacent periosteal bone reaction of the tibia or fibula. Two of us evaluated the location and appearance of periosteal reaction, and one of us evaluated the patients' medical records for evidence of peripheral vascular disease, systemic illnesses, and osteomyelitis. Twelve patients had organized periosteal reactions that resulted in the appearance of ulcer osteoma. None of these patients subsequently developed osteomyelitis. Eight patients had interrupted lamellar nodular periosteal reactions; six of the eight patients had superimposed osteomyelitis. Our study showed two types of periosteal response to chronic leg ulcers: a solid organized type that over time formed an ulcer osteoma and a lamellar nodular type that was often associated with osteomyelitis. Both types of ulcers were seen in patients with peripheral vascular disease, IV drug abuse, sickle cell disease, and neurologic impairment.

  14. Sequential occurrence of preneoplastic lesions and accumulation of loss of heterozygosity in patients with gallbladder stones suggest causal association with gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kajal; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Das, Prasenjit; Misra, Mahesh Chandra; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Ghosh, Manju; Kabra, Madhulika; Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Kumar, Subodh; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Causal association of gallbladder stones with gallbladder cancer (GBC) is not yet well established. To study the frequency of occurrence of preneoplastic histological lesions and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor suppressor genes in patients with gallstones. All consecutive patients with gallstones undergoing cholecystectomy from 2007-2011 were included prospectively. Histological examination of the gallbladder specimens was done for preneoplastic lesions. LOH at 8 loci, that is 3p12, 3p14.2, 5q21, 9p21, 9q, 13q, 17p13, and 18q for tumor suppressor genes (DUTT1, FHIT, APC, p16, FCMD, RB1, p53, and DCC genes) that are associated with GBC was tested from microdissected preneoplastic lesions using microsatellite markers. These LOH were also tested in 30 GBC specimens. Of the 350 gallbladder specimens from gallstone patients, hyperplasia was found in 32%, metaplasia in 47.8%, dysplasia in 15.7%, and carcinoma in situ in 0.6%. Hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia alone were found in 11.7%, 24.6%, and 1.4% of patients, respectively. A combination of hyperplasia and dysplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia, and hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia was found in 3.4%, 6.3%, and 4.3% of patients, respectively. LOH was present in 2.1% to 47.8% of all the preneoplastic lesions at different loci. Fractional allelic loss was significantly higher in those with dysplasia compared with other preneoplastic lesions (0.31 vs 0.22; P = 0.042). No preneoplastic lesion or LOH was found in normal gallbladders. Patients with gallstones had a high frequency of preneoplastic lesions and accumulation of LOH at various tumor suppressor genes, suggesting a possible causal association of gallstones with GBC.

  15. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions--15 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Matłok, Maciej; Migaczewski, Marcin; Major, Piotr; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Budzyński, Piotr; Winiarski, Marek; Ostachowski, Mateusz; Budzyński, Andrzej; Rembiasz, Kazimierz

    2013-11-01

    Due to the constant increase of public health awareness and widespread "cancerophobia", the progressively larger number of incidentally diagnosed gall-bladder polyps became the source of anxiety, which leads patients and physicians to undertake therapeutic decisions, despite the absence of symptoms. The majority of gall-bladder polyps are benign. It is estimated that only 3 to 5% of polyps are malignant. Currently, there is lack of randomized control trials based on which the clear-cut criteria of qualification of patients with gall-bladder polyps for surgical procedure can be created. The aim of the study was to analyze gall-bladder polyps in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum. The retrospective study was conducted on 5369 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum with special attention to 152 (2.8%) patients in whom gall-bladder polyps were diagnosed preoperatively. Qualification criteria for surgery, surgical treatment results, and histopathological examination results were also analyzed. Amongst the 5369 patients qualified for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 152 (2.8%) were diagnosed with gall-bladder polyps during the preoperative ultrasound examinations. Postoperative histopathological examinations of 41 (27%) patients confirmed the presence of gall-bladder polyps. In 102 (67%) patients, only gall-stones were diagnosed without previously described polyps during the ultrasound examination. Analysis of the histopathological examination results revealed the presence of benign lesions in 35 (23.35%) patients. In 5 (3%) patients the presence of an adenoma, and in one (0.65%) the presence of adenocarcinoma were confirmed. Based on the conducted study and previous personal experience in the treatment of patients with gall-bladder polyps, we believe that due to the potential

  16. A Study of Cavitation Erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Hiromu Isaka; Masatsugu Tsutsumi; Tadashi Shiraishi

    2002-07-01

    The authors performed experimental study for the purpose of the following two items from a viewpoint of cavitation erosion of a cylindrical orifice in view of a problem at the letdown orifice in PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor). 1. To get the critical cavitation parameter of the cylindrical orifice to establish the design criteria for prevention of cavitation erosion, and 2. to ascertain the erosion rate in such an eventuality that the cavitation erosion occurs with the orifice made of stainless steel with precipitation hardening (17-4-Cu hardening type stainless steel), so that we confirm the appropriateness of the design criteria. Regardingmore » the 1. item, we carried out the cavitation tests to get the critical cavitation parameters inside and downstream of the orifice. The test results showed that the cavitation parameter at inception is independent of the length or the diameter of the orifice. Moreover, the design criteria of cavitation erosion of cylindrical orifices have been established. Regarding the 2. item, we tested the erosion rate under high-pressure conditions. The cavitation erosion actually occurred in the cylindrical orifice at the tests that was strongly resemble to the erosion occurred at the plant. It will be seldom to reproduce resemble cavitation erosion in a cylindrical orifice with the hard material used at plants. We could establish the criteria for preventing the cavitation erosion from the test results. (authors)« less

  17. Tea polyphenols induce S phase arrest and apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaqi; Pan, Yixuan; Hu, Jiacheng; Ma, Qiang; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Yijian; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Yingbin

    2018-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignancy in the biliary tract. Without effective treatment, its prognosis is notoriously poor. Tea polyphenols (TPs) have many pharmacological and health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-thrombotic, antibacterial, and vasodilatory properties. However, the anti-cancer effect of TPs in human gallbladder cancer has not yet been determined. Cell viability and colony formation assay were used to investigate the cell growth. Cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Western blot assay was used to detect the expression of proteins related to cell cycle and apoptosis. Human tumor xenografts were used to examine the effect of TPs on gallbladder cancer cells in vivo. TPs significantly inhibited cell growth of gallbladder cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle progression in GBC cells was blocked at the S phase by TPs. TPs also induced mitochondrial-related apoptosis in GBC cells by upregulating Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP expressions and downregulating Bcl-2, cyclin A, and Cdk2 expressions. The effects of TPs on GBC were further proven in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. Our study is the first to report that TPs inhibit GBC cell growth and these compounds may have potential as novel therapeutic agents for treating gallbladder cancer. PMID:29513793

  18. A dural metastatic small cell carcinoma of the gallbladder as the first manifestation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tonomura, Shuichi; Kitaichi, Tomoko; Onishi, Rina; Kakehi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Hisao; Shimada, Keiji; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Fukusumi, Akio; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2018-03-16

    A dural metastasis is one of the essential differential diagnoses of meningioma. In general, carcinomas of the breast and lung in females and prostate in males have been the most commonly reported primary lesions of dural metastases. However, dural metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma is extremely rare. Here, we report a unique case of a dural matter metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma as the first manifestation, which was autopsy-defined as small cell carcinoma. A 78-year-old man came to our hospital complaining of left hemianopia. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed a sizeable parasagittal dural-based extra-axial tumor. However, the findings for meningioma were atypical by magnetic resonance imaging, suggesting a meningioma mimic. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen revealed a large gallbladder carcinoma. The patient opted for the best supportive care and died 2 months later. The post-mortem examination revealed small cell carcinoma in gallbladder carcinoma. Moreover, an immunologically similar carcinoma was detected in the dural metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a dural metastasis of gallbladder small cell carcinoma. A systemic examination is essential for clinicians when atypical findings of meningioma are observed, suggesting a meningioma mimic. We present this rare case with a review of the literature.

  19. The risk of gallbladder cancer from polyps in a large multiethnic series.

    PubMed

    Aldouri, A Q; Malik, H Z; Waytt, J; Khan, S; Ranganathan, K; Kummaraganti, S; Hamilton, W; Dexter, S; Menon, K; Lodge, J P; Prasad, K R; Toogood, G J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is assess whether patients with Indian ethnic background are at an increased risk of developing gallbladder cancer (GBC) if they have been diagnosed with ultrasonic abnormalities of the gallbladder. Between January 1998 and July 2006, 137,655 abdominal ultrasound examinations were performed in Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. After the exclusion of repeat scans and those performed for renal or pelvic disease, 71,431 reports were included in this analysis. Patients in whom the diagnosis of GBC has been made without histology have been identified from the database of Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry and the presence of GBC was correlated with ultrasonic gallbladder abnormalities. Gallbladder polyps (GBP) were detected in 3.3% of patients and these were larger than 10 mm in 0.1% of the cases. Age above 60 years, Indian ethnic background, single GBP larger than 10mm, the presence of gallstones, severe gallbladder wall thickening and irregular thickening were independently associated with the higher odds of developing GBC. The prevalence of malignancy in those with GBP was significantly higher among patients with Indian ethnic background compared to Caucasian patients, 5.5% versus 0.08%, p<0.001. The presence of GBP, irrelevant of size, amongst patients of Indian ethnic decent, is an indication for further investigation and/or cholecystectomy.

  20. Profile of gallbladder diseases diagnosed at Afyon Kocatepe University: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mazlum, Mustafa; Dilek, Fatma Hüsniye; Yener, Arzu Neşe; Tokyol, Ciğdem; Aktepe, Fatma; Dilek, Osman Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Gallbladder is one of the most commonly encountered specimen in a pathology laboratory. A diverse spectrum of diseases affect the biliary system, often presenting with similar clinical signs and symptoms. We aimed to define the profile of gallbladder diseases in our region, and to determine potential correlations between histopathologic features we observed. We reviewed all cholecystectomies processed in Department of Pathology of Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital between January 2000 and March 2008. Gross and histopathologic features of the specimens were reevaluated. Among 1500 patients; 69.9% were women and 30.1% were men. We found out fourteen primary gallbladder carcinomas (0.93%) with adenocarcinomas being the most frequent type (78.57%). The rate of cholelithiasis was found as 89.9%. The most common type of gallstones was mixed cholesterol type gallstones with 67.5% followed by black pigment and brown pigment types as 23.83% and 5.89%, respectively. The association of metaplasia with dysplasia and also gallstones were statistically significant (p < 0.001, p < 0.005). The rate of the gallbladder polyps was 2.6% with the cholesterol polyps being the most common type (56.4%). Gallbladder diseases often present with similar clinical signs and symptoms and a surgical pathologist should be alert especially of precancerous lesions. With our results, we also conclude that elderly women with longstanding gallstone disease should undergo elective surgery even when no symptoms are present.

  1. Cholecystectomy or gallbladder in situ after endoscopic sphincterotomy and bile duct stone removal in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Lau, James Y W; Leow, Chon-Kar; Fung, Terence M K; Suen, Bing-Yee; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lai, Paul B S; Lam, Yuk-Hoi; Ng, Enders K W; Lau, Wan Yee; Chung, Sydney S C; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2006-01-01

    In patients with stones in their bile ducts and gallbladders, cholecystectomy is generally recommended after endoscopic sphincterotomy and clearance of bile duct stones. However, only approximately 10% of patients with gallbladders left in situ will return with further biliary complications. Expectant management is alternately advocated. In this study, we compared the treatment strategies of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and gallbladders left in situ. We randomized patients (>60 years of age) after endoscopic sphincterotomy and clearance of their bile duct stones to receive early laparoscopic cholecystectomy or expectant management. The primary outcome was further biliary complications. Other outcome measures included adverse events after cholecystectomy and late deaths from all causes. One hundred seventy-eight patients entered into the trial (89 in each group); 82 of 89 patients who were randomized to receive laparoscopic cholecystectomy underwent the procedure. Conversion to open surgery was needed in 16 of 82 patients (20%). Postoperative complications occurred in 8 patients (9%). Analysis was by intention to treat. With a median follow-up of approximately 5 years, 6 patients (7%) in the cholecystectomy group returned with further biliary events (cholangitis, n = 5; biliary pain, n = 1). Among those with gallbladders in situ, 21 (24%) returned with further biliary events (cholangitis, n = 13; acute cholecystitis, n = 5; biliary pain, n = 2; and jaundice, n = 1; log rank, P = .001). Late deaths were similar between groups (cholecystectomy, n = 19; gallbladder in situ, n = 11; P = .12). In the Chinese, cholecystectomy after endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones reduces recurrent biliary events and should be recommended.

  2. Simultaneous non-traumatic perforation of the right hepatic duct and gallbladder: an atypical occurrence.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Pandey, Satya Deo; Rathi, Vinita; Puri, Amarendra Singh

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous non-traumatic perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct and the gallbladder is an uncommon occurrence that has been infrequently reported. We describe a patient with a spontaneous perforation of both the extrahepatic bile duct and the gallbladder. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan of the abdomen and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) demonstrated a perforation of the gallbladder and a free leak from the right hepatic duct, respectively. Endoscopic biliary drainage following a sphincterotomy and biliary stent placement led to a dramatic improvement in the patient's general condition. He was subsequently scheduled to undergo an elective cholecystectomy. Repeat ERCP performed at 4 weeks after the initial stenting showed a normal cholangiogram and a distally migrated stent, which was there after removed. However, early stent removal led to re-perforation of hepatic duct and gallbladder. A repeat endoscopic biliary drainage did not help, and the patient developed biliary peritonitis. Surgical exploration revealed a perforation at the fundus of the gallbladder, 400 ml of biliopurulent collection and a frozen Calot's triangle. A subtotal cholecystectomy, gall stone removal, and a thorough peritoneal lavage were undertaken. The patient improved postoperatively. The second biliary stent was removed after 4 months. This case report highlights the role of endoscopic biliary drainage in the management of an extrahepatic bile duct perforation and warns against the early removal of a biliary stent.

  3. Design, Development, and Evaluation of a Novel Retraction Device for Gallbladder Extraction During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Joshua M.; Stukenborg, George J.; Johnston, William F.; Guilford, William H.; Slingluff, Craig L.; Hallowell, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Background A source of frustration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy involves extraction of the gallbladder through port sites smaller than the gallbladder itself. We describe the development and testing of a novel device for the safe, minimal enlargement of laparoscopic port sites to extract large, stone-filled gallbladders from the abdomen. Methods The study device consists of a handle with a retraction tongue to shield the specimen and a guide for a scalpel to incise the fascia within the incision. Patients enrolled underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gallbladder extraction was attempted. If standard measures failed, the device was implemented. Extraction time and device utility scores were recorded for each patient. Patients returned 3 - 4 weeks post-operatively for assessment of pain level, cosmetic effect, and presence of infectious complications. Results Twenty (51%) of 39 patients required the device. Average extraction time for the first 8 patients was 120 seconds. After interim analysis, an improved device was used in twelve patients, and average extraction time was 24 seconds. There were no adverse events. Post-operative pain ratings and incision cosmesis were comparable between patients with and without use of the device. Conclusion The study device enables safe and rapid extraction of impacted gallbladders through the abdominal wall. PMID:23897085

  4. Design, development, and evaluation of a novel retraction device for gallbladder extraction during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Judge, Joshua M; Stukenborg, George J; Johnston, William F; Guilford, William H; Slingluff, Craig L; Hallowell, Peter T

    2014-02-01

    A source of frustration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy involves extraction of the gallbladder through port sites smaller than the gallbladder itself. We describe the development and testing of a novel device for the safe, minimal enlargement of laparoscopic port sites to extract large, stone-filled gallbladders from the abdomen. The study device consists of a handle with a retraction tongue to shield the specimen and a guide for a scalpel to incise the fascia within the incision. Patients enrolled underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gallbladder extraction was attempted. If standard measures failed, the device was implemented. Extraction time and device utility scores were recorded for each patient. Patients returned 3-4 weeks postoperatively for assessment of pain level, cosmetic effect, and presence of infectious complications. Twenty (51 %) of 39 patients required the device. Average extraction time for the first eight patients was 120 s. After interim analysis, an improved device was used in 12 patients and average extraction time was 24 s. There were no adverse events. Postoperative pain ratings and incision cosmesis were comparable between patients with and without use of the device. The study device enables safe and rapid extraction of impacted gallbladders through the abdominal wall.

  5. Risk factors for gallbladder contractility after cholecystolithotomy in elderly high-risk surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Luo, Hao; Yan, Hong-tao; Zhang, Guo-hu; Liu, Wei-hui; Tang, Li-jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cholecystolithiasis is a common disease in the elderly patient. The routine therapy is open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In the previous study, we designed a minimally invasive cholecystolithotomy based on percutaneous cholecystostomy combined with a choledochoscope (PCCLC) under local anesthesia. Methods To investigate the effect of PCCLC on the gallbladder contractility function, PCCLC and laparoscope combined with a choledochoscope were compared in this study. Results The preoperational age and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, as well as postoperational lithotrity rate and common biliary duct stone rate in the PCCLC group, were significantly higher than the choledochoscope group. However, the pre- and postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction was not significantly different. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that the preoperational thickness of gallbladder wall (odds ratio [OR]: 0.540; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.317–0.920; P=0.023) and lithotrity (OR: 0.150; 95% CI: 0.023–0.965; P=0.046) were risk factors for postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.714 (P=0.016; 95% CI: 0.553–0.854). Conclusion PCCLC strategy should be carried out cautiously. First, restricted by the diameter of the drainage tube, the PCCLC should be used only for small gallstones in high-risk surgical patients. Second, the usage of lithotrity should be strictly limited to avoid undermining the gallbladder contractility and increasing the risk of secondary common bile duct stones. PMID:28138229

  6. Early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy after percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage.

    PubMed

    Han, In Woong; Jang, Jin-Young; Kang, Mee Joo; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2012-03-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) is a procedure to resolve acute cholecystitis (AC). It may decrease the technical difficulty of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and thus may facilitate successful surgery when a patients' condition improves. However, the timing of LC after PTGBD remains controversial. From 2004 to 2010, cholecystectomy after PTGBD was performed in 67 patients with AC. Group I members underwent LC within 72 h of PTGBD (n = 21), whereas group II members underwent LC at more than 72 h after PTGBD (n = 46). The open conversion rate was similar in the two groups. The perioperative complication rate was higher in group I than in group II, but with marginal significance (19.0 vs. 4.3%; p = 0.07). Mean operative time was longer in group I than in group II (79.3 ± 25.3 vs. 53.7 ± 45.3 min; p = 0.02). However, overall hospital stay was shorter in group I than in group II, but with marginal significance (10.8 ± 4.5 vs. 14.7 ± 9.3 days; p = 0.08). Pros and cons were well balanced between the two groups. Decisions on the timing of cholecystectomy after PTGBD should be made based on considerations of patient condition, hospital facilities, and surgical experience.

  7. Predictive factors of neoplastic gallbladder polyps: Outcomes of 278 patients.

    PubMed

    Terzioğlu, Serdar Gökay; Kılıç, Murat Özgür; Sapmaz, Ali; Karaca, Ahmet Serdar

    2017-05-01

    Distinguishing between neoplastic and nonneoplastic gallbladder polyps (GBPs) in the preoperative workup is of great importance for appropriate treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of GBPs and to determine potential predictive factors of neoplastic polyps. The data of 278 patients who were confirmed to have GBPs through laparoscopic cholecystectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Polyps were classified as nonneoplastic and neoplastic GBPs, according to histopathological diagnoses. All clinicopathological characteristics were compared between these two groups. There were 264 (95%) nonneoplastic GBPs and 14 (5%) neoplastic GBPs. In univariate analysis, there were significant differences in age with a cutoff value of 60 years (p=0.002), polyp size (p<0.001), number of polyps (p=0.014), and polyp morphology (p<0.001) between the groups. Multivariate analysis showed that solitary polyp (p<0.001) and sessile morphology (p<0.001) were the independent predictors of neoplastic GBPs. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis of three cut-off values of polyp sizes (6, 10, and 15 mm) indicated that a polyp size of 10 mm had the highest area under curve (0.942). Age above 60 years, solitary polyps larger than 1 cm, and sessile morphology are associated with an increased risk of neoplasia in GBP. Therefore, these characteristics should be considered in the management of GBPs to reduce the incidence of unnecessary surgeries and to prevent delays in the treatment of a possible cancer.

