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Sample records for gallbladder neoplasms

  1. Carcinosarcoma of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Tanu; Jain, Manoj; Goel, Amit; Visayaragavan, Paari; Gupta, R K

    2009-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma of the gallbladder is an uncommon neoplasm. We herein report the case of a patient with carcinosarcoma of the gallbladder, treated by simple cholecystectomy for a tumor which was confined to the gallbladder.

  2. A Retrospective Evaluation of the Epithelial Changes/Lesions and Neoplasms of the Gallbladder in Turkey and a Review of the Existing Sampling Methods: A Multicentre Study.

    PubMed

    Esendağlı, Güldal; Akarca, F Göknur; Balcı, Serdar; Argon, Asuman; Erhan, Selma Şengiz; Turhan, Nesrin; Zengin, Neslihan İnce; Keser, Sevinç Hallaç; Çelik, Betül; Bulut, Tangül; Abdullazade, Samir; Erden, Esra; Savaş, Berna; Bostan, Temmuz; Sağol, Özgül; Ağalar, Anıl Aysal; Kepil, Nuray; Karslıoğlu, Yıldırım; Günal, Armağan; Markoç, Fatma; Saka, Burcu; Özgün, Gonca; Özdamar, Şükrü Oğuz; Bahadır, Burak; Kaymaz, Esin; Işık, Emre; Ayhan, Semin; Tunçel, Deniz; Yılmaz, Banu Özgüven; Çelik, Sevinç; Karabacak, Tuba; Seven, İpek Erbarut; Çelikel, Çiğdem Ataizi; Gücin, Zuhal; Ekinci, Özgür; Akyol, Gülen

    2017-01-01

    As there is continuing disagreement among the observers on the differential diagnosis between the epithelial changes/lesions and neoplasms of the gallbladder, this multicentre study was planned in order to assess the rate of the epithelial gallbladder lesions in Turkey and to propose microscopy and macroscopy protocols. With the participation of 22 institutions around Turkey that were included in the Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Study Group, 89,324 cholecystectomy specimens sampled from 2003 to 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. The numbers of adenocarcinomas, dysplasias, intracholecystic neoplasms/adenomas, intestinal metaplasias and reactive atypia were identified with the review of pathology reports and the regional and countrywide incidence rates were presented in percentages. Epithelial changes/lesions were reported in 6% of cholecystectomy materials. Of these epithelial lesions, 7% were reported as adenocarcinoma, 0.9% as high-grade dysplasia, 4% as low-grade dysplasia, 7.8% as reactive/regenerative atypia, 1.7% as neoplastic polyp, and 15.6% as intestinal metaplasia. The remaining lesions (63%) primarily included non-neoplastic polypoids/hyperplastic lesions and antral/pyloric metaplasia. There were also differences between pathology laboratories. The major causes of the difference in reporting these epithelial changes/lesions and neoplasms include the differences related to the institute's oncological surgery frequency, sampling protocols, geographical dissimilarities, and differences in the diagnoses/interpretations of the pathologists. It seems that the diagnosis may change if new sections are taken from the specimen when any epithelial abnormality is seen during microscopic examination of the cholecystectomy materials.

  3. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Gallbladder Cancer or Bile Duct Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  4. Gallbladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  5. Gallbladder Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ under your liver. It stores bile, a fluid made by your liver ... As your stomach and intestines digest food, your gallbladder releases bile through a tube called the common ...

  6. Gallbladder (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The gallbladder is a muscular sac located under the liver. It stores and concentrates the bile produced in the ... needed for digestion. Bile is released from the gallbladder into the small intestine in response to food. ...

  7. Gallbladder Cancer: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Gallbladder Cancer Chemotherapy for Gallbladder Cancer Palliative Therapy for Gallbladder Cancer Treatment Options Based on the Extent of Gallbladder Cancer ... Cancer Information Cancer Prevention & Detection Cancer Basics ...

  8. Porcelain Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman O.

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder calcification, also referred to as porcelain gallbladder, has received significant attention in the medical literature due to its perceived role in increasing the risk of developing a gallbladder carcinoma. However, recent reports raise questions challenging this purported high risk. While previous studies reported a concomitant incidence of gallbladder cancer in porcelain gallbladder ranging from 7–60%, more recent analyses indicate the incidence to be much lower (6%). Based on evidence in the current literature, a prophylactic cholecystectomy is not routinely recommended for all patients with porcelain gallbladder and should be restricted to those with conventional indications, such as young patients. However, it is important to note that a nonoperative approach may require prolonged follow-up. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a feasible therapeutic option for patients with porcelain gallbladder, although some researchers have indicated a higher incidence of complications and conversion due to technical difficulties. PMID:28003886

  9. Gallbladder paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Ece, İlhan; Alptekin, Hüsnü; Çelik, Zeliha Esin; Şahin, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder paraganglioma is a very rare tumor, and only a few cases have been reported. Most of these cases were asymptomatic and found incidentally during operation. Our case involved a 57-year-old female patient complaining of intermittent right upper quadrant pain. Preoperative imaging demonstrated a mass in the neck of the gallbladder. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed, and a frozen section of the gallbladder demonstrated a benign mass. The postoperative pathologic examination reported gallbladder paraganglioma and chronic cholecystitis. Immunohistochemically, the chief cells and sustentacular cells showed diffuse positivity with vimentin, synaptophysin, and S-100.

  10. Gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patrlj, Leonardo; Kopljar, Mario; Kliček, Robert; Kolovrat, Marijan; Loncar, Bozo; Busic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer involving gastrointestinal tract, but it is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80-95% of biliary tract cancers. This tumor is a highly lethal disease with an overall 5-year survival of less than 5% and mean survival mere than 6 months. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis. The percentage of patients diagnosed to have gallbladder cancer after simple cholecystectomy for presumed gallbladder stone disease is 0.5-1.5%. Patients with preoperative suspicion of gallbladder cancer should not be treated by laparoscopy. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities—inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Improved imaging modalities and improved radical aggressive surgical approach in the last decade has improved outcomes and helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. The overall 5-year survival for patients with gallbladder cancer who underwent R0 curative resection was from 21% to 69%. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. PMID:25392833

  11. Ultrasound findings associated to gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zevallos Maldonado, Carmen; Ruiz Lopez, Maria Jose; Gonzalez Valverde, Francisco Miguel; Alarcon Soldevilla, Fernando; Pastor Quirante, Francisco; Garcia Medina, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the most relevant ultrasound findings associated with gallbladder cancer. A descriptive and retrospective study was made of clinical features and imaging studies in patients subjected to surgery for gallbladder neoplasm in the Reina Sofía General University Hospital (Murcia) during the time period 2000-2011. A total of 15 cases of gallbladder cancer were found during the study period, 9 of whom were women. The mean age was 77 years (range 61-96). Pain was the principal complaint. The patients had cholelithiasis in 13 cases, smoking in 2 cases, and obesity in 3 cases. The ultrasound showed gallbladder wall thickening (>4mm) in 8 cases, intraluminal mass in 4, scleroatrophic gallbladder in 2, and mass replacing the gallbladder in one. Only in 4 cases was the suspicion of gallbladder carcinoma established preoperatively. According to the pTNM staging, 4 patients were carcinoma in situ (Tis), one case T1a, 6 cases T2, 3 cases T3 and one case T4. In 7 cases, the only evidence was the preoperative ultrasound, and in 8 the study was completed with an abdominal CT. Early diagnosis of gallbladder cancer is rare. The ultrasound diagnostic approach is difficult; only a localized thickening coexisting with gallstones seems to be significant, and requires a biopsy. The image of a mass and a stone occupying the gallbladder is associated with later stages of the disease. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Carcinoma gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Biswas, P K

    2010-07-01

    Carcinoma gallbladder (CaGb) is a rare disease. The aetiology of CaGb is yet not known. However the risk of CaGb is increased in anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction (APBDJ), gall stones, xanthogranulomatus cholecystitis, calcified or porcelain gallbladder, cholelithiasis with typhoid carriers, gallbladder adenoma, red meat consumption and tobacco uses. There are protective effects of vegetables on CaGb. Most of the cases present with advanced disease. In early carcinoma of a gallbladder sign and symptoms mimic benign disease. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography, computerized tomography and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Biochemical tests are of very little value in making a diagnosis. The treatment depends on the clinical stage at presentation. Surgery offers the best chance of cure. In stage T1a, laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy alone is curative, and in T1b, cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection without combined resection of an adjacent organ is required. Segment S4a+5 hepatectomy combined with extrahepatic bile duct resection (BDR) and D2 lymph node dissection is a highly recommended operation for the treatment of T2 and T3 CaGb. The dye injection method is useful in determining the appropriate extent of hepatic resection for advanced CaGb. Resurgery is required only in those cases where tumour has invaded the serosa and/ or adjacent structures when diagnosed postoperatively. Biliary bypass is required for palliation. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and appropriate surgical excision.

  13. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy; HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... It will then flow with bile into the gallbladder and then the duodenum or small intestine. For ...

  14. Association between obesity and gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Bingyuan; Qiao, Liang

    2012-06-01

    Obesity has become a global health issue because of its increased morbidity and mortality, and a close association with at least 20 different cancers. Clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested that obesity and overweight are positively related with the risk of GBC. Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a relatively infrequent but highly lethal neoplasm. Obesity may disturb lipid and endogenous hormones metabolism, affect gallbladder motility, increase the risk of gallstones, and thus plays a role in GBC. Control of obesity through measures such as lifestyle modification, healthy diet, and regular exercise may prove useful in the prevention of GBC.

  15. Rare combination of familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasuhisa; Sato, Norihiro; Matayoshi, Nobutaka; Tamura, Toshihisa; Minagawa, Noritaka; Shibao, Kazunori; Higure, Aiichiro; Nakamoto, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2014-12-14

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high incidence of malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract (particularly ampullary adenocarcinomas). However, few reports have described a correlation between familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder neoplasms. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis who presented with an elevated mass in the neck of the gallbladder (measuring 16 mm × 8 mm in diameter) and multiple small cholecystic polyps. She had undergone a total colectomy for ascending colon cancer associated with familial adenomatous polyposis 22 years previously. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of multifocal gallbladder polyps. Pathologic examination of the resected gallbladder revealed more than 70 adenomatous lesions, a feature consistent with adenoma of the gallbladder. This case suggests a requirement for long-term surveillance of the biliary system in addition to the gastrointestinal tract in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

  16. Gallbladder Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Gallbladder Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Gallbladder Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... as it grows. Looking for More of an Overview? If you would like additional introductory information, explore ...

  17. Gallbladder Removal: Laparoscopic Method

    MedlinePlus

    ... say “co-lee-sist-eck-toe-mee”). During traditional surgery, the gallbladder is removed through a 5- ... stay and have a shorter recovery time. Unlike traditional surgery, laparoscopic surgery to remove the gallbladder can ...

  18. [A double gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Mink van der Molen, A B; Salu, M K

    1991-04-06

    A 59-year-old woman is described with symptomatic cholelithiasis. A double gallbladder was incidentally found during abdominal surgery. The literature on a double gallbladder is reviewed with respect to incidence, anatomy, diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Gallbladder cancer and nutritional risk factors in Chile

    PubMed

    Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2016-02-16

    Gallbladder cancer is the most malign neoplasm of the biliary tract. Chile presents the third highest prevalence of gallbladder cancer in the Americas, being Chilean women from the city of Valdivia the ones with the highest prevalence. The main risk factors associated with gallbladder cancer are: sex, cholelithiasis, obesity, ethnicity, chronic inflammation, history of infection diseases such as Helicobacter pyloriand Salmonellaand family history of gallbladder cancer. In Chile gallbladder cancer mortality is close to prevalence level. This is related to the silent symptomatology of this cancer, as well as the lack of specific symptoms. The high prevalence of obesity and infectious diseases present in Chile are two of the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer and Chile has prevalence of obesity close to 30%. The aim of this literary review is to inform and summarize the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer that are prevalent in Chile, in order to be able to focus preventive and management interventions of this risk factor for the reduction in prevalence and mortality of gallbladder cancer in Chile.

  20. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  1. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  2. Tuberculosis of the Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K.; Ayub, M.; Kumar, Mohan; Keswani, N. K.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of 5 patients with gallbladder tuberculosis who had open cholecystectomy and review of literature have shown that, although still rare it presents as a part of systemic miliary tuberculosis, abdominal tuberculosis, isolated gallbladder tuberculosis and as acalculus cholecystitis in anergic patients. There are no pathognomonic signs, the diagnosis depends on suspicion of tuberculosis, peroperative findings and histological examination. PMID:10977119

  3. Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic

    MedlinePlus

    ... gallbladder using a medical device called a laparoscope. Description Surgery using a laparoscope is the most common ... inserted through one of the cuts. Other medical instruments are inserted through the other cuts. Gas is ...

  4. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Gallbladder and Biliary Tract ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Digestive System Overview of the Digestive ...

  5. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgeon needs to switch to an open surgery if laparoscopic surgery cannot be successfully continued. Other reasons for removing the gallbladder by open surgery: Unexpected bleeding during the laparoscopic operation Obesity Pancreatitis (inflammation in the pancreas) Pregnancy ( ...

  6. Successful treatment of gallbladder mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) carcinomas rarely occur in the gallbladder. Here we reported a case of giant gallbladder unresectable mass with local liver invasion and omentum metastasis, which proved to be neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) by biopsy, received successful radical operation after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy plus somatostatin treatment. The patient showed good response as the neoplasm diminished dramatically and showed clear margin after 6 courses of treatment. A radical operation including cholecystectomy, hepatic wedge resection of the gallbladder fossa segment and lymph node of group 8a and 8p resection was performed successfully. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed neuroendocrine carcinoma mixed with adenocarcinoma in the gallbladder wall. Followed up showed no evidence of recurrence after 7 months of the operation. We suggest that neo-adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial to gallbladder mixed neuroendocrine carcinomas in an advanced stage which could also be advantageous to NEC of other organs. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2731892837743787 PMID:23186166

  7. Cyclin D1, retinoblastoma and p16 protein expression in carcinoma of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vineeta; Patel, Brijesh; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Mridula; Pandey, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of the gallbladder is a relatively rare neoplasm with a poor prognosis. The exact mechanisms of its genesis are not known and very little information is available on molecular events leading to labeling this as an orphan cancer. In this prospective case control study we evaluated the expression of p16, pRb and cyclin D1 by immunohistochemistry to study the G1-S cell-cycle check point and its possible role in gallbladder carcinogenesis. A total of 25 patients with gallbladder carcinoma (group I), 25 with cholelithiasis (group II) and 10 normal controls. were enrolled. Cyclin D1 expression was seen in 10 (40%) patients each with carcinoma and cholelithiasis while only in 2 (20%) of the normal gallbladders but differences were not statistically significant (p value=0.488). p16 was expressed in 12% patients of carcinoma of the gallbladder and 28% of cholelithiasis, however this difference was not statistically significant (p value=0.095). Retinoblastoma protein was found to be expressed in 50% of normal gallbladders and 6 (24%) of carcinoma and 8 (32%) of gallstones. The present study failed to demonstrate any conclusive role of cyclin D1/RB/ p16 pathway in carcinoma of the gallbladder. The positive relation observed between tumor metastasis and cyclinD1 expression and p16 with nodal metastasis suggested that higher cyclin D1/p16 expression may act as a predictive biomarker for aggressive behavior of gallbladder malignancies.

  8. Gallbladder tuberculosis: False-positive PET diagnosis of gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ramia, JM; Muffak, K; Fernández, A; Villar, J; Garrote, D; Ferron, JA

    2006-01-01

    Gallbladder tuberculosis (GT) is an extremely rare disease, and very few cases have been reported in the literature. The first case of GT was described in 1870 by Gaucher. A correct preoperative diagnosis of GT is unusual, and it is frequently confused with various gallbladder diseases. We present a new case of a patient who underwent surgery with the preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder cancer after a false positive positron emission tomography scan in the diagnostic work-up. PMID:17072992

  9. Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  10. Increased prevalence of gallbladder polyps in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Anand K; Gayton, Emma L; Webb, Alison; Halsall, David J; Rice, Caiomhe; Ibram, Ferda; Chaudhry, Afzal N; Simpson, Helen L; Berman, Laurence; Gurnell, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an increased prevalence of benign and malignant tumors in acromegaly, particularly colonic neoplasms. The gallbladder's epithelial similarity to the colon raises the possibility that gallbladder polyps (GBP) may occur more frequently in acromegaly. Thirty-one patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly (14 females, 17 males; mean age 54.7 yr, range 27-76 yr) were referred to our center between 2004 and 2008. All had pituitary adenomas and were treated with somatostatin analogs prior to transsphenoidal surgery. Biliary ultrasonography was performed at the time of referral. In a retrospective case-cohort study, we compared the prevalence of GBP in these scans with those of 13,234 consecutive patients (age range 20-80 yr) presenting at the hospital for abdominal/biliary ultrasound during the same time interval. Associations between GH and IGF-I levels and GBP in acromegaly were also examined. There was a higher prevalence of GBP in patients with acromegaly compared with controls (29.03 vs 4.62%, P = 0.000008); relative risk was 6.29 (95% confidence interval 3.61-10.96). Eight of nine patients with acromegaly and GBP were older than 50 yr of age. GH levels were higher in those with GBP (median 30.8 μg/liter, interquartile range 10.9-39.1) than those without (8.2 μg/liter, interquartile range 6.0-16.0), but IGF-I levels were comparable. This is the first study to demonstrate an increased prevalence of GBP in patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly. Further studies are required to determine whether these patients are at increased risk of developing gallbladder carcinoma and to define the role, if any, of biliary ultrasound surveillance.

  11. Gallbladder disease in children.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, David H; Harmon, Carroll M

    2016-08-01

    Biliary disease in children has changed over the past few decades, with a marked rise in incidence-perhaps most related to the parallel rise in pediatric obesity-as well as a rise in cholecystectomy rates. In addition to stone disease (cholelithiasis), acalculous causes of gallbladder pain such as biliary dyskinesia, also appear to be on the rise and present diagnostic and treatment conundrums to surgeons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Postmenopausal bleeding and vaginal nodules as the first presenting sign of adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Triolo, O; Antico, F; Mancuso, A; Salimbeni, V; Nicotina, P A

    2005-01-01

    Vaginal submucosal nodules were observed in a 67-year-old woman, with ultrasonographic features of an advanced uterine neoplasm. On biopsy, light microscopy suggested that the lesions might be metastatic foci from an extragenital cancer, with a prevalent tubular growth pattern. Parallel immunohistochemical reactions revealed a diffuse, strong CA 19-9 positivity in both the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Subsequently, high serum levels of such tumor marker were also found, and an extragenital cancer was suspected of pancreatic or biliary origin. A mass in the gallbladder fossa was then detected by computed tomography and a primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma was confirmed on ultrasound-guided biopsy.

  13. Can Gallbladder Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention . Since gallstones are a major risk factor, removing the gallbladders of all people with gallstones would prevent many of these cancers. But gallstones ...

  14. Gallbladder function in diabetic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shreiner, D.P.; Sarva, R.P.; Van Thiel, D.; Yingvorapant, N.

    1986-03-01

    Gallbladder emptying and filling was studied in eight diabetic and six normal control patients. None of the patients had gallstones. Cholescintigraphy was performed using (/sup 99m/Tc)disofenin, and gallbladder emptying was studied using a 45-min i.v. infusion of the octapeptide of cholecystokinin (OP-CCK) 20 ng/kg X hr. The peak filling rate was greater in diabetic than in normal subjects; however, emptying of the gallbladder in response to OP-CCK was significantly less in the diabetic subjects (51.6 +/- 10.4% compared with 77.2 +/- 4.9%). When the diabetic group was subdivided into obese and nonobese diabetics, the obese diabetics had a much lower percentage of emptying than the nonobese diabetics (30.0 +/- 10.4% compared with 73.1 +/- 9.3%). These findings suggest that obese diabetics may have impaired emptying of the gallbladder even in the absence of gallstones. The more rapid rate of gallbladder filling in obesity may indicate hypotonicity of the gallbladder. The combination of these abnormalities may predispose the obese diabetic to the development of gallstones.

  15. Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder with skin metastases.

    PubMed

    Krunic, Aleksandar L; Chen, Helen M; Lopatka, Keith

    2007-08-01

    Cutaneous metastasis from gallbladder cancer is extremely rare. We present a case of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder metastatic to the skin in a 38-year-old man. The skin nodules on the face, scalp and perianal area occurred approximately 1 year after the resection of the neoplasm. Skin metastases from gastrointestinal cancers are usually detected around surgical scars or on the abdominal wall, especially in the periumbilical region, and rarely present at other sites. Multiple imaging studies revealed the presence of metastatic bony involvement in the spine and left orbit. Visceral metastases have not been demonstrated in our patient in 20 months of follow up since the initial diagnosis of gallbladder cancer was made. We also briefly discuss other primary and metastatic skin tumours with signet-ring cell morphology.

  16. Retrospective analysis of canine gallbladder contents in biliary sludge and gallbladder mucoceles

    PubMed Central

    MIZUTANI, Shinya; TORISU, Shidow; KANEKO, Yasuyuki; YAMAMOTO, Shushi; FUJIMOTO, Shinsuke; ONG, Benedict Huai Ern; NAGANOBU, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of canine gallbladder diseases, including biliary sludge, gallbladder mucoceles and gallstones, is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the component of gallbladder contents and bacterial infection of the gallbladder in order to elucidate the pathophysiology of biliary sludge and gallbladder mucoceles. A total of 43 samples of canine gallbladder contents (biliary sludge, 21 and gallbladder mucoceles, 22) were subjected to component analysis by infrared spectroscopy, and the resultant infrared spectra were compared with that of swine mucin. Of the 43 samples, 41 were also evaluated by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture. The contents of 20 (95.2%) biliary sludge and 22 (100%) gallbladder mucocele samples exhibited similar infrared spectra as swine mucin. Although biliary sludge and gallbladder mucocele contents exhibited similar infrared spectra, one sample of biliary sludge (4.8%) was determined to be composed of proteins. The rate of bacterial infection of the gallbladder was 10.0% for biliary sludge and 14.3% for gallbladder mucoceles. Almost all of the identified bacterial species were intestinal flora. These results indicate that the principal components of gallbladder contents in both gallbladder mucoceles and biliary sludge are mucins and that both pathophysiologies exhibit low rates of bacterial infection of the gallbladder. Therefore, it is possible that gallbladder mucoceles and biliary sludge have the same pathophysiology, and, rather than being independent diseases, they could possibly represent a continuous disease. Thus, biliary sludge could be considered as the stage preceding the appearance of gallbladder mucoceles. PMID:27990011

  17. Gallbladder Cleanse: A "Natural" Remedy for Gallstones?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be composed of oil, juice and other materials. Gallbladder cleansing is not without risk. Some people have nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain during the flushing or cleansing period. Individual components of the herbal mixtures used in a gallbladder ...

  18. The role of the gallbladder in humans.

    PubMed

    Turumin, J L; Shanturov, V A; Turumina, H E

    2013-01-01

    The basic function of the gallbladder in humans is one of protection. The accumulation of the primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) in the gallbladder reduces the formation of the secondary bile acids (deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid), thus diminishing their concentration in the so-called gallbladder-independent enterohepatic circulation and protecting the liver, the stomach mucosa, the gallbladder, and the colon from their toxic hydrophobic effects. The presence or absence of the gallbladder in mammals is a determining factor in the synthesis of hydrophobic or hydrophilic bile acids. Because the gallbladder contracts 5-20 min after food is in the stomach and the "gastric chyme" moves from the stomach to the duodenum 1-3 h later, the function of the gallbladder bile in digestion may be insignificant. The aim of this article was to provide a detailed review of the role of the gallbladder and the mechanisms related to bile formation in humans.

  19. Spontaneous Perforation of Gallbladder: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sheoran, Satish Kumar; Sahai, Rajiv Nandan; Indora, Jagmohan; Biswal, Upender Chand

    2016-01-01

    The main cause of perforation of the gallbladder is cholecystitis with or without cholelithiasis. In old age, spontaneous perforation of gallbladder can be due to decrease in its blood supply, which can be due to atherosclerosis, focal vasospasm or localized vasculitis. Perforation of gallbladder is associated with high morbidity and mortality, if left untreated. Here we report a case of a 60-year-old male with perforation of gallbladder. PMID:27785327

  20. Multiseptate gallbladder: a rare ultrasonographic finding.

    PubMed

    Honrubia López, Raúl; Poza Cordón, Joaquín; Gómez Senent, Silvia; Mora Sanz, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    Multiseptate gallbladder is a congenital abnormality categorized as a gallbladder shape variant with some 20 cases reported thus far in the literature. Clinical presentation may be highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic to chronic pain in the right upper quadrant, cholecystitis, and even pancreatitis. It may be associated with other bile duct abnormalities such as choledochal cyst, ectopic gallbladder or anomalous biliopancreatic junction.

  1. Does gallbladder angle affect gallstone formation?

    PubMed Central

    Sanal, Bekir; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Zeren, Sezgin; Can, Fatma; Elmali, Ferhan; Bayhan, Zulfu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Morphology of gallbladder varies considerably from person to person. We believe that one of the morphological variations of gallbladder is the “gallbladder angle”. Gallbladder varies also in “angle”, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been investigated before. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gallbladder angle on gallstone formation. Methods in this study, 1075 abdominal computed tomography (CT) images were retrospectively examined. Patients with completely normal gallbladders were selected. Among these patients, those with both abdominal ultrasound and blood tests were identified in the hospital records and included in the study. Based on the findings of the ultrasound scans, patients were divided into two groups as patients with gallstones and patients without gallstones. Following the measurement of gallbladder angles on the CT images, the groups were statistically evaluated. Results The gallbladder angle was smaller in patients with gallstones (49 ± 21 degrees and 53 ± 19 degrees) and the gallbladder with larger angle was 1.015 (1/0.985) times lower the risk of gallstone formation. However, these were not statistically significant (p>0,05). Conclusion A more vertically positioned gallbladder does not affect gallstone formation. However, a smaller gallbladder angle may facilitate gallstone formation in patients with the risk factors. Gallstones perhaps more easily and earlier develop in gallbladders with a smaller angle. PMID:27795762

  2. A clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Wei; Mu, Dianbin; Shi, Xuetao; Zhao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    An 80-year-old male was referred to our department for a gallbladder mass. He denied any history of alcohol consumption or cholecystitis and smoking. Hepatitis B surface antigen test and antihepatitis C antibody test were found to be negative. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen were elevated (CA19-9 was 59.92 U/mL and carcinoembryonic antigen was 12.64 ng/mL), whereas alpha-fetoprotein was below the normal limit (2.46 ng/mL). Computed tomography scan revealed a solid mass with measurements of 4.6×5.6×7.1 cm, which nearly filled the whole gallbladder space. Radical cholecystectomy, including segments IV B and V of the liver and lymphadenectomy, was performed. The neoplasm in gallbladder was completely resected, and the patient obtained a negative margin. Histological and immunohistochemical profile suggested a clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation. After reviewing the literature, we reported that this case is the first identified case of cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with extensive hepatoid differentiation. However, clinical features of clear cell adenocarcinoma with hepatoid differentiation remain unclear due to the extremely rare incidence. There was no indication of adjuvant chemotherapy and no literature has been reported on the application of chemotherapy. This case showed a promising clinical outcome after curative resection, which indicated that surgical treatment could be potentially considered for suitable patients. PMID:27703378

  3. Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hundal, Rajveer; Shaffer, Eldon A

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%–95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities – inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier

  4. Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome.

    PubMed

    Hundal, Rajveer; Shaffer, Eldon A

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%-95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities - inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier stage

  5. Gallbladder agenesis in a Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Kamishina, Hiroaki; Katayama, Masaaki; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Jun; Chiba, Satoshi; Goryo, Masanobu; Sato, Reeko; Yasuda, Jun

    2010-07-01

    A 4-year-old neutered male Chihuahua was presented with a history of anorexia and vomiting. Continuous elevation of liver enzymes was found on repeated blood examinations and the dog was referred to us for further evaluation. The absence of gallbladder was suspected on ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy and retrograde cholangiography confirmed gallbladder agenesis and a possible hypoplasia of the right medial and lateral liver lobes. Histologically, proliferation of bile ductules associated with portal fibrosis and pseudolobular formation were apparent in the liver lobes.

  6. Infectious diseases and the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Julka, Kabir; Ko, Cynthia W

    2010-12-01

    Infections of the gastrointestinal tract can often involve the gallbladder. Infection probably plays a role in the formation of gallstones but is more commonly thought to contribute to acute illness in patients. Acute calculous cholecystitis caused by an impacted gallstone is often complicated by secondary bacterial infection and is a major cause of morbidity and even mortality in patients. A wide variety of organisms can be associated with acute acalculous cholecystitis, a less common but potentially more severe form of acute cholecystitis. This review focuses on infections and their role in the above-mentioned processes involving the gallbladder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Porcelain gallbladder: ultrasound and CT appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.A.; Jacobs, R.; Katz, J.; Costello, P.

    1984-07-01

    Nine patients with calcification of the gallbladder wall (porcelain gallbladder) were analyzed by ultrasound and the appearance correlated with the CT, radiographic, clinical, and surgical findings. Three distinct patterns were identified: (a) a hyperechoic similunar structure with acoustic shadowing posteriorly, simulating a stone-filled gallbladder devoid of bile, which was seen in 5 patients; (b) a biconvex, curvilinear echogenic structure with variable acoustic shadowing, seen in all 3 patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder; and (c) an irregular clump of echoes with posterior acoustic shadowing, seen in 1 patient. Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of gallbladder calcification are presented, and the association between calcification and cancer is emphasized.

  8. Gall-bladder duplication - case report.

    PubMed

    Koszman, Bogusław

    2014-12-18

    Gall-bladder duplication is a rare anatomical variation, which can affect safe performance of cholecystectomy and be a cause of persistent symptoms and a need for reoperation in case of accessory gall-bladder omission. A case of successfully performed elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with duplicated gall-bladder accidentally intraoperatively disclosed is presented. The identified anomaly was classified according to the Harlaftis Classification of Multiple Gall-bladders. Attention was drawn to the uneffectivenes of ultrasound scanning in multiple gall-bladders preoperative detecting, and presence of other non-biliary anatomical variation in the same individual as well.

  9. Porcelain Gallbladder: Decoding the malignant truth.

    PubMed

    Machado, Norman O

    2016-11-01

    Gallbladder calcification, also referred to as porcelain gallbladder, has received significant attention in the medical literature due to its perceived role in increasing the risk of developing a gallbladder carcinoma. However, recent reports raise questions challenging this purported high risk. While previous studies reported a concomitant incidence of gallbladder cancer in porcelain gallbladder ranging from 7-60%, more recent analyses indicate the incidence to be much lower (6%). Based on evidence in the current literature, a prophylactic cholecystectomy is not routinely recommended for all patients with porcelain gallbladder and should be restricted to those with conventional indications, such as young patients. However, it is important to note that a nonoperative approach may require prolonged follow-up. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a feasible therapeutic option for patients with porcelain gallbladder, although some researchers have indicated a higher incidence of complications and conversion due to technical difficulties.

  10. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ewelukwa, Ofor; Ali, Omair; Akram, Salma

    2014-05-08

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a benign, uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by focal or diffuse destructive inflammatory process of the gallbladder (GB). Macroscopically, it appears like yellowish tumour-like masses in the wall of the GB. This article reports on a 74-year-old woman with XGC mimicking GB cancer.

  11. Treatment Options for Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  12. General Information about Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  14. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  16. General Information about Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  17. Gallbladder cancer in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Yaghan, Rami J; Matalka, Ismail I; Shatnawi, Nawaf J

    2003-08-01

    To highlight the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of gallbladder cancer in Jordan as a model for the Middle East. Only scattered reports are available from this region. The histopathological reports and the hospital records for all cholecystectomies performed at Princess Basma Teaching Hospital between 1994-2000 were retrospectively reviewed to identify all patients with gallbladder carcinoma. All the histological slides for the cancer group were reviewed and reclassified by a single pathologist. Of 4502 cholecystectomies performed, 33 cases (0.73%) of gallbladder carcinoma were found. The mean age was 61.4 years (range 39-80 years). The male : female ratio was 1 : 3.7. Biliary colic and/or acute cholecystitis were the main presentations. Gallstones were present in 88% (29/33) of the patients. The spectrum of histological subtypes was similar to other series. Only three cases were diagnosed preoperatively, making the incidence of incidental gallbladder cancer 0.66% (30/4502). Simple cholecystectomy was performed for 13 patients. The remaining 20 patients underwent cholecystectomy and portal lymphadenectomy with (five cases) or without (15 cases) extrahepatic resection of the bile ducts. The mean follow up was 22 months (SD +/- 18.95 months; range 1-96 months). The 2-year survival rates for stages I, II, III, and IV were 100%, 42.9%, 10.8%, and 0%, respectively (P = 0.0013). The importance of a high index of suspicion when dealing with cholelithiasis in elderly patients, particularly with large sized stones, cannot be over-emphasized. Proper gross inspection in the theater should be a routine procedure performed by all surgeons. Routine ultrasound for suspected gallbladder stones should always be performed under the supervision of senior radiologists.

  18. What's New in Gallbladder Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Gallbladder Cancer About Gallbladder Cancer What’s New in Gallbladder Cancer Research and Treatment? Research into ... Chemotherapy and radiation therapy Researchers are looking at new ways of increasing the effectiveness of radiation therapy . ...

  19. What Are the Key Statistics about Gallbladder Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer About Gallbladder Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Gallbladder Cancer? The American Cancer Society’s estimates ... advanced it is when it is found. For statistics on survival rates, see “ Survival statistics for gallbladder ...

  20. TLR4 expression in normal gallbladder, chronic cholecystitis and gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huan, Peng; Maosheng, Tang; Zhiqian, Hu; Long, Cui; Xiaojun, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for gallbladder carcinoma. The molecular mechanisms linking inflammation and gallbladder carcinogenesis are incompletely understood. Toll-like receptors are involved in inflammatory response and play an important role in the innate immune system by initiating and directing immune response to pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that TLR4 participated in the development of gallbladder carcinoma through investigating the expression of TLR4 in chronic cholecystitis, gallbladder carcinoma and normal gallbladder. The expression of TLR4 in 30 specimens of chronic calculous cholecystitis, 13 specimens of gallbladder adenocarcinoma and 10 specimens of normal gallbladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry, western blotting analysis and quantitative RT-PCR. We showed that TLR4 was mostly localized to the glandular and luminal epithelium of gallbladder. TLR4 expression was lower in gallbladder carcinoma tissue than in chronic cholecystitis and normal gallbladder tissue, whereas the difference between chronic cholecystitis tissue and normal gallbladder tissue was not statistically significant. The expression of TLR4 may be closely associated with the course of gallbladder carcinoma.

  1. [Mucoprotein secretion in calculous gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Fernández Lobato, R; Ortega, L; Balibrea, J L; Torres, A J; García-Calvo, M; Alvarez Sánchez, J A

    1994-05-01

    Secretion of mucoproteins or mucine (MP) have been studied as possible markers in several pathological conditions of the digestive tract, such us colonic polyposis or gastric dysplasia. In the gallbladder (VB) it has been established that form the core of crystalization for the calculi. A study in 100 gallbladders have been made based on the utility of the analysis of the qualitative and quantitative modifications of MP in lithogenesis. It was been determined by histochemical techniques the three main types of MP (neutral, low and high sulphated acid) to evaluate the alterations in the process of lithiasis. Results show a high production of the MP in VB with lithiasis, presenting in 97% a mixed composition of MP (48.9% of 2 types, and 3 types in 46%), without a predominating type in this pathology.

  2. Endoscopic Gallbladder Drainage for Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Jessica; Alvarez, Paloma; Sharaiha, Reem Z.; Gossain, Sonia; Kedia, Prashant; Sarkaria, Savreet; Sethi, Amrita; Turner, Brian G.; Millman, Jennifer; Lieberman, Michael; Nandakumar, Govind; Umrania, Hiren; Gaidhane, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for cholecystitis. However, gallbladder stenting (GBS) has shown promise in debilitated or high-risk patients. Endoscopic transpapillary GBS and endoscopic ultrasound-guided GBS (EUS-GBS) have been proposed as safe and effective modalities for gallbladder drainage. Methods Data from patients with cholecystitis were prospectively collected from August 2004 to May 2013 from two United States academic university hospitals and analyzed retrospectively. The following treatment algorithm was adopted. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and cystic duct stenting was initially attempted. If deemed feasible by the endoscopist, EUS-GBS was then pursued. Results During the study period, 139 patients underwent endoscopic gallbladder drainage. Among these, drainage was performed in 94 and 45 cases for benign and malignant indications, respectively. Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was defined as decompression of the gallbladder without incidence of cholecystitis, and was achieved with ERCP and cystic duct stenting in 117 of 128 cases (91%). Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was also achieved with EUS-guided gallbladder drainage using transmural stent placement in 11 of 11 cases (100%). Complications occurred in 11 cases (8%). Conclusions Endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques are safe and efficacious methods for gallbladder decompression in non-surgical patients with comorbidities. PMID:26473125

  3. Gallbladder metastasis: spectrum of imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Barretta, Maria Luisa; Catalano, Orlando; Setola, Sergio Venanzio; Granata, Vincenza; Marone, Ugo; D'Errico Gallipoli, Adolfo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to report the diagnostic features of hematogenous gallbladder metastasis using various imaging modalities. We carried out a single-center retrospective analysis of 13 patients with gallbladder metastasis. The primary malignancy was cutaneous melanoma (11 cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (1 case), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (1 case). All patients underwent sonography (US), with color-power-Doppler assessment in 11 cases. Contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) was performed in 8 patients, MDCT in 8, and MR imaging in 1. Four subjects studied by whole-body PET. The gallbladder lesions were first detected with US in 9 cases and with MDCT in 3 cases. The remaining patient was investigated because of hepatic fluorodeoxyglucose uptake at PET; CEUS failed to detect any liver metastasis in this subject but identified a gallbladder lesion. Typical findings included multiplicity of gallbladder vegetations, broad base, limited mural thickening, presence of contrast enhancement, absence of gallstones and gallbladder bed infiltration, presence of combined lesions within other organs. Only two patients presented an isolated location in the gallbladder and were successfully treated with surgery. Gallbladder metastasis is a rare but possible occurrence. Knowledge of the typical imaging features and careful evaluation of the gallbladder may avoid an incorrect or false negative diagnosis.

  4. Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a rather uncommon disease, when it gives symptoms it has usually reached an incurable stage. Therefore, every attempt must be made to find the asymptomatic stages and look for premalignant gallbladder polyps. Even if gallbladder cancer is a rare disease, gallbladder polyps are common, only a few polyps develop to cancer. This makes gallbladder polyps another problem: which are the polyps that must be surgically removed, which shall be followed-up, or for how long? The author used the keyword “gallbladder polypsn” in PubMed and reviewed the scientific literatures published from January 2000 to December 2011. The present review article has summarized almost all respects of gallbladder polyp, including the risk factors, clinical diagnosis and management, and comments made from the author, in which clinical treatments are recommended. It is author's purpose that the 11-year-knowledge about gallbladder polyps summarized from all worlds’ literatures is enough to know how clinicians will handle the next patient with gallbladder polyp. PMID:22655278

  5. K-ras, p53 mutations, and microsatellite instability (MSI) in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Saetta, Angelica A

    2006-06-15

    Despite the considerable progress in understanding the molecular pathology of carcinogenesis, the genetic mechanisms underlying the development and progression of gallbladder cancer (GC) are poorly understood. The survival of GC patients is generally poor. Therefore, it is very useful to define valuable prognostic factors. The most extensively studied oncogenes in gallbladder carcinogenesis are ras, commonly mutated in neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. K-ras oncogene is altered in a subset of gallbladder patients and mainly in those having anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary tract. Most of the studies of genetic abnormalities in GC have focused on p53 gene. p53 mutation/overexpression and/or LOH is present in more than 50% of gallbladder carcinomas, suggesting an important role in their pathogenesis. However, these results have not any predictive value yet. Moreover, the involvement of an alternative molecular pathway, that of microsatellite instability (MSI), is found in a limited group of GC patients. Additional research is necessary to establish its possible relation to defects of the mismatch repair (MMR) system and its proposed prognostic significance. Further elucidation of the molecular events specific to GC will help to identify novel molecular targets for the diagnosis and clinical management of the patients. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Association of Aflatoxin and Gallbladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koshiol, Jill; Gao, Yu-Tang; Dean, Michael; Egner, Patricia; Nepal, Chirag; Jones, Kristine; Wang, Bingsheng; Rashid, Asif; Luo, Wen; Van Dyke, Alison L; Ferreccio, Catterina; Malasky, Michael; Shen, Ming-Chang; Zhu, Bin; Andersen, Jesper B; Hildesheim, Allan; Hsing, Ann W; Groopman, John

    2017-08-01

    Aflatoxin, which causes hepatocellular carcinoma, may also cause gallbladder cancer. We investigated whether patients with gallbladder cancer have higher exposure to aflatoxin than patients with gallstones. We measured aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-lysine adducts in plasma samples from the Shanghai Biliary Tract Cancer case-control study, conducted from 1997 through 2001. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the population-attributable fraction for 209 patients with gallbladder cancer and gallstones vs 250 patients with gallstones without cancer (controls). In 54 patients with gallbladder cancer, tumor tissue was examined for the R249S mutation in TP53, associated with aflatoxin exposure, through targeted sequencing. The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in 67 (32%) of 209 patients with gallbladder cancer and 37 (15%) of the 250 controls (χ(2) P < .0001), almost threefold more patients with gallbladder cancer than controls (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.70-4.33). Among participants with detectable levels of AFB1-lysine, the median level of AFB1-lysine was 5.4 pg/mg in those with gallbladder cancer, compared with 1.2 pg/mg in controls. For patients in the fourth quartile of AFB1-lysine level vs the first quartile, the OR for gallbladder cancer was 7.61 (95% CI, 2.01-28.84). None of the 54 gallbladder tumors sequenced were found to have the R249S mutation in TP53. The population-attributable fraction for cancer related to aflatoxin was 20% (95% CI, 15%-25%). In a case-control study of patients with gallbladder cancer and gallstones vs patients with gallstones without cancer, we associated exposure to aflatoxin (based on plasma level of AFB1-lysine) with gallbladder cancer. Gallbladder cancer does not appear associate with the R249S mutation in TP53. If aflatoxin is a cause of gallbladder cancer, it may have accounted for up to 20% of the gallbladder cancers in Shanghai, China, during the study period, and could account for an

  7. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  8. Effects of peptide YY on gallbladder motility

    SciTech Connect

    Conter, R.L.; Roslyn, J.J.; Taylor, I.L.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of peptide YY (PYY) on cholecystokinin-stimulated gallbladder contraction were investigated in the prairie dog model. Twelve animals underwent laparotomy with catheter placement into the gallbladder and common bile duct (vent). The gallbladder was continuously perfused with (/sup 14/C)polyethylene glycol-labeled lactated Ringer at 0.03 ml/min, and vent effluent was collected at 2.5-min intervals. All animals received 20 min of intravenous infusion of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP), 2.5 ng x kg/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/, immediately followed by 60-min infusions of either lactated Ringer (LR) or synthetic PYY, 10 or 50 ng x kg/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/. When LR was infused after CCK-OP, gallbladder filling increased by 15.4 +/- 10.5% with minimal changes in gallbladder pressure. Infusion of PYY/sub 10/ resulted in a significant increase in gallbladder volume and filling with a significant decrease in intragallbladder pressure. Similar findings were noted with PYY/sub 50/. These data indicate that synthetic PYY significantly augments gallbladder filling after CCK-OP-stimulated gallbladder contraction. These finding, coupled with the observation that PYY inhibits pancreatic secretion, suggest that this peptide may be the anti-CCK hormone and may have an important role in regulating biliary activity postprandially.

  9. Agenesis of the Gallbladder: Lessons to Learn

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Tarun; Grandy-Smith, Starlene; El-Hasani, Shamsi

    2006-01-01

    Background: Congenital absence of the gallbladder is a rare, usually asymptomatic, anatomical variation. Some affected individuals may present with a clinical picture suggestive of gallbladder disease. This presentation, coupled with the inability of standard abdominal ultrasonography to convincingly diagnose agenesis of the gallbladder, can put the surgeon in a diagnostic and intraoperative dilemma. Case Report: A 30-year-old lady presenting with clinical features of cholecystitis and diagnosed with shrunken gallbladder on ultrasonography was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Intraoperatively, the gallbladder could not be seen even after thorough dissection in the region of the porta hepatis. The procedure was terminated at this stage, and further imaging of the extrahepatic biliary system by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of congenital absence of the gallbladder. Conclusion: Nonvisualization of the gallbladder at laparoscopy, in the absence of any other diagnosed biliary disorder, need not prompt conversion to open exploration of the extrahepatic biliary system. Newer imaging modalities are relatively noninvasive and can provide good delineation of biliary anatomy. This allows well-planned treatment and at the same time prevents the added morbidity of a diagnostic laparotomy performed solely to confirm the absence of the gallbladder. PMID:17575771

  10. Promotion of gallbladder emptying by intravenous aminoacids.

    PubMed

    Zoli, G; Ballinger, A; Healy, J; O'Donnell, L J; Clark, M; Farthing, M J

    1993-05-15

    Patients receiving total intravenous nutrition have inert gallbladders; gallbladder sludge and gallstones often develop, but are preventable if gallbladder emptying can be improved. We measured the effect of giving rapid intravenous infusions of aminoacid solutions in eight normal subjects. Four regimens were tested (250 mL over 30 min, 250 mL over 10 min, 125 mL over 5 min, and 50 mL over 5 min). Gallbladder emptying, as measured by ultrasound and cholecystokinin release, depended on both the amount and the rate of aminoacid infusion. Rapid infusion of 125 mL of an aminoacid mixture (Synthamin 14 without electrolytes) over 5 min (2.1 g per min) produced a 64% reduction in gallbladder volume within 30 min, whereas a 50 mL infusion over 5 min produced only a 22% reduction. Intermittent rapid infusion of small amounts of aminoacids may prevent gallstones in patients receiving intravenous nutrition.

  11. BMS-247550 in Treating Patients With Liver or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-13

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  12. [Surgical indications in gallbladder polyps].

    PubMed

    Morera-Ocón, Francisco José; Ballestín-Vicente, Javier; Calatayud-Blas, Ana María; de Tursi-Rispoli, Leonardo Cataldo; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The surgery of gallbladder polyps is not well defined due to the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines. To analyse the management of polyps in Spain, and a review of the literature and treatment standards. The reports on cholecystectomy with gallbladder polyps (GBP) were extracted from the Pathology data base. Patients subjected to surgery with a diagnosis of GBP were identified in the Surgery data base. A single list was prepared and a review was made of the clinical histories, including, age, gender, clinical data, ultrasound report, and histopathology report. A total of 30 patients, with a median age of 51 years (range 22-83), 21 of whom were female, were included. The ultrasound diagnosis was GBP in 19 patients, GBP and calculi in 7 cases, and calculi with no polyps in 4 cases. Other diagnoses concurrent with GBP were multiple haemangiomas (3), large single simple cyst (1), and multiple simple cysts (1). Eleven patients had typical pain (biliary origin), 5 of which showed no calculi on ultrasound. Eight had non-specific pain, which persisted in 3 cases after the cholecystectomy. Pseudopolyps were found in 20 gallbladders, and true polyps in 4 cases. In 3 cases, polyps were not found in the pathology study. The ultrasound report must specify the size, shape, and number of polyps. Patients with biliary type pain would benefit from a cholecystectomy. The probability of malignancy is minimum if the GBP is less than 10mm and aged under 50 years, and a cholecystectomy is not required. A GBP greater than 10mm should be an indication of cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Localized IgG4-related Cholecystitis Mimicking Gallbladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tadahisa; Okumura, Fumihiro; Mizushima, Takashi; Nishie, Hirotada; Iwasaki, Hiroyasu; Anbe, Kaiki; Ozeki, Takanori; Kachi, Kenta; Fukusada, Shigeki; Suzuki, Yuta; Watanabe, Kazuko; Sano, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    We encountered a case of localized IgG4-cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer with focal/segmental type1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). In this case, we were unable to exclude a diagnosis of gallbladder cancer and thus performed radical cholecystectomy. Type1 AIP is often associated with gallbladder lesions, accompanied by generally diffuse, circumferential thickening of the gallbladder wall. Although localized IgG4-related cholecystitis is extremely rare, differentiating this condition from gallbladder cancer is often very difficult.

  14. [Neuroendocrine small-cell carcinoma of the gallbladder. An unexpected finding after diagnostic laparoscopy].

    PubMed

    González-Chávez, Mario Andrés; Villegas-Tovar, Eduardo; González Hermosillo-Cornejo, Daniel; Gutierrez-Ocampo, Alejandro; López-Rangel, José Alfredo; Athié-Athié, Amado de Jesús

    Gallbladder cancer ranks fifth among oncological diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract; nevertheless, it is the world's most common malignant tumor of the bile ducts. It is usually diagnosed after cholecystectomy and tends to have bad prognosis. Adenocarcinoma is the main histological finding, although other rare histologic types have been described among the actual literature. Poorly differentiated squamous-cell neuroendocrine gallbladder carcinoma is an extremely rare neoplasm. A poor prognosis is associated with this histological type. The aim of this paper is to show that performing a systematic exploration of the entire peritoneal cavity in all laparoscopic surgeries can lead to find completely unexpected changes related to an unidentified disease. Also, a detailed review of our unexpected finding is made: The neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of gallbladder. We hereby report the case of a 40-year-old patient with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy that underwent emergency laparoscopic surgery, presenting the incidental finding of a small-cell carcinoma of the gallbladder. Our surgical group advised that by introducing the laparoscope, the entire peritoneal cavity must be systematically reviewed, in search of differential diagnoses and unidentified pathologies. We must use the diagnostic and therapeutic qualities of laparoscopy. Bile duct endocrine tumors tend to remain silent until advanced stages, making the prognosis usually unfavorable, especially when they are unresectable. Endocrine neoplasias of the gallbladder, although uncommon, should be taken into account as possible diagnoses due to its therapeutic and prognostic implications. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Unusual presentation of gallbladder perforation

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, G.; Adam, J.; Abdul-Aal, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gall bladder perforation is associated with high mortality rates and therefore must be recognised and managed promptly. We present an unusual presentation of spontaneous gall bladder perforation. Case presentation An elderly lady with multiple medical co-morbidities was admitted with sepsis following a fall. Initial assessment lead to a diagnosis of pneumonia, however a rapidly expanding right flank mass was incidentally noted during routine nursing care. Imaging studies were inconclusive, however incision and drainage of the mass revealed bile stained pus draining cutaneously from an acutely inflamed gallbladder. The patient made a good recovery following surgery, and was discharged with outpatient follow-up. Discussion Despite focussed post-hoc history taking she denied any prodromal symptoms of cholecystitis. In addition to reporting an unusual cause for a common presentation, we highlight the importance of a full body examination in the context of sepsis, regardless of whether the source has been identified. In addition, we advocate that surgical intervention in sepsis should not be delayed by imaging in cases where an abscess is suspected. Conclusions Percutaneous abscesses arising from the gallbladder are a rare but potentially serious consequence of acute cholecystitis, and may present in a wide variety of locations. Therefore it is imperative to conduct a full body inspection in the septic patient, even when a source has been identified. PMID:26686488

  16. Single-Organ Gallbladder Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Tan, Carmela D.; Rodríguez, E. René; Hoffman, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Systemic vasculitis (SV) involving abdominal structures usually has a poor prognosis. Gallbladder vasculitis (GV) has been reported as part of SV (GB-SV) and focal single-organ vasculitis (GB-SOV). We analyzed clinical and histologic characteristics of patients with GV to identify features that differentiate GB-SOV from the systemic forms of GV. To identify affected patients with GV we used pathology databases from our institution and an English-language PubMed search. Clinical manifestations, laboratory and histologic features, treatment administered, and outcomes were recorded. Patients were divided in 2 groups, GB-SOV and GB-SV. As in previous studies of single-organ vasculitis, GB-SOV was only considered to be a sustainable diagnosis if disease beyond the gallbladder was not apparent after a follow-up period of at least 6 months. Sixty-one well-characterized patients with GV were included (6 from our institution). There was no significant sex bias (32 female patients, 29 male). Median age was 52 years (range, 18–94 yr). GB-SOV was found in 20 (33%) and GB-SV in 41 (67%) patients. No differences were observed in age, sex frequency, or duration of gallbladder symptoms between groups. Past episodes of recurrent right-upper quadrant or abdominal pain and lithiasic cholecystitis were more frequent in GB-SOV patients, whereas acalculous cholecystitis occurred more often in GB-SV. In GB-SV, gallbladder-related symptoms occurred more often concomitantly with or after the systemic features, but they sometimes appeared before SV was fully developed (13.5%). Constitutional and musculoskeletal symptoms were reported only in GB-SV patients. Compared to GB-SOV, GB-SV patients presented more often with fever (62.5% vs 20%; p = 0.003) and exhibited higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels (80 ± 28 vs 37 ± 25 mm/h, respectively; p = 0.006). All GB-SV patients required glucocorticoids and 50% of them also received cytotoxic agents. Mortality in

  17. Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Kabul Gürbulak, Esin; Özşahin, Hamdi; Düzköylü, Yiğit; Akgün, Ismail Ethem; Battal, Muharrem; Gürbulak, Bünyamin

    2015-01-01

    Duplication of the gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly of the gallbladder, with an estimated prevalence of 1–3 per 3800 individuals. Unless properly diagnosed preoperatively, it can lead to biliary tract injuries and postoperative complications which may require reoperative surgeries. While previously reported cases have been treated with conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), treatment with single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has not been reported yet. We herein present the case of a 58-year-old female with gallbladder duplication who was successfully treated with SILS cholecystectomy. PMID:26266074

  18. Myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Andreas; Gotlib, Jason

    2017-02-09

    Molecular diagnostics has generated substantial dividends in dissecting the genetic basis of myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia. The family of diseases generated by dysregulated fusion tyrosine kinase (TK) genes is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) category, "Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1, or with PCM1-JAK2" In addition to myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), these patients can present with myelodysplastic syndrome/MPN, as well as de novo or secondary mixed-phenotype leukemias or lymphomas. Eosinophilia is a common, but not invariable, feature of these diseases. The natural history of PDGFRA- and PDGFRB-rearranged neoplasms has been dramatically altered by imatinib. In contrast, patients with FGFR1 and JAK2 fusion TK genes exhibit a more aggressive course and variable sensitivity to current TK inhibitors, and in most cases, long-term disease-free survival may only be achievable with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Similar poor prognosis outcomes may be observed with rearrangements of FLT3 or ABL1 (eg, both of which commonly partner with ETV6), and further investigation is needed to validate their inclusion in the current WHO-defined group of eosinophilia-associated TK fusion-driven neoplasms. The diagnosis chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified (CEL, NOS) is assigned to patients with MPN with eosinophilia and nonspecific cytogenetic/molecular abnormalities and/or increased myeloblasts. Myeloid mutation panels have identified somatic variants in patients with a provisional diagnosis of hypereosinophilia of undetermined significance, reclassifying some of these cases as eosinophilia-associated neoplasms. Looking forward, one of the many challenges will be how to use the results of molecular profiling to guide prognosis and selection of actionable therapeutic targets. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Lymph node evaluation in gallbladder cancer: which role in the prognostic and therapeutic aspects. Update of the literature.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, G; Di Vita, M; Cavallaro, A; Fisichella, R; Zanghì, A; Spartà, D; Cardì, F; Cappellani, A

    2014-12-01

    The widespread use of laparoscopy has changed the outcome of gallbladder cancer as a consequence of increasing referral and incidental discovering of earlier stages cancer. Nevertheless, GBC is still associated with a poor prognosis and lymphnodal involvement is a main prognostic factor, important both for staging and for evaluating surgery quality. No consensus exists about the extension of lymphadenectomy to be performed nor about contraindications to extensive resection. A review of literature was so designed to identify the actual role, extension and limits of lymphadenectomy. A search on Pubmed and Scopus has been performed using the following keywords: gallbladder cancer, gallbladder neoplasm, surgery, laparoscopy, lymphadenectomy to evaluate the prognostic and the therapeutic role of the lymphadenectomy in gallbladder cancer. The retrieved articles were analyzed aimed to evaluate the impact of lymphectomy and of its extension on overall and disease free survival.  Although no consensus still exists over the extension of ideal lymphadenectomy, some points are already clearly established: a part from T1a neoplasms, that do not require further surgery, and T1b for which a regional lymphectomy (N1) is safe and mandatory, more advanced stages require a more aggressive surgery but the fate of paraortic nodal station is still under evaluation. In fact some Authors still believe that the involvement of these nodes determine a so poor prognosis to make uselessly risky their surgical aggression. Other Authors conversely, show that there is not any difference in survival, among node positive patients, between paraortic node positive and no paraortic node positive patients. The prognosis of gallbladder cancer remains poor because in most patients the diagnosis is made at an advanced stage. Complete surgical resection provides the only curative treatment option in this disease. In order to improve long-term outcome, several surgeons have advocated aggressive surgical

  20. Metastatic Cutaneous Melanoma of the Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Basnyat, Soney; Basu, Aparna; Mehta, Vivek R.

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease that can spread to many organs of the body. In rare cases, it can spread to the gallbladder causing secondary lesions, yet presenting with little to no symptoms. Therefore, most cases of metastatic melanoma lesions to the gallbladder go undiagnosed. Here, we present the case of a 41-year-old male with a four-month history of melanoma of the face, with a postresection status, who presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography confirmed the presence of a mass on the gallbladder. Laparoscopic excision along with liver wedge resection was performed. Pathology staining revealed the presence of a malignant metastatic melanoma lesion of the gallbladder. PMID:28251000

  1. Chronic Diarrhea: A Concern After Gallbladder Removal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... six months ago, and I'm still having diarrhea. Is this normal? Answers from Michael F. Picco, ... develop the frequent loose, watery stools that characterize diarrhea after surgery to remove their gallbladders (cholecystectomy). Studies ...

  2. Gallbladder Polyps: Can They Be Cancerous?

    MedlinePlus

    ... these polyps, your doctor may suggest follow-up examinations to look for changes that may be an indication of cancer. This can be done using standard abdominal ultrasound or endoscopic ultrasound. Gallbladder polyps larger ...