  8. Clinicopathological significance of SLP-2 overexpression in human gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Xin; Lin, Qing-Feng; Shen, Dong; Liu, Shao-Ping; Mao, Wei-Dong; Ma, Gui; Qi, Wei-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that overexpression of stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) has been identified in several types of cancer. However, its role and clinical relevance in gallbladder cancer (GBC) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to reveal the prognostic significance of SLP-2 in GBC. The SLP-2 expression was examined at mRNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry in GBC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues. Statistical analyses were applied to test the associations between SLP-2 expression, clinicopathologic factors, and prognosis. Immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR showed that the protein and mRNA expression levels of SLP-2 were both significantly higher in GBC tissues than in adjacent noncancerous tissues. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that SLP-2 expression was significantly correlated with histological grade (P <0.001), pathologic T stage (P = 0.019), clinical stage (P = 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.026). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that patients with high expression of SLP-2 had shorter overall survival than those with low expression (P <0.001). Meanwhile, the Cox multivariate analysis indicated that high expressions of SLP-2 were an independent prognostic factor for patients with GBC. These data showed that SLP-2 may play an important role in human GBC tumorigenesis, and SLP-2 might serve as a novel prognostic marker in human GBC.

  9. Surgical approach to gallbladder disease in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Imran, Jonathan B; Ochoa-Hernandez, Annie; Herrejon, Juan; Madni, Tarik D; Clark, Audra T; Huerta, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we report the current surgical approach to gallbladder disease at a major referral hospital in rural Guatemala. Complications in a cohort of patients undergoing open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy were catalogued. We reviewed cholecystectomies performed by surgeons at the Hospital Nacional de San Benito in El Peten, Guatemala, after the adoption of the laparoscopic approach. Laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LCs) between 2014 and 2015 (n = 42) were reviewed and matched by 58 randomly selected open cholecystectomies (OCs) during the same period. Patient demographics were similar in the LC and OC groups. Of the 63 patients who had elective surgery, 43 (68%) underwent OC. Conversion rate, hospital length of stay, and readmission rate were 4%, 4.8 days, and 5%, respectively. Complications were similar between groups. Despite the low number of LCs, their complications were not different from that of OCs. During the study period, a large number of cholecystectomies continued to be open, even in the elective setting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Gallbladder Nonvisualization in Cholecystectomy: A Factor for Conversion.

    PubMed

    Slack, Daniel R; Grisby, Shaunda; Dike, Uzoamaka Kimberly; Kohli, Harjeet

    2018-01-01

    Many risk factors have been identified in minimally invasive cholecystectomies that lead to higher complications and conversion rates. No study that we encountered looked at nonvisualization of the gallbladder (GB) during surgery as a risk factor. We hypothesized that nonvisualization was associated with an increased risk of complications and could be an early intraoperative identifier of a higher risk procedure. Recognizing this could allow surgeons to be aware of potential risks and to be more likely to convert to open for the safety of the patient. We looked at minimally invasive cholecystectomies performed at our institution from January 2015 through April 2016 and had the performing resident fill out a survey after the surgery. Outcomes were conversion rates, intraoperative complications, and blood loss and were analyzed via Pearson χ 2 test or Mann-Whitney U test. The primary outcome showed a conversion rate of 37% in nonvisualized GBs versus 0% in visualized ( P = .001). Secondary outcomes showed significant differences in GB perforations (74% vs 13%, P = .001), omental vessel bleeding (16% vs. 0%, P = .005), and EBL (46 mL vs 29 mL, P = .001). Intraoperative nonvisualization of the GB after adequate positioning caused significantly increased risk of intraoperative complications and conversion. This knowledge could be useful during intraoperative assessment, to decide whether a case should be continued as a minimally invasive procedure or converted early to help reduce risk to the patient. Further randomized controlled studies should be performed to further demonstrate the value of this assessment.

  11. Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp successfully treated with oral prednisone and topical tacrolimus*

    PubMed Central

    Zahdi, Mariana Ribas; Seidel, Gabriela Bestani; Soares, Vanessa Cristina; de Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progressive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed. PMID:24173187

  12. Gallbladder cancer: review of a rare orphan gastrointestinal cancer with a focus on populations of New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nemunaitis, Jacklyn M; Brown-Glabeman, Ursa; Soares, Heloisa; Belmonte, Jessica; Liem, Ben; Nir, Itzhak; Phuoc, Victor; Gullapalli, Rama R

    2018-06-18

    Gallbladder cancer is a rare malignancy of the biliary tract with a poor prognosis, frequently presenting at an advanced stage. While rare in the United States overall, gallbladder cancer has an elevated incidence in geographically distinct locations of the globe including Chile, North India, Korea, Japan and the state of New Mexico in the United States. People with Native American ancestry have a much elevated incidence of gallbladder cancer compared to Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations of New Mexico. Gallbladder cancer is also one of the few bi-gendered cancers with an elevated female incidence compared to men. Similar to other gastrointestinal cancers, gallbladder cancer etiology is likely multi-factorial involving a combination of genomic, immunological, and environmental factors. Understanding the interplay of these unique epidemiological factors is crucial in improving the prevention, early detection, and treatment of this lethal disease. Previous studies have failed to identify a distinct genomic mutational profile in gallbladder cancers, however, work to identify promising clinically actionable targets is this form of cancer is ongoing. Examples include, interest in the HER2/Neu signaling pathway and the recognition that chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in gallbladder cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of gallbladder cancer epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, and treatment with a specific focus on the rural and Native American populations of New Mexico. We conclude this review by discussing future research directions with the goal of improving clinical outcomes for patients of this lethal malignancy.

  13. Claudin-7-positive synchronous spontaneous intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma and adenomas of the gallbladder in a Bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Szabó, Zoltán; Gálfi, Péter; Marosán, Miklós; Kulka, Janina; Gál, János

    2011-03-01

    In this study, synchronous spontaneous, independent liver and gallbladder tumours were detected in a Bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). The multiple tumours consisted of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma as well as in situ adenocarcinoma and two adenomas of the gallbladder. The biliary epithelial cells and the cholangiocarcinoma showed membranous cross-immunoreactivity for claudin-7. The gallbladder epithelial cells, its adenoma and adenocarcinoma showed basolateral cross-reactivity for claudin-7. We think that the humanised anti-claudin-7 antibody is a good marker for the detection of different primary cholangiocellular and gallbladder tumours in Bearded dragons. The cholangiocytes, the cholangiocarcinoma, the endothelial cells of the liver and the epithelial cells and gallbladder tumours all showed claudin-5 cross-reactivity. The humanised anti-cytokeratin AE1-AE3 antibody showed cross-reactivity in the biliary epithelial cells, cholangiocarcinoma cells, epithelial cells and tumour cells of the gallbladder. It seems that this humanised antibody is a useful epithelial marker for the different neoplastic lesions of epithelial cells in reptiles. The humanised anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibody showed intense cross-reactivity in the smooth muscle cells of the hepatic vessels and in the muscle layer of the gallbladder. The portal myofibroblasts, the endothelial cells of the sinusoids and the stromal cells of the cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder tumours were positive for α-SMA. The antibovine anti-vimentin and humanised anti-Ki-67 antibodies did not show crossreactivity in the different samples from the Bearded dragon.

  14. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  15. Spark Gap Electrode Erosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    N~JFOSR-TR- 85-0282 o ~FINAL REPORT S SPARK GAP ELECTRODE EROSION 00i Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant No. 84-0015- Approve", t’r p...OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Texas Tech University IDibj Air Office of Scientific Research it- ADORESS rCat.. State and ZIP CG*, 7b. ADONESS ’CitY...spark gap was measured for various electrode, gas, and pressure combinations. A previously developed model of self breakdown voltage distribution was

  16. Gastric ulceration following oesophageal stent migration complicating surgical management of oesophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markar, Sheraz R.; Ross, Andrew; Low, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Oesophageal, fully covered self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) allow palliation of dysphagia so as to support nutrition during neoadjuvant therapy. We present a 68-year old man with an oesophageal adenocarcinoma (T3N1M0) who had a fully covered oesophageal SEMS placed prior to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Repeat endoscopy 8 weeks later (for stent removal) showed that the stent had migrated and impacted upon the greater curvature of the stomach with a resultant ulcer. Surgery was delayed and, 10 weeks following the cessation of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, this patient underwent a right thoracoabdominal oesophagogastrectomy. Operative findings included an erosion of the stent-induced gastric ulcer into the body of the pancreas and showed that the ulcerated tumour had become adherent to the thoracic aorta. This report demonstrates that the complications of stent migration can significantly impact upon surgical resection at multiple levels and provides a case for the routine removal of stents used in the neoadjuvant setting. PMID:22593562

  17. Linear IgA dermatosis associated with ulcerative colitis: complete and sustained remission after total colectomy.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Fialho, Mônica; Santos, Luiza Tavares dos; Rodrigues, Palmira Assis de Jesus Barreto; Vargas, Ana Luisa Bittencourt Sampaio Jeunon; Sousa, Maria Auxiliadora Jeunon

    2013-01-01

    Linear IgA dermatosis has been increasingly associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis. A 13-year-old male patient with an 11-month history of ulcerative colitis developed vesicles, pustules and erosions on the skin of the face, trunk and buttocks and in the oral mucosa. The work-up revealed a neutrophil-rich sub-epidermal bullous disease and linear deposition of IgA along the dermoepidermal junction, establishing the diagnosis of linear IgA dermatosis. The patient experienced unsatisfactory partial control of skin and intestinal symptoms despite the use of adalimumab, mesalazine, prednisone and dapsone for some months. After total colectomy, he presented complete remission of skin lesions, with no need of medications during two years of follow-up. A review of previously reported cases of the association is provided here and the role of ulcerative colitis in triggering linear IgA dermatosis is discussed.

  18. Endoscopic Obliteration for Bleeding Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Zawadzki, J.J. J.; Gajda, A.G. G.; Kamiński, P. Ł.; Lembas, L.; Bielecki, K.

    1997-01-01

    A group of 133 patients treated for bleeding peptic ulcer in our Department, is reviewed. Within several hours of admission, all patients underwent upper gastrointestinal tract gastroscopy and obliteration of the bleeding ulcer. Bleeding gastric ulcers were found in 41 patients, and duodenal ulcers in 92 patients. Patients were classified according to the Forrest scale: IA – 11 patients, IB – 49 patients, IIA – 35 patients, lIB – 40 patients. In 126 (94.7%) patients the bleeding was stopped, and 7 required urgent surgery: 3 patients with gastric ulcer underwent gastrectomy, and 4 with duodenal ulcer – truncal vagotomy with pyloroplasty and had the bleeding site underpinned. Fifty-five patients underwent elective surgery: gastrectomy and vagotomy (18 patients with gastric ulcer), highly selective vagotomy (25 patients with duodenal ulcer) and truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty (12 patients with duodenal ulcer). None of the patients was observed to have recurrent bleeding. PMID:18493453

  19. Management of Chronic Pressure Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions? Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? Background A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by

  20. A hitherto undescribed benign mesenchymal polyp of the gallbladder: edematous angiomyolipoma-like polyp.

    PubMed

    Arcega, R; Wu, J X; Magaki, S; Donahue, T R; Wang, H L

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of two peculiar gallbladder polyps in a sixty-four year old male who presented with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Cholecystectomy was performed, which revealed two polyps measuring 0.6 cm and 1.9 cm, located in the body of the gallbladder. Microscopic examination of the polyps showed composite mesenchymal lesions with vascular proliferation of small-to-medium sized arterioles, myoid stroma, and lipomatous periphery. The myoid component was characterized by wisps of bland smooth muscle fibers loosely separated by proteinaceous and focally myxoid matrix. The surface of the polyps was lined by a single layer of bland epithelial cells. The unique histomorphologic features differentiate the lesions from other known mesenchymal polyps of the gallbladder. We propose the name "edematous angiomyolipoma-like polyp" for these rare lesions given their histomorphologic similarity to angiomyolipoma. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2016, 79, 371-374). © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  1. Complete pancreatic heterotopia of gallbladder with hypertrophic duct simulating an adenomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Pilloni, Luca; Cois, Alessandro; Uccheddu, Alessandro; Ambu, Rossano; Coni, Pierpaolo; Faa, Gavino

    2006-01-01

    The gallbladder is an unusual location of pancreatic heterotopia, defined as the presence of pancreatic tissue lacking anatomical and vascular continuity with the main body of the gland. A 28-year-old man presented with anorexia, nausea and pain in the right upper abdomen. On physical examination, the abdomen was tender to palpation and Murphy sign was positive. The patient underwent a cholecystecomy. This case, in our opinion, is very interesting since it permits to consider a controversial issue in the pathology of the gallbladder. The histological appearance of ductal structure in pancreatic heterotopia resembles the histological picture of both Aschoff-Rokitansky (AR) sinuses and adenomyomas. This finding suggests that these lesions are linked by a common histogenetic origin. We suggest that the finding of an adenomyoma in the gallbladder should prompt an extensive sampling of the organ in order to verify the coexistence of pancreatic rests. PMID:16586554

  2. Effect of pancreatic polypeptide on gallbladder pressure and hepatic bile secretion.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Mitchenere, P; Sagor, G; Bloom, S R

    1982-09-01

    Intraluminal gallbladder pressure, measured by radiotelemetry, and bile output were monitored during infusion of porcine pancreatic polypeptide (PP) at doses of 6, 25, 100, and 400 pmol . kg-1 . h-1 in healthy conscious pigs. Plasma PP concentrations during infusion of the three lower doses, measured by radioimmunoassay, were within the range seen postprandially in these animals. Gallbladder pressure fell in a dose-related manner during PP infusion by 2.2 +/- 0.9, 8.2 +/- 0.4, 11.6 +/- 0.7, and 14.8 +/- 0.8 mmHg, respectively. In addition, a significant reduction in the bile output was observed during infusion of the two higher doses of PP. In a separate series of experiments, using cholecystectomized pigs, PP had no effect on bile output. These findings suggest that the amount of PP released postprandially may be sufficient to influence gallbladder function but not hepatic secretion of bile in the pig.

  3. A case of Mirizzi syndrome that was successfully treated by laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch

    PubMed Central

    Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ueda, Junji; Kono, Hiroshi; Egawa, Noriyuki; Saeki, Kiyoshi; Tsuru, Yasuhiro; Ide, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of Mirizzi syndrome is considered controversial due to the degree of technical difficulty. We herein describe the case of a 36-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital due to appetite loss, nausea and back pain. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed a round-shaped filling defect at the confluence of the bile duct. The patient was diagnosed with Mirizzi syndrome Type II according to the Csendes classification. Before surgery, an endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube was placed for intraoperative cholangiography. Based on the intraoperative findings, the anterior wall of Hartmann’s pouch was excised to remove the impacted gallstone. The neck portion of the gallbladder wall was then used to make a gallbladder patch, which was sutured to cover the anterior wall of the common hepatic bile duct. Laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch was a technically feasible treatment for Mirizzi syndrome Type II. PMID:29230280

  4. A case of Mirizzi syndrome that was successfully treated by laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch.

    PubMed

    Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ueda, Junji; Kono, Hiroshi; Egawa, Noriyuki; Saeki, Kiyoshi; Tsuru, Yasuhiro; Ide, Takao; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2017-11-01

    The use of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of Mirizzi syndrome is considered controversial due to the degree of technical difficulty. We herein describe the case of a 36-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital due to appetite loss, nausea and back pain. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed a round-shaped filling defect at the confluence of the bile duct. The patient was diagnosed with Mirizzi syndrome Type II according to the Csendes classification. Before surgery, an endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube was placed for intraoperative cholangiography. Based on the intraoperative findings, the anterior wall of Hartmann's pouch was excised to remove the impacted gallstone. The neck portion of the gallbladder wall was then used to make a gallbladder patch, which was sutured to cover the anterior wall of the common hepatic bile duct. Laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch was a technically feasible treatment for Mirizzi syndrome Type II.

  5. Erosion in extruder flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Miron; Fodor, Petru S.

    A detailed analysis of the fluid flow in Tadmor's unwound channel model of the single screw extruder is performed by combining numerical and analytical methods. Using the analytical solution for the longitudinal velocity field (in the limit of zero Reynolds number) allows us to devote all the computational resources solely for a detailed numerical solution of the transversal velocity field. This high resolution 3D model of the fluid flow in a single-screw extruder allows us to identify the position and extent of Moffatt eddies that impede mixing. We further consider the erosion of particles (e.g. carbon-black agglomerates) advected by the polymeric flow. We assume a particle to be made of primary fragments bound together. In the erosion process a primary fragment breaks out of a given particle. Particles are advected by the laminar flow and they disperse because of the shear stresses imparted by the fluid. The time evolution of the numbers of particles of different sizes is described by the Bateman coupled differential equations used to model radioactivity. Using the particle size distribution we compute an entropic fragmentation index which varies from 0 for a monodisperse system to 1 for an extreme poly-disperse system.

  6. High resolution chromosome 3p, 8p, 9q and 22q allelotyping analysis in the pathogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wistuba, I I; Maitra, A; Carrasco, R; Tang, M; Troncoso, P; Minna, J D; Gazdar, A F

    2002-01-01

    Our recent genome-wide allelotyping analysis of gallbladder carcinoma identified 3p, 8p, 9q and 22q as chromosomal regions with frequent loss of heterozygosity. The present study was undertaken to more precisely identify the presence and location of regions of frequent allele loss involving those chromosomes in gallbladder carcinoma. Microdissected tissue from 24 gallbladder carcinoma were analysed for PCR-based loss of heterozygosity using 81 microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 3p (n=26), 8p (n=14), 9q (n=29) and 22q (n=12) regions. We also studied the role of those allele losses in gallbladder carcinoma pathogenesis by examining 45 microdissected normal and dysplastic gallbladder epithelia accompanying gallbladder carcinoma, using 17 microsatellite markers. Overall frequencies of loss of heterozygosity at 3p (100%), 8p (100%), 9q (88%), and 22q (92%) sites were very high in gallbladder carcinoma, and we identified 13 distinct regions undergoing frequent loss of heterozygosity in tumours. Allele losses were frequently detected in normal and dysplastic gallbladder epithelia. There was a progressive increase of the overall loss of heterozygosity frequency with increasing severity of histopathological changes. Allele losses were not random and followed a sequence. This study refines several distinct chromosome 3p, 8p, 9q and 22q regions undergoing frequent allele loss in gallbladder carcinoma that will aid in the positional identification of tumour suppressor genes involved in gallbladder carcinoma pathogenesis. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 432–440. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600490 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12177780

  7. New-Style Laparoscope and Endoscope Cooperative Gallbladder-Preserving Surgery for Polyps.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Wu, Haorong; Wei, Shaohua

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new style of Laparoscope and Endoscope Cooperative gallbladderpreserving Surgery (LECS), an improved method of minimally invasive gallbladder-preserving polypectomy. An experimental study. Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, China, from January 2009 to July 2013. Clinical data of patients subjected to LECS and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC) was analysed. The inclusion criteria were normal size clear gallbladder bile with total volume (FV) of the gallbladder = 15 - 25 ml, the Residual Volume (RV) = 5 ml, and the Emptying Figure (EF) > 75%, with polyps diagnosed definitively by B-type ultrasonic imaging or CTdesirous of preserving gallbladder. Exclusion criteria were a history of midsection surgery, serious diseases of any organ, hepatic injury, or coagulation disturbance. Mean hospital stay and complications were also noted. Independent sample t-test, the frequency comparison used chi-square test (N > 5), and Fisher's exact test (N < 5) were used for statistical test. The mean hospital stay after LECS was 3.50 ±0.31 days, and 3.50 ±0.31 days for the LC group. The mean age in LC and LECS group was 50 ±25.4 and 44 ±12.1 years, respectively. Complications after operation in the LECS were indigestion and diarrhea; LC group had indigestion (9.33%), diarrhea (10.67%), and gastroesophageal reflux (6.6.7%). In the 3 months follow-up after discharging from the hospital, no patient had recurrence of any gallbladder disease; at 1 year follow-up, 1 patient (1.28%) developed cholesterol crystals; at 3-year follow-up, 3 cases (3.84%) were found to have recurring polyps (2~4 pieces), and 2 (2.56%) patients developed cholesterol crystals. Minimally invasive gallbladder-preserving polypectomy which used a CHIAO cholecystoscopy compared with a laparoscope is safe, feasible, and can effectively reduce the vestiges and recrudescence of polyps in gallbladderpreserving surgery.

  8. The Impact of Gallbladder Status on Biliary Complications After the Endoscopic Removal of Choledocholithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Hi; Yeo, Seong Jae; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min

    2016-04-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) with stone extraction is the standard management for choledocholithiasis. However, the necessity for subsequent management of gallstone to prevent the biliary complications remained controversial and few data were evaluated for the impact of status of gallbladder on recurrent biliary complications. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between the status of gallbladder and the occurrence of biliary complications after endoscopic removal of choledocholithiasis. Between January 1998 and December 2008, we enrolled 453 patients with intact gallbladder who underwent EST for choledocholithiasis and allocated into two groups: calculous gallbladder (n = 256) and acalculous gallbladder (n = 197). By reviewing patients' medical records, we compared the occurrence of biliary complications according to the presence or absence of gallstone in GB in situ. In total, biliary complications occurred in 83 patients (18.3 %) during the follow-up period. Calculous GB group had higher rate of overall complications (22.7 vs. 12.7 %; p = 0.007) and GB-associated complications (11.3 vs. 2.5 %; p = 0.001) than acalculous GB group. On the multivariate analysis, only the presence of gallstone was shown to be significant risk factor for overall biliary complication (OR 2.029; 95 % CI 1.209-3.405; p = 0.007) and GB-associated complications (OR 5.077; 95 % CI 1.917-13.446; p = 0.001). Mean event-free period was shorter in calculous GB group than acalculous GB group for overall complications (1774 vs. 2159 days; p = 0.012) and GB-associated complication (2153 vs. 2591 days; p = 0.001). Prophylactic cholecystectomy may not be necessary to prevent biliary complication in patients with acalculous gallbladder after endoscopic removal of pigment stones from bile duct.

  9. Oral contraceptives and the risk of gallbladder disease: a comparative safety study

    PubMed Central

    Etminan, Mahyar; Delaney, Joseph A.C.; Bressler, Brian; Brophy, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent concerns have been raised about the risk of gallbladder disease associated with the use of drospirenone, a fourth-generation progestin used in oral contraceptives. We conducted a study to determine the magnitude of this risk compared with other formulations of oral contraceptives. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database. We included women who were using an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol combined with a progestin during 1997–2009. To be eligible, women had to have been taking the oral contraceptive continuously for at least six months. We computed adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for gallbladder disease using a Cox proportional hazards model. In the primary analysis, gallbladder disease was defined as cholecystectomy; in a secondary analysis, it was defined as hospital admission secondary to gallbladder disease. Results We included 2 721 014 women in the cohort, 27 087 of whom underwent surgical or laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the follow-up period. Compared with levonorgestrel, an older second-generation progestin, a small, statistically significant increase in the risk of gallbladder disease was associated with desogestrel (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.09), drospirenone (adjusted RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.16–1.26) and norethindrone (adjusted RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14). No statistically significant increase in risk was associated with the other formulations of oral contraceptive (ethynodiol diacetate, norgestrel and norgestimate). Interpretation In a large cohort of women using oral contraceptives, we found a small, statistically significant increase in the risk of gallbladder disease associated with desogestrel, drospirenone and norethindrone compared with levonorgestrel. However, the small effect sizes compounded with the possibility of residual biases in this observational study make it unlikely that these differences are clinically

  10. Perforated peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Søreide, Kjetil; Thorsen, Kenneth; Harrison, Ewen M.; Bingener, Juliane; Møller, Morten H.; Ohene-Yeboah, Michael; Søreide, Jon Arne

    2015-01-01

    Summary Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a frequent emergency condition worldwide with associated mortality up to 30%. A paucity of studies on PPU limits the knowledge base for clinical decision-making, but a few randomised trials are available. While Helicobacter pylori and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are frequent causes of PPU, demographic differences in age, gender, perforation location and aetiology exist between countries, as do mortality rates. Clinical prediction rules are used, but accuracy varies with study population. Early surgery, either by laparoscopic or open repair, and proper sepsis management are essential for good outcome. Selected patients can perhaps be managed non-operatively or with novel endoscopic approaches, but validation in trials is needed. Quality of care, sepsis care-bundles and postoperative monitoring need further evaluation. Adequate trials with low risk of bias are urgently needed for better evidence. Here we summarize the evidence for PPU management and identify directions for future clinical research. PMID:26460663

  11. A Real World, Observational Registry of Chronic Wounds and Ulcers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-30

    Diabetic Foot; Varicose Ulcer; Pressure Ulcer; Surgical Wound Dehiscence; Vasculitis; Skin Ulcer; Leg Ulcer; Wounds and Injuries; Pyoderma; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Diabetic Neuropathies; Lymphedema; Venous Insufficiency; Diabetes Complications; Amputation Stump

  12. Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the gallbladder: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liena; Anders, Karl H

    2014-09-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors are rare mesenchymal neoplasms composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells. The perivascular epithelioid cell tumor family includes angiomyolipoma, clear cell sugar tumor of the lung, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres, and rare clear cell tumors of other anatomic sites. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors have been reported previously in various sites, but to our knowledge not in the gallbladder. We report here, for the first time, a malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor arising in the gallbladder.

  13. Cholecystokinin receptors on gallbladder muscle and pancreatic acinar cells: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    von Schrenck, T.; Moran, T.H.; Heinz-Erian, P.

    1988-10-01

    To compare receptors for cholecystokinin (CCK) in pancreas and gallbladder, we measured binding of 125I-Bolton-Hunter-labeled CCK-8 (125I-BH-CCK-8) to tissue sections from guinea pig gallbladder and pancreas under identical conditions. In both tissues, binding had similar time-, temperature-, and pH dependence, was reversible, saturable and inhibited only by CCK related peptides or CCK receptor antagonists. Autoradiography localized 125I-BH-CCK-8 binding to the smooth muscle layer in the gallbladder. Binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 to gallbladder sections was inhibited by various agonists with the following potencies (IC50):CCK-8 (0.4 nM) greater than des(SO3)CCK-8 (0.07 microM) greater than gastrin-17-I (1.7 +/- 0.3 microM) and by various receptormore » antagonists with the following potencies: L364,718 (1.5 nM) greater than CR 1409 (0.19 microM) greater than asperlicin = CBZ-CCK-(27-32)-NH2 (1 microM) greater than Bt2cGMP (120 microM). Similar potencies were found for the agonists and antagonists for pancreas sections. Inhibition of binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 by 11 different analogues of proglumide gave similar potencies for both pancreas and gallbladder. The potencies of agonists in stimulating and antagonists in inhibiting CCK-stimulated contraction or amylase release correlated closely with their abilities to inhibit 125I-BH-CCK-8 binding to gallbladder or pancreas sections or acini, respectively. The present results demonstrate and characterize a method that can be used to compare the CCK receptors in guinea pig gallbladder and pancreas under identical conditions. Moreover, this study demonstrates that gallbladder and pancreatic CCK receptors have similar affinities for the various agonists and antagonists tested and, therefore, provides no evidence that they represent different subtypes of CCK receptors that can be distinguished pharmacologically.« less

  14. Rill erosion rates in burned forests

    Treesearch

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Peter R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Wildfires often produce large increases in runoff and erosion rates (e.g., Moody and Martin, 2009), and land managers need to predict the frequency and magnitude of postfire erosion to determine the needs for hazard response and possible erosion mitigation to reduce the impacts of increased erosion on public safety and valued resources. The Water Erosion...

  15. Do erosion control and snakes mesh?

    Treesearch

    Christopher Barton; Karen Kinkead

    2005-01-01

    In the battle to curb soil erosion and sedimentation, numberous techniques and products for controlling erosion and sedimentation have been developed and are being implemented. Rolled erosion control products, such as a temporary erosion control blankets and permanent turf reinforcement mats, represent one type of erosion control product that has been used extensively...

  16. Correlation of nutritional parameters of gallbladder cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rai, Arundhati; Tewari, Mallika; Mohapatra, S C; Shukla, H S

    2006-06-15

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a highly fatal disease with poor prognosis and 5-year survival <5%. Weight loss and nutritional deterioration are associated with adverse outcomes in terms of cancer prognosis. Protein-calorie malnutrition is the single most common secondary diagnosis in a patient with cancer, and is a direct consequence of the anorexia of malignancy and altered host metabolism induced by the tumor. The present study of nutritional assessment is of particular interest for it helps in better understanding the extent of malnutrition in patients of GBC. A case-control study was designed comprising of 153 cases of GBC and 153 controls of gallstone disease (GSD). To assess the nutritional status of the GBC patients, anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, mid arm circumference, and skinfold thickness were recorded together with the biochemical parameters and their nutrient intake. The present study showed that GBC influences the nutritional status of the patients. Forty-three percent of GBC patients were malnourished with low body mass index (BMI). A significant reduction in all the anthropometric measures was observed for GBC patients compared to those with GSD. GBC patients had significantly low hemoglobin and serum albumin levels compared to the control group. The hemoglobin levels in case and control groups were 10.87 g/dl (+/-1.81 SD) and 11.62 g/dl (+/-1.89 SD), respectively (P < 0.001). Intake of almost all the nutrients was far below the recommendations of Indian Council of Medical Research. GBC patients had anorexia and weight loss. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Management and diagnosis of gallbladder polyps: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Babu, Benoy I; Dennison, Ashley R; Garcea, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    Recommendation for management of gallbladder polyps (GBPs) >1 cm is cholecystectomy. No consensus exists on management of GBPs <1 cm. This systematic review examines current evidence on management of GBPs. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases were searched from January 1991 to June 2013 using specified terms. A predefined protocol for data extraction was used to retrieve specified end points. Literature search yielded 43 manuscripts with a dataset of 11,685 patients with GBPs. M:F ratio was 1.3:1. Average age (range) was 49 years (32-83). Patients with malignant GBPs had an average (range) age of 58 (50-66) years with M:F ratio of 0.78:1. Cholesterol polyps constituted 60.5% of GBPs followed by adenomas (15.2%) and cancer (11.6%). Malignant GBPs ≥1 cm, <1 cm and <5 mm constituted 8.5, 1.2 and 0% of GBPs, respectively. Majority of patients requiring surgical intervention had laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Presently employed policy of cholecystectomy for GBPs >1 cm is appropriate. For GBPs <1 cm, the authors propose (accepting existence of differing proposals) the following: 1. Surveillance may not be needed for GBPs <5 mm. 2. For GBPs between 5 and 10 mm, two scans at six monthly intervals is suggested and after that, tailor surveillance to age, growth and ethnicity. In the non-Asian population, if GBP remains the same size or number, discontinuation of surveillance may be considered. In the Asian population, if GBPs remain the same, yearly surveillance is continued for a suggested period of 3 years. 3. Discontinue surveillance if GBPs is/are smaller/ disappeared. Cholecystectomy is advised where size increases to >10 mm.

  18. Gallbladder Agenesis in 17 Dogs: 2006-2016.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Sakai, M; Hayakawa, S; Sakamoto, Y; Kagawa, Y; Kutara, K; Teshima, K; Asano, K; Watari, T

    2018-01-01

    Gallbladder agenesis (GBA) is extremely rare in dogs. To describe the history, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of dogs with GBA. Seventeen client-owned dogs with GBA. Medical records from 2006 through 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Dogs were included when GBA was suspected on abdominal ultrasonography and confirmed by gross evaluation. Signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathological data, diagnostic imaging, histopathology, treatment, and outcome were recorded. Dogs were of 6 different breeds, and Chihuahuas (10 of 17) were most common. Median age at presentation was 1.9 (range, 0.7-7.4) years. Clinical signs included vomiting (5 of 17), anorexia (2 of 17), ascites (2 of 17), diarrhea (1 of 17), lethargy (1 of 17), and seizures (1 of 17). All dogs had increased serum activity of at least 1 liver enzyme, most commonly alanine aminotransferase (15 of 17). Fifteen dogs underwent computed tomography (CT) cholangiography; common bile duct (CBD) dilatation was confirmed in 12, without evidence of bile duct obstruction. Gross evaluation confirmed malformation of the liver lobes in 14 of 17 dogs and acquired portosystemic collaterals in 5 of 17. Ductal plate malformation was confirmed histologically in 16 of 17 dogs. During follow-up (range, 4-3,379 days), 16 of 17 dogs remained alive. Dogs with GBA exhibit clinicopathological signs of hepatobiliary injury and hepatic histopathological changes consistent with a ductal plate abnormality. Computed tomography cholangiography was superior to ultrasound examination in identifying accompanying nonobstructive CBD distention. Computed tomography cholangiography combined with laparoscopic liver biopsy is the preferable approach to characterize the full disease spectrum accompanying GBA in dogs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Nutritional care in peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    VOMERO, Nathália Dalcin; COLPO, Elisângela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Peptic ulcer is a lesion of the mucosal lining of the upper gastrointestinal tract characterized by an imbalance between aggressive and protective factors of the mucosa, having H. pylori as the main etiologic factor. Dietotherapy is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease. Aim To update nutritional therapy in adults' peptic ulcer. Methods Exploratory review without restrictions with primary sources indexed in Scielo, PubMed, Medline, ISI, and Scopus databases. Results Dietotherapy, as well as caloric distribution, should be adjusted to the patient's needs aiming to normalize the nutritional status and promote healing. Recommended nutrients can be different in the acute phase and in the recovery phase, and there is a greater need of protein and some micronutrients, such as vitamin A, zinc, selenium, and vitamin C in the recovery phase. In addition, some studies have shown that vitamin C has a beneficial effect in eradication of H. pylori. Fibers and probiotics also play a important role in the treatment of peptic ulcer, because they reduce the side effects of antibiotics and help reduce treatment time. Conclusion A balanced diet is vital in the treatment of peptic ulcer, once food can prevent, treat or even alleviate the symptoms involving this pathology. However, there are few papers that innovate dietotherapy; so additional studies addressing more specifically the dietotherapy for treatment of peptic ulcer are necessary. PMID:25626944

  20. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wind erosion processes and control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wind erosion continues to threaten the sustainability of our nations' soil, air, and water resources. To effectively apply conservation systems to prevent wind driven soil loss, an understanding of the fundamental processes of wind erosion is necessary so that land managers can better recognize the ...

  2. Rainfall erosivity: An historical review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rainfall erosivity is the capability of rainfall to cause soil loss from hillslopes by water. Modern definitions of rainfall erosivity began with the development of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), where rainfall characteristics were statistically related to soil loss from thousands of plot...

  3. Multisystemic Sarcoidosis Presenting as Pretibial Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Baunacke, Anja; Hansel, Gesina

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Up to 30% of patients develop cutaneous manifestations, either specific or nonspecific. Ulcerating sarcoidosis leading to leg ulcers is a rare observation that may lead to confusions with other, more common types of chronic leg ulcers. We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with chronic multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with pretibial leg ulcers. Other etiology could be excluded. Histology revealed nonspecific findings. Therefore, the diagnosis of nonspecific leg ulcers in sarcoidosis was confirmed. Treatment consisted of oral prednisolone and good ulcer care. Complete healing was achieved within 6 months. Sarcoidosis is a rare cause of leg ulcers and usually sarcoid granulomas can be found. Our patient illustrates that even in the absence of sarcoid granulomas, leg ulcers can be due to sarcoidosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Pradaxa-induced esophageal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michele; Shaw, Paul

    2015-10-09

    Pradaxa (dabigatran) is a direct thrombin inhibitor approved for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. We describe a case of esophageal ulceration associated with Pradaxa administration in a 75-year-old man. The patient reported difficulty swallowing and a burning sensation after taking his first dose of Pradaxa. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed linear ulcerations in the mid-esophagus. Pradaxa was held beginning the day before the EGD. The patient reported that his pain and difficulty swallowing resolved on stopping Pradaxa. Pradaxa is formulated with a tartaric acid excipient to reduce variability in absorption. We hypothesise that the capsule lodged in the patient's esophagus and the tartaric acid may have caused local damage resulting in an esophageal ulcer. It is important to educate patients on proper administration of Pradaxa, to decrease the risk of this rare, but potentially serious adverse event. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Reduction of Gun Erosion and Correlation of Gun Erosion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, Dave; Wercinski, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gun barrel erosion is serious problem with two-stage light gas guns. Excessive barrel erosion can lead to poor or failed launches and frequent barrel changes, with the corresponding down time. Also, excessive barrel erosion can limit the maximum velocity obtainable by loading down the hydrogen working gas with eroded barrel material. Guided by a CFD code, the operating conditions of the Ames 0.5-inch gun were modified to reduce barrel erosion. The changes implemented included: (1) reduction in the piston mass, powder mass and hydrogen fill pressure; and (2) reduction in pump tube volume, while maintaining hydrogen mass. The latter change was found, in particular, to greatly reduce barrel erosion. For muzzle velocity ranges of 6.1 - 6.9 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 10. Even for the higher muzzle velocity range of 7.0 - 8.2 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 4. Gun erosion data from the Ames 0.5-inch, 1.0-inch, and 1.5-inch guns operated over a wide variety of launch conditions was examined and it was found that this data could be correlated using four different parameters: normalized powder charge energy, normalized hydrogen energy density, normalized pump tube volume and barrel diameter. The development of the correlation and the steps used to collapse the experimental data are presented. Over a certain parameter range in the correlation developed, the barrel erosion per shot is found to increase very rapidly. The correlation should prove useful in the selection of gun operating conditions and the design of new guns. Representative shapes of eroded gun barrels are also presented.

  6. Incidental non-benign gallbladder histopathology after cholecystectomy in an United Kingdom population: Need for routine histological analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krashna; Dajani, Khaled; Iype, Satheesh; Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Vickramarajah, Saranya; Singh, Prateush; Davies, Susan; Brais, Rebecca; Liau, Siong S; Harper, Simon; Jah, Asif; Praseedom, Raaj K; Huguet, Emmanuel L

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyse the range of histopathology detected in the largest published United Kingdom series of cholecystectomy specimens and to evaluate the rational for selective histopathological analysis. METHODS Incidental gallbladder malignancy is rare in the United Kingdom with recent literature supporting selective histological assessment of gallbladders after routine cholecystectomy. All cholecystectomy gallbladder specimens examined by the histopathology department at our hospital during a five year period between March 2008 and March 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Further data was collected on all specimens demonstrating carcinoma, dysplasia and polypoid growths. RESULTS The study included 4027 patients. The majority (97%) of specimens exhibited gallstone or cholecystitis related disease. Polyps were demonstrated in 44 (1.09%), the majority of which were cholesterol based (41/44). Dysplasia, ranging from low to multifocal high-grade was demonstrated in 55 (1.37%). Incidental primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma was detected in 6 specimens (0.15%, 5 female and 1 male), and a single gallbladder revealed carcinoma in situ (0.02%). This large single centre study demonstrated a full range of gallbladder disease from cholecystectomy specimens, including more than 1% neoplastic histology and two cases of macroscopically occult gallbladder malignancies. CONCLUSION Routine histological evaluation of all elective and emergency cholecystectomies is justified in a United Kingdom population as selective analysis has potential to miss potentially curable life threatening pathology. PMID:27830040

  7. Molecular mechanisms of ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, A

    2000-04-01

    An ulcer in the gastrointestinal tract is a deep necrotic lesion penetrating the entire mucosal thickness and muscularis mucosae. Ulcer healing is an active process of filling the mucosal defect with proliferating and migrating epithelial and connective tissue cells. At the ulcer margin, epithelial cells proliferate and migrate onto the granulation tissue to cover (reepithelialize) the ulcer and also invade granulation tissue to reconstruct glandular structures within the ulcer scar. The reepithelialization and reconstruction of glandular structures is controlled by growth factors: trefoil peptides, EGF, HGF, bFGF and PDGF; and locally produced cytokines by regenerating cells in an orderly fashion and integrated manner to ensure the quality of mucosal restoration. These growth factors, most notably EGF, trigger cell proliferation via signal transduction pathways involving EGF-R, adapter proteins (Grb2, Shc and Sos), Ras, Raf1 and MAP (Erk1/Erk2) kinases, which, after translocation to nuclei, activate transcription factors and cell proliferation. Cell migration requires cytoskeletal rearrangements and is controlled by growth factors via Rho/Rac and signaling pathways involving PLC-gamma, PI-3 K and phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins. Granulation tissue develops at the ulcer base. It consists of connective tissue cells: fibroblasts, macrophages and proliferating endothelial cells forming microvessels under the control of angiogenic growth factors: bFGF, VEGF and angiopoietins, which all promote angiogenesiscapillary vessel formation, essential for the restoration of microvascular network in the mucosa and thus crucial for oxygen and nutrient supply. The major mechanism of activation of angiogenic growth factors and their receptor expression appears to be hypoxia, which activates hypoxia-inducible factor, which binds to VEGF promoter.

  8. Selye's general adaptation syndrome: stress-induced gastro-duodenal ulceration and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Fink, George

    2017-03-01

    Hans Selye in a note to Nature in 1936 initiated the field of stress research by showing that rats exposed to nocuous stimuli responded by way of a 'general adaptation syndrome' (GAS). One of the main features of the GAS was the 'formation of acute erosions in the digestive tract, particularly in the stomach, small intestine and appendix'. This provided experimental evidence for the view based on clinical data that gastro-duodenal (peptic) ulcers could be caused by stress. This hypothesis was challenged by Marshall and Warren's Nobel Prize (2005)-winning discovery of a causal association between Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcers. However, clinical and experimental studies suggest that stress can cause peptic ulceration in the absence of H. pylori Predictably, the etiological pendulum of gastric and duodenal ulceration has swung from 'all stress' to 'all bacteria' followed by a sober realization that both factors play a role, separately as well as together. This raises the question as to whether stress and H. pylori interact, and if so, how? Stress has also been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and related disorders; however, there is no proof yet that stress is the primary etiological trigger for IBD. Central dopamine mechanisms seem to be involved in the stress induction of peptic ulceration, whereas activation of the sympathetic nervous system and central and peripheral corticotrophin-releasing factor appears to mediate stress-induced IBD. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Gastric ulceration in an equine neonate

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susan

    2003-01-01

    A 24-hour-old colt presented with clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration. Treatment was initiated with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist and clinical signs resolved. Gastroscopy at 16 d confirmed the presence of a gastric ulcer. Although gastric ulceration is common in foals, it is rarely reported in foals this young. PMID:12757136

  10. [Prevention of pressure ulcer (bedsore)].