  3. Sorafenib Tosylate and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Unresectable, or Metastatic Gallbladder Cancer or Cholangiocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Extrahepatic Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma; Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma; Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma With Squamous Metaplasia; Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Gallbladder Carcinoma; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Unresectable Gallbladder Carcinoma

  4. Parastomal herniation of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Garcia, R M; Brody, F; Miller, J; Ponsky, T A

    2005-12-01

    Parastomal hernias can occur in up to 31% of patients following an enterostomy (Cheung in Aust N Z J Surg 65:808-811, 1995). This type of hernia develops through an intentional fascial defect. Commonly, most parastomal hernias involve a reducible segment of omentum, small bowel, or colon. Typically, these hernias are asymptomatic and associated rarely with strangulation or obstruction. Patient preference and clinical scenario may dictate management of these hernias. Non-operative management of parastomal hernias includes abdominal binders and enterostomy belts. Operative management includes a host of options including mesh repair, a new stoma site, or revision. This paper documents the first reported case of a parastomal hernia involving the gallbladder. Optimal technique and site placement of a stoma are also discussed.

  5. The Systematic Classification of Gallbladder Stones

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. Methodology A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. Principal Findings Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297), pigment stones (217), calcium carbonate stones (139), phosphate stones (12), calcium stearate stones (9), protein stones (3), cystine stones (1) and mixed stones (129). Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05), however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. Conclusion The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones. PMID:24124459

  6. [Gallbladder volvulus: Diagnostic and surgical challenges].

    PubMed

    Abadía-Barnó, Pedro; Coll-Sastre, Magdalena; Picón-Serrano, Carmen; Sanjuanbenito-Dehesa, Alfonso; Cabañas-Montero, Jacobo

    2016-12-09

    The gallbladder volvulus is defined as the rotation of the gallbladder on its mesentery along the axis of the cystic duct and cystic artery. It is an extremely rare surgical disease and definitive diagnosis is usually made during surgery. A 78 year old woman presented with upper right quadrant abdominal pain, with no comorbidities and no other accompanying symptoms. Analysis revealed haemodynamic instability and leukocytosis. Computed tomography of abdomen showed an acute cholecystitis. During emergency right hypochondrium laparotomy, the gallbladder was found to be twisted counterclockwise with huge gangrenous gallbladder distal. Open cholecystectomy was performed and after the surgery, the patient was discharged in a few days. Gallbladder volvulus, or gallbladder torsion, is a rare condition and should be considered when clinical and imaging findings of complicated cholecystitis are present. The performance of urgent laparoscopic surgery would be first option to avoid perforation, peritonitis and haemodynamic instability. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing the incidentally detected gallbladder cancer: algorithms and controversies.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Andrea; Piccolo, Gaetano; Di Vita, Maria; Zanghì, Antonio; Cardì, Francesco; Di Mattia, Paolo; Barbera, Giuseppina; Borzì, Laura; Panebianco, Vincenzo; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Cavallaro, Marco; Cappellani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the fifth most common neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common cancer of the biliary tract. GBC is suspected preoperatively in only 30-40% of patients. The other 60-70% are discovered incidentally (IGBC) by the pathologist on a gallbladder specimen following cholecystectomy for benign diseases such as polyps, gallstones, and cholecystitis. Between 1995 and 2011, 30 cases of GBC, who underwent resection with curative intent in our institutions, were retrospectively reviewed. They were analyzed for demographic data, and type of operation, surgical morbidity and mortality, histopathological classification, and survival. Incidental GBC was compared with suspected or preoperatively diagnosed GBC. Overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS) and the difference in DFS between patients previously treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and those who had oncological resection as first intervention were analyzed. The authors also present a systematic review to evaluate the role of extended surgery in the treatment of the incidental GBC. GBC was diagnosed in 30 patients, 16 women and 14 men. The M/F ratio was 1:1.14 and the mean age was 69.4 years (range 45-83 years). A preoperative diagnosis was possible only in 14 cases; fourteen of the incidental cases were diagnosed postoperatively after the pathological examination; two were suspected intraoperatively at the opening of the surgical specimen and then confirmed by frozen sections. The ratio between incidental and nonincidental cases was 1, 14/1, with twelve cases discovered after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Eighty-one per cent of the incidental cases were discovered at an early stage (≤II). The preoperative diagnosis of the 30 patients with GBC was: GBC with liver invasion diagnosed by preoperative CT (nine cases); gallbladder abscess perforated into hepatic parenchyma and involving the transversal mesocolon and hepatic hilum (one case); porcelain gallbladder (three

  8. A new exploration for gallbladder polyps: gallbladder polypectomy by endolap technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, JingMin; Tan, YuYan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Dong; Ji, ZhenLing

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Gallbladder polyps are most commonly treated with cholecystectomy, which is associated with various complications. For benign disease, preserving the gallbladder is preferable. Since 1994, we have been exploring percutaneous polypectomy and have recently developed an improved new technique. This study reports a new endoscopic-laparoscopic (Endolap) technique for the removal of polyps and the preservation of the gallbladder. Nine Chinese mini-pigs were used to observe mucosal regeneration. Microwaves of 50-70 mA for 9 seconds were safe, and the gallbladder mucosa of pigs recovered to nearly normal 2 weeks later. In the clinical cases, 60 patients with gallbladder polyps were studied. With the patient under general anesthesia, each polyp stem was coagulated, and then the polyp was removed. All procedures were successful at between 60 and 135 minutes. The success rate was 93.33% (56/60). A retrospective analysis was conducted to assess the recovery of gallbladder function. All patients were followed up and symptom-free, without recurrence of the polyps; 3 months after the operation, the volume and contraction of the gallbladder recovered to preoperative levels. Thus the Endolap technique is reliable for removing benign gallbladder polyps and is applicable to a wider range of clinical situations than percutaneous polypectomy.

  9. Intraductal papillary neoplasm originating from an anomalous bile duct.

    PubMed

    Maki, Harufumi; Aoki, Taku; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tanaka, Mariko; Sakatani, Takashi; Beck, Yoshifumi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2017-02-17

    An 82-year-old woman who had been suffering from repeated obstructive jaundice for 7 years was referred to our hospital. Although endoscopic aspiration of the mucin in the common bile duct had been temporally effective, origin of the mucin production had not been detectable. The patient thus had been forced to be on long-term follow-up without curative resection. Endoscopic retrograde cholangioscopy on admission revealed massive mucin in the common bile duct. In addition, an anomalous bile duct located proximal to the gallbladder was identified. Since the lumen of the anomalous duct was irregular and the rest of biliary tree was completely free of suspicious lesions, the anomalous duct was judged to be the primary site. Surgical resection of the segment 4 and 5 of the liver combined with the extrahepatic biliary tract was performed. Pathological diagnosis was compatible to intraductal papillary neoplasm with high-grade intraepithelial dysplasia of the anomalous bile duct. The patient has been free from the disease for 6.5 years after resection. This is the first case of intraductal papillary neoplasm derived from an anomalous bile duct, which was resected after long-term conservative treatment. The present case suggested the slow growing character of natural history of the neoplasm.

  10. Heterotopic pancreas presenting as suspicious mass in the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Amélie; Veilleux, Hubert; Martel, Guillaume; Lapointe, Réal; Vandenbroucke-Menu, Franck

    2012-11-10

    Heterotopic pancreas is a rare entity. Thirty-three cases in the gallbladder have been reported. We describe the first case of heterotopic pancreas mimicking a gallbladder cancer, identified within a calcified lesion in the thickened posterior wall of the gallbladder. A 72-year-old woman with right upper quadrant pain was referred with a suspicion of gallbladder neoplasia. A CT scan demonstrated a 1 cm thickened posterior wall of the gallbladder with a 2 mm punctate calcification. An open cholecystectomy was carried out without complication. The frozen section demonstrated pancreatic tissue. Heterotopic pancreas of the gallbladder is highly uncommon. It can mimic a neoplastic process in the gallbladder, particularly in the context of calcification. Its malignant potential in the gallbladder is unknown, in contrast to previously described neoplastic transformation with gastric heterotopic pancreas.

  11. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2

  12. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-11-21

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ''incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma'' (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2 carcinomas

  13. Gallbladder cancer: South American experience.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Gerardo F; Gentile, Alberto; Parada, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Large differences in terms of incidence and mortality due to gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been reported worldwide. Moreover, it seems that GBC has unique characteristics in South America. We surveyed the literature looking for information about the epidemiology, basic and translational research, and clinical trials performed in South America in order to critically analyze the magnitude of this health problem in the region. Compared to other geographic areas, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for GBC in women are very high, particularly in many western areas of South America. Genetic, as well as dietary and environmental factors likely contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease in the area. Compared to other regions the profile of abnormalities of key genes such as KRAS and TP53 in GBC seems to slightly differ in South America, while the clinical behavior appears to be similar with a median overall survival (OS) of 6.5 to 8 months in advanced GBC. In contrast to Europe and USA, prophylactic cholecystectomy is a common practice in western areas of South America. GBC particularly affects women in South America, and represents a significant public health problem. It appears to have peculiarities that pose an urgent need for additional research aimed to discover risk factors, molecular events associated with its development and new treatment options for this lethal disease.

  14. Epidemiology of Gallbladder Disease: Cholelithiasis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stinton, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of the gallbladder are common and costly. The best epidemiological screening method to accurately determine point prevalence of gallstone disease is ultrasonography. Many risk factors for cholesterol gallstone formation are not modifiable such as ethnic background, increasing age, female gender and family history or genetics. Conversely, the modifiable risks for cholesterol gallstones are obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The rising epidemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome predicts an escalation of cholesterol gallstone frequency. Risk factors for biliary sludge include pregnancy, drugs like ceftiaxone, octreotide and thiazide diuretics, and total parenteral nutrition or fasting. Diseases like cirrhosis, chronic hemolysis and ileal Crohn's disease are risk factors for black pigment stones. Gallstone disease in childhood, once considered rare, has become increasingly recognized with similar risk factors as those in adults, particularly obesity. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in developed countries. In the U.S., it accounts for only ~ 5,000 cases per year. Elsewhere, high incidence rates occur in North and South American Indians. Other than ethnicity and female gender, additional risk factors for gallbladder cancer include cholelithiasis, advancing age, chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gallbladder, congenital biliary abnormalities, and diagnostic confusion over gallbladder polyps. PMID:22570746

  15. Gallbladder emptying in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Said, Karouk; Edsborg, Nick; Albiin, Nils; Bergquist, Annika

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess gallbladder emptying and its association with cholecystitis and abdominal pain in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). METHODS: Twenty patients with PSC and ten healthy subjects were investigated. Gallbladder fasting volume, ejection fraction and residual volume after ingestion of a test meal were compared in patients with PSC and healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging. Symptoms, thickness and contrast enhancement of the gallbladder wall and the presence of cystic duct strictures were also assessed. RESULTS: Median fasting gallbladder volume in patients with PSC [67 (19-348) mL] was twice that in healthy controls [32 (16-55) mL] (P < 0.05). The median postprandial gallbladder volume in patients with PSC was significantly larger than that in healthy controls (P < 0.05). There was no difference in ejection fraction, gallbladder emptying volume or mean thickness of the gallbladder wall between PSC patients and controls. Contrast enhancement of the gallbladder wall in PSC patients was higher than that in controls; (69% ± 32%) and (42% ± 21%) (P < 0.05). No significant association was found between the gallbladder volumes and occurrence of abdominal pain in patients and controls. CONCLUSION: Patients with PSC have increased fasting gallbladder volume. Gallbladder Mucosal dysfunction secondary to chronic cholecystitis, may be a possible mechanism for increased gallbladder. PMID:19630104

  16. Very high aquaporin-1 facilitated water permeability in mouse gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihua; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Tonghui; Verkman, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Water transport across gallbladder epithelium is driven by osmotic gradients generated from active salt absorption and secretion. Aquaporin (AQP) water channels have been proposed to facilitate transepithelial water transport in gallbladder and to modulate bile composition. We found strong AQP1 immunofluorescence at the apical membrane of mouse gallbladder epithelium. Transepithelial osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in freshly isolated gallbladder sacs from the kinetics of luminal calcein self-quenching in response to an osmotic gradient. Pf was very high (0.12 cm/s) in gallbladders from wild-type mice, cAMP independent, and independent of osmotic gradient size and direction. Although gallbladders from AQP1 knockout mice had similar size and morphology to those from wild-type mice, their Pf was reduced by ∼10-fold. Apical plasma membrane water permeability was greatly reduced in AQP1-deficient gallbladders, as measured by cytoplasmic calcein quenching in perfluorocarbon-filled, inverted gallbladder sacs. However, neither bile osmolality nor bile salt concentration differed in gallbladders from wild-type vs. AQP1 knockout mice. Our data indicate constitutively high water permeability in mouse gallbladder epithelium involving transcellular water transport through AQP1. The similar bile salt concentration in gallbladders from AQP1 knockout mice argues against a physiologically important role for AQP1 in mouse gallbladder. PMID:19179619

  17. Bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge. ANIMALS 18 dogs with gallbladder mucocele (GBM group), 8 dogs with immobile biliary sludge (i-BS group), 17 dogs with mobile biliary sludge (m-BS group), and 14 healthy dogs (control group). PROCEDURES Samples of gallbladder contents were obtained by use of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis or during cholecystectomy or necropsy. Concentrations of 15 bile acids were determined by use of highperformance liquid chromatography, and a bile acid compositional ratio was calculated for each group. RESULTS Concentrations of most bile acids in the GBM group were significantly lower than those in the control and m-BS groups. Compositional ratio of taurodeoxycholic acid, which is 1 of 3 major bile acids in dogs, was significantly lower in the GBM and i-BS groups, compared with ratios for the control and m-BS groups. The compositional ratio of taurocholic acid was significantly higher and that of taurochenodeoxycholic acid significantly lower in the i-BS group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, concentrations and fractions of bile acids in gallbladder contents were significantly different in dogs with gallbladder mucocele or immobile biliary sludge, compared with results for healthy control dogs. Studies are needed to determine whether changes in bile acid composition are primary or secondary events of gallbladder abnormalities.

  18. Innervation of the gallbladder: structure, neurochemical coding, and physiological properties of guinea pig gallbladder ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mawe, G M; Talmage, E K; Cornbrooks, E B; Gokin, A P; Zhang, L; Jennings, L J

    1997-10-01

    The muscle and epithelial tissues of the gallbladder are regulated by a ganglionated plexus that lies within the wall of the organ. Although these ganglia are derived from the same set of precursor neural crest cells that colonize the gut, they exhibit structural, neurochemical and physiological characteristics that are distinct from the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Structurally, the ganglionated plexus of the guinea pig gallbladder is comprised of small clusters of neurons that are located in the outer wall of the organ, between the serosa and underlying smooth muscle. The ganglia are encapsulated by a shell of fibroblasts and a basal lamina, and are devoid of collagen. Gallbladder neurons are rather simple in structure, consisting of a soma, a few short dendritic processes and one or two long axons. Results reported here indicate that all gallbladder neurons are probably cholinergic since they all express immunoreactivity for choline acetyltransferase. The majority of these neurons also express substance P, neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin, and a small remaining population of neurons express vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactivity and NADPH-diaphorase enzymatic activity. We report here that NADPH-diaphorase activity, nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity, and VIP immunoreactivity are expressed by the same neurons in the gallbladder. Physiological studies indicate that the ganglia of the gallbladder are the site of action of the following neurohumoral inputs: 1) all neurons receive nicotinic input from vagal preganglionic fibers; 2) norepinephrine released from sympathetic postganglionic fibers acts presynaptically on vagal terminals within gallbladder ganglia to decrease the release of acetylcholine from vagal terminals; 3) substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, which are co-expressed in sensory fibers, cause prolonged depolarizations of gallbladder neurons that resemble slow EPSPs; and 4) cholecystokinin

  19. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  20. ACALCULOUS ADENOMYOMATOSIS OF THE GALLBLADDER 1

    PubMed Central

    Bevan, G.

    1970-01-01

    The course of acalculous adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder in six patients is described. It is suggested that, even in the absence of gallstones, cholecystectomy should be advised when this condition is demonstrated radiographically in symptomatic subjects. The cause of the pain is unknown but it is probably related to excessive neuromuscular activity of the hyperplastic gallbladder wall. One of the patients was found also to have an adenomatous polyp containing areas of adenocarcinoma. Although this polyp was not situated within an area of adenomyomatosis, it is possible that, as in most other patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder, previous disease may have predisposed to malignant change. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5511782

  1. Molecular Biology of Gallbladder Cancer: Potential Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a common malignancy of the biliary tract and involves the changes in multiple oncogenes and multiple genetic genes. Since over the past decade there has been an advance in the knowledge of the genetic basis of cancer, mainly as a result of the rapid progression of molecular technology; however, conventional therapeutic approaches have not had much impact on the course of this aggressive neoplasm. Knowledge of the molecular biology of GBC is rapidly growing. Genetic alterations in GBC include adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter ABCG8, membrane-bound enzyme ADAM-17 of multi-functional gene family, and other genes including p53, COX2, XPC, and RASSF1A. The advances in molecular biology have potential implications for the detection of this disease, using Synuclein-gamma, Syndecan-1, glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72), tumor endothelial marker 8 protein (TEM8) and TNF-alpha. The use of these molecular diagnostic methods is of clinical importance for the gene replacement therapy, genetic prodrug activation therapy, and antisense immunology technology for the treatment of malignancy. The author reviewed recent publications on PubMed, and summarized molecular biology of GBC, with an emphasis on features of potential clinical implications for diagnosis and management. PMID:23112962

  2. Agenesis of the Gallbladder in Monozygotic Twin Sisters

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Sato, Ai; Maki, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Agenesis of the gallbladder, a rare anomaly, is generally regarded as an organogenic failure. Several reports suggest that this congenital defect is inherited but that supposition remains controversial. We described agenesis of the gallbladder in identical twins. A 21-year-old female presented with a history of acute pain in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Various imaging modalities showed “gallbladder agenesis.” Moreover, her older identical twin sister had also no visualized gallbladder in imaging modalities. This case report strongly suggested that agenesis of the gallbladder would be caused by a genetic abnormality. PMID:26925274

  3. Agenesis of the Gallbladder in Monozygotic Twin Sisters.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Sato, Ai; Maki, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Agenesis of the gallbladder, a rare anomaly, is generally regarded as an organogenic failure. Several reports suggest that this congenital defect is inherited but that supposition remains controversial. We described agenesis of the gallbladder in identical twins. A 21-year-old female presented with a history of acute pain in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Various imaging modalities showed "gallbladder agenesis." Moreover, her older identical twin sister had also no visualized gallbladder in imaging modalities. This case report strongly suggested that agenesis of the gallbladder would be caused by a genetic abnormality.

  4. Gallbladder Motility Change in Late Pregnancy and after Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Joon Soo; Park, Joon Yong; Song, Seung Chan; Cho, Yun Ju; Moon, Kwang Ho; Song, Yong Ho; Lee, Oh Young; Choi, Ho Soon; Yoon, Byung Chul; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk; Park, Kyung Nam

    1997-01-01

    Objectives The incidence of gallstone disease has increased recently in Korea and there seems to be an increased prevalence of gallstones when in association with pregnancy. Although the pathogenesis is incompletely defined, an altered motility of the gallbladder may contribute to the increased risk of gallstones during pregnancy. Methods We measured gallbladder volume using real-time ultrasonography to find out the mechanism for the changes of gallbladder motility during late pregnancy. Eighteen pregnant women took the gallbladder ultrasonography during their last trimester of pregnancy and after delivery: gallbladder volume and ejection fraction were calculated in each patient. Results Fasting gallbladder volumes increased significantly in the last trimester of pregnancy (25.28± 14.26ml) compared with postpartum (17.44±5.82ml) (p<0.05). Gallbladder volumes measured after fatty meals showed more increment in pregnant women (10.13±7.19ml) than in those after delivery (4.34±3.36ml) (p<0.005). A significantly reduced gallbladder ejection fraction was found in the pregnant group (60.56± 18.80%) compared with those after delivery (77.48± 13.37%) (p<0.005). Conclusion Gallbladder motility in late pregnancy shows significant impairment compared with that in postpartum. Thus, we suggest that gallbladder hypomotility may occur during late pregnancy, and this impairment of gallbladder motility may play an important role in gallstone formation. PMID:9159032

  5. Direct Gallbladder Indocyanine Green Injection Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Graves, Claire; Ely, Sora; Idowu, Olajire; Newton, Christopher; Kim, Sunghoon

    2017-06-02

    Intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) is used to illuminate extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Fluorescence of biliary structures may lower surgical complications that can arise due to inadvertent injury to the common bile duct. We describe a method of injecting ICG directly into the gallbladder to define the cystic duct and common bile duct anatomy. A standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed using a laparoscope with near-infrared imaging capability. Before dissection, the gallbladder was punctured with a cholangiogram catheter or a pigtail catheter to aspirate the bile within the gallbladder. The aspirated bile is mixed with ICG solution, which is reinjected into the gallbladder to fluoresce the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct structures. Eleven patients underwent direct gallbladder ICG injection for fluorescence cholangiography during cholecystectomy. Direct gallbladder ICG injection clearly defined the extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including the cystic duct-common bile duct junction, by fluorescence. In addition, the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver is highlighted with the gallbladder ICG fluorescence. Direct gallbladder ICG injection provides immediate visualization of extrahepatic biliary structures and clarifies the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver bed.

  6. In vitro modeling of gallbladder-associated Salmonella spp. colonization.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; Gunn, John S

    2015-01-01

    The host-pathogen interactions occurring in the gallbladder during Salmonella Typhi colonization contribute to typhoid fever pathogenesis during the acute and chronic stages of disease. The gallbladder is the primary reservoir during chronic typhoid carriage. In this organ, Salmonella encounters host-barriers including bile, immunoglobulins, and mucus. However, the bacterium possesses mechanisms to resist and persist in this environment, in part by its ability to attach to and invade into the gallbladder epithelium. Such persistence in the gallbladder epithelium contributes to chronic carriage. In addition, patients harboring gallstones in their gallbladders have increased risk of becoming carriers because these abnormalities serve as a substrate for Salmonella biofilm formation. Our laboratory has studied the Salmonella interactions in this specific environment by developing in vitro methods that closely mimic the gallbladder and gallstones niches. These methods are reproducible and provide a platform for future studies of acute and chronic bacterial infections in the gallbladder.

  7. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D'Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.0-3.8) for Hodgkin's disease, 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2-3.0) for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) for multiple myeloma. Significant trends for duration of exposure to herbicides were observed for lymphomas, but the association was stronger for overall occupation in agriculture than with the specific question of herbicide use. History of occupation in the chemical industry was more frequent among Hodgkin's disease (RR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2), and a significant trend in risk was observed between duration of exposure to benzene and other solvents and multiple myeloma. No significant relation was found between any of the lymphoid neoplasms considered and rubber, dye, painting, printing, tanning leather, photography, pharmaceuticals, wood, coal/gas and nuclear industries. PMID:2789947

  8. Necrotizing fasciitis following gall-bladder perforation.

    PubMed

    Rehman, A; Walker, M; Kubba, H; Jayatunga, A P

    1998-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis continues to carry a very high mortality and prolonged morbidity. Gallstones have previously not been reported as a cause of this condition. We report a patient who presented with gallbladder perforation leading to necrotizing fasciitis of the anterior abdominal wall. The only organism isolated was Escherichia Coli, cultured from necrotic issue.

  9. [Leiomyosarcoma of the gallbladder: a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Tocchi, A; Codacci-Pisanelli, M; Costa, G; Lepre, L; Agostini, N; Maggiolini, F

    1993-10-01

    A case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the gallbladder is reported together with a review of the literature. The nonspecific clinical picture of the disease and the consequent high frequency of misdiagnosis are stressed. Cholecystectomy combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy is the treatment of choice suggested.

  10. The inflammatory inception of gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Jaime A; Bizama, Carolina; García, Patricia; Ferreccio, Catterina; Javle, Milind; Miquel, Juan F; Koshiol, Jill; Roa, Juan C

    2016-04-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a lethal disease with notable geographical variations worldwide and a predilection towards women. Its main risk factor is prolonged exposure to gallstones, although bacterial infections and other inflammatory conditions are also associated. The recurrent cycles of gallbladder epithelium damage and repair enable a chronic inflammatory environment that promotes progressive morphological impairment through a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma, along with cumulative genome instability. Inactivation of TP53, which is mutated in over 50% of GBC cases, seems to be the earliest and one of the most important carcinogenic pathways involved. Increased cell turnover and oxidative stress promote early alteration of TP53, cell cycle deregulation, apoptosis and replicative senescence. In this review, we will discuss evidence for the role of inflammation in gallbladder carcinogenesis obtained through epidemiological studies, genome-wide association studies, experimental carcinogenesis, morphogenetic studies and comparative studies with other inflammation-driven malignancies. The evidence strongly supports chronic, unresolved inflammation as the main carcinogenic mechanism of gallbladder cancer, regardless of the initial etiologic trigger. Given this central role of inflammation, evaluation of the potential for GBC prevention removing causes of inflammation or using anti-inflammatory drugs in high-risk populations may be warranted.

  11. Intestinal metaplasia in gallbladders: prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, José Eduardo Vasconcelos; Franco, Maria Isete Fares; Suzuki, Reinaldo Kenji; Tavares, Nelson Mattos; Bromberg, Sansom Henrique

    2008-07-01

    Gallbladder cancer is usually diagnosed at a late stage and generally results in death. Discovery of predisposing factors for this neoplasia could prevent this outcome. In this study, we assess the presence of one of these factors: intestinal metaplasia in gallbladders with stones and inflammatory processes. Cross-sectional study in Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. The first 80 gallbladders from patients who underwent elective cholecystectomy between April and August 2002, presenting stones and chronic inflammation, were studied. The patients were divided into groups according to their age: CC1, from 15 to 40 years; CC2, from 41 to 60 years; and CC3, from 61 to 85 years. Twenty-one patients (26%) were male, while 59 (74%) were female. In the group CC1, intestinal metaplasia was present in 85.71% of the 21 patients studied; in CC2, in 79.41% of 34 patients; and in CC3, in 56.00% of 25 patients. These differences presented statistical significance (p = 0.04542). Intestinal metaplasia is extremely frequent in gallbladders with inflammation and lithiasis, especially in younger patients.

  12. Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rather uncommon disease, but at the time when it gives symptoms it has usually reached no longer curable stage. Therefore, all attempts must be made to make the diagnosis earlier to have better opportunity for cure. The author searched PubMed, and reviewed literatures on diagnoses and treatment of GBC. PMID:22866265

  13. Gallbladder Duplication: Evaluation, Treatment, and Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    split primordial gallbladders) and type 2 (accessory gall - bladders ) in 1977. Recently published data have described a☆ The investigators have...possibilities of aberrant anatomy for surgeons faced with highly atypical operative scenarios.References [1] Boyden EA. The accessory gall - bladder —an

  14. ACTH-secreting 'apudoma' of gallbladder.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, R W; Burns-Cox, C J

    1975-01-01

    The case of a 44-year-old woman is reported. The diagnosis after the appropriate tests and laparotomy was ACTH-secreting 'apudoma' of the gallbladder. This is a rare tumour and this case is believed to be the first reported of an ectopic hormone producing tumour from this side. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:168130

  15. Electrogenic bicarbonate secretion by prairie dog gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Moser, A James; Gangopadhyay, A; Bradbury, N A; Peters, K W; Frizzell, R A; Bridges, R J

    2007-06-01

    Pathological rates of gallbladder salt and water transport may promote the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Because prairie dogs are widely used as a model of this event, we characterized gallbladder ion transport in animals fed control chow by using electrophysiology, ion substitution, pharmacology, isotopic fluxes, impedance analysis, and molecular biology. In contrast to the electroneutral properties of rabbit and Necturus gallbladders, prairie dog gallbladders generated significant short-circuit current (I(sc); 171 +/- 21 microA/cm(2)) and lumen-negative potential difference (-10.1 +/- 1.2 mV) under basal conditions. Unidirectional radioisotopic fluxes demonstrated electroneutral NaCl absorption, whereas the residual net ion flux corresponded to I(sc). In response to 2 microM forskolin, I(sc) exceeded 270 microA/cm(2), and impedance estimates of the apical membrane resistance decreased from 200 Omega.cm(2) to 13 Omega.cm(2). The forskolin-induced I(sc) was dependent on extracellular HCO(3)(-) and was blocked by serosal 4,4'-dinitrostilben-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNDS) and acetazolamide, whereas serosal bumetanide and Cl(-) ion substitution had little effect. Serosal trans-6-cyano-4-(N-ethylsulfonyl-N-methylamino)-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-chroman and Ba(2+) reduced I(sc), consistent with the inhibition of cAMP-dependent K(+) channels. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy localized cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) to the apical membrane and subapical vesicles. Consistent with serosal DNDS sensitivity, pancreatic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter protein pNBC1 expression was localized to the basolateral membrane. We conclude that prairie dog gallbladders secrete bicarbonate through cAMP-dependent apical CFTR anion channels. Basolateral HCO(3)(-) entry is mediated by DNDS-sensitive pNBC1, and the driving force for apical anion secretion is provided by K(+) channel activation.

  16. [Neoplasms and medical thermodynamics].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Rudolf

    2003-09-01

    Oncology--just as every field of medicine that deals with etiology, diagnostics, pathomechanism and treatment of diseases--is only a part of the general human knowledge, whose all significant achievements must be used to protect human health. This pursuit has as its object not only the benefits form practical discoveries (L. Pasteur, W.C. Roentgen, P. Curie and M. Skłodowska-Curie, V. Schally etc.), but also theoretical generalizations (A. Einstein, W.K. Heisenberg and I. Prigogine). Unfortunately it is the lack and/or slow adaptation of that information, that is responsible for the still unsatisfactory progress in clinical oncology. Responsibility rests not only with oncologists, but primarily with editors of medical journals and textbooks, who have a moral duty to follow the entire general knowledge, especially in the field of the basic research. On the basis of an analysis of the contents of the Polish oncology textbooks and materials from the specialist conferences in gynaecologic oncology, they were found to: 1. Omit the current, particularly domestic literature, 2. Contain mostly works, whose conclusions are textbook information, 3. Rarely include studies in the area of medical thermodynamics, 4. Attempt to explain the effects of the modern technologies, e.g. fotodynamics or nanotechnology using theoretical generalizations which are inadequate for them, and 5. Disregard the rule primum non nocere not only in prevention but even in the treatment of neoplasms. Neoplastic disease has many conditionings and types because of the unique identity of the neoplasms which cause it and which are caused by universal and natural phenomena of the self-organizing dissipative structures. It requires not only early diagnosing but also causative treatment already in the precancerous states, which are better detected by modern methods based on the quantum thermodynamics (lasers, fotodynamics, nuclear magnetic resonance, genetic nanotechnology etc.).

  17. MR imaging of the gallbladder: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Onofrio A; Sahani, Dushyant V; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Cushing, Matthew S; Hahn, Peter F; Brown, Jeffrey J; Edelman, Robert R

    2008-01-01

    The gallbladder serves as the repository for bile produced in the liver. However, bile within the gallbladder may become supersaturated with cholesterol, leading to crystal precipitation and subsequent gallstone formation. The most common disorders of the gallbladder are related to gallstones and include symptomatic cholelithiasis, acute and chronic cholecystitis, and carcinoma of the gallbladder. Other conditions that can affect the gallbladder include biliary dyskinesia (functional), adenomyomatosis (hyperplastic), and postoperative changes or complications (iatrogenic). Ultrasonography (US) has been the traditional modality for evaluating gallbladder disease, primarily owing to its high sensitivity and specificity for both stone disease and gallbladder inflammation. US performed before and after ingestion of a fatty meal may also be useful for functional evaluation of the gallbladder. However, US is limited by patient body habitus, with degradation of image quality and anatomic detail in obese individuals. With the advent of faster and more efficient imaging techniques, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has assumed an increasing role as an adjunct modality for gallbladder imaging, primarily in patients who are incompletely assessed with US. MR imaging allows simultaneous anatomic and physiologic assessment of the gallbladder and biliary tract in both initial evaluation of disease and examination of the postoperative patient. This assessment is accomplished chiefly through the use of MR imaging contrast agents excreted preferentially via the biliary system.

  18. MUC Expression in Gallbladder Epithelial Tissues in Cholesterol-Associated Gallbladder Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Choi, Ho Soon; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Gallstone pathogenesis is linked to mucin hypersecretion and bacterial infection. Several mucin genes have been identified in gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs). We investigated MUC expression in cholesterol-associated gallbladder disease and evaluated the relationship between mucin and bacterial infection. Methods The present study involved 20 patients with cholesterol stones with cholecystitis, five with cholesterol stones with cholesterolosis, six with cholesterol polyps, two with gallbladder cancer, and six controls. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide were also studied. MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 antibodies were used for dot/slot immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies of the gallbladder epithelial tissues, canine GBECs, and bile. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate MUC3 and MUC5B expression. Results MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 were expressed in the normal gallbladder epithelium, and of those, MUC3 and MUC5B exhibited the highest expression levels. Greatly increased levels of MUC3 and MUC5B expression were observed in the cholesterol stone group, and slightly increased levels were observed in the cholesterol polyp group; MUC3 and MUC5B mRNA was also upregulated in those groups. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide also showed upregulation of MUC3 and MUC5B. Conclusions The mucin genes with the highest expression levels in gallbladder tissue in cholesterol-associated diseases were MUC3 and MUC5B. Cholesterol stones and gallbladder infections were associated with increased MUC3 and MUC5B expression. PMID:27563024

  19. Effects of pregnancy and contraceptive steroids on gallbladder function.

    PubMed

    Braverman, D Z; Johnson, M L; Kern, F

    1980-02-14

    We used real-time ultrasonography to study gallbladder kinetics in 11 nonpregnant women, 17 women using steroid contraceptives, and 33 pregnant women. Gallbladder volume was determined after an overnight fast and serially for 90 minutes after a standard liquid meal. After the first trimester of pregnancy, gallbladder volume during fasting and residual volume after contraction were twice as large as in control subjects. The rate of emptying and the percentage emptied were reduced. In early pregnancy the only important abnormality was a 30 per cent decrease in emptying rate. Gallbladder function was not affected by contraceptive steroids. Incomplete empyting of the gallbladder in late pregnancy leaves a large residual volume and may cause retention of cholesterol crystals, a prerequisite for cholesterol-gallstone formation. These findings are consistent with the view that pregnancy increases the risk of cholesterol gallstones. The increased incidence of gallstones associated with contraceptive steroids does not involve abnormal gallbladder kinetics.

  20. Optimal block sampling of routine, non-tumorous gallbladders.

    PubMed

    Wong, Newton Acs

    2017-03-08

    Gallbladders are common specimens in routine histopathological practice and there are, at least in the United Kingdom and Australia, national guidance on how to sample gallbladders without macroscopically-evident, focal lesions/tumours (hereafter referred to as non-tumorous gallbladders).(1) Nonetheless, this author has seen considerable variation in the numbers of blocks used and the parts of the gallbladder sampled, even within one histopathology department. The recently re-issued 'Tissue pathways for gastrointestinal and pancreatobiliary pathology' from the Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath), first recommends sampling of the cystic duct margin and "at least one section each of neck, body and any focal lesion".(1) This recommendation is referenced by a textbook chapter which itself proposes that "cross-sections of the gallbladder fundus and lateral wall should be submitted, along with the sections from the neck of the gallbladder and cystic duct, including its margin".(2) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. [The application of digestive endoscopic ultrasonography in the gallbladder pathology].

    PubMed

    Roseau, Gilles

    2004-08-28

    A WELL DEFINED PATHOLOGY: Bilary lithiasis and vesicular parietal abnormalities constitute the totality of the gallbladder pathology. The surgical experience and widely current use of digestive imaging, notably ultrasonography, have contributed to enlightening our knowledge of this pathology. POTENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC PROBLEMS: There is no particular problem in the diagnosis of gallbladder lithiasis and its treatment is currently codified. However the discovery of thickened gallbladder wall or polyps increases the fear of gallbladder cancer. A FUNDAMENTAL ROLE FOR ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY: Within the framework of screening for cancer, endoscopic ultrasonography, the performance of which in gallbladder pathology has rarely been studied, appears promising. Other than its role in the control of the extension of gallbladder cancers, it provides reliable characterisation of most of the polyps. Hence its place today is unavoidable in the therapeutic decision trees of such affections.

  2. Gallbladder tuberculosis camouflaging as gallbladder cancer – case series and review focussing on treatment

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Gautham; Singh, Harjeet; Rajendran, Jayapal; Sharma, Vishal; Yadav, Thakur Deen; Gaspar, Balan Louis; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Rajinder

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Gallbladder tuberculosis, in an endemic region, is a common infectious etiology affecting a rare organ. The high prevalence of carcinoma gallbladder in the endemic regions of tuberculosis, like India, poses diagnostic dilemma. Case series: We are reporting three cases of gallbladder tuberculosis mimicking carcinoma gallbladder of which the first two cases were operated with a presumptive diagnosis of malignancy. The third case presented to us after laparoscopic cholecystectomy elsewhere and on evaluation was found to have disseminated tuberculosis. Discussion: The lack of pathognomonic clinical and radiological characters results in histological surprise of gallbladder tuberculosis following surgery performed for other indications like malignancy. In preoperatively diagnosed patients medical management plays pivotal role in management. Surgery is required in symptomatic patients. On the other hand, histologically proven cases following surgical resection require antitubercular therapy. Conclusion: Previous history of tuberculosis or concomitant tuberculosis at other sites may provide clue to the diagnosis of biliary tuberculosis. Antitubercular treatment after surgery plays an important role in preventing further dissemination. PMID:28386408

  3. Emptying the gallbladder prior to intravenous cholangiography: effect on gallbladder visualization.

    PubMed

    Martinez, C R; Fara, J W; Donner, M W

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were done to test the hypothesis that emptying the gallbladder prior to intravenous cholangiography (IVC) would result in earler and better opacification of the gallbladder. Five dogs were studied on two separate days in a crossover experiment. Each dog had a standard IVC (15-minute infusion of meglumine iodipamide) 2.5 cc/kg of following a 14-16-hour fasting period. On one of the days, 0.3 mcg/kg of Ceruletide was intramuscularly administered to each dog 30 to 45 minutes prior to the iodipamide infusion. Films obtained at the end of infusion and at 20, 40, 60, and 90 minutes were evaluated independently by three radiologists. The results indicate that pretreatment with Ceruletide produces a significant (p less than 0.05) improvement in the quality of gallbladder opacification during the first 90 minutes following iodipamide infusion. We conclude that earlier and better opacification of the gallbladder during IVC can be obtained by prior emptying of the gallbladder with a cholecystokinetic agent.

  4. Megalin and cubilin in the human gallbladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Tsaroucha, Alexandra K; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Lambropoulou, Maria; Despoudi, Kaliopi; Laftsidis, Prodromos; Charsou, Chara; Polychronidis, Alexandros; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Simopoulos, Constantinos E

    2008-09-01

    Although the role of cholesterol absorption by the gallbladder epithelium in gallstone formation is well established, the exact process is poorly understood. Potential candidates for regulation of transepithelial cholesterol transport are suggested to be two large membrane multiple ligand receptors, megalin and cubilin. We studied the expression of these two proteins in both acalculous and calculous human gallbladder epithelia. Adult human gallbladder tissues were received from 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) who had undergone cholecystectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (calculous gallbladder group; 5 men, 6 women; mean age 64.4 +/- 11.1 years) with cholelithiasis, and group B (acalculous gallbladder group; 4 men, 6 women; mean age 55.3 +/- 16.1 years). In the gallbladder tissues megalin and cubilin expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and conventional RT-PCR, and gene expression levels were estimated by real-time RT-PCR. Both megalin and cubilin gene transcripts were found in total RNA preparations from acalculous gallbladder. In contrast, in preparations from calculous gallbladder, none or only one of the proteins was detected. Immunoreactive proteins were detected in the simple columnar acalculous gallbladder epithelium but not in the calculous gallbladder epithelium. Our results show different expression patterns of the two proteins in calculous gallbladders and acalculous gallbladders. In the latter both proteins are expressed, suggesting an association with gallstone formation and implying a putative role of the two proteins in cholesterol endocytosis. In other words, the presence of both proteins may be essential for the prevention of stone formation.

  5. Gallbladder perforation in a patient on steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Syed Imran; Ahmad, Jawad; Rathore, Munir A; El-Hakeem, Ahmed A

    2007-08-24

    Gallbladder perforation is a serious clinical condition. A definitive diagnosis is contentious before surgery. We discuss a case where a young patient with Crohn's disease taking oral steroids presented with an acute abdomen. CT scan demonstrated a perforated gallbladder without evidence of gallstones. The patient underwent an emergency cholecystectomy and peritoneal lavage. The history and clinical findings of this patient are reviewed to highlight perforation of the gallbladder in relation to steroid therapy.

  6. Isolated gallbladder injury in a case of blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Birn, Jeffrey; Jung, Melissa; Dearing, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of blunt injury to the gallbladder may constitute a significant challenge to the diagnostician. There is often a delay in presentation with non-specific clinical symptoms. In the absence of reliable clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging becomes an invaluable tool in the rapid identification of gallbladder injury. We present a case of isolated gallbladder injury following blunt abdominal trauma which was diagnosed by computed tomography and subsequently confirmed by cholecystectomy.

  7. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2, CALR, or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC.

  8. Myeloproliferative Neoplasms in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by aberrant proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages often with increased immature cells in the peripheral blood. The three classical BCR-ABL-negative MPNs are: 1) polycythemia vera (PV), 2) essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 3) primary myelofibrosis (PMF), which are typically disorders of older adults and are exceedingly rare in children. The diagnostic criteria for MPNs remain largely defined by clinical, laboratory and histopathology assessments in adults, but they have been applied to the pediatric population. The discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation, and more recently, MPL and CALR mutations, are major landmarks in the understanding of MPNs. Nevertheless, they rarely occur in children, posing a significant diagnostic challenge given the lack of an objective, clonal marker. Therefore, in pediatric patients, the diagnosis must rely heavily on clinical and laboratory factors, and exclusion of secondary disorders to make an accurate diagnosis of MPN. This review focuses on the clinical presentation, diagnostic work up, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the classical BCR-ABL-negative MPNs (PV, ET and PMF) in children and highlights key differences to the adult diseases. Particular attention will be given to pediatric PMF, as it is the only disorder of this group that is observed in infants and young children, and in many ways appears to be a unique entity compared to adult PMF. PMID:26609329

  9. Genomics of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Zoi, Katerina; Cross, Nicholas C P

    2017-03-20

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of related clonal hematologic disorders characterized by excess accumulation of one or more myeloid cell lineages and a tendency to transform to acute myeloid leukemia. Deregulated JAK2 signaling has emerged as the central phenotypic driver of BCR -ABL1-negative MPNs and a unifying therapeutic target. In addition, MPNs show unexpected layers of genetic complexity, with multiple abnormalities associated with disease progression, interactions between inherited factors and phenotype driver mutations, and effects related to the order in which mutations are acquired. Although morphology and clinical laboratory analysis continue to play an important role in defining these conditions, genomic analysis is providing a platform for better disease definition, more accurate diagnosis, direction of therapy, and refined prognostication. There is an emerging consensus with regard to many prognostic factors, but there is a clear need to synthesize genomic findings into robust, clinically actionable and widely accepted scoring systems as well as the need to standardize the laboratory methodologies that are used.

  10. Response of BRCA1-mutated gallbladder cancer to olaparib: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuan; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, An-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Chang; Wan, Xue-Shuai; Sang, Xin-Ting; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Da-Dong; Xu, Jia-Jia; Li, Fu-Gen; Zhao, Hai-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC), although considered as a relatively rare malignancy, is the most common neoplasm of the biliary tract system. The late diagnosis and abysmal prognosis present challenges to treatment. The overall 5-year survival rate for metastatic GBC patients is extremely low. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the breast cancer susceptibility genes and their mutation carriers are at a high risk for cancer development, both in men and women. Olaparib, an oral poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission for the treatment of ovarian cancer with any BRCA1/2 mutations. The first case of a BRCA1-mutated GBC patient who responded to olaparib treatment is reported here. PMID:28028375

  11. Response of BRCA1-mutated gallbladder cancer to olaparib: A case report.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, An-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Chang; Wan, Xue-Shuai; Sang, Xin-Ting; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Da-Dong; Xu, Jia-Jia; Li, Fu-Gen; Zhao, Hai-Tao

    2016-12-14

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC), although considered as a relatively rare malignancy, is the most common neoplasm of the biliary tract system. The late diagnosis and abysmal prognosis present challenges to treatment. The overall 5-year survival rate for metastatic GBC patients is extremely low. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the breast cancer susceptibility genes and their mutation carriers are at a high risk for cancer development, both in men and women. Olaparib, an oral poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission for the treatment of ovarian cancer with any BRCA1/2 mutations. The first case of a BRCA1-mutated GBC patient who responded to olaparib treatment is reported here.

  12. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in gallbladder cancer cells leads to decreased growth in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Ili, Carmen; Brebi, Priscilla; Alvarez, Hector; Roa, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasm associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment and poor prognosis. Previous work showed that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression is increased in this malignancy. This matricellular protein plays an important role in various cellular processes and its involvement in the tumorigenesis of several human cancers has been demonstrated. However, the precise function of CTGF expression in cancer cells is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CTGF expression in gallbladder cancer cell lines, and its effect on cell viability, colony formation and in vitro cell migration. CTGF expression was evaluated in seven GBC cell lines by Western blot assay. Endogenous CTGF expression was downregulated by lentiviral shRNA directed against CTGF mRNA in G-415 cells, and the effects on cell viability, anchorage-independent growth and migration was assessed by comparing them to scrambled vector-transfected cells. Knockdown of CTGF resulted in significant reduction in cell viability, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth (P < 0.05). An increased p27 expression was observed in G-415 cells with loss of CTGF function. Our results suggest that high expression of this protein in gallbladder cancer may confer a growth advantage for neoplastic cells. PMID:23593935

  13. Analysis of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening program: based on a Japanese Nationwide Survey.

    PubMed

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Senda, Michio; Terauchi, Takashi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Inoue, Tomio; Iinuma, Takeshi; Inoue, Takeshi; Ito, Kengo; Iwata, Hiroshi; Uno, Kimiichi; Oku, Shinya; Oguchi, Kazuhiro; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nakashima, Rumi; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Murano, Takeshi; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The most distinctive feature of FDG-PET cancer screening program is the ability to find various kinds of malignant neoplasms in a single test. The aim of this survey is to clarify the range and frequency of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening performed in Japan. "FDG-PET cancer screening" was defined as FDG-PET or positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) scan with or without other tests performed for cancer screening of healthy subjects. This survey was based on a questionnaire regarding FDG-PET cancer screening. We analyzed the situation of 9 less frequently found malignant neoplasms including malignant lymphoma, malignancy of head and neck, esophagus, hepatobiliary and gallbladder, pancreas, kidney, cervical and uterine, ovary, and bladder. The detailed information of subjects with the suspected 9 kinds of malignant neoplasms mentioned above in the FDG-PET cancer screening program was studied in a total of 1,219 cases from 212 facilities. A statistical significance between PET/CT and PET was found in relative sensitivity and PPV for renal cell cancer. Malignant lymphoma was frequently of indolent type, suspected head and neck cancers had many false-positive results, and pancreatic cancer detected in this program was often in the advanced stage even in asymptomatic subjects. The recommendation of combined screening modality to PET or PET/CT was as follows: gastric endoscopy for assessing early esophageal cancer; abdominal ultrasound for screening hepatobiliary and gallbladder cancer; pelvic magnetic resonance imaging for assessing gynecological and pelvic cancers; and the CA125 blood test for screening ovarian cancer. Delayed image was helpful depending on the type of suspected malignant neoplasm. We analyzed various types of malignant neoplasms detected by the FDG-PET cancer screening program and presented recommended combination of examinations to cover FDG-PET and PET/CT.

  14. Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder--case report.

    PubMed

    Lalović, Nenad; Cvijanović, Radovan; Vladicić, Nikolina Dukić; Marić, Radmil; Jokanović, Dragana; Skipina, Danijela Batinić

    2011-01-01

    Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder is a benign, mostly asymptomatic condition of an unknown aetiology. Hyperplastic changes in the gallbladder wall cause an overgrowth of the mucosa, thickening of the muscular wall, and formation of intramural diverticula or sinus tracts termed Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. Adenomyomatosis is divided on general, segmental and localised. Ultrasound examination, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance are used in diagnostic procedure. The importance of the disease lies in the fact that it can cause recurrent right upper quadrant pain so it must be concerned in resolving pain cause. This paper was aimed at explaining the aetiology of the disease, its clinical manifestation, making diagnosis and therapy in order to make its diagnosis and treatment possible.

  15. Cancer of the gallbladder-Chilean statistics.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Chile has the world's highest rate of incidence as well as death from cancer of the gallbladder and biliary ducts. The problem is most acute in the southern provinces. These areas constitute the low average income associated with low educational attainment and a high rate of obesity compared with the rest of Chile. We could also include genetic factors related to processes of lithogenesis to these elements which are more common among the Mapuche. This population sub-group could benefit from special government programmes for early diagnosis and treatment of lithiasic disease and for the management of risk factors such as obesity. In this way, we could reduce the mortality rate of gallbladder cancer.

  16. Cross-sectional imaging of perforated gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Seyal, Adeel R; Parekh, Keyur; Gonzalez-Guindalini, Fernanda D; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid

    2014-08-01

    Gallbladder perforation is a potentially life-threatening condition commonly seen as a complication of acute cholecystitis. Urgent surgical intervention is often needed to reduce serious morbidity and mortality. It presents a diagnostic challenge due to nonspecific symptoms, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Imaging plays a vital role in early identification of this potentially fatal condition and evaluation by more than one imaging modality may be required to make the diagnosis. Knowledge of specific and ancillary imaging findings is crucial to avoid misdiagnosis. In this article, we will review the risk factors, pathophysiology, and surgical classification of gallbladder perforation and discuss the role of multimodality imaging in its diagnosis. Differential diagnoses on imaging will also be discussed.

  17. Gallbladder carcinoma presenting as exfoliative dermatitis (erythroderma).

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Hitoshi; Shirai, Yoshio; Date, Kazutoshi; Kuwabara, Akifumi; Kurosaki, Ryo; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Although exfoliative dermatitis (erythroderma) secondary to malignancy is commonly associated with lymphomas or leukemias, coincident gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy and erythroderma is rare. The authors recently encountered a patient with gallbladder carcinoma presenting as erythroderma. A 77-yr-old Japanese man presented with a 3-mo history of erythematous eruptions with pruritus over almost the entire body. After confirming the diagnosis of erythroderma, asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma was found. Further investigations detected no malignancies in other organs. An extended cholecystectomy was performed. Histologic examination of resected specimens revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with negative resection margins. The eruptions with pruritus resolved within 1 wk after the operation. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of coincident biliary malignancy and erythroderma. The experience of the current patient suggests that erythroderma secondary to GI malignancy may resolve spontaneously after curative resection of the tumor.

  18. Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) Patient Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-28

    Primary Myelofibrosis; Polycythemia Vera; Essential Thrombocythemia; Mastocytosis; Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative; Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Juvenile; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia-not Otherwise Specified; Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases; Neoplasms; Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic

  19. [A rare case of gallbladder cancer with giardiasis].

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Toshiya; Komatsu, Hideaki; Shibata, Yoshihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-02-01

    A 72-year-old man was referred to our hospital for suspected gallbladder cancer. We performed cholecystectomy with liver bed resection and lymph node dissection. Intraoperative cytological examination of the bile juice revealed some trophozoites of Giardia lamblia, and pathological examination revealed gallbladder cancer. Therefore, we diagnosed giardiasis associated with gallbladder cancer. We administered 750 mg per day metronidazole for 10 days. The patient was a farmer by occupation and used animal manure for agricultural purposes; he also consumed his own harvest, which was recognized as the infection route for his giardiasis. We reviewed the literature and found very few cases of giardiasis associated with gallbladder cancer.

  20. Residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chowbey, Pradeep; Sharma, Anil; Goswami, Amit; Afaque, Yusuf; Najma, Khoobsurat; Baijal, Manish; Soni, Vandana; Khullar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete gallbladder removal following open and laparoscopic techniques leads to residual gallbladder stones. The commonest presentation is abdominal pain, dyspepsia and jaundice. We reviewed the literature to report diagnostic modalities, management options and outcomes in patients with residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Google and Cochrane library between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed using search terms residual gallstones, post-cholecystectomy syndrome, retained gallbladder stones, gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and subtotal cholecystectomy. Bibliographical references from selected articles were also analyzed. The parameters that were assessed include demographics, time of detection, clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis, nature of intervention, site of stone, surgical findings, procedure performed, complete stone clearance, sequelae and follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 83 articles that were retrieved between 1993 and 2013, 22 met the inclusion criteria. In most series, primary diagnosis was established by ultrasound/computed tomography scan. Localization of calculi and delineation of biliary tract was performed using magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In few series, diagnosis was established by endoscopic ultrasound, intraoperative cholangiogram and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Laparoscopic surgery, endoscopic techniques and open surgery were the most common treatment modalities. The most common sites of residual gallstones were gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and common bile duct. CONCLUSION: Residual gallbladder stones following incomplete gallbladder removal is an important sequelae after cholecystectomy. Completion cholecystectomy (open or laparoscopic) is the most common treatment modality reported in the literature for the management of residual gallbladder stones. PMID:26622110

  1. Primary gallbladder lymphoma presenting with perforated cholecystitis and hyperamylasaemia.

    PubMed

    Shah, K S V; Shelat, V G; Jogai, S; Trompetas, V

    2016-02-01

    Primary gallbladder lymphoma is rare. Perforated cholecystitis due to primary gallbladder lymphoma and not related to chemotherapy has been unreported. We report the case of an 80-year-old woman presenting with an acute abdomen and clinical peritonitis. Her serum amylase was raised to 878 iu/l. Urgent computed tomography revealed generalised free fluid with a normal pancreas and was non-diagnostic as to the underlying pathology. An emergency laparotomy revealed bilious peritonitis with a necrotic patch on a distended gallbladder. A cholecystectomy was carried out and histology of the gallbladder revealed a marginal zone lymphoma.

  2. Primary gallbladder lymphoma presenting with perforated cholecystitis and hyperamylasaemia

    PubMed Central

    Shah, KSV; Shelat, VG; Jogai, S; Trompetas, V

    2016-01-01

    Primary gallbladder lymphoma is rare. Perforated cholecystitis due to primary gallbladder lymphoma and not related to chemotherapy has been unreported. We report the case of an 80-year-old woman presenting with an acute abdomen and clinical peritonitis. Her serum amylase was raised to 878iu/l. Urgent computed tomography revealed generalised free fluid with a normal pancreas and was non-diagnostic as to the underlying pathology. An emergency laparotomy revealed bilious peritonitis with a necrotic patch on a distended gallbladder. A cholecystectomy was carried out and histology of the gallbladder revealed a marginal zone lymphoma. PMID:26673049

  3. Gallbladder cancer: results achieved and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana

    2017-02-01

    26th World Congress of International Association of Surgeons Gastroenterologists and Oncologists, Seoul, South Korea, 8-10 September 2016 This year, the 26th World Congress of the International Association of Surgeons, Gastroenterologists, and Oncologists (IASGO) was hosted by Seoul in South Korea. The congress was extremely well organized, and the quality of the submissions and the relevance of the speakers were excellent. This report highlights the newest and most interesting results regarding the treatment of gallbladder tumors from the conference.

  4. High-resolution sonography for distinguishing neoplastic gallbladder polyps and staging gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Young; Baek, Jee Hyun; Eun, Hyo Won; Kim, Young Jae; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this study were to compare staging accuracy of high-resolution sonography (HRUS) with combined low- and high-MHz transducers with that of conventional sonography for gallbladder cancer and to investigate the differences in the imaging findings of neoplastic and nonneoplastic gallbladder polyps. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Our study included 37 surgically proven gallbladder cancer (T1a = 7, T1b = 2, T2 = 22, T3 = 6), including 15 malignant neoplastic polyps and 73 surgically proven polyps (neoplastic = 31, nonneoplastic = 42) that underwent HRUS and conventional transabdominal sonography. Two radiologists assessed T-category and predefined polyp findings on HRUS and conventional transabdominal sonography. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square and McNemar tests. RESULTS. The diagnostic accuracy for the T category was T1a = 92-95%, T1b = 89-95%, T2 = 78-86%, and T3 = 84-89%, all with good agreement (κ = 0.642) using HRUS. The diagnostic accuracy for differentiating T1 from T2 or greater than T2 was 92% and 89% on HRUS and 65% and 70% with conventional transabdominal sonography. Statistically common findings for neoplastic polyps included size greater than 1 cm, single lobular surface, vascular core, hypoechoic polyp, and hypoechoic foci (p < 0.05). The value of HRUS in the differential diagnosis of a gallbladder polyp was more clearly depicted internal echo foci than conventional transabdominal sonography (39 vs 21). A polyp size greater than 1 cm was independently associated with a neoplastic polyp (odds ratio = 7.5, p = 0.02). The AUC of a polyp size greater than 1 cm was 0.877. The sensitivity and specificity were 66.67% and 89.13%, respectively. CONCLUSION. HRUS is a simple method that enables accurate T categorization of gallbladder carcinoma. It provides high-resolution images of gallbladder polyps and may have a role in stratifying the risk for malignancy.