    PubMed

    Sedmak, Dijana; Vrhovec, Marina; Huljev, Dubravko

    2013-10-01

    Although progress in many fields of science, medicine and technology is evident, we are still witnessing the appearance of bedsores and its consequences. However, in the last fifty years there has been considerable progress in the understanding of its causes, prevention and treatment. Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers are complicated by the many misconceptions. However, with due knowledge of the process of healing of acute and chronic wounds and of the pathophysiological processes, in many cases chronic wounds, like pressure ulcers, can now be prevented and cured, and thus reduce the cost of treatment, as well as the mortality rate.

  11. Genetics and epidemiology of gallbladder disease in New World native peoples.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, K M; Ferrell, R E; Hanis, C L; Styne, P N

    1984-01-01

    Native peoples of the New World, including Amerindians and admixed Latin Americans such as Mexican-Americans, are highly susceptible to diseases of the gallbladder. These include cholesterol cholelithiasis (gallstones) and its complications, as well as cancer of the gallbladder. Although there is clearly some necessary dietary or other environmental risk factor involved, the pattern of disease prevalence is geographically associated with the distribution of genes of aboriginal Amerindian origin, and levels of risk generally correspond to the degree of Amerindian admixture. This pattern differs from that generally associated with Westernization, which suggests a gene-environment interaction, and that within an admixed population there is a subset whose risk is underestimated when admixture is ignored. The risk that an individual of a susceptible New World genotype will undergo a cholecystectomy by age 85 can approach 40% in Mexican-American females, and their risk of gallbladder cancer can reach several percent. These are heretofore unrecognized levels of risk, especially of the latter, because previous studies have not accounted for admixture or for the loss of at-risk individuals due to cholecystectomy. A genetic susceptibility may, thus, be as "carcinogenic" in New World peoples as any known major environmental exposure; yet, while the risk has a genetic basis, its expression as gallbladder cancer is so delayed as to lead only very rarely to multiply-affected families. Estimates in this paper are derived in part from two studies of Mexican-Americans in Starr County and Laredo, Texas. PMID:6517051

  12. Laparoscopic approach to suspected T1 and T2 gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ome, Yusuke; Hashida, Kazuki; Yokota, Mitsuru; Nagahisa, Yoshio; Okabe, Michio; Kawamoto, Kazuyuki

    2017-04-14

    To evaluate a laparoscopic approach to gallbladder lesions including polyps, wall-thickening lesions, and suspected T1 and T2 gallbladder cancer (GBC). We performed 50 cases of laparoscopic whole-layer cholecystectomy (LCWL) and 13 cases of laparoscopic gallbladder bed resection (LCGB) for those gallbladder lesions from April 2010 to November 2016. We analyzed the short-term and long-term results of our laparoscopic approach. The median operation time was 108 min for LCWL and 211 min for LCGB. The median blood loss was minimal for LCWL and 28 ml for LCGB. No severe morbidity occurred in either procedure. Nine patients who underwent LCWL and 7 who underwent LCGB were postoperatively diagnosed with GBC. One of these patients had undergone LCGB for pathologically diagnosed T2 GBC after LCWL. All of the final surgical margins were negative. Three of these 15 patients underwent additional open surgery. The mean follow-up period was 26 mo, and only one patient developed recurrence. LCWL and LCGB are safe and useful procedures that allow complete resection of highly suspected or early-stage cancer and achieve good short-term and long-term results.

  13. US characteristics for the prediction of neoplasm in gallbladder polyps 10 mm or larger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sil; Lee, Jeong Kyong; Kim, Yookyung; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of gallbladder polyps 10 mm or larger to predict a neoplasm in US examinations. Fifty-three patients with gallbladder polyps ≥ 10 mm with follow-up images or pathologic diagnosis were included in the retrospective study. All images and reports were reviewed to determine the imaging characteristics of gallbladder polyps. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate predictors for a neoplastic polyp. A neoplastic polyp was verified in 12 of 53 patients and the mean size was 13.9 mm. The univariate analysis revealed that adjacent gallbladder wall thickening, larger size (≥15 mm), older age (≥57 years), absence of hyperechoic foci in a polyp, CT visibility, sessile shape, a solitary polyp, and an irregular surface were significant predictors for a neoplastic polyp. In the multivariate analysis, larger size (≥15 mm) was a significant predictor for a neoplastic polyp. A polyp size ≥15 mm was the strongest predictor for a neoplastic polyp with US. The hyperechoic foci in a polyp and CT visibility would be useful indicators for the differentiation of a neoplastic polyp, in addition to the established predictors. • A polyp size ≥15 mm is the strongest predictor for a neoplastic polyp with US. • Hyperechoic foci in a polyp and CT visibility are new predictors. • The rate of malignancy is low in polyps even 10 mm or larger (15.1 %).

  14. Concomitant gastroparesis occurs in functional gallbladder disease and may negatively impact clinical outcome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Functional gallbladder disease, commonly known as Biliary Dyskinesia (BD), is an increasingly recognized cause of chronic abdominal pain and dyspepsia in adults and children. Similar symptoms may occur in those with Gastroparesis (GP). The potential role and impact of concomitant GP in those with BD...

  15. A Clinician’s Guide to the Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Pottorf, Brian J; Alfaro, Leonardo; Hollis, Harris W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Gallbladder volvulus (GV), or torsion of the gallbladder, is an uncommon surgical emergency. This article reviews the world literature related to GV. We examine the history of gallbladder torsion and highlight the critical constellation of presenting signs and symptoms, which guide the acute care physician and surgeon to accurate and timely diagnosis of GV before surgical intervention. Methods: A comprehensive review of all published cases of GV was performed using the National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database. Results: Lists of typical symptoms and clinical presentations are provided to allow clinicians to establish an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Conclusion: GV is frequently undiagnosed before surgical intervention. However, clinical presentation and associated radiographic findings can lead to an accurate diagnosis if the clinician is aware of this uncommon condition. When the diagnosis has been established before operative intervention, expeditious laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely. Delays in diagnosis may mandate open cholecystectomy if laparoscopic extraction is contraindicated because of undesirable sequelae of gallbladder necrosis, specifically perforation, bilious peritonitis, and hemodynamic instability. PMID:23704849

  16. A Clinician's Guide to the Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Volvulus.

    PubMed

    Pottorf, Brian J; Alfaro, Leonardo; Hollis, Harris W

    2013-01-01

    Gallbladder volvulus (GV), or torsion of the gallbladder, is an uncommon surgical emergency. This article reviews the world literature related to GV. We examine the history of gallbladder torsion and highlight the critical constellation of presenting signs and symptoms, which guide the acute care physician and surgeon to accurate and timely diagnosis of GV before surgical intervention. A comprehensive review of all published cases of GV was performed using the National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database. Lists of typical symptoms and clinical presentations are provided to allow clinicians to establish an accurate preoperative diagnosis. GV is frequently undiagnosed before surgical intervention. However, clinical presentation and associated radiographic findings can lead to an accurate diagnosis if the clinician is aware of this uncommon condition. When the diagnosis has been established before operative intervention, expeditious laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely. Delays in diagnosis may mandate open cholecystectomy if laparoscopic extraction is contraindicated because of undesirable sequelae of gallbladder necrosis, specifically perforation, bilious peritonitis, and hemodynamic instability.

  17. Laparoscopic approach to suspected T1 and T2 gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ome, Yusuke; Hashida, Kazuki; Yokota, Mitsuru; Nagahisa, Yoshio; Okabe, Michio; Kawamoto, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate a laparoscopic approach to gallbladder lesions including polyps, wall-thickening lesions, and suspected T1 and T2 gallbladder cancer (GBC). METHODS We performed 50 cases of laparoscopic whole-layer cholecystectomy (LCWL) and 13 cases of laparoscopic gallbladder bed resection (LCGB) for those gallbladder lesions from April 2010 to November 2016. We analyzed the short-term and long-term results of our laparoscopic approach. RESULTS The median operation time was 108 min for LCWL and 211 min for LCGB. The median blood loss was minimal for LCWL and 28 ml for LCGB. No severe morbidity occurred in either procedure. Nine patients who underwent LCWL and 7 who underwent LCGB were postoperatively diagnosed with GBC. One of these patients had undergone LCGB for pathologically diagnosed T2 GBC after LCWL. All of the final surgical margins were negative. Three of these 15 patients underwent additional open surgery. The mean follow-up period was 26 mo, and only one patient developed recurrence. CONCLUSION LCWL and LCGB are safe and useful procedures that allow complete resection of highly suspected or early-stage cancer and achieve good short-term and long-term results. PMID:28465640

  18. Changes in gallbladder bile composition and crystal detection time in morbidly obese subjects after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Ulf; Benthin, Lisbet; Granström, Lars; Groen, Albert K; Sahlin, Staffan; Einarsson, Curt

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of development of cholesterol crystals and gallstones during weight reduction in obese subjects. Twenty-five morbidly obese, gallstone-free subjects underwent vertical-banded gastroplasty. Gallbladder bile was collected at the time of the operation via needle aspiration and 1.1-7.3 months after the operation via ultrasound-guided transhepatic puncture of the gallbladder. The mean weight loss was 17 kg. Two patients developed gallstones and 10 patients displayed cholesterol crystals in their bile. In patients with a follow-up time of less than 2 months (n = 13), cholesterol saturation increased from 90% to 114% but tended to decrease in the patients with a follow-up time of more than 2 months. The extraction of the concanavalin-A-binding fraction from gallbladder bile obtained after weight reduction in 7 patients prolonged crystallization detection time from 6 to 10 days. The hexosamine concentration, a marker for mucin, was increased by about 100% in bile obtained in 6 of 7 patients after weight reduction. In conclusion, the results indicate that crystallization-promoting compounds (mucin) are of great importance in the development of cholesterol crystals and gallstones in obese subjects during weight reduction, probably because of defective gallbladder emptying.

  19. Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kajal; Sreenivas, V; Velpandian, T; Kapil, Umesh; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Risk factors for gallbladder cancer (GBC) except gallstones are not well known. The objective was to study the risk factors for GBC. In a case-control study, 200 patients with GBC, 200 healthy controls and 200 gallstones patients as diseased controls were included prospectively. The risk factors studied were related to socioeconomic profile, life style, reproduction, diet and bile acids. On comparing GBC patients (mean age 51.7 years; 130 females) with healthy controls, risk factors were chemical exposure [odd ratios (OR): 7.0 (2.7-18.2); p < 0.001)], family history of gallstones [OR: 5.3 (1.5-18.9); p < 0.01)], tobacco [OR: 4.1 (1.8-9.7); p < 0.001)], fried foods [OR: 3.1 (1.7-5.6); p < 0.001], joint family [OR: 3.2 (1.7-6.2); p < 0.001], long interval between meals [OR: 1.4 (1.2-1.6); p < 0.001] and residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 3.3 (1.8-6.2); p < 0.001]. On comparing GBC cases with gallstone controls, risk factors were female gender [OR: 2.4 (1.3-4.3); p = 0.004], residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 2.3 (1.2-4.4); p = 0.012], fried foods [OR: 2.5 (1.4-4.4); p < 0.001], diabetes [OR: 2.7 (1.2-6.4); p = 0.02)], tobacco [OR 3.8 (1.7-8.1); p < 0.001)] and joint family [OR: 2.1 (1.2-3.4); p = 0.004]. The ratio of secondary to primary bile acids was significantly higher in GBC cases than gallstone controls (20.8 vs. 0.44). Fried foods, tobacco, chemical exposure, family history of gallstones, residence in Gangetic belt and secondary bile acids were significant risk factors for GBC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  20. Qualitative metabolomics profiling of serum and bile from dogs with gallbladder mucocele formation.

    PubMed

    Gookin, Jody L; Mathews, Kyle G; Cullen, John; Seiler, Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    Mucocele formation is characterized by secretion of abnormally thick mucus by the gallbladder epithelium of dogs that may cause obstruction of the bile duct or rupture of the gallbladder. The disease is increasingly recognized and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation in dogs is unknown. There is a strong breed predisposition and affected dogs have a high incidence of concurrent endocrinopathy or hyperlipidemia. These observations suggest a significant influence of both genetic and metabolic factors on disease pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated a theory that mucocele formation is associated with a syndrome of metabolic disruption. We surmised that a global, untargeted metabolomics approach could provide unique insight into the systemic pathogenesis of gallbladder mucocele formation and identify specific compounds as candidate biomarkers or treatment targets. Moreover, concurrent examination of the serum and hepatic duct bile metabolome would enable the construction of mechanism-based theories or identification of specific compounds responsible for altered function of the gallbladder epithelium. Abnormalities observed in dogs with gallbladder mucocele formation, including a 33-fold decrease in serum adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), lower quantities of precursors required for synthesis of energy transporting nucleotides, and increases in citric acid cycle intermediates, suggest excess metabolic energy and a carbon surplus. Altered quantities of compounds involved in protein translation and RNA turnover, together with accumulation of gamma-glutamylated and N-acetylated amino acids in serum suggest abnormal regulation of protein and amino acid metabolism. Increases in lathosterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol suggest a primary increase in cholesterol synthesis and diversion to bile acid formation. A number of specific biomarker compounds were identified for their ability to distinguish between control

  1. Qualitative metabolomics profiling of serum and bile from dogs with gallbladder mucocele formation

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Kyle G.; Cullen, John; Seiler, Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    Mucocele formation is characterized by secretion of abnormally thick mucus by the gallbladder epithelium of dogs that may cause obstruction of the bile duct or rupture of the gallbladder. The disease is increasingly recognized and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation in dogs is unknown. There is a strong breed predisposition and affected dogs have a high incidence of concurrent endocrinopathy or hyperlipidemia. These observations suggest a significant influence of both genetic and metabolic factors on disease pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated a theory that mucocele formation is associated with a syndrome of metabolic disruption. We surmised that a global, untargeted metabolomics approach could provide unique insight into the systemic pathogenesis of gallbladder mucocele formation and identify specific compounds as candidate biomarkers or treatment targets. Moreover, concurrent examination of the serum and hepatic duct bile metabolome would enable the construction of mechanism-based theories or identification of specific compounds responsible for altered function of the gallbladder epithelium. Abnormalities observed in dogs with gallbladder mucocele formation, including a 33-fold decrease in serum adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP), lower quantities of precursors required for synthesis of energy transporting nucleotides, and increases in citric acid cycle intermediates, suggest excess metabolic energy and a carbon surplus. Altered quantities of compounds involved in protein translation and RNA turnover, together with accumulation of gamma-glutamylated and N-acetylated amino acids in serum suggest abnormal regulation of protein and amino acid metabolism. Increases in lathosterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol suggest a primary increase in cholesterol synthesis and diversion to bile acid formation. A number of specific biomarker compounds were identified for their ability to distinguish between control

  2. Primary melanoma of the gallbladder: Does it exist? Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Safioleas, Michail; Agapitos, Emmanouil; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Stamatakos, Michail; Safioleas, Panagiotis; Mouzopoulos, George; Kostakis, Alkiviadis

    2006-01-01

    With the occasion of a case of malignant melanoma of the gallbladder, which appeared to be primary, we have reviewed the literature and the result of this research was that primary melanoma of the gallbladder remains a questionable medical entity. Only few cases of both primary and metastatic gallbladder melanoma have been reported so far, and the only agreement is that surgery is the mainstay treatment. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy, hormonotherapy or immunotherapy for both primary and metastatic disease remains undefined. PMID:16830389

  3. Pressure ulcers in four Indonesian hospitals: prevalence, patient characteristics, ulcer characteristics, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Amir, Yufitriana; Lohrmann, Christa; Halfens, Ruud Jg; Schols, Jos Mga

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this article was to study characteristics of pressure ulcer patients and their ulcers, pressure ulcer preventive and treatment measures in four Indonesian general hospitals. A multicentre cross-sectional design was applied to assess pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer care in adult patients in medical, surgical, specialised and intensive care units. Ninety-one of the 1132 patients had a total of 142 ulcers. Half (44·0%) already had pressure ulcers before admission. The overall prevalence of category I-IV pressure ulcers was 8·0% (95% CI 6·4-9·6), and the overall nosocomial pressure ulcer prevalence was 4·5% (95% CI 3·3-5·7). Most pressure ulcer patients had friction and shear problems, were bedfast, had diabetes and had more bedridden days. Most ulcers (42·3%) were category III and IV. One third of the patients had both pressure ulcers and moisture lesions (36·3%) and suffered from pain (45·1%). The most frequently used prevention measures were repositioning (61·5%), skin moisturising (47·3%), patient education (36·3%) and massage (35·2%). Most pressure ulcer dressings involved saline-impregnated or antimicrobial gauzes. This study shows the complexities of pressure ulcers in Indonesian general hospitals and reveals that the quality of pressure ulcer care (prevention and treatment) could be improved by implementing the recent evidence-based international guideline. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. High Voltage TAL Erosion Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Extended operation of a D-80 anode layer thruster at high voltage was investigated. The thruster was operated for 1200 hours at 700 Volts and 4 Amperes. Laser profilometry was employed to quantify the erosion of the thruster's graphite guard rings and electrodes at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 hours. Thruster performance and electrical characteristics were monitored over the duration of the investigation. The guard rings exhibited asymmetric erosion that was greatest in the region of the cathode. Erosion of the guard rings exposed the magnet poles between 600 to 900 hours of operation.

  5. Developing an instrument to assess the endoscopic severity of ulcerative colitis: the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS).

    PubMed

    Travis, Simon P L; Schnell, Dan; Krzeski, Piotr; Abreu, Maria T; Altman, Douglas G; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Feagan, Brian G; Hanauer, Stephen B; Lémann, Marc; Lichtenstein, Gary R; Marteau, Phillippe R; Reinisch, Walter; Sands, Bruce E; Yacyshyn, Bruce R; Bernhardt, Christian A; Mary, Jean-Yves; Sandborn, William J

    2012-04-01

    Variability in endoscopic assessment necessitates rigorous investigation of descriptors for scoring severity of ulcerative colitis (UC). To evaluate variation in the overall endoscopic assessment of severity, the intra- and interindividual variation of descriptive terms and to create an Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity which could be validated. A two-phase study used a library of 670 video sigmoidoscopies from patients with Mayo Clinic scores 0-11, supplemented by 10 videos from five people without UC and five hospitalised patients with acute severe UC. In phase 1, each of 10 investigators viewed 16/24 videos to assess agreement on the Baron score with a central reader and agreed definitions of 10 endoscopic descriptors. In phase 2, each of 30 different investigators rated 25/60 different videos for the descriptors and assessed overall severity on a 0-100 visual analogue scale. κ Statistics tested inter- and intraobserver variability for each descriptor. A general linear mixed regression model based on logit link and β distribution of variance was used to predict overall endoscopic severity from descriptors. There was 76% agreement for 'severe', but 27% agreement for 'normal' appearances between phase I investigators and the central reader. In phase 2, weighted κ values ranged from 0.34 to 0.65 and 0.30 to 0.45 within and between observers for the 10 descriptors. The final model incorporated vascular pattern, (normal/patchy/complete obliteration) bleeding (none/mucosal/luminal mild/luminal moderate or severe), erosions and ulcers (none/erosions/superficial/deep), each with precise definitions, which explained 90% of the variance (pR(2), Akaike Information Criterion) in the overall assessment of endoscopic severity, predictions varying from 4 to 93 on a 100-point scale (from normal to worst endoscopic severity). The Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity accurately predicts overall assessment of endoscopic severity of UC. Validity and

  6. Functional characterization of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers in primary cultures of prairie dog gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Narins, S C; Park, E H; Ramakrishnan, R; Garcia, F U; Diven, J N; Balin, B J; Hammond, C J; Sodam, B R; Smith, P R; Abedin, M Z

    2004-01-15

    Gallbladder Na(+) absorption is linked to gallstone formation in prairie dogs. We previously reported Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1-3) expression in native gallbladder tissues. Here we report the functional characterization of NHE1, NHE2 and NHE3 in primary cultures of prairie dog gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs). Immunohistochemical studies showed that GBECs grown to confluency are homogeneous epithelial cells of gastrointestinal origin. Electron microscopic analysis of GBECs demonstrated that the cells form polarized monolayers characterized by tight junctions and apical microvilli. GBECs grown on Snapwells exhibited polarity and developed transepithelial short-circuit current, I(sc), (11.6 +/- 0.5 microA. cm(-2)), potential differences, V(t) (2.1 +/- 0.2 mV), and resistance, R(t) (169 +/- 12 omega. cm(2)). NHE activity in GBECs assessed by measuring dimethylamiloride-inhibitable (22)Na(+) uptake under a H(+) gradient was the same whether grown on permeable Snapwells or plastic wells. The basal rate of (22)Na(+) uptake was 21.4 +/- 1.3 nmol x mg prot(-1) x min(-1), of which 9.5 +/- 0.7 (approximately 45%) was mediated through apically-restricted NHE. Selective inhibition with HOE-694 revealed that NHE1, NHE2 and NHE3 accounted for approximately 6%, approximately 66% and approximately 28% of GBECs' total NHE activity, respectively. GBECs exhibited saturable NHE kinetics ( V(max) 9.2 +/- 0.3 nmol x mg prot(-1) x min(-1); K(m) 11.4 +/- 1.4 m M Na(+)). Expression of NHE1, NHE2 and NHE3 mRNAs was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. These results demonstrate that the primary cultures of GBECs exhibit Na(+) transport characteristics similar to native gallbladder tissues, suggesting that these cells can be used as a tool for studying the mechanisms of gallbladder ion transport both under physiologic conditions and during gallstone formation.