  5. Synchronous extraskeletal Ewing’s sarcoma/PNET and gallbladder carcinoma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zygulska, Aneta; Püsküllüoğlu, Mirosława; Szczepański, Wojciech; Białas, Magdalena; Krupiński, Maciej; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma (ES) and primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) are now considered to be the same tumour and usually occur in long bones. Extraskeletal Ewing’s sarcoma is an extremely rare neoplasm, accounting for 1% of soft tissue sarcomas, with most common location in the thorax. Gallbladder cancer (GBC) represents the most common type among the biliary tract cancers with a poor prognosis even among patients undergoing aggressive therapy. We present study of extraskeletal ES/PNET found in the hilus of the liver of an elderly, diagnosed one month prior with GBC woman. The patient underwent two cycles of chemotherapy SAIME/SAVAC for ES and thereafter was operated. During three-year follow-up no recurrence of ES/PNET has been reported. However, two years after chemotherapy the patient suffered a relapse of adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and thus received palliative chemotherapy of gemcitabine and cisplatin. After 16 months of recurrence she died. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of ES/PNET located in the hilus of the liver and as a synchronous neoplasm. PMID:28239290

  6. Usefulness of lavage cytology during endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yoshiki; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Kawahara, Akihiko; Taira, Tomoki; Isida, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryouhei; Sata, Michio; Ureshino, Hiroki; Mikagi, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Yasumoto, Makiko; Kusano, Hironori; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2009-06-01

    Many studies have reported methods of cell collection involving percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. However, few studies have described the use of a transpapillary approach, i.e., endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder (ETCG). In this study, we analyzed cells collected by ETCG to evaluate its usefulness in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease. The subjects were 19 patients who had undergone ETCG for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. Of these patients, 11 and 8 had gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder disease, respectively. We also evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology performed in 15 patients with gallbladder cancer.Specimens were cytologically diagnosed as normal or benign, indeterminate, suspected malignancy, malignant, and inadequate in 47% (9/19), 11% (2/19), 0% (0/19), 37% (7/19), and 5% (1/19) of patients, respectively. Specimens were diagnosed as malignant, indeterminate, normal or benign, and inadequate in 7, 2, 1, and 1, respectively, of the 11 patients diagnosed with gallbladder cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of ETCG cytology were 78 and 100%, respectively, whereas the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology was 20% (3/15). None of the patients developed complications of ETCG. Despite its technical difficulty, ETCG for bile cytology allows the collection of adequate cell numbers from patients with benign disease or gallbladder cancer and facilitates a cytological diagnosis, making it a useful method for collecting cells. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Endoscopic gallbladder drainage for management of acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Takao; Coelho-Prabhu, Nayantara; Baron, Todd H

    2010-05-01

    Nonoperative gallbladder drainage methods for acute cholecystitis include percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage and percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder aspiration, endoscopic nasogallbladder drainage and gallbladder stenting via a transpapillary endoscopic approach, and EUS-guided nasogallbladder drainage and gallbladder stenting via a transmural endoscopic approach. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the current potential role of each gallbladder drainage technique for acute cholecystitis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and manual searches were performed to identify pertinent English-language articles. The technical success rate, clinical success rate, and the frequency of adverse events in percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder aspiration (n = 122) and percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (n = 246) were 93% and 98%, 83% and 90%, and 0.8% and 3.7%, respectively. In contrast, the technical success rate, clinical success rate, and the frequency of adverse events in endoscopic nasogallbladder drainage (n = 194) and endoscopic gallbladder stenting (n = 127) were 81% and 96%, 75% and 88%, and 3.6% (n = 7) and 6.3% (n = 8), respectively. Although there have been 2 small case series of successful EUS-guided transmural nasogallbladder drainage (total n = 12), the procedure was technically and clinically successful in all of the patients with 2 adverse events. Only 1 case of successful EUS-guided gallbladder stent placement without any procedure-related adverse events has been reported. Retrospective studies, small number of patients, and lack of randomized, controlled trials. Although prospective evaluation of the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of these various approaches will help identify the most suitable therapeutic modality for patients with acute cholecystitis, endoscopic gallbladder drainage may have a high potential as an alternative drainage method in acute cholecystitis. 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby

  8. Effect of pirenzepine on gallbladder emptying in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.L.; Anagnostides, A.; Chadwick, V.S.

    1986-11-01

    The effect of the selective antimuscarinic agent, pirenzepine, on gallbladder function was studied in six healthy volunteers, using /sup 99m/Tc HIDA (N-(2,6-diethylthenyl) carbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid) hepatobiliary scanning. Pirenzepine, in doses that inhibit gastric acid secretion, did not alter gallbladder emptying responses to sham feeding stimulation or to a test meal.

  9. Identification of a candidate stem cell in human gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Rohan; Li, Yaming; Fohrer, Helene; Guzik, Lynda; Stolz, Donna Beer; Chandran, Uma R.; LaFramboise, William A.; Lagasse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no reports of the identification of stem cells in the human gallbladder. The differences between human gallbladder and intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) cells have also not been explored. The goals of this study were to evaluate if human fetal gallbladder contains a candidate stem cell population and if fetal gallbladder cells are distinct from fetal IHBD cells. We found that EpCAM+CD44+CD13+ cells represent the cell population most enriched for clonal self-renewal from primary gallbladder. Primary EpCAM+CD44+CD13+ cells gave rise to EpCAM+CD44+CD13+ and EpCAM+CD44+CD13− cells in vitro, and gallbladder cells expanded in vitro exhibited short-term engraftment in vivo. Last, we found that CD13, CD227, CD66, CD26 and CD49b were differentially expressed between gallbladder and IHBD cells cultured in vitro indicating clear phenotypic differences between the two cell populations. Microarray analyses of expanded cultures confirmed that both cell types have unique transcriptional profiles with predicted functional differences in lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid and drug metabolism. In conclusion, we have isolated a distinct clonogenic population of epithelial cells from primary human fetal gallbladder with stem cell characteristics and found it to be unique compared to IHBD cells. PMID:25765520

  10. Are histological alterations observed in the gallbladder precancerous lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles-Costa, Adriana Lúcia Agnelli; Bresciani, Claudio José Caldas; Perez, Rodrigo Oliva; Bresciani, Barbara Helou; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida C.; Cecconello, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gallbladder cancer, which is characterized by rapid progression and a poor prognosis, is a complex disease to treat. Unfortunately, little is known currently about its etiology or pathogenesis. A better understanding of its carcinogenesis and determining risk factors that lead to its development could help improve the available treatment options. METHOD Based on this better understanding, the histological alterations (such as acute cholecystitis, adenomyomatosis, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, polyps, pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, cancer and others) in gallbladders from 1,689 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystolithiasis were analyzed. The association of these gallbladder histological alterations with clinical data was studied. RESULTS Gender analysis revealed a greater incidence of inflammatory changes in males, while dysplasia and cancer were only found in women. The incidence of cholesterolosis was greater in the patients 60 years of age and under, and the incidence of adenomyomatosis and gangrene was greater in the elderly patients. A progressive increase in the average age was observed as alterations progressed through pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and then cancer, suggesting that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence may occur in gallbladder cancer. Gallbladder histological alterations were also observed in asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that there could be an association between some histological alterations of gallbladder and cancer, and they also suggest that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence could in fact be true in the case of gallbladder cancer. Nevertheless, further studies directed towards a perfect understanding of gallbladder carcinogenesis are required. PMID:20186297

  11. Defining the human gallbladder proteome by transcriptomics and affinity proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Caroline; Mardinoglu, Adil; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Danielsson, Angelika; Nielsen, Jens; Pontén, Fredrik; Uhlen, Mathias

    2014-11-01

    Global protein analysis of human gallbladder tissue is vital for identification of molecular regulators and effectors of its physiological activity. Here, we employed a genome-wide deep RNA sequencing analysis in 28 human tissues to identify the genes overrepresented in the gallbladder and complemented it with antibody-based immunohistochemistry in 48 human tissues. We characterized human gallbladder proteins and identified 140 gallbladder-specific proteins with an elevated expression in the gallbladder as compared to the other analyzed tissues. Five genes were categorized as enriched, with at least fivefold higher levels in gallbladder, 60 genes were categorized as group enriched with elevated transcript levels in gallbladder shared with at least one other tissue and 75 genes were categorized as enhanced with higher expression than the average expression in other tissues. We explored the localization of the genes within the gallbladder through cell-type specific antibody-based protein profiling and the subcellular localization of the genes through immunofluorescent-based profiling. Finally, we revealed the biological processes and metabolic functions carried out by these genes through the use of GO, KEGG Pathway, and HMR2.0 that is compilation of the human metabolic reactions. We demonstrated the results of the combined analysis of the transcriptomics and affinity proteomics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Gallbladder Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some studies in lab animals have suggested that chemical compounds called nitrosamines may increase the risk of gallbladder cancer. Other studies have found that gallbladder cancer might occur more in workers in the rubber and textile industries than in the general public. More research is ...

  13. Papillomatosis of the gallbladder associated with metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J H; Kalfayan, B; Slungaard, R K; Gilbert, E

    1985-01-01

    A 9-year-old boy with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) was found to have diffuse papillomatosis of the gallbladder that was virtually obliterating the lumen of the gallbladder. To our knowledge, two other examples of this lesion have been reported previously in MLD.

  14. Gallbladder Duplication Associated with Gastro-Intestinal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Shilpi; Sharma, Pramila; Bhandari, Anu; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Mathur, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder duplication in association with other GIT anomalies is a rare entity. We report two neonates; one with duodenal atresia and the other newborn with pyloric atresia, ileal atresia and colonic atresia, both were associated with gallbladder duplication which has not been reported earlier. PMID:27123398

  15. Time to reconsider Spitzoid neoplasms?

    PubMed Central

    Urso, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background: Spitzoid neoplasms may pose significant diagnostic problems because in a fraction of them it is quite difficult or impossible to establish if they are benign or malignant lesions. An extraordinarily large number of studies have been made in attempts to solve this problem; regrettably, the histological criteria proposed and the various special sophisticated techniques employed have proven to be ineffective in making this distinction with confidence. Objectives: To explore the possible causes for this diagnostic failure and an attempt to identify the source of this problem. Method: A historical and technical analysis of the specialized literature is performed, critically evaluating the main points of this controversial topic. Results: The reasons for the diagnostic failure in Spitzoid neoplasms are not clear but could be the result of inappropriate conceptual representation. The analysis of available data and a rational review of old and new assumptions and concepts may suggest a different representation for Spitzoid neoplasms: Spitz nevus, atypical Spitz tumor and Spitzoid melanoma, rather than being three different tumors that are difficult or impossible to distinguish with assurance, could be viewed as one unique entity, Spitz tumor (ST). This tumor is a low-grade malignant neoplasm, in which the amount of intrinsic risk is variable, ranging from very low to high (ST1, ST2, ST3), and malignant potential could be estimated. Conclusions: The proposed alternative representation of Spitzoid neoplasms as a unique tumor may help in overcoming the difficulty in diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:27222771

  16. Necrotizing fasciitis secondary to carcinoma of the gallbladder with perforation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ken-ichi; Shatari, Tomoo; Yamamoto, Tatsuma; Sasaki, Takahiro; Suwa, Tatsushi; Furuuchi, Takayuki; Takenaka, Yoshifumi; Hori, Masao; Sakuma, Masayoshi

    2007-01-01

    We present an unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis in the upper abdominal wall caused by penetrating perforation of the gallbladder. It was manifested as an elastic and reddish abdominal swelling with severe tenderness, but no peritoneal irritation. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated water density with a slightly elevated CT value and air bubbles in the subcutaneous space. The preoperative diagnosis was subcutaneous abscess with fasciitis. At surgery, necrotizing fasciitis and subcutaneous abscess secondary to penetrating perforation of the gallbladder were revealed. Cholecystectomy and peritoneal irrigation were performed. Although no tumor was evident during surgery, a tumor located close to the perforation site was found just after the operation. Pathological examination revealed gallbladder carcinoma without stones. There have been very few previous reports of necrotizing fasciitis following gallbladder perforation. The presentation, diagnosis, and management of fasciitis, as well as carcinoma of the gallbladder with perforation, are discussed.

  17. Coexistence of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis and gallbladder adenocarcinoma: a fortuitous association?

    PubMed

    Limaiem, F; Chelly, B; Hassan, F; Haddad, I; Ben Slama, S; Lahmar, A; Bouraoui, S; Mzabi-Regaya, S

    2013-08-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is a relatively uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis, characterized by marked thickening of the gallbladder wall and dense local adhesions. Not only does xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimic malignancy, it can also be infrequently associated with gallbladder carcinoma in 0.2% to 35.4% of cases. Herein, the authors report a new case of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis concomitant with gallbladder adenocarcinoma in a 65-year-old female patient. Because of its overlapping clinical, radiological and macroscopic findings with gallbladder cancer, definitive diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis relies on extensive sampling and thorough microscopic examination of the surgical specimen to exclude the possibility of coexisting tumour. It is still a matter of debate whether xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is truly a precursor of gallbladder carcinoma or if it is just an incidental finding. This aspect needs to be explored in the future with further studies.

  18. Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder resembling honeycomb in a child.

    PubMed

    Akçam, Mustafa; Buyukyavuz, Ilker; Ciriş, Metin; Eriş, Naim

    2008-09-01

    Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder is believed to be an uncommon pathologic condition of the gallbladder in childhood. Only three pediatric cases have been described in the literature up to now. Honeycomb gallbladder has been described in two adult patients; no patients have been reported in childhood until now. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first case of adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder which resembled honeycomb, in a 9-year-old girl presented with recurrent abdominal pain. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound, and confirmed by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and finally cholecystectomy. In conclusion, ultrasound scanning performed more generally in children presenting with recurrent abdominal pain might lead to accurate diagnosis of adenomyomotosis of the gallbladder during childhood.

  19. Role of CEUS in the diagnosis of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Sparchez, Zeno; Radu, Pompilia

    2012-12-01

    Conventional ultrasound (US) is the first imaging investigation recommended for diagnosis of gallbladder pathology. However, it has an important limit of ability to depict microcirculation of some biliary lesions which may lead to failure in diagnosis. The use of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) seems to overcome these limits and allows a more confident diagnosis. In this review, the methodology, image interpretation, enhancement pattern, clinical usefulness, and indications for CEUS in gallbladder lesions are summarized. CEUS may be indicated under the following circumstances: 1) For differentiation diagnosis between a malign tumor or a benign tumor of the gallbladder; 2) to make a distinction between motionless sludge and gallbladder carcinoma; 3) to assess the extension of gallbladder carcinoma in adjacent hepatic parenchyma; 4) patients with impaired renal function.

  20. Cytomorphology of neuroendocrine tumours of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R; Jain, D; Mathur, S R; Iyer, V K

    2016-04-01

    Gallbladder neuroendocrine tumours (GB-NETs) are rare and account for 0.5% of all NETs. GB-NETs have an aggressive behaviour, which depends on the tumour grade. The cytomorphological spectrum of these tumours has never been described in detail. The present study evaluates the cytological features of GB-NETs and grades them according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Furthermore, the expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) has not been investigated previously in GB-NETs, although found in a subset of extrapulmonary NETs. Twenty cases of GB-NET among 875 gallbladder carcinomas diagnosed by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) over a period of nearly 4 years were studied. The following parameters were evaluated: architectural pattern, nuclear chromatin, nucleoli, mitoses, necrosis, moulding, apoptosis and smudge cells. Cases were categorized into well-differentiated (grades 1 and 2), small cell carcinoma (SCC) (grade 3) and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. Nuclear positivity for TTF-1 was considered as positive. Morphologically, tumour cells were mainly arranged in rosettes in the well-differentiated category; sudden anisonucleosis and rare nuclear moulding with or without mitotic figures were other features. Eleven cases of SCC showed prominent nuclear moulding with frequent smudge cells, mitoses, apoptosis and necrosis. Three mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas showed papillary fragments and an acinar arrangement of tumour cells. Four of the nine SCCs in which TTF-1 was evaluated on de-stained smears showed nuclear positivity. Histopathology was available in two SCCs and showed morphology similar to FNAC. Cytology plays an important role in the diagnosis of GB-NETs for appropriate subtype characterization, which is necessary for the prognostication of these tumours. TTF-1 may not be used for the differentiation of gallbladder SCCs from pulmonary SCCs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Staging of neoplasms. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is divided into ten chapters. The first, an overview of the importance of staging, is followed by separate chapters on computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of lymph node metastases; metastatic disease to the thorax; staging of laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, esophageal, non-small cell lung, and renal carcinoma; and pediatric abdominal malignancies. CT staging of lymphomas is dealt with in a separate chapter. The final chapter summarizes initial experiences with staging of neoplasms by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Other neoplasms, such as pelvic, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal, are not discussed in depth. The book concludes with ten case studies, most of which deal with pelvic and gastrointestinal malignancies.

  2. [Ultrasound of gallbladder and bile duct].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Joleini, S; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    The cystic nature of the gallbladder and bile duct when dilated, and the advantages of ultrasound as a quick, reproducible, convenient, cheap and low risk technique, with a high sensitivity and specificity, make it the most eligible technique in biliary pathology studies. Ultrasound has become a valuable tool for doctors studying biliary pathology and its complications, from abnormal liver function results, right upper quadrant pain, or jaundice, to cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, or suspicion of biliary tumors. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Dumbbell Gallbladder Cholecystitis on Tc-99m Diisopropyliminodiacetic acid Hepatobiliary Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Asif Ali; Rodrigue, Paul David; Hussain, Aun; Taiyebi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old immunocompromised female admitted for abdominal pain and sepsis, who had an abdominal computed tomography (CT) showing distal gallbladder fundus wall thickening, pericholecystic edema, and a right posteroinferior hepatic abscess. Subsequent hepatobiliary scintigraphy with Tc-99m diisopropyliminodiacetic acid showed gallbladder filling of the proximal gallbladder fundus, yet no radiotracer filling of the distal gallbladder fundus. Further correlation with the initial CT showed a partial gallbladder stricture and a resultant altered morphology resembling a dumbbell-shaped gallbladder. Percutaneous cholangiogram also confirmed this dumbbell morphology. Nonfilling of radiotracer into the distal end of the dumbbell gallbladder correlating with CT findings of focal gallbladder inflammation indicated that there was a focal inflammation suggesting a distal dumbbell gallbladder cholecystitis. This case demonstrates a unique finding of focal inflammatory pathology involving an anatomic variant - the dumbbell-shaped gallbladder, and the challenges this anatomic variant presents in hepatobiliary scintigraphy image interpretation. PMID:28242983

  4. [Assessment of risk of death due to malignant neoplasms induced by occupational exposure in a rubber footwear plant].

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Wiesław; Sobala, Wojciech; Wilczyńska, Urszula; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to analyze thoroughly the results of a cohort study. Such an analysis renders it possible to eliminate certain neoplasms as those not related to the observed exposure. The cohort study was carried out in a group of workers, covering 11,342 persons (5472 men and 5870 women), employed for at least one year during the years 1945-1985 in a rubber footwear plant. The cohort study was continued until the end of December 1997. Of all the sites of malignant neoplasms observed in the cohort, significant, exposure-related excess mortality was found to be due to malignant neoplasms of larynx and lung in men, and malignant neoplasms of gallbladder and lung in women. For these neoplasms, the values of observed risk among those exposed were significantly higher than among non-exposed. Moreover, in a certain interval of employment duration, an increase in risk rates with increasing duration of employment under exposure was observed, which suggests the presence of dose-response relationship. For all these sites, a relevant trend was shown by the RR values calculated in relation to the group of persons non-exposed but employed in the same plant. The internal reference group used to calculate RR values allowed to eliminate the effect of confounding variables, which is not always possible when the general population is used as the reference group.

  5. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Intramural hemorrhage simulating gastric neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sheward, S E; Davis, M; Amparo, E G; Gogel, H K

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of benign gastric ulcer with secondary extensive intramural hemorrhage causing a radiographic appearance consistent with a large ulcerated gastric neoplasm. This is the second such case reported and the first studied with sonography and computed tomographic scan. A brief review of the literature on intramural gastric hematoma is presented.

  7. Gallbladder surgery for Medicare patients in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Cobb, A B; Sanchez, N; Miller, D

    1994-10-01

    Mississippi Foundation for Medical Care (MFMC) conducted a review of gallbladder surgery performed on Mississippi Medicare Patients using hospital claims files and limited record review for verification of claims file data. Significant error rates in the surgeon identification number were found in the claims files. It should also be noted that the current ICD-9-CM coding system does not allow for identification of laparoscopic cholecystectomies converted to open procedures. Past studies have attempted to use claims data alone for these types of analyses. These findings demonstrate the importance of using caution by those attempting to use claims data (without verification) to define patterns of hospital utilization, clinical outcomes and/or physician profiling. Claims data must be tested for validity for reliable pattern analysis. In addition, considerable variation was found among providers in elements such as conversion rates, complication and readmission rates. A few surgeons showed patterns for critical variables that were quite different from the universe. There was however, no statistically significant differences associated between volume of cases performed and outcomes. Time frame comparisons over several years show significant (> 80%) increase in gallbladder surgery since the introduction of the laparoscopic procedure.

  8. Gallbladder perforation by absorbable spiral tacker

    PubMed Central

    Wirsching, A; Vonlanthen, R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mesh fixation with tacker systems is common in laparoscopic and open hernia repair. Complications due to absorbable tackers are rare and have not been described in the literature. However, we report a case of gallbladder erosion due to tacker dislocation. Methods An open hernia repair was performed using an intraperitoneal onlay mesh for a recurrent parastomal hernia after two previous mesh repairs in a 67-year-old patient. Results On postoperative day 2, the patient was reoperated because of a dislocated tacker that eroded and perforated the fundus region of the gallbladder. Putatively, tacker dislocation occurred owing to imbalanced traction forces. Initially, the mesh was fixed with absorbable tackers around the stoma on the right and transmuscular suture fixation was carried out on the left abdominal side. On revision surgery, tension forces to the right were therefore neutralised by additional transmuscular sutures on the right side. Conclusions Absorbable tackers in open hernia repair provide a safe and effective mesh fixation if tension forces are carefully avoided. PMID:25245719

  9. Role of aquaporin-5 in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sekine, S; Shimada, Y; Nagata, T; Sawada, S; Yoshioka, I; Matsui, K; Moriyama, M; Omura, T; Osawa, S; Shibuya, K; Hashimoto, I; Watanabe, T; Hojo, S; Hori, R; Okumura, T; Yoshida, T; Tsukada, K

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are important in controlling bile formation. However, the exact role in human gallbladder carcinogenesis has not yet been defined. AQP-5-expressing gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) cell lines (NOZ) were transfected with anti-AQP-5 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Growth, migration, invasion assay, and drug susceptibility tests were performed. Next, microRNA (miRNA) expression was analyzed by miRNA oligo chip (3D-Gene®). AQP-5 and AQP-5-related miRNA target gene expressions were also analyzed using tissue microarray (TMA) in 44 GBC samples. Treatment with AQP-5 siRNA decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. On the other hand, those cells increased IC50 of gemcitabine. By performing miRNA assays, miR-29b, -200a, and -21 were shown to be highly overexpressed in cells treated with AQP-5 siRNA NOZ. When focusing on miR-21, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was found to be a target of miR-21. In the TMA, AQP-5/PTEN coexpression was significantly associated with the depth of invasion and MIB-1 index (p = 0.003, 0.010). Survival of patients with a high AQP-5/PTEN coexpression was longer than that of patients with a low coexpression (p = 0.003). Our result suggested that miR-21 and PTEN may contribute to the role of AQP-5 in GBC. AQP-5 and PTEN cascades are favorable biomarkers of GBC.

  10. Effect of enteral feeding on gallbladder function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Psáder, Roland; Sterczer, Agnes; Pápa, Kinga; Harnos, Andrea; Szilvási, Viktória; Pap, Akos

    2012-06-01

    Nutritional support in critically ill patients is a fundamental principle of patient care. Little is known about gallbladder motility during the interdigestive phase and in response to enteral feeding. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of enteral feeding on gallbladder function in dogs. The cholagogue meal (Lipofundin infusion) was applied in four anatomical positions (jejunum, duodenojejunal junction, descending duodenum, stomach) in five healthy Beagle dogs. Gallbladder volume (GBV) was monitored by ultrasonography. Lipofundin infusion given through the feeding tube caused a maximal gallbladder contraction of 9.2% (range 3.7-13.9%) in the jejunum, 16.5% (9.1-22.1%) at the duodenojejunal junction and 26.3% (22.8-29.5%) in the descending duodenum. When the cholagogue meal was given through the mouth, it caused a mean 33.8% (28.6-46.5%) maximum gallbladder contraction in the same animals. In conclusion, we can establish that the ultrasound-guided gallbladder emptying method proved to be a useful technique for monitoring the cholagogue effect of Lipofundin meal applied in different anatomical positions of the intestine. The deeper the position of application, the smaller and shorter gallbladder contraction was evoked.

  11. Effects of melatonin on gallbladder neuromuscular function in acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, María J

    2007-10-01

    Gallbladder stasis is associated to experimental acute cholecystitis. Impaired contractility could be, at least in part, the result of inflammation-induced alterations in the neuromuscular function. This study was designed to determine the changes in gallbladder neurotransmission evoked by acute inflammation and to evaluate the protective and therapeutic effects of melatonin. Experimental acute cholecystitis was induced in guinea pigs by common bile duct ligation for 2 days, and then the neuromuscular function was evaluated using electrical field stimulation (EFS; 5-40 Hz). In a group of animals with the bile duct ligated for 2 days, a deligation of the duct was performed, and after 2 days, the neuromuscular function was studied. The EFS-evoked isometric gallbladder contraction was significantly lower in cholecystitic tissue. In addition, inflammation changed the pharmacological profile of these contractions that were insensitive to tetrodotoxin but sensitive to atropine and omega-conotoxin, indicating that acute cholecystitis affects action potential propagation in the intrinsic nerves. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated neurotransmission was reduced by inflammation, which also increased the reactivity of sensitive fibers. Melatonin treatment prevented qualitative changes in gallbladder neurotransmission, but it did not improve EFS-induced contractility. The hormone recovered gallbladder neuromuscular function once the biliary obstruction was resolved, even when the treatment was started after the onset of gallbladder inflammation. These findings show for the first time the therapeutic potential of melatonin in the recovery of gallbladder neuromuscular function during acute cholecystitis.

  12. Left-sided gallbladder associated with congenital liver cyst

    PubMed Central

    Colovic, N.; Barisic, G.; Atkinson, H. D. E.; Krivokapic, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Background. A left-sided gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly defined as a gallbladder attached to the lower surface of the left lateral segment of the liver, i.e. to the left of the interlobar fissure and round ligament. Case outlines. In two women aged 42 and 70 years a left-sided gallbladder was associated with a congenital cyst of the liver. In the first patient, the ectopic gallbladder was an incidental finding at operation for a symptomatic liver cyst; as the gallbladder was normal it was not removed. The second patient underwent operation for chronic calculous cholecystitis, when the left-sided gallbladder and congenital liver cyst were found. An operative cholangiogram was normal, the cystic duct joining the common bile duct from the right side. The gallbladder was removed, and the cyst was de-roofed. Both patients had an uneventful recovery and remain symptom-free at 12 and 9 years respectively. Discussion. To the best of our knowledge, the association of these two congenital anomalies has not been described previously. PMID:18333268

  13. Gallbladder epithelium as a niche for chronic Salmonella carriage.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; Gunn, John S

    2013-08-01

    Although typhoid fever has been intensively studied, chronic typhoid carriage still represents a problem for the transmission and persistence of the disease in areas of endemicity. This chronic state is highly associated with the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder of infected carriers upon which Salmonella can form robust biofilms. However, we hypothesize that in addition to gallstones, the gallbladder epithelium aids in the establishment/maintenance of chronic carriage. In this work, we present evidence of the role of the gallbladder epithelium in chronic carriage by a mechanism involving invasion, intracellular persistence, and biofilm formation. Salmonella was able to adhere to and invade polarized gallbladder epithelial cells apically in the absence and presence of bile in a Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1)-dependent manner. Intracellular replication of Salmonella was also evident at 12 and 24 h postinvasion. A flowthrough system revealed that Salmonella is able to adhere to and form extensive bacterial foci on gallbladder epithelial cells as early as 12 h postinoculation. In vivo experiments using a chronic mouse model of typhoid carriage showed invasion and damage of the gallbladder epithelium and lamina propria up to 2 months after Salmonella infection, with an abundant presence of macrophages, a relative absence of neutrophils, and extrusion of infected epithelial cells. Additionally, microcolonies of Salmonella cells were evident on the surface of the mouse gallbladder epithelia up to 21 days postinfection. These data reveal a second potential mechanism, intracellular persistence and/or bacterial aggregation in/on the gallbladder epithelium with luminal cell extrusion, for Salmonella maintenance in the gallbladder.

  14. Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Myeloproliferative Neoplasms PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gary W. Reuther CONTRACTING...2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 2012-2 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms ...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Myeloproliferative neoplasms

  15. Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0450 TITLE: Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms PRINCIPAL...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2012 - 29 Sep 20144 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms ... Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that affect almost 300,000 people in the United States. MPN drugs (JAK inhibitors) do not effectively

  16. Hepatic neoplasms associated with contraceptive and anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Ishak, K G

    1979-01-01

    This paper evaluates the differences between HCA (hepatocellular adenoma) and FNH (focal nodular hyperplasia) and the association of HCA and FNH with OC (oral contraceptives). FNH occurs at least twice as frequent in females as in males. A study conducted by the author revealed that only 20% of patients with FNH had symptoms and signs related to their neoplasms; in the rest, FNH was accidentally discovered during surgery for diseases of the gallbladder or at necropsy. The highly characteristic gross appearance of FNH is discribed in detail. The etiologic relationship between FNH and OC was cited in the light of frequent findings of FNH in infants and children, and of suggestions by other authors that FNH could be a direct result on OC therapy or that contraceptive steroids or conjugated estrogens accelerate the growth of FNH, a very slow growing neoplasm. Simple excision is the treatment of choice for FNH; in some cases, hepatic artery ligation is indicated. In the case of HCA, statistics show that the incidence of HCA has been increasing since 1960. Majority of patients with HCA have normal tests of hepatic function. Radiographic studies and hepatic scans may reveal HCA, but the best diagnostic method so far is angiography. Although gross appearance of HCA is variable, the features are clearly distinguishable from that of FNH. Other topics discussed include the occasional occurence of nodular regenerative hyperplasia in patients on OC or anabolic steroids (AS), and malignant liver tumors in patients using OC or AS. Further research should be done to clarify the etiologic relationship between androgenic-anabolic steroids and hepatocellular tumors and tumorlike lesions.

  17. Lipid Histiocytosis of the Gallbladder Neck Lymph Node.

    PubMed

    Handra-Luca, Adriana; Ben Romdhane, Mohamed Habib; Straub, Beate Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Lipid histiocytosis of the gallbladder neck lymph node is rarely reported nowadays. Two obese patients presented with gallbladder lithiasis detected on CT scan. The treatment consisted in coelioscopic cholecystectomy. Microscopy revealed subacute/chronic lithiasic cholecystitis and foci of vacuolated cells in the gallbladder neck lymph node. These cells were positive for CD68, CD31, S100 protein, and adipophilin and negative for cytokeratin and Alcian blue. In conclusion, we report lymph node lipid histiocytosis diagnosed microscopically after cholecystectomy. While such lesions may remain unidentified on imaging procedures, the microscopic analysis may require special stains and immunohistochemistry for ruling out adenocarcinoma metastasis.

  18. Analysis of blood and tissue in gallbladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautray, T. R.; Vijayan, V.; Sudarshan, M.; Panigrahi, S.

    2009-09-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission, particle induced γ-ray emission studies has been carried out to analyse normal and carcinoma tissues and blood samples of gallbladder of both sexes and seventeen trace elements namely Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br and Pb were estimated in the tissue and blood samples. In the present study, concentration of Zn in the carcinoma gallbladder tissue is less than that of the normal gallbladder tissue. Tobacco habit could be one of the important factors to decrease the elemental concentrations in blood and tissue samples.

  19. Cholesterol gallstone disease: focusing on the role of gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongsheng; Kong, Jing; Wu, Shuodong

    2015-02-01

    Gallstone disease (GSD) is one of the most common biliary tract diseases worldwide in which both genetic and environmental factors have roles in its pathogenesis. Biliary cholesterol supersaturation from metabolic defects in the liver is traditionally seen as the main pathogenic factor. Recently, there have been renewed investigative interests in the downstream events that occur in gallbladder lithogenesis. This article focuses on the role of the gallbladder in the pathogenesis of cholesterol GSD (CGD). Various conditions affecting the crystallization process are discussed, such as gallbladder motility, concentrating function, lipid transport, and an imbalance between pro-nucleating and nucleation inhibiting proteins.

  20. Lipid Histiocytosis of the Gallbladder Neck Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Ben Romdhane, Mohamed Habib; Straub, Beate Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Lipid histiocytosis of the gallbladder neck lymph node is rarely reported nowadays. Two obese patients presented with gallbladder lithiasis detected on CT scan. The treatment consisted in coelioscopic cholecystectomy. Microscopy revealed subacute/chronic lithiasic cholecystitis and foci of vacuolated cells in the gallbladder neck lymph node. These cells were positive for CD68, CD31, S100 protein, and adipophilin and negative for cytokeratin and Alcian blue. In conclusion, we report lymph node lipid histiocytosis diagnosed microscopically after cholecystectomy. While such lesions may remain unidentified on imaging procedures, the microscopic analysis may require special stains and immunohistochemistry for ruling out adenocarcinoma metastasis. PMID:27847666

  1. Gallbladder Fossa Abscess Masquerading as Cholecystitis After Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Paul; Fakhri, Asif; Baumgartner, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    We present a case of a 59-y-old woman who had undergone cholecystectomy and was subsequently found to have an abscess within the gallbladder fossa. A hepatobiliary scan using (99m)Tc-diisopropyliminodiacetic acid demonstrated the characteristic rim sign, a photopenic defect surrounded by a rim of mildly increased activity immediately adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. The rim sign was thought to be the result of reactive inflammation in the hepatic tissue adjacent to a postoperative abscess within the gallbladder fossa. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  2. Impact of lymph node ratio as a valuable prognostic factor in gallbladder carcinoma, focusing on stage IIIB gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung-Gwan; Kim, Choong-Young; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hee-Joon; Koh, Yang-Seok; Kim, Jung-Chul; Cho, Chol-Kyoon; Kim, Hyun-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It is increasingly being recognized that the lymph node ratio (LNR) is an important prognostic factor for gallbladder carcinoma patients. The present study evaluated predictors of tumor recurrence and survival in a large, mono-institutional cohort of patients who underwent surgical resection for gallbladder carcinoma, focusing specifically on the prognostic value of lymph node (LN) status and of LNR in stage IIIB patients. Methods Between 2004 and 2011, 123 patients who underwent R0 radical resection for gallbladder carcinoma at the Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were staged according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition, and prognostic factors affecting disease free survival, such as age, sex, comorbidity, body mass index, presence of preoperative symptoms, perioperative blood transfusion, postoperative complications, LN dissection, tumor size, differentiation, lymph-vascular invasion, perineural invasion, T stage, presence of LN involvement, N stage, numbers of positive LNs, LNR and implementation of adjuvant chemotherapy, were statistically analyzed. Results LN status was an important prognostic factor in patients undergoing curative resection for gallbladder carcinoma. The total number of LNs examined was implicated with prognosis, especially in N0 patients. LNR was a powerful predictor of disease free survival even after controlling for competing risk factors, in curative resected gallbladder cancer patients, and especially in stage IIIB patients. Conclusion LNR is confirmed as an independent prognostic factor in curative resected gallbladder cancer patients, especially in stage IIIB gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:23487246

  3. The electrical potential profile of gallbladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    van Os, C H; Slegers, J F

    1975-12-04

    In this study the relative ionic permeabilities of the cell membranes of Necturus gallbladder epithelium have been determined by means of simultaneous measurement of transmural and transmucosal membrane potential differences (PD) and by ionic substitution experiments with sodium, potassium and chloride ions. It is shown that the mucosal membrane is permeable to sodium and to potassium ions. The baso-lateral membrane PD is only sensitive to potassium ions. In both membranes chloride conductance is negligible or absent. The ratio of the resistances of the mucosal and baso-lateral membranes, RM/RS, increases upon reducing the sodium concentration in the mucosal solution. The same ratio decreases when sodium is replaced by potassium which implies a greater potassium than sodium conductance in the mucosal membrane. The relative permeability of the shunt for potassium, sodium and chloride ions is: PK/PNa/PCl=1.81:1.00:0.32. From the results obtained in this study a value for the PK/PNa ratio of the mucosal membrane could be evaluated. This ratio is 2.7. From the same data the magnitude of the electromotive forces generated across the cell membranes could be calculated. The EMF's are -15mV across the mucosal membrane and -81mV across the baso-lateral one. Due to the presence of the low resistance shunt the transmucosal membrane PD is -53.2mV (cell inside negative) and the transmural PD is +2.6mV (serosal side positive). The change in potential profile brought about by the low resistance shunt favors passive entry of Na ions into the cell across the mucosal membrane. Calculations show that this passive Na influx is maximally 64% of the net Na flux estimated from fluid transport measurements. The C-1 conductive of the baso-lateral membrane is too small to allow electrogenic coupling of C1 with Na transport across this membrane. Experiments with rabbit gallbladder epithelium indicate that the membrane properties in this tissue are qualitatively similar to those of Necturus

  4. Spontaneous endomyometrial neoplasms in aging Chinese hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Brownstein, D.G.; Brooks, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    Twenty-one endomyometrial neoplasms among 93 nulliparous noninbred Chinese hamsters were evaluated. The median survival time of the 93 females was 1040 days. The median age of hamsters with endomyometrial neoplasms was 1200 days. Neoplasms were classified as carcinomas or malignant mixed muellerian tumors of the endometrium and benign or malignant myometrial neoplasms. There were 13 endometrial adenocarcinomas. Three tumors were mixed adenosquamous carcinomas, which occurred in significantly older Chinese hamsters than did adenocarcinomas. Three malignant mixed muellerian tumors consisted of 2 carcinosarcomas and 1 mixed mesodermal tumor. The 2 myometrial neoplasms were a lelomyoma and a lelomyosarcoma. The classification and relative frequency of these neoplasms were similar to endomyometrial neoplasms of women, which makes Chinese hamsters useful subjects for studies of spontaneous endomyometrial cancers.

  5. Gallbladder perforation complicating typhoid fever: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gali, B M; Ali, N; Agbese, G O; Duna, V D; Dawha, S D; Ismai, G I; Mohammed, M

    2011-01-01

    Gallbladder perforation (GBP) is rare and as a complication of typhoid fever is extremely rare. We present two consecutive patients with GBP diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. Information on the management of two patients with gallbladder perforation seen at Federal Medical Centre Azare in June and October 2008 was extracted from their case records. The two patients were both males aged 13 years and 16 years. They both presented with high fever of more than 2 weeks duration; and abdominal pain and distension. Both patients had features of generalised peritonitis. Pre-operative diagnoses of typhoid enteric perforation were made based on a positive Widal test. Intra-operative findings however, were that of bile peritonitis and gallbladder perforation. Both had cholecystectomy. Culture of the bile aspirate yielded Salmonella typhi. Gallbladder perforation secondary to typhoid fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with suspected typhoid enteric perforation in typhoid fever endemic region.

  6. How to image the gallbladder in suspected cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Marton, K.I.; Doubilet, P.

    1988-11-01

    As a result of important advances in medical imaging, the oral cholecystogram is no longer the primary test of gallbladder function and anatomy. Real-time ultrasonography and cholescintigraphy, both highly sensitive and specific tests, are the two major methods for assessing gallbladder pathology. Oral cholecystography, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography, and percutaneous gallbladder puncture serve as supplementary tests. Decisions about which test to use depend on the kind of gallbladder disease that is suspected as well as the estimated likelihood of the disease before the information is obtained from the procedure. Thus, ultrasonography is the test of choice for chronic cholecystitis, with oral cholecystography reserved for situations in which the diagnosis is uncertain after ultrasonography. When acute cholecystitis is suspected, ultrasonography is also the test of choice in most patients, and cholescintigraphy is used to resolve uncertainty. 103 references.

  7. Gallbladder infarction following hepatic transcatheter arterial embolization: angiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, C.; Iwasaki, M.; Tanaka, T.; Tokunaga, K.; Hori, S.; Yoshioka, H.; Nakamura, H.; Sakurai, M.; Okamura, J.

    1983-10-01

    Gallbladder infarction developing after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in patients with malignant hepatic tumors was studied by comparing preoperative angiographic and postoperative macroscopic and histological findings. Eight patients demonstrated occlusion of the cystic artery or its branches by embolic materials on post-TAE angiograms. Surgery revealed infarction of the gallbladder in 6 patients; no infarction was noted in the other 2, although branches of the cystic artery were occluded on the post-TAE angiogram. Due to recanalization of the occluded artery, the infarcted area could be assessed only by follow-up angiography. No patient experienced perforation of the gallbladder as a result of infarction. The authors suggest that patients with post-TAE infarction of the gallbladder can be treated consevatively if they are kept under close observation.

  8. Imaging of pediatric ovarian neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Monica; Chikwava, Kudakwashe R; Chauvin, Nancy; Servaes, Sabah

    2011-09-01

    We review the clinical and imaging characteristics of the most common ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents. Because of the widespread use of diagnostic imaging, incidental ovarian neoplasms might be encountered during the evaluation of abdominal pain, trauma or other indications and might pose a diagnostic dilemma. Conducting adequate imaging studies under these conditions is important, as management strategies differ according to the size and appearance of the lesion as well as the age of the patient. US dominates in gynecological imaging because of its excellent visualization, absence of ionizing radiation and sedation risks and comparatively low cost. For further examination of indeterminate lesions found using US, MRI is being used more progressively in this field, particularly for the evaluation of complex pelvic masses with the aim of distinguishing benign and malignant conditions and conditions requiring surgical intervention. CT is reserved primarily for tumor staging and follow-up and for emergency situations.

  9. Risk of neoplasms in acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Fularz, Maciej; Woliński, Kosma

    2012-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic disease caused by the excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), and as a result, of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Untreated, the condition reduces the patients’ life expectancy and leads to a series of complications, among which an increased risk of carcinogenesis is considered most important. This paper is an analysis of the publications on the issue of the formation of neoplasms, both malignant and benign, in acromegalic patients. Although the influence of acromegaly on carcinogenesis remains controversial, a number of studies indicate that the frequency of developing tumors in this patient group is higher. Moreover, numerous publications particularly stress the increased risk of developing neoplasms in patients who had been untreated for a long period of time and show elevated levels of GH and IGF-1. Consequently, a quick diagnosis and the implementation of effective treatment play a key role in the management of this disease. PMID:23788865

  10. [Epidemiology of gallbladder calculi in young females].

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, H; Nürnberg, D; Berndt, H

    1990-07-01

    In a population sample of nearly 900 women aged less than 25 years, prevalence of gallbladder stones (GS) was estimated by ultrasound and some risk factors were analyzed. GS were found in 4.8 percent. The prevalence of GS is significantly higher in females with GS in the family history as compared to persons without known GS in the family (11.8 vs. 2.6 percent); in women who have born as compared to nulliparae (10 vs. 3 percent); in obese women (BMI 26 or higher) as compared to lean women (15.1 vs. 4.2 percent). There was no significant correlation between intake of oral contraceptive and prevalence of GS.

  11. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  12. Current Status on Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ebata, Tomoki; Ercolani, Giorgio; Alvaro, Domenico; Ribero, Dario; Di Tommaso, Luca; Valle, Juan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) as well as gallbladder cancers are relatively rare and intractable diseases. Clinical, pathological, and epidemiological studies on these tumors have been under investigation. The current status and/or topics on biliary tract cancers have been reported in the East West Association of Liver Tumor (EWALT), held in Milano, Italy in 2015. Summary All the authors, herein, specifcally reported the current status and leading-edge findings on biliary tract cancers as the following sequence: epidemiology of CC, surgical therapy for intrahepatic CC, surgical therapy for perihilar CC, surgical therapy for gallblad der cancer, chemotherapy for biliary tract cancers, and new histological features in CC. Key Message The present review article will update the knowledge on biliary tract cancers, en hancing the quality of daily clinical practice. However, many features about these cancers remain unknown; further studies are required to establish disease-specific optimal treatment strategies. PMID:27995089

  13. Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

    1984-11-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references.

  14. [Lithotripsy of gallbladder calculi with extracorporeal shockwaves].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C E; Martins, F P; Dani, R

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty two patients with gallbladder stones were prospectively evaluated at the Biliary Lithiasis Treatment Unit of the Mater Dei Hospital, Belo Horizonte, MG., and 45 (17.5%) were selected for extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ECSWL). From these, 32 were submitted to the procedure. One stone was present in 30 patients, 2 stones in another and 1 patient had 3 stones. The mean diameter was 14.7 mm ranging from 8 to 28 mm. ECSWL was preceded by 1 week course of ursodeoxycholic acid (8 to 10 mg/dk/day) and this medication was continued after the procedure. ECSWL was done with the Lithosthar-Plus apparatus (Siemens). Meperidine (up to 100 mg) IM and pirazolene IV was given when necessary. The intensity of the shock waves was gradually increased to a maximum (9 bar) whenever tolerated. The treatment was well succeeded in 22 cases (71%) with pulverization in 12 (38.7%). In 9 patients (29%) remaining fragments were greater than 4 mm. From these, 3 were submitted to a second session of ECSWL. In 1 patient the stone could not be properly positioned for lithotripsy. The mean number of shock waves was 2,591, ranging from 801 to 4,411. The mean duration of the sessions was 80 min, ranging from 45 to 150 min. In 3 patients, a complete disappearance of fragments was observed in intervals of 1 to 6 months after the procedure. One patient had severe pain during ECSWL and developed acute cholecystitis. One patient had sinus bradycardia. One patient with total stone pulverization, become jaundiced 1 month after ECSWL and a gallbladder carcinoma was found at surgery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Targeting the hedgehog pathway for gallbladder cancer therapy?

    PubMed

    Mittal, Balraj; Yadav, Saurabh

    2016-02-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is a fatal malignancy of hepatobiliary tract that is generally diagnosed at advanced stages of cancer because of its asymptomatic nature. Advanced GBC tumors are unresectable with poor prognosis. Improvement in GBC patient care requires better understanding of the biological signaling pathways and application of newly discovered drugs for cancer therapy. Herein, we discuss the possibilities and challenges in targeting the hedgehog pathway in gallbladder cancer therapy based on recent developments in the area.

  16. Gallbladder Carcinoma, the Difficulty of Early Detection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Stephen L; Bear, Jonathan R; Van Echo, David C; Dainer, Hugh M

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is an uncommon malignancy with a high mortality rate. Detecting gallbladder carcinoma in its early stages can be difficult, despite improvements in ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Most diagnoses of GBC are made at advanced stages, with the majority being found incidentally during surgery for cholelithiasis. The presented case demonstrates the difficulty of diagnosing GBC preoperatively in its early stages. PMID:27014527

  17. Mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in the human gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Lee, Ming-Che; Tey, Shu-Leei; Liu, Ching-Wen; Huang, Shih-Che

    2017-05-08

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound extracted from plants and is also a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol produces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Although resveratrol has been reported to cause relaxation of the guinea pig gallbladder, limited data are available about the effect of resveratrol on the gallbladder smooth muscle in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relaxation effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. We studied the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder. In addition, we also investigated mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder by tetraethylammonium (a non-selective potassium channels blocker), iberiotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker), charybdotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and slowly inactivating voltage-gated potassium channels), apamine (a selective inhibitor of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), KT 5720 (a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor), KT 5823 (a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G inhibitor), NG-Nitro-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), tetrodotoxin (a selective neuronal Na(+) channel blocker), and ω-conotoxin GVIA (a selective neuronal Ca(2+) channel blocker). The present study showed that resveratrol has relaxant effects in human gallbladder muscle strips. In addition, we found that resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder is associated with nitric oxide, ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel pathways. This study provides the first evidence concerning the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that resveratrol is a potential new drug or health supplement in the treatment of

  18. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor - a therapeutic target in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Subbannayya, Tejaswini; Leal-Rojas, Pamela; Barbhuiya, Mustafa A; Raja, Remya; Renuse, Santosh; Sathe, Gajanan; Pinto, Sneha M; Syed, Nazia; Nanjappa, Vishalakshi; Patil, Arun H; Garcia, Patricia; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A; Nair, Bipin; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Navani, Sanjay; Tiwari, Pramod K; Santosh, Vani; Sidransky, David; Prasad, T S Keshava; Gowda, Harsha; Roa, Juan Carlos; Pandey, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Aditi

    2015-11-04

    Poor prognosis in gallbladder cancer is due to late presentation of the disease, lack of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis and limited targeted therapies. Early diagnostic markers and novel therapeutic targets can significantly improve clinical management of gallbladder cancer. Proteomic analysis of four gallbladder cancer cell lines based on the invasive property (non-invasive to highly invasive) was carried out using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling-based quantitative proteomic approach. The expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor was analysed in gallbladder adenocarcinoma tissues using immunohistochemistry. In vitro cellular assays were carried out in a panel of gallbladder cancer cell lines using MIF inhibitors, ISO-1 and 4-IPP or its specific siRNA. The quantitative proteomic experiment led to the identification of 3,653 proteins, among which 654 were found to be overexpressed and 387 were downregulated in the invasive cell lines (OCUG-1, NOZ and GB-d1) compared to the non-invasive cell line, TGBC24TKB. Among these, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was observed to be highly overexpressed in two of the invasive cell lines. MIF is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a causative role in multiple diseases, including cancer. MIF has been reported to play a central role in tumor cell proliferation and invasion in several cancers. Immunohistochemical labeling of tumor tissue microarrays for MIF expression revealed that it was overexpressed in 21 of 29 gallbladder adenocarcinoma cases. Silencing/inhibition of MIF using siRNA and/or MIF antagonists resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability, colony forming ability and invasive property of the gallbladder cancer cells. Our findings support the role of MIF in tumor aggressiveness and suggest its potential application as a therapeutic target for gallbladder cancer.

  19. [Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of gallbladder: a clinicopathologic study].

    PubMed

    Yao, J G; Yin, M X; Wang, C H; Liu, Y

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To study the clinicopathologic features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the gallbladder. Methods: Among 160 resected cases of gallbladder adenocarcinomas, the clinical and histological features of gallbladder adenocarcinomas with invasive micropapillary components (IMPC≥5%) were studied. Results: The detection rate of IPMC among gallbladder adenocarcinomas was 19.4% (31/160). Among these 31 cases, the patients' age ranged from 42 to 84 years (mean 64.8 years). The male-to-female ratio was 1∶4.Histologically, 19 cases were characterized by small papillary tufts lacking central fibrovascular cores, lying freely within the clefts of fibrous tissue, resembling IMPC of the breast; in five cases, the micropapillary tufts floated within cystic spaces lined by tumor cells, resembling IMPC of the lung; in four cases, slender, delicate filiform processes on the tumor surface with classic IMPC in the depth of gallbladder was observed; and in three cases mixed features were seen. Small cluster invasion (SCI) was seen adjacent to the IMPC. The lymph node metastatic rate, the lymphovascular invasion rate, and the SCI detection rate were significantly higher in the IMPC group (P=0.000). The IMPC detection rate was related to poorer histological differentiation and increased T stage (P=0.012, C=0.67; P=0.011, C=0.68). The two-year survival rate of IMPC (4/18) was significantly lower than usual gallbladder carcinoma (54.8%, 23/42). Conclusions: Compared to conventional adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder, IMPC has a more advanced tumor status and is prone to lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis, which thus leads to short-term survival. Moreover, SCI may play an important role in the invasion of the IMPC of the gallbladder.

  20. Role of nicotine in gallbladder carcinoma: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Basu, Somprakas; Priya, Rupesh; Singh, Tej Bali; Srivastava, Pradeep; Mishra, Pradeep K; Shukla, Vijay K

    2012-10-01

    To assess the role of nicotine in gallbladder carcinoma and its association with the stage and degree of cancer differentiation. Tissue samples from gallbladder were obtained from 20 patients with gallbladder cancer and 20 age- and gender-matched patients with cholelithiasis who served as the control group. Gallbladder tissue (2 g) was extracted and analyzed for nicotine content using capillary gas chromatography. Nitrogen was used as the carrier gas. Standard curves of nicotine in methanol were made by injecting the internal standards. A significantly higher tissue nicotine concentration was observed in the gallbladder carcinoma group than that in the control group (179.63 ng/mg vs 6.00 ng/mg, P < 0.001). The stage and degree of cancer differentiation did not seem to affect the nicotine levels. Gallbladder tissue contained a significantly higher nicotine concentration in smokers with cancer compared with those in the control group (1570.00 ng/mg vs 232.25 ng/mg, P < 0.001). Interestingly, non-smokers in cancer group also had a higher nicotine concentration than the control group (161.50 ng/mg vs 4.00 ng/mg, P = 0.002). Nicotine is selectively concentrated in malignant gallbladder tissue irrespective of smoking status, showing its strong association with gallbladder cancer. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. [Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the breast].

    PubMed

    Anlauf, M; Neumann, M; Bomberg, S; Luczak, K; Heikaus, S; Gustmann, C; Antke, C; Ezziddin, S; Fottner, C; Pavel, M; Pape, U-F; Rinke, A; Lahner, H; Schott, M; Cremer, B; Hörsch, D; Baum, R P; Groh, U; Alkatout, I; Rudlowski, C; Scheler, P; Zirbes, T K; Hoffmann, J; Fehm, T; Gabbert, H E; Baldus, S E

    2015-05-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the breast are specific tumor entities. According to the literature up to 5% of breast neoplasms are malignant epithelial neoplasms of the breast. They are defined by a neuroendocrine (NE) architecture and cytology combined with an expression of the neuroendocrine vesicle markers chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin. The diagnosis is supplemented by the receptor status and the proliferative activity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of 2012 the following groups of NEN are distinguished: (1) invasive breast carcinoma with NE differentiation, (2) well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and (3) poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma (NEC). This review article focuses on (1) the definition and basic principles of diagnostics, (2) the history, nomenclature and WHO classification from 2003 and 2012, (3) the frequency of breast NEN, (4) the hereditary background and functional activity, (5) the expression of receptors and (6) the possible clinical implications. In addition, the first results of a retrospective single center study (n = 465 patients with breast cancer over a time period of 4 years) on the frequency of NEN of the breast at the Breast Center of the University Hospital Düsseldorf are presented. In this study a frequency of 4.5% of NEN was found based on a diagnostic cut-off of > 50% Chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin positive tumor cells.

  2. Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Tran Cao, Hop S.; Kellogg, Benjamin; Lowy, Andrew M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whereas pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a well-studied (but still poorly understood) disease with a dismal prognosis, cystic neoplasms of the pancreas form a more recently recognized group of pancreatic tumors. They are diverse and variable in their pathologic characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes,1–3 although all portend a better overall prognosis than PDA. In recent years, with the improved sensitivity and increasing use of cross-sectional imaging in clinical practice, these lesions are more commonly identified,4 with many being discovered incidentally. Indeed, large radiological series using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have reported detection rates of pancreatic cystic lesions between 1.2% and almost 20%,5,6 approaching the 24.3% prevalence rate in an autopsy series by Kimura and colleagues.7 Although most of these lesions are pseudocysts, a significant portion consist of cystic neoplasms, which are estimated to represent 10% to 15% of all primary pancreatic cystic lesions.8 Given the growing clinical relevance of these tumors, a keen understanding of their natural history and pathophysiology is needed. This article reviews pancreatic cystic neoplasms, with a focus on the challenges encountered in their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20159515

  3. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  4. Interstitial Cajal-like cells in human gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Hinescu, Mihail E; Ardeleanu, Carmen; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Laurentziu M

    2007-08-01

    We describe here an interstitial Cajal-like cell type (ICLC) in human gallbladder, resembling the archetypal enteric interstitial cells of Cajal. Gallbladder ICLC were demonstrated in fresh preparations (tissue cryosections) using methylene-blue, and fixed specimens in Epon semi-thin sections stained with toluidine blue or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The positive diagnosis of gallbladder ICLC was further verified by immunohistochemistry: CD117/c-kit, CD34, and another 16 antigens: vimentin, desmin, nestin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, NK-1, S-100, PGP-9.5, tau protein, chromogranin A, NSE, GFAP, CD1a, CD62-P, CD68, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Double immunostaining was performed for CD117, CD34 and CD117 and nestin, respectively. In fresh specimens, the spatial density of gallbladder ICLC was 100-110 cells/mm(2). ICLC mainly appeared beneath the epithelium and in muscularis (about 7%, and approximately 5%, respectively). In toto, ICLC represent in gallbladder approximately 5.5% of subepithelial cells. TEM showed that diagnostic criteria were fulfilled by ICLC. Moreover, TEM indicated that the main ultrastructural distinctive feature for ICLC, the cell processes, develop into the characteristic shape at a relatively early stage of development. It remains to be established if, in humans, ICLC are involved in gallbladder (dis)functions (e.g. pace-making, secretion (auto-, juxta- and/or paracrine), intercellular signaling, or stone formation).

  5. Giant gallbladder: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, A.V.; Borodach, A.V.; Fedin, E.N.; Khromova, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Reports of a giant gallbladder are rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 77-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of dull pain in the right half of the abdomen and a palpable mass at the same place. A computerized tomography scan revealed an extremely enlarged gallbladder. Open cholecystectomy was performed. The volume of the removed organ was as much as 3.35 L. Follow-up after 18 months showed that the patient was well. Examination revealed no significant acquired or congenital anomalies that might explain the excessive enlargement of the gallbladder. DISCUSSION We define a ‘giant’ gallbladder as an extreme enlargement of the organ with a volume exceeding 1.5 L, so that its weight is comparable to or even exceeds the mean (estimated) weight of the adult liver (1.5 kg). The first clinical presentation of such an enlargement is likely to differ from any other gallbladder disease, but rather to resemble a tumour or cyst of the abdominal cavity. CONCLUSION A giant gallbladder is a special clinical and pathological entity in surgical practice, of unknown origin. It may develop in patients of any age, and mimics a large abdominal tumour or peritoneal cyst. Both the diagnostic process and surgical treatment demand non-routine approaches. Early and late follow-up results seem to be favourable. PMID:25194602

  6. Influence of gallstones and ursodeoxycholic acid therapy on gallbladder emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Forgacs, I.C.; Maisey, M.N.; Murphy, G.M.; Dowling, R.H.

    1984-08-01

    Altered gallbladder motility could predispose to, or result from, gallstone formation and could also explain the alleged relief of biliary colic seen during bile acid therapy. Therefore, in 14 controls, 25 patients with radiolucent gallstones, and 14 patients with radiopaque gallstones, the authors used two techniques to measure gallbladder contraction--radionuclide imaging and real-time ultrasound--in response to one of two stimuli--a Lundh meal or intravenous cholecystokinin-octapeptide. Using the radionuclide technique, postprandial gallbladder emptying (t1/2) was prolonged both in patients with radiopaque and radiolucent gallstones when compared with controls. In patients with radiolucent stones, the t1/2 of gallbladder emptying became further prolonged after 1 mo of therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid. A similar pattern of results was seen after cholecystokinin-octapeptide and also with real-time ultrasound. Thus, after both stimuli and using two independent techniques, gallbladder contraction was reduced in patients with gallstones. The slower and less complete gallbladder emptying with ursotherapy might explain the reduction in biliary colic noted during treatment.

  7. Gallbladder cancer epidemiology, pathogenesis and molecular genetics: Recent update.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aarti; Sharma, Kiran Lata; Gupta, Annapurna; Yadav, Alka; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-06-14

    Gallbladder cancer is a malignancy of biliary tract which is infrequent in developed countries but common in some specific geographical regions of developing countries. Late diagnosis and deprived prognosis are major problems for treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The dramatic associations of this orphan cancer with various genetic and environmental factors are responsible for its poorly defined pathogenesis. An understanding to the relationship between epidemiology, molecular genetics and pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer can add new insights to its undetermined pathophysiology. Present review article provides a recent update regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular genetics of gallbladder cancer. We systematically reviewed published literature on gallbladder cancer from online search engine PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Various keywords used for retrieval of articles were Gallbladder, cancer Epidemiology, molecular genetics and bullion operators like AND, OR, NOT. Cross references were manually searched from various online search engines (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed,https://scholar.google.co.in/, http://www.medline.com/home.jsp). Most of the articles published from 1982 to 2015 in peer reviewed journals have been included in this review.

  8. Gallbladder cancer epidemiology, pathogenesis and molecular genetics: Recent update

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aarti; Sharma, Kiran Lata; Gupta, Annapurna; Yadav, Alka; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a malignancy of biliary tract which is infrequent in developed countries but common in some specific geographical regions of developing countries. Late diagnosis and deprived prognosis are major problems for treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The dramatic associations of this orphan cancer with various genetic and environmental factors are responsible for its poorly defined pathogenesis. An understanding to the relationship between epidemiology, molecular genetics and pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer can add new insights to its undetermined pathophysiology. Present review article provides a recent update regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular genetics of gallbladder cancer. We systematically reviewed published literature on gallbladder cancer from online search engine PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Various keywords used for retrieval of articles were Gallbladder, cancer Epidemiology, molecular genetics and bullion operators like AND, OR, NOT. Cross references were manually searched from various online search engines (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed,https://scholar.google.co.in/, http://www.medline.com/home.jsp). Most of the articles published from 1982 to 2015 in peer reviewed journals have been included in this review. PMID:28652652

  9. A genetic model for gallbladder carcinogenesis and its dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, S. G.; Dutt, A.; Chaudhary, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer, although regarded as the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, continues to be associated with a dismal overall survival even in the present day. While complete surgical removal of the tumour offers a good chance of cure, only a fraction of the patients are amenable to curative surgery owing to their delayed presentation. Moreover, the current contribution of adjuvant therapies towards prolonging survival is marginal, at best. Thus, understanding the biology of the disease will not only enable a better appreciation of the pathways of progression but also facilitate the development of an accurate genetic model for gallbladder carcinogenesis and dissemination. This review provides an updated, evidence-based model of the pathways of carcinogenesis in gallbladder cancer and its dissemination. The model proposed could serve as the scaffolding for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in gallbladder carcinogenesis. A better understanding of the pathways involved in gallbladder tumorigenesis will serve to identify patients at risk for the cancer (and who thus could be offered prophylactic cholecystectomy) as well as aid oncologists in planning the most suitable treatment for a particular patient, thereby setting us on the vanguard of transforming the current treatment paradigm for gallbladder cancer. PMID:24705974

  10. 3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.

  11. Bovine gallbladder muscularis: Source of a myogenic receptor for cholecystokinin

    SciTech Connect

    Schjoldager, B.; Shaw, M.J.; Powers, S.P.; Schmalz, P.E.; Szurszewski, J.; Miller, L.J. )

    1988-03-01

    Despite being a classic target for the gastrointestinal peptide hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), the gallbladder CCK receptor is not well characterized. Pharmacological studies of small species suggest that CCK action can be mediated by direct myogenic or by both myogenic and neurogenic receptors. To prepare for the biochemical characterization of a gallbladder CCK receptor and to define the subtype of the receptor being studied. The authors have performed autoradiographic localization and pharmacological characterization of CCK receptors on bovine gallbladder. Autoradiography demonstrated high-affinity specific CCK-binding sites only on the muscularis. CCK-8 stimulated tonic contraction of longitudinal strips of gallbladder muscularis in a concentration-dependent manner. Antagonism at the cholinergic receptor with 1{mu}M atropine or axonal transmission with 1{mu}M tetrodotoxin did not modify CCK-induced contraction, supporting a direct myogenic effect of this hormone. Optimal electrical field stimulation to elicit a neuronal response resulted in muscle strip relaxation, which was abolished with adrenergic blockade. Although acetylcholine administration stimulated contraction, electrical field stimulation did not, even in the presence of phentolamine, propranolol, and/or CCK. Thus, in bovine gallbladder muscularis, there is evidence for a functional CCK receptor only on smooth muscle cells. Demonstration of a single, high-affinity specific CCK-binding site on an enriched plasma membrane preparation of bovine gallbladder muscularis is consistent with this representing a myogenic CCK receptor.

  12. Clinicopathologic characteristics of young patients with gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Do, Sung-Im; Lee, Hyoun Wook; Sohn, Jin Hee; Kim, Kyungeun

    2017-03-01

    Gallbladder cancer is the most common biliary tract cancer and the fifth most common cancer of the digestive system. However, the clinicopathologic features of gallbladder cancer in young Korean patients have not been studied. This study included 101 consecutive cases of gallbladder cancer that underwent cholecystectomy at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital from December 1990 to March 2011. The patients were divided into two groups by age at initial diagnosis of gallbladder cancer: a young patient group aged less than 45 years and an old patient group aged 45 or older. The young patient group included 10 patients with mean age of 38 (range, 29-44 years). Compared with the old patient group, the young patient group showed polypoid tumor appearance (p=0.014), lower pT stage (p=0.023), more frequent adenoma background (p=0.009), and less frequent dysplasia in remaining mucosa (p=0.001). The disease-related survival rate after 13.5 months was significantly more favorable for the young patients. Gallbladder cancers in young Korean patients have distinct clinicopathologic features of a high frequency of cancer arising in adenoma, rare association with intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, and a favorable patient's prognosis. These findings suggest that the adenoma-carcinoma pathway could contribute more to gallbladder cancer carcinogenesis in young Korean patients than the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma pathway.

  13. p53 and beta-catenin expression in gallbladder tissues and correlation with tumor progression in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mila; Sakhuja, Puja; Singh, Shivendra; Agarwal, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    The inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene and activation of the proto-oncogene are key steps in the development of human cancer. p53 and beta-catenin are examples of such genes, respectively. In the present study, our aim was to determine the role of these genes in the carcinogenesis of the gallbladder by immunohistochemistry. Sections from paraffin-embedded blocks of surgically resected specimens of gallbladder cancer (GBC) (80 cases), chronic cholecystitis (60 cases), and control gallbladders (10 cases) were stained with the monoclonal antibody p53, and polyclonal antibody beta-catenin. Results were scored semiquantitatively and statistical analysis performed. p53 expression was scored as percentage of the nuclei stained. Beta-catenin expression was scored as type of expression-membranous, cytoplasmic, and nuclear staining. Beta-catenin expression was correlated with tumor invasiveness, differentiation, and stage. Over-expression of p53 was seen in 56.25% of GBC cases and was not seen in chronic cholecystitis or in control gallbladders. p53 expression in gallbladder cancer was significantly higher than in inflammatory or control gallbladders (P < 0.0001). p53 expression increased with increasing tumor grade (P = 0.039). Beta-catenin nuclear expression was seen in 75% cases of gallbladder cancer and in no case of chronic cholecystitis and control gallbladder. Beta-catenin nuclear expression increased with tumor depth invasiveness, and grade (P = 0.028 and P = 0.0152, respectively). p53 and beta-catenin nuclear expression is significantly higher in GBC. p53 expression correlates with increasing tumor grade while beta-catenin nuclear expression correlates with tumor grade and depth of invasion, thus suggesting a role for these genes in tumor progression of GBC.

  14. p53 and Beta-Catenin Expression in Gallbladder Tissues and Correlation with Tumor Progression in Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mila; Sakhuja, Puja; Singh, Shivendra; Agarwal, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: The inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene and activation of the proto-oncogene are key steps in the development of human cancer. p53 and beta-catenin are examples of such genes, respectively. In the present study, our aim was to determine the role of these genes in the carcinogenesis of the gallbladder by immunohistochemistry. Patients and Methods: Sections from paraffin-embedded blocks of surgically resected specimens of gallbladder cancer (GBC) (80 cases), chronic cholecystitis (60 cases), and control gallbladders (10 cases) were stained with the monoclonal antibody p53, and polyclonal antibody beta-catenin. Results were scored semiquantitatively and statistical analysis performed. p53 expression was scored as percentage of the nuclei stained. Beta-catenin expression was scored as type of expression–membranous, cytoplasmic, and nuclear staining. Beta-catenin expression was correlated with tumor invasiveness, differentiation, and stage. Results: Over-expression of p53 was seen in 56.25% of GBC cases and was not seen in chronic cholecystitis or in control gallbladders. p53 expression in gallbladder cancer was significantly higher than in inflammatory or control gallbladders (P < 0.0001). p53 expression increased with increasing tumor grade (P = 0.039). Beta-catenin nuclear expression was seen in 75% cases of gallbladder cancer and in no case of chronic cholecystitis and control gallbladder. Beta-catenin nuclear expression increased with tumor depth invasiveness, and grade (P = 0.028 and P = 0.0152, respectively). Conclusion: p53 and beta-catenin nuclear expression is significantly higher in GBC. p53 expression correlates with increasing tumor grade while beta-catenin nuclear expression correlates with tumor grade and depth of invasion, thus suggesting a role for these genes in tumor progression of GBC. PMID:23319036

  15. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: report of 160 cases with special reference to diagnosis and treatment in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingjing; Wu, Gang; Zhou, Zhongwen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder polypoid lesions is difficult, justifying the lack of consensus on the appropriate treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of each type of polypoid lesion of the gallbladder and the indications for surgery. Methods: Between January 1999 and December 2012, clinical data were retrospectively correlated with the histopathologic characteristics of polypoid lesions in 160 patients who underwent cholecystectomy. Results: A total of 160 patients with benign polypoid lesions (including 49 tumor-like lesions and 75 adenomas) and 14 patients with malignant polypoid lesions (including 2 adenocarcinomas and 12 adenomas with malignant changes) were included in this study. One hundred and five (65.6%) of the patients had associated symptoms, and 70 (43.8%) had gallstones. Of the 49 patients with tumor-like lesions, 49 (100%) were correlated with chronic cholecystitis. A total of 72 (83.8%) patients with neoplasms had a single polyp compared with 25 (59.5%) of those with non-neoplastic polyps. The mean age of the patients with malignancy was 59.07±13.465 years, and 12 (85.7%) of these patients were over 50 years of age. The mean diameters of the benign and malignant polyps were 1.0±0.77 cm and 2.15±1.16 cm, respectively. Ten (100%) of the patients with malignancy had polyps of over 1 cm in size, as shown by ultrasound. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that tumor-like lesions, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas are the most common polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. Cholecystecomy should be done in patients with symptoms. The risk of malignancy is high in patients over 50 years of age; those with polyps with diameters of greater than 10 mm; and those with single polypoid lesions. The remainder of PLG patients without cholecystectomy should be followed up at regular intervals. PMID:26617893

  16. CT of soft-tissue neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weekes, R.G.; McLeod, R.A.; Reiman, H.M.; Pritchard, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    The computed tomographic scans (CT) of 84 patients with untreated soft-tissue neoplasms were studied, 75 with primary and nine with secondary lesions. Each scan was evaluated using several criteria: homogeneity and density, presence and type of calcification, presence of bony destruction, involvement of multiple muscle groups, definition of adjacent fat, border definition, and vessel or nerve involvement. CT demonstrated the lesion in all 84 patients and showed excellent anatomic detail in 64 of the 75 patients with primary neoplasms. The CT findings were characteristic enough to suggest the histology of the neoplasm in only 13 lesions (nine lipomas, three hemangiomas, one neurofibroma). No malignant neoplasm had CT characteristics specific enough to differentiate it from any other malignant tumor. However, malignant neoplasms could be differentiated from benign neoplasms in 88% of the cases.

  17. Autoimmune pancreatitis type-1 associated with intraduct papillary mucinous neoplasm: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Eva C; Salcedo, Maria T; Cuatrecasas, Míriam; De León, Hannah; Merino, Xavier; Navarro, Salvador; Ginès, Angels; Abu-Suboh, Monder; Balsells, Joaquim; Fernández-Cruz, Laureano; Molero, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis lesions usually embrace both intraduct papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Patients at genetically-determined high risk of PDAC often harbor IPMN and/or chronic pancreatitis, suggesting IPMN, chronic pancreatitis and PDAC may share pathogenetic mechanisms. Chronic autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) may also herald PDAC. Concurrent IPMN and AIP have been reported in few patients. Here we describe two patients with IPMN who developed type-1 AIP fulfilling the Honolulu and Boston diagnostic criteria. AIP diffusively affected the whole pancreas, as well as peripancreatic lymph nodes and the gallbladder. Previous pancreatic resection of focal IPMN did not show features of AIP. One of the patients carried a CFTR class-I mutation. Of notice, serum IgG4 levels gradually decreased to normal values after IPMN excision. Common risk factors to IPMN and AIP may facilitate its coincidental generation. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath

    2012-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevention and mitigation of radiation induced cancers. This review article focuses on the incidence, etiology, and risk factors for SMN in various organs after radiotherapy. PMID:23249860

  19. Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones improves rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing

    2013-08-01

    To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were "fresh" and in the gallbladder stones were "old." Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma.

  20. The role of endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis of gallbladder diseases.

    PubMed

    Chantarojanasiri, Tanyaporn; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Kawashima, Hiroki; Ohno, Eizaburo; Kongkam, Pradermchai; Goto, Hidemi

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has recently played an increasing role in the diagnosis of gallbladder diseases. This review aims to summarize the role of EUS in the diagnosis of gallbladder lesions. EUS provides high-resolution images that can improve the diagnosis of gallbladder polypoid lesions and microlithiasis, in addition to evaluating gallbladder thickness and staging of gallbladder carcinoma. Contrast-enhancing agents may be useful for the differential diagnosis of gallbladder lesions, but the evidence of their effectiveness is still limited and further studies are required in this area to establish its usefulness. Endoscopic ultrasound combined with fine needle aspiration has played an increasing role in providing histological diagnosis of gallbladder tumors in addition to gallbladder thickening.

  1. Identification of prosaposin and transgelin as potential biomarkers for gallbladder cancer using quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A.; Barbhuiya, Mustafa A.; Bhunia, Shushruta; Subbannayya, Tejaswini; Gowda, Harsha; Advani, Jayshree; Shrivastav, Braj R.; Navani, Sanjay; Leal, Pamela; Roa, Juan Carlos; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Gupta, Sanjeev; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh; Tiwari, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is an uncommon but lethal malignancy with particularly high incidence in Chile, India, Japan and China. There is a paucity of unbiased large-scale studies investigating molecular basis of gallbladder cancer. To systematically identify differentially regulated proteins in gallbladder cancer, iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics of gallbladder cancer was carried out using Fourier transform high resolution mass spectrometry. Of the 2575 proteins identified, proteins upregulated in gallbladder cancer included several lysosomal proteins such as prosaposin, cathepsin Z and cathepsin H. Downregulated proteins included serine protease HTRA1 and transgelin, which have been reported to be downregulated in several other cancers. Novel biomarker candidates including prosaposin and transgelin were validated to be upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in gallbladder cancer using tissue microarrays. Our study provides the first large scale proteomic characterization of gallbladder cancer which will serve as a resource for future discovery of biomarkers for gallbladder cancer. PMID:24657443

  2. Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy: the distended photon-deficient gallbladder

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Segal, H.B.; Caride, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with distended, photon-deficient gallbladders are presented. Markedly delayed appearance of Tc-99m HIDA in a distended gallbladder may represent chronic cholecystitis, partial obstruction of the common bile duct, or physiologic gallbladder distention. Obtaining delayed images is important in this group of patients to avoid premature diagnosis of cystic-duct obstruction. If the distended gallbladder fails to visualize within 24 hr, hydrops with cysic-duct obstruction is suggested.

  3. Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy: the distended photon-deficient gallbladder

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Segal, H.B.; Caride, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with distended, photon-deficient gallbladders are presented. Markedly delayed appearance of Tc-99m HIDA in a distended gallbladder may represent chronic cholescystitis, partial obstruction of the common bile duct or physiologic gallbladder distention. Obtaining delayed images is important in this group of patients to avoid premature diagnosis of cystic-duct obstruction. If the distended gallbladder fails to visualize within 24 h, hydrops with cystic-duct obstruction is suggested.

  4. Isolated rupture of the gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; da Silva, Dorivaldo Lopes; Elias, Naim Carlos; Sica, Gustavo Tricta Augusto; Fávaro, Murillo de Lima; Ribeiro, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is a rare event recognized on evaluation and treatment of other visceral injuries during laparotomy. Isolated gallbladder rupture secondary to blunt abdominal trauma is even more uncommon. The clinical presentation of gallbladder injury is variable, resulting in a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a patient who suffered an isolated gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:23843066

  5. Isolated traumatic gallbladder rupture: US findings and the role of repeat US in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Akay, Hatice Ozturkmen; Senturk, Senem; Cigdem, M Kemal; Bayrak, Aylin H; Ozdemir, Erdal

    2008-06-01

    We represent the US findings of isolated gallbladder rupture caused by blunt abdominal trauma in a 13-year-old boy. At the initial US examination, although a pericholecystic fluid collection was observed, the mildly collapsed gallbladder was regarded as a contracted gallbladder. Even though the patient was haemodynamically stable, repeat US examination after 24 h revealed gallbladder perforation. In haemodynamically stable trauma patients repeated US examinations can be useful and are strongly recommended.

  6. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology. PMID:26351482

  7. Gallstone disease: Epidemiology of gallbladder stone disease.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Eldon A

    2006-01-01

    Gallstone disease is common: >700,000 cholecystectomies and costs of approximately 6.5 billion dollars annually in the U.S. The burden of disease is epidemic in American Indians (60-70%); a corresponding decrease occurs in Hispanics of mixed Indian origin. Ten to fifteen per cent of white adults in developed countries harbour gallstones. Frequency is further reduced in Black Americans, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, cholesterol gallstones predominate; 15% are black pigment. East Asians develop brown pigment stones in bile ducts, associated with biliary infection or parasites, or in intrahepatic ducts (hepatolithiasis). Certain risk factors for gallstones are immutable: female gender, increasing age and ethnicity/family (genetic traits). Others are modifiable: obesity, the metabolic syndrome, rapid weight loss, certain diseases (cirrhosis, Crohn's disease) and gallbladder stasis (from spinal cord injury or drugs like somatostatin). The only established dietary risk is a high caloric intake. Protective factors include diets containing fibre, vegetable protein, nuts, calcium, vitamin C, coffee and alcohol, plus physical activity.

  8. Intracellular calcium modulates gallbladder ion transport.

    PubMed

    Cates, J A; Saunders, K D; Abedin, M Z; Roslyn, J J

    1991-06-01

    Although experimentally induced cholesterol gallstone formation has been associated with altered gallbladder (GB) absorption and increased biliary Ca2+, the relationship between these events remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]ec) influences GB ion transport. Whether the effects of [Ca2+]ec are mediated by changes in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]ic) has not been determined. This study was designed to define the effects of altered [Ca2+]ic on GB ion transport. Prairie dog GBs were mounted in a Ussing chamber and short-circuit current (Isc), potential difference (Vms), and resistance (Rt) were recorded. Mucosal surfaces were exposed to either Dantrolene (Dt) or nickel (Ni2+). Dt "traps" [Ca2+]ic within intracellular organelles, thereby lowering cytosolic Ca2+; and Ni2+ prevents influx of [Ca2+]ec, presumably by binding Ca2+ channels. Although Dt reduced both Isc and Vms (P less than 0.01), these effects were transient. Transport recovery was probably due to increased [Ca2+]ec influx with restoration of [Ca2+]ic. Ni2+ resulted in sustained decreases in Isc and Vms (P less than 0.05) despite subsequent addition of 10 mM Ca2+. These findings are consistent with the prevention of [Ca2+]ec influx by Ni2+. We conclude that: (1) [Ca2+]ic may be a modulator of GB ion transport and (2) previously reported [Ca2+]ec effects on ion transport may be mediated through [Ca2+]ic concentration changes.

  9. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration for acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rassameehiran, Supannee; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Early cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis may not be possible in some clinical settings. Percutaneous gallbladder aspiration (PGBA) offers an alternative approach, but the benefits and risks of this procedure are unclear. We synthesized data on the outcomes of PGBA in acute cholecystitis patients using data sources from online databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE, and bibliographies of included studies from January 2000 through December 2015. Two reviewers independently reviewed and critiqued the quality of each study. Seven eligible studies met our criteria. The success rates in single PGBA and repetitive PGBA (2–4 times) were 50% to 93% and 76% to 96%, respectively. Complication rates were 0% to 8% and were unrelated to the size of needle gauge used for aspiration and the number of aspirations. Salvage percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) and urgent surgery were required in 0% to 43% of patients and 0% to 4% of patients, respectively. Two studies with antibiotic instillation had clinical success rates of 95% and 96%. In conclusion, repetitive PGBA combined with antibiotic instillation and salvage PC are useful alternatives to early cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis. PMID:27695167

  10. In vivo gallbladder absorption: a new dual-isotope technique

    SciTech Connect

    Conter, R.L.; Porter-Fink, V.; Denbesten, L.; Roslyn, J.J.

    1986-10-01

    Available methods for measuring in vivo gallbladder absorption preclude the use of animals in which hepatic bile enters the gallbladder via accessory or aberrant channels. However, accessory bile ducts are present in many of the animal models currently used in gallstone research. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate a new dual-isotope technique that corrects for accessory bile flow and to compare data on electrolyte and water absorption with those derived from the standard, single-isotope technique. Prairie dogs underwent gallbladder exclusion by cystic duct ligation and common bile duct cannulation. Carbon 14-polyethylene glycol-labeled lactated Ringer's solution was instilled into the gallbladder while tritiated cholic acid was administered intravenously to label the bile acid pool. There is no correlation between water or electrolyte absorption and time, nor between water and electrolyte absorption, when these parameters are calculated by the standard, single-isotope technique. In contrast, use of the dual-isotope technique quantifies accessory bile duct flow and yields a linear increase in water and electrolyte absorption, both of which are time dependent. These data suggest that the dual-isotope technique provides a means to accurately measure in vivo gallbladder absorption in animals with or without accessory bile ducts.

  11. Gallbladder opacification on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced CT scan.

    PubMed

    Karam, Adib R; Scortegagna, Eduardo; Chen, Byron Y; Dupuis, Carolyn S; Coughlin, Dennis D

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the radiologist's ability to identify excreted gadoxetate disodium within the gallbladder on CT scan. Thirty three healthy adults underwent imaging of the liver during work-up for potential liver donation. Three patients had undergone prior cholecystectomy and therefore were excluded. Imaging consisted of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) and multiphase contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. Two fellowship-trained abdominal imaging radiologists, who were blinded to the MRC images and the contrast agent used during MRC, independently reviewed the CT scans of the 30 patients that were included. The scans were evaluated for the presence or absence of abnormal hyperdensity within the gallbladder. Three patients did not receive intravenous gadoxetate disodium, 4 patients had their MRC after the CT scan, and 1 patient had the CT scans 5 days following the MRC. Twenty two patients had the CT scan within 24 h following the gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRC. Of the 22 patients expected to have gadolinium in the gallbladder, both reviewers identified hyperdensity in the same 20 patients (90%). Both reviewers reported no abnormal hyperdensity within the gallbladder in the remaining 10 patients. CT scan can reveal excreted gadoxetate disodium within the gallbladder lumen and therefore gadoxetate disodium-enhanced CT scan can potentially play a role in the evaluation of cystic duct patency and work-up of acute cholecystitis.

  12. Ectopic pancreas associated with choledochal cyst and multiseptate gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Bahadir, Burak; Ozdamar, Sukru O; Gun, Banu D; Bektas, Sibel; Numanoglu, K Varim; Kuzey, Gamze M

    2006-01-01

    Congenital choledochal cyst is a rarely seen malformation of childhood, particularly when associated with multiseptate gallbladder or ectopic pancreas. The current case represents a 15-day-old boy with jaundice. Ultrasonography suggested a cystic lesion, probably of the common bile duct. The patient underwent a total excision of type I choledochal cyst and gallbladder with Roux-en-Y anastomosis, and a wedge biopsy from the liver. Gross examination revealed multiple septa dividing the gallbladder into multiple compartments. The outer and inner surfaces of the choledochal cyst were unremarkable. Microscopically, the cyst wall was composed of dense fibrous tissue with a single layer of cubic to columnar cells constituting the overlying epithelium. Serial sections incidentally revealed ectopic pancreatic tissue lying along the cyst wall characterized by acini, islets, and ductal structures with endocrine cells reactive for chromogranin A. Septa dividing the gallbladder were composed of fibrotic stalks containing smooth muscle fibers. Areas of papillary hyperplasia and intestinal metaplasia of gallbladder epithelium were also noted. The liver biopsy specimen demonstrated the presence of intrahepatic bile ducts, subsequently confirmed by cytokeratin 7. To our knowledge, this case represents the 1st one associated with these 3 entities and only the 2nd choledochal cyst with ectopic pancreatic tissue in its wall.

  13. [Gallbladder motor activity in patients with virus hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Mamos, Arkadiusz; Wichan, Paweł; Chojnacki, Jan; Grzegorczyk, Krzysztof

    2003-12-01

    In acute stage of virus hepatitis B patients often complain of dyspeptic discomfort. They may be a consequence of alimentary tract motor activity disorders including these of gallbladder. Routine ultrasonography in an early phase of virus hepatitis often reveals gallbladder wall thickening what may confirm the above thesis. Thus, a group of 15 patients in an acute phase of virus hepatitis B was subjected to examinations. Gallbladder motor activity was assessed by ultrasonographic method determining its total volume and ejection fraction and volume after test meal stimulus. First examination was performed in the first week since the appearance of yellowing of the walls, successive in 4 and 8 week of the disease. Obtained results were compared to the values obtained in the group of 25 healthy volunteers. It was found out that gallbladder volume was significantly decreased and ejection fraction increased in the acute phase of virus hepatitis B than in the controls. This may speak for gallbladder hyperreactivity in patients in the course of virus hepatitis B. These disorders decreased during two-month observation but even in the 8 week the investigated parameters differed from those found in the control group.

  14. A decade of experience with injuries to the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Considering that injuries to the gallbladder are rare, the purpose of this study was to evaluate injury patterns, operative procedures and outcomes in patients with trauma to the gallbladder. A retrospective review of traumatic injuries to the gallbladder at an urban level 1 trauma center from 1996 to 2008 was performed. Injuries were identified via imaging or during operative exploration. Results Injuries to the gallbladder occurred in 45 patients, 40 (89%) of whom suffered penetrating trauma. Associated injuries were present in 44 (98%) patients, including 10 (22%) pancreatic injuries requiring repair and/or drainage. Patients were severely injured (49% hemodynamically unstable at presentation; mean Injury Severity Score = 20; mean length of stay = 22 days; mortality rate = 24%). Cholecystectomy was performed in 42 patients (93%), while the remaining 3 had drainage only as part of a "damage control" operation related to their critical physiologic status. Injuries to the extrahepatic biliary ducts occurred in 3 patients (7%) as well. Although all patients developed trauma related complications, none were a direct result of their biliary tract injuries. Conclusion Injuries to the gallbladder are rare even in the busiest urban trauma centers. Almost all patients have associated intra-abdominal injuries, and nearly 50% of patients are hemodynamically unstable on admission. Rapid cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for all mechanisms of injury, except when the first operative procedure is of the damage control type. PMID:20398307

  15. Estrogen-dependent gallbladder carcinogenesis in LXRbeta-/- female mice.

    PubMed

    Gabbi, Chiara; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Barros, Rodrigo; Korach-Andrè, Marion; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2010-08-17

    Gallbladder cancer is a highly aggressive disease with poor prognosis that is two to six times more frequent in women than men. The development of gallbladder cancer occurs over a long time (more than 15 y) and evolves from chronic inflammation to dysplasia/metaplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In the present study we found that, in female mice in which the oxysterol receptor liver X receptor-beta (LXRbeta) has been inactivated, preneoplastic lesions of the gallbladder developed and evolved to cancer in old animals. LXRbeta is a nuclear receptor involved in the control of lipid homeostasis, glucose metabolism, inflammation, proliferation, and CNS development. LXRbeta(-/-) female gallbladders were severely inflamed, with regions of dysplasia and high cell density, hyperchromasia, metaplasia, and adenomas. No abnormalities were evident in male mice, nor in LXRalpha(-/-) or LXRalpha(-/-)beta(-/-) animals of either sex. Interestingly, the elimination of estrogens with ovariectomy prevented development of preneoplastic lesions in LXRbeta(-/-) mice. The etiopathological mechanism seems to involve TGF-beta signaling, as the precancerous lesions were characterized by strong nuclear reactivity of phospho-SMAD-2 and SMAD-4 and loss of E-cadherin expression. Upon ovariectomy, E-cadherin was reexpressed on the cell membranes and immunoreactivity of pSMAD-2 in the nuclei was reduced. These findings suggest that LXRbeta in a complex interplay with estrogens and TGF-beta could play a crucial role in the malignant transformation of the gallbladder epithelium.

  16. New approach to gallbladder ultrasonic images analysis and lesions recognition.

    PubMed

    Bodzioch, Sławomir; Ogiela, Marek R

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach to gallbladder ultrasonic image processing and analysis towards detection of disease symptoms on processed images. First, in this paper, there is presented a new method of filtering gallbladder contours from USG images. A major stage in this filtration is to segment and section off areas occupied by the said organ. In most cases this procedure is based on filtration that plays a key role in the process of diagnosing pathological changes. Unfortunately ultrasound images present among the most troublesome methods of analysis owing to the echogenic inconsistency of structures under observation. This paper provides for an inventive algorithm for the holistic extraction of gallbladder image contours. The algorithm is based on rank filtration, as well as on the analysis of histogram sections on tested organs. The second part concerns detecting lesion symptoms of the gallbladder. Automating a process of diagnosis always comes down to developing algorithms used to analyze the object of such diagnosis and verify the occurrence of symptoms related to given affection. Usually the final stage is to make a diagnosis based on the detected symptoms. This last stage can be carried out through either dedicated expert systems or more classic pattern analysis approach like using rules to determine illness basing on detected symptoms. This paper discusses the pattern analysis algorithms for gallbladder image interpretation towards classification of the most frequent illness symptoms of this organ.

  17. Preoperative predictive factors for gallbladder cholesterol polyp diagnosed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for polypoid lesions of gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyojin; Park, Inseok; Cho, Hyunjin; Gwak, Geumhee; Yang, Keunho; Bae, Byung-Noe; Kim, Hong-Ju; Kim, Young Duk

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims We investigated patients' clinical and radiological data to determine preoperative factors that predict cholesterol gallbladder (GB) polyps of large size, which can be helpful for decision on further diagnostic tools. Methods In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 126 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for GB polyps >10 mm diagnosed preoperatively by abdominal ultrasonography between February 2002 and February 2016 in Department of Surgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital. Patients were divided into non-cholesterol polyps group and cholesterol polyps group, based on the postoperative pathologic diagnosis. Clinical and radiological data, such as gender, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), laboratory findings, size, number and shape of the polypoid lesions, and presence of the concurrent GB stone were compared between the two groups. Results Of the 126 cases, 73 had cholesterol polyps (57.9%) and 53 cases were non-cholesterol polyps (42.1%). The younger age (<48.5 years), size of polyp <13.25 mm and multiple polyps were independent predictive variables for cholesterol polyps, with odd ratios (OR) of 2.352 (p=0.045), 5.429 (p<0.001) and 0.472 (p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Age, size and polyp number were used to predict cholesterol GB polyp among polypoid lesions of the gallbladder >10 mm. For cases in which these factors are not applicable, it is strongly recommended to evaluate further diagnostic tools, such as computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography and tumor markers. PMID:28261697

  18. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Unresectable Liver, Bile Duct, or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  19. Diffuse lichenplanopilaris and multiple squamous neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Leigh; Eduardo, Castro; Butler, David F

    2015-01-15

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory process that can affect the skin, mucosa, and hair follicles. An increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma has been noted in lichen planus of the mucosa. Rarely, in chronic, hypertrophic lichen planus of the skin, squamous cell neoplasms have been reported. We report a case of new onset lichen planopilaris with multiple squamous cell neoplasms.

  20. 9 CFR 311.11 - Neoplasms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Neoplasms. 311.11 Section 311.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.11 Neoplasms. (a)...

  1. Pathology of the gallbladder in a child with metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Kathryn; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan

    2015-01-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by deficient activity of arylsulfatase A, leading to an accumulation of sulfatide in myelinating cells and progressive central and peripheral demyelination. Sulfatide also accumulates in various organs, most notably the gallbladder. Gallbladder mucosal hyperplasia with papillomatosis, in the setting of abdominal pain and hemobilia, is often demonstrated by sonography. We present a histologic and ultrastructural description of these alterations in a 5-year-old girl with MLD who presented with abdominal pain and feeding intolerance. Gross and light microscopic analysis demonstrated diffuse villous hyperplasia of the gallbladder mucosa with intraepithelial and intravillous macrophage accumulations of metachromatic material. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated this material to comprise numerous membrane-bound inclusions composed of concentrically lamellated, dense material. The rarity of descriptions of this finding prompted this case report.

  2. [Etiopathogenic hypothesis on carcinoma of the gallbladder: our study].

    PubMed

    Rizzo, A G; Barbuscia, M; Sanò, M; Cancellieri, A; Nicotina, P; Stassi, G; Lemma, G; Lemma, F

    2005-01-01

    The authors are interested in determining causes of gallbladder cancer (GBC). By this intention, they theorize a correlation between genetic modifications (which are responsible of malignant transformation of biliary epithelium) and some intestinal infections. From 1999 to 2004 they observed 15 GBC and all 15 gallbladder have been analyzed histologically and from microbiological aspect; by these means from 1999 till 2004 they have studied also 30 persons with colelithiasis. The authors noticed that bile of both groups contained, in three cases in the first and in 8 cases in the second, a germ named Escherichia Coli which normally lives in intestine, while in 10 operated gallbladders of the first group and 12 of the second there was a positive for k-ras. They are studying to confirm their theories.

  3. Gallbladder intestinal metaplasia in Pakistani patients with gallstones.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Rizwan; Raza, Syed Ahsan; Ahmad, Zubair; Naeem, Sana; Pervez, Shahid; Siddiqui, Anwar Ali; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Azami, Rizwan

    2011-01-01

    The gallbladder specimens of patients who underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones between 2003 and 2005 were evaluated for the presence of Intestinal Metaplasia. (IM) and its risk factors. IM was positive in 39% of 293 patients tested, and in the comparative analysis of 114 metaplasia positive versus 179 negative patients, a high risk was found in patients who were 60 years or older [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 6.2]. Other factors with aOR greater than 1 were moderate to excessive use of chilies (1.8) and ethnic origin of North India (1.7). Screening method has yet to be devised for early detection of gallbladder cancer by identifying metaplastic lesions early in life. We believe that large geographic variation and lifestyle environmental factors associated with the development of gallbladder metaplasia and cancer mortality are concealed in our study that needs to be further explored.

  4. Selumetinib and Akt Inhibitor MK-2206 in Treating Patients With Refractory or Advanced Gallbladder or Bile Duct Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-08

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Adenocarcinoma With Squamous Metaplasia of the Gallbladder; Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Stage II Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

  5. [Analysis of primary site and pathology on 903 patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xudong; Liu, Meng; Liu, Qing; Yang, Zhiying; Liu, Jixi; Meng, Fanqiang; Wang, Zaiyong; Shi, Yanfen; Liu, Liguo; Zhang, Pan; Luo, Jie; Tan, Huangying

    2017-09-25

    To explore the primary site and pathological feature of neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN), especially the NEN of digestive system. Clinicopathological data of NEN patients at China-Japan Friendship Hospital from January 2012 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Tumor primary sites were summarized. Association between tumor site and pathological grading in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm(GEP-NEN) was examined. There were a total of 903 cases of NEN. Sites of primary tumor included the digestive system in 699 cases(77.4%), the thorax(including lung, thymus and mediastinum) in 87 cases(9.6%), other sites in 60 cases (6.6%), unknown in 57 cases(6.3%). Among 699 GEP-NEN cases, the primary sites included the stomachin in 207 cases (29.6%), pancreas in 201 (28.8%), rectumin in 185 (26.5%), duodenum in 43(6.2%), jejunum and ileum in 18(2.6%), appendix in 15 (2.1%), gallbladder in 11(1.6%), esophagus in 10(1.4%), and the colon in 9 cases (1.3%). Pathologically, the tumor grading was neuroendocrine tumor (NET) G1 in 336 cases(48.1%), NET G2 in 203 cases (29.0%), neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) G3 in 139 cases (19.9%). All the esophagus NEN(10/10), most gallbladder NEN(9/11) and colon NEN(6/9) were poorly-differentiated NEC (G3), while all appendix NEN(15/15), most stomach NEN(147/207, 71.0%), pancreas NEN (156/201, 77.6%), rectum NEN (169/185, 91.4%), duodenum NEN (31/43, 72.1%), jejunum and ileum NEN(16/18, 88.9%) were well-differentiated NET G1 or G2. The most common primary site of NEN is the digestive system. The stomach, pancreas and rectum are most common primary sitesof GEP-NEN. Difference in pathological grading is quite greatin different primary sites of GEP-NEN. Most NENs fromesophagus, colon and gallbladder are poorly-differentiated NEC.

  6. [Gallbladder ablation with a laser in an animal model].

    PubMed

    Jover Clos, Rafael José; Javurek, Germán Oscar; Alamo, Juan Pablo; Dionisio de Cabalier, María Elisa; Bustos, Héctor Faustino; Gramática, Luis

    2012-02-01

    Attempts to remove the gallbladder by non-surgical means began in the 1980's, by applying chemicals, heat or laser to remove its mucosa and reduce it to an innocuous scar. The aim of this work is to determine whether complete ablation of this organ is possible using total ablation by applying a diode laser. Thirty rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 10 animals. The gallbladder was surgically accessed and a 980 nm diode laser was applied endoluminally using fibre optics until it shrunk. Ethanol was used as a sclerosing agent plus a fibrin tail to seal the gallbladder lumen in one of the control groups, and a physiological solution was used in the rest. The animals were slaughtered at 65 days and the results of the procedure were observed macroscopically and histologically, evaluating the remains of the gallbladder lumen, fibrosis, and areas of re-epithelialisation. Statistical analysis was made using the Fisher test. Eight of the gallbladders treated by laser disappeared leaving a small sub-hepatic scar. There were no complications during or after surgery. The results were successful in only case in the ethanol group, and there was no ablation with physiological solution. The comparison of the results showed a significant positive difference in the group treated with laser compared to those with ethanol plus fibrin tail (P<.0055) and the physiological solution (P<.0007). Ablation of the gallbladder using a diode laser was possible in this experimental model. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Angioarchitecture of the rabbit extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Jackowiak, Hanna; Lametschwandtner, Alois

    2005-10-01

    The angioarchitecture of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder of the miniature rabbit was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of vascular corrosion casts. Light microscopy of Masson-stained, paraffin-embedded transverse tissue sections served to attribute cast vascular structures to defined layers of bile ducts and gallbladder. In all segments of the bile tract, a mucosal and a subserosal vascular network was found. In glandular segments, the mucosal network was composed of a meshwork of subepithelial and circumglandular capillaries, which serve the mucosal functions. Differences in the angioarchitectonic patterns existed only in the subserosal networks as hepatic ducts own one supplying arteriole only, while the common bile duct owns a well-defined rete arteriosum subserosum. A well-developed dense subserosus venous plexus was present throughout the bile tract. Vascular patterns of the gallbladder body resembled those of the bile duct, whereby the dense subserous venous plexus was located close to the mucosal capillary network. The subserosal network in the neck of the gallbladder resembled that of the cystic duct. Spatial changes of the mucosal vascular network during volume changes of the gallbladder were documented. Measurements from tissue sections revealed bile tract diameters of 220-400 microm (extrahepatic ducts), 500-650 microm (cystic duct), and 4-6 mm (common bile duct). Data gained from high-powered SEM micrographs of vascular corrosion casts revealed vessel diameters of 200 microm (cystic artery), 90-110 microm (cystic vein), 30-40 microm (feeding arterioles), and 25-110 microm (subserosal venules). Crypt diameters in the filled gallbladder were 300-1,500 mum; those in the contracted organ were 100-600 microm.

  8. Aging impairs Ca2+ sensitization pathways in gallbladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Macias, Beatriz; Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Camello-Almaraz, Cristina; Pascua, Patricia; Tresguerres, Jesus Af; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, Maria J

    2012-08-01

    Calcium sensitization is an important physiological process in agonist-induced contraction of smooth muscle. In brief, calcium sensitization is a pathway that leads to smooth muscle contraction independently of changes in [Ca(2+)](i) by mean of inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase. Aging has negative impacts on gallbladder contractile response due to partial impairment in calcium signaling and alterations in the contractile machinery. However, information regarding aging-induced alterations in calcium sensitization is scanty. We hypothesized that the calcium sensitization system is negatively affected by age. To investigate this, gallbladders were collected from adult (4 months old) and aged (22-24 months old) guinea pigs. To evaluate the contribution of calcium sensitization pathways we assayed the effect of the specific inhibitors Y-27632 and GF109203X on the "in vitro" isometric gallbladder contractions induced by agonist challenges. In addition, expression and phosphorylation (as activation index) of proteins participating in the calcium sensitization pathways were quantified by Western blotting. Aging reduced bethanechol- and cholecystokinin-evoked contractions, an effect associated with a reduction in MLC20 phosphorylation and in the effects of both Y-27632 and GF109203X. In addition, there was a drop in ROCK I, ROCK II, MYPT-1 and PKC expression and in the activation/phosphorylation of MYPT-1, PKC and CPI-17 in response to agonists. Interestingly, melatonin treatment for 4 weeks restored gallbladder contractile responses due to re-establishment of calcium sensitization pathways. These results demonstrate that age-related gallbladder hypocontractility is associated to alterations of calcium sensitization pathways and that melatonin treatment exerts beneficial effects in the recovery of gallbladder contractility.

  9. [Total gastrectomy for gastric neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Taschieri, A M; Rovati, M P; Elli, M; Pisacreta, M; Danelli, P G; Lesma, A; Cristaldi, M; Tommaso, V; Kurihara, H

    1995-01-01

    In spite of the decreasing incidence of gastric carcinoma, as it is reported in recent reports from the U.S.A., total gastrectomy and its surgical indications results and complications, focus the interest of surgeons. We analize 61 cases of total gastrectomy for carcinoma, treated in the years 1982-1992. Perioperative mortality and long term survival appear highly satisfactory, mainly if one considers that the site and extension of the neoplasms treated would have severely impaired the possibilities of cure or long term survival with surgery of lesser momentum. We believe that nowaday indications for total gastrectomy can be widened in the hope of improving results of gastric cancer surgery with no or little additional risk.

  10. [Benign neoplasms of female urethra].

    PubMed

    Usunova, I; Vladimirov, V

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice neoplasms of female urethra are found usually in adult women. They can also be found in adolescent girls and as rare congenital abnormality. Those conditions are most frequently detected during gynecological or urological examination. Symptoms are few. Lesions are situated at the outer orifice of urethra at the broad basis. Authors have diagnosed and treated 331 patients between 26 and 87 years. Electro coagulation has been performed in 185 patients. Surgical excision has been performed in 41 patients. Excision with following electrocoagulation has been performed in 18 patients. Conservative treatment has been performed in 87 patients. Histological sample analysis has provided diagnosis of urethral polyp, caruncle and mucosal prolaps. Second electrocoagulation after surgical excision has been performed in 5 patients. Collaboration between urologists and gynecologists is essential for early diagnosis, prophylaxis and successful treatment of above mentioned diseases.

  11. Visceral Obesity If Associated with Gallbladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Kyu; Hahn, Suk Jae; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Jung, Jae Gu; Choi, Han Seok; Lee, Jin Ho; Han, In Woong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Gallbladder polyps (GBP) are a common clinical finding and may possess malignant potential. We conducted this study to determine whether visceral obesity is a risk factor for GBP. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of subjects who received both ultrasonography and computed tomography with measurements of the areas of visceral adipose tissue and total adipose tissue (TAT) on the same day as health checkups. Results Ninety-three of 1,615 subjects (5.8%) had GBP and were compared with 186 age- and sex-matched controls. VAT (odds ratio [OR], 2.941; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.325 to 6.529; p=0.008 for the highest quartile vs the lowest quartile) and TAT (OR, 3.568; 95% CI, 1.625 to 7.833; p=0.002 for the highest quartile vs the lowest quartile) were independent risk factors together with hypertension (OR, 2.512; 95% CI, 1.381 to 4.569; p=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.942; 95% CI, 1.061 to 8.158; p=0.038), hepatitis B virus positivity (OR, 3.548; 95% CI, 1.295 to 9.716; p=0.014), and a higher level of total cholesterol (OR, 2.232; 95% CI, 1.043 to 4.778; p=0.039 for <200 mg/dL vs ≥240 mg/dL). Body mass index and waist circumference were not meaningful variables. Conclusions Visceral obesity measured by VAT and TAT was associated with GBP irrespective of body mass index or waist circumference. PMID:26260756

  12. Gallbladder polyps: factors affecting surgical decision.

    PubMed

    Sarkut, Pinar; Kilicturgay, Sadik; Ozer, Ali; Ozturk, Ersin; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2013-07-28

    To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old) and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm) and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps). χ(2) tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. The median age was 50 (26-85) years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85) years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001). Of 138 patients in whom surgery were performed, 112 had ultrasonographic polyps with diameters < 10 mm. Of the other 26 patients who also had polyps with diameters > 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001); however it was only 66% in polyps with diameters < 10 mm. The risk of malignancy was high in the patients over 50 years old who had single polyps with diameters > 10 mm.

  13. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    PubMed Central

    Sarkut, Pinar; Kilicturgay, Sadik; Ozer, Ali; Ozturk, Ersin; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old) and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm) and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps). χ2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85) years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85) years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001). Of 138 patients in whom surgery were performed, 112 had ultrasonographic polyps with diameters < 10 mm. Of the other 26 patients who also had polyps with diameters > 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001); however it was only 66% in polyps with diameters < 10 mm. CONCLUSION: The risk of malignancy was high in the patients over 50 years old who had single polyps with diameters > 10 mm. PMID:23901228

  14. Aquaporin-1 and 8 expression in the gallbladder mucosa might not be associated with the development of gallbladder stones in humans.

    PubMed

    Ambe, Peter C; Gödde, Daniel; Zirngibl, Hubert; Störkel, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Cholecystolithiasis is a highly prevalent condition in the Western world. Gallbladder stone-related conditions represent the second most common gastrointestinal pathology. Cholesterol stones represent over 80% of gallstones. Cholesterol stones develop secondary to crystallization of bile cholesterol. Water resorption from gallbladder bile via aquaporin in the gallbladder mucosa might play a role in the development of cholesterol stones. This study investigated the expression of Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and Aquaporin-8 (AQP8) in the human gallbladder mucosa and their possible association with the formation of gallbladder stones. The expression of AQP1 and AQP8 in the gallbladder mucosa was examined via immunohistochemical staining. The expression of both AQP1 and AQP8 in the gallbladder mucosa of stone carriers (study group) was compared to that of nonstone carriers (control group). Eighty-four gallbladder specimens from 44 male (52·2%) and 40 female (47·6%) patients were analysed. The study group included 47 specimens from stone carriers, while 37 specimens from stone-free gallbladders were included in the control group. Immunostaining for both AQP1 and AQP8 was positive in 80 cases. AQP1 was expressed both over the apical and intercellular membrane, while AQP8 was expressed only over the apical membrane. A similar distribution was recorded in specimens from the cystic duct. Immunostaining with AQP1 was generally stronger in comparison with AQP8. No significant (P > 0·05) relationship was found between aquaporin expression and the presence or absence of gallbladder stones. AQP1 and AQP8 are both expressed in the gallbladder and cystic duct mucosa. However, their role in the development of gallbladder stones is still to be proven. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  15. Aberrant maspin expression in gallbladder epithelium is associated with intestinal metaplasia in patients with cholelithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Maesawa, C; Ogasawara, S; Yashima‐Abo, A; Kimura, T; Kotani, K; Masuda, S; Nagata, Y; Iwaya, T; Suzuki, K; Oyake, T; Akiyama, Y; Kawamura, H; Masuda, T

    2006-01-01

    Objective Aberrant expression of maspin protein related to DNA hypomethylation in the promoter region is frequently observed in gallbladder carcinomas, whereas the non‐tumorous gallbladder epithelium is maspin negative. We investigated maspin expression in non‐tumorous gallbladder epithelium in patients with cholelithiasis. Methods An immunohistochemical study of maspin expression was performed in 69 patients with cholelithiasis and 30 patients with gastric cancer without cholelithiasis. Results Immunoreactivity for maspin was observed in focal and patchy regions of the gallbladder epithelium. Positive immunoreactivity for maspin was significantly associated with the presence of intestinal metaplasia in patients with cholelithiasis (p<0.05). Conclusion The high incidence of aberrant maspin expression in both intestinal metaplasia and carcinoma of the gallbladder supports the assumption that intestinal metaplasia of the gallbladder may predispose to gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:16505288

  16. True left-sided gallbladder with a portal anomaly: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Ryosuke; Miyata, Kanji; Yuasa, Norihiro; Takeuchi, Eiji; Goto, Yasutomo; Miyake, Hideo; Nagai, Hidemasa; Hattori, Masaoki; Imura, Jiro; Hayashi, Yuuki; Kawakami, Jiro; Kobayashi, Yoichiro

    2012-11-01

    A 65-year-old female who presented with back pain was diagnosed to have the presence of biliary sludge in the gallbladder. Computed tomography showed that the round ligament connected to the left portal umbilical portion was in the normal anatomical position. However, the gallbladder was located to the left of the middle hepatic vein and the round ligament, attached to the left lateral segment of the liver. The right posterior portal vein diverged alone from the main portal vein, and there was a long stem from the right anterior and left portal veins. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy confirmed the abnormal location of the gallbladder. Most reported cases of left-sided gallbladder are caused by a right-sided round ligament, which is called a "false" left-sided gallbladder. A case of left-sided gallbladder with a normal left-sided round ligament, which is designated as a case of "true" left-sided gallbladder, is extremely rare.

  17. Male reproductive system neoplasms. Special listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Experimental prostate carcinogenesis and related biology; Epidemiology of prostatic neoplasms; Preclinical studies of prostatic cancers; Diagnosis and prognosis of prostatic cancer; Therapy of prostatic cancer; Experimental testicular carcinogenesis and related biology; Epidemiology of testicular cancer; Diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of testicular neoplasms; Penile and other reproductive system neoplasms.

  18. Regulation of gallbladder ion transport: role of biliary lipids.

    PubMed

    Roslyn, J J; Abedin, M Z; Strichartz, S D; Abdou, M S; Palant, C E

    1989-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that biliary lipids influence in vivo gallbladder absorption and solute-coupled water flow. To clarify the electrophysiologic effects that underlie this phenomenon, prairie dog gallbladders were mounted in an Ussing-type chamber, and the influence of bile acids and varying ratios of bile acids and biliary phospholipids on transepithelial potential difference (Vms), resistance (Rt), and short-circuit current (Isc) was examined. Exposure to 5 mmol/L taurodeoxycholate (TDC) resulted in inhibition of Vms (p less than 0.01) and Isc (p less than 0.01) and an increase (p less than 0.05) in Rt. Subsequent perfusion with bile acids and phospholipids (5 mmol/L TDC + 0.3 mmol/L phosphatidylcholine [PC]) led to continued inhibition of ion transport. In contrast, exposure to 5 mmol/L TDC + 1.7 mmol/L PC resulted in a significant increase in transport, as manifested by an increase in Vms (p less than 0.02) and Isc (p less than 0.01) and a decrease in Rt (p less than 0.05) compared with bile acids. These results indicate that the ratio of phospholipids to bile salts modulates ion transport across prairie dog gallbladder and that this ratio may be an important determinant of gallbladder absorption in health and disease.

  19. [Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis as a clue to occult gallbladder carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Maroñas Jiménez, Lidia; Larraín Páez, Hugo; Restrepo Garcia, Ángela; Zarco Olivo, Carlos; Vanaclocha Sebastián, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Adult-onset dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflam- matory myopathy frequently associated with underlying cancer, including gastrointestinal tumors. However, its as- sociation with carcinomas of the hepatobiliary tract is exceptional. We present a case of paraneoplastic DM occurring as the first and only clinical manifestation of an underlying carcinoma of gallbladder.

  20. Work in progress: nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the gallbladder

    SciTech Connect

    Hricak, H.; Filly, R.A.; Margulis, A.R.; Moon, K.L.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-05-01

    A preliminary study of the relation between food intake and intensity of gallbladder bile on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images was made. Twelve subjects (seven volunteers, five patients) were imaged following a minimum of 14 hours of fasting. Six of seven volunteers were reimaged one hour after stimulation by either a fatty meal or an alcoholic beverage. An additional seven patients were imaged two hours after a hospital breakfast. It was found that concentrated bile emits a high-intensity spin echo signal (SE), while hepatic bile in the gallbladder produces a low-intensity SE signal. Following ingestion of cholecystogogue, dilute hepatic bile settles on top of the concentrated bile, each emitting SE signals of different intensity. The average T1 value of concentrated bile was 594 msec, while the T1 vaue of dilute hepatic bile was 2,646 msec. The average T2 values were 104 msec for concentrated bile and 126 msec for dilute bile. The most likely cause for the different SE intensities of bile is the higher water content, and therefore longer T1 or T2 relaxation times, of hepatic bile. It is suggested that NMR imaging has the ability to provide physiological information about the gallbladder and that it may prove to be a simple and safe clinical test of gallbladder function.

  1. Prognostic significance of survivin in resected gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Jaya; Chandra, Abhijit; Kazmi, Hasan Raza; Parmar, Devendra; Singh, Devendra; Gupta, Vishal

    2015-03-01

    Survivin, a novel inhibitor of apoptosis, plays a role in oncogenesis and has been correlated with poor prognosis. We investigated its expression in gallbladder tissues of control, cholelithiasis, and gallbladder cancer (GBC). Survivin expression was correlated with different clinicopathologic parameters including prognosis in patients with GBC. Gallbladder tissue samples were collected from GBC (n = 39), cholelithiasis (n = 30), and control (n = 25). Expression of survivin messenger RNA (mRNA) was evaluated by real time polymerase chain reaction. Protein quantification was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Significantly higher expression of survivin mRNA was observed in GBC (2.9-fold) and cholelithiasis (1.85-fold) as compared with control (P < 0.0001). In GBC, increased survivin expression (mRNA and protein) was significantly associated with higher tumor stage (stage III versus stage II) (P < 0.0001) and poor tumor differentiation (poor and moderate versus well) (P < 0.0001). No significant correlation was observed with any of the other clinicopathologic factors studied. Increased expression of survivin was associated with shorter survival (median survival 11.5 mo versus 18 mo). Differential expression of survivin in GBC suggests its possible role in gallbladder carcinogenesis. Its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis. Assessment of survivin might be used to stratify GBC patients for optimal treatment modalities, including targeted therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiratory response to mechanical stimulation of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Stella, M H; Knuth, S L; Bartlett, D

    2002-06-01

    Since stimuli from abdominal or pelvic viscera can affect respiratory muscle function, we hypothesized that mechanical stimulation of the gallbladder would result in inhibition of motor activity to the diaphragm and to upper airway muscles. We studied 12 decerebrate, vagotomized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated cats and recorded hypoglossal (HG) and phrenic (PHR) nerve activities while applying 600-1000 g of traction on the gallbladder during four respiratory cycles. Traction resulted in an initial reduction of PHR activity to 87.6+/-15.0% (mean+/-S.D.% of its baseline value), a reduction of HG activity to 74.2+/-27.5% and a lengthening of expiratory time to 178.8+/-81.0%. Subsequently, PHR activity and expiratory time returned toward control values, while HG remained diminished, at 66.4+/-19.1%. Our results show that mechanical stimulation of the gallbladder results in a respiratory inhibition with a disproportionate reduction in HG activity relative to PHR discharge. We speculate that gallbladder stimulation by contractions or surgery may compromise breathing by inhibition of phrenic discharge and upper airway obstruction.

  3. Association of Gallbladder Polyp and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder polyp (GP) and stroke share several metabolic disorders as risk factors. We assessed the association between GP and subsequent stroke risk. From 2000 to 2011, patients with GP aged >20 years were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Of the 15,975 examined patients, 12,780 and 3195 were categorized into the non-GP and GP cohorts, respectively. The relative risks of stroke were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The overall incidence of stroke was higher in the GP cohort than in the non-GP cohort (6.66 vs 5.20/1000 person-yr), with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15–1.42). The risk of stroke was 1.32-fold (95% CI = 1.06–1.63) in patients with GP compared with patients without GP after adjusting for age, sex, income level, urbanization level, occupation and comorbidities of gallstone, alcohol-related illness, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, COPD, coronary heart disease, and asthma. Furthermore, the stroke risk was higher among elderly patients (with 1-yr intervals; adjusted HR [aHR] = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.05–1.07), the male sex (aHR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.35–1.96), lower income level (aHR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.02–1.85 for level I; aHR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.25–2.10 for level II), living in second urbanized areas (aHR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.00–1.63), alcohol-related illness (aHR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.07–2.28), diabetes (aHR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.41–2.24), and hypertension (aHR = 2.74, 95% CI = 2.19–3.42). GP is associated with stroke; however, GP may be less influential than other risk factors are, such as male sex, lower income level, alcohol-related illness, diabetes, and hypertension, on stroke development. Additional studies are required to clarify whether GP is a risk factor for or an epiphenomenon of stroke development. PMID

  4. Progesterone inhibits gallbladder motility through multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kline, L W; Karpinski, E

    2005-08-01

    Progesterone (P) has an inhibitory effect on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, including the gallbladder. Since P levels are elevated during pregnancy, a biliary stasis may develop during pregnancy that is characterized by an increase in the fasting and residual volumes and by a decrease in emptying capacity. This study investigates the effect of P and two metabolites on contraction in guinea pig gallbladder strips. P induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in guinea pig gallbladder strips precontracted with cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK). Pretreatment of gallbladder strips with P (50 microM) also reduced the amount of CCK-induced tension. Nifedipine (1 microM) produced a similar effect. Pretreatment of the strips with PKA inhibitor 14--22 amide myristolated (180 nM) or the PKG inhibitor KT5823 (1.2 microM) either separately or in combination significantly reduced the amount of P-induced relaxation. Rp-cAMPs (0.1mM) or H-89 (10 microM) separately or in combination significantly reduced the P-effect; however, the combination of agents produced the largest reduction. Genistein (1 microM), an inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases, significantly (p<0.01) reduced the amount of P-induced relaxation. The use of strontium in the Kreb's solution as a substitute for Ca(2+) significantly (p<0.01) reduced the amount of CCK-induced tension. Pretreatment of the strips with 2-APB (26 microM), an inhibitor of IP(3,) induced Ca(2+) release, produced a significant (p<0.01) reduction in P-induced relaxation. We conclude that P inhibits gallbladder motility rapidly by nongenomic actions of the hormone. Several pathways that include tyrosine kinase and PKA/cAMP activity may mediate this effect.