  7. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in gallbladder—A rare differential diagnosis to gallbladder masses

    PubMed Central

    Beeskow, Anne Bettina; Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Schierle, Katrin; Surov, Alexey

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Heterotopic gastric tissue can be found in the entire gastrointestinal tract. It is usually located in the upper intestine. Rarely, it can be found in the gallbladder. This study describes several clinically, imaging features as well as histopathology findings of heterotopic gastric tissue in gallbladder (HGM). Methods: The radiologic database of 1 tertiary university hospital was retrospectively screened for HGM. Additionally, a systemic review of the Medline database was conducted to identify previously published cases reports. In all cases clinical, imaging as well as histopathology features were retrieved from the papers. Results: In our databases, 1 patient with HGM was identified. Additionally, the systemic review yielded 32 suitable papers with 34 patients. Clinically, most of the patients suffered from abdominal discomfort. Most of the lesions were located in the lower gallbladder, especially (n = 14, 40%) in the gallbladder neck. On sonography, in 20.7% a broad-based mass was described. In 10.3% a sessile polyp was identified. In 5 cases, the mass was characterized as hyperechoic (55.5%), as isoechoic in 3 (33.3%) cases, and hypoechoic in 1 (11.1%). On computed tomography (CT), the lesions were most frequently hyperdense and all of them showed a slightly enhancement after application of contrast medium. On histopathology, most cases revealed heterotopic gastric mucosa of body-fundic type (60%) with chief and parietal cells, followed by pyloric type glands (20%). Every patient was treated with cholecystectomy and all had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion: HGM is a rare disorder with several differential diagnoses. Typically features were described to identify HGM in clinical routine and rule out malignant diseases like gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:29517663

  8. Natural history of small gallbladder polyps is benign: evidence from a clinical and pathogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Larocca, Anna; Scaioli, Eleonora; Bacchi-Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Azzaroli, Francesco; Gualandi, Roberta; Simoni, Patrizia; Vestito, Amanda; Festi, Davide

    2009-03-01

    Little is known about the natural history and pathogenesis of small gallbladder polyps (<10 mm, usually of the cholesterol type), particularly in Western populations. It is unclear if these polyps and gallstones represent different aspects of the same disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the natural history and pathogenesis of small gallbladder polyps. Fifty-six Caucasian patients with small gallbladder polyps, 30 matched gallstone patients, and 30 controls were enrolled in this 5-year prospective study. Patients underwent a symptomatic questionnaire, abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasonographic evaluation of gallbladder motility at baseline and yearly intervals for 5 years. Cholesterol saturation index, cholesterol crystals in bile, and apolipoprotein E genotype were also determined. Most patients with polyps (mean size: 5.3 mm) were men (61%), asymptomatic, and had multiple polyps (57%). Polyps did not change in 91% of patients during follow-up. No subject experienced biliary pain or underwent cholecystectomy; four developed gallstones. Cholesterol saturation index was higher in patients with polyps or gallstones than in controls (P<0.05). Cholesterol crystals were more frequent in patients with polyps than in controls (P<0.0001) but less common than in gallstone patients (P<0.0001). Polyps and gallstones were associated with nonapolipoprotein E4 phenotypes. The natural history of small gallbladder polyps was benign, as no patient developed specific symptoms and/or morphological changes in polyps. Consequently, a "wait and see" policy is advisable in these patients. Polyps have some pathogenetic mechanisms in common with gallstones, but few patients developed gallstones.

  9. Rapid formation of cholesterol crystals in gallbladder bile is associated with stone recurrence after laparoscopic cholecystotomy.

    PubMed

    Jüngst, D; del Pozo, R; Dolu, M H; Schneeweiss, S G; Frimberger, E

    1997-03-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystotomy (LCT) with subsequent extraction of gallstones and primary closure of the gallbladder has been introduced as an alternative therapy for patients with cholecystolithiasis and preserved gallbladder function. However, stone recurrence has to be considered as a major drawback that might be related to lithogenic factors of gallbladder bile or the composition of gallbladder stones. Therefore, these were studied in relation to stone recurrence within an observation period of 1 to 5 years (median, 3.6 years) in 50 patients after LCT. The concentrations of total and individual bile acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, total lipids, mucin, protein, and the cholesterol saturation indices in gallbladder bile were not significantly different between 10 patients with and 40 patients without stone recurrence. However, the crystal observation time was significantly (P < .02) shorter (range, 1-2 days; median, 1.5) in the bile of patients with stone recurrence compared to those without (range, 1-21 days, median 3.5). Moreover, all 10 stone recurrences were observed in the 28 patients with a crystal observation time in the bile of less than or equal to 2 days (approximate annual risk: 12%-15%), and no recurrences were observed in the 22 patients with a crystal observation time greater than 2 days (P < .0001) or in patients with pigment stones. The rapid formation of cholesterol monohydrate crystals in bile seems to be the major risk factor for recurrent stones after LCT. These are most likely cholesterol stones and, therefore, are amenable to oral bile-acid prevention or treatment.

  10. Cystoisospora belli Infection of the Gallbladder in Immunocompetent Patients: A Clinicopathologic Review of 18 Cases.

    PubMed

    Lai, Keith K; Goyne, Hannah E; Hernandez-Gonzalo, David; Miller, Kennon A; Tuohy, Marion; Procop, Gary W; Lamps, Laura W; Patil, Deepa T

    2016-08-01

    Cystoisospora belli, previously known as Isospora belli, is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that is most often associated with gastrointestinal disease in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we detail the clinicopathologic features of 18 cases of Cystoisospora infection affecting the gallbladder in immunocompetent individuals and compare them with a control group. Each case was reviewed for cholecystitis (none, acute, chronic), epithelial disarray, presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes (none, rare [≤5 per 20 epithelial cells], present [>5 per 20 epithelial cells]), architectural distortion, intramucosal eosinophilia, and mural thickening/serositis. The mean age of patients with Cystoisospora infection was 33 years and the male to female ratio 1:4.3. Cholecystectomy was performed for biliary dyskinesia (n=7), abdominal pain (n=7), suspected cholelithiasis (n=5), and cholecystitis (n=3). In 2 cases, Cystoisospora was found in donor gallbladders resected at the time of liver transplantation. Each case was characterized by eosinophilic, oval or banana-shaped intraepithelial parasites within perinuclear parasitophorous vacuoles. Most cases showed epithelial disarray and minimal intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Of the 11 cases with an average follow-up of 15 months, none had evidence of disease related to Cystoisospora infection within the biliary tract or elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. We present the largest series of gallbladder cystoisosporiasis in immunocompetent patients to date. Cystoisospora infection is underrecognized in the gallbladders of immunocompetent patients, in part due to the subtle findings in routine cholecystectomy specimens. On the basis of the clinical follow-up, gallbladder cystoisosporiasis in immunocompetent individuals appears to be a self-limited infection.

  11. Recording pressure ulcer risk assessment and incidence.

    PubMed

    Plaskitt, Anne; Heywood, Nicola; Arrowsmith, Michaela

    2015-07-15

    This article reports on the introduction of an innovative computer-based system developed to record and report pressure ulcer risk and incidence at an acute NHS trust. The system was introduced to ensure that all patients have an early pressure ulcer risk assessment, which prompts staff to initiate appropriate management if a pressure ulcer is detected, thereby preventing further patient harm. Initial findings suggest that this electronic process has helped to improve the timeliness and accuracy of data on pressure ulcer risk and incidence. In addition, it has resulted in a reduced number of reported hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  12. Ulcerative colitis with acute pleurisy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuming; Wang, Lihua; Zhang, Weisheng; Zhang, Zhuqing; Liu, Lina; Wang, Yingde; Meng, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease, are associated with a large number of extraintestinal manifestations. Pulmonary manifestations are infrequently seen in patients with IBD. Moreover, serositis including pleural and pericardial manifestations in UC is rare. Patient concerns: We report a case of UC with acute pleurisy in a 43-year-old man; review literature; and discuss the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Diagnoses: Active duodenal ulcer was found using gastroscopy. Multiple ulcers in segmented pattern were noticed in the left hemi-colon using colonoscopy. An UC in active stage was confirmed subsequently by histology. Intervention: The patient was treated with bifidobacterium tetravaccine tablets, oral mesalazine and mesalazine enemas. The omeprazole and mucosal protective agents were given to treat the duodenal ulcer. Outcomes: As follow-up, the therapy including oral mesalazine and infliximab regularly was continued and the patient condition was stabilized. Main lesson: Pulmonary involvement should be considered in patients who develop pleurisy in UC. Infliximab is considered the better available treatment for patients presenting with pleurisy in UC. PMID:28746225

  13. Challenges in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Dealey, Carol; Brindle, C Tod; Black, Joyce; Alves, Paulo; Santamaria, Nick; Call, Evan; Clark, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Although this article is a stand-alone article, it sets the scene for later articles in this issue. Pressure ulcers are considered to be a largely preventable problem, and yet despite extensive training and the expenditure of a large amount of resources, they persist. This article reviews the current understanding of pressure ulcer aetiology: pressure, shear and microclimate. Individual risk factors for pressure ulceration also need to be understood in order to determine the level of risk of an individual. Such an assessment is essential to determine appropriate prevention strategies. The main prevention strategies in terms of reducing pressure and shear and managing microclimate are studied in this article. The problem of pressure ulceration related to medical devices is also considered as most of the standard prevention strategies are not effective in preventing this type of damage. Finally, the possibility of using dressings as an additional preventive strategy is raised along with the question: is there enough evidence to support their use? © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Oesophageal ulcer caused by warfarin.

    PubMed Central

    Loft, D. E.; Stubington, S.; Clark, C.; Rees, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    Oesophageal injury is a well recognized complication of certain oral medications but warfarin has not been implicated previously. We present a case of an oesophageal ulcer occurring in a patient with mitral regurgitation taking warfarin, and demonstrate a delayed oesophageal tablet transit time. PMID:2594605

  15. Interventions for recurrent corneal erosions.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stephanie L; Lee, Ming-Han H; Barker, Nigel H

    2012-09-12

    Recurrent corneal erosion is a common cause of disabling ocular symptoms and predisposes the cornea to infection. It may follow corneal trauma. Measures to prevent the development of recurrent corneal erosion following corneal trauma have not been firmly established. Once recurrent corneal erosion develops simple medical therapy (standard treatment) may lead to resolution of the episode. However, some patients continue to suffer when such therapy fails and once resolved further episodes of recurrent erosion may occur. A number of treatment and prophylactic options are then available but there is no agreement as to the best option. To assess the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic and treatment regimens for recurrent corneal erosion. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 13 June 2012. We also contacted researchers in the field. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared a prophylactic or treatment regimen with another prophylaxis/treatment or no prophylaxis/treatment for patients with recurrent corneal erosion. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Seven randomised and one quasi-randomised controlled trial were included in the review. The trials were heterogenous and of poor quality. Safety data presented were incomplete. For the treatment of recurrent

  16. Erosion-resistant composite material

    DOEpatents

    Finch, C.B.; Tennery, V.J.; Curlee, R.M.

    A highly erosion-resistant composite material is formed of chemical vapor-deposited titanium diboride on a sintered titanium diboride-nickel substrate. This material may be suitable for use in cutting tools, coal liquefaction systems, etc.

  17. Restorative therapy for erosive lesions.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, P; Van Meerbeek, B; Perdigão, J; Gladys, S; Braem, M; Vanherle, G

    1996-04-01

    More needs to be learned about the etiology of erosion lesions before they can be accurately diagnosed, confidently treated and, more importantly, prevented. The treatment is dependent on the location and the degree of erosion. The decision to treat an erosion lesion should be based on careful consideration of the etiology and progression of the condition. Reasons for restoring noncarious enamel/dentin lesions are discussed and various therapeutic measures are provided. Preventive and restorative therapeutic measures for noncarious abrasive/ erosive lesions are proposed such as: a change of dietary or behavior patterns; application of desensitization products; intensive fluoride therapy with or without iontophoresis; brushing with desensitizing dentifrices; adhesive penetration with dentin bonding agents; glass ionomers and compomers; resin composites; composite or porcelain veneers; crown and bridge work; occlusal adjustments and nightguard fabrication if the abfraction factor coincides. The clinical durability of restorative therapy and important clinical factors related to the restoration of multifactorial defects are discussed.

  18. Compost for steep slope erosion.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-06-01

    This study was initiated to develop guidelines for maintenance erosion control measures for steep slopes. The study focused on evaluating and monitoring KY-31 fescue germination rates using two media treatments 1) 100 percent by weight compost and 2)...

  19. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire

    Treesearch

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  20. Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with recurrent orogenital ulceration, including Behçet's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Keogan, M T

    2009-01-01

    Patients presenting with recurrent orogenital ulcers may have complex aphthosis, Behçet's disease, secondary complex aphthosis (e.g. Reiter's syndrome, Crohn's disease, cyclical neutropenia) or non-aphthous disease (including bullous disorders, erythema multiforme, erosive lichen planus). Behçet's syndrome is a multi-system vasculitis of unknown aetiology for which there is no diagnostic test. Diagnosis is based on agreed clinical criteria that require recurrent oral ulcers and two of the following: recurrent genital ulcers, ocular inflammation, defined skin lesions and pathergy. The condition can present with a variety of symptoms, hence a high index of suspicion is necessary. The most common presentation is with recurrent mouth ulcers, often with genital ulcers; however, it may take some years before diagnostic criteria are met. All patients with idiopathic orogenital ulcers should be kept under review, with periodic focused assessment to detect evolution into Behçet's disease. There is often a delay of several years between patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria and a diagnosis being made, which may contribute to the morbidity of this condition. Despite considerable research effort, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this condition remains enigmatic. PMID:19210521

  1. Gastroprotective Mechanism and Ulcer Resolution Effect of Cyrtocarpa procera Methanolic Extract on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; García-Martínez, Karina; Guerrero Alquicira, Raquel; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Gastric ulcers are a worldwide health problem and their poor healing is one of the most important causes for their recurrence. We have previously reported the remarkable gastroprotective and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of the methanolic extract (CpMet) of Cyrtocarpa procera bark. This work investigates, in a murine model, the CpMet gastroprotective mechanism and establishes its preclinical efficacy in the resolution of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The results showed that the gastroprotective activity of CpMet is mainly associated with endogenous NO and prostaglandins, followed by sulfhydryl groups and KATP channels. Furthermore, CpMet (300 mg/kg, twice a day) orally administered during 20 consecutive days promoted an ulcer area reduction of 62.65% at the 20th day of the treatment. The effect was confirmed macroscopically by the alleviation of gastric mucosal erosions and microscopically by an increase in mucin content and a reduction in the inflammatory infiltration at the site of the ulcer. No clinical symptoms or signs of toxicity were observed in the treated animals. The results indicate the safety and efficacy of CpMet in promoting high quality of ulcer healing by different mechanisms, but mostly through cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, making it a promising phytodrug for ulcer treatment. PMID:29507589

  2. Routine administration of antibiotics to patients suffering accidental gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not necessary.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Valdivia, Gilberto

    2008-12-01

    Accidental rupture of the gallbladder is an event which occurs in up to 20% of laparoscopic cholecystectomies, mainly in those where dissection is difficult, or during extraction when the gallbladder is withdrawn directly through the laparoscope port. It has been commonly assumed that contamination by bile in the abdominal cavity could be a cause of infection and lead to the formation of a residual abscess or even to surgical wound infection. It is common practice, therefore, for the surgeon to prescribe the application of an antibiotic at the moment when gallbladder perforation occurs. To compare 2 groups of similar patients, to determine whether administration of antibiotics, started during surgery, is actually useful in reducing the risk of residual abscess or infection in the surgical wound. The study considered a total of 166 patients who had suffered accidental perforation of the gallbladder during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This total was divided at random into 2 groups: group A (80 patients) who received a dose of 1 g of Cefotaxime at the moment of gallbladder rupture, followed by 2 more doses at intervals of 8 hours in the immediate postoperative period; and group B (86 patients) who did not receive any antibiotic treatment at all. The dependent variables observed were surgical wound infection and residual abscess: and the control variables were age, sex, length of operation time, intercurrent illnesses, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification. Two patients (2.5%) in group A developed a surgical wound infection, against 3 cases (3.4%) in group B, the result having no statistical significance. No patients developed residual abscess. In a multivariant analysis, the following were identified as independent factors significantly associated with the onset of surgical wound infection (P<0.001): diabetes mellitus, being over 60 years of age, operation time lasting longer than 70 minutes, and ASA 3. Routine application of an

  3. Tolerable soil erosion in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheijen, Frank; Jones, Bob; Rickson, Jane; Smith, Celina

    2010-05-01

    Soil loss by erosion has been identified as an important threat to soils in Europe* and is recognised as a contributing process to soil degradation and associated deterioration, or loss, of soil functioning. From a policy perspective, it is imperative to establish well-defined baseline values to evaluate soil erosion monitoring data against. For this purpose, accurate baseline values - i.e. tolerable soil loss - need to be differentiated at appropriate scales for monitoring and, ideally, should take soil functions and even changing environmental conditions into account. The concept of tolerable soil erosion has been interpreted in the scientific literature in two ways: i) maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of soil quantity, and ii) maintaining biomass production, at a location. The first interpretation ignores soil quality by focusing only on soil quantity. The second approach ignores many soil functions by focusing only on the biomass (particularly crop) production function of soil. Considering recognised soil functions, tolerable soil erosion may be defined as 'any mean annual cumulative (all erosion types combined) soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur'. Assumptions and problems of this definition will be discussed. Soil functions can generally be judged not to deteriorate as long as soil erosion does not exceed soil formation. At present, this assumption remains largely untested, but applying the precautionary principle appears to be a reasonable starting point. Considering soil formation rates by both weathering and dust deposition, it is estimated that for the majority of soil forming factors in most European situations, soil formation rates probably range from ca. 0.3 - 1.4 t ha-1 yr-1. Although the current agreement on these values seems relatively strong, how the variation within the range is spatially distributed across Europe and how this may be affected by climate, land use and land management

  4. The biomechanics of leg ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Chant, A.

    1999-01-01

    Research performed in the late 1960s, using 24Na, suggested that the perfusion of skin and subcutaneous tissues is critically dependent on the relationship between capillary (Pc) and tissue pressures (Pt). Perfusion changes differed significantly between controls and patients with venous disease and the differences could be interpreted as evidence that Pt remained high in venous diseased patients. From this starting point, a biomechanical theory for the aetiology of venous ulceration was developed and tested by measuring skin elasticity, limb cross-sectional area and laser Doppler flux. The results confirm that, modelled as a two-compartment system (vascular and interstitial fluid), forces can be demonstrated sufficient to cause intermittent capillary closure and subsequent reperfusion injury. These forces are maximal in the gaiter area, the site of most leg ulcers. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10364960

  5. [Topical therapy of ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Rogler, G; Beglinger, C; Mottet, C; Seibold, F; Gross, V

    2011-11-16

    The availability of new topical preparations for the treatment of left sided ulcerative colitis ulcerosa offers a therapy optimization for many patients. Rectal application of steroids and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is associated with fewer side effects and has a higher therapeutic efficacy in mild to moderate-active left-sided colitis as compared to a systemic therapy. Often it is argued that the patients' compliance is insufficient with a rectal therapy. However, with sufficient information on the proven advantages this is usually not the case. The rectal application of drugs in distal ulcerative colitis is suitable also for the maintenance of remission. Therefore the new therapy guidelines recommend topical therapy more than in former times. Subsequently, these manuscripts focussed specifically on the topical therapy of distal colitis, to elucidate that clear treatment advantages are present in daily practice.