  5. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, Stephen E; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Asp, Julia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Serge; Haslam, Karl; Kjaer, Lasse; Lippert, Eric; Mansier, Olivier; Oppliger Leibundgut, Elisabeth; Percy, Melanie J; Porret, Naomi; Palmqvist, Lars; Schwarz, Jiri; McMullin, Mary F; Schnittger, Susanne; Pallisgaard, Niels; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN.

  6. Imaging features of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Murphy, I G; Mitchell, E L; Raso-Barnett, L; Godfrey, A L; Godfrey, E M

    2017-10-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a heterogeneous group of haematological disorders including polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythaemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). These disorders show large overlap in genetic and clinical presentations, and can have many different imaging manifestations. Unusual thromboses, embolic events throughout the systemic or pulmonary vasculature, or osseous findings can often be clues to the underlying disease. There is limited literature about the imaging features of these disorders, and this may result in under-diagnosis. Multiple treatments are available for symptom control, and the development of multiple new pharmacological inhibitors has significantly improved morbidity and prognosis. Knowledge of these conditions may enable the radiologist to suggest an MPN as a possible underlying cause for certain imaging findings, particularly unexplained splanchnic venous thrombosis, i.e. in the absence of chronic liver disease or pancreatitis. The aim of the present review is to outline using examples the different categories of MPN and illustrate the variety of radiological findings associated with these diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Neoplasms of the Small Bowel

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Howard; Crichlow, Robert W.; Caplan, Howard S.

    1974-01-01

    Small bowel tumors are unusual lesions exhibiting nonspecific clinical features often diagnosed at an advanced stage. In the cases studied at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania nearly all the 32 patients with malignancies were symptomatic whereas in the 34 patients with benign lesions the condition was discovered as an incidental finding in about half of the patients. Weight loss, palpable mass or anemia usually indicated malignancy. Small bowel radiography was the most useful diagnostic aid in the present series. While the etiology of these lesions is unknown, villous adenomas probably bear a relationship to carcinoma. The association between chronic regional enteritis and small bowel tumors is unestablished but suggestive. An analysis of reported series reveals a disproportionate incidence of additional primary tumors in patients with small bowel neoplasms. Surgical extirpation is indicated for curative treatment. In the present series, resection in hope of cure was carried out in 25 of 32 malignant tumors resulting in eight five-year survivals. One of these latter lived nine years with disseminated malignant carcinoid reflecting the occasional indolent course of this tumor. PMID:4842978

  8. Pathological and Molecular Evaluation of Pancreatic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Arvind; Goggins, Michael; Wood, Laura D.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms are morphologically and genetically heterogeneous and include wide variety of neoplasms ranging from benign to malignant with an extremely poor clinical outcome. Our understanding of these pancreatic neoplasms has improved significantly with recent advances in cancer sequencing. Awareness of molecular pathogenesis brings in new opportunities for early detection, improved prognostication, and personalized gene-specific therapies. Here we review the pathological classification of pancreatic neoplasms from their molecular and genetic perspective. All of the major tumor types that arise in the pancreas have been sequenced, and a new classification that incorporates molecular findings together with pathological findings is now possible (Table 1). This classification has significant implications for our understanding of why tumors aggregate in some families, for the development of early detection tests, and for the development of personalized therapies for patients with established cancers. Here we describe this new classification using the framework of the standard histological classification. PMID:25726050

  9. Management of incidental and suspicious gallbladder cancer: focus on early referral to a tertiary centre

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Vincent S; Gomez, Dhanwant; Brown, Sean; Byrne, Clare; White, David; Fenwick, Stephen W; Poston, Graeme J; Malik, Hassan Z

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to assess the management of incidental gallbladder cancer and indeterminate gallbladder lesions. Its secondary aim referred to the devising of a management pathway for these patients. Methods Patients referred with incidental gallbladder cancer and indeterminate gallbladder lesions during 2002–2011 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Collated data included operative findings, histopathological data and survival outcomes. Results The study included a total of 104 patients, 40 of whom had incidental gallbladder cancer following cholecystectomy. In this group, the index cholecystectomy was considered curative (T-is/T1a stage) in three patients; 11 patients underwent further resection, and 26 patients were inoperable. One-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 91.1%, 91.0% and 60.7%, respectively, in patients who underwent re-resection. Of the 64 patients with indeterminate gallbladder lesions, 54 patients underwent modified radical cholecystectomy. Seven patients were found to have gallbladder cancer. One-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 85.9%, 43.1% and 42.8%, respectively. Five-year overall survival in patients treated with surgery for gallbladder cancer was 59.9%. Conclusions The majority of patients with incidental gallbladder cancer were not amenable to further potentially curative resection. The radiological suspicion of gallbladder cancer should lead to prompt referral to a tertiary hepatobiliary unit for further management. PMID:24279377

  10. Primary carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder: a case report and brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi-Ping; Li, Wei-Min; Liu, Hao-Run; Li, Ning

    2010-02-23

    Primary carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder is rare and comprises less than 1% of all carcinoid tumors. Preoperative diagnosis of carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder is difficult. The imageology findings are similar to those in other gallbladder cancers. A 46-year-old woman was hospitalized with a preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma, The patient was referred for surgical opinion and laparotomy was subsequently performed. A 4 x 5 cm mass was found within the gallbladder, located on the free surface of the body and fundus of the gallbladder. Neither metastases nor direct invasion to the liver was found. The entire mass and gallbladder were excised and intact. Histologically, the tumor consisted of small oval cells with round-to-oval neclei and tumor cells formed small nodular, trabeculare and acinar structures. The tumor showed moderate pleomorphism with scattered mitotic figures, but no definite evidence of vascular permeation, perineural invasion or lymphatic permeation was seen. The tumor cells invaded the mucosa extensively, and some penetrated the muscular layer but not through the serosa of the gallbladder into the liver. Immunohistochemical studies revealed strong positive reaction for chromogranin A and NSE. This lesion was proved to be a primary carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder. A brief review of literature, clinical feature, pathology and treatment of this rare disease was discussed. Primary carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder is uncommon. The definite diagnosis is often made on histopathological results after surgery.

  11. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  12. Computerized tomography in evaluation of hepatic neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, R.F.; Resende, C.; Tishler, J.M.A.; Aldrete, J.S.; Shin, M.S.; Rubin, E.; Rahn, N.H.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen in 212 patients with histologically documented liver neoplasms seen during a 30-month period. The CT findings in cavernous hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia were specific, and permitted accurate diagnosis of this lesion before biopsy. The CT appearance of all other lesions was variable. CT is useful in providing an accurate evaluation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic extent of the neoplasm.

  13. Gallbladder filling and emptying during cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog. A cholescintigraphic study

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Ryan, T.; Broderick, W.; Way, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    We studied gallbladder bile flow before, during, and after cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog using infusion cholescintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-diethyl iminodiacetic acid. In 18 fasting animals partitioning of bile between gallbladder and intestine was determined every 15 min for 140 min, and gallbladder response to cholecystokinin (5 U/kg X h) was calculated from the gallbladder ejection fraction. Ten prairie dogs were then placed on a 0.4% cholesterol diet and 8 on a regular diet, and the studies were repeated 1, 2, and 6 wk later. The proportion of hepatic bile that entered the gallbladder relative to the intestine varied from one 15-min period to the next, and averaged 28.2% +/- 5.1% at 140 min. Partial spontaneous gallbladder emptying (ejection fraction 11.5% +/- 5.6%) was intermittently observed. Neither the number nor the ejection fraction of spontaneous gallbladder contractions changed during gallstone formation. By contrast, the percent of gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin decreased from 72.1% +/- 5% to 25.9% +/- 9.3% (p less than 0.025) in the first week and was 14.3% +/- 5.5% at 6 wk (p less than 0.01 from prediet values, not significant from first week). Gallbladder filling decreased from 28.2% +/- 5.1% to 6.7% +/- 3% (p less than 0.01), but this change was only observed after 6 wk, when gallstones had formed. This study shows that bile flow into the gallbladder during fasting is not constant; the gallbladder contracts intermittently; gallbladder emptying in response to exogenous cholecystokinin is altered very early during gallstone formation; and gallbladder filling remains unaffected until later stages, when gallstones have formed.

  14. Differences and significance of motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and gastrin in blood and gallbladder tissues of patients with gallstones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Su, Yang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Fan, Ying; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Li-Kui

    2008-02-01

    The disorders of gallbladder motility may play an important role in the formation of gallstones. Many neural and hormonal factors and their interactions regulate gallbladder motility and bile flow into the duodenum. Further study in these factors may help to reveal the etiology of gallbladder diseases. This study was undertaken to assess the relationship of the levels of motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and gastrin in blood and gallbladder tissues with the formation of cholelithiasis. The levels of motilin, gastrin and VIP in blood and gallbladder tissues of 36 patients with gallbladder stones, 14 patients with gallbladder polyps, 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with common bile duct stones were measured by radioimmunoassay. The level of motilin in plasma and gallbladder tissues of the gallbladder stone group was higher than that of the control and gallbladder polyp groups (P<0.05). The levels of plasma VIP and serum gastrin were much higher than those of the other three groups (P<0.01). The level of VIP in gallbladder tissues was higher than that of the control and gallbladder polyp groups (P<0.01). The abnormal excretion of hormonal factors is closely related to gallstone formation. The high level of VIP in gallbladder tissues may be an important cause of gallbladder hypomotility. The abnormal level of serum gastrin may be related to the gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with gallstones.

  15. Inherited predisposition to myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amy V.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are haematological disorders characterized by an overproduction of mature myeloid cells with a tendency to transform to acute myeloid leukaemia. Clonal proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells is driven by somatically acquired mutations, most notably JAK2 V617F, but there are important features relating to pathogenesis and phenotypic diversity that cannot be explained by acquired mutations alone. In this review we consider what is currently known about the role that inherited factors play in the development and biology of both sporadic and familial forms of MPN. Although most MPN cases appear to be sporadic, familial predisposition has been recognized for many years in a subset of cases and epidemiological studies have indicated the presence of common susceptibility alleles. Currently the JAK2 46/1 haplotype (also referred to as ‘GGCC’) is the strongest known predisposition factor for sporadic MPNs carrying a JAK2 V617F mutation, explaining a large proportion of the heritability of this disorder. Less is known about what genetic variants predispose to MPNs that lack JAK2 V617F, but there have been recent reports of interesting associations in biologically plausible candidates, and more loci are set to emerge with the application of systematic genome-wide association methodologies. Several highly penetrant predisposition variants that affect erythropoietin signalling, thrombopoietin signalling or oxygen sensing have been characterized in families with nonclonal hereditary erythrocytosis or thrombocytosis, but much less is known about familial predisposition to true clonal MPN. The heterogeneous pattern of inheritance and presumed genetic heterogeneity in these families makes analysis difficult, but whole exome or genome sequencing should provide novel insights into these elusive disorders. PMID:23926457

  16. Global coagulation in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Armando; Chantarangkul, Veena; Gianniello, Francesca; Clerici, Marigrazia; Lemma, Laura; Padovan, Lidia; Gatti, Loredana; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Peyvandi, Flora

    2013-12-01

    In spite of their recognized risk of thrombosis, patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) show little or no abnormalities of traditional coagulation tests, perhaps because these are unable to represent the balance between pro- and anticoagulants nor the effect of platelets and blood cells. We investigated whether global tests such as thrombin generation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or thromboelastometry in whole blood were able to detect signs of procoagulant imbalance in MPN. The endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) of 111 patients and 89 controls was measured in PRP with platelet count adjusted to the original patient- or control-count. Testing was performed with and without thrombomodulin (the physiological protein C activator) and results were expressed as ETP ratios (with/without thrombomodulin). High ETP ratios reflect resistance to thrombomodulin and were taken as indexes of procoagulant imbalance. Patients were also investigated by thromboelastometry that provides such parameters as the clot formation time (CFT) and maximal clot firmness (MCF). Short CFT or high MCF were taken as indexes of procoagulant imbalance. ETP ratios were higher in patients than in controls and were directly correlated with platelet counts and inversely with the plasma levels of free protein S, protein C and antithrombin. Patients on hydroxyurea had lower ETP ratios than those on other treatments. CFT was shorter and MCF was greater in patients than controls; CFT and MCF were correlated with platelet counts. In conclusion, patients with MPN display a procoagulant imbalance detectable by thrombin generation and thromboelastometry. These tests might be useful in the frame of clinical trials to assess their association with the occurrence of thrombosis and with the effect of therapeutic strategies in MPN.

  17. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Lavi, Noa

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations) and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations) in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin) were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review. PMID:25386351

  18. miR-1 and miR-145 act as tumor suppressor microRNAs in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Letelier, Pablo; García, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Álvarez, Héctor; Ili, Carmen; López, Jaime; Castillo, Jonathan; Brebi, Priscilla; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The development of miRNA-based therapeutics represents a new strategy in cancer treatment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the differential expression of microRNAs in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and to assess the functional role of miR-1 and miR-145 in GBC cell behavior. A profile of miRNA expression was determined using DharmaconTM microarray technology. Differential expression of five microRNAs was validated by TaqMan reverse transcription quantitative-PCR in a separate cohort of 8 tumors and 3 non-cancerous samples. Then, we explored the functional role of miR-1 and miR-145 in tumor cell behavior by ectopic in vitro expression in the GBC NOZ cell line. Several miRNAs were found to be aberrantly expressed in GBC; most of these showed a significantly decreased expression compared to non-neoplastic tissues (Q value<0.05). The differential expression of 7 selected miRNAs was confirmed by real time PCR. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the most deregulated miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133, miR-143 and miR-145) collectively targeted a number of genes belonging to signaling pathways such as TGF-β, ErbB3, WNT and VEGF, and those regulating cell motility or adhesion. The ectopic expression of miR-1 and miR-145 in NOZ cells significantly inhibited cell viability and colony formation (P<0.01) and reduced gene expression of VEGF-A and AXL. This study represents the first investigation of the miRNA expression profile in gallbladder cancer, and our findings showed that several miRNAs are deregulated in this neoplasm. In vitro functional assays suggest that miR-1 and miR-145 act as tumor suppressor microRNAs in GBC.

  19. miR-1 and miR-145 act as tumor suppressor microRNAs in gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Letelier, Pablo; García, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Álvarez, Héctor; Ili, Carmen; López, Jaime; Castillo, Jonathan; Brebi, Priscilla; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The development of miRNA-based therapeutics represents a new strategy in cancer treatment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the differential expression of microRNAs in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and to assess the functional role of miR-1 and miR-145 in GBC cell behavior. A profile of miRNA expression was determined using DharmaconTM microarray technology. Differential expression of five microRNAs was validated by TaqMan reverse transcription quantitative-PCR in a separate cohort of 8 tumors and 3 non-cancerous samples. Then, we explored the functional role of miR-1 and miR-145 in tumor cell behavior by ectopic in vitro expression in the GBC NOZ cell line. Several miRNAs were found to be aberrantly expressed in GBC; most of these showed a significantly decreased expression compared to non-neoplastic tissues (Q value < 0.05). The differential expression of 7 selected miRNAs was confirmed by real time PCR. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the most deregulated miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133, miR-143 and miR-145) collectively targeted a number of genes belonging to signaling pathways such as TGF-β, ErbB3, WNT and VEGF, and those regulating cell motility or adhesion. The ectopic expression of miR-1 and miR-145 in NOZ cells significantly inhibited cell viability and colony formation (P < 0.01) and reduced gene expression of VEGF-A and AXL. This study represents the first investigation of the miRNA expression profile in gallbladder cancer, and our findings showed that several miRNAs are deregulated in this neoplasm. In vitro functional assays suggest that miR-1 and miR-145 act as tumor suppressor microRNAs in GBC. PMID:24966896

  20. Clinical analysis of contributors to the delayed gallbladder opacification following the use of water-soluble contrast medium

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ming-Chang; Kok, Victor C; Lee, Ming-Yung; Hsu, Soa-Min; Lee, Pei-Yu; Chang, Che-Wei; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Gallbladder opacification (GBO) on computed tomography (CT) imaging may obscure certain pathological or emergent conditions in the gallbladder, such as neoplasms, stones, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis. This study aimed to investigate the clinical contributing factors that could predict the presence of delayed GBO determined by CT. Methods This study retrospectively evaluated 243 consecutive patients who received enhanced CT or intravenous pyelography imaging and then underwent abdominal CT imaging within 5 days. According to the interval between imaging, the patients were divided into group A (1 day), group B (2 or 3 days), and group C (4 or 5 days). Three radiologists evaluated CT images to determine GBO. Fisher’s exact test and multivariate backward stepwise elimination logistic regression were performed. Results Positive GBO was significantly associated with the interval between imaging studies, contrast type, contrast volume, renal function, and hypertransaminasemia (P<0.05). Multivariate backward stepwise elimination logistic regression analysis of the three groups identified contrast type and hypertransaminasemia as independent predictors of GBO in group B patients (odds ratio [OR], 13.52, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72–106.38 and OR, 3.43, 95% CI, 1.31–8.98, respectively; P<0.05). Hypertransaminasemia was the only independent predictor of GBO in group C patients with an OR of 7.2 (95% CI, 1.62–31.73). Hypertransaminasemia was noted in three patients (100%) who initially underwent imaging 5 days prior to GBO. Conclusion Delayed GBO on CT imaging may be associated with laboratory hypertransaminasemia, particularly in patients receiving contrast medium over a period of ≥4 days. A detailed clinical history, physical examination, and further workup are of paramount importance for investigating the underlying cause behind the hypertransaminasemia. PMID:27660453

  1. Torsion of the gallbladder, localized in right subphrenic space in a patient with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Yuya; Yasunaga, Masafumi; Ogata, Kei; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Akagi, Yoshito; Okuda, Koji

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of torsion of the gallbladder displaced under the right subphrenic space in a patient with liver cirrhosis. An 82-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital for acute pain in the right upper quadrant. Clinical features suggested gallbladder torsion. She was under treatment for hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis at our hospital. Abdominal CT showed the swollen fundus and body of the gallbladder under the right subphrenic space. Emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Intraoperative findings included a grossly necrotic gallbladder in the right subphrenic space with 360° clockwise torsion, together with liver cirrhosis and localized peritonitis. The clinical features and imaging findings in this rare case of misplaced gallbladder in right subphrenic space resembled those described in typical strangulated gallbladder. The displacement was probably related to right liver lobe atrophy associated with liver cirrhosis. Appropriate diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment are essential for a positive outcome.

  2. [Detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in the ground gallbladder stones by microscopy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Qiao, Tie; Luo, Xiao-Bing

    2012-08-30

    Sera, feces, bile and gallbladder stones were collected from 179 patients who accepted gallbladder-preserving cholelithotomy during the period of January to June 2010 at the general surgery department in the Second People's Hospital of Panyu District in Guangzhou. Rapid colloidal gold immunochromatography was used to detect IgG against Clonorchis sinensis. C. sinensis eggs were examined by fecal direct smear, and in bile sediments and ground gallbladder stones. The results showed that the positive rate of rapid colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay for IgG was 51.4%, and the egg positive rate in feces, bile sediments and gallbladder stones was 30.7%, 44.7% and 69.8%, respectively. The detection rate of fecal direct smear was the lowest, while that of the gallbladder stone examination was the highest (P < 0.05). Those patients with egg-positive feces and/or bile sediments were all with egg-positive gallbladder stones.

  3. Coordinate regulation of gallbladder motor function in the gut-liver axis.

    PubMed

    Portincasa, Piero; Di Ciaula, Agostino; Wang, Helen H; Palasciano, Giuseppe; van Erpecum, Karel J; Moschetta, Antonio; Wang, David Q-H

    2008-06-01

    Gallstones are one of the most common digestive diseases with an estimated prevalence of 10%-15% in adults living in the western world, where cholesterol-enriched gallstones represent 75%-80% of all gallstones. In cholesterol gallstone disease, the gallbladder becomes the target organ of a complex metabolic disease. Indeed, a fine coordinated hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal function, including gallbladder motility in the fasting and postprandial state, is of crucial importance to prevent crystallization and precipitation of excess cholesterol in gallbladder bile. Also, gallbladder itself plays a physiopathological role in biliary lipid absorption. Here, we present a comprehensive view on the regulation of gallbladder motor function by focusing on recent discoveries in animal and human studies, and we discuss the role of the gallbladder in the pathogenesis of gallstone formation.

  4. Breast metastasis from recurrent gallbladder adenocarcinoma: a case report with review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Faouzi, Houssin; Salmi, Nariman; Ettahri, Hamza; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; Mrabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder adenocarcinoma has a poor prognostic. The leading modes of dissemination in gallbladder cancer (GBC) are lymphatic, vascular, neural, intraperitoneal, and intraductal. The most common site of dissemination is liver. Breast metastasis in GBC is an unusual site of dissemination. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of solitary breast metastasis from recurrent gallbladder carcinoma in light of existing literature. PMID:27512606

  5. Autophagy-related vacuoles in mouse gallbladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Psenicnik, M; Veranic, P

    2001-01-01

    The mouse gallbladder epithelial cells contain very heterogeneous vacuolar population. In an attempt to classify these vacuoles we identified NADPase and TPPase activity as well as the location of HRP which is used as the endocytotic marker. The results of the present study show that the vacuoles can be classified into three categories: (1) the vacuoles predominantly containing loose membrane coils related to the nascent autophagic vacuoles, (2) vacuoles containing densely packed membranes and exhibiting a positive HRP reaction, indicating the convergence of endocytotic and autophagic pathway, and (3) vacuoles composed of degraded membrane structures and containing the reaction product of NADPase activity, showing that the fusion of the lysosomes with the autophagosome-endosome took place. The highly developed cis, medial and trans Golgi compartments reflect the biosynthetic and endocytotic activity of the gallbladder epithelium.

  6. [A Case of Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tomo; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Yutaka; Katsura, Yoshiteru; Ohneda, Yasuo; Motoyama, Yurina; Sato, Yasufumi; Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Kuwahara, Ryuichi; Naito, Atsushi; Murakami, Kohei; Kagawa, Yoshinori; Okishiro, Masatsugu; Takeno, Atsushi; Egawa, Chiyomi; Kato, Takeshi; Tamura, Shigeyuki

    2015-11-01

    A 58-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a huge hepatic mass. A CT scan showed an enhanced mass lesion on the fundus of the gallbladder and an enhanced mass ring on the gallbladder bed. Since FDG-PET showed no evidence of metastasis, we performed cholecystectomy, hepatectomy of S4a/5, and regional lymph node dissection. The immunohistochemical study of the specimen was positive for CK7, CK20, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin. The Ki-67 labeling index was 50%, and the SSTR2 score was 2+. The patient was diagnosed with neuroendocrine carcinoma. Since she was in poor condition and on hemodialysis, we started administration of somatostatin analog at the time of recurrence, and soon her diarrhea improved but the tumor increased in size.

  7. On the growth rate of gallstones in the human gallbladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nudelman, I.

    1993-05-01

    The growth rate of a single symmetrically oval shaped gallbladder stone weighing 10.8 g was recorded over a period of six years before surgery and removal. The length of the stone was measured by ultrasonography and the growth rate was found to be linear with time, with a value of 0.4 mm/year. A smaller stone growing in the wall of the gallbladder was detected only three years before removal and grew at a rate of ˜ 1.33 mm/year. The morphology and metallic ion chemical composition of the large stone and of a randomly selected small stone weighing about 1.1 g, extracted from another patient, were analyzed and compared. It was found that the large stone contained besides calcium also lead, whereas the small stone contained mainly calcium. It is possible that the lead causes a difference in mechanism between the growth of a single large and growth of multiple small gallstones.

  8. A Mimicker of Gallbladder Carcinoma: Cystic Gastric Heterotopia with Intestinal Metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Özgün, Gonca; Adim, Şaduman Balaban; Uğraş, Nesrin; Kiliçturgay, Sadık

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder is an unusual entity and is usually clinically silent. We report a 75-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent upper abdomial pain radiating to the back. Abdominal imaging studies showed a sessile polypoid lesion and a gallstone in the gallbladder. Gallbladder carcinoma was suspected and cholecystectomy performed. Intraoperative frozen section examination suggested mucinous tumor, suspicious for malignancy. However, the permanent sections revealed aberrant gastric tissue consisted of gastric pyloric and fundic glands of heterotopic gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder.

  9. Guadecitabine and Durvalumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Liver, Pancreatic, Bile Duct, or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-19

    Extrahepatic Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma, Biliary Type; Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma, Biliary Type; Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma; Stage III Gallbladder Cancer AJCC V7; Stage III Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Unresectable Gallbladder Carcinoma; Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma

  10. Honeycomb gallbladder: a very rare cause of right upper quadrant pain.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ramazan; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Aslan, Kerim; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi

    2013-12-01

    Honeycomb gallbladder is a rare congenital malformation of the gallbladder. In some cases, it may be asymptomatic, whereas in others, it may lead to symptoms consistent with biliary colic even in the absence of cholelithiasis. We present the clinical and imaging findings of a case of a 10-year-old boy who was admitted to the emergency department with right upper quadrant pain. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a honeycomb gallbladder. Honeycomb gallbladder is safely diagnosed with ultrasonography, which should be part of the investigation of patients with right upper quadrant pain in the emergency department.

  11. Technetium-99m-HIDA visualization of an obstructed gallbladder via an accessory hepatic duct

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, D.E.; Donald, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) and paraisopropyliminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) scintigraphy after sonographic evaluation of the gallbladder have been advocated recently for the diagnosis of acute obstructive cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Several authors have stated or inferred that gallbladder visualization with /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA excludes acute cholecystitis and cystic duct obstruction. We describe a patient with surgically proven cystic duct obstruction whose gallbladder visualized on a /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA scan via an accessory hepatic duct which directly entered the gallbladder.

  12. Gallbladder small cell carcinoma Xenograft established by serial transplantation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Nishime, Chiyoko; Ohnishi, Yasuyuki; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Tamaoki, Norikazu; Suematsu, Makoto; Oida, Yasuhisa; Yamazaki, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Masato; Ueyama, Yoshito; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The GB-04-JCK xenograft line of human gallbladder small cell carcinoma was established in nude mice by serial transplantation. The xenotransplantability has been maintained for more than 20 years. The carcinoma cells grew in a solid-sheet pattern and were found to have hyperchromatic nuclei, finely dispersed chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli in the primary gallbladder tumor, as well as in the established xenograft GB-04-JCK The carcinoma cells also had Grimelius argyrophil granules, electron-dense neuroendocrine granules bounded by a single membrane. The xenograft line retained histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the primary gallbladder tumor and is the first reported xenotransplantable tumor of human gallbladder small cell carcinoma.

  13. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy study on microstructure of gallbladder mucosa in pig.

    PubMed

    Prozorowska, Ewelina; Jackowiak, Hanna

    2015-03-01

    The present light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies on porcine gallbladder mucosa provide a description of the microstructures of great functional importance such as mucosal folds, the epithelium, glands, and lymphatic nodules. The results showed the regional structural differences of the porcine gallbladder wall. Depending on the part of the gallbladder, three types of mucosal structures were described: simple and branched folds and mucosal crypts. An important structural feature found in the mucosa is connected with the structural variety of type of mucosal folds, which change from simple located in the neck, to most composed, i.e., branched or joined, in the polygonal crypts toward the fundus of the gallbladder. The morphometric analysis showed statistically significantly differences in the form and size of the folds and between the fundus, body, and neck of the gallbladder. Differences in the size of mucosal epithelium are discussed in terms of processes of synthesis and secretion of glycoproteins. Regional, species-specific differences in morphology of mucosal subepithelial glands, i.e., their secretory units and openings, and intensity of mucus secretion were described. Our results on the pig gallbladder show adaptation and/or specialization in particular areas of the mucosa for (1) secretion of mucus in the neck or body of gallbladder and (2) for cyclic volume changes, especially in the fundus of gallbladder. The description of the microstructures of mucosa in the porcine gallbladder could be useful as reference data for numerous experiments on the bile tract in the pig.

  14. A comparative study of microstructural development in paired human hepatic and gallbladder biles.

    PubMed

    Weihs, Daphne; Schmidt, Judith; Danino, Dganit; Goldiner, Ilana; Leikin-Gobbi, Diana; Eitan, Arieh; Rubin, Moshe; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Konikoff, Fred M

    2007-10-01

    Cholesterol gallstones usually develop in the gallbladder and rarely form in bile ducts even in patients with highly lithogenic bile. Bile concentration and proteins (e.g. mucin) may affect crystallization, but the exact nature of this effect, especially in relation to crystallization pathways and microstructural evolution remains unclear. We examined lipid microstructures in paired hepatic and gallbladder biles to reveal ones that are essential for crystallization. Combining digital light microscopy with cryogenic-temperature transmission electron microscopy we are able to directly visualize and compare the time evolution of lipid microstructures in paired hepatic, gallbladder and diluted gallbladder biles of gallstone patients and controls, without drying or separating. Gallbladder bile exhibited several multilamellar vesicles and spheroidal micelles preceding and throughout crystallization. Vesicle morphology changed before crystallization was observed. In contrast, hepatic bile revealed almost no crystallization and while a variety of unilamellar vesicles and spheroidal micelles existed throughout the examination, multilamellar vesicles were rare. Diluted gallbladder bile was different from native gallbladder bile, as well as the paired hepatic bile, yielding occasional crystallization. Our findings suggest that maturing multilamellar vesicles precede (and at least partially initiate) crystallization in gallbladder bile. Although microstructural development seems to be concentration dependent, dilution of gallbladder bile to hepatic bile concentrations neither makes it identical to hepatic bile, nor prevents crystallization.

  15. Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m RBC blood pool imaging. Case report and literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyarov, E.V.; Mattay, V.S.; Reba, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Gallbladder visualization occurred after a Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) cardiac gated blood pool scan. To date, seven cases of gallbladder visualization after the intravenous injection of Tc-99m RBCs have been reported. In the previous six patients the gallbladder was visualized incidentally during a search for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. All of the patients were anemic, six of seven had chronic renal failure, and five of seven had received multiple blood transfusions. When interpreting GI bleeding scans in patients with anemia and renal failure, awareness of the possibility of gallbladder visualization in the delayed images is important to avoid false-positive results. 3 references.

  16. Prevention of gallbladder hypomotility via FATP2 inhibition protects from lithogenic diet-induced cholelithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Khalifeh-Soltani, Amin; Park, Hyo Min; Yurek, David A.; Falcon, Alaric; Wong, Louis; Feng, Rouying; Atabai, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone disease is a widespread disorder costing billions for annual treatment in the United States. The primary mechanisms underlying gallstone formation are biliary cholesterol supersaturation and gallbladder hypomotility. The relative contribution of these two processes has been difficult to dissect, as experimental lithogenic diets cause both bile supersaturation and alterations in gallbladder motility. Importantly, there is no mechanistic explanation for obesity as a major risk factor for cholelithiasis. We discovered that lithogenic diets induce ectopic triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, a major feature of obesity and a known muscle contraction impairing condition. We hypothesized that prevention of TAG accumulation in gallbladder walls may prevent gallbladder contractile dysfunction without impacting biliary cholesterol saturation. We utilized adeno-associated virus-mediated knock down of the long-chain fatty acid transporter 2 (FATP2; Slc27A2), which is highly expressed by gallbladder epithelial cells, to downregulate lithogenic diet-associated TAG accumulation. FATP2-knockdown significantly reduced gallbladder TAG, but did not affect key bile composition parameters. Importantly, measurements with force displacement transducers showed that contractile strength in FATP2-knockdown gallbladders was significantly greater than in control gallbladders following lithogenic diet administration, and the magnitude of this effect was sufficient to prevent the formation of gallstones. FATP2-driven fatty acid uptake and the subsequent TAG accumulation in gallbladder tissue plays a pivotal role in cholelithiasis, and prevention of this process can protect from gallstone formation, even in the context of supersaturated bile cholesterol levels, thus pointing to new treatment approaches and targets. PMID:27033116

  17. Arctigenin induced gallbladder cancer senescence through modulating epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingdi; Cai, Shizhong; Zuo, Bin; Gong, Wei; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Di; Weng, Mingzhe; Qin, Yiyu; Wang, Shouhua; Liu, Jun; Ma, Fei; Quan, Zhiwei

    2017-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer has poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor were examined in 100 matched pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues. A positive correlation between high epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels and poor prognosis was observed in gallbladder cancer tissues. Pharmacological inhibition or inhibition via RNA interference of epidermal growth factor receptor induced cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer cells. The antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer cells was primarily achieved by inducing cellular senescence. In gallbladder cancer cells treated with arctigenin, the expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor significantly decreased. The analysis of the activity of the kinases downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed that the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the cellular senescence induced by arctigenin could be reverted by pcDNA-epidermal growth factor receptor. Arctigenin also potently inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts, which was accompanied by the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and induction of senescence. This study demonstrates arctigenin could induce cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer through the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. These data identify epidermal growth factor receptor as a key regulator in arctigenin-induced gallbladder cancer senescence.

  18. Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Till; Kaserer, Klaus; Chung, Joon-Yong; Bilke, Sven; Krizman, David; Knezevic, Vladimir; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2007-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm with multiple histologic subtypes, each associated with different treatments and outcomes. Differentiating benign neoplasms such as follicular adenomas from malignant entities such as follicular carcinomas and papillary carcinoma can be challenging. To define the proteomic profile of different thyroid tumors, we screened an antibody array of 330 features against five thyroid neoplasms: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma as well as normal thyroid epithelium. Eight candidate biomarkers; c-erbB-2, Stat5a, Annexin IV, IL-11, RARα, FGF7, Caspase 9, and phospho-c-myc were identified as differentially expressed on the antibody array, and validated with immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, with a total of 144 samples of the same variety of thyroid neoplasms. Analysis revealed c-erbB-2, Annexin IV, and Stat5a have potential clinical utility to differentiate follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma from each other. By using an antibody array as a discovery platform and a tissue microarray as a first step in validation on a large number of specimens, we have identified new markers that have potential utility in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms. Copyright © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. CD200 Expression in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Love, Jason E; Thompson, Kimberly; Kilgore, Mark R; Westerhoff, Maria; Murphy, Claire E; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; McCormick, Kinsey A; Shankaran, Veena; Vandeven, Natalie; Miller, Faith; Blom, Astrid; Nghiem, Paul T; Kussick, Steven J

    2017-09-01

    CD200 expression has been well studied in hematopoietic malignancies; however, CD200 expression has not been well-characterized in neuroendocrine neoplasms. We examined CD200 expression in 391 neuroendocrine neoplasms from various anatomic sites. Tissue blocks containing pulmonary small cell carcinoma, pulmonary carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, gastrointestinal carcinoid, and Merkel cell carcinoma were evaluated for CD200 expression by immunohistochemistry. A set of nonneuroendocrine carcinomas was stained for comparison. CD200 was expressed in 87% of the neuroendocrine neoplasms studied, including 60 of 72 (83%) pulmonary small cell carcinomas, 15 of 22 (68%) pulmonary carcinoids, three of four (75%) pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 125 of 146 (86%) Merkel cell carcinomas, 79 of 83 (95%) gastrointestinal luminal carcinoids, and 56 of 60 (93%) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Thirty-two of 157 (20%) nonneuroendocrine carcinomas expressed CD200. In gastrointestinal carcinoid and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, CD200 negativity correlated with higher grade. CD200 is a relatively sensitive marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms and represents a potential therapeutic target in these difficult-to-treat malignancies.

  20. Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Corey W; Wahoff, David C

    2009-06-01

    To guide the clinician in the diagnostic evaluation of endocrine neoplasms, to distinguish between benign and malignant and determine when surgical referral is indicated. Thyroid nodules are uncommon but malignant in as many as 27% of patients. Fine needle aspiration should be considered in adolescents, in which accuracy is as high as 90%; surgical resection should be undertaken in all preadolescents (<13 years) with a thyroid nodule. Prognosis for most primary thyroid malignancies is favorable. Primary hyperparathyroidism is rare and due to an adenoma in up to 70% of patients. Surgical resection carries a cure rate of 95% with the use of intraoperative parathyroid hormone assays. Adrenal neoplasms cover a wide spectrum of disorder. They are functional in 95% of patients and require a thorough diagnostic evaluation prior to surgical resection. Malignant lesions of the adrenal gland carry a poor prognosis when complete surgical resection cannot be achieved. Carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms, primarily of the appendix, associated with carcinoid syndrome in 10% of patients. The indolent course warrants aggressive surgical control. Endocrine neoplasms are unusual in the pediatric population. Their presence should raise concern about a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome and appropriate diagnostic and endocrine work-up. Most neoplasms will require surgical resection.

  1. Tumefactive Gallbladder Sludge at US: Prevalence and Clinical Importance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mimi; Kang, Tae Wook; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Seong Hyun; Ha, Sang Yun; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Gu, Seonhye

    2016-11-15

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of tumefactive sludge of the gallbladder detected at ultrasonography (US) and to assess whether any clinical and imaging differences exist between benign and malignant tumefactive sludge. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. The requirement for informed consent was waived. The study included a cohort (n = 6898) of patients with gallbladder sludge drawn from all adults (n = 115 178) who underwent abdominal US between March 2001 and March 2015. Tumefactive sludge was identified according to the following US findings: (a) nonmovable mass-like lesion and (b) absence of posterior acoustic shadowing at B-mode US and vascularity at color Doppler US. Follow-up examinations were arranged to ascertain whether the results showed true sludge or gallbladder cancer. Risk factors for malignant tumefactive sludge based on clinical and US characteristics were identified with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of gallbladder and tumefactive sludge at abdominal US during the observation period was 6.0% (6898 of 115 178) and 0.1% (135 of 115 178), respectively. Twenty-eight (20.7%) patients were lost to follow-up. Of the 107 with tumefactive sludge, 15 (14%) were confirmed to have malignant tumefactive sludge. The risk factors for malignant tumefactive sludge were old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; P = .035), female sex (OR, 5.48; P = .014), and absence of hyperechoic spots within the sludge (OR, 6.78; P = .008). Conclusion Although the prevalence of tumefactive sludge at US was rare, a considerable proportion of patients had a malignancy. Careful follow-up is essential, especially for older patients, women, and those with an absence of hyperechoic spots at US. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  2. Effect of narcotic premedication of scintigraphic evaluation of gallbladder perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Sefczek, D.M.; Sharma, P.; Isaacs, G.H.; Brodmerkel, G.J. Jr.; Adatepe, M.H.; Powell, O.M.; Nichols, K.

    1985-01-01

    A case of gallbladder perforation is presented in which a small bile leak was demonstrated by cholescintigraphy while the patient was receiving meperidine, but not after meperidine was discontinued. The scintigrams obtained during meperidine therapy also showed a pattern of bile-duct obstruction. It is suggested that increased biliary pressure secondary to meperidine admininstration permitted visualization of the leak. Use of narcotic drugs may be a useful pharmocologic intervention in cases of peritonitis due to small obscure bile leaks.

  3. Tempol protects the gallbladder against ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Camello, Pedro J; Tresguerres, Jesus A F; Pozo, María José

    2010-06-01

    Impairment in gallbladder emptying, increase in residual volume, and reduced smooth muscle contractility are hallmarks of acute acalculous cholecystitis and seem to be related to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). This study was designed to determine the effects of tempol, a general antioxidant, on I/R-induced changes in gallbladder contractile capacity, the mechanisms involved in the contractile process, and the level of inflammatory mediators. Experimental gallbladder I/R was induced in male guinea pigs by common bile duct ligation for 2 days, then a deligation of the duct was performed and after 2 days the animals were sacrificed. A group of animals was treated with tempol, administered in the drinking water at 1 mmol/l for 10 days prior the bile duct ligation and until animal sacrifice. Isometric tension recordings showed that KCl and cholecystokinin-induced contractions were impaired by I/R, which correlated with decreased F-actin content and detrimental effects on Ca(2+) influx. In addition, I/R depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential, as indicated by the reduction of the heterogeneity of the rhodamine123 fluorescence signal, and increased the expression of NF-kappaB, COX-2, and iNOS. Tempol treatment improved contractility via normalization of Ca(2+) handling and improvement of F-actin content. Moreover, the antioxidant ameliorated mitochondrial polarity and normalized the expression levels of the inflammatory mediators. These results show that antioxidant treatment protects the gallbladder from I/R, indicating the potential therapeutic benefits of tempol in I/R injury.

  4. MicroRNA-125b predicts clinical outcome and suppressed tumor proliferation and migration in human gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Huang, Sheng; Ma, Hongbin; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Feng, Feiling

    2017-03-01

    We intended to investigate the functional role and clinical relevance of microRNA-125b in human gallbladder cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to examine microRNA-125b expression in gallbladder cancer cell lines, and 79 pairs of gallbladder cancer and normal gallbladder clinical tissues. Clinical correlations between tumorous microRNA-125b expression and gallbladder cancer patients' clinicopathological variances or overall survivals were statistically analyzed. In gallbladder cancer cell lines, TYGBK-8 and G-415 cells, microRNA-125b was upregulated to examine its regulatory effect on gallbladder cancer proliferation and migration in vitro. MicroRNA-125b was significantly downregulated in gallbladder cancer cell lines and human gallbladder cancer tumors. MicroRNA-125b in gallbladder cancer was significantly correlated with patients' clinical stage, tumor differentiation, lymph metastasis, and tumor invasion. Low tumorous microRNA-125b expression was also found to be associated with poor overall survivals among gallbladder cancer patients. In vitro studies demonstrated that microRNA-125b upregulation significantly suppressed proliferation and migration in TYGBK-8 and G-415 cells. Tumorous microRNA-125b is an independent prognostic biomarker for patients with gallbladder cancer and possibly acts as a tumor suppressor in gallbladder cancer.

  5. Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2014-10-01

    Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Presentation and management of gallbladder remnant after partial cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Jayant, Mayank; Kaushik, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Partial cholecystectomy is usually performed with the aim of preventing bile duct injury and/or vascular injuries in situations where there is difficulty in performing cholecystectomy. Occasionally, such patients can become symptomatic due to recurrence or persistence of disease in the gallbladder remnant and may require further treatment. A case series of various presentations and follow up of seven patients who had undergone open partial cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease in the past. Of 7 patients, 6 were symptomatic, and each of them was found to have a remnant of the gallbladder (with calculi in the remnant in 4 patients). Three patients who presented with recurrent biliary symptoms were re-operated and the gallbladder remnant was removed, with resolution of the symptoms. Two patients refused further operation-one patient with acute pancreatitis who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for removal of common bile duct stones, and another who presented with acute cholecystitis. The other 2 patients (one with transient jaundice and the other who is asymptomatic) remain on follow-up. Although partial cholecystectomy is an accepted, safe option in difficult cases, these patients must be counselled regarding the recurrence of symptoms, and must be kept on follow-up. If symptoms develop, completion of cholecystectomy to remove the remnant provides symptomatic relief.

  7. Cholecystokinin secretion after oral Emtobil, a gallbladder-contracting formula.

    PubMed

    Gelin, J; Rehfeld, J F; Jansson, R; Thornell, E; Svanvik, J

    1986-03-01

    Oral Emtobil, a liquid preparation of sorbitol and peanut oil, has been used in roentgenological practice for several years. Emptying of an opacified gallbladder is seen within 15 min after intake of 100 ml of this solution. The main physiological factor responsible for contraction of the gallbladder is cholecystokinin (CCK). In the present study plasma concentrations of CCK in fasting, healthy subjects were studied in response to oral Emtobil. The radioimmunoassay used measures sulphated CCK-8 and CCK-33 with equimolar potency. Neither non-sulphated CCK nor any gastrins are measured. The average concentration, after an overnight fast in nine healthy subjects without gallstones, was 1.2 pmol/l. A peak concentration was seen within 30 min after 'the test meal' and averaged 8 pmol/l. It is suggested that oral Emtobil contracts the gallbladder by release of CCK. Since Emtobil induces a fast and marked rise in the plasma concentration of CCK, it may be used in test procedures to estimate the secretion of CCK.

  8. [Genetic alterations in preneoplastic and neoplastic injuries of the gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jonathan; García, Patricia; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2010-05-01

    This article aims to review the most relevant morphological and molecular aspects involved in gallbladder (GB) cancer. In Chile, gallbladder cancer is the main cause of death due to cancer, among women older than 40 years. However, there is almost none information about the morphological changes and the genetic alterations involved in the beginning and development of this neoplasia. Two carcinogenic ways have been described. The sequence adenoma-carcinoma is accepted to be less frequent and important. The most important is the sequence where a metaplasia evolves to displasia that progresses to carcinoma in situ and finally it becomes invasive. This progress requires 10 to 15 years approximately. During this time, a continue progression of injuries have been described. Molecular research studies show genetic anomalies in some genes which are temporary events in preneoplastic injuries of the gallbladder. Some of them even exist before the first morphological changes, while the expression of tumor suppressor genes like p53, adhesion molecules and oncogenes, among others, can be related to late GB carcinogenesis. The K-ras gene seems to play a role in this neoplasia, mainly in those that present an abnormal biliopancreatic union. The microsatelital instability has been found in a small subset of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. The existence of methylation in the promotor gene areas has been related to the cellular proliferation, invasion and metastasis and also in cases of chronic cholecystitis, suggesting that this epigenetic phenomenon represents a crucial early event in GB carcinogenesis.

  9. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder carcinoma: An analysis of 42 cases

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yi-Lei; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Zhang, Shui-Jun; Ma, Wen-Jie; Shrestha, Anuj; Li, Fu-Yu; Xu, Fei-Long; Zhao, Long-Shuan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review and evaluate the diagnostic dilemma of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) clinically. METHODS: From July 2008 to June 2014, a total of 142 cases of pathologically diagnosed XGC were reviewed at our hospital, among which 42 were misdiagnosed as gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) based on preoperative radiographs and/or intra-operative findings. The clinical characteristics, preoperative imaging, intra-operative findings, frozen section (FS) analysis and surgical procedure data of these patients were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The most common clinical syndrome in these 42 patients was chronic cholecystitis, followed by acute cholecystitis. Seven (17%) cases presented with mild jaundice without choledocholithiasis. Thirty-five (83%) cases presented with heterogeneous enhancement within thickened gallbladder walls on imaging, and 29 (69%) cases presented with abnormal enhancement in hepatic parenchyma neighboring the gallbladder, which indicated hepatic infiltration. Intra-operatively, adhesions to adjacent organs were observed in 40 (95.2%) cases, including the duodenum, colon and stomach. Thirty cases underwent FS analysis and the remainder did not. The accuracy rate of FS was 93%, and that of surgeon’s macroscopic diagnosis was 50%. Six cases were misidentified as GBC by surgeon’s macroscopic examination and underwent aggressive surgical treatment. No statistical difference was encountered in the incidence of postoperative complications between total cholecystectomy and subtotal cholecystectomy groups (21% vs 20%, P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Neither clinical manifestations and laboratory tests nor radiological methods provide a practical and effective standard in the differential diagnosis between XGC and GBC. PMID:26640342

  10. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  11. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Zhuo; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimally or not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread. PMID:25628800

  12. Surgical treatment of small bowel neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Coco, C; Rizzo, G; Manno, A; Mattana, C; Verbo, A

    2010-04-01

    Small intestinal neoplasms are uncommon cancers. Benign small intestinal tumors (e.g., leiomyoma, lipoma, hamartoma, or desmoid tumor) usually are asymptomatic but may present with complications. Primary malignancies of the small intestine, including adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, carcinoid, and lymphoma, are often symptomatic and may present with intestinal obstruction, jaundice, bleeding, or pain. Metastatic neoplasms may involve the small intestine via contiguous spread, peritoneal metastases or hematogenous metastases. Because the small intestine is relatively inaccessible to routine endoscopy, diagnosis of small intestinal neoplasms is often delayed for months after onset of symptoms. During last years the increase of small bowel endoscopy and other diagnostic tools allow earlier non-operative diagnosis. Even though radical resection of small bowel cancer plays an important role, the 5 yr overall survival remains low.

  13. Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kallen, Michael E; Naini, Bita V

    2016-09-01

    Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (IOPNs) are cystic neoplasms with intraductal growth and complex papillae composed of oncocytic cells. IOPNs have been reported both in the pancreas and biliary tree, and are most likely closely related in these 2 locations. In the pancreas, these rare tumors are now considered 1 of the 4 histologic subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Significant differences in histology, immunophenotype, and molecular genetics have been reported between IOPNs and other IPMN subtypes. However, there are limited data regarding the clinical behavior and prognosis of IOPNs in comparison to other subtypes of IPMN. We review features of pancreatic IOPNs and discuss the differential diagnosis of other intraductal lesions in the pancreas.

  14. Pathology and Molecular Genetics of Pancreatic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Laura D.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is fundamentally a genetic disease caused by the ac cumulation of somatic mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. In the last decade, rapid advances in sequencing and bioinformatic technology led to an explosion in sequencing studies of cancer genomes, greatly expanding our knowledge of the genetic changes underlying a variety of tumor types. Several of these studies of cancer genomes have focused on pancreatic neoplasms, and cancers from the pancreas are some of the best characterized tumors at the genetic level. Pancreatic neoplasms encompass a wide array of clinical diseases, from benign cysts to deadly cancers, and the genetic alterations underlying neoplasms of the pancreas are similarly diverse. This new knowledge of pancreatic cancer genomes has deepened our understanding of tumorigenesis in the pancreas and has opened several promising new avenues for novel diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:23187835

  15. Diagnostic Approach to Eosinophilic Renal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Jorda, Merce; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2015-01-01

    Context Eosinophilic renal neoplasms include a spectrum of solid and papillary tumors ranging from indolent benign oncocytoma to highly aggressive malignancies. Recognition of the correct nature of the tumor, especially in biopsy specimens, is paramount for patient management. Objective To review the diagnostic approach to eosinophilic renal neoplasms with light microscopy and ancillary techniques. Data Sources Review of the published literature and personal experience. Conclusions The following tumors are in the differential diagnosis of oncocytic renal cell neoplasm: oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hybrid tumor, tubulocystic carcinoma, papillary RCC, clear cell RCC with predominant eosinophilic cell morphology, follicular thyroid-like RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC, acquired cystic disease–associated RCC, rhabdoid RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor translocation RCC, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, and unclassified RCC. In low-grade nonpapillary eosinophilic neoplasms, distinction between oncocytoma and low-grade RCC mostly rests on histomorphology; however, cytokeratin 7 immunostain may be helpful. In high-grade nonpapillary lesions, there is more of a role for ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 7, CA9, CD10, racemase, HMB45, and Melan-A. In papillary eosinophilic neoplasms, it is important to distinguish sporadic type 2 papillary RCC from microphthalmia transcription factor translocation and hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC. Histologic and cytologic features along with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization tests for TFE3 (Xp11.2) and TFEB [t(6;11)] are reliable confirmatory tests. Eosinophilic epithelial neoplasms with architecture, cytology, and/or immunoprofile not qualifying for either of the established types of RCC should be classified as unclassified eosinophilic RCC and arbitrarily assigned a grade (low or high). PMID:25357116

  16. Recently described neoplasms of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical pathology of the sinonasal region (i.e., nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses) is notoriously difficult, due in part to the remarkable diversity of neoplasms that may be encountered in this area. In addition, a number of neoplasms have been only recently described in the sinonasal tract, further compounding the difficulty for pathologists who are not yet familiar with them. This manuscript will review the clinicopathologic features of some of the recently described sinonasal tumor types: NUT midline carcinoma, HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, SMARCB1 (INI-1) deficient sinonasal carcinoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, and adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor.

  17. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong; Ruiz, Bernardo; Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.

  18. Angioarchitecture of gallbladder in pig: LM and SEM study on vascular microcorrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Prozorowska, Ewelina; Jackowiak, Hanna

    2014-09-01

    The study focused on the description of pig gallbladder angioarchitecture, with particular emphasis on the specifics of the course of blood vessels in individual layers of the gallbladder wall. Furthermore, the vascular systems of the pig gallbladder were analyzed in terms of the adaptation of this organ to changes in its volume during cyclical bile storage and discharge. The gallbladder is supplied by the cystic artery, which in the pig represents a mixed pinnate and bipinnate pattern of branching. The light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic observations of three-dimensional vascular corrosion casts showed the presence of two main complex vascular networks in the wall of the gallbladder, one located in the subserosal and the other in the mucosa. The unique features in the pig, connected with the size of the gallbladder, is the well-developed horizontal venous plexus under folds of the mucosa, which is a voluminous reservoir of fluids absorbed from bile and vascular networks around mucous glands. Superficial blood vessels of the gallbladder run in vascular pairs or triads, where a single artery runs between two veins. The structures of blood flow control, that is, venous valves, were observed only in venules of the subserosal plexus. Spatial arrangement of the vascular network in the pig gallbladder shows functional plasticity during changes in gallbladder volume. The course of superficial blood vessels in the well-filled gallbladder is arcuate, while in the empty gallbladder it is undulated or spiral. In the mucosal and intramural vessels the direction of blood vessels may change from perpendicular to oblique.

  19. Comparison between cryoablation and irreversible electroporation of rabbit livers at a location close to the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zilin; Zhou, Liang; Fang, Gang; Chen, Jibing; Li, Jialiang; Niu, Lizhi; Liang, Bing; Xu, Kecheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The ablation of liver tumors located close to the gallbladder is likely to lead to complications. The aim of this article is to compare the safety and efficacy of irreversible electroporation (IRE) and cryoablation in rabbit livers at a location close to the gallbladder. Materials and methods We performed cryoablation (n = 12) and IRE (n = 12) of the area of the liver close to the gallbladder in 24 New Zealand white rabbits in order to ensure gallbladder damage. Serum aminotransferase and serum bilirubin levels were measured before and after the ablation. Histopathological examination of the ablation zones in the liver and gallbladder was performed on the 7th day after the ablation. Result Seven days after the ablation, all 24 animals were alive. Gallbladder perforation did not occur in the IRE group; only mucosal epithelial necrosis and serous layer edema were found in this group. Gallbladder perforation occurred in four rabbits in the cryoablation group. Serum aminotransferase and serum bilirubin levels obviously increased in both groups by Day 3 and decreased gradually thereafter. The elevation in aminotransferase and bilirubin levels was greater in the cryoablation group than the IRE group. Pathological examination revealed complete necrosis of the liver parenchyma from the ablation center to the gallbladder in both groups, but bile duct and granulation tissue hyperplasia were observed in only the IRE group. Full-thickness gallbladder-wall necrosis was seen in the cryoablation group. Conclusions For ablation of the liver area near the gallbladder, IRE is superior to cryoablation, both in terms of safety (no gallbladder perforation in the IRE group) and efficacy (complete necrosis and rapid recovery in the IRE group). PMID:28265231

  20. Gallbladder inflammation is associated with increase in mucin expression and pigmented stone formation.

    PubMed

    Vilkin, Alexander; Nudelman, Israel; Morgenstern, Sara; Geller, Alex; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Levi, Zohar; Rodionov, Galina; Hardy, Britta; Konikoff, Fred; Gobbic, Diana; Niv, Yaron

    2007-07-01

    Mucin is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that plays an important role in protecting the gallbladder epithelium from the detergent effect of bile. However, it also participates in gallstone formation. There is little information about a possible relationship between gallbladder inflammation and mucin expression or gallbladder stones' characteristics. The aims of this study were to investigate stone characteristics and patterns of mucin expression in the gallbladder epithelium and bile of gallstone patients, in relation to inflammation. Gallbladder bile and tissue samples from 21 patients were obtained at surgery. Mucin content was evaluated by gel filtration on a Sepharose CL-4B column. Dot blot for bile mucin apoproteins and immunohistochemistry staining for gallbladder mucosal mucin apoproteins were performed with antibodies to MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6. Staining intensity score (0-3) was used for assessment of antigen expression and the level of inflammation. Gallstone cholesterol content was determined in 16 patients. MUC 5AC and MUC 5B were demonstrated in 95.4 and 100% of gallbladder bile samples, respectively. Immunohistochemistry staining with antibodies to MUC 2, MUC 3, MUC 5AC, MUC 5B and MUC 6 were positive in 0, 100, 85.7, 100 and 95.4% of the gallbladder mucosal samples, respectively. Pigmented brown stones were associated with a higher level of gallbladder inflammation. Mucin species expressed in gallbladder epithelium are MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6. MUC5AC and MUC5B are secreted into bile. Inflammation of the gallbladder is accompanied by a higher level of MUC5AC expression and is associated with pigmented brown stones.

  1. Synthetic pathways of gallbladder mucosal prostanoids: the role of cyclooxygenase-1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Longo, W E; Panesar, N; Mazuski, J E; Kaminski, D

    1999-02-01

    Acute cholecystitis is associated with increased gallbladder prostanoid formation and the inflammatory changes and prostanoid increases can be inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Recent information indicates that prostanoids are produced by two cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2. The purpose of this study was to determine the COX enzymatic pathway in gallbladder mucosal cells involved in the production of prostanoids stimulated by inflammatory agents. Human gallbladder mucosal cells were isolated from cholecystectomy specimens and maintained in cell culture and studied in comparison with cells from a well differentiated gallbladder mucosal carcinoma cell line. COX enzymes were evaluated by Western immunoblotting and prostanoids were measured by ELISA. Unstimulated and stimulated cells were exposed to specific COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors. In both normal and transformed cells constitutive COX-1 was evident and in gallbladder cancer cells lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) induced the formation of constitutive COX-1 enzyme. While not detected in unstimulated normal mucosal cells and cancer cells, COX-2 protein was induced by both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPC. Unstimulated gallbladder mucosal cells and cancer cells produced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha, 6-keto PGF1alpha) continuously. In freshly isolated normal gallbladder mucosal cells, continuously produced 6 keto PGF1alpha was inhibited by both COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors while PGE2 levels were not affected. Both LPS and LPC stimulated PGE2 and 6 keto PGF1alpha formation were blocked by COX-2 inhibitors in freshly isolated, normal human gallbladder mucosal cells and in the gallbladder cancer cells. The prostanoid response of gallbladder cells stimulated by proinflammatory agents is inhibited by COX-2 inhibitors suggesting that these agents may be effective in treating the pain and inflammation of gallbladder disease.

  2. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas with concurrent pancreatic and periampullary neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sahora, K; Crippa, S; Zamboni, G; Ferrone, C; Warshaw, A L; Lillemoe, K; Mino-Kenudson, M; Falconi, M; Fernandez-del Castillo, C

    2016-02-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) have been reported to be associated with concurrent, distinct pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (con-PDAC) in about 8% (range, 4-10%) of resected branch duct (BD) lesions. In addition, other pancreatic and ampullary tumors are occasionally diagnosed with IPMN in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence, clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of IPMN with concurrent pancreatic and ampullary neoplasms, especially con-PDAC. The combined databases of pancreatic resections from the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Negrar Hospital, Italy, were analyzed for patients who had been diagnosed with IPMN and concurrent pancreatic or ampullary neoplasms. 2762 patients underwent pancreatic surgery from January 2000 to December 2012. Sixteen percent (n = 441) had pathologically confirmed IPMN and 11% of these (n = 50) had a different distinct synchronous pancreatic neoplasm. The majority of these, 62%, were con-PDAC, followed by neuroendocrine neoplasms (10%) and ampullary carcinoma (10%). Less frequently, mucinous (6%) as well as serous cystic neoplasms (6%), adenosquamous carcinoma (4%) and distal bile duct cancer (2%) were diagnosed. Among all patients with synchronous neoplasms, 66% harbored BD-IPMN, 28% combined IPMN and 6% main duct IPMN. Abdominal pain and/or jaundice were the leading symptoms in half of patients. IPMN, mainly BD-IPMN, are associated with con-PDAC in about 7% of patients and account for 62% of all concurrent pancreatic/ampullary neoplasms. Other synchronous neoplasms may be found sporadically with IPMN without a suspected association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolated IgG4-related cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Wook; Kim, Yongsoo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Jinoo; Kim, Min Yeong; Oh, Young Ha; Pyo, Ju Yeon

    2013-01-01

    A 58-year-old man with right upper quadrant pain was referred to the radiology department. The patient underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which suggested the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer invading the liver. After surgical removal of the gallbladder, and the adjacent liver parenchyma was performed, the histologic diagnosis of IgG4-related cholecystitis was made.

  4. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2013-06-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  5. The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, TGR5, stimulates gallbladder filling.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Holmstrom, Sam R; Kir, Serkan; Umetani, Michihisa; Schmidt, Daniel R; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2011-06-01

    TGR5 is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor present in brown adipose tissue and intestine, where its agonism increases energy expenditure and lowers blood glucose. Thus, it is an attractive drug target for treating human metabolic disease. However, TGR5 is also highly expressed in gallbladder, where its functions are less well characterized. Here, we demonstrate that TGR5 stimulates the filling of the gallbladder with bile. Gallbladder volume was increased in wild-type but not Tgr5(-/-) mice by administration of either the naturally occurring TGR5 agonist, lithocholic acid, or the synthetic TGR5 agonist, INT-777. These effects were independent of fibroblast growth factor 15, an enteric hormone previously shown to stimulate gallbladder filling. Ex vivo analyses using gallbladder tissue showed that TGR5 activation increased cAMP concentrations and caused smooth muscle relaxation in a TGR5-dependent manner. These data reveal a novel, gallbladder-intrinsic mechanism for regulating gallbladder contractility. They further suggest that TGR5 agonists should be assessed for effects on human gallbladder as they are developed for treating metabolic disease.

  6. Gallbladder function in the human female: effect of the ovulatory cycle, pregnancy, and contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Everson, G T; McKinley, C; Lawson, M; Johnson, M; Kern, F

    1982-04-01

    We have previously shown that in pregnancy fasting gallbladder volume is increased and emptying after a small volume liquid meal is incomplete. In this study we measured gallbladder volume throughout day and night in healthy women ingesting regular meals. Pregnant women, postpartum women, contraceptive-steroid users, and controls in both phases of the ovulatory cycle were studied. After an overnight fast gallbladder volume was measured by realtime ultrasonography in the fasting state and every 5-10 min for 90 min after breakfast. Residual volume was the lowest volume achieved and the rate constant of gallbladder emptying was calculated from the ln/linear regression of gallbladder volume vs. time. Gallbladder volume was also measured hourly from 11 AM to midnight while subjects ate regular, standard meals, allowing the determination of an average hourly volume. There was no effect of phase of the ovulatory cycle on any measure of gallbladder function. Fasting, residual, and average hourly volume were increased in all trimesters of pregnancy, but tended to return to normal in the postpartum period. Women taking contraceptive steroids had an increased fasting volume. Two distinct rates of emptying after breakfast, an early and a late one, were identified. The early rate was the same in all groups. Pregnant women had a slower late rate of emptying, but women taking contraceptive steroids had emptying rates similar to controls. Retention of bile in the gallbladder may be one reason for the increased risk of cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women and in those taking contraceptive steroids.

  7. Scintigraphic demonstration of acute gastrointestinal bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding the colon

    SciTech Connect

    Czerniak, A.; Zwas, S.T.; Rabau, M.Y.; Avigad, I.; Borag, B.; Wolfstein, I.

    1985-08-01

    Massive lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding into the colonic wall was demonstrated accurately by Tc-99m RBCs. In addition, retrograde bleeding into the gallbladder was also identified while arteriography did not show contrast extravasation. This case supports the use of Tc-99m RBCs over Tc-99m sulfur colloid for more accurate localization of lower GI bleeding.

  8. Echogenic material in the fetal gallbladder in a surviving monochorionic twin.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, W; Stagiannis, K D

    1996-01-01

    Fetal gallstones or echogenic sludge in the fetal gallbladder have rarely been reported prenatally despite the increasing number of ultrasound scans performed during pregnancy. In this report we present a case in which diffuse echogenic material was detected in the fetal gallbladder in a surviving monochorionic twin. This report identifies another predisposing factor for fetal gallstones/sludge in the perinatal period.

  9. Gallbladder Cryoablation: Proof of Concept in a Swine Model for a Percutaneous Alternative to Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Hugh C J; Saeed, Maythem; Surman, Andrew; Ehman, Eric C; Hetts, Steven W; Wilson, Mark W; Conrad, Miles B

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of percutaneous gallbladder cryoablation (GBC) under CT guidance in a swine model with histopathologic correlation. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approval was obtained for this study protocol. Five pigs underwent GBC. Under CT guidance, 3-4 cryoprobes were positioned percutaneously at the gallbladder margins. Thermocouple probes were placed percutaneously at the gallbladder fundus, neck, free wall, and gallbladder fossa. Two freeze-thaw cycles ranging from 10 to 26 min were performed. The subjects were sacrificed 5 h after cryoablation. The gallbladder and bile ducts were resected, stained, and examined microscopically. GBC was completed in all subjects. A 10-mm ablation margin was achieved beyond all gallbladder walls. Thermocouple probes reached at least -20 °C. Intra-procedural body temperature decreased to a minimum of 35 °C but recovered after the procedure. Intra- and post-procedural vital signs otherwise remained within physiologic parameters. Non-target ablation occurred in the stomach and colon of the first two subjects. Histology demonstrated complete denudation of the gallbladder epithelium, hemorrhage, and edema within the muscularis layer, and preservation of the microscopic architecture of the common bile duct in all cases. Percutaneous gallbladder cryoablation is feasible, with adequate ablation margins obtained and histologic changes demonstrating transmural necrosis. Adjacent structures included in the ablation may require conservative ablation zones, hydrodissection, or continuous saline lavage.

  10. Gallbladder and the risk of polyps and carcinoma in metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    van Rappard, Diane F; Bugiani, Marianna; Boelens, Jaap J; van der Steeg, Alida F W; Daams, Freek; de Meij, Tim G J; van Doorn, Martine M A C; van Hasselt, Peter M; Gouma, Dirk J; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Hollak, Carla E M; van Hecke, Wim; Salomons, Gajja S; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Wolf, Nicole I

    2016-07-05

    To assess frequency of gallbladder polyposis and carcinoma in metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). We evaluated 34 patients with MLD (average age 16.7 years, age range 2-39 years) screened for gallbladder abnormalities by ultrasound. In the case of cholecystectomy, findings at pathology were reviewed. Only 8 of 34 patients (23%) had a normal gallbladder at ultrasound. Gallbladder polyps were visible in 8 patients (23%). Cholecystectomy was performed in 11 patients (32%). In these, pathology revealed various abnormalities, including hyperplastic polyps, intestinal metaplasia, prominent Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses, and sulfatide storage. Our results demonstrate that gallbladder involvement is the rule rather than the exception in MLD. The high prevalence of hyperplastic polyps, a known precancerous condition, and one death from gallbladder carcinoma at a young age suggest that MLD predisposes to neoplastic gallbladder abnormalities. As novel therapies for this patient group are emerging leading to increased life expectancy, we recommend screening for gallbladder abnormalities by ultrasound in order to prevent early death. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Non-coding RNAs as emerging molecular targets of gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Tekcham, Dinesh Singh; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar

    2016-08-15

    Gallbladder cancer is one of the most common cancers of biliary tract with aggressive pathophysiology, now emerging as a global health issue. Although minority of gallbladder cancer patients could receive such curative resection due to late diagnosis, this increases the survival rate. Lack of potential target molecule (s) for early diagnosis, better prognosis and effective therapy of gallbladder cancer has triggered investigators to look for novel technological or high throughput approaches to identify potential biomarker for gallbladder cancer. Intervention of non-coding RNAs in gallbladder cancer has been revealed recently. Non-coding RNAs are now widely implicated in cancer. Recent reports have revealed association of non-coding RNAs (microRNAs or miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs or lncRNAs) with gallbladder cancer. Here, we present an updated overview on the biogenesis, mechanism of action, role of non-coding RNAs, the identified cellular functions in gallbladder tumorigenesis, their prognostic & therapeutic potentials (efficacies) and future significance in developing effective biomarker(s), in future, for gallbladder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Delusional Disorder Arising From a CNS Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Stupinski, John; Kim, Jihye; Francois, Dimitry

    2017-01-01

    Erotomania arising from a central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm has not been previously described. Here, we present the first known case, to our knowledge, of erotomania with associated persecutory delusions arising following diagnosis and treatment of a left frontal lobe brain tumor.

  13. [Viruses as agents inducing cutaneous neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Bravo Puccio, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    The oncogenic role of viruses in cutaneous neoplasms has been known by humankind for more than a century, when the origin of the common wart, or verruca vulgaris, was attributed to the human papilloma virus (HPV). Currently, virus-induced cutaneous neoplasms may be grouped into solid tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders. HPV, from which various serotypes are now known, each being linked to a specific neoplasm, the human herpes virus type 8 producing Kaposi sarcoma, and the Merkel cell polyomavirus, highlight among the first group. Regarding the lymphoproliferative disorders, we should mention the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1), which is responsible for the T-cell lymphomas, in which the cutaneous manifestations are non-specific and have a wide spectrum, thus posing a challenge for differential diagnosis. The Epstein Barr virus, linked to nasal lymphomas of NK/T-cells and Hydroa-like cutaneous lymphomas, is also part of this group. In an era in which the genetic and molecular aspects of cancer research prevail, we may not leave behind the concept of neoplasms as a result an infection with a viral agent, which opens a wide array of new possibilities for cancer treatment based on antiviral drugs.

  14. Clinical experience in appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ozcelik, Caglar K.; Bozdogan, Nazan; Dibekoglu, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To analyse the incidence of appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms in appendectomy specimens and establish the epidemiological and histopathological features, treatment, and clinical course. Material and methods Between 2004 and 2013, 975 patients who underwent appendectomy in Ankara Oncology Education and Research Hospital were retrospectively analysed. Results Neuroendocrine neoplasm was detected in the nine of 975 (0.9%) patients. Neuroendocrine neoplasms were diagnosed in eight patients by appendectomy, which was performed because of the prediagnosis of acute appendicitis, and in one patient by the suspicious mass detection during surgical procedures that were done in the appendix for a different reason. Eight of the patients’ tumours were in the tip of the appendix, and one of the patients’ tumours was at the base of appendix. Tumour size in 77.8% of patients was equal or less than 1 cm, in 22.2% patients it was 1–2 cm. There was tumour invasion in the muscularis propria layer in four patients, in the serosa layer in three patients, and in the deep mesoappendix in two patients. Patients were followed for a median of 78 months. In the follow-up of patients who were operated because of colon cancer, metachronous colon tumour evolved. This patient died due to progressive disease. Other patients are still disease-free. Conclusions The diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasm is often incidentally done after appendectomy. Tumour size is important in determining the extent of disease and in the selection of the surgical method during operation. PMID:26793027

  15. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  16. Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Vassallo, Jose; Chauffaille, Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari; Xavier, Sandra Guerra; Pagnano, Katia Borgia; Nascimento, Ana Clara Kneese; De Souza, Carmino Antonio; Chiattone, Carlos Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloproliferative diseases without the Philadelphia chromosome marker (Ph-), although first described 60 years ago, only became the subject of interest after the turn of the millennium. In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined the classification of this group of diseases and in 2008 they were renamed myeloproliferative neoplasms based on morphological, cytogenetic and molecular features. In 2005, the identification of a recurrent molecular abnormality characterized by a gain of function with a mutation in the gene encoding Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) paved the way for greater knowledge of the pathophysiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The JAK2 mutation is found in 90-98% of polycythemia vera and in about 50% essential thrombocytosis and primary myelofibrosis. In addition to the JAK2 mutation, other mutations involving TET2 (ten-eleven translocation), LNK (a membrane-bound adaptor protein); IDH1/2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 enzyme); ASXL1 (additional sex combs-like 1) genes were found in myeloproliferative neoplasms thus showing the importance of identifying molecular genetic alterations to confirm diagnosis, guide treatment and improve our understanding of the biology of these diseases. Currently, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, myelofibrosis, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia and mastocytosis are included in this group of myeloproliferative neoplasms, but are considered different situations with individualized diagnostic methods and treatment. This review updates pathogenic aspects, molecular genetic alterations, the fundamental criteria for diagnosis and the best approach for each of these entities. PMID:23049404

  17. SNP Array in Hematopoietic Neoplasms: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinming; Shao, Haipeng

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of hematopoietic neoplasms in current clinical practice. Many hematopoietic malignancies are characterized by structural chromosomal abnormalities such as specific translocations, inversions, deletions and/or numerical abnormalities that can be identified by karyotype analysis or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays offer high-resolution identification of copy number variants (CNVs) and acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH)/uniparental disomy (UPD) that are usually not identifiable by conventional cytogenetic analysis and FISH studies. As a result, SNP arrays have been increasingly applied to hematopoietic neoplasms to search for clinically-significant genetic abnormalities. A large numbers of CNVs and UPDs have been identified in a variety of hematopoietic neoplasms. CNVs detected by SNP array in some hematopoietic neoplasms are of prognostic significance. A few specific genes in the affected regions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and may be the targets for specific therapeutic agents in the future. In this review, we summarize the current findings of application of SNP arrays in a variety of hematopoietic malignancies with an emphasis on the clinically significant genetic variants. PMID:27600067

  18. Gallstones play a significant role in Salmonella spp. gallbladder colonization and carriage.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Robert W; Rosales-Reyes, Roberto; Ramírez-Aguilar, María de la Luz; Chapa-Azuela, Oscar; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Gunn, John S

    2010-03-02

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi can colonize the gallbladder and persist in an asymptomatic carrier state that is frequently associated with the presence of gallstones. We have shown that salmonellae form bile-mediated biofilms on human gallstones and cholesterol-coated surfaces in vitro. Here, we test the hypothesis that biofilms on cholesterol gallbladder stones facilitate typhoid carriage in mice and men. Naturally resistant (Nramp1(+/+)) mice fed a lithogenic diet developed cholesterol gallstones that supported biofilm formation during persistent serovar Typhimurium infection and, as a result, demonstrated enhanced fecal shedding and enhanced colonization of gallbladder tissue and bile. In typhoid endemic Mexico City, 5% of enrolled cholelithiasis patients carried serovar Typhi, and bacterial biofilms could be visualized on gallstones from these carriers whereas significant biofilms were not detected on gallstones from Escherichia coli infected gallbladders. These findings offer direct evidence that gallstone biofilms occur in humans and mice, which facilitate gallbladder colonization and shedding.

  19. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of the Gallbladder Detected on Fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Asif Ali; Rodrigue, Paul David; Fakhri, Amena Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma is rare in patients with diagnosed multiple myeloma. Soft tissue plasmacytoma of the gallbladder is particularly uncommon and has been described in only a handful of cases. Diagnosis of gallbladder plasmacytoma with fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F18-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has not previously been reported. We present a 65-year-old female with a history of multiple myeloma who underwent a restaging F18-FDG-PET/CT which showed a focal area of hypermetabolic activity, corresponding to a nodular lesion within the posterior gallbladder wall. The patient underwent successful cholecystectomy, with surgical pathology revealing gallbladder plasmacytoma. A follow-up scan was negative for active malignancy. This is a novel case of gallbladder plasmacytoma diagnosed on whole-body F18-FDG PET/CT – thus demonstrating the clinical value of this imaging modality in staging, restaging, and surveillance for patients with multiple myeloma. PMID:27761300

  20. Activation of lipase by a factor present in the gall-bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, G; Guarnieri, C; Fussi, F

    1975-01-01

    The action of a bovine gall-bladder extract is studied on two lipolytic systems: the pancreas lipase and the plasma lipoproteinlipase. For pancreas lipase the lipolytic activity of pancreas homogenates of different species is evaluated in the presence of different quantities of gall-bladder extract. For plasma lipoproteinlipase, the enzyme is induced by injection of optimal doses of heparin associated with different quantities of gall-bladder extract and the activity is evaluated by measuring the clarifying power of the plasmas of the treated animals. The results confirm that the gall-bladder contains a factor activating the pancreas lipase and put in evidence some differences between lipase activities in different species. For plasma lipolytic activation, the action of the gall-bladder extract is particularly evident in the inductive phase of lipoproteinlipase, according to a typical process of saturation.

  1. Perforation of the gallbladder: a rare cause of acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Ponten, Joep B; Selten, Jasmijn; Puylaert, Julien B C M; Bronkhorst, Maarten W G A

    2015-02-08

    An 82-year-old woman without any previous medical history arrived in the emergency department with severe pain in the entire abdomen since 5 h. Blood tests showed, apart from a CRP of 28 mg/l, no abnormalities. We decided to perform an abdominal ultrasound, which showed an easily compressible gallbladder, containing a small, mobile gallstone and free fluid in the abdomen. During ultrasound-guided punction of this fluid, bile is aspirated. We performed laparoscopy and confirmed a large amount of intraperitoneal bile. Upon inspecting the gallbladder a perforation is seen in the anti-hepatic side of the gallbladder. After performing a cholecystectomy, we opened the gallbladder and detected a dissection-like lesion, which provided access to the peritoneal cavity. The confirmed diagnosis was acute onset free perforation of the gallbladder. The perforation was probably caused by the small obstructing gallstone seen on ultrasound or by another small stone, which could not be visualized.

  2. Expression of carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) indicates poor prognosis in human gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhe Long; Kim, Meeran; Huang, Song Mei; Lee, Hyo Jin; Kim, Jin-Man

    2013-03-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is a lethal neoplasm, and new prognostic markers are required. Deregulation of E3 ligases contributes to cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis. Carboxyl terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, the role of which has not been evaluated in GBC. Therefore, the present study investigated CHIP expression in GBC and its prognostic significance. In the present study, CHIP expression was measured in 78 tumor specimens of GBC by immunohistochemistry and the correlation between CHIP expression and clinicopathological factors was analyzed. Of the tumor specimens, 26.9% showed high staining intensity [the CHIP high expression group (HEG)]. The CHIP-HEG was not associated with other common clinicopathological parameters, including T stage, and lymph node and distant metastases. CHIP-HEG patients had a significantly worse prognosis than patients with low CHIP expression with median cancer-specific survival times of 8.0 months (range, 1-34 months) and 13.0 months (range, 1-110 months), respectively (P=0.023). Multivariate analyses showed that CHIP expression was close to being an independent risk factor for predicting patient survival. CHIP expression may be associated with a poor prognosis in GBC. Since CHIP is not associated with other clinicopathological prognostic factors, it may serve as an ideal molecular marker for predicting patient outcomes.

  3. Incidental gallbladder cancer during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Managing an unexpected finding

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Andrea; Piccolo, Gaetano; Panebianco, Vincenzo; Menzo, Emanuele Lo; Berretta, Massimiliano; Zanghì, Antonio; Vita, Maria Di; Cappellani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of incidental gallbladder cancer on surgical experience. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2008 all cases of cholecystectomy at two divisions of general surgery, one university based and one at a public hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. Gallbladder pathology was diagnosed by history, physical examination, and laboratory and imaging studies [ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT)]. Patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) were further analyzed for demographic data, and type of operation, surgical morbidity and mortality, histopathological classification, and survival. Incidental GBC was compared with suspected or preoperatively diagnosed GBC. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary endpoint was the difference in DFS between patients previously treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and those who had oncological resection as first intervention. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) were found to have GBC. The male to female ratio was 1:1.4 and the mean age was 68 years (range: 45-82 years). Preoperative diagnosis was made in 10 cases, and eight were diagnosed postoperatively. One was suspected intraoperatively and confirmed by frozen sections. The ratio between incidental and nonincidental cases was 9/19. The tumor node metastasis stage was: pTis (1), pT1a (2), pT1b (4), pT2 (6), pT3 (4), pT4 (2); five cases with stage Ia (T1 a-b); two with stage Ib (T2 N0); one with stage IIa (T3 N0); six with stage IIb (T1-T3 N1); two with stage III (T4 Nx Nx); and one with stage IV (Tx Nx Mx). Eighty-eight percent of the incidental cases were discovered at an early stage (≤ II). Preoperative diagnosis of the 19 patients with GBC was: GBC with liver invasion diagnosed by preoperative CT (nine cases), gallbladder abscess perforated into hepatic parenchyma and involving the transversal mesocolon and hepatic hilum (one case), porcelain gallbladder (one case), gallbladder adenoma (one case), and

  4. Presence and distribution of leptin and leptin receptor in the canine gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungin; Lee, Aeri; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong; Kim, Wan Hee

    2016-09-01

    The hormone leptin is produced by mature adipocytes and plays an important role in regulating food intake and energy metabolism through its interaction with the leptin receptor. In addition to roles in obesity and obesity-related diseases, leptin has been reported to affect the components and secretion of bile in leptin-deficient mice. Furthermore, gallbladder diseases such as cholelithiasis are known to be associated with serum leptin concentrations in humans. We hypothesized that the canine gallbladder is a source of leptin and that the leptin receptor may be localized in the gallbladder, where it plays a role in regulating the function of this organ. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence and expression patterns of leptin and its receptors in normal canine gallbladders using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Clinically normal gallbladder tissue samples were obtained from four healthy beagle dogs with similar body condition scores. RT-PCR and sequencing of the amplified PCR products revealed the presence of leptin mRNA and its receptors in the gallbladder. Immunohistochemical investigations demonstrated the expression of leptin and its receptors in the luminal single columnar and tubuloalveolar glandular epithelial cells. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated the presence of leptin and its receptors in the gallbladders of dogs. Leptin and its receptor were both localized throughout the cytoplasm of luminal and glandular epithelial cells. These results suggested that the gallbladder is not only a source of leptin, but also a target of leptin though autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. The results of this study could increase the understanding of both the normal physiological functions of the gallbladder and the pathophysiological mechanisms of gallbladder diseases characterized by leptin system dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. Monolayer and three-dimensional cell culture and living tissue culture of gallbladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nakanuma, Y; Katayanagi, K; Kawamura, Y; Yoshida, K

    1997-10-01

    Several models for preparing and isolating human and animal gallbladder epithelial cells, including low-grade gallbladder carcinoma cells, as well as proposed systems for culturing these isolated epithelial cells are reviewed here. Several reports concerning tissue culture of the gallbladder are also reviewed. The cell culture systems are divided into monolayer cell culture on collagen-coated or uncoated culture dishes or other culture substrate and three-dimensional cell culture in collagen gel. To prepare and isolate gallbladder epithelial cells, digestion of the gallbladder mucosa, abrasion of the mucosal epithelial cells, and excision of epithelial outgrowth of mucosal explants are applied. In monolayer cell culture, most of the specific biological features of isolated and cultured cells characteristic to the gallbladder are gradually lost after several passages, though quantitative and objective analyses of the pathophysiology of cultured cells and their secretory substances can be performed. Tissue culture using explants of the gallbladder has mainly been used for physiological studies of the gallbladder, such as investigating the transport of water and electrolytes. In this tissue culture system, quantitative assessment is difficult, though the original and specific biological and histological characteristics of the gallbladder are retained. Three-dimensional collagen gel culture could be an ideal model combining monolayer cell culture and tissue culture systems, and create controllable conditions or environments when several biologically active substances, such as growth factors, proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules, are added to the culture medium. Advantages and shortcomings of individual cultivation models are discussed, and selecting the culture model most appropriate to the purpose of the study will facilitate investigations of the biology and pathogenetic mechanisms of gallbladder diseases such as cholelithiasis.

  6. The role of TRPP2 in agonist-induced gallbladder smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xingguo; Fu, Jie; Song, Kai; Xue, Nairui; Gong, Renhua; Sun, Dengqun; Luo, Huilai; He, Wenzhu; Pan, Xiang; Shen, Bing; Du, Juan

    2016-04-01

    TRPP2 channel protein belongs to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and is widely expressed in various tissues, including smooth muscle in digestive gut. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that TRPP2 can mediate Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) stores. However, the functional role of TRPP2 in gallbladder smooth muscle contraction still remains unclear. In this study, we used Ca(2+) imaging and tension measurements to test agonist-induced intracellular Ca(2+) concentration increase and smooth muscle contraction of guinea pig gallbladder, respectively. When TRPP2 protein was knocked down in gallbladder muscle strips from guinea pig, carbachol (CCh)-evoked Ca(2+) release and extracellular Ca(2+) influx were reduced significantly, and gallbladder contractions induced by endothelin 1 and cholecystokinin were suppressed markedly as well. CCh-induced gallbladder contraction was markedly suppressed by pretreatment with U73122, which inhibits phospholipase C to terminate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3) production, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB), which inhibits IP3 recepor (IP3R) to abolish IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release. To confirm the role of Ca(2+) release in CCh-induced gallbladder contraction, we used thapsigargin (TG)-to deplete Ca(2+) stores via inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and eliminate the role of store-operated Ca(2+) entry on the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction. Preincubation with 2 μmol L(-1) TG significantly decreased the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction. In addition, pretreatments with U73122, 2APB or TG abolished the difference of the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction between TRPP2 knockdown and control groups. We conclude that TRPP2 mediates Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, and has an essential role in agonist-induced gallbladder muscle contraction.

  7. Routine histopathology of gallbladder after elective cholecystectomy for gallstones: waste of resources or a justified act?

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Faisal G; Memon, Ahmer A; Abro, Arshad H; Sasoli, Nazeer A; Ahmad, Lubna

    2013-07-08

    Selective approach for sending cholecystectomy specimens for histopathology results in missing discrete pathologies such as premalignant benign lesions such as porcelain gallbladder, carcinoma-in-situ, and early carcinomas. To avoid such blunders therefore, every cholecystectomy specimen should be routinely examined histologically. Unfortunately, the practice of discarding gallbladder specimen is standard in most tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan including the primary investigators' own institution. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility or otherwise of performing histopathology in every specimen of gallbladder. This cohort study included 220 patients with gallstones for cholecystectomy. All cases with known secondaries from gallbladder, local invasion from other viscera, traumatic rupture of gallbladder, gross malignancy of gallbladder found during surgery was excluded from the study. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in majority of cases except in those cases where anatomical distortion and dense adhesions prevented laparoscopy. All gallbladder specimens were sent for histopathology, irrespective of their gross appearance. Over a period of two years, 220 patients with symptomatic gallstones were admitted for cholecystectomy. Most of the patients were females (88%). Ninety two per cent patients presented with upper abdominal pain of varying duration. All specimens were sent for histopathology. Two hundred and three of the specimens showed evidence chronic cholecystitis, 7 acute cholecystitis with mucocele, 3 acute cholecystitis with empyema and one chronic cholecystitis associated with poly. Six gallbladders (2.8%) showed adenocarcinoma of varying differentiation along with cholelithiasis. The histopathological spectrum of gallbladder is extremely variable. Incidental diagnosis of carcinoma gall bladder is not rare; if the protocol of routine histopathology of all gallbladder specimens is not followed, subclinical malignancies would fail to

  8. The role of diffusion-weighted examination in non-polyploid gallbladder malignancies: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Solak, Aynur; Solak, Ilhami; Genç, Berhan; Sahin, Neslin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in gallbladder malignancies, which are typically diagnosed during surgery because the radiologic findings are similar to those of cholecystitis-caused diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall. Seven patients with gallbladder malignancies and nine patients with benign gallbladder pathology were included in this study. In one of the patients with a malignancy, a lesion was determined on the porcelain gallbladder; in another patient, acute myeloblastic leukemia had infiltrated the gallbladder, causing the diffuse wall thickening. Five subjects had a primary malignant gallbladder. The view of the bladder wall was evaluated visually in increasing b values. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements were obtained from at least three sites of the bladder wall in each patient, and the results of the measurements were analyzed after comparing the malignant and benign groups. In the malignant group, the results of the radiological outcomes were compared with histological examinations. In the benign group, cholecystitis was diagnosed by observing normalization of the bladder wall thickening via surgery or medical treatment. There was a statistically significant difference in apparent diffusion coefficient levels between the malignant group, which caused diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall, and the benign group (Student t test, p<0.01). According to this preliminary study, observation of distinct brightness of the gallbladder wall in diffusion-weighted examination with a high b value is a significant finding in terms of diffuse gallbladder malignancy. A value below the 0.86 mm 2 /sn cut-off was significant for malignancy in apparent diffusion coefficient mapping.

  9. Human gallbladder carcinoma: Role of neurotrophins, MIB-1, CD34 and CA15-3

    PubMed Central

    Artico, M.; Bronzetti, E.; Alicino, V.; Ionta, B.; Bosco, S.; Grande, C.; Bruno, M.; Tranquilli Leali, F. M.; Ionta, G.; Fumagalli, L.

    2010-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract tumor and the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer. The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor and less than 5% of the patients are still alive five years postoperatively. Gallbladder specimens were obtained during surgical operations performed in eleven patients for resection of a gallbladder carcinoma, and during five autopsies (control cases selected among patients who died from for other causes, excluding those suffering from biliary or hepatic diseases). Immunohistochemical characterization and distribution of neurotrophins, with their respective receptors, were analyzed. The actual role played by these neurotrophic factors in the general regulation, vascular permeability, algic responsiveness, release of locally active substances and potential tumorigenesis in the gallbladder and biliary ducts compartment remains controversial. Our study revealed an increased immunohistochemical expression of NGF and TrKA in the epithelium and in the epithelial glands of the gallbladder carcinoma together with an evident immunoreactivity for BDNF in the same neoplastic areas. An evident immunoreactivity for NGF, TrKA and BDNF was observed in control specimens of gallbladder obtained during autopsies, whereas a weak or quite absent immunoreactivity was observed in the same specimens for NT4, TrKC and p75. On the contrary an appreciable immunoreactivity for p75 was observed in the specimens harvested from patients with gallbladder carcinoma. We also investigated the expression of some known tumor markers such as MIB-1 (anti Ki-67), CD34 and CA15-3, to identify a possible correlation between the expression of these molecular factors and the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma. They resulted highly expressed in the stroma (CD34 and CA 15-3) and in the epithelium/epithelial glands (MIB-1) of the neoplastic areas and appeared to be almost absent in the control cases, suggesting that these markers, taken together

  10. Human gallbladder carcinoma: Role of neurotrophins, MIB-1, CD34 and CA15-3.

    PubMed

    Artico, M; Bronzetti, E; Alicino, V; Ionta, B; Bosco, S; Grande, C; Bruno, M; Tranquilli Leali, F M; Ionta, G; Fumagalli, L

    2010-03-11

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract tumor and the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer .The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor and less than 5% of the patients are still alive five years postoperatively. Gallbladder specimens were obtained during surgical operations performed in eleven patients for resection of a gallbladder carcinoma, and during five autopsies (control cases selected among patients who died from for other causes, excluding those suffering from biliary or hepatic diseases). Immunohistochemical characterization and distribution of neurotrophins, with their respective receptors, were analyzed. The actual role played by these neurotrophic factors in the general regulation, vascular permeability, algic responsiveness, release of locally active substances and potential tumorigenesis in the gallbladder and biliary ducts compartment remains controversial. Our study revealed an increased immunohistochemical expression of NGF and TrKA in the epithelium and in the epithelial glands of the gallbladder carcinoma together with an evident immunoreactivity for BDNF in the same neoplastic areas. An evident immunoreactivity for NGF, TrKA and BDNF was observed in control specimens of gallbladder obtained during autopsies, whereas a weak or quite absent immunoreactivity was observed in the same specimens for NT4, TrKC and p75. On the contrary an appreciable immunoreactivity for p75 was observed in the specimens harvested from patients with gallbladder carcinoma. We also investigated the expression of some known tumor markers such as MIB-1 (anti Ki-67), CD34 and CA15-3, to identify a possible correlation between the expression of these molecular factors and the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma. They resulted highly expressed in the stroma (CD34 and CA 15-3) and in the epithelium/epithelial glands (MIB-1) of the neoplastic areas and appeared to be almost absent in the control cases, suggesting that these markers, taken together

  11. Ca2+ channel blockade inhibits gallbladder ion transport.

    PubMed

    Saunders, K D; Cates, J A; Abedin, M Z; Kleinman, R; Roslyn, J J

    1990-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that cholesterol gallstone (GS) formation is characterized by altered gallbladder epithelial ion transport and increased gallbladder (GB) luminal Ca2+. Moreover, intracellular Ca2+ has been reported to be an important modulator of intestinal ion transport. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Ca2+ channel inhibition on GB ion transport. Prairie dog GBs were mounted in a Ussing chamber and bathed in warm oxygenated Ringer's solution, and short-circuit current (Isc), transepithelial potential difference (Vms), and tissue resistance (Rt) were recorded. Following stabilization, the mucosal surfaces of the GBs were exposed to 1 or 0.1 mM verapamil (VER). Effects on Isc were apparent within 10 sec with nadir values reached in 5 +/- 1 min. Profound (76%) inhibition of Isc was seen with 1 mM verapamil exposure (26 +/- 6 microA.cm-2) as compared to baseline values (170 +/- 6 microA.cm-2) (P less than 0.001). Verapamil exposure (1 mM) also led to a marked inhibition of Vms (P less than 0.001, vs baseline) and a significant increase in Rt (P less than 0.05 vs baseline). Similar trends were seen using 0.1 mM verapamil (Isc nadir 133 +/- 13 microA.cm-2). Verapamil-induced effects on gallbladder electrophysiology were largely reversible (75-90% recovery of baseline Isc after tissue washing). These data suggest that (1) verapamil induces rapid but reversible inhibition of ion transport and (2) Ca2+ channel blockade inhibits ion transport in a dose-dependent fashion. We would propose that intracellular Ca2+ may be a regulator of GB ion transport.

  12. Gallbladder carcinoma - a rare cause of pyloric-duodenal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Niculescu, Zizi; Ulmeanu, Victoria; Ghinea, Mihaela Maria; Mocanu, Liliana; Niculescu, Costin; Grigorian, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    Pyloric duodenal stenosis is usually caused by pyloric, juxtapyloric or duodenal ulcer, or by postbulbar ulcer. Gallbladder cancer (GBC), duodenal diverticula, annular pancreas and superior mesenteric artery syndrome (Wilkie's syndrome) are rare causes of pyloric duodenal stenosis. The case of a 66-year-old female patient is presented. The patient was admitted to hospital presenting anorexia, repeated alimentary vomiting, epigastric pain, and weight loss. Objective clinical examination upon admission: clapotage à jeun is present, triggered by tapping the epigastric region. Laboratory tests reveal moderate anemia, hypokalemic alkalosis, increased levels of cholestatic enzymes and of tumor markers. Gastroendoscopy: Stomach presenting stasis fluid in large quantity. Deformed antropyloric region caused by extrinsic compression. Abdominal native magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and with contrast medium: cholecyst lumen entirely obstructed with calculi; thickened wall, with heterogeneous gadolinophilia; gadolinophilic mass erasing the bordering limit in relation to the cholecyst wall and the colon hepatic angle, and leaving a print on the pyloric region. During surgery, upon opening the peritoneal cavity, a tumoral pericholecystic block was observed, including the pyloric-duodenal region and the transverse mesocolon. Histopathology tests of tissue samples showed adipose conjunctive tissue with invasive adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical tests [cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK17, CK19, CK20, CDX2, mucin (MUC) 1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)] were consistent with infiltrating neoplastic carcinoma, originating in the gallbladder epithelium. Gastrointestinal obstruction cases caused by gallbladder carcinoma are rare. The pyloric-duodenal region is more frequently affected, as compared to the small intestine or the colon.

  13. Adjuvant Therapy for Gallbladder Carcinoma: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, Douglas G.; Miller, Robert C. Haddock, Michael G.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Quevedo, Fernando; Donohue, John H.; Bhatia, Sumita; Nagorney, David M.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy on gallbladder carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records from consecutive patients who underwent R0 resection of gallbladder carcinoma between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2004. Patients had either Stage I (T1-T2N0M0) or Stage II (T3N0M0 or T1-T3N1M0) disease. Patients undergoing adjuvant therapy received 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy (median dosage, 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions). Adverse prognostic factors and the effect of adjuvant treatment on overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Results: A total of 73 patients were included in the analysis; of these, 25 received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. On univariate analysis, no adverse prognostic factors for OS reached statistical significance, but trends were noted for Stage N1 vs. N0 (p = .06), Nx vs. N0 (p = .09), Stage T3 vs. T1-T2 (p = .06), and histologic findings other than adenocarcinoma (p = .13). The median OS for patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiotherapy vs. surgery alone was 4.8 years and 4.2 years, respectively (log-rank test, p = .56). However, a significantly greater percentage of patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiotherapy had Stage II disease (p <.001). In the multivariate Cox model, increasing T and N category and histologic findings other than adenocarcinoma were significant predictors of decreased OS. Additionally, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was a significant predictor of improved OS after adjusting for these prognostic factors (hazard ratio for death, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.69; p = .004). Conclusion: After adjusting for the stage parameters and histologic findings, our data suggest that adjuvant chemoradiotherapy might improve OS for patients with gallbladder cancer.

  14. The prognostic significance of survivin expression in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salman, Tarik; Argon, Asuman; Kebat, Tulu; Vardar, Enver; Erkan, Nazif; Alacacıoğlu, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    Gallbladder cancers (GBC) are characterized by rapid progression, early metastasis, and poor prognosis; the molecular mechanisms of the various signaling pathways involved should be elucidated to develop effective therapies. Survivin, an apoptosis inhibitor protein expressed in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, plays a role in cell division and affects both cell survival and proliferation. Survivin has been investigated in many types of cancer, and this study aims to examine the relationship of survivin expression in gallbladder cancer patients with clinicopathological features and prognosis. We evaluated demographic characteristics (age, gender), tumor characteristics (histopathological type, differentiation, perineural, and lymphovascular invasion; serosal invasion, surgical margin positivity and lymphocytic response), and Survivin expression immunohistochemically, and we analysed the relationship between these characteristics and prognosis in 47 gallbladder carcinoma cases from 2000 to 2011. Immunohistochemically, while survivin expression was observed in 36 cases, it was absent in 11 cases. Follow-up data were obtained from 32 patients. Two (8.7%) of 23 cases with a Survivin-positive tumor were alive at 74th and 35th months, whereas 5 (%55.6) of nine cases with Survivin-negative tumor were alive at 50th, 89th, 124th, 126th, 131th months. Survivin expression was correlated with short survival (p = 0.043), and the univariate analysis showed that reduced overall survival was associated with age (p = 0.043), male gender (p = 0.038), infiltrative pattern (p = 0.019), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.004), perineural invasion (p = 0.009), serosal invasion (p = 0.027), ulcer (p = 0.033), and surgical margin positivity (p = 0.022). Despite the low number of patients in our study, the analysis results suggest that survivin positivity might actually be a significant prognostic factor. This finding could be a reference point for targeted treatment studies. However, further

  15. Bowel hath no fury like a gallbladder inflamed

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Amad; Flavin, Kathyrn Ellen; Harris, Lauren Sarah; Chaudhry, Mohammad Naushad; Reading, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a well-established phenomenon in which a large gallstone leads to mechanical small bowel obstruction. This case, however, reports the novel finding of a patient presenting with suprapubic pain and guarding caused by paralytic ileus of the small bowel and a duodenal perforation secondary to a necrotic gallbladder. It highlights the importance of distinguishing between gallstone ileus and paralytic ileus and how the management of the two conditions differs. Furthermore, this article discusses how paralytic ileus caused by intra-abdominal inflammatory conditions such as cholecystitis can mask the typical clinical findings making the diagnosis difficult. PMID:24876462

  16. Estimation of gestational age from gall-bladder length.

    PubMed

    Udaykumar, K; Udaykumar, Padmaja; Nagesh, K R

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a precise duration of gestation is vital in situations such as infanticide and criminal abortions. The present study attempted to estimate the gestational age of the foetus from gall-bladder length. Foetuses of various gestational age groups were dissected, and the length of the gall bladder was measured. The results were analysed, and a substantial degree of correlation was statistically confirmed. This novel method is helpful when the foetus is fragmented, putrefied or eviscerated, where this method can be used as an additional parameter to improve the accuracy of foetal age estimation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Intraductal tubular neoplasms of the bile ducts.

    PubMed

    Katabi, Nora; Torres, Javiera; Klimstra, David S

    2012-11-01

    Although most tumors of the bile ducts are predominantly invasive, some have an exophytic pattern within the bile ducts; these intraductal papillary neoplasms usually have well-formed papillae at the microscopic level. In this study, however, we describe a novel type of intraductal neoplasm of the bile ducts with a predominantly tubular growth pattern and other distinctive features. Ten cases of biliary intraductal neoplasms with a predominantly tubular architecture were identified in the files of the Pathology Department at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1983 to 2006. For each of these cases we studied the clinical presentation, histologic and immunohistochemical features (9 cases only), and the clinical follow-up of the patients. Three male and 7 female patients (38 to 78 y) presented with obstructive jaundice or abdominal pain. Eight of the patients underwent a partial hepatectomy; 2 underwent a laparoscopic bile duct excision, followed by a pancreatoduodenectomy in one of them. The tumors range in size from 0.6 to 8.0 cm. The intraductal portions of the tumors (8 intrahepatic, 1 extrahepatic hilar, 1 common bile duct) were densely cellular and composed of back-to-back tubular glands and solid sheets with minimal papillary architecture. The cells were cuboidal to columnar with mild to moderate cytologic atypia. Foci of necrosis were present in the intraductal component in 6 cases. An extraductal invasive carcinoma component was present in 7 cases, composing <25% of the tumor in 4 cases, and >75% in 1 case. It was observed by immunohistochemical analysis that the tumor cells expressed CK19, CA19-9, MUC1, and MUC6 in most cases and that SMAD4 expression was retained. MUC2, MUC5AC, HepPar1, synaptophysin, chromogranin, p53, and CA125 were negative in all cases and most were negative for CEA-M and B72.3. Four patients were free of tumor recurrence after 7 to 85 months (average, 27 mo). Four patients with an invasive carcinoma component suffered

  18. [The kinetics of canine gallbladder before and after feeding and cerulein administration].

    PubMed

    Romański, Krzysztof; Sławuta, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    In the previous studies in men and dogs, gallbladder contractility, contraction time, initial and residual volumes as well as ejection and refilling fractions have been determined. However, no basic scope of the characteristics of contractile gallbladder activity has been determined and no parameters measured in basic experimental conditions, necessary for this purpose, have been proposed what was the aim of present work. Twenty two experiments were performed on four healthy mongrel dogs weighing 12-16 kg each. Dogs were fasted 18-20 h before start of the experiment. Animals were examined in lying position with the use of apparatus Microimager 2000 M 200 812 with sectorial sound, 3.5 MHz. After control gallbladder measurements, animals were fed with different meals or 30 min infusion of cerulein at the dose 20 ng/kg was started. Four types of meals were used. Meal 1: dry food 300 g + 200 cc of tap water per animal. Meal 2: canned food 300 g + 200 cc of tap water per animal. Meal 3: dry food 100 g + + canned food 200 g + sunflower oil 100 ml per animal. Meal 4: dry food 300 g + canned food 300 g + sunflower oil 30 ml per animal. Ultrasonographical gallbladder imaging was performed in each experiment every 10 min and was continued during 2 hours after stimulus application. Length, width and height of the gallbladder was measured on gallbladder images, then gallbladder volumes were estimated using the method of Dodds and finally, gallbladder kinetic parameters were calculated. Meals 1 and 2 did not evoke statistically significant gallbladder contractions. After meal no. 3 gallbladder significantly contracted, for about 1.5 h. Meal no. 4 caused gallbladder contraction duration of which exceeded time of investigation while maximal strength of contraction was similar to that in response to meal no. 3. Following cerulein infusion, subsequent parameters of gallbladder kinetics, i.e. initial, residual and terminal volumes, ejection and refilling fractions as well as

  19. Role of Gallbladder Mucus Hypersecretion in the Evolution of Cholesterol Gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sum P.; Lamont, J. Thomas; Carey, Martin C.

    1981-01-01

    Because mucin glycoproteins may be important in the pathophysiology of gallstones, we studied the relationship among biliary lipids, gallbladder mucin secretion, and gallstone formation in cholesterol-fed prairie dogs. Organ culture studies of gallbladder explants revealed that the incorporation of [3H]glucosamine into tissue and secretory gallbladder glycoproteins was significantly increased at 3, 5, 8, and 14 d of feeding. Peak secretion of labeled mucin occurred at 5 d, when total tissue and secreted glycoprotein production was fivefold greater than control. Gel filtration of the secreted glycoprotein on Sepharose 4B indicated that the majority of radioactivity was present in a macromolecule of > 1 million molecular weight. The increased secretion of gallbladder mucin was organ specific, in that [3H]glucosamine incorporation into glycoproteins of stomach and colon was unaffected by cholesterol feeding. Similarly, the incorporation of [3H]mannose into gallbladder membrane glycoproteins was not altered by cholesterol feeding. The rate of glycoprotein synthesis and secretion returned to normal upon withdrawal of the cholesterol diet, and ligation of the cystic duct before cholesterol feeding prevented gallbladder mucin hypersecretion. Both results indicate that the stimulus to mucin secretion was a constituent of bile. Gallbladder bile after 5 d contained cholesterol in micelles, liquid crystals, and crystals, whereas hepatic bile remained a single micellar phase throughout cholesterol feeding. For this reason the cholesterol-saturation indices of gallbladder bile were compared in both homogenized and centrifuged samples. The micellar phase of gallbladder bile was appreciably less saturated than homogenized bile at 5 and 8 d, which reflects the continuous nucleation of cholesterol in the gallbladder. Purified human gallbladder mucin gels were shown to induce nucleation of lecithin-cholesterol liquid crystals from supersaturated hepatic bile. These in turn gave rise

  20. Filling of the gallbladder as studied by computer-assisted Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, W.; Kempi, V.

    1984-03-01

    Gallbladder filling was studied using computer-assisted cholescintigraphy in normal subjects who had fasted overnight. The gallbladder tended to visualize earlier than the distal part of the common bile duct. It appeared at approximately the same time regardless of whether or not there was passage of activity into the duodenum. This suggests that filling is not dependent on contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. Sequential images demonstrated that the activity entering the gallbladder rapidly reached the fundus. Time-activity curves showed a gradual buildup of activity in the bile ducts followed by sudden entrance into the gallbladder. Time-activity curves of the gallbladder's proximal and distal parts showed signs of an exchange of activity, suggesting that the gallbladder's motor function is not quiescent during fasting. Gallbladder motility could explain the periodic irregularities on the time-activity curve. These irregularities were smaller but no less frequent after morphine administration.

  1. [Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: concepts and related issues].

    PubMed

    Lai, Maode

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has been gradually increasing and most of NENs are located in gastroenteropancreatic system. With the application of target therapeutic drugs in recent years, the precise pathological diagnosis is required critically for effective clinical treatment: target therapy needs targeted pathological diagnosis. In this article, the definition of NENs, and the century-long evolution of diagnostic terms and grades are reviewed. The eight steps of pathological diagnosis of NENs for clinical needs are described. Four inconsistent concepts in NENs diagnosis are also discussed, that is immunohistochemical biomarkers of pathological diagnosis, subpopulation of neuroendocrine neoplasms with high proliferative activity, general adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation and molecular genetics characteristics. To correctly understand these issues would be of great value for diagnosis and treatment of NENs.

  2. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  3. Spitz nevus and atypical spitzoid neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Maria; Lazova, Rossitza

    2010-09-01

    Spitz nevus (SN) and Spitzoid malignant melanoma (SMM) represent benign and malignant counterparts at both ends of the spectrum of Spitzoid lesions. Atypical Spitzoid neoplasm (ASN) is a poorly defined and characterized category of melanocytic tumors with histologic features of both benign Spitz nevi and malignant melanomas. The group of ASN represents a mixture of Spitz nevi with atypical features and Spitzoid melanomas. However, at the current moment in time, histopathologists are not capable of differentiating between the 2 in some cases and are forced to place them in this ambiguous category, where the behavior of these lesions cannot be predicted with certainty. Because this group encompasses both benign and malignant lesions, and perhaps also a separate category of melanocytic tumors that behave better than conventional melanomas, some of these neoplasms can metastasize and kill patients, whereas others have no metastatic potential, and yet others might only metastasize to regional lymph nodes. Although diagnostic accuracy has improved over the years, many of these lesions remain controversial, and there is still poor interobserver agreement in classifying problematic Spitzoid lesions among experienced dermatopathologists. The objective of this review article is to summarize the most relevant information about SN and ASNs. At this time histologic examination remains the golden standard for diagnosing these melanocytic neoplasms. We therefore concentrate on the histopathologic, clinical, and dermoscopic aspects of these lesions. We also review the most recent advances in immunohistochemical and molecular diagnostics as well as discuss the controversies and dilemma regarding whether to consider sentinel lymph node biopsy for diagnostically ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Current Role of Minimally Invasive Radical Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Alberto; Guerini, Francesca; Ramera, Marco; Aroldi, Francesca; Zaniboni, Alberto; Rosso, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Background. For Tis and T1a gallbladder cancer (GbC), laparoscopic cholecystectomy can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open cholecystectomy. However, for patients affected by resectable T1b or more advanced GbC, open approach radical cholecystectomy (RC), consisting in gallbladder liver bed resection or segment 4b-5 bisegmentectomy, with locoregional lymphadenectomy, is considered the gold standard while minimally invasive RC (MiRC) is skeptically considered. Aim. To analyze current literature on perioperative and oncologic outcomes of MiRC for patients affected by GbC. Methods. A Medline review of published articles until June 2016 concerning MiRC for GbC was performed. Results. Data relevant for this review were presented in 13 articles, including 152 patients undergoing an attempt of MiRC for GbC. No randomized clinical trial was found. The approach was laparoscopic in 147 patients and robotic in five. Conversion was required in 15 (10%) patients. Postoperative complications rate was 10% with no mortality. Long-term survival outcomes were reported by 11 studies, two of them showing similar oncologic results when comparing MiRC with matched open RC. Conclusions. Although randomized clinical trials are still lacking and only descriptive studies reporting on limited number of patients are available, current literature seems suggesting that when performed at highly specialized centers, MiRC for GbC is safe and feasible and has oncologic outcomes comparable to open RC. PMID:27885325

  5. Mucous granule exocytosis and CFTR expression in gallbladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kuver, R; Klinkspoor, J H; Osborne, W R; Lee, S P

    2000-02-01

    A mechanistic model of mucous granule exocytosis by columnar epithelial cells must take into account the unique physical-chemical properties of mucin glycoproteins and the resultant mucus gel. In particular, any model must explain the intracellular packaging and the kinetics of release of these large, heavily charged species. We studied mucous granule exocytosis in gallbladder epithelium, a model system for mucus secretion by columnar epithelial cells. Mucous granules released mucus by merocrine exocytosis in mouse gallbladder epithelium when examined by transmission electron microscopy. Spherules of secreted mucus larger than intracellular granules were noted on scanning electron microscopy. Electron probe microanalysis demonstrated increased calcium concentrations within mucous granules. Immunofluorescence microscopic studies revealed intracellular colocalization of mucins and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Confocal laser immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed colocalization. These observations suggest that calcium in mucous secretory granules provides cationic shielding to keep mucus tightly packed. The data also suggests CFTR chloride channels are present in granule membranes. These observations support a model in which influx of chloride ions into the granule disrupts cationic shielding, leading to rapid swelling, exocytosis and hydration of mucus. Such a model explains the physical-chemical mechanisms involved in mucous granule exocytosis.

  6. Mutational profiling reveals PIK3CA mutations in gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetics of advanced biliary tract cancers (BTC), which encompass intra- and extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas as well as gallbladder carcinomas, are heterogeneous and remain to be fully defined. Methods To better characterize mutations in established known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes we tested a mass spectrometric based platform to interrogate common cancer associated mutations across a panel of 77 formalin fixed paraffin embedded archived BTC cases. Results Mutations among three genes, KRAS, NRAS and PIK3CA were confirmed in this cohort. Activating mutations in PIK3CA were identified exclusively in GBC (4/32, 12.5%). KRAS mutations were identified in 3 (13%) intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinomas and 1 (33%) perihillar cholangiocarcinoma but were not identified in gallbladder carcinomas and extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusions The presence of activating mutations in PIK3CA specifically in GBC has clinical implications in both the diagnosis of this cancer type, as well as the potential utility of targeted therapies such as PI3 kinase inhibitors. PMID:21303542

  7. Evidence-Based Current Surgical Practice: Calculous Gallbladder Disease

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Casey B.; Riall, Taylor S.

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder disease is common and, if managed incorrectly, can lead to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and extraneous costs. The most common complications of gallstones include biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, common bile duct stones, and gallstone pancreatitis. Ultrasound is the initial imaging modality of choice. Additional diagnostic and therapeutic studies including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are not routinely required but may play a role in specific situations. Biliary colic and acute cholecystitis are best treated with early laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients with common bile duct stones should be managed with cholecystectomy, either after or concurrent with endoscopic or surgical relief of obstruction and clearance of stones from the bile duct. Mild gallstone pancreatitis should be treated with cholecystectomy during the initial hospitalization to prevent recurrence. Emerging techniques for cholecystectomy include single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Early results in highly selected patients demonstrate the safety of these techniques. The management of complications of the gallbladder should be timely and evidence-based, and choice of procedures, particularly for common bile duct stones, is largely influenced by facility and surgeon factors. PMID:22986769

  8. [The intensive care gallbladder as shock organ: symptoms and therapy].

    PubMed

    Rimkus, C; Kalff, J C

    2013-03-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) represents a severe disease in critically ill patients. The pathogenesis of acute necroinflammatory gallbladder disease is multifactorial and intensive care unit (ICU) patients show multiple risk factors. In addition AAC is difficult to diagnose because of the vague physical and non-specific technical findings. Only the combination of clinical and technical findings including the challenging physical examination of critically ill patients, laboratory results and ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan, will lead to the diagnosis. The condition of AAC has a rapid progress to gallbladder necrosis, gangrene and perforation and these complications are reflected in the high morbidity and mortality rates, therefore, therapy should be promptly initiated. If there are no clinical contraindications for an operative approach cholecystectomy is the definitive treatment and both open and laparoscopic procedures have been used. In unstable, critically ill patients percutaneous cholecystostomy should be immediately performed. In addition, transpapillary endoscopic drainage is also possible if there are contraindications for percutaneous cholecystostomy. Patients who fail to improve or deteriorate following interventional drainage should be reconsidered for cholecystectomy. Due to the fact that more than 90 % of patients treated with percutaneous cholecystostomy showed no recurrence of symptoms during a period of more than 1 year, it is still unclear if percutaneous cholecystostomy is the definitive treatment of AAC for unstable patients or if delayed cholecystectomy is still necessary.

  9. Megalin and cubilin expression in gallbladder epithelium and regulation by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Erranz, Benjamín; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Argraves, W Scott; Barth, Jeremy L; Pimentel, Fernando; Marzolo, María-Paz

    2004-12-01

    Cholesterol crystal formation in the gallbladder is a key step in gallstone pathogenesis. Gallbladder epithelial cells might prevent luminal gallstone formation through a poorly understood cholesterol absorption process. Genetic studies in mice have highlighted potential gallstone susceptibility alleles, Lith genes, which include the gene for megalin. Megalin, in conjunction with the large peripheral membrane protein cubilin, mediates the endocytosis of numerous ligands, including HDL/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Although the bile contains apoA-I and several cholesterol-binding megalin ligands, the expression of megalin and cubilin in the gallbladder has not been investigated. Here, we show that both proteins are expressed by human and mouse gallbladder epithelia. In vitro studies using a megalin-expressing cell line showed that lithocholic acid strongly inhibits and cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids increase megalin expression. The effects of bile acids (BAs) were also demonstrated in vivo, analyzing gallbladder levels of megalin and cubilin from mice fed with different BAs. The BA effects could be mediated by the farnesoid X receptor, expressed in the gallbladder. Megalin protein was also strongly increased after feeding a lithogenic diet. These results indicate a physiological role for megalin and cubilin in the gallbladder and provide support for a role for megalin in gallstone pathogenesis.

  10. Histochemistry of glycoconjugates in the gallbladder epithelium of ten animal species.

    PubMed

    Madrid, J F; Ballesta, J; Galera, T; Castells, M T; Pérez-Tomás, R

    1989-01-01

    A battery of seven lectins and several conventional mucin histochemical techniques were used to identify the epithelial mucins of the gallbladder of ten species: man, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mammalia), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, mammalia), chicken (Gallus gallus, bird), sparrow (Passer domesticus, bird), moorish gecko (Tarentola mauritanica, reptilia), ladder snake (Elaphe scalaris, reptilia), lake frog (Rana perezi, amphibia), natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, amphibia) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus, fish). Glycogen was found in the epithelial lining of the reptilian and amphibian gallbladders. Sulphate and carboxyl groups were frequently found in the same species, except in the ladder snake and natterjack toad gallbladders where only sulphate groups were identified. Sialic acid residues were detected in man, rabbit, bird, T. mauritanica, R. perezi and fish gallbladders. ConA binding pattern was similar in the ten species studied. In the human gallbladder only PNA failed to label the luminal surface, while the glands were only unreactive to DBA. The human gallbladder showed a large variety of saccharides. The present results suggest that no relation exists between the composition of the gallbladder mucins and the situation of the species in the phylogenetic scale.