  6. Hydroxyurea-induced oral ulceration.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Maha; Almazrooa, Soulafa; Azher, Fatima; Alsayes, Fatin

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite that is widely used in the treatment of many benign and malignant conditions. This drug is usually well tolerated but has a number of side effects that vary in incidence. In cases of clinically significant adverse events, hydroxyurea is usually discontinued either temporarily or permanently, depending on treatment need versus harm caused by side effects. Here, we report a case of oral ulceration associated with hydroxyurea treatment in a patient who had chronic myelogenous leukemia. The patient rapidly developed an oral ulcer 12 days after administration of the drug. Hydroxyurea was discontinued, and the oral lesion appreciably decreased in size and severity. Physicians and dentists should be aware of the association between hydroxyurea and oral lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Perforated peptic ulcer - an update

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kin Tong; Shelat, Vishalkumar G

    2017-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) affects 4 million people worldwide annually. The incidence of PUD has been estimated at around 1.5% to 3%. Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a serious complication of PUD and patients with PPU often present with acute abdomen that carries high risk for morbidity and mortality. The lifetime prevalence of perforation in patients with PUD is about 5%. PPU carries a mortality ranging from 1.3% to 20%. Thirty-day mortality rate reaching 20% and 90-d mortality rate of up to 30% have been reported. In this review we have summarized the current evidence on PPU to update readers. This literature review includes the most updated information such as common causes, clinical features, diagnostic methods, non-operative and operative management, post-operative complications and different scoring systems of PPU. With the advancement of medical technology, PUD can now be treated with medications instead of elective surgery. The classic triad of sudden onset of abdominal pain, tachycardia and abdominal rigidity is the hallmark of PPU. Erect chest radiograph may miss 15% of cases with air under the diaphragm in patients with bowel perforation. Early diagnosis, prompt resuscitation and urgent surgical intervention are essential to improve outcomes. Exploratory laparotomy and omental patch repair remains the gold standard. Laparoscopic surgery should be considered when expertise is available. Gastrectomy is recommended in patients with large or malignant ulcer. PMID:28138363

  8. [Therapeutic options for pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    Damert, H-G; Meyer, F; Altmann, S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this overview is based on remarks on the pathogenesis of and therapy for pressure ulcers and selected but representative cases to demonstrate current options of plastic coverage. As a consequence of the demographic developments, in particular, with regard to the increasing proportion of older patients as well as the advances in modern medicine, the number of multimorbid, geriatric and bedridden patients and of those with prolonged sickbed periods has been steadily growing. Therefore, partly severe manifestations of pressure ulcers at various exposed body regions can be observed in spite of the best preventive intention of care. While in the early stages rather conservative treatment is adequate, surgical intervention might become important and indispensable for a sufficient treatment in advanced stages. To facilitate basic care and to appropriately treat the infectious focus, the methods and procedures of plastic surgery can become relevant. Although there are several options and approaches existing to sanitise and cover defects of pressure ulcers, which are described within the article based on representative cases, preventive measures can still be considered the best approach. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Perforated peptic ulcer - an update.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kin Tong; Shelat, Vishalkumar G

    2017-01-27

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) affects 4 million people worldwide annually. The incidence of PUD has been estimated at around 1.5% to 3%. Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a serious complication of PUD and patients with PPU often present with acute abdomen that carries high risk for morbidity and mortality. The lifetime prevalence of perforation in patients with PUD is about 5%. PPU carries a mortality ranging from 1.3% to 20%. Thirty-day mortality rate reaching 20% and 90-d mortality rate of up to 30% have been reported. In this review we have summarized the current evidence on PPU to update readers. This literature review includes the most updated information such as common causes, clinical features, diagnostic methods, non-operative and operative management, post-operative complications and different scoring systems of PPU. With the advancement of medical technology, PUD can now be treated with medications instead of elective surgery. The classic triad of sudden onset of abdominal pain, tachycardia and abdominal rigidity is the hallmark of PPU. Erect chest radiograph may miss 15% of cases with air under the diaphragm in patients with bowel perforation. Early diagnosis, prompt resuscitation and urgent surgical intervention are essential to improve outcomes. Exploratory laparotomy and omental patch repair remains the gold standard. Laparoscopic surgery should be considered when expertise is available. Gastrectomy is recommended in patients with large or malignant ulcer.

  10. Hypersecretion of mucus glycoprotein by the gallbladder epithelium in experimental cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, S P

    1981-07-01

    In three models of cholelithiasis (dihydrocholesterol-fed rabbits, cholesterol-cholic acid-fed mice, and Lincomycin-treated guinea pigs), the quantity and chemical composition of gallbladder epithelial mucin have been studied using (1) a spectrum of histochemical glycoprotein stains, and (2) biochemical extraction, purification and analysis of the carbohydrate components of epithelial mucin. Despite the diverse mechanism of stone induction and difference in stone composition, a common pattern of response by the epithelial mucin was observed in all three models. There was a quantitative increase in epithelial mucus production at a time before stones were formed and this increase persisted till stones were formed. There was no difference, qualitatively, between mucus produced by normal and stone-forming gallbladders.

  11. [Ultrasound-guided cutaneous intercostal branches nerves block: A good analgesic alternative for gallbladder open surgery].

    PubMed

    Fernández Martín, M T; López Álvarez, S; Mozo Herrera, G; Platero Burgos, J J

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard treatment for gallbladder diseases. However, there are still some patients for whom conversion to open surgery is required. This surgery can produce significant post-operative pain. Opioids drugs have traditionally been used to treat this pain, but side effects have led to seeking alternatives (plexus, nerve or fascia blocks or wound). The cases are presented of 4 patients subjected to ultrasound-guided intercostal branches blocks in the mid-axillary line from T6 to T12 with levobupivacaine as an analgesic alternative in open surgery of gallbladder, with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Pancreas and gallbladder agenesis in a newborn with semilobar holoprosencephaly, a case report.

    PubMed

    Hilbrands, Robert; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Michotte, Alex; Marichal, Miriam; Cools, Filip; Goossens, Anieta; Veld, Peter In't; De Schepper, Jean; Hattersley, Andrew; Heimberg, Harry

    2017-05-19

    Pancreatic agenesis is an extremely rare cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus and has enabled the discovery of several key transcription factors essential for normal pancreas and beta cell development. We report a case of a Caucasian female with complete pancreatic agenesis occurring together with semilobar holoprosencephaly (HPE), a more common brain developmental disorder. Clinical findings were later confirmed by autopsy, which also identified agenesis of the gallbladder. Although the sequences of a selected set of genes related to pancreas agenesis or HPE were wild-type, the patient's phenotype suggests a genetic defect that emerges early in embryonic development of brain, gallbladder and pancreas. Developmental defects of the pancreas and brain can occur together. Identifying the genetic defect may identify a novel key regulator in beta cell development.

  13. Epigenetic regulation in gallbladder cancer: Promoter methylation profiling as emergent novel biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Tekcham, Dinesh Singh; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar

    2016-12-01

    DNA methylation, once considered to rule the sex determination in Mary Lyon's hypothesis, has now reached the epicenter of human diseases, from monogenic (e.g. Prader Willi syndrome, Angelman syndromes and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome) to polygenic diseases, like cancer. Technological developments from gold standard to high throughput technologies have made tremendous advancement to define the epigenetic mechanism of cancer. Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a fatal health issue affecting mostly the middle-aged women, whose survival rate is very low due to late symptomatic diagnosis. DNA methylation has become one of the key molecular mechanisms in the tumorigenesis of gallbladder. Various molecules have been reported to be epigenetically altered in GBC. In this review, we have discussed the classes of epigenetics, an overview of DNA methylation, technological approaches for its study, profile of methylated genes, their likely roles in GBC, future prospects of biomarker development and other discovery approaches, including therapeutics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Engaging patients in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Hudgell, Lynne; Dalphinis, Julie; Blunt, Chris; Zonouzi, Maryam; Procter, Susan

    2015-05-06

    As patients increasingly care for themselves at home, they require accessible information to enable informed self-care. This article describes the development of an educational electronic application (app) designed for use by patients at risk of pressure ulcers, and their carers. The app can be downloaded to Windows, Android or Apple smartphones or tablets. The app is based on the current pressure ulcer prevention and management guidelines from the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and is designed to educate patients and carers about how to prevent a pressure ulcer, how to recognise a pressure ulcer, and what to do if they suspect they are developing a pressure ulcer. We hope the app will be used to help with educational conversations among patients, carers and healthcare professionals.

  15. [Having trouble with pressure ulcers care?].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masako; Noda, Yasuhiro; Nohara, Yoko; Fujii, Keiko; Sato, Noriko; Renda, Akiyoshi; Yuasa, Takashi; Muramatsu, Shuichi; Furuta, Katsunori

    2004-12-01

    Since 1997, we, the community pharmacists, have established this society, Aichi Prefecture Society for the Study of Pressure Ulcers Care, in order to furnish drug information about pressure ulcers care. Moist atmosphere is required for the healing of pressure ulcers. The moist environment that could be regulated depends on the physicochemical property of ointment bases. Therefore, ointment should reasonably be chosen to adjust the moisture. Since 2000, we have been committed to providing pharmacists, who work on home care, with a booklet to instruct how to choose ointments for pressure ulcers treatment. In 2002, when the Aichi pharmaceutical association held a training conference held at various hospitals using the booklet as a teaching material, hospital pharmacists cooperated by making a field study trip to observe pressure ulcers treatments. Nowadays researchers at pharmaceutical colleges have also cooperated in studying the efficacy and economical effect of the method of blending different ointments to improve the healing process of pressure ulcers.

  16. Laparoscopic pyloroplasty for perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Grišin, Edvard; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Poškus, Tomas; Jotautas, Valdemaras; Strupas, Kęstutis

    2017-09-01

    Peptic ulcer is a common disease affecting millions of people every year. Despite improved understanding and treatment of the disease, the number of patients admitted with duodenal peptic ulcer perforation has not decreased. Deaths from peptic ulcer disease overcome other common emergency situations. Laparoscopic repair of the perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is the gold standard approach for simple perforation. However, in patients with large perforated chronic ulcers laparotomy with pyloroplasty is the standard treatment. It is generally accepted to perform open surgery in PPU emergencies because of the greater knowledge and experience gathered over the past decades and less potential harm for the patient or surgical complications. We present a case of successful laparoscopic pyloroplasty of a perforated duodenal ulcer with stenosis.

  17. Laparoscopic pyloroplasty for perforated peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Mikalauskas, Saulius; Poškus, Tomas; Jotautas, Valdemaras; Strupas, Kęstutis

    2017-01-01

    Peptic ulcer is a common disease affecting millions of people every year. Despite improved understanding and treatment of the disease, the number of patients admitted with duodenal peptic ulcer perforation has not decreased. Deaths from peptic ulcer disease overcome other common emergency situations. Laparoscopic repair of the perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is the gold standard approach for simple perforation. However, in patients with large perforated chronic ulcers laparotomy with pyloroplasty is the standard treatment. It is generally accepted to perform open surgery in PPU emergencies because of the greater knowledge and experience gathered over the past decades and less potential harm for the patient or surgical complications. We present a case of successful laparoscopic pyloroplasty of a perforated duodenal ulcer with stenosis. PMID:29062455

  18. Enhancing Documentation of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Interventions: A Quality Improvement Strategy to Reduce Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Therese M; Thompson, Susan L; Halvorson, Anna M; Zeitler, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers requires the implementation of evidence-based interventions. A quality improvement project was conducted to provide nurses with data on the frequency with which pressure ulcer prevention interventions were performed as measured by documentation. Documentation reports provided feedback to stakeholders, triggering reminders and reeducation. Intervention reports and modifications to the documentation system were effective both in increasing the documentation of pressure ulcer prevention interventions and in decreasing the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  19. An Aggressive Surgical Approach Leads to Improved Survival in Patients With Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Elijah; Vollmer, Charles M.; Sahajpal, Ajay; Cattral, Mark; Grant, David; Doig, Christopher; Hemming, Al; Taylor, Bryce; Langer, Bernard; Greig, Paul; Gallinger, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if an aggressive surgical approach, with an increase in R0 resections, has resulted in improved survival for patients with gallbladder cancer. Summary Background Data: Many physicians express a relatively nihilistic approach to the treatment of gallbladder cancer; consensus among surgeons regarding the indications for a radical surgical approach has not been reached. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients with gallbladder cancer admitted during the past 12 years was conducted. Ninety-nine patients were identified. Cases treated during the 12-year period 1990 to 2002 were divided into 2 time-period (TP) cohorts, those treated in the first 6 years (TP1, N = 35) and those treated in the last 6 years (TP2, N = 64). Results: Disease stratification by stage and other demographic features were similar in the 2 time periods. An operation with curative intent was performed on 38 patients. Nine (26%) R0 resections were performed in TP1 and 24 (38%) in TP2. The number of liver resections, as well as the frequency of extrahepatic biliary resections, was greater in TP2 (P < 0.04). In both time periods, an R0 resection was associated with improved survival (P < 0.02 TP1, P < 0.0001 TP2). Overall survival of all patients in TP2 was significantly greater than in TP1 (P < 0.03), with a median survival of 9 months in TP1 and 17 months in TP2. The median 5-year survival in TP1 was 7%, and 35% in TP2. The surgical mortality rate for the entire cohort was 2%, with a 49% morbidity rate. Conclusions: A margin-negative, R0 resection leads to improved survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. PMID:15729060

  20. A comparative study of mud-like and coralliform calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Qiao, Tie; Huang, Hai-Yi; Zhong, Hai-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    To gain insight to underlying mechanism of the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) gallbladder stones, we did comparative study of stones with mud appearance and those with coralliform appearance. A total of 93 gallbladder stones with mud appearance and 50 stones with coralliform appearance were analyzed. The appearance, color, texture, and the detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs by microscopic examination were compared between the two groups. Then, the material compositions of stones were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the spectrogram characteristics were compared. Moreover, microstructure characteristics of the two kinds of stones were observed and compared with Scanning Electron Microscopy. Mud-like gallbladder stones were mainly earthy yellow or brown with brittle or soft texture, while coralliform stones were mainly black with extremely hard texture, the differences between the two groups was significant (p < .05). The analytic results of FTIR spectroscopy showed that 95.7% (89/93) of the mud-like gallbladder stones were CaCO 3 stones, and mainly aragonite; while all of the coralliform stones were CaCO 3 stones, and mainly calcite (p < .05). Meanwhile, microscopic examination indicated that the detection rate of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in mud-like CaCO 3 stones was lower than that in coralliform CaCO 3 stones (p < .05), and that in aragonite CaCO 3 stones was lower than that in calcite CaCO 3 stones(p < .05). Mud-like CaCO 3 stones mainly happened to patients with cystic duct obstruction. Clonorchis sinensis infection was mainly associated with coralliform (calcite) CaCO 3 stones. Cystic duct obstruction was mainly associated with mud-like (aragonite) CaCO 3 stones. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate malignant from benign gallbladder disorders.

    PubMed

    Kitazume, Yoshio; Taura, Shin-Ichi; Nakaminato, Shuichiro; Noguchi, Osamu; Masaki, Yukiyoshi; Kasahara, Ichiro; Kishino, Mitsuhiro; Tateishi, Ukihide

    2016-04-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and lesion to spinal cord ratio (LSR) in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) as compared with morphological assessment alone, for differentiating malignant from benign gallbladder disorders. This study was approved by the ethics committee, and written informed consent was waived. Ninety-one patients (13 malignancy and 78 benignancy) were reviewed. ADC was calculated using two DW images with different motion-probing gradient strengths (b=0, 1000s/mm(2)). LSR was measured by dividing the signal intensity of a thickened gallbladder wall by the maximum signal intensity of the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. In addition, the morphology of the gallbladders was assessed with conventional MR imaging. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the areas under the curves for ADC and LSR were 0.861 and 0.906, respectively. Three morphological findings were considered: a massive formation, a disrupted mucosal line, and the absence of a two-layered pattern. When a combination of two or more of these morphological findings was positive for malignancy, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 76.9%, 84.0%, and 83.0%, respectively. When a combination of three or more of the above morphological findings together with ADC of less than 1.2 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s or LSR of more than 0.48 were positive for malignancy, these values were 73.0%, 96.2%, and 92.9%, respectively. There were significant differences in specificity and accuracy. Use of ADC and LSR in DWI can improve diagnostic performance for differentiating malignant from benign gallbladder disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment and surveillance of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Gabriele; Hakeem, Abdul; Toogood, Giles J; Lodge, J Peter A; Prasad, K Raj

    2012-07-01

    The increase in the routine use of abdominal imaging has led to a parallel surge in the identification of polypoid lesions in the gallbladder. True gallbladder polyps (GBP) have malignant potential and surgery can prevent or treat early gallbladder cancer. In an era of constraint on health care resources, it is important to ensure that surgery is offered only to patients who have appropriate indications. The aim of this study was to assess treatment and surveillance policies for GBP among hepatobiliary and upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons in the UK in the light of published evidence. A questionnaire on the management of GBP was devised and sent to consultant surgeon members of the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons (AUGIS) of Great Britain and Ireland with the approval of the AUGIS Committee. It included eight questions on indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and surveillance based on GBP (size, number, growth rate) and patient (age, comorbidities, ethnicity) characteristics. A total of 79 completed questionnaires were returned. The vast majority of surgeons (>75%) stated that they would perform surgery when a single GBP reached 10 mm in size. However, there was a lack of uniformity in the management of multiple polyps and polyp growth rate, with different surveillance protocols for patients treated conservatively. Gallbladder polyps are a relatively common finding on abdominal ultrasound scans. The survey showed considerable heterogeneity among surgeons regarding treatment and surveillance protocols. Although no randomized controlled trials exist, national guidelines would facilitate standardization, the formulation of an appropriate algorithm and appropriate use of resources. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  3. Treatment and surveillance of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Gabriele; Hakeem, Abdul; Toogood, Giles J; Lodge, J Peter A; Prasad, K Raj

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The increase in the routine use of abdominal imaging has led to a parallel surge in the identification of polypoid lesions in the gallbladder. True gallbladder polyps (GBP) have malignant potential and surgery can prevent or treat early gallbladder cancer. In an era of constraint on health care resources, it is important to ensure that surgery is offered only to patients who have appropriate indications. The aim of this study was to assess treatment and surveillance policies for GBP among hepatobiliary and upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons in the UK in the light of published evidence. Methods A questionnaire on the management of GBP was devised and sent to consultant surgeon members of the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons (AUGIS) of Great Britain and Ireland with the approval of the AUGIS Committee. It included eight questions on indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and surveillance based on GBP (size, number, growth rate) and patient (age, comorbidities, ethnicity) characteristics. Results A total of 79 completed questionnaires were returned. The vast majority of surgeons (>75%) stated that they would perform surgery when a single GBP reached 10 mm in size. However, there was a lack of uniformity in the management of multiple polyps and polyp growth rate, with different surveillance protocols for patients treated conservatively. Conclusions Gallbladder polyps are a relatively common finding on abdominal ultrasound scans. The survey showed considerable heterogeneity among surgeons regarding treatment and surveillance protocols. Although no randomized controlled trials exist, national guidelines would facilitate standardization, the formulation of an appropriate algorithm and appropriate use of resources. PMID:22672544

  4. Long-term culture and partial characterization of dog gallbladder epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, D.; Lee, S.P.; Hayashi, A.

    1991-05-01

    We describe the successful isolation and maintenance of primary cultures of dog gallbladder epithelial cells. The surgically removed gallbladder was treated with trypsin/EDTA for 45 minutes and epithelial cells were collected and resuspended in Eagle's minimum essential medium with 10% fetal calf serum, and plated on Vitrogen-coated culture dishes. Each gallbladder yielded approximately 12 to 15 x 10{sup 6} columnar epithelial cells, greater than 95% of which were viable by trypan blue exclusion. In culture, cells maintained their polarity. They were arranged and grew in small and tight clusters that coalesced at confluency. When examined using transmission electron microscopy, prominentmore » and numerous microville were identified on the apical portion of the plasma membrane. Cells were connected by well-formed desmosomes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed clusters of polyhedral cells with numerous papillary projections. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated uniform staining of cells to keratin 35BH11 and AE1. Histochemical studies were positive for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and negative for glucose-6-phosphatase and albumin. Cells incorporated ({sup 3}H)uridine into intracellular proteins and ({sup 14}C)glucosamine into tissue and secreted mucous glycoproteins linearly over 2 to 24 hours. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated a consistent and reproducible number of cells (10 to 12%) at S-phase. However, the number of cells at S-phase was dramatically reduced to almost negligible as cells reached confluency. This method of culturing primary dog gallbladder epithelial cells is highly reproducible and reliable. These cells preserve their state of differentiation, polarity, histochemical and immunohistochemical profile, morphologic, and metabolic integrity with repeated passaging or after being frozen.« less

  5. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  6. Gallbladder Cancer Presenting with Jaundice: Uniformly Fatal or Still Potentially Curable?