  11. Oedema of gallbladder wall: correlation with chronic hepatitis B on MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian; Zhao, Jian Nong; Han, Fu Gang; Tang, Guang Cai; Luo, Yin Deng; Chen, Xin; Luo, Li

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise gallbladder wall oedema and correlate it with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sixty-seven patients who were clinically and histologically diagnosed with CHB and 18 healthy individuals without any history of liver disease underwent abdominal MR imaging. Hepatic inflammation (grade 0-4) and fibrosis (stage 0-4) for patients were assessed histologically. Gallbladder wall oedema was noted. Twelve patients showed gallbladder wall oedema on MR imaging, including six with grade 3 and six with grade 4 disease. There was a statistically significant difference for the presence of gallbladder wall oedema among groups with grade 0-4 (p=0.000), but not between groups with grades 3 and 4 (p=0.729). Gallbladder wall oedema was related to moderate-severe inflammatory activity (p<0.05), alanine transaminase (ALT) (p=0.012) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p=0.027) levels but not to fibrosis or other laboratory data, including serum quantitative DNA for hepatitis B virus (HBV), with the p=0.105-0.846. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of hepatic moderate-severe inflammation using gallbladder wall oedema were 33.33% and 100%, respectively. Gallbladder wall oedema for patients with CHB can be specifically demonstrated on MR imaging and is correlated with hepatic moderate-severe inflammatory activity, elevated ALT and AST levels but not with fibrosis or other laboratory data, including viremia.

  12. Does bile protect or damage interstitial Cajal-like cells in the human gallbladder?

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Artur; Szura, Miroslaw; Matyja, Maciej; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Matyja, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    the etiology of gallstone disease is considered to be multifactorial, including biliary cholesterol hypersecretion, supersaturation and crystallization, stone formation, bile stasis and mucus hypersecretion and gel formation. Gallbladder hypomotility seems to be a key process that triggers the precipitation of cholesterol microcrystals from supersaturated lithogenic bile. the purpose of the current study was to determine whether ICLCs in the gallbladder were influenced by lithogenic bile. Gallbladder specimens were collected from 30 patients (8 males and 22 females) who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. The control group consisted of 25 consecutive patients (11 males and 14 females) who received elective treatment for pancreatic head tumors. ICLCs were visualized in paraffin sections of gallbladders using double immunofluorescence protocol with monoclonal c-kit antibodies and mast cell tryptase. Cholesterol, phospholipid and bile acid concentrations were measured in bile samples obtained by needle aspiration from the gallbladder at the time of surgery. The number of ICLCs in the gallbladder wall was significantly lower in the study group than in the control group (3.35 ± 1.23 vs. 7.06 ± 1.82 cell/FOV in the muscularis propria, P < 0.001) and correlated with a significant increase in the cholesterol saturation index. The glycocholic and taurocholic acid levels were significantly elevated in the control subjects compared with the study group. The results suggest that bile composition may play an important role in the reduction of ICLC density in the gallbladder.

  13. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) immunoreactivity in benign, premalignant and malignant lesions of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Legan, Mateja; Tevžič, Spela; Tolar, Ana; Luzar, Boštjan; Marolt, Vera Ferlan

    2011-03-01

    GLUT-1 is a transmembrane glucose transport protein that allows the facilitated transport of glucose into cells, normally expressed in tissues which depend mainly on glucose metabolism. Enhanced expression of GLUT-1 can also be found in a large spectrum of carcinomas. This study aimed to investigate GLUT-1 expression in gallbladder tissue: from normal tissue samples, hyperplasias, low-grade and high-grade dysplasias to gallbladder carcinomas. In all, 115 archived samples of gallbladder tissue from 68 patients, presented after cholecystectomy, were immunohistochemically stained for GLUT-1. According to the intensity of GLUT-1 immunoreactivity, samples were divided into negative (stained 0-10% of cells stained), positive with weak to moderate (10-50%) and positive with strong (>50%) GLUT-1 expression. The GLUT-1 immunoreactivity of the samples showed a characteristic increase from premalignant lesions to carcinomas. Normal gallbladder tissue samples did not express GLUT-1 (100%). Weak expression was shown only focally in hyperplasias, but to a greater extent with low-grade dysplasias (20%), high-grade dysplasias (40%) and carcinomas (51.8%). Normal gallbladder tissue is GLUT-1 negative. GLUT-1 expression in carcinoma tissue is significantly higher than in dysplastic lesions. Strong GLUT-1 expression indicates 100% specificity for detecting gallbladder carcinomas. Therefore, GLUT-1 is a candidate as a diagnostic as well as a tissue prognostic marker in gallbladder carcinoma patients.

  14. Active relaxation of human gallbladder muscle is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Bird, N C; Ahmed, R; Chess-Williams, R; Johnson, A G

    2002-01-01

    Active and significant relaxation of the human gallbladder must be one of the facets of its motility during both the filling and emptying cycle. Conflicting reports about the presence or significance of nitric oxide have been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide and K(ATP) channels in human gallbladder muscle using isolated strips from human gallbladder. Full thickness strips were obtained from 56 human gallbladders and suspended under isometric tension in organ baths. The effect of nitric oxide donors and inhibitors on cholecystokinin octapeptide- and carbachol-induced contraction was examined. In separate experiments the effect of the K(ATP) channel activator, cromakalim, and the inhibitor, glibenclamide, were determined. Cromakalim induced a significant relaxation of agonist-induced contraction in human gallbladder in vitro, an effect which was abolished by the K(ATP) channel inhibitor glibenclamide. No evidence of significant nitric oxide involvement in relaxation was observed. This study has demonstrated the presence of K(ATP) channels in human gallbladder for the first time. These are capable of causing significant relaxation in the presence of hormonal and muscarinic agonists and may represent a major pathway for gallbladder relaxation. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Linitis plastica like primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder - an extremely rare variant.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S; Pandey, P; Durgapal, P; Krishna, M

    2016-12-01

    Signet ring carcinoma (SRCC) of gallbladder is an extremely rare tumor accounting for approximately 3% of all gallbladder carcinomas, with a handful of case reports in the literature. We report a case of signet ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder in a 70 year-old female who was operated upon after the preoperative diagnosis of cholecystitis with cholelithiasis, based on ultrasonographic findings and subsequently diagnosed as signet ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder on histopathological examination. Grossly there was no discrete growth, instead tumor presented as linitis plastica like diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall. Microscopic examination revealed a diffusely infiltrative carcinoma comprised exclusively of signet ring cells and confirmed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Alcian blue & Cytokeratin 7 stains. Post -operative clinico-radiological workup was done to exclude secondary. This highly aggressive signet ring cell carcinoma of gallbladder is being reported because of its rarity, its unique histomorphological features and diagnostic inadequacy of the routinely performed ultrasonography as well as highlighting the use of special stains and immunohistochemistry to exclude other possibilities. Our case highlights that routine histopathological examination of all the cholecystectomy specimens is a must to facilitate the early diagnosis of aggressive signet ring cell carcinoma gallbladder. © Copyright Società Italiana di Anatomia Patologica e Citopatologia Diagnostica, Divisione Italiana della International Academy of Pathology.

  16. Evaluation of gallbladder volume and contraction index with three-dimensional ultrasonography in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    RAHMANI, Vahideh; MOLAZEM, Mohammad; JAMSHIDI, Shahram; VALI, Yasamin; HANIFEH, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography has been shown to be an accurate and appropriate tool for measurement of gallbladder volume in humans. Therefore, we applied this novel technique for the first time to study fasting and postprandial gallbladder volume in 10 healthy dogs and compared the results with those of 2-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography. Fasting gallbladder volumes determined by 3D ultrasonography were significantly higher than corresponding volumes determined by 2D ultrasonography (P<0.01). Additionally, gallbladder volumes were significantly decreased in the postprandial state compared with the fasting state using 3D ultrasonography (P<0.001), but 2D ultrasonography showed no significant difference (P=0.189). The Gallbladder contraction index was higher in 3D ultrasonography than 2D ultrasonography; however, it did not reach statistical significance (P=0.25). In conclusion, 3D ultrasonography was able to measure gallbladder volume in healthy dogs in this study. It is suggested that 3D ultrasonography can be used to accurately estimate gallbladder volume and contractility. PMID:25903917

  17. Association of Methylenetetrahydrafolate Reductase Gene Polymorphism (MTHFR) in Patients with Gallbladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Ruhi; Singh, Gyanendra; Pandey, Manoj; Basu, Somprakas; Bhartiya, Satyanam Kumar; Singh, K K; Shukla, Vijay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in folate metabolism and plays a major role in DNA methylation. There are two popular MTHFR polymorphisms known as C677T and A1298C which are found to be involved in folate metabolism and lowering the enzyme activity, thus may be linked with cancer development. This study aims to look at the association of these polymorphisms in gallbladder cancer. Thirty patients each with gallbladder cancer, cholelithiasis, and normal gallbladder were genotyped for the above-given polymorphisms by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. C677T MTHFR polymorphism was not associated (χ(2) = 2.44, p = 0.85) with an increased likelihood of having gallbladder cancer. A1298C was significantly associated (χ(2) = 28.87, p < 0.001) with risk of developing gallbladder cancer. A1298C was significantly correlated with grade (r = 0.337, p < 0.001) and histopathology (r = 0.446, p < 0.001). This study proposed that MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may be associated with risk of developing gallbladder cancer, and there is no association between C677T polymorphism and gallbladder cancer.

  18. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2015-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. L1 cell adhesion molecule as a novel independent poor prognostic factor in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Song-Yi; Jo, Young Suk; Huang, Song-Mei; Liang, Zhe Long; Min, Jeong-Ki; Hong, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Jin-Man

    2011-10-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is a lethal malignancy and is hard to cure by current treatment. Thus, identification of molecular prognostic markers to predict gallbladder carcinoma as therapeutic targets is urgently needed. Recent studies have demonstrated that L1 cell adhesion molecule is associated with the prognosis of variable malignancy. Here, we investigated L1 cell adhesion molecule expression in gallbladder carcinoma and its prognostic significance. In this study, we examined L1 cell adhesion molecule expression in tumor specimens from 69 patients with gallbladder carcinoma by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the correlation between L1 cell adhesion molecule expression and clinicopathologic factors or survival. L1 cell adhesion molecule was not expressed in the normal epithelium of the gallbladder but in 63.8% of gallbladder carcinomas, remarkably at the invasive front of the tumors. In addition, L1 cell adhesion molecule expression was significantly associated with high histologic grade, advanced pathologic T stage and clinical stage, and positive venous/lymphatic invasion. Multivariate analyses showed that L1 cell adhesion molecule expression (hazard ratio, 3.503; P = .028) and clinical stage (hazard ratio, 3.091; P = .042) were independent risk factor for disease-free survival. L1 cell adhesion molecule expression in gallbladder carcinoma was significantly correlated with tumor progression and unfavorable clinicopathologic features. L1 cell adhesion molecule expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival in patients with gallbladder carcinoma. Taken together, our findings suggest that L1 cell adhesion molecule expression could be used as a novel prognostic factor for patient survival and might be a potential therapeutic target in gallbladder carcinomas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Are left-sided gallbladders really located on the left side?

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, M; Kubota, K; Kawasaki, S; Takayama, T; BandaiY; Makuuchi, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to establish the association between left-sided gallbladders and right-sided round ligaments. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The left-sided gallbladder is a rare anomaly and has been classified into two types: 1) gallbladder migration to the left side and 2) development of a second gallbladder with atrophy of the original one. Recently, left-sided gallbladders were reported to be associated with right-sided round ligaments. METHODS: The authors reviewed 3 patients treated in their departments and 15 patients reported in the literature diagnosed as having left-sided gallbladders accompanied by right-sided round ligaments. RESULTS: Although the gallbladders of all 18 patients were located at the normal site, they were diagnosed as being left sided because of the right-sided round ligaments. This anomaly was accompanied by abnormal intrahepatic portal venous branching, which could be classified into two types. In eight patients, the first branch of the portal vein ran to the posterior segment and then the portal vein formed a trunk of the left and right anterior portal veins. The latter portal vein formed the umbilical portion and finally joined the right-sided round ligament (trifurcation type). In five, the portal vein diverged normally to form the left and right portal veins, then the latter branched to form the anterior and posterior segments, and finally the anterior branch joined the round ligament (bifurcation type). In the other five, the branching type could not be determined. CONCLUSIONS: A right-sided round ligament causes a gallbladder at the normal site to be located on the left side. This anomaly should not be diagnosed as a left-sided gallbladder but as a right-sided round ligament. Recognition of this anomaly clinically is important when performing hepatectomy, because it is always associated with abnormal intrahepatic portal venous branching. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9060583

  1. Colorectal Liver Metastasis, Primary Gallbladder Carcinoma and Myelofibrosis Present Simultaneously in a Liver Resection Specimen

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sophie A.; Raber, Menno H.; Provoost, Esther; Toes, Gert-Jan; Klaase, Joost M.

    2015-01-01

    Myelofibrosis and gallbladder carcinoma are both very rare diseases. This case report describes a patient with a history of myelofibrosis and colorectal carcinoma who was diagnosed with colorectal liver metastases. Surgery was performed to remove the metastases, and on site, the gallbladder was removed because of involvement in one of the liver lesions. After pathological examination, a primary gallbladder carcinoma and myelofibrosis were found in addition to the liver metastases. The combination of diseases was not likely to be interconnected but rather an unlucky course of events for the patient. PMID:26600770

  2. Cholecystocolic fistula caused by gallbladder carcinoma: preoperatively misdiagnosed as hepatic colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ha, Gi Won; Lee, Min Ro; Kim, Jong Hun

    2015-04-21

    Cholecystocolic fistula secondary to gallbladder carcinoma is extremely rare and has been reported in very few studies. Most cholecystocolic fistulae are late complications of gallstone disease, but can also develop following carcinoma of the gallbladder when the necrotic tumor penetrates into the adjacent colon. Although no currently available imaging technique has shown great accuracy in recognizing cholecystocolic fistula, abdominopelvic computed tomography may show fistulous communication and anatomical details. Herein we report an unusual case of cholecystocolic fistula caused by gallbladder carcinoma, which was preoperatively misdiagnosed as hepatic flexure colon carcinoma.

  3. Ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge. Identification of calcium-ceftriaxone salt as a major component of gallbladder precipitate

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.Z.; Lee, S.P.; Schy, A.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, is partially excreted into bile. With its clinical use, the formation of gallbladder sludge detected by ultrasonography has been reported. Four surgical specimens were examined and no gallstones were found. Instead, fine precipitates of 20-250 microns were present. Microscopically, there was a small number of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and bilirubin granules among an abundant amount of granular-crystalline material that was not morphologically cholesterol monohydrate crystals. The chemical composition of the precipitates (n = 4) was determined. There was a small amount of cholesterol (1.7% +/- 0.8%) and bilirubin (13.9% +/- 0.74%). The major component of the precipitate was a residue. On further analysis using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron microprobe analysis, the residue was identified as a calcium salt of ceftriaxone. The residue also had identical crystal morphology and chromatographic elution profile as authentic calcium-ceftriaxone standards. It is concluded that ceftriaxone, after excretion and being concentrated in the gallbladder bile, can form a precipitate. The major constituent has been identified as a ceftriaxone-calcium salt.

  4. Single-organ gallbladder vasculitis: characterization and distinction from systemic vasculitis involving the gallbladder. An analysis of 61 patients.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Tan, Carmela D; Rodríguez, E René; Hoffman, Gary S

    2014-11-01

    Systemic vasculitis (SV) involving abdominal structures usually has a poor prognosis. Gallbladder vasculitis (GV) has been reported as part of SV (GB-SV) and focal single-organ vasculitis (GB-SOV). We analyzed clinical and histologic characteristics of patients with GV to identify features that differentiate GB-SOV from the systemic forms of GV. To identify affected patients with GV we used pathology databases from our institution and an English-language PubMed search. Clinical manifestations, laboratory and histologic features, treatment administered, and outcomes were recorded. Patients were divided in 2 groups, GB-SOV and GB-SV. As in previous studies of single-organ vasculitis, GB-SOV was only considered to be a sustainable diagnosis if disease beyond the gallbladder was not apparent after a follow-up period of at least 6 months. Sixty-one well-characterized patients with GV were included (6 from our institution). There was no significant sex bias (32 female patients, 29 male). Median age was 52 years (range, 18-94 yr). GB-SOV was found in 20 (33%) and GB-SV in 41 (67%) patients. No differences were observed in age, sex frequency, or duration of gallbladder symptoms between groups. Past episodes of recurrent right-upper quadrant or abdominal pain and lithiasic cholecystitis were more frequent in GB-SOV patients, whereas acalculous cholecystitis occurred more often in GB-SV. In GB-SV, gallbladder-related symptoms occurred more often concomitantly with or after the systemic features, but they sometimes appeared before SV was fully developed (13.5%). Constitutional and musculoskeletal symptoms were reported only in GB-SV patients. Compared to GB-SOV, GB-SV patients presented more often with fever (62.5% vs 20%; p = 0.003) and exhibited higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels (80 ± 28 vs 37 ± 25 mm/h, respectively; p = 0.006). All GB-SV patients required glucocorticoids and 50% of them also received cytotoxic agents. Mortality in GB-SV was

  5. A multigenic approach to evaluate genetic variants of PLCE1, LXRs, MMPs, TIMP, and CYP genes in gallbladder cancer predisposition.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kiran Lata; Rai, Rajani; Srivastava, Anshika; Sharma, Aarti; Misra, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Balraj

    2014-09-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a violent neoplasm associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment, and poor prognosis. The disease shows complex interplay between multiple genetic variants. We analyzed 15 polymorphisms in nine genes involved in various pathways to find out combinations of genetic variants contributing to GBC risk. The genes included in the study were matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2), cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1, phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1), liver X receptor (LXR)-alpha, and LXR-beta. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP and TaqMan probes. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 16. Multilocus analysis was performed by Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) to gene-gene interactions in modifying GBC risk. In silico analysis was done using various bioinformatics tools (F-SNP, FAST-SNP). Single locus analysis showed association of MMP-2 (-735 C > T, -1306 C > T), MMP-7 - 181 A > G, MMP-9 (P574R, R668Q), TIMP-2 - 418 G > C, CYP1A1-MspI, CYP1A1-Ile462Val, PLCE1 (rs2274223 A > G, rs7922612 T > C) and LXR-beta T > C (rs3546355 G > A, rs2695121 T > C) polymorphisms with GBC risk (p < 0.05) whereas CYP1B1 and LXR-α variants were not associated with GBC risk. Multidimensional reduction analysis revealed LXR-β (rs3546355 G > A, rs2695121 T > C), MMP-2 (-1306 C > T), MMP-9 (R668Q), and PLCE1 rs2274223 A > G to be key players in GBC causation (p < 0.001, CVC = 7/10). The results were further supported by independent CART analysis (p < 0.001). In silico analysis of associated variants suggested change in splicing or transcriptional regulation. Interactome and STRING analysis showed network of associated genes. The study found PLCE1 and LXR-β network interactions as important contributory factors for genetic predisposition in gallbladder

  6. Clinical and imaging overview of functional adrenal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Low, Gavin; Sahi, Kamal

    2012-08-01

    Adrenal adenoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma are four discrete adrenal neoplasms that have the potential for functional activity. Functional adrenal neoplasms can secrete cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones or catecholamines. These heterogeneous groups of tumors show varied biological behavior and clinical outcomes. These neoplasms are encountered with increasing clinical frequency as a result of an expansion in the volume of medical imaging carried out. The clinical presentation, including prognosis and treatment options, and the imaging features of these neoplasms are discussed. The key radiological observations of each of these neoplasms are shown using multimodality images. Familiarity with the clinical and imaging features of these neoplasms improves diagnosis, and facilitates appropriate clinical decision-making and patient management. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a review of preoperative diagnosis and management*

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue-li; Zhang, Qi; Masood, Noman; Masood, Waqas; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Ting-bo

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) are a diverse group of neoplasms in the pancreas, and are more increasingly encountered with widespread abdominal screening and improved imaging techniques. The most common types of PCNs are serous cystic neoplasms (SCNs), mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Clinicians frequently feel bewildered in the differential diagnosis and subsequent management among the various types of lesions in the pancreas, which may lead to overtreatment or delayed treatment. The current review provides recent developments in the understanding of the three most common types of PCNs, the latest modalities used in preoperative diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as the most up to date management. Suggestions for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SCNs, MCNs, and IPMNs are also provided for young surgeons. Better understanding of these neoplasms is essential for clinicians to make accurate diagnosis and to provide the best management for patients. PMID:23463761

  8. Primary Gallbladder Lymphoma in a Male Patient with No Risk Factors Detected Incidentally by CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Karia, Monil; Mitsopoulos, Grigorios; Patel, Ketan; Rafique, Akkib; Sheth, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Primary gallbladder lymphoma, although rare, usually presents in females with symptoms mimicking cholecystitis. We present a rare case of primary gallbladder in an 81-year-old male with no risk factors whose only symptom was weight loss. Routine blood tests including liver function tests were unremarkable. A CT colonography was carried out to exclude colonic malignancy. Unilateral gallbladder wall thickening and lymphadenopathy were incidentally detected and confirmed by ultrasound and a decision for the patient to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy and intraoperative cholangiogram was made. Histology confirmed extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with follow-up staging and biopsy of the bone marrow not demonstrating spread. Cholecystectomy was therefore deemed curative and no adjuvant therapy was necessary. Thickening of the gallbladder wall on any imaging with or without symptoms should not be ignored or assumed to be cholecystitis, even in males with no risk factors. In these patients urgent cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiogram is indicated with histology and haematology follow-up. PMID:26587306

  9. Hepatobiliary scan with delayed gallbladder visualization in a case of acute appendicitis

    SciTech Connect

    Smathers, R.L.; Harman, P.K.; Wanebo, H.J.; Read, M.E.

    1982-05-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented with acute epigastric pain with vomiting. Within 24 hours, the pain spread to the right periumbilical region. /sup 99m/Tc disofenin hepatobiliary scan failed to demonstrate the gallbladder on a 60-minute view. The presumative diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was thought to be confirmed on this basis by the patient's physicians. However, a 75-minute view demonstrated filling of the gallbladder. In hepatobiliary scanning for acute abdominal pain, delayed views (2 to 24 hours) are recommended when the gallbladder is not visualized on the 60-minute view. If the gallbladder is visualized, cystic duct obstruction can be excluded and diagnoses such as pancreatitis, acalculous cholecystitis, and acute appendicitis should be investigated.

  10. Cholecystokinin-Assisted Hydrodissection of the Gallbladder Fossa during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, Sanjit O.; Petre, Elena N.; Osborne, Joseph; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.

    2013-12-15

    A 68-year-old female with colorectal cancer developed a metachronous isolated fluorodeoxyglucose-avid (FDG-avid) segment 5/6 gallbladder fossa hepatic lesion and was referred for percutaneous ablation. Pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a distended gallbladder abutting the segment 5/6 hepatic metastasis. In order to perform ablation with clear margins and avoid direct puncture and aspiration of the gallbladder, cholecystokinin was administered intravenously to stimulate gallbladder contraction before hydrodissection. Subsequently, the lesion was ablated successfully with sufficient margins, of greater than 1.0 cm, using microwave with ultrasound and FDG PET/CT guidance. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and was discharged home the next day.

  11. Gallbladder torsion resulting in gangrenous cholecystitis within a parastomal hernia: Findings on unenhanced CT

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Jessica K.; Dym, R. Joshua; Sas, Norman; Rozenblit, Alla M.

    2013-01-01

    Gallbladder torsion is a rare cause of acute gangrenous cholecystitis; its occurrence within an abdominal hernia has not been previously reported. We present such a case occurring within a parastomal hernia and imaged with unenhanced CT. PMID:24421934

  12. Presence of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the gallbladder of Egyptian patients with gallstone diseases.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, A; El Sabbagh, N; El Riwini, M

    2011-12-01

    Earlier reports on the detection of Helicobacter DNA in the gallbladder tissue of patients with biliary diseases have shown discordant results. This study aimed to detect the presence of Helicobacter in gallstone, gallbladder tissue and bile specimens from subjects with H. pylori-positive gastritis with cholelithiasis. The presence of H. pylori in antrum biopsies was confirmed by rapid urease test and/or histopathological examination. DNA was extracted from gallbladder, bile and gallstone samples from 50 patients undergoing cholecystectomy. The presence of Helicobacter genus-specific DNA (16S rRNA genes) was determined by nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Helicobacter DNA was detected in the gallbladder tissue and bile of 28% and 18% respectively of the patients, but was not detected in any of the gallstones. These results do not rule out the possibility of Helicobacter infection as a contributing agent or cofactor in the development of biliary diseases.

  13. Gall-bladder agenesis presenting with obstructive jaundice and elevated CA 19-9.

    PubMed

    Trompetas, V; Panagopoulos, E; Ramantanis, G

    2004-06-01

    We report the case of an 81-year-old man with agenesis of the gall-bladder that presented with choledocholithiasis, obstructive jaundice, and very high CA 19-9 serum level (2765 U/ml). On ultrasound and CT scan, the gallbladder was not visualised and it was assumed shrunken and filled with gall-stones. After repeated unsuccessful endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, the patient was operated on for common bile duct (CBD) stones. At laparotomy the gall-bladder was not identified but a 3 cm long gall-stone was removed from the CBD. After decompression of the CBD all symptoms disappeared and the CA 19-9 returned to normal. We believe that this is the first report in the literature of gall-bladder agenesis presenting with high serum level of CA 19-9.

  14. BRCC3 mutations in myeloid neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dayong; Nagata, Yasunobu; Grossmann, Vera; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Okuno, Yusuke; Nagae, Genta; Hosono, Naoko; Schnittger, Susanne; Sanada, Masashi; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Kon, Ayana; Polprasert, Chantana; Shen, Wenyi; Clemente, Michael J.; Phillips, James G.; Alpermann, Tamara; Yoshida, Kenichi; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Oakley, Kevin; Nguyen, Nhu; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Koeffler, H. Phillip; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Dugas, Martin; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Satoru; Haferlach, Claudia; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten; Du, Yang; Ogawa, Seishi; Makishima, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have provided insights into the molecular heterogeneity of various myeloid neoplasms, revealing previously unknown somatic genetic events. In our cohort of 1444 cases analyzed by next generation sequencing, somatic mutations in the gene BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex 3 (BRCC3) were identified in 28 cases (1.9%). BRCC3 is a member of the JAMM/MPN+ family of zinc metalloproteases capable of cleaving Lys-63 linked polyubiquitin chains, and is implicated in DNA repair. The mutations were located throughout its coding region. The average variant allelic frequency of BRCC3 mutations was 30.1%, and by a serial sample analysis at two different time points a BRCC3 mutation was already identified in the initial stage of a myelodysplastic syndrome. BRCC3 mutations commonly occurred in nonsense (n=12), frameshift (n=4), and splice site (n=5) configurations. Due to the marginal male dominance (odds ratio; 2.00, 0.84–4.73) of BRCC3 mutations, the majority of mutations (n=23; 82%) were hemizygous. Phenotypically, BRCC3 mutations were frequently observed in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms and associated with -Y abnormality (odds ratio; 3.70, 1.25–11.0). Clinically, BRCC3 mutations were also related to higher age (P=0.01), although prognosis was not affected. Knockdown of Brcc3 gene expression in murine bone marrow lineage negative, Sca1 positive, c-kit positive cells resulted in 2-fold more colony formation and modest differentiation defect. Thus, BRCC3 likely plays a role as tumor-associated gene in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms. PMID:26001790

  15. Effect of mutation order on myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Christina A; Kent, David G; Nangalia, Jyoti; Silber, Yvonne; Wedge, David C; Grinfeld, Jacob; Baxter, E Joanna; Massie, Charles E; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Menon, Suraj; Godfrey, Anna L; Dimitropoulou, Danai; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles; Döhner, Konstanze; Harrison, Claire N; Vassiliou, George S; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Campbell, Peter J; Green, Anthony R

    2015-02-12

    Cancers result from the accumulation of somatic mutations, and their properties are thought to reflect the sum of these mutations. However, little is known about the effect of the order in which mutations are acquired. We determined mutation order in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms by genotyping hematopoietic colonies or by means of next-generation sequencing. Stem cells and progenitor cells were isolated to study the effect of mutation order on mature and immature hematopoietic cells. The age at which a patient presented with a myeloproliferative neoplasm, acquisition of JAK2 V617F homozygosity, and the balance of immature progenitors were all influenced by mutation order. As compared with patients in whom the TET2 mutation was acquired first (hereafter referred to as "TET2-first patients"), patients in whom the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation was acquired first ("JAK2-first patients") had a greater likelihood of presenting with polycythemia vera than with essential thrombocythemia, an increased risk of thrombosis, and an increased sensitivity of JAK2-mutant progenitors to ruxolitinib in vitro. Mutation order influenced the proliferative response to JAK2 V617F and the capacity of double-mutant hematopoietic cells and progenitor cells to generate colony-forming cells. Moreover, the hematopoietic stem-and-progenitor-cell compartment was dominated by TET2 single-mutant cells in TET2-first patients but by JAK2-TET2 double-mutant cells in JAK2-first patients. Prior mutation of TET2 altered the transcriptional consequences of JAK2 V617F in a cell-intrinsic manner and prevented JAK2 V617F from up-regulating genes associated with proliferation. The order in which JAK2 and TET2 mutations were acquired influenced clinical features, the response to targeted therapy, the biology of stem and progenitor cells, and clonal evolution in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. (Funded by Leukemia and Lymphoma Research and others.).

  16. Myeloproliferative neoplasms in five multiple sclerosis patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2013-01-01

    The concurrence of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is unusual. We report five patients from a localized geographic area in Denmark with both MS and MPN; all the patients were diagnosed with MPNs in the years 2007–2012. We describe the patients' history and treatment. A potential link between MS and MPNs has not been previously recognized. This observation calls attention to potential environmental factors and/or previously unrecognized genetic factors predisposing these patients to both MS and MPNs. PMID:24371783

  17. Rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) are very rare, among which second most common type is the rectal NENs in China. Patients with rectal NENs may experience non-specific symptoms such as pain, perianal bulge, anemia, and bloody stools, and surgery is considered as the first treatment for rectal NENs. We report a case of rectal NENs in a 68-year-old male patient with bloody stools, who received surgery and postoperative pathology revealed an elevated well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. PMID:28138616

  18. EGFR Expression in Gallbladder Carcinoma in North America

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Matthew; Mehrotra, Bhoomi; Limaye, Sewanti; White, Sherrie; Fuchs, Alexander; Lebowicz, Yehuda; Nissel-Horowitz, Sandy; Thomas, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF receptor) expression has been noted in various cancers and has become a useful target for therapeutic interventions. Small studies from Asia and Australia have demonstrated EGFR over-expression in gallbladder cancer. We sought to evaluate the expression of EGFR in a series of 16 gallbladder cancer patients from North America. METHODS: Using tumor registry data, we identified 16 patients diagnosed with gall bladder carcinoma at our medical center between the years of 1998 and 2005. We performed a retrospective review of these patients' charts, obtained cell blocks from pathology archives and stained for EGFR and Her2/neu. RESULTS: Fifteen of sixteen patients were noted to over-express EGFR. Three were determined 1+, nine were 2+ and three were 3+. Eight patients had poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, six had moderately differentiated and two had well-differentiated tumors. In this small series, there was a trend toward shorter survival and more poorly differentiated tumors in patients with greater intensity of EGFR expression. One patient was EGFR negative but 3+ for erb-2/Her 2-neu expression. No patient co-expressed EGFR and Her-2-neu. Median survival of patients in this series was 17 months. CONCLUSION: In view of our observations confirming the over-expression of EGFR in our patient population in North America, and the recent success of EGFR targeted therapies in other solid tumors that over-express EGFR, it may now be appropriate to evaluate agents targeting this pathway either as single agents or in combination with standard chemotherapy. PMID:18825277

  19. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone inhibit gallbladder motility through multiple signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kline, Loren W; Karpinski, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Testosterone (T) has been shown to cause vasodilation in rabbit coronary arteries through a nongenomic pathway. Part of this T-induced relaxation was shown to be mediated by opening voltage dependent K(+) channels. T infusion also reduces peripheral resistance in human males with heart failure. The effects of T or its active metabolite 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are not well studied. This study investigates the effect of T and DHT on contraction in guinea pig gallbladder strips. T or DHT induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK)-induced tension. Pretreatment of the strips with PKA inhibitor 14-22 amide myristolated had no significant effect on the relaxation induced by either T or DHT. Pretreatment of strips with 2-APB, an inhibitor of IP(3) induced Ca(2+) release, produced a significant (p<0.001) reduction in the T- or DHT-induced relaxation. Bisindolymaleimide IV and chelerythrine Cl(-) when used in combination had no significant effect on the amount of CCK-induced tension, but significantly (p<0.01) decreased the amount of T- or DHT-induced relaxation. The flavone chrysin, an aromatase inhibitor, and genistein, an isoflavone, each produced a significant (p<0.01) reduction in CCK-induced tension. Chrysin significantly (p<0.05) increased T-induced relaxation; however, genistein had no effect on T-induced relaxation. It is concluded that T and DHT inhibits gallbladder motility rapidly by nongenomic actions of the hormones. Multiple pathways that include inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) release, inhibition of extracellular Ca(2+) entry, and the actions of PKC may mediate this effect.

  20. RNAseq Reveals Complex Response of Campylobacter jejuni to Ovine Bile and In vivo Gallbladder Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kreuder, Amanda J.; Schleining, Jennifer A.; Yaeger, Michael; Zhang, Qijing; Plummer, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Colonization of the gallbladder by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni is thought to play a key role in transmission and persistence of these important zoonotic agents; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that allow for bacterial survival within this harsh environment. Recently, a highly virulent C. jejuni sheep abortion (SA) clone represented by the clinical isolate IA3902 has emerged as the dominant cause for sheep abortion in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that the C. jejuni clone SA can frequently be isolated from the gallbladders of otherwise healthy sheep, suggesting that the gallbladder may serve as an important reservoir for infection. To begin to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with survival in the host gallbladder, C. jejuni IA3902 was exposed for up to 24 h to both the natural ovine host in vivo gallbladder environment, as well as ovine bile in vitro. Following exposure, total RNA was isolated from the bile and high throughput deep sequencing of strand specific rRNA-depleted total RNA was used to characterize the transcriptome of IA3902 under these conditions. Our results demonstrated for the first time the complete transcriptome of C. jejuni IA3902 during exposure to an important host environment, the sheep gallbladder. Exposure to the host environment as compared to in vitro bile alone provided a more robust picture of the complexity of gene regulation required for survival in the host gallbladder. A subset of genes including a large number of protein coding genes as well as seven previously identified non-coding RNAs were confirmed to be differentially expressed within our data, suggesting that they may play a key role in adaptation upon exposure to these conditions. This research provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms that may be utilized by C. jejuni IA3902 to colonize and survive within the inhospitable gallbladder

  1. Relationship between gallbladder surgery and ethnic admixture in African American and Hispanic American women.

    PubMed

    Nassir, Rami; Qi, Lihong; Kosoy, Roman; Garcia, Lorena; Robbins, John; Seldin, Michael F

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether differences in admixture in African American and Hispanic American adult women are associated with differences in gallbladder surgery. Gallbladder surgery history on entry to the Women's Health Initiative's (WHI) study was used as a dichotomous outcome measure for this study. The proportion of European, sub-Saharan African, and Amerindian (AMI) admixture was estimated for 10,841 African American and 4,620 Hispanic American women in WHI using 92 ancestry informative markers. Logistic regression analyses assessed the relationship between admixture and gallbladder surgery in WHI women (enrollment at ages >50, mean age 61 years) with or without adjusting for multiple covariates, including measures of adiposity, parity, alcohol use, and education. There was a significant positive association between AMI admixture and the frequency of gallbladder surgery in Hispanic Americans. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for AMI admixture group was OR=2.97, CI=2.01-4.38, P<10(-4). Although there were strong positive associations with parity and adiposity, and negative associations with alcohol consumption and education, accounting for these covariates did not remove the admixture association (OR=2.46, CI=1.62-3.73). In contrast, the effect of African admixture was nearly indistinguishable from that of the European admixture, both of which were protective in the Hispanic American group, and African admixture had a marginal association with decreased gallbladder surgery in the African American group. Measures of adiposity were associated with increased risk for gallbladder surgery and remained significant after accounting for admixture and each of the other covariates. Education level and alcohol use were associated with decreased risk for gallbladder disease. However, after accounting for the other covariates these variably remained significant. AMI admixture is strongly associated with gallbladder surgery

  2. Cholecystokinin-Induced Gallbladder Emptying and Metformin Elicit Additive Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Ulrich; Sonne, David Peick; Christensen, Mikkel; Hansen, Morten; Brønden, Andreas; Toräng, Signe; Rehfeld, Jens Frederik; Holst, Jens Juul; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip Krag

    2016-05-01

    Bile acids have been suggested to mediate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Metformin, too, has been shown to increase GLP-1 levels. The effect of gallbladder emptying, metformin, or a combination has, however, never been studied. We hypothesized that cholecystokinin (CCK)-8-induced gallbladder emptying stimulates human GLP-1 secretion and that metformin would potentiate this effect. A double-blinded, randomized study. The study was conducted at a specialized research unit. Ten healthy male subjects with no family history of diabetes (age, 22 [range, 20-32] years; body mass index, 21.7 [19.3-24.2] kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose, 4.9 [4.7-5.3] mm; and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, 5.1 [4.4-5.8] %). On 4 separate days, the subjects received metformin or placebo and a concomitant 60-minute intravenous infusion of saline or CCK. Blood was sampled for 4 hours, and gallbladder volume was measured by ultrasound. Plasma levels of GLP-1. CCK-induced gallbladder emptying and metformin alone (no observed effect on gallbladder emptying) both elicited significant and additive GLP-1 responses. Metformin alone or combined with gallbladder emptying elicited a significant peptide YY response. CCK-induced gallbladder emptying resulted in a short-lasting glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response independent of metformin. No effects were seen on plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, or gastrin. CCK-induced gallbladder emptying in healthy subjects elicits significant GLP-1 secretion, which can be potentiated by metformin.

  3. Association between Gallbladder Ultrasound Findings and Bacterial Culture of Bile in 70 Cats and 202 Dogs.

    PubMed

    Policelli Smith, R; Gookin, J L; Smolski, W; Di Cicco, M F; Correa, M; Seiler, G S

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial cholecystitis often is diagnosed by combination of gallbladder ultrasound (US) findings and positive results of bile culture. The value of gallbladder US in determining the likelihood of bile bacterial infection in cats and dogs with suspected biliary disease is unknown. To determine the value of gallbladder US in predicting bile bacterial culture results, identify most common bacterial isolates from bile, and describe complications after cholecystocentesis in cats and dogs with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Cats (70) and dogs (202) that underwent an abdominal US and submission of bile for culture were included in the study. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the association of gallbladder US abnormalities and the results of bile cultures, and complications of cholecystocentesis. Abnormal gallbladder US had high sensitivity (96%) but low specificity (49%) in cats with positive and negative results of bile bacterial culture, respectively. Cats with normal gallbladder US findings were unlikely to have positive bile bacterial culture (negative predictive value of 96%). Gallbladder US had lower sensitivity (81%), specificity (31%), positive predictive value (20%), and negative predictive value (88%) in dogs. The most common bacterial isolates were of enteric origin, the prevalence being higher in cats. Incidence of complications after cholecystocentesis was 3.4%. Gallbladder US has a high negative predictive value for bile culture results in cats. This modality is less predictive of infection in dogs. Percutaneous US-guided cholecystocentesis has a low complication rate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Deregulation of MYC and TP53 through genetic and epigenetic alterations in gallbladder carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Geraldo; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Dos Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; Demachki, Samia; Nunes, Caroline Aquino Moreira; do Nascimento Borges, Barbara; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2015-08-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a rare malignancy and presents a poor prognosis. MYC and p53 have been implicated in gallbladder carcinogenesis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in their regulation in this neoplasia. Here, we evaluated the MYC and TP53 copy numbers in gallbladder tumors and their possible association with protein expression. We also investigated whether MYC may be controlled by mutations and DNA promoter methylation. In the present study, 15 samples of invasive gallbladder carcinomas and six control samples were analyzed. On the other hand, the expression of MYC and p53 was more frequent in gallbladder carcinomas than in control samples (p = 0.002, p = 0.046, respectively). Gain of copies of the MYC and TP53 genes was detected in 86.7 and 50 % of gallbladder carcinomas, respectively. MYC and TP53 amplifications were associated with immunoreactivity of their protein (p = 0.029, p = 0.001, respectively). MYC hypomethylation was only detected in tumoral samples and was associated with its protein expression (p = 0.029). MYC mutations were detected in 80 % of tumor samples. The G allele at rs117856857 was associated with the presence of gallbladder tumors (p = 0.019) and with MYC expression (p = 0.044). Moreover, two tumors presented a pathogenic mutation in MYC exon 2 (rs28933407). Our study highlights that the gain of MYC and TP53 copies seems to be a frequent finding in gallbladder cancer. In addition, gain of copies, hypomethylation and point mutations at MYC may contribute to overexpression of its protein in this type of cancer.

  5. Increased prevalence of clinical gallbladder disease in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Haffner, S M; Diehl, A K; Mitchell, B D; Stern, M P; Hazuda, H P

    1990-08-01

    The association between non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and the prevalence of gallbladder disease remains controversial. The authors investigated this association in 1,250 men and 1,656 women from the San Antonio Heart Study (1984-1988) a population-based study of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A total of 68% of the subjects were Mexican American, a population at high risk for both gallbladder disease and NIDDM. Gallbladder disease was assessed by self-report, and the prevalence of diabetes was determined using National Diabetes Data Group criteria. NIDDM was significantly associated with gallbladder disease in Mexican-American men and women and in non-Hispanic white women. After adjustment for age, body mass index, ratio of waist-to-hip circumference, and ethnicity, using multiple logistic regression, the odds of gallbladder disease in women was 1.6 times higher if NIDDM was present (odds ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.37). Mexican-American women also had a significantly increased prevalence of gallbladder disease relative to non-Hispanic white women (odds ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.28). In nondiabetic women, fasting insulin was significantly related to prevalence of gallbladder disease in univariate analyses, but not in multivariate analyses. The authors conclude that women with diabetes have an increased prevalence of gallbladder disease relative to nondiabetic women and that this association is not explained by the greater adiposity or unfavorable body fat distribution of the diabetic subjects.

  6. Is Cholecystectomy Necessary After ERCP for Bile Duct Stones in Patients with Gallbladder in situ?

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon Kil; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Nam Jae; Lee, Heon Young; Chae, Hee Bok; Youn, Sei Jin; Park, Seon Mee

    2001-01-01

    Background The requirement for subsequent cholecystectomy in patients with gallbladder in situ after endoscopic removal of stones from the common bile duct (CBD) is controversial. The aims of this study were to assess the requirement for subsequent cholecystectomy for gallbladder-related symptoms, and to identify the patients who develop symptoms after the endoscopic removal of CBD stones. Methods Of 241 patients with gallbladder in situ following endoscopic removal of stones from the CBD, 146 patients (78 men and 68 women; mean age 69±13 years, range 20–93) with a follow-up time of more than three months without elective cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study. Fifty-nine patients had gallbladder stones (single stones in 27 and multiple stones in 32) and 87 patients had gallbladder in situ without stones. The time from entry to the occurrences of death or cholecystectomy was evaluated retrospectively. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with these events. Results The mean duration of follow-up was 24.1±18.0 months (range 3–70 months). During follow-up, seven patients (4.8%) underwent cholecystectomy, on average 18.4 months after CBD stone removal, as the result of acute cholecystitis in four cases, biliary pain in two cases and acute pancreatitis in one case. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in four patients and open cholecystectomy in three patients. Post-operative morbidity occurred in two patients, with improvement after conservative management. Nine patients (6.2%) died as the result of unrelated biliary disease. Age, sex, presence of gallbladder stones, multiplicity of gallbladder stones and underlying disease did not correlate with subsequent cholecystectomy by Cox regression analysis. Conclusion Elective cholecystectomy is not warranted in patients with bile duct stones when the common duct can be cleared of stones by endoscopic sphincterotomy. We could not find any clinical predictors of further

  7. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of gallbladder lesions: a study of 596 cases.

    PubMed

    Rana, C; Krishnani, N; Kumari, N

    2016-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is not a commonly performed procedure for gallbladder lesions for fear of causing biliary peritonitis; hence data on gallbladder cytology is scarce. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the diagnostic application of ultrasound-guided (US) FNA cytology in the pre-operative diagnosis of neoplastic as well as non-neoplastic lesions of the gallbladder and to review the cytomorphological spectrum of gallbladder lesions encountered along with various diagnostic difficulties that can arise during reporting. The study was carried out on 596 patients with gallbladder lesions in whom US-guided FNA was performed over a 5-year period. In 130 cases, simultaneous aspirations from other organs were done. The histological correlation was available in 32 cases. No major complications such as haemorrhage, peritonitis, etc. were encountered related to the procedure. The majority were mass lesions whereas in 73 cases (12.2%) only focal or diffuse gallbladder wall thickening was present. Cytological examination of 596 cases revealed malignancy in 462 (77.6%), 26 (4.4%) suspicious of malignancy, 23 (3.8%) inflammatory lesion, 29 negative (4.8%) and 56 cases showed necrosis only or were inadequate for any definite opinion. The lesions diagnosed on FNA cytology included carcinoma (predominantly adenocarcinoma), xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC), acute suppurative inflammation and tuberculosis. Of 26 with adequate cytology, 24 were accurate with respect to malignant (including one suspicious FNA) versus benign: one false positive and one false negative both involved xanthogranulomatous change. The present study is the largest series evaluating the role of US-guided FNA in the diagnosis of gallbladder lesions. It is a safe, rapid, reliable, cost-effective and reasonably accurate method for diagnosing gallbladder lesions. FNA should always be attempted in cases with a mass lesion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. ATP-binding cassette sterol transporters are differentially expressed in normal and diseased human gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jai Hoon; Choi, Ho Soon; Jun, Dae Won; Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Lee, Jin; Yang, Sun Young; Kuver, Rahul

    2013-02-01

    Gallbladder epithelial cells (GBEC) are exposed to high cholesterol concentrations in bile, and export cholesterol via an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-mediated pathway in vitro. These findings suggest that aberrant expression and/or function of ABC sterol transporters may be associated with cholesterol-related gallbladder diseases (CAGD). In this study, we investigated the relative levels of the sterol transporters ABCA1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 in human gallbladders in CAGD, and the relationship between ABCA1 and inflammation. Expression of ABCA1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 was evaluated in 31 gallbladders with CAGD and 6 normal gallbladders by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR was used to measure ABCA1 mRNA expression. To investigate the relationship between ABCA1 and inflammation, wWestern blots were performed on cultured dog GBEC treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using an anti-ABCA1 antibody. Immunohistochemistry showed ABCA1 to be localized predominantly to the basolateral membrane, while ABCG8 formed a diffuse intracellular pattern at the apical pole of human GBEC. ABCA1 and ABCG8 expression was more prominent in GBEC that were surrounded by cholesterol-laden macrophages. ABCA1 and ABCG8 expression was increased in gallbladders with CAGD. Western blots showed increased ABCA1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 expression in CAGD. ABCA1 mRNA levels were increased in all gallbladders with CAGD. LPS treatment of cultured dog GBEC enhanced ABCA1 expression. The sterol transporters ABCA1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 may play a role in the pathogenesis of human CAGD. Inflammation appears to be a key factor that increases ABCA1 expression and activity in the human gallbladder.

  9. Effect of Albiglutide on Cholecystokinin-Induced Gallbladder Emptying in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Shaddinger, Bonnie C; Young, Malcolm A; Billiard, Julia; Collins, David A; Hussaini, Azra; Nino, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (RAs) exenatide and lixisenatide reduce cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced gallbladder emptying in healthy subjects. It is unknown if all GLP-1 RAs share this effect; therefore, the effect of the GLP-1 RA albiglutide on gallbladder function was assessed. In this randomized, double-blind, 2-way crossover study, a single dose of subcutaneous albiglutide 50 mg or placebo was administered to 17 healthy subjects, and CCK-induced gallbladder contractility was measured by ultrasonography. CCK (0.003 μg/kg) was infused intravenously over 50 minutes on study day 4 (3 days after dosing, to coincide with albiglutide's expected time to maximum concentration). Gallbladder volume, ejection fraction, and the main pancreatic and common bile-duct diameters were measured before, during, and following CCK infusion. Gallbladder volume was significantly greater in the albiglutide vs placebo groups before, during, and after CCK infusion, and the mean difference from placebo increased numerically during CCK infusion. The area under the volume-effect curve was significantly greater with albiglutide (P = .029). Starting at the 30-minute CCK infusion time point, the gallbladder ejection fraction was significantly lower with albiglutide than placebo. Changes in pancreatic duct diameter and common bile-duct diameter were not significantly different between albiglutide and placebo. Similar incidences of adverse events were observed between the albiglutide and placebo treatment periods. No new albiglutide safety signals were detected, and no serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, similar to other GLP-1 RAs, albiglutide decreased CCK-induced gallbladder emptying compared with placebo in healthy individuals. Clinical implications of the gallbladder effects are unclear at this time. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. A novel technique for fundal retraction of the gallbladder in single-port cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Reibetanz, Joachim; Wierlemann, Alexander; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Krajinovic, Katica

    2011-06-01

    Recent reports on the feasibility and safety of single-incision cholecystectomy have challenged the conventional multiport access to the gallbladder. Nevertheless, the proximity of different instruments and the laparoscope may lead to interference that potentially compromises the safety of the operation. This article describes the use of a customary flexible restraint system for the gallbladder fundus to achieve triangulation by means of a three-instrument technique and an optimized view to the Calot's triangle.

  11. Does impaired gallbladder function contribute to the development of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma?

    PubMed

    Nassr, Ayman O; Gilani, Syeda Nadia Shah; Atie, Mohammed; Abdelhafiz, Tariq; Connolly, Val; Hickey, Neil; Walsh, Thomas Noel

    2011-06-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is aetiologically associated with gastro-esophageal reflux, but the mechanisms responsible for the metaplasia-dysplasia sequence are unknown. Bile components are implicated. Impaired gallbladder function may contribute to duodenogastric reflux (DGR) and harmful GERD. This study aims to compare gallbladder function in patients with Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma, and controls. Three groups of patients, all free of gallstone disease, were studied. Group 1: (n = 15) were normal controls. Group 2: (n = 15) were patients with >3-cm-long segment of Barrett's esophagus. Group 3: (n = 15) were patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Using real-time ultrasonography unit, gallbladder volume was measured in subjects following a 10-h fast. Ejection fraction was calculated before and after standard liquid meal and compared between the groups. The mean percentage reduction in gallbladder volume was 50% at 40 min in the adenocarcinoma group compared with 72.4% in the control group (p < 0.001). At 60 min, gallbladder filling had recommenced in the control group to 64.1% of fasting volume while continuing to empty with further reduction to 63% in the Barrett's group and to 50.6% (p = 0.008) in the adenocarcinoma group. The mean gallbladder ejection fraction decreased progressively from controls to Barrett's to adenocarcinoma and was significantly lower in Barrett's group (60.9%; p = 0.019) and adenocarcinoma group (47.9%; p < 0.001) compared with normal controls (70.9%). Gallbladder function is progressively impaired in Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma. Gallbladder malfunction increases duodenogastric reflux, exposing the lower esophagus to an altered chemical milieu which, in turn, may have a role in promoting metaplasia-dysplasia-neoplasia sequence in the lower esophageal mucosa.

  12. RNAseq Reveals Complex Response of Campylobacter jejuni to Ovine Bile and In vivo Gallbladder Environment.

    PubMed

    Kreuder, Amanda J; Schleining, Jennifer A; Yaeger, Michael; Zhang, Qijing; Plummer, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    Colonization of the gallbladder by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni is thought to play a key role in transmission and persistence of these important zoonotic agents; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that allow for bacterial survival within this harsh environment. Recently, a highly virulent C. jejuni sheep abortion (SA) clone represented by the clinical isolate IA3902 has emerged as the dominant cause for sheep abortion in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that the C. jejuni clone SA can frequently be isolated from the gallbladders of otherwise healthy sheep, suggesting that the gallbladder may serve as an important reservoir for infection. To begin to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with survival in the host gallbladder, C. jejuni IA3902 was exposed for up to 24 h to both the natural ovine host in vivo gallbladder environment, as well as ovine bile in vitro. Following exposure, total RNA was isolated from the bile and high throughput deep sequencing of strand specific rRNA-depleted total RNA was used to characterize the transcriptome of IA3902 under these conditions. Our results demonstrated for the first time the complete transcriptome of C. jejuni IA3902 during exposure to an important host environment, the sheep gallbladder. Exposure to the host environment as compared to in vitro bile alone provided a more robust picture of the complexity of gene regulation required for survival in the host gallbladder. A subset of genes including a large number of protein coding genes as well as seven previously identified non-coding RNAs were confirmed to be differentially expressed within our data, suggesting that they may play a key role in adaptation upon exposure to these conditions. This research provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms that may be utilized by C. jejuni IA3902 to colonize and survive within the inhospitable gallbladder

  13. Biliary-hepatic recycling of a xenobiotic: gallbladder absorption of methyl mercury.

    PubMed

    Dutczak, W J; Clarkson, T W; Ballatori, N

    1991-06-01

    The role of the gallbladder in the disposition of methyl mercury was investigated in guinea pig, hamster, and macaque monkey. 203Hg-labeled methyl mercury or inorganic mercury (5 microM) and [14C]inulin were instilled into the in situ guinea pig or hamster gallbladder. After 2 h, only 27.6 +/- 7.0% of the methyl mercury remained in guinea pig gallbladder fluid as compared with 85.0 +/- 3.2% of the inorganic mercury and 90.7 +/- 4.5% of the [14C]-inulin. In the hamster, 42.5 +/- 4.5% of methyl mercury and 95% +/- 0.9% of inorganic mercury remained after 2 h. When the sulfhydryl-containing compounds L-cysteine, glutathione, and bovine serum albumin (20 microM) were added to the test solution, cysteine increased and albumin decreased absorption of methyl mercury. Ligation of guinea pig cystic artery decreased gallbladder fluid absorption from 72.7 +/- 8.6 to 26.5 +/- 9.8% over 2 h but did not alter methyl mercury absorption. Bile was also sampled from gallbladders of four monkeys exposed chronically to CH3HgCl and from three control monkeys. For one of the exposed and one of the control monkeys, bile was also collected from the common hepatic duct. In both methyl mercury-exposed and control monkeys, the concentration of methyl mercury in gallbladder bile was lower than in hepatic bile. In contrast, the concentration of inorganic mercury in gallbladder bile was four to seven times that of hepatic bile, suggesting that methyl mercury but not inorganic mercury was being reabsorbed. To assess the functional significance of methyl mercury reabsorption by the gallbladder, guinea pig cystic ducts were ligated, the animals were given CH3 203HgCl (10 mumol/kg iv), and body burden of 203Hg was measured over 16 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Spectrum and Classification of Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Greer, Jonathan B; Ferrone, Cristina R

    2016-04-01

    As patients are living longer and axial imaging is more widespread, increasing numbers of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are found. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms are the most common. The revised Sendai guidelines provide a safe algorithm for expectant management of certain cystic neoplasms; however, studies are ongoing to identify further subgroups that can be treated nonoperatively. For those patients with high-risk clinical features or symptoms, surgical resection can be performed safely at high-volume pancreatic centers. Accurate diagnosis is critical for accurate decision making.

  15. Correlation between cholelithiasis and gallbladder carcinoma in surgical and autopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Mlinarić-Vrbica, Sanja; Vrbica, Zarko

    2009-06-01

    Gallbladder (GB) cancer is the most common malignant lesion of the biliary tract. The decision for a cholecystectomy in asymptomatic cholelithiasis as a measure of the secondary prevention of gallbladder cancer is based on the data of incidence and selected predictive factors for a specific population. A consecutive series of 3351 cholecystectomies in five year period was reviewed. That data was compared with the data from 2395 consecutive autopsies from the same period. Possible risk factors for gallbladder cancer were analysed. In surgical specimens, the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma was 0.62%. Of those, 24% were in patients younger than 60 years and 95.24% were associated with cholelithiasis. In autopsy material, in cases in which cholelithiasis was present, the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma was 3.4%. All cases were in patients older than 60 years and all were associated with cholelithiasis. Correlation between cholelithiasis and gallbladder carcinoma was most significant for women in the surgical group while it was not as strong for men or in the autopsy group. The results vary whether we analyse surgical or autopsy material, but in both cases female gender and the duration of cholelithiasis were significant risk factors. In our population GB cancer is not uncommon in elderly women with gall stones and is diagnosed in advanced stage if one waits for symptoms.

  16. The effects of extracellular calcium on prairie dog gallbladder ion transport.

    PubMed

    Cates, J A; Saunders, K D; Abedin, M Z; Roslyn, J J

    1992-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that experimentally induced gallstone formation is associated with altered gallbladder absorptive function. Moreover, elevated biliary levels of calcium have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. Nonetheless, the relationship between gallbladder ion transport and biliary calcium remains obscure. We tested the hypothesis that extracellular calcium modulates gallbladder ion transport. Prairie dog gallbladders were mounted in an Ussing chamber, and short-circuit current (Isc), transepithelial potential difference (Vms), and tissue resistance (Rt) were measured. Tissues were randomly exposed to physiologic salt solutions containing the following concentrations of calcium: 0.01, 1.3, 5, and 10 mmol/L. Exposure of gallbladder epithelium to increasing calcium concentrations resulted in concomitant increases in Isc and Vms (p < 0.001), without altering Rt. Regression analysis demonstrated a curvilinear correlation between calcium and Isc (Y = 167 + 22.5x - 1.4 x 26; p < 0.001). We conclude that extracellular calcium may be a modulator of gallbladder ion transport.

  17. Prevalence of gallstones and gallbladder disease in Canadian Micmac Indian women.

    PubMed

    Williams, C N; Johnston, J L; Weldon, K L

    1977-10-08

    The prevalence of gallstones and gallbladder disease was studied between October 1973 and June 1976 in Canadian Micmac Indian women aged 15 to 50 years in an inland rural community near Shubenacadie, NS. Of 132 women at risk 98 underwent cholecystography, 6 had a history of cholecystectomy (verified from hospital records) and 3 had cholecystectomy because of cholecystitis during the 3 years of the study. Of the 17 abnormal cholecystograms 10 showed radiolucent gallstones, and repeated studies documented gallstones in 6 of the 7 radiographs on which the gallbladder was not visualized. The prevalence of gallstones was found to be 211/1000, and that of gallbladder disease, 240/1000. The peak prevalence was at 30 to 39 years of age. The women with gallbladder disease were significantly more obese and of greater parity than those without gallbladder disease even when age was controlled. The Micmac Indian women of Nova Scotia appear to be at a much higher risk for the development of cholesterol gallstones and gallbladder disease than Caucasian women in Framingham, Massachusetts.