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy B; Norton, Jeffrey A; Ethun, Cecilia G; Pawlik, Timothy M; Buettner, Stefan; Schmidt, Carl; Beal, Eliza W; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan C; Krasnick, Bradley A; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Martin, Robert C G; Scoggins, Charles R; Shen, Perry; Mogal, Harveshp D; Idrees, Kamran; Isom, Chelsea A; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Maithel, Shishir K; Poultsides, George A

    2017-08-01

    Jaundice as a presenting symptom of gallbladder cancer has traditionally been considered to be a sign of advanced disease, inoperability, and poor outcome. However, recent studies have demonstrated that a small subset of these patients can undergo resection with curative intent. Patients with gallbladder cancer managed surgically from 2000 to 2014 in 10 US academic institutions were stratified based on the presence of jaundice at presentation (defined as bilirubin ≥4 mg/ml or requiring preoperative biliary drainage). Perioperative morbidity, mortality, and overall survival were compared between jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients. Of 400 gallbladder cancer patients with available preoperative data, 108 (27%) presented with jaundice while 292 (73%) did not. The fraction of patients who eventually underwent curative-intent resection was much lower in the presence of jaundice (n = 33, 30%) than not (n = 218, 75%; P < 0.001). Jaundiced patients experienced higher perioperative morbidity (69 vs. 38%; P = 0.002), including a much higher need for reoperation (12 vs. 1%; P = 0.003). However, 90-day mortality (6.5 vs. 3.6%; P = 0.35) was not significantly higher. Overall survival after resection was worse in jaundiced patients (median 14 vs. 32 months; P < 0.001). Further subgroup analysis within the jaundiced patients revealed a more favorable survival after resection in the presence of low CA19-9 < 50 (median 40 vs. 12 months; P = 0.003) and in the absence of lymphovascular invasion (40 vs. 14 months; P = 0.014). Jaundice is a powerful preoperative clinical sign of inoperability and poor outcome among gallbladder cancer patients. However, some of these patients may still achieve long-term survival after resection, especially when preoperative CA19-9 levels are low and no lymphovascular invasion is noted pathologically.

  7. Biliary lipids, bile acids, and gallbladder function in the human female:effects of contraceptive steroids

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, F., Jr.; Everson, G.T.; DeMark, B.

    Reported are biliary lipid composition and secretion, bile acid composition and kinetics, and gallbladder function in a group of healthy, nonobese women taking a contraceptive steroid preparation. A comparable group of healthy women served as controls. Biliary lipid secretion rate was measured by the marker perfusion technique. Bile acid distribution was determined by gas-lipid chromatography. The pool size, FTR, and synthesis rate of each bile acid were measured by using CA and CDCA labeled with the stable isotope of carbon, /sup 13/C. In some of the subjects gallbladder storage and emptying were measured during the kinetic study, by real-time ultrasonography.more » Contraceptive steroid use was associated with a significant increase in biliary cholesterol saturation and in the lithogenic index of bile. The rate of cholesterol secretion in the contraceptive steroid group was 50% greater than in the control (p << 0.001) and the rate of bile acid secretion was reduced (p < 0.02). The total bile acid pool size was significantly increased by contraceptive steroids. The major increase occurred in the CA pool (p < 0.04). The daily rate of enterohepatic cycles of the bile acid pool was decreased by contraceptive steroids from 6.6 to 4.3 (p < 0.01). The only effect of contraceptive steroids on gallbladder function was a slower emptying rate in response to intraduodenal amino acid infusion. No index of gallbladder function correlated significantly with any parameter of bile acid kinetics in this small group of subjects. The findings confirm the lithogenic effect of contraceptive steroids and indicate that its causes are an increase in cholesterol secretion and a decrease in bile acid secretion.« less

  8. Bile salts stimulate mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells independent of their detergent effect.

    PubMed

    Klinkspoor, J H; Yoshida, T; Lee, S P

    1998-05-15

    1. Bile salts stimulate mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium. We have investigated whether this stimulatory effect is due to a detergent effect of bile salts. 2. The bile salts taurocholic acid (TC) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDC) and the detergents Triton X-100 (12.5-400 microM) and Tween-20 (0.1-3.2 mM) were applied to monolayers of cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Mucin secretion was studied by measuring the secretion of [3H]N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins. We also attempted to alter the fluidity of the apical membrane of the cells through extraction of cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrin (2.5-15 mM). The effect on TUDC-induced mucin secretion was studied. Cell viability was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage or 51Cr release. 3. In contrast with the bile salts, the detergents were not able to cause an increase in mucin secretion without causing concomitant cell lysis. Concentrations of detergent that increased mucin release (>100 microM Triton X-100, >0.8 mM Tween-20), caused increased LDH release. Incubation with beta-cyclodextrin resulted in effective extraction of cholesterol without causing an increase in 51Cr release. However, no effect of the presumed altered membrane fluidity on TUDC (10 mM)-induced mucin secretion was observed. 4. The stimulatory effect of bile salts on mucin secretion by gallbladder epithelial cells is not affected by the fluidity of the apical membrane of the cells and also cannot be mimicked by other detergents. We conclude that the ability of bile salts to cause mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium is not determined by their detergent properties.

  9. Analysis of Carcinogenic Heavy Metals in Gallstones and its Role in Gallbladder Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Bikash; Maulik, Dhrubajyoti; Mandal, Mousumi; Sarkar, Gautam Narayan; Sengupta, Sanjay; Ghosh, Debidas

    2017-12-01

    Gallstone is a high-risk factor for gallbladder pre-malignancy or malignancy (GB PM-M) but which substances of gallstones definitely assist to turn out in to GB PM-M, remains unclear. This study aimed to find out the presence of carcinogenic heavy metals in gallstones and to explore the aetiopathogenesis of gallbladder pre-malignancy and malignancy. Presence of elements in gallstones was detected by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then level of carcinogenic heavy metals was estimated in gallstones using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The experiment was carried out in gallstone samples of 46 patients with gallbladder pre-malignant and malignant condition (PM-M group) and 65 sex and age-matched patients with chronic cholecystitis (C-C group). Gallstones were also classified in to three types such as cholesterol stone, mixed stone, and black pigment stone. EDS analysis detected presence of mercury, lead, and cobalt elements in all types of gallstones of both PM-M and C-C groups. AAS analysis revealed significantly higher amount of mercury (p < 0.001), lead (p < 0.0001), cobalt (p < 0.01), and cadmium (p < 0.01) in the gallstones of PM-M than C-C groups. The presence of these heavy metals also varied among stone types of both groups. EDS phase analysis showed 'dense deposits' of these metals in gallstones. Presence of significantly higher amount of mercury, lead, cobalt, and cadmium in gallstones may play a pivotal role as risk factors in the development of gallbladder malignancy or pre-malignancy. 'Dense deposits' of these metals in the gallstones which is the first observation, may act as crucial doses of carcinogens.

  10. Nomogram for Predicting the Benefit of Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Resected Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Samuel J.; Lemieux, Andrew; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Ord, Celine B.; Walker, Gary V.; Fuller, C. David; Kim, Jong-Sung; Thomas, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Although adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for resected gallbladder cancer may improve survival for some patients, identifying which patients will benefit remains challenging because of the rarity of this disease. The specific aim of this study was to create a decision aid to help make individualized estimates of the potential survival benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for patients with resected gallbladder cancer. Methods Patients with resected gallbladder cancer were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) –Medicare database who were diagnosed between 1995 and 2005. Covariates included age, race, sex, stage, and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Propensity score weighting was used to balance covariates between treated and untreated groups. Several types of multivariate survival regression models were constructed and compared, including Cox proportional hazards, Weibull, exponential, log-logistic, and lognormal models. Model performance was compared using the Akaike information criterion. The primary end point was overall survival with or without adjuvant chemotherapy or CRT. Results A total of 1,137 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. The lognormal survival model showed the best performance. A Web browser–based nomogram was built from this model to make individualized estimates of survival. The model predicts that certain subsets of patients with at least T2 or N1 disease will gain a survival benefit from adjuvant CRT, and the magnitude of benefit for an individual patient can vary. Conclusion A nomogram built from a parametric survival model from the SEER-Medicare database can be used as a decision aid to predict which gallbladder patients may benefit from adjuvant CRT. PMID:22067404

  11. Lobular breast cancer metastasis to the colon, the appendix and the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Molina-Barea, Rocio; Rios-Peregrina, Rosa M; Slim, Mahmoud; Calandre, Elena P; Hernández-García, Maria D; Jimenez-Rios, José A

    2014-12-01

    Metastases of lobular breast cancer are commonly encountered at the level of lungs, bones, brain and liver, whereas lesions in the gastrointestinal tract are rarely seen. A case of a patient with metastases in the right colon and gallbladder originating from an invasive lobular carcinoma is described. Adequate diagnostic procedures should be performed in patients with a history of breast cancer and who show gastrointestinal symptoms to rule out the potential presence of gastrointestinal metastases.

  12. Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of Biliary Tract and Gallbladder Cancer in a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Giovannucci, Edward L; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-10-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption raises blood glucose concentration and has been positively associated with weight gain and type 2 diabetes, all of which have been implicated in the development of biliary tract cancer (BTC). This study examined the hypothesis that sweetened beverage consumption is positively associated with risk of BTC in a prospective study. The study population comprised 70 832 Swedish adults (55.9% men, age 45-83 years) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and Cohort of Swedish Men who were free of cancer and diabetes and completed a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Incident BTC case patients were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze the data. All statistical tests were two-sided. During a mean follow-up of 13.4 years, 127 extrahepatic BTC case patients (including 71 gallbladder cancers) and 21 intrahepatic BTC case patients were ascertained. After adjustment for other risk factors, women and men in the highest category of combined sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption had a statistically significantly increased risk of extrahepatic BTC and gallbladder cancer. The multivariable hazard ratios for two or more servings per day (200 mL/serving) of sweetened beverages compared with no consumption were 1.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 3.13) for extrahepatic BTC and 2.24 (95% CI = 1.02 to 4.89) for gallbladder cancer. The corresponding hazard ratio for intrahepatic BTC was 1.69 (95% CI = 0.41 to 7.03). These findings support the hypothesis that high consumption of sweetened beverages may increase the risk of BTC, particularly gallbladder cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Immune Cells Are Required for Cutaneous Ulceration in a Swine Model of Chancroid

    PubMed Central

    San Mateo, Lani R.; Toffer, Kristen L.; Orndorff, Paul E.; Kawula, Thomas H.

    1999-01-01

    Cutaneous lesions of the human sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid are characterized by the presence of intraepidermal pustules, keratinocyte cytopathology, and epidermal and dermal erosion. These lesions are replete with neutrophils, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells and contain very low numbers of cells of Haemophilus ducreyi, the bacterial agent of chancroid. We examined lesion formation by H. ducreyi in a pig model by using cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced immune cell deficiency to distinguish between host and bacterial contributions to chancroid ulcer formation. Histologic presentation of H. ducreyi-induced lesions in CPA-treated pigs differed from ulcers that developed in immune-competent animals in that pustules did not form and surface epithelia remained intact. However, these lesions had significant suprabasal keratinocyte cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the host immune response was required for chancroid ulceration, while bacterial products were at least partially responsible for the keratinocyte cytopathology associated with chancroid lesions in the pig. The low numbers of H. ducreyi present in lesions in humans and immune-competent pigs have prevented localization of these organisms within skin. However, H. ducreyi organisms were readily visualized in lesion biopsies from infected CPA-treated pigs by immunoelectron microscopy. These bacteria were extracellular and associated with necrotic host cells in the epidermis and dermis. The relative abundance of H. ducreyi in inoculated CPA-treated pig skin suggests control of bacterial replication by host immune cells during natural human infection. PMID:10456960

  14. Immune cells are required for cutaneous ulceration in a swine model of chancroid.

    PubMed

    San Mateo, L R; Toffer, K L; Orndorff, P E; Kawula, T H

    1999-09-01

    Cutaneous lesions of the human sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid are characterized by the presence of intraepidermal pustules, keratinocyte cytopathology, and epidermal and dermal erosion. These lesions are replete with neutrophils, macrophages, and CD4(+) T cells and contain very low numbers of cells of Haemophilus ducreyi, the bacterial agent of chancroid. We examined lesion formation by H. ducreyi in a pig model by using cyclophosphamide (CPA)-induced immune cell deficiency to distinguish between host and bacterial contributions to chancroid ulcer formation. Histologic presentation of H. ducreyi-induced lesions in CPA-treated pigs differed from ulcers that developed in immune-competent animals in that pustules did not form and surface epithelia remained intact. However, these lesions had significant suprabasal keratinocyte cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the host immune response was required for chancroid ulceration, while bacterial products were at least partially responsible for the keratinocyte cytopathology associated with chancroid lesions in the pig. The low numbers of H. ducreyi present in lesions in humans and immune-competent pigs have prevented localization of these organisms within skin. However, H. ducreyi organisms were readily visualized in lesion biopsies from infected CPA-treated pigs by immunoelectron microscopy. These bacteria were extracellular and associated with necrotic host cells in the epidermis and dermis. The relative abundance of H. ducreyi in inoculated CPA-treated pig skin suggests control of bacterial replication by host immune cells during natural human infection.

  15. Tumoral Versus Flat Intraepithelial Neoplasia of Pancreatobiliary Tract, Gallbladder, and Ampulla of Vater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kee-Taek; Ahn, Sangjeong

    2016-05-01

    -The identification of a precursor lesion is important to understanding the histopathologic and genetic alterations in carcinogenesis. There are a plethora of terminologies that describe precursor lesions of the pancreatobiliary tract, ampulla of Vater, and gallbladder. The current terminologies for precursor lesions may make it difficult to understand the tumor biology. Here, we propose the concept of tumoral and flat intraepithelial neoplasia to improve our understanding of precursor lesions of many epithelial organs, including the pancreatobiliary tract, ampulla of Vater, and gallbladder. -To understand the dichotomous pattern of tumoral and flat intraepithelial neoplasia in carcinogenesis of pancreatobiliary tract, ampulla of Vater, and gallbladder. -Review of relevant literatures indexed in PubMed. -Tumoral intraepithelial neoplasia presents as an intraluminal or intraductal, mass-forming, polypoid lesion or a macroscopic, visible, cystic lesion without intracystic papillae. Microscopically, tumoral intraepithelial neoplasia shows various proportions of papillary and tubular architecture, often with a mixed pattern, such as papillary, tubular, and papillary-tubular. The malignant potential depends on the degree of dysplasia and the cell phenotype of the epithelium. Flat intraepithelial neoplasia presents as a flat or superficial, spreading, mucosal lesion that is frequently accompanied by an invasive carcinoma. Tumoral and flat intraepithelial neoplasias are not homogeneous entities and may exhibit histopathologic spectrum changes and different genetic profiles. Although intraepithelial neoplasia showed a dichotomous pattern in the tumoral versus flat types, they can coexist. Tumoral and flat intraepithelial neoplasia can be interpreted as part of a spectrum of changes in the carcinogenesis pathway of each organ.

  16. Connective tissue growth factor immunohistochemical expression is associated with gallbladder cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Alvarez, Hector; Brebi, Priscilla; Ili, Carmen; Tapia, Oscar; Roa, Juan C

    2013-02-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasia associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment, and poor prognosis. Molecular mechanisms involved in GBC pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is thought to play a role in the pathologic processes and is overexpressed in several human cancers, including GBC. No information is available about CTGF expression in early stages of gallbladder carcinogenesis. Objective.- To evaluate the expression level of CTGF in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder and its correlation with clinicopathologic features and GBC prognosis. Connective tissue growth factor protein was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing tissue samples of chronic cholecystitis (n = 51), dysplasia (n = 15), and GBC (n = 169). The samples were scored according to intensity of staining as low/absent and high CTGF expressers. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ(2) test or Fisher exact probability test with a significance level of P < .05. Survival analysis was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Connective tissue growth factor expression showed a progressive increase from chronic cholecystitis to dysplasia and then to early and advanced carcinoma. Immunohistochemical expression (score ≥2) was significantly higher in advanced tumors, in comparison with chronic cholecystitis (P < .001) and dysplasia (P = .03). High levels of CTGF expression correlated with better survival (P = .04). Our results suggest a role for CTGF in GBC progression and a positive association with better prognosis. In addition, they underscore the importance of considering the involvement of inflammation on GBC development.

  17. Risk and Cost-effectiveness of Surveillance Followed by Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Polyps.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Vaux; Neal, Christopher P; Dennison, Ashely R; Garcea, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To ascertain the best management options for patients presenting with gallbladder polyps. DESIGN Retrospective case-note analysis. SETTING Tertiary referral teaching hospital practice. PATIENTS Patients with ultrasonography-detected gallbladder polyps. INTERVENTIONS Ultrasonography surveillance or surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Demographic data and size and number of polyps were recorded as well as size increase and histological findings. Detection rates for potentially neoplastic and frankly neoplastic polyps were recorded and compared with complication rates from cholecystectomy. Cost-effectiveness of ultrasonography surveillance was examined. RESULTS Nine hundred eighty-six patients were identified and 467 patients underwent further follow-up. Only 6.6% of polyps exhibited an increase in size over the surveillance period. Polyps that subsequently progressed in size on surveillance had a significantly greater diameter at first presentation than those polyps that remained static (7 mm vs 5 mm, respectively) (P < .05). Only 3.7% of resected polyps had malignant or potentially malignant histology. Size greater than 10 mm and increase in size during surveillance predicted neoplastic potential. CONCLUSIONS A surveillance with or without selective surgery policy could potentially detect and prevent 5.4 gallbladder cancers per 1000 individuals per year with a cost saving of more than £130 000 (US $201 676) per year. Cancer prevention benefits would exceed the risk ratios from cholecystectomy complications. Polyps greater than 10 mm should be resected; those between 5 and 10 mm should be under ultrasonography surveillance.

  18. Biofilm Producing Salmonella Typhi: Chronic Colonization and Development of Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Ilaria; Pontone, Martina; Toma, Luigi; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi is the aetiological agent of typhoid or enteric fever. In a subset of individuals, S. Typhi colonizes the gallbladder causing an asymptomatic chronic infection. Nonetheless, these asymptomatic carriers provide a reservoir for further spreading of the disease. Epidemiological studies performed in regions where S. Typhi is endemic, revealed that the majority of chronically infected carriers also harbour gallstones, which in turn, have been indicated as a primary predisposing factor for the onset of gallbladder cancer (GC). It is now well recognised, that S. Typhi produces a typhoid toxin with a carcinogenic potential, that induces DNA damage and cell cycle alterations in intoxicated cells. In addition, biofilm production by S. Typhi may represent a key factor for the promotion of a persistent infection in the gallbladder, thus sustaining a chronic local inflammatory response and exposing the epithelium to repeated damage caused by carcinogenic toxins. This review aims to highlight the putative connection between the chronic colonization by highly pathogenic strains of S. Typhi capable of combining biofilm and toxin production and the onset of GC. Considering the high risk of GC associated with the asymptomatic carrier status, the rapid identification and profiling of biofilm production by S. Typhi strains would be key for effective therapeutic management and cancer prevention. PMID:28858232

  19. Laparoscopic completion cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration for retained gallbladder after single-incision cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kroh, Matthew; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Chand, Bipan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Recent enthusiasm in the surgical community for less invasive surgical approaches has resulted in widespread application of single-incision techniques. This has been most commonly applied in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in general surgery. Cosmesis appears to be improved, but other advantages remain to be seen. Feasibility has been demonstrated, but there is little description in the current literature regarding complications. We report the case of a patient who previously underwent single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. After a brief symptom-free interval, she developed acute pancreatitis. At evaluation, imaging results of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated a retained gallbladder with cholelithiasis. The patient was subsequently referred to our hospital, where she underwent further evaluation and surgical intervention. Our patient underwent 4-port laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy with transcystic common bile duct exploration. Operative exploration demonstrated a large remnant gallbladder and a partially obstructed cystic duct with many stones. Transcystic exploration with balloon extraction resulted in duct clearance. The procedure took 75 minutes, with minimal blood loss. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Final pathology results demonstrated a remnant gallbladder with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. This report is the first in the literature to describe successful laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy and transcystic common bile duct exploration after previous single-port cholecystectomy. Although inadvertent partial cholecystectomy is not unique to this technique, single-port laparoscopic procedures may result in different and significant complications.

  20. Incision extension is the optimal method of difficult gallbladder extraction at laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Bordelon, B M; Hobday, K A; Hunter, J G

    1992-01-01

    An unsolved problem of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the optimal method of removing the gallbladder with thick walls and a large stone burden. Proposed solutions include fascial dilatation, stone crushing, and ultrasonic, high-speed rotary, or laser lithotripsy. Our observation was that extension of the fascial incision to remove the impacted gallbladder was time efficient and did not increase postoperative pain. We reviewed the narcotic requirements of 107 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Fifty-two patients required extension of the umbilical incision, and 55 patients did not have their fascial incision enlarged. Parenteral meperidine use was 39.5 +/- 63.6 mg in the patients requiring fascial incision extension and 66.3 +/- 79.2 mg in those not requiring fascial incision extension (mean +/- standard deviation). Oral narcotic requirements were 1.1 +/- 1.5 doses vs 1.3 +/- 1.7 doses in patients with and without incision extension, respectively. The wide range of narcotic use in both groups makes these apparent differences not statistically significant. We conclude that protracted attempts at stone crushing or expensive stone fragmentation devices are unnecessary for the extraction of a difficult gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  1. Human beta-glucuronidase. Measurement of its activity in gallbladder bile devoid of intrinsic interference.

    PubMed

    Ho, Y C; Ho, K J

    1988-04-01

    Our purpose is to develop a standard method for preparing the bile for beta-glucuronidase determination by removal of bile acids and conjugated bilirubin which interfere with its activity. The bile acids and conjugated bilirubin in their purified solutions and in the diluted gallbladder biles could be extracted completely with cholestyramine in powder form or tetrahexylammonium chloride (THAC) in chloroform or ethyl acetate. The enzyme was, however, partially precipitated with cholestyramine and denatured by chloroform but not by ethyl acetate. A standard procedure, therefore, includes extraction of the diluted gallbladder bile with THAC in ethyl acetate, followed by determination of the maximal velocity (Vmax) of the enzyme by a kinetic method employing phenolphthalein glucuronide as the substrate. The average Vmax of beta-glucuronidase in the 20 normal gallbladder biles was 165 +/- 86 nmol/min/ml (mean +/- SD), a 23.5-fold increase over the activity before extraction. The measured activity represented the true activity of the enzyme in the bile for recovery of activity of the enzyme added to the bile was practically complete.

  2. Trypsin level in gallbladder bile and ductitis and width of the cystic duct.

    PubMed

    Vracko, J; Wiechel, K L

    2000-01-01

    The change from laparotomy to laparoscopy for cholecystectomy has raised the question of how to manage concomitant bile duct stones. The present-day interest--and controversy--has focused on a transcystic approach reported to be feasible in 66-96% of cases, but without explaining the necessary prerequisite: the widening of the cystic duct. The cystic duct, wide mainly in patients with bile duct stones, has been reported to be highly variable: from strictured to very wide. The present study aims at comparing the trypsin level in the gallbladder bile and the cystic duct morphology and width in patients with and without bile duct stones. A prospective series of 63 gallstone patients, 30 with and 33 without bile duct stones (controls), underwent cholecystectomy and bile duct clearance. The study includes the trypsin level in the gallbladder bile, the width and morphology of the cystic duct, and the size of the gallstones. The patients with bile duct stones had, in contrast to the controls, higher trypsin levels in the gallbladder bile (P < 0.001) and wider cystic ducts (P < 0.001) with more pronounced signs of chronic ductitis. The obtained results strongly suggest that the increased trypsin level, a sign of reflux of pancreatic juice, caused changes in the cystic duct that facilitate gallstone migration, which also ought to render a transcystic stone extraction feasible.

  3. Effect of bile salt binding or protease inactivation on plasma cholecystokinin and gallbladder responses to bombesin.

    PubMed

    Thimister, P W; Hopman, W P; Sloots, C E; Rosenbusch, G; Tangerman, A; Willems, H L; Lamers, C B; Jansen, J B

    1994-12-01

    Bombesin-stimulated plasma cholecystokinin levels decrease after an initial increase despite continuous infusion of bombesin. The aim of this study was to determine if a feedback mechanism, mediated by bile salts or proteolytic enzymes, is responsible for this decline. Bombesin (1.0 ng.kg-1.min-1) was infused into volunteers for 180 minutes on separate occasions. Cholestyramine, colestipol, camostate, or saline were perfused intraduodenally during the second hour of the tests. Cholestyramine was also administered without infusion of bombesin. Colestipol and cholestyramine, dependent on their bile salt-binding capacity, markedly enhanced (P < 0.05) bombesin-stimulated plasma cholecystokinin from 2.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/L to 6.4 +/- 2.2 pmol/L and 12.1 +/- 3.3 pmol/L (P < 0.05 vs. colestipol), respectively, and further decreased gallbladder volume (P < 0.05) from 9.4 +/- 1.6 mL to 2.0 +/- 0.4 mL and 2.2 +/- 0.5 mL, respectively. The protease inhibitor camostate had no effect. Bile salt precipitation also enhanced plasma pancreatic polypeptide responses (P < 0.01) but did not alter gastrin responses. Plasma cholecystokinin responses to cholestyramine without bombesin infusion varied considerably, but increments were highly correlated to decreases in gallbladder volume (r = 0.91; P < 0.005). Bile salt sequestration but not protease inactivation enhances plasma cholecystokinin and gallbladder responses to bombesin infusion in humans.

  4. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Justin L, Regner, E-mail: Justin.Regner@BSWHealth.org; Angela, Lomas

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics andmore » scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet.« less

  5. Gallic acid loaded PEO-core/zein-shell nanofibers for chemopreventive action on gallbladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Francisca; Hermosilla, Jeyson; Sanhueza, Claudia; Mora-Lagos, Barbara; Fuentes, Irma; Rubilar, Mónica; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2018-07-01

    Coaxial electrospinning was used to develop gallic acid (GA) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)/zein nanofibers in order to improve its chemopreventive action on human gallbladder cancer cells. Using a Plackett-Burman design, the effects of poly(ethylene oxide) and zein concentration and applied voltage on the diameter and morphology index of nanofibers were investigated. Coaxial nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). GA loading efficiency as high as 77% was obtained under optimal process conditions. The coaxial nanofibers controlled GA release in acid and neutral pH medium. Cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on gallbladder cancer cell lines GB-d1 and NOZ in the presence of GA-nanofibers were assessed. GA-nanofibers triggered an increase in the cellular cytotoxicity compared with free GA on GB-d1 and NOZ cells. Statistically significant differences were found in ROS levels of GA-nanofibers compared with free GA on NOZ cells. Differently, ROS production on GB-d1 cell line was similar. Based on these results, the coaxial nanofibers obtained in this study under optimized operational conditions offer an alternative for the development of a GA release system with improved chemopreventive action on gallbladder cancer cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison ofmore » emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.« less

  8. High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers.

    PubMed

    Brem, Harold; Maggi, Jason; Nierman, David; Rolnitzky, Linda; Bell, David; Rennert, Robert; Golinko, Michael; Yan, Alan; Lyder, Courtney; Vladeck, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and analyze the cost of treatment for stage IV pressure ulcers. A retrospective chart analysis of patients with stage IV pressure ulcers was conducted. Hospital records and treatment outcomes of these patients were followed up for a maximum of 29 months and analyzed. Costs directly related to the treatment of pressure ulcers and their associated complications were calculated. Nineteen patients with stage IV pressure ulcers (11 hospital-acquired and 8 community-acquired) were identified and their charts were reviewed. The average hospital treatment cost associated with stage IV pressure ulcers and related complications was $129,248 for hospital-acquired ulcers during 1 admission, and $124,327 for community-acquired ulcers over an average of 4 admissions. The costs incurred from stage IV pressure ulcers are much greater than previously estimated. Halting the progression of early stage pressure ulcers has the potential to eradicate enormous pain and suffering, save thousands of lives, and reduce health care expenditures by millions of dollars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Raynaud, digital ulcers and calcinosis in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Raynaud, digital ulcers and calcinosis are frequent manifestations of patients with systemic sclerosis. Digital ulcers are seen in more than half of the patients with scleroderma. Hospitalizations, ischemic complications and impairment of hand function are frequently observed in patients with digital ulcers, especially if treatment is delayed. Rapid and intensive treatment escalation in patients with scleroderma and refractory Raynaud's phenomenon is one of the most effective preventive action available in order to avoid the development of digital ulcers and tissue loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Ulcerative colitis masked by giant urticaria.

    PubMed

    Caroselli, C; Plocco, M; Pratticò, F; Bruno, C; Antonaglia, C; Rota, F; Curreli, I; Caroselli, A; Bruno, G

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of giant urticaria and ulcerative colitis is very infrequent. A 23 year-old female reported the initial eruption of short-lived cutaneous itchy weals on her arms. Then lesions ran together and became confluent, extending to her legs, followed by undefined abdominal pain and a slight increase of body temperature. Exams showed hystologically confirmed ulcerative colitis, with perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity. Ulcerative colitis therapy led not only to the remission of the colitic symptoms, but also to the prompt recovery of skin manifestations. Urticaria was the epiphenomenon of ulcerative colitis.

  11. Antacids and peptic ulcer--a reappraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, T; Rhodes, J

    1979-01-01

    Antacids can reduce gastroduodenal acidity for long periods if taken in substantial quantities after food. Their healing effect on gastric ulcer is minimal, if present at all, and easily overwhelmed by the benefit obtained from admission to hospital. Intensive antacid therapy appears effective in healing duodenal ulcer and preventing haemorrhage from stress ulcer, and is comparable in these respects with cimetidine but with a higher incidence of side-effects. Clinical impression strongly suggests that antacids relieve pain in peptic ulcer but objective confirmation is lacking. PMID:38192

  12. Pressure ulcer prevention in frail older people.

    PubMed

    Barry, Maree; Nugent, Linda

    2015-12-16

    Pressure ulcers are painful and cause discomfort, have a negative effect on quality of life, and are costly to treat. The incidence and severity of preventable pressure ulcers is an important indicator of quality of care; it is essential that healthcare providers monitor prevalence and incidence rates to ensure that care strategies implemented are effective. Frail older people are at increased risk of developing pressure ulcers. This article discusses the complexities of preventing pressure ulcers in frail older people and emphasises the importance of structured educational programmes that incorporate effective clinical leadership and multidisciplinary teamwork.

  13. Peptic Ulcer Disease in Bangladesh: A Multi-centre Study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, C K; Khan, M R; Alam, F; Shil, B C; Kabir, M S; Mahmuduzzaman, M; Das, S C; Masud, H; Roy, P K

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of peptic ulcer has steadily declined through out the world. This decreasing trend is also noticeable in this subcontinent. The point prevalence of peptic ulcer (PUD) in Bangladesh was around 15% in eighties. The aim of this study was to see the present prevalence of peptic ulcer at endoscopy and to identify changing trends in the occurrence of peptic ulcer in Bangladesh. This retrospective analysis of the endoscopic records of multiple tertiary referral centres of Dhaka city were done from January 2012 to July 2013. A total of 5608 subjects were the study samples. We included those patients having peptic ulcer in the form of duodenal ulcer, benign gastric ulcer including pre-pyloric ulcer and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer. Duodenal ulcer and benign gastric ulcer were found in 415(7.4%) and 184(3.28%) patients respectively and gastric outlet obstruction due to peptic ulcer was found in 23(0.40%) patients.

  14. Rainfall erosivity in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, Carlos A.; Vidal, Karim L.

    2011-11-01

    SummaryOne of the most widely used indicators of potential water erosion risk is the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor ( R) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). R is traditionally determined by calculating a long-term average of the annual sum of the product of a storm's kinetic energy ( E) and its maximum 30-min intensity ( I30), known as the EI30. The original method used to calculate EI30 requires pluviograph records for at most 30-min time intervals. Such high resolution data is difficult to obtain in many parts of the world, and processing it is laborious and time-consuming. In Chile, even though there is a well-distributed rain gauge network, there is no systematic characterization of the territory in terms of rainfall erosivity. This study presents a rainfall erosivity map for most of the cultivated land in the country. R values were calculated by the prescribed method for 16 stations with continuous graphical record rain gauges in Central Chile. The stations were distributed along 800 km (north-south), and spanned a precipitation gradient of 140-2200 mm yr -1. More than 270 years of data were used, and 5400 storms were analyzed. Additionally, 241 spatially distributed R values were generated by using an empirical procedure based on annual rainfall. Point estimates generated by both methods were interpolated by using kriging to create a map of rainfall erosivity for Central Chile. The results show that the empirical procedure used in this study predicted the annual rainfall erosivity well (model efficiency = 0.88). Also, an increment in the rainfall erosivities was found as a result of the rainfall depths, a regional feature determined by elevation and increasing with latitude from north to south. R values in the study area range from 90 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the north up to 7375 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the southern area, at the foothills of the Andes Mountains. Although the map and the estimates could be improved in the future by

  15. RNA sequencing-based analysis of gallbladder cancer reveals the importance of the liver X receptor and lipid metabolism in gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Mingxin; Rashid, Asif; Wang, Ying; Jain, Apurva; Li, Donghui; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Koay, Eugene J.; Chang, Ping; Vauthey, Jean Nicholas; Li, Yanan; Espinoza, Jaime A.; Roa, Juan Carlos; Javle, Milind

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive malignancy. Although surgical resection may be curable, most patients are diagnosed at an advanced unresectable disease stage. Cholelithiasis is the major risk factor; however the pathogenesis of the disease, from gallstone cholecystitis to cancer, is still not understood. To understand the molecular genetic underpinnings of this cancer and explore novel therapeutic targets for GBC, we examined the key genes and pathways involved in GBC using RNA sequencing. We performed gene expression analysis of 32 cases of surgically-resected GBC along with normal gallbladder tissue controls. We observed that 519 genes were differentially expressed between GBC and normal GB mucosal controls. The liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) /RXR pathways were the top canonical pathways involved in GBC. Key genes in these pathways, including SERPINB3 and KLK1, were overexpressed in GBC, especially in female GBC patients. Additionally, ApoA1 gene expression suppressed in GBC as compared with normal control tissues. LXR and FXR genes, known to be important in lipid metabolism also function as tumor suppressors and their down regulation appears to be critical for GBC pathogenesis. LXR agonists may have therapeutic value and as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27167107

  16. Age, Predisposing Diseases, and Ultrasonographic Findings in Determining Clinical Outcome of Acute Acalculous Inflammatory Gallbladder Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated clinical factors such as age, gender, predisposing diseases and ultrasonographic findings that determine clinical outcome of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder diseases in children. The patients were divided into the four age groups. From March 2004 through February 2014, clinical data from 131 children diagnosed as acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease by ultrasonography were retrospectively reviewed. Systemic infectious diseases were the most common etiology of acute inflammatory gallbladder disease in children and were identified in 50 patients (38.2%). Kawasaki disease was the most common predisposing disease (28 patients, 21.4%). The incidence was highest in infancy and lowest in adolescence. The age groups were associated with different predisposing diseases; noninfectious systemic disease was the most common etiology in infancy and early childhood, whereas systemic infectious disease was the most common in middle childhood and adolescence (P = 0.001). Gallbladder wall thickening was more commonly found in malignancy (100%) and systemic infection (94.0%) (P = 0.002), whereas gallbladder distension was more frequent in noninfectious systemic diseases (60%) (P = 0.000). Ascites seen on ultrasonography was associated with a worse clinical course compared with no ascites (77.9% vs. 37.7%, P = 0.030), and the duration of hospitalization was longer in patients with ascites (11.6 ± 10.7 vs. 8.0 ± 6.6 days, P = 0.020). In conclusion, consideration of age and predisposing disease in addition to ultrasonographic gallbladder findings in children suspected of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease might result in better outcomes. PMID:27550491

  17. Interaction of Muc4 and ErbB2 in a transgenic mouse model of gallbladder carcinoma: potential pathobiological implications.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Naoki; Shoda, Junichi; Kawamoto, Toru; Ishida, Hiroyasu; Ueda, Tetsuya; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Hayato; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2014-11-01

    The molecular mechanism of gallbladder carcinogenesis and cancer growth remains unknown. BK5.erbB2 transgenic mice in which erbB2 is overexpressed and activated in the biliary epithelia develop adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder at a high incidence. Although it has been reported that erbB2 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, little is known about the involvement of its ligand(s). The expression level of Muc4, a potential functional ligand for erbB2, and its interaction with erbB2 in the gallbladder of BK5.erbB2 mice were determined. By immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, both Muc4 mRNA and protein levels were strongly expressed in the cancerous epithelia of gallbladder from BK5.erbB2 mice. Also, in the hyperplastic (precancerous) epithelia, the protein levels were modestly expressed. Immunostaining with Muc4 (ASGP2) Ab overlapped with that with erbB2 Ab in the apical membranous components of the cancerous epithelia, indicating the co-localization of Muc4 and erbB2. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between Muc4 and erbB2 in the gallbladders. The interaction was associated with the hyperphosphorylation of erbB2, MAPK and Akt, and also with the overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2. However, in other organs that overexpressed erbB2 (trachea, esophagus and forestomach), Muc4 was expressed in only trace or modest amounts, and erbB2 was not hyperphosphorylated. Collectively, Muc4 is upregulated and interacts with erbB2 in gallbladders from BK5.erbB2 mice. It is likely that Muc4 plays an important role during gallbladder carcinogenesis and/or cancer growth by potentiating erbB2 signaling.

  18. Effects of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor doxycycline and CD147 antagonist peptide-9 on gallbladder carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihang; Liu, Chao; Liu, Xinjiang; He, Yanxin; Shen, Dongfang; Luo, Qiankun; Dong, Yuxi; Dong, Haifeng; Pang, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree and highly expresses CD147, which is closely related to disease prognosis in a variety of human cancers. Doxycycline exhibited anti-tumor properties in many cancer cells. CD147 antagonist peptide-9 is a polypeptide and can specifically bind to CD147. The effect of these two drugs on gallbladder cancer cells has not been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of doxycycline and antagonist peptide-9 on gallbladder carcinoma cells and the possible mechanism of inhibition on cancer cell of doxycycline. To investigate the effects of doxycycline and antagonist peptide-9 on gallbladder carcinoma cells (GBC-SD and SGC-996), cell proliferation, CD147 expression, and early-stage apoptosis rate were measured after treated with doxycycline. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities were measured after treated with different concentrations of doxycycline, antagonist peptide-9, and their combination. The results demonstrated that doxycycline inhibited cell proliferation, reduced CD147 expression level, and induced an early-stage apoptosis response in GBC-SD and SGC-996 cells. The matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities were inhibited by antagonist peptide-9 and doxycycline, and the inhibitory effects were enhanced by combined drugs in gallbladder carcinoma cell lines. Taken together, doxycycline showed inhibitory effects on gallbladder carcinoma cell lines and reduced the expression of CD147, and this may be the mechanism by which doxycycline inhibits cancer cells. This study provides new information and tries to implement the design of adjuvant therapy method for gallbladder carcinoma.

  19. True left-sided gallbladder: A case report and comparison with the literature for the different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for such anomalies.

    PubMed

    Saafan, Tamer; Hu, James Yi; Mahfouz, Ahmed-Emad; Abdelaal, Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    True left-sided gallbladder (LSG) is a rare finding that may present with symptoms similar to those of a normally positioned gallbladder. Moreover, it may be missed by preoperative imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or endoscopic ultrasound. True left-sided gallbladder is a surgical challenge and surgical technique may need to be modified for the completion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this case report, we present a case of true left-sided gallbladder that produced right-sided abdominal symptoms. Ultrasound of the abdomen failed to show the left-sided position of the gallbladder. MRI showed the gallbladder located to the left of the ligamentum teres underneath segment III of the liver. Intraoperatively, the gallbladder was grasped and retracted to the right under the falciform ligament and it was removed using classical right-sided ports with no modification to the technique. No complications were encountered intraoperatively or postoperatively. True LSG is a rare anomaly that may present with right-sided symptoms like normally positioned gallbladder. It may be missed in preoperative imaging studies and can be discovered only intraoperatively. Modification of laparoscopic ports, change in patient's position and/or surgeon's position, or conversion to open cholecystectomy may be needed for safe removal of the gallbladder. Classical technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible for left-sided gallbladder. However, if the anatomy is not clear, modifications of the surgical technique may be necessary for the safe dissection of the gallbladder. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Geomorphic considerations for erosion prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Toy, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Current soil-erosion prediction technology addresses processes of rainsplash, overland-flow sediment transport, and rill erosion in small watersheds. The effects of factors determining sediment yield from larger-scale drainage basins, in which sediment movement is controlled by the combined small-scale processes and a complex set of channel and other basin-scale sediment-delivery processes, such as soil creep, bioturbation, and accelerated erosion due to denudation of vegetation, have been poorly evaluated. General suggestions are provided for the development of erosion-prediction technology at the geomorphic or drainage-basin scale based on the separation of sediment-yield data for channel and geomorphic processes from those of field-scale soil loss. An emerging technology must consider: (1) the effects on sediment yield of climate, geology and soils, topography, biotic interactions with other soil processes, and land-use practices; (2) all processes of sediment delivery to a channel system; and (3) the general tendency in most drainage basins for progressively greater sediment storage in the downstream direction.