  18. Prevalence of gallstones and gallbladder disease in Canadian Micmac Indian women.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. N.; Johnston, J. L.; Weldon, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstones and gallbladder disease was studied between October 1973 and June 1976 in Canadian Micmac Indian women aged 15 to 50 years in an inland rural community near Shubenacadie, NS. Of 132 women at risk 98 underwent cholecystography, 6 had a history of cholecystectomy (verified from hospital records) and 3 had cholecystectomy because of cholecystitis during the 3 years of the study. Of the 17 abnormal cholecystograms 10 showed radiolucent gallstones, and repeated studies documented gallstones in 6 of the 7 radiographs on which the gallbladder was not visualized. The prevalence of gallstones was found to be 211/1000, and that of gallbladder disease, 240/1000. The peak prevalence was at 30 to 39 years of age. The women with gallbladder disease were significantly more obese and of greater parity than those without gallbladder disease even when age was controlled. The Micmac Indian women of Nova Scotia appear to be at a much higher risk for the development of cholesterol gallstones and gallbladder disease than Caucasian women in Framingham, Massachusetts. PMID:907946

  19. [Gallbladder contractility in early stages of lithogenesis in the lithogenic fed guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Lange, K; Gottschalk, M

    1995-07-01

    The main aim of our study was the investigation of gallbladder motility prior to gallstone formation in vivo in guinea pigs fed a lithogenic diet. In a first experiment guinea pigs were fed a lithogenic diet for 5, 15, 30 and 45 days. First gallstones (pigment calculi) appeared after 30 days diet application. The in vitro contractility after lithogenic diet remained unchanged. In a second experimental part the in vivo gallbladder contractility was measured in two experimental animal groups (control group and 21 days lithogenic fed guinea pigs). The isovolumetric pressure rise inside the gallbladder following the intravenous injection of 10(-9) mol/kg body weight ceruletid was the essential contractility parameter (intraluminal basal pressure 5 mm hg). Due to lithogenic feeding of 21 days--that means prior to gallstone formation--the isovolumetric pressure rise was significantly elevated (p < 0.01). Moreover we observed passive distensibility changes of gallbladder muscle due to muscular hyperplasia. The main result of this investigation is the fact that gallbladder muscle in guinea pigs fed a lithogenic diet response to ceruletid application with hypercontractility prior to provable pigment gallstone formation. However gallbladder hypomotility--believed to be a causal factor in cholelithogenesis--was not observed in our experimental conditions.

  20. Effect of increasing oral doses of loperamide on gallbladder motility in man.

    PubMed Central

    Hopman, W P; Rosenbusch, G; Jansen, J B; Lamers, C B

    1990-01-01

    1. Loperamide, a peripherally acting opiate receptor agonist with antidiarrhoeal action, inhibits ileal and colonic motor function. To determine the effect of loperamide on gallbladder motility, we have pretreated five healthy volunteers with 2 mg oral loperamide 24 h, 20, 12 and 2.5 h before; six healthy volunteers with 16 mg oral loperamide 2.5 h before; and eight healthy volunteers with 16 mg oral loperamide 12 and 2.5 h before intravenous infusion of a 'physiological dose' of 12.5 pmol kg-1 cholecystokinin (CCK) for 1 h to stimulate gallbladder contraction. All subjects served as their own controls. Gallbladder volume was measured by ultrasonography and plasma CCK by radioimmunoassay until 90 min after start of the CCK infusion. 2. Infusion of CCK resulted in plasma CCK concentrations similar to those after intraduodenal fat. Integrated gallbladder contraction after 4 X 2 mg loperamide (4600 +/- 891% min) was similar to that without pretreatment (5270 +/- 1037% min; NS). Integrated gallbladder contraction after 1 X 16 mg loperamide diminished from 5458 +/- 412% min without to 2632 +/- 816% min with loperamide (P less than 0.05), and was completely abolished to -596 +/- 762% min (P less than 0.0005 vs without loperamide) after 2 X 16 mg loperamide. 3. It is concluded that loperamide inhibits gallbladder contraction in response to a physiological dose of cholecystokinin in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:2297461

  1. Drospirenone- and levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptives and the risk of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Jick, Susan; Pennap, Dinci

    2012-09-01

    Studies have found an association between the use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of gallbladder disease. This study evaluated this relation as well as the role of progestogen on the risk of gallbladder disease among users of drospirenone-containing OCs compared to users of levonorgestrel-containing OCs. The UK General Practice Research DATABASE. We conducted a nested case-control analysis among women aged 14 to 60 years during 2001 through 2008 who had ever received drospirenone- or levonorgestrel-containing OCs. Cases were women with a first diagnosis of gallbladder disease during the study period. Women who received a study OC within 6 months of the index date were exposed. All other women were nonexposed. We matched two controls to each case on year of birth, index date, amount of recorded history and general practice attended. The adjusted odds ratio for gallbladder disease comparing drospirenone and levonorgestrel OCs to nonexposure were 0.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.1] and 1.0 (95% CI 0.9-1.1), respectively. There is no evidence in these data that drospirenone- or levonorgestrel-containing OC use confers an increased risk of gallbladder disease compared to women not currently exposed to an OC. Nor is use of drospirenone OCs associated with a higher risk of gallbladder disease than use of levonorgestrel-containing OCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Melatonin treatment reverts age-related changes in Guinea pig gallbladder neuromuscular transmission and contractility.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Camello-Almaraz, Cristina; Moreno, Rosario; Camello, Pedro J; Pozo, María J

    2006-11-01

    The incidence of gallbladder illness increases with age, but the altered mechanisms leading to gallbladder dysfunction are poorly understood. Here we determine the age-related alterations in gallbladder contractility and the impact of melatonin treatment. Isometric tension changes in response to electrical field stimulation and to agonists were recorded from guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips. [Ca(2+)](i) was determined by epifluorescence microscopy in fura-2 loaded isolated gallbladder smooth muscle cells, and F-actin content was quantified by confocal microscopy. Aging reduced neurogenic contractions, which was associated with the impairment of nitrergic innervation and with increased responsiveness of capsaicin-sensitive relaxant nerves, possibly involving calcitonin gene-related peptide. Melatonin treatment for 4 weeks restored neurogenic responses to normal values, with an associated recovery of nitrergic function and the disappearance of the capsaicin-sensitive component. Aging also reduced the contractile responses to cholecystokinin and Ca(2+) influx. The impaired contractility only correlated with diminished Ca(2+) mobilization in response to activation of Ca(2+) influx. Melatonin improved contractility and increased smooth muscle F-actin content without changing Ca(2+) homeostasis. In conclusion, aging impairs gallbladder function as the result of changes in the inhibitory neuromodulation of smooth muscle contractility and the reduction in the myogenic response to contractile agonists. Impaired contractility seems to be related to decreased Ca(2+) influx and damage of contractile proteins. Melatonin significantly ameliorated these age-related changes.

  3. Anatomical and neuropeptidergic properties of the duodenal neurons projecting to the gallbladder in the golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Seo, Je Hoon; Cho, Sa Sun; Lee, In Se; Lee, Heungshik S

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the anatomical and neuropeptidergic properties of the duodenal neurons projecting to the gallbladder in the golden hamster. Fast blue (FB) was injected into the subserosa of the gallbladder in order to identify by retrograde tracing the duodenal neurons that project to the gallbladder. Subsequently, immunofluorescence microscopy was employed to see whether these duodenal neurons contained putative peptidergic neurotransmitters such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), galanin (GAL) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The FB-labeled cells were only found in the duodenal region adjacent to the major duodenal papilla where the biliary duct opens. On the other hand, there was no difference within this duodenal region in the numbers of FB-labeled cells between the mesenteric and antimesenteric portions, suggesting that these two portions of the duodenum equally contribute neuronal projections to the gallbladder. Double-immunofluorescence microscopy clearly demonstrated that a small population of FB-positive duodenal neurons contained putative neurotransmitters CGRP, GAL and VIP. Our data suggest that duodenal neurons around the major duodenal papilla in the golden hamster project to the gallbladder and exert their influence on the gallbladder via neuropeptides such as CGRP, GAL and VIP.

  4. High DBC1 (CCAR2) expression in gallbladder carcinoma is associated with favorable clinicopathological factors.

    PubMed

    Won, Kyu Yeoun; Cho, Hyuck; Kim, Gou Young; Lim, Sung-Jig; Bae, Go Eun; Lim, Jun Uk; Sung, Ji-Youn; Park, Yong-Koo; Kim, Youn Wha; Lee, Juhie

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies on gallbladder carcinogenesis, and mutations of the KRAS, TP53, and CDKN2A genes have been reported in gallbladder carcinoma. The DBC1 gene (deleted in breast cancer 1) was initially cloned from region 8p21, which was homozygously deleted in breast cancer. DBC1 has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and death. The functional role of DBC1 in normal cells and the role of DBC1 loss in cancer are not entirely clear. And DBC1 expression and its clinical implications in gallbladder carcinoma have yet to be thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, we evaluated DBC1 expression in 104 gallbladder carcinoma tissues in relation to survival and other prognostic factors via immunohistochemical analysis. DBC1 expression was divided into two categories: high DBC1 expression was observed in 32/104 cases (30.8%) and low expression in 72/104 cases (69.2%). High DBC1 expression correlated significantly with favorable clinicopathologic variables. Furthermore, in survival analysis, the high-DBC1 expression group showed a better survival rate compared to the low-DBC1 expression group. In conclusion, high DBC1 expression is associated with several favorable clinicopathologic factors in gallbladder carcinoma. These findings suggest that loss of DBC1 expression plays a role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in gallbladder carcinoma.

  5. Ectopic liver and gallbladder in a cloned dog: Possible nonheritable anomaly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Sang Chul; Kim, Jae Hwan; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Geon A; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Kim, Hyunil; Lee, Yeon Hea; Yoo, Ji Min; Eom, Ki Dong; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-10-01

    Ectopic liver and gallbladder are rare anomalies usually not accompanied by any symptoms and are found during surgical exploration or autopsy. We aimed to find a cause of this anomaly using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology, which can produce genetically identical organisms. A cloned beagle having ectopic organs was produced and died on the day of birth. Major and ectopic organs were fixed and underwent histologic analysis. SCNT was performed using cells derived from the dead puppy to produce reclones. Normality of internal organs in the original donor dog and recloned dogs was evaluated by computed tomography. While a liver without the gallbladder was located in the abdominal cavity of the cloned dog, a well-defined, reddish brown mass with a small sac was also positioned outside of the thoracic cavity. Histologically, they presented as normal liver and gallbladder. Five reclones were produced, and computed tomography results revealed that the original donor dog and reclones had normal liver and gallbladder structure and location. This is the first report of both ectopic liver and gallbladder in an organism and investigation on the etiology of these abnormalities. Normal organ structure and position in the original donor dog and reclones suggests that the ectopic liver and gallbladder is a possible nonheritable anomaly.

  6. Computer analysis of gallbladder ultrasonic images towards recognition of pathological lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiela, M. R.; Bodzioch, S.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach to gallbladder ultrasonic image processing and analysis towards automatic detection and interpretation of disease symptoms on processed US images. First, in this paper, there is presented a new heuristic method of filtering gallbladder contours from images. A major stage in this filtration is to segment and section off areas occupied by the said organ. This paper provides for an inventive algorithm for the holistic extraction of gallbladder image contours, based on rank filtration, as well as on the analysis of line profile sections on tested organs. The second part concerns detecting the most important lesion symptoms of the gallbladder. Automating a process of diagnosis always comes down to developing algorithms used to analyze the object of such diagnosis and verify the occurrence of symptoms related to given affection. The methodology of computer analysis of US gallbladder images presented here is clearly utilitarian in nature and after standardising can be used as a technique for supporting the diagnostics of selected gallbladder disorders using the images of this organ.

  7. Histological alterations of gallbladder mucosa and selected clinical data in young patients with symptomatic gallstones.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Aldona; Malkowski, Wojciech; Biczysko, Wiesława; Seraszek, Agnieszka; Sterzyńska, Karolina; Zabel, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Histological lesions of gallbladder were described mainly in older patients with cholelithiasis (CH). The aim of the study was to analyse morphological alterations in gallbladder mucosa and selected clinical data of young patients with CH. The studies were conducted on 57 patients with CH, subjected to cholecystectomy in the years of 2003-2007. In course of the years, 37 respective young patients (below 25 years of age) were operated. The comparative group included twenty 50-year-old patients with gallstones. The inflammatory activity (grading) was evaluated using a semiquantitative scale on HE-stained gallbladders. In either group, women with chronic cholecystitis and multiple gallstones prevailed. Histological alterations in young patients involved absence of evident epithelial metaplasia traits, low number of foamy cells and prevalence of eosinophils in gallbladder mucosa. Even if a similar grading in gallbladder walls was noted in young and older patients, only in the former ones, a higher grading was detected in patients with an acute clinical course of the gallstone disease. The results point also to a potential role of local accumulation of eosinophils in gallbladder mucosa in pathogenesis of CH in young patients.

  8. Expression and subcellular localization of NHE₃ in the human gallbladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongsheng; Kong, Jing; Wu, Shuodong

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced gallbladder concentrating function is an important factor for the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD), but the mechanism is unknown. Potential candidates for regulation of gallbladder ion absorption are suggested to be Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3). In this study, we investigated the expression and subcellular localization of NHE3 in both acalculous and calculous human gallbladders. Adult human gallbladder tissue was obtained from 23 patients (7 men, 16 women) who had undergone cholecystectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A (acalculous group) and Group B (calculous group). Gene expression of NHE3 was quantitatively estimated by real-time PCR. Protein expression was studied by Western blotting assays. Furthermore, expression of immunoreactive NHE3 was investigated by immunohistochemistry. There was no significant difference in the NHE3 mRNA expression between calculous and acalculous human gallbladders. NHE3 protein expression in gallbladders from patients with cholelithiasis is increased compared to those without gallstones. Immunohistochemistry studies prove that NHE3 is located both on the apical plasma membrane and in the intracellular pool in human GBECs. NHE3 may play a role in the pathogenesis of human CGD. Additional studies are required to further delineate the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Downregulation of TPTE2P1 Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Gallbladder Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenjie; Wang, Lei; Lu, Jianhua; Mu, Jiasheng; Liu, Yingbin; Dong, Ping

    2015-10-01

    Human gallbladder cancer is a rare malignancy disease but having poor prognosis over the world. Previous studies have put forward that PTEN is a tumour suppressor in regulating many cellular processes, similar activities have been observed for its mammal homologue TPTE2. In this study, we attempted to unravel the underlying mechanistic basis of the role of TPTE2 and its pseudogene TPTE2P1 in gallbladder cancer. We employed lentivirus-mediated RNA interference as an efficient tool to silence endogenous TPTE2P1 transcription in the gallbladder cancer cell line GBC-SD/M. The effects of TPTE2P1 on cell migration and invasion were determined by transwell assays. We figured that depletion of TPTE2P1 remarkably inhibited gallbladder cancer cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro and elevated the expression of β-catenin via epithelial-mesenchymal transition signalling. Our findings revealed the functional role of TPTE2P1 in human gallbladder cancer and suggested that TPTE2P1 could serve as a promising therapeutic target and a palliation option in human gallbladder cancer. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Heparanase overexpression down-regulates syndecan-1 expression in a gallbladder carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hao; Zhou, Shaobo; Yang, Song; Cao, Hai-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Objective To discuss the relevance of heparanase and syndecan-1 and regulation of the heparanase-syndecan1 axis in the invasiveness of gallbladder carcinoma cells. Methods 1. Generation of a gallbladder cancer cell line overexpressing a heparanase (GBD-SD) transgene. 2. Western blot analysis of syndecan-1 levels of GBD-SD and control gallbladder carcinoma (GBC-SD) cells. 3. RT-PCR analysis of syndecan-1 mRNA levels of GBD-SD and GBC-SD. 4. Evaluation of invasion and migration of GBD-SD and GBC-SD cells. Results 1. Heparanase expression in GBD-SD cells was significantly increased. 2. The syndecan-1 mRNA level of GBD-SD cells was significantly lower compared with that of GBC-SD cells. 3. The syndecan-1 DNA copy number in GBD-SD cells was significantly lower compared with that of GBC-SD. 4. The invasiveness and migration of GBD-SD cells were significantly higher compared with GBC-SD cells. Conclusions 1. The expression of heparanase negatively correlated with that of syndecan-1 in a gallbladder carcinoma cell line. 2. The expression of heparanase and syndecan-1 in gallbladder carcinomas negatively correlated, similar to other tumours. 3. The heparanase/syndecan1 axis in gallbladder carcinoma plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis, thus providing a new therapeutic target. 4. Further research is required to identify the detailed mechanisms.

  11. Expression and subcellular localization of NHE3 in the human gallbladder epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongsheng; Kong, Jing; Wu, Shuodong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Enhanced gallbladder concentrating function is an important factor for the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD), but the mechanism is unknown. Potential candidates for regulation of gallbladder ion absorption are suggested to be Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3). In this study, we investigated the expression and subcellular localization of NHE3 in both acalculous and calculous human gallbladders. Methods: Adult human gallbladder tissue was obtained from 23 patients (7 men, 16 women) who had undergone cholecystectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A (acalculous group) and Group B (calculous group). Gene expression of NHE3 was quantitatively estimated by real-time PCR. Protein expression was studied by Western blotting assays. Furthermore, expression of immunoreactive NHE3 was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results: There was no significant difference in the NHE3 mRNA expression between calculous and acalculous human gallbladders. NHE3 protein expression in gallbladders from patients with cholelithiasis is increased compared to those without gallstones. Immunohistochemistry studies prove that NHE3 is located both on the apical plasma membrane and in the intracellular pool in human GBECs. Conclusions: NHE3 may play a role in the pathogenesis of human CGD. Additional studies are required to further delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25674247

  12. Comparative Analysis of Mutational Profile of Sonic hedgehog Gene in Gallbladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Ruhi; Pandey, Manoj; Tripathi, Sunil Kumar; Dwivedi, Amit Nandan Dhar; Shukla, Vijay Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Gallbladder cancer has high incidence in northeastern India; mortality too is high as the disease is often diagnosed late. Numerous studies have shown the role of sonic hedgehog (shh) in different cancers, an important ligand of the hedgehog signaling pathway. This study was carried out to evaluate the shh gene mutations in gallbladder cancer patients. PCR-SSCP was performed for shh gene in 50 samples each of gallbladder cancer, cholelithiasis, and control. The samples showing aberration in banding pattern were sequenced. Variation in banding pattern was observed in 20% gallbladder cancer cases, 10% in cholelithiasis, and none of the control (χ (2) = 11.111; p < 0.05). Sequencing results revealed seven novel point mutations in GBC cases. These novel mutations were found to be associated with histopathology (p < 0.05) and stage (p < 0.05) of gallbladder cancer. This study reveals several novel individual and repetitive mutations of shh gene in GBC and cholelithiasis samples that may be used as diagnostic markers for gallbladder carcinogenesis.

  13. Trametinib or Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Refractory or Advanced Biliary or Gallbladder Cancer or That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-11

    Adult Cholangiocarcinoma; Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; BCLC Stage C Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; BCLC Stage D Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma; Localized Non-Resectable Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma; Stage II Gallbladder Cancer; Stage III Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IV Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IV Distal Bile Duct Cancer; Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma

  14. Neoplasms in young dogs after perinatal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.; Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Williams, J.S.; Brewster, R.D.; Long, R.I.

    1986-08-01

    For a study of the life-time effects of irradiation during development, 1,680 beagles were given single, whole-body exposures to /sup 60/Co gamma-radiation at one of three prenatal (preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal) or at one of three postnatal (neonatal, juvenile, and young adult) ages. Mean doses were 0, 0.16, or 0.83 Gy. For comparison with data on childhood cancer after prenatal irradiation, examination was made of tumors occurring in young dogs in this life-span experiment. Up to 4 years of age, 18 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed, 2 of these being in controls. Four dogs that were irradiated in the perinatal (late fetal or neonatal) period died of cancers prior to 2 years of age. This risk was of significant increase compared to the risks for other experimental groups and for the canine population in general. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of all cancers and 56% (10 of 18) of all benign and malignant neoplasms seen in the first 4 years of life occurred in 29% (480 of 1680) of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation in dogs.

  15. Malignant neoplasms of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Paxton V; Davidoff, Andrew M

    2006-05-01

    Head and neck masses represent a common clinical entity in children. In general, these masses are classified as developmental, inflammatory, or neoplastic. Having a working knowledge of lesions within this region and conducting a thorough history and physical examination generally enables the clinician to facilitate an appropriate workup and establish a diagnosis. The differential diagnosis is broad, and expeditiously distinguishing benign from malignant masses is critical for instituting a timely multidisciplinary approach to the management of malignant lesions. Neoplasms of the head and neck account for approximately 5% of all childhood malignancies. A diagnosis of malignancy may represent a primary tumor or metastatic foci to cervical nodes. In this review, we discuss the general approach to evaluating suspicious masses and adenopathy in the head and neck region and summarize the most common malignant neoplasms of the head and neck with regard to their incidence, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, staging, and management. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland tumors are discussed elsewhere in this issue of Seminars in Pediatric Surgery.

  16. Fatal intra-abdominal hemorrhage as a result of avulsion of the gallbladder: a postmortem case report

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Akihito; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Haruo; Igari, Yui; Funayama, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Gallbladder injuries are extremely rare in blunt trauma, with a reported incidence of <2%. We report an autopsy case of fatal hemorrhagic shock due to intra-abdominal bleeding resulting from complete avulsion of the gallbladder associated with liver cirrhosis. Multiplanar images derived from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) performed as part of pre-autopsy screening showed complete avulsion of the gallbladder without any other associated intra-abdominal injuries, facilitating forensic autopsy planning. In this report, we discuss the role of MSCT in cases of fatal intra-abdominal bleeding caused by avulsion of the gallbladder and discuss the mechanism of this injury. PMID:23986858

  17. Childhood ovarian neoplasms in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Mustapha Akanji; Aramide, Kolawole Olanrewaju; Ajani, Tinuade Adesola; Salami, Ayodeji A; Okolo, Clement Abu

    2016-01-01

    Childhood ovarian neoplasms are very rare. Little information is available on the relative pattern and frequency of these tumors in Nigerian children. Earlier study done in Ibadan involved ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to review cases of ovarian neoplasms in children <15 years over a 22½ years period. This was a retrospective study. Twenty-four cases of childhood ovarian neoplasms were seen in patients <15 years of age. These cases were classified using the current World Health Organization histological classification of ovarian tumors. Childhood ovarian neoplasms accounted for 2.8% of all cases of ovarian tumors seen in this period. Fourteen (58.3%) cases of childhood ovarian neoplasms were benign, and 10 (41.7%) were malignant. Mature cystic teratoma occurring in 13 (54.2%) was the most common childhood ovarian neoplasm and was most prevalent between 10 and 14 years of age. Burkitt lymphoma was the most common 4 (40%) malignant childhood ovarian tumor and prevalent between 5 and 14 years of age. Mature cystic teratoma remains the single most common childhood ovarian neoplasms, and Burkitt's lymphoma is the most malignant childhood ovarian tumor in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria.

  18. Pathology and genetics of pancreatic neoplasms with acinar differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Laura D; Klimstra, David S

    2014-11-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms with acinar differentiation, including acinar cell carcinoma, pancreatoblastoma, and carcinomas with mixed differentiation, are distinctive pancreatic neoplasms with a poor prognosis. These neoplasms are clinically, pathologically, and genetically unique when compared to other more common pancreatic neoplasms. Most occur in adults, although pancreatoblastomas usually affect children under 10 years old. All of these neoplasms exhibit characteristic histologic features including a solid or acinar growth pattern, dense neoplastic cellularity, uniform nuclei with prominent nucleoli, and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Exocrine enzymes are detectable by immunohistochemistry and, for carcinomas with mixed differentiation, neuroendocrine or ductal lineage markers are also expressed. The genetic alterations of this family of neoplasms largely differ from conventional ductal adenocarcinomas, with only rare mutations in TP53, KRAS, and p16, but no single gene or neoplastic pathway is consistently altered in acinar neoplasms. Instead, there is striking genomic instability, and a subset of cases has mutations in the APC/β-catenin pathway, mutations in SMAD4, RAF gene family fusions, or microsatellite instability. Therapeutically targetable mutations are often present. This review summarizes the clinical and pathologic features of acinar neoplasms and reviews the current molecular data on these uncommon tumors.

  19. Effect of Mutation Order on Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Nangalia, Jyoti; Silber, Yvonne; Wedge, David C.; Grinfeld, Jacob; Baxter, E. Joanna; Massie, Charles E.; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Menon, Suraj; Godfrey, Anna L.; Dimitropoulou, Danai; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles; Döhner, Konstanze; Harrison, Claire N.; Vassiliou, George S.; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Campbell, Peter J.; Green, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cancers result from the accumulation of somatic mutations, and their properties are thought to reflect the sum of these mutations. However, little is known about the effect of the order in which mutations are acquired. METHODS We determined mutation order in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms by genotyping hematopoietic colonies or by means of next-generation sequencing. Stem cells and progenitor cells were isolated to study the effect of mutation order on mature and immature hematopoietic cells. RESULTS The age at which a patient presented with a myeloproliferative neoplasm, acquisition of JAK2 V617F homozygosity, and the balance of immature progenitors were all influenced by mutation order. As compared with patients in whom the TET2 mutation was acquired first (hereafter referred to as “TET2-first patients”), patients in whom the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation was acquired first (“JAK2-first patients”) had a greater likelihood of presenting with polycythemia vera than with essential thrombocythemia, an increased risk of thrombosis, and an increased sensitivity of JAK2-mutant progenitors to ruxolitinib in vitro. Mutation order influenced the proliferative response to JAK2 V617F and the capacity of double-mutant hematopoietic cells and progenitor cells to generate colony-forming cells. Moreover, the hematopoietic stem-and-progenitor-cell compartment was dominated by TET2 single-mutant cells in TET2-first patients but by JAK2–TET2 double-mutant cells in JAK2-first patients. Prior mutation of TET2 altered the transcriptional consequences of JAK2 V617F in a cell-intrinsic manner and prevented JAK2 V617F from up-regulating genes associated with proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The order in which JAK2 and TET2 mutations were acquired influenced clinical features, the response to targeted therapy, the biology of stem and progenitor cells, and clonal evolution in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. (Funded by Leukemia and Lymphoma Research

  20. Expression profiling suggests a regulatory role of gallbladder in lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zuo-Biao; Han, Tian-Quan; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Fei, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Jian; Tian, Zhi-Jie; Shang, Jun; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Cai, Xing-Xing; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Sheng-Dao

    2005-04-14

    To examine expression profile of gallbladder using microarray and to investigate the role of gallbladder in lipid homeostasis. 33P-labelled cDNA derived from total RNA of gallbladder tissue was hybridized to a cDNA array representing 17,000 cDNA clusters. Genes with intensities > or =2 and variation <0.33 between two samples were considered as positive signals with subtraction of background chosen from an area where no cDNA was spotted. The average gray level of two gallbladders was adopted to analyze its bioinformatics. Identified target genes were confirmed by touch-down polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. A total of 11 047 genes expressed in normal gallbladder, which was more than that predicted by another author, and the first 10 genes highly expressed (high gray level in hybridization image), e.g. ARPC5 (2 225.88+/-90.46), LOC55972 (2 220.32+/-446.51) and SLC20A2 (1 865.21+/-98.02), were related to the function of smooth muscle contraction and material transport. Meanwhile, 149 lipid-related genes were expressed in the gallbladder, 89 of which were first identified (with gray level in hybridization image), e.g. FASN (11.42+/-2.62), APOD (92.61+/-8.90) and CYP21A2 (246.11+/-42.36), and they were involved in each step of lipid metabolism pathway. In addition, 19 of those 149 genes were gallstone candidate susceptibility genes (with gray level in hybridization image), e.g. HMGCR (10.98+/-0.31), NPC1 (34.88+/-12.12) and NR1H4 (16.8+/-0.65), which were previously thought to be expressed in the liver and/or intestine tissue only. Gallbladder expresses 11 047 genes and takes part in lipid homeostasis.

  1. Loss of gallbladder interstitial Cajal-like cells in patients with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Artur; Gil, Krzysztof; Matyja, Andrzej; Gajda, Mariusz; Sztefko, Krystyna; Walocha, Jerzy A; Kulig, Jan; Thor, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) play an important role in the regulation of gut motility. There is growing evidence that interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLCs) are present in the gallbladder wall. We hypothesize that changes in the density of ICLCs in the gallbladder wall may lead to the development of cholelithiasis due to the impairment of the gallbladder motility. The purpose of this study was to identify ICLCs in the gallbladders of patients with gallstones and to assess their densities. Data from 30 patients with gallstones and 25 individuals without gallstones were compared. Tissue samples were obtained during surgery, embedded in paraffin, and cut into sections. Following staining for CD117 and mast cell tryptase, the number of ICLCs and mast cells was determined using image analysis. Cells positive for the c-Kit receptor (CD117) were detected in the gallbladder wall in all cases examined. Interstitial Cajal-like cells were most frequently observed in the muscularis propria. The density of ICLCs in the muscularis propria was significantly lower in the patients with gallstones than the density observed in the controls (26.24 ± 10.89 vs 56.29 ± 13.35 cells/mm(2)). In contrast, the number of mast cells in the gallbladder was increased in the patients with gallstones when compared with the controls (143 ± 24 vs 112 ± 19 cells/mm(2)). The histopathological differences observed in this study may help elucidate the pathophysiology of gallstones. Gallbladder motility may be affected by the decreased number of ICLCs in patients with cholelithiasis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Expression and clinicopathological significance of antiapoptotis protein survivin in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Goel, Madhu Mati; Chandra, Abhijit; Gupta, Parul; Kumar, Saket; Nigam, Jaya

    2016-01-01

    Clinical significance of survivin (antiapoptosis protein) in gallbladder cancer is not yet established. This study was performed to assess the expression pattern of survivin in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and to assess its clinicopathological significance. Prospective study from July 2012 to July 2014 was performed as a part of intramural research project. Tissue samples from resected gallbladder for cholelithiasis (n = 27) and carcinoma gallbladder (n= 24) were evaluated for survivin expression by IHC using a scoring system. Their expression was correlated with different clinicopathological parameters. Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, and Chi-square test were used as appropriate for data analysis. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to calculate overall and disease-free survival rates among different groups. Two-sided P< 0.05 was considered as significant. Benign group (19 females, age [mean ± standard deviation [SD] 45 ± 14 years) and malignant group (20 females, age [mean ± SD] 48.9 ± 13.4 years) were comparable with respect to menopausal status, presence, size and types of stones. However, survivin expression was significantly higher (66.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 24-75) in gallbladder cancer than in cholelithiasis group (33%, CI 46-83), P= 0.025). Its expression did not correlate with gender, age, menopausal status, presence of gallstones or their size, number and type, tumor differentiation, and tumor stage. Significantly higher expression of survivin protein in gallbladder cancer as compared to cholelithiasis group suggests its role in gallbladder carcinogenesis though it may not have prognostic value.

  3. Icariin potentiates the antitumor activity of gemcitabine in gallbladder cancer by suppressing NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dian-cai; Liu, Jin-long; Ding, Yong-bin; Xia, Jian-guo; Chen, Guo-yu

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Gemcitabine has been increasingly prescribed for the treatment of gallbladder cancer. However, the response rate is low. The aim of this study is to determine whether icariin, a flavonoid isolated from Epimedi herba, could potentiate the antitumor activity of gemcitabine in gallbladder cancer. Methods: Human gallbladder carcinoma cell lines GBC-SD and SGC-996 were tested. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of apoptosis- and proliferation-related molecules was detected with Western blotting. Caspase-3 activity was analyzed using colorimetric assay, and NF-κB activity was measured with ELISA. A gallbladder cancer xenograft model was established in female BALB/c (nu/nu) mice. The mice were intraperitoneally administered gemcitabine (125 mg/kg) in combination with icariin (40 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. Results: Icariin (40–160 μg/mL) dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both GBC-SD and SGC-996 cells, with SGC-996 cells being less sensitive to the drug. Icariin (40 μg/mL) significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of gemcitabine (0.5 μmol/L) in both GBC-SD and SGC-996 cells. The mice bearing gallbladder cancer xenograft treated with gemcitabine in combination with icariin exhibited significantly smaller tumor size than the mice treated with either drug alone. In GBC-SD cells, icariin significantly inhibited both the constitutive and gemcitabine-induced NF-κB activity, enhanced caspase-3 activity, induced G0-G1 phase arrest, and suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and surviving proteins. Conclusion: Icariin, by suppressing NF-κB activity, exerts antitumor activity, and potentiates the antitumor activity of gemcitabine in gallbladder cancer. Combined administration of gemcitabine and icariin may offer a better therapeutic option for the patients with gallbladder cancer. PMID:23274410

  4. Alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase overexpression in gallbladder carcinoma confers an independent prognostic indicator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ching; Chen, Li-Tzong; Tsai, Yueh-Ju; Lin, Chun-Mao; Lin, Ching-Yih; Tian, Yu-Fang; Sheu, Ming-Juen; Uen, Yih-Huei; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Wang, Yu-Hui; Yang, Shu-Jing; Wu, Wen-Ren; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Iwamuro, Masaya; Kobayasshi, Naoya; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Li, Chien-Feng

    2012-04-01

    Increased β-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids provides an additional metabolic advantage for cancer cells thereby enhancing tumour development and progression. Alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) is an enzyme essential for the catabolism of branched-chain fatty acids that allows their subsequent β-oxidation and thus plays an important role in generating biological energy. However, the expression of AMACR has never been systemically investigated in gallbladder carcinoma. This study evaluated the expression status, associations with clinicopathological variables and prognostic implications of AMACR in a well-defined cohort of gallbladder carcinoma and confirmed their expression status in gallbladder carcinoma cells. AMACR immunostaining was assessable in 89 cases on tissue microarrays of gallbladder carcinoma, and it was correlated with clinicopathological factors and patient survival. In three gallbladder carcinoma cell lines and one non-tumorigenic cholangiocyte, AMACR mRNA expression was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR and the endogenous expression of AMACR protein was analysed by western blotting. AMACR overexpression was significantly associated with an advanced primary tumour status (p=0.027) and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (p=0.027), an increased histological grade (p=0.002) and vascular invasion (p=0.017). Importantly, AMACR overexpression independently predicted worse disease-specific survival (p=0.0452, RR 1.887). Expression levels of AMACR mRNA and total protein in various cells were comparable. The abundance of AMACR expression increased in tumour cells and was even higher in the metastatic cell line. In primary gallbladder carcinoma, AMACR overexpression was correlated with important prognosticators and independently portended worse outcomes, highlighting the potential prognostic and therapeutic utility of AMACR in gallbladder carcinoma.

  5. Zosteriform cutaneous leiomyoma: a rare cutaneous neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Arfan-ul-Bari

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous leiomyomas are firm, round to oval, skin-coloured to brownish papules and nodules that may present as a solitary, few discrete or multiple clustered lesions. Different uncommon patterns of multiple leiomyoma distribution have been noted as bilateral, symmetrical, linear, zosteriform, or dermatomal-like arrangement. One such rare presentation was seen in a 23-year-old patient who presented with zosteriform skin coloured, occasionally painful cutaneous lesions over left shoulder region. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma. He was symptomatically managed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and topical capcicum cream. Case is reported here due to rare occurrence of this benign cutaneous neoplasm in an atypical pattern and on uncommon site.

  6. Colonoscopy Atlas of Colon Polyps and Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shou-Jiang; Sones, James Q

    2016-03-01

    Optical colonoscopy is the gold standard for colon cancer screening and adenoma detection and is the only screening option that can potentially provide therapeutic interventions and adenoma removal during the same session. When other screening strategies generate positive results, currently colonoscopy is the next step for definitive diagnosis and potentially curative therapy. For gastrointestinal endoscopists, the ileocecum is the finishing line during colonoscopy, and it is identified by three endoscopic landmarks: terminal ileum, ileocecal valve, and the appendiceal orifice. Careful and systematic examination should be stressed during endoscopic training and practice. In this pictorial review, the authors demonstrate common colon polyps and neoplasms that can be found during colonoscopy. Our aim is to educate gastroenterologists, endoscopy staff other health care providers, and interested patients on certain colon pathologies and common endoscopic interventions.

  7. Synchronous unilateral parotid neoplasms. A case report.

    PubMed

    Herce-López, Javier; Salazar-Fernández, Clara I; Mayorga-Jiménez, Francisco; Gallana-Alvarez, Silvia; Pérez-Sánchez, Juan M

    2009-02-01

    The parotid gland is the most usual location of benign neoplasms affecting major salivary glands and quite often the recurrence of these tumours is noticed, specially in the case of pleomorphic adenoma. The occurrence of multiple tumours in the parotid glands is rare and the majority of these are multifocal Warthin's tumors (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum). The simultaneous development of tumours with different histological types is unusual and when it occurs, the most common combination is a pleomorphic adenoma and a Warthin's tumor. There are many articles about Multiple Parotid Tumors (MPT) but only a few of them are focused on unilateral synchronous benings tumors, being pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's these tumors. The report describes a 55 year old female with a pleomorphic adenoma occurring synchronously with a Warthin's tumor within the superficial lobe of her left parotid gland.

  8. Cholesteryl esters in human malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tosi, M R; Bottura, G; Lucchi, P; Reggiani, A; Trinchero, A; Tugnoli, V

    2003-01-01

    Cholesteryl esters (CholE) were detected in human malignant neoplasms by means of in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis of the total lipid extracts obtained from cerebral tumors revealed appreciable amount of esterified cholesterol in high grade gliomas such as glioblastomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, characterized by prominent neovascularity. The finding that no CholE were detected in the healthy brain and in low grade and benign tumors supports a possible correlation between this class of lipids and histological vascular proliferation. Compared with high grade gliomas, renal cell carcinomas show higher levels of CholE, absent in the healthy renal parenchyma and in benign oncocytomas. In nefro-carcinomas, cytoplasmic lipid inclusions and prominent vascularization contribute to the increased levels of CholE present mainly as oleate. CholE are discussed as potential biochemical markers of cancer and as a target for new therapeutic strategies.

  9. Hematologic neoplasms: Dendritic cells vaccines in motion.

    PubMed

    Galati, Domenico; Zanotta, Serena

    2017-09-11

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are bone-marrow-derived immune cells accounted for a key role in cancer vaccination as potent antigen-presenting cells within the immune system. Cancer microenvironment can modulate DCs maturation resulting in their accumulation into functional states associated with a reduced antitumor immune response. In this regard, a successful cancer vaccine needs to mount a potent antitumor immune response able to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor milieu. As a consequence, DCs-based approaches are a safe and promising strategy for improving the therapeutic efficacy in hematological malignancies, particularly in combinations with additional treatments. This review summarizes the most significant evidence about the immunotherapeutic strategies performed to target hematologic neoplasms including the tumoral associated antigens (TAA) pulsed on DCs, whole tumor cell vaccines or leukemia-derived DCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of Malignant Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Requena, L

    2017-10-05

    Malignant cutaneous adnexal neoplasms form a group of rare, typically low-grade-malignancy carcinomas with follicular, sebaceous, apocrine, or eccrine differentiation or a combination of the first 3 subtypes. Their clinical presentation is usually unremarkable, and biopsy is required to establish the differentiation subtype and the definitive diagnosis. Due to their rarity, no clear consensus has been reached on which treatment is most effective. Mohs micrographic surgery is considered to be the best option to prevent recurrence in the majority of patients. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been studied in very few cases and have rarely been shown to be effective. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical photodynamic therapy of malignant neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Litwin, Gregory; Astrakhankina, Tamara A.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the results of treatment of 379 malignant neoplasms with PDT in 89 patients has been made. Photogem (hematoporphyrin derivative) and Photosense (aluminum sulfonated derivative) -- both produced in Russia -- were used as photosensitizers. An argon-pumped dye- laser called `Innova 200' (Coherent USA), a Russian dye laser with copper vapor pumping (Yakhroma 2), a gold vapor laser (630 nm and 627.8 nm, accordingly) for Photogem, and a solid aluminate ittrium laser (672 nm) for Photosense were used. Up to now we have had follow-up control of 75 patients for the period of 2 months to 2.5 years. Positive effect of PDT was seen in 90.7% (68 out of 75); including complete regression -39 (52%), partial (50 - 100%), -in 29 (38.7%).

  12. Neoplasms of Anal Canal and Perianal Skin

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Daniel; Beddy, David; Dozois, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Tumors of the anus and perianal skin are rare. Their presentation can vary and often mimics common benign anal pathology, thereby delaying diagnosis and appropriate and timely treatment. The anatomy of this region is complex because it represents the progressive transition from the digestive system to the skin with many different co-existing types of cells and tissues. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is the most frequent tumor found in the anal and perianal region. Less-frequent lesions include Bowen's and Paget's disease, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and adenocarcinoma. This article aims to review the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment options for neoplasms of the anal canal and perianal skin. PMID:22379406

  13. Surgical and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Hackeng, Wenzel M; Hruban, Ralph H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Brosens, Lodewijk A A

    2016-06-07

    Histologic characteristics have proven to be very useful for classifying different types of tumors of the pancreas. As a result, the major tumor types in the pancreas have long been classified based on their microscopic appearance. Recent advances in whole exome sequencing, gene expression profiling, and knowledge of tumorigenic pathways have deepened our understanding of the underlying biology of pancreatic neoplasia. These advances have not only confirmed the traditional histologic classification system, but also opened new doors to early diagnosis and targeted treatment. This review discusses the histopathology, genetic and epigenetic alterations and potential treatment targets of the five major malignant pancreatic tumors - pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm, acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatoblastoma.

  14. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Smedley, R C; Lamoureux, J; Sledge, D G; Kiupel, M

    2011-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of canine oral melanocytic neoplasms is often difficult because of variability in pigmentation and cellular pleomorphism. These neoplasms can resemble carcinomas, sarcomas, and round cell neoplasms, which differ in prognosis and treatment. A variety of immunohistochemical antibodies have been used for diagnosis of melanocytic neoplasms in humans and dogs; however, sensitivity and specificity of many markers have not been determined in amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms in dogs. The authors investigated a comprehensive panel of immunohistochemical markers in 49 canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms--namely, Melan-A, PNL2, HMB-45, microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF), S-100, tyrosine hydroxylase, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2 (TRP-1 and TRP-2), and CD34. Ten well-differentiated cutaneous soft tissue spindle cell sarcomas were negative controls. Melan-A, PNL2, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were highly sensitive and 100% specific for the diagnosis of canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms. S-100 and MiTF showed high sensitivity but were less specific; that is, they also labeled a proportion of the soft tissue spindle cell sarcomas. HMB-45, tyrosinase, and tyrosine hydroxylase were 100% specific but had low sensitivities. CD34 did not label any of the melanocytic neoplasms but did label 80% of the soft tissue spindle cell sarcomas. A cost-effective and efficient immunodiagnostic cocktail containing antibodies against PNL2, Melan-A, TRP-1, and TRP-2 was created that had 100% specificity and 93.9% sensitivity in identifying canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms. The spindloid variant was the variant with the lowest sensitivity to the cocktail. The likelihood of correctly diagnosing canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms was dramatically higher when biopsy samples contained ample overlying and adjacent epithelium.

  15. Study on Salmonella Typhi occurrence in gallbladder of patients suffering from chronic cholelithiasis-a predisposing factor for carcinoma of gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Walawalkar, Yogesh D; Gaind, Rajni; Nayak, Vijayashree

    2013-09-01

    Cholelithiasis is frequently associated with carcinoma of gallbladder, and the presence of Salmonella Typhi in gallbladder of patients suffering from cholelithiasis is implicated as a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis. This study was conducted on patients suffering from chronic cholelithiasis from a region in North India-endemic area for enteric fever with high incidence of gallstones and gallbladder cancer. Since culture studies rarely reveal the chronic Salmonella Typhi persistence, we use PCR assay to specifically amplify the H1-d flagellin gene sequence homologous with Salmonella Typhi. Seven cases (17.5%), none of which were positive for culture, showed positive PCR results for Salmonella Typhi, 4 (10%) of which were tissue, 2 bile (5%), and 1 gallstone (2.5%). The chronic existence of Salmonella Typhi in gallbladder disease was confirmed. Thus, the study would indicate the importance of vaccination so as to prevent chronic infection and need for early diagnostic tools to prevent any further complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidental gallbladder cancer after cholecystectomy: 1990 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Dorobisz, Karolina; Chabowski, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Wiktor; Janczak, Dawid; Patrzałek, Dariusz; Janczak, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer of the gallbladder is a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. According to the literature, 30% of cases are not confirmed before surgery. Other cases are detected incidentally by histopathology. Clinical trials and meta-analyses show that incidental gallbladder cancer (iGBC) occurs in 0.19%–2.8% of patients after cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and severity of iGBC in cholecystectomy procedures performed in the surgical department at the 4th Military Teaching Hospital in Wroclaw during the years 1990–2014. Patients and methods In the years 1990–2014, a total of 7,314 cholecystectomies were performed in the surgical department because of cholecystolithiasis: 6,145 were performed using the laparoscopic approach (84.02%), 867 were performed as open surgery (11.8%), and 302 cases required conversion (5.1%). In this group, 5,214 of the patients were females (71.3%) and 2,100 were males (28.7%), with an average age of 54.7 years. Results We found 64 iGBC cases which were confirmed by histopathology. This represented 0.87% of all cases. In this group, 50 patients were females (78.1%) and 14 were males (21.8%), with an average age of 67.1 years. Of this group, 40 patients underwent a classic cholecystectomy, while 24 underwent laparoscopic procedures, out of which 13 cases ultimately required traditional surgery. The histopathology showed 15 carcinomas that were classified as G1 (23.4%), 28 were G2 (43.75%), and 21 were G3 (32.8%). Conclusion iGBC detected after a cholecystectomy due to cholecystolithiasis is a rare disease. We found iGBC in 0.87% of cases, which is on a comparable scale to the world literature. In the case of cancer, we frequently found it necessary to convert to an open surgical procedure. This cancer is more common in females and in people over 60 years of age. PMID:27540304

  17. Somatic mutations of calreticulin in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Klampfl, Thorsten; Gisslinger, Heinz; Harutyunyan, Ashot S; Nivarthi, Harini; Rumi, Elisa; Milosevic, Jelena D; Them, Nicole C C; Berg, Tiina; Gisslinger, Bettina; Pietra, Daniela; Chen, Doris; Vladimer, Gregory I; Bagienski, Klaudia; Milanesi, Chiara; Casetti, Ilaria Carola; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Elena, Chiara; Schischlik, Fiorella; Cleary, Ciara; Six, Melanie; Schalling, Martin; Schönegger, Andreas; Bock, Christoph; Malcovati, Luca; Pascutto, Cristiana; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Cazzola, Mario; Kralovics, Robert

    2013-12-19

    Approximately 50 to 60% of patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis carry a mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2), and an additional 5 to 10% have activating mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL). So far, no specific molecular marker has been identified in the remaining 30 to 45% of patients. We performed whole-exome sequencing to identify somatically acquired mutations in six patients who had primary myelofibrosis without mutations in JAK2 or MPL. Resequencing of CALR, encoding calreticulin, was then performed in cohorts of patients with myeloid neoplasms. Somatic insertions or deletions in exon 9 of CALR were detected in all patients who underwent whole-exome sequencing. Resequencing in 1107 samples from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms showed that CALR mutations were absent in polycythemia vera. In essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, CALR mutations and JAK2 and MPL mutations were mutually exclusive. Among patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis with nonmutated JAK2 or MPL, CALR mutations were detected in 67% of those with essential thrombocythemia and 88% of those with primary myelofibrosis. A total of 36 types of insertions or deletions were identified that all cause a frameshift to the same alternative reading frame and generate a novel C-terminal peptide in the mutant calreticulin. Overexpression of the most frequent CALR deletion caused cytokine-independent growth in vitro owing to the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) by means of an unknown mechanism. Patients with mutated CALR had a lower risk of thrombosis and longer overall survival than patients with mutated JAK2. Most patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis that was not associated with a JAK2 or MPL alteration carried a somatic mutation in CALR. The clinical course in these patients was more indolent than that in patients with the JAK2 V617F

  18. Incidence of colorectal neoplasms among male pilots

    PubMed Central

    Moshkowitz, Menachem; Toledano, Ohad; Galazan, Lior; Hallak, Aharon; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms (adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers) among Israeli military and commercial airline pilots. METHODS: Initial screening colonoscopy was performed on average-risk (no symptoms and no family history) airline pilots at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center (ICPC) in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Visualized polyps were excised and sent for pathological examination. Advanced adenoma was defined as a lesion >10 mm in diameter, with high-grade dysplasia or villous histology. The results were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched random sample of healthy adults undergoing routine screening at the ICPC. RESULTS: There were 270 pilots (mean age 55.2 ± 7.4 years) and 1150 controls (mean age 55.7 ± 7.8 years). The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was 15.9% among the pilots and 20.6% among the controls (P = 0.097, χ2 test). There were significantly more hyperplastic polyps among pilots (15.5% vs 9.4%, P = 0.004) and a trend towards fewer adenomas (14.8% vs 20.3% P = 0.06). The prevalence of advanced lesions among pilots and control groups was 5.9% and 4.7%, respectively (P = 0.49), and the prevalence of cancer was 0.7% and 0.69%, respectively (P = 0.93). CONCLUSION: There tends to be a lower colorectal adenoma, advanced adenoma and cancer prevalence but a higher hyperplastic polyp prevalence among pilots than the general population. PMID:25083084

  19. Incidence of colorectal neoplasms among male pilots.

    PubMed

    Moshkowitz, Menachem; Toledano, Ohad; Galazan, Lior; Hallak, Aharon; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2014-07-21

    To assess the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms (adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers) among Israeli military and commercial airline pilots. Initial screening colonoscopy was performed on average-risk (no symptoms and no family history) airline pilots at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center (ICPC) in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Visualized polyps were excised and sent for pathological examination. Advanced adenoma was defined as a lesion >10 mm in diameter, with high-grade dysplasia or villous histology. The results were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched random sample of healthy adults undergoing routine screening at the ICPC. There were 270 pilots (mean age 55.2 ± 7.4 years) and 1150 controls (mean age 55.7 ± 7.8 years). The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was 15.9% among the pilots and 20.6% among the controls (P = 0.097, χ (2) test). There were significantly more hyperplastic polyps among pilots (15.5% vs 9.4%, P = 0.004) and a trend towards fewer adenomas (14.8% vs 20.3% P = 0.06). The prevalence of advanced lesions among pilots and control groups was 5.9% and 4.7%, respectively (P = 0.49), and the prevalence of cancer was 0.7% and 0.69%, respectively (P = 0.93). There tends to be a lower colorectal adenoma, advanced adenoma and cancer prevalence but a higher hyperplastic polyp prevalence among pilots than the general population.

  20. Cytogenetically unrelated clones in hematological neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Heim, S; Mitelman, F

    1989-01-01

    We have reviewed literature data on 6,306 cases of hematological neoplasia--acute and chronic lymphatic and myeloid leukemias (CML excepted), myelodysplastic and chronic lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders, and malignant lymphomas--with the goal of quantitatively ascertaining how often cytogenetically unrelated clones occur in these diseases. Unexpectedly wide variations were found: in ANLL, unrelated clones were present in 1.1% of the 2,506 known cases with chromosome abnormalities characterized with banding technique; in the various myelodysplastic (MDS) and chronic myeloproliferative (CMD) disorders (total number of cases 1,299) the frequency was 4.3% and in lymphatic malignancies 1.3% (total case number 2,501). In the latter group the proportions varied between 0.4% and 0.6% in ALL and malignant lymphoma (ML) to as much as 6.2% in CLD and 7.3% in CLL. Some karyotypic abnormalities were encountered more often than would be expected from their general frequency in the various diseases. This discrepancy was particularly evident in MDS and CMD, where 5q- was found in slightly less and +8 in somewhat more than half of the 56 cases. Furthermore, these two aberrations were found as the only changes in the two coexisting clones in one-fourth of the material. Although if viewed in isolation these data would undoubtedly be best explained by assuming a multicellular origin of the neoplasm, it is entirely possible that what are cytogenetically perceived as unrelated clones could be subclones with some invisible aberration in common. If so, this interpretation indicates that changes like +8 and 5q-, both of which are common rearrangements in bone marrow neoplasms, are actually secondary changes that develop during tumor progression.

  1. Increased risk of lymphoid neoplasm in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm: a study of 1,915 patients

    PubMed Central

    Rumi, Elisa; Passamonti, Francesco; Elena, Chiara; Pietra, Daniela; Arcaini, Luca; Astori, Cesare; Zibellini, Silvia; Boveri, Emanuela; Pascutto, Cristiana; Lazzarino, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Within a cohort of 1,915 consecutive patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm followed for a median time of 5.2 years (range 0–33.3), we investigated the occurrence of lymphoid neoplasm with the aim of defining this risk and to investigate the role of genetic predisposing factors. We identified 22 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm who developed lymphoid neoplasm over their lifetime. We found that the risk of developing lymphoid neoplasm was 2.79-fold higher (95% CI, 1.80–4.33; P<0.001) than that of the general Italian population. A tag SNP surrogate for JAK2 GGCC haplotype was used to clarify a potential correlation between lymphoid-myeloid neoplasm occurrence and this genetic predisposing factor. As we did not find any difference in GGCC haplotype frequency between patients with both myeloid and lymphoid neoplasm and patients with myeloid neoplasm, JAK2 GGCC haplotype should not be considered a genetic predisposing factor. No difference in familial clustering was observed between the two groups. PMID:21109692

  2. DNA synthesis, cell proliferation index in normal and abnormal gallbladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lamote, J; Willems, G

    1997-09-15

    The observation of mitotic figures in the epithelium of the normal gallbladder is exceptional because cell renewal is occurring at a very slow rate. It is only after using 3H-thymidine and autoradiography to observe the cells in DNA synthesis that evidence of a significant epithelial cell replication has been provided. Because numerous mitotic figures and increased 3H-thymidine uptake have been observed after intraluminal introduction of foreign bodies or after ligation of the common bile duct in animals, mechanical distension has been supposed to represent an important trigger factor of cell proliferation in this hollow organ. An increased epithelial cell renewal was also observed in human gallbladders of patients with a complete obstruction of the common bile duct causing the distension. However, the absence of correlation between the degree of gallbladder distension and the proliferative response was suggesting that factors other than distension could be involved. In studies on experimental lithiasis cell proliferation appeared to be enhanced in the gallbladder epithelium of mice fed on a cholesterol-cholic acid-rich lithogenic diet. The fact that the increase in proliferative activity was preceding the formation of gallstones was another indication that factors other than mechanical stimulation by stretching or by the stones may stimulate cell renewal in this organ. Factors in the bile of animals receiving a lithogenic diet could be involved which might cause cellular death and, hence, a regenerative reaction. Direct mitogenic effect of an unknown factor in the bile of these animals is an alternative possibility. On the other hand the stimulating effect of postprandial hormones on gallbladder cell renewal suggested by the observation of a DNA synthesis peak after feeding has been established. Synthetic cholecystokinin analogues have been shown to increase the proliferative activity and to induce epithelial hyperplasia in this organ. In one recent study using

  3. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions--15 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Matłok, Maciej; Migaczewski, Marcin; Major, Piotr; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Budzyński, Piotr; Winiarski, Marek; Ostachowski, Mateusz; Budzyński, Andrzej; Rembiasz, Kazimierz

    2013-11-01

    Due to the constant increase of public health awareness and widespread "cancerophobia", the progressively larger number of incidentally diagnosed gall-bladder polyps became the source of anxiety, which leads patients and physicians to undertake therapeutic decisions, despite the absence of symptoms. The majority of gall-bladder polyps are benign. It is estimated that only 3 to 5% of polyps are malignant. Currently, there is lack of randomized control trials based on which the clear-cut criteria of qualification of patients with gall-bladder polyps for surgical procedure can be created. The aim of the study was to analyze gall-bladder polyps in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum. The retrospective study was conducted on 5369 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum with special attention to 152 (2.8%) patients in whom gall-bladder polyps were diagnosed preoperatively. Qualification criteria for surgery, surgical treatment results, and histopathological examination results were also analyzed. Amongst the 5369 patients qualified for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 152 (2.8%) were diagnosed with gall-bladder polyps during the preoperative ultrasound examinations. Postoperative histopathological examinations of 41 (27%) patients confirmed the presence of gall-bladder polyps. In 102 (67%) patients, only gall-stones were diagnosed without previously described polyps during the ultrasound examination. Analysis of the histopathological examination results revealed the presence of benign lesions in 35 (23.35%) patients. In 5 (3%) patients the presence of an adenoma, and in one (0.65%) the presence of adenocarcinoma were confirmed. Based on the conducted study and previous personal experience in the treatment of patients with gall-bladder polyps, we believe that due to the potential

  4. Brush cells of rodent gallbladder and stomach epithelia express neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Liliana; Groos, Stephanie; Reale, Enrico

    2003-02-01

    It has been suggested that brush cells (BCs), a distinct type of cell occurring in various epithelia of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, may function as receptor cells. The major characteristics of BCs are a prominent brush border and an unusually highly ordered arrangement of cytoskeletal elements (F-actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments). In this study we aimed to characterize the nature of the intermediate filaments in BCs by light and electron microscopic immunostaining. Gallbladder and stomach specimens from mice and rats, respectively, were fixed in various solutions, embedded either in paraffin or epoxy resin, and processed for immunodetection. Commercially available, well-characterized antibodies against neurofilaments, peripherin, and cytokeratin peptide 18 were used. The polyclonal antiserum cocktail to neurofilaments was applied as a supplement in a double-labeling procedure with anti-actin and anti-cytokeratin 18 antibodies. The results demonstrate that the BCs of both organs express two types of intermediate filaments, i.e., neurofilaments and cytokeratin 18 filaments, and that these have a compartmentalized distribution in the cytoplasm. BCs do not express peripherin. The immunodetection of intermediate filaments distinctive for mature neurons in BCs supports their putative receptor function. The co-expression of neurofilaments and cytokeratins is shown for the first time in healthy tissues.

  5. Role of CD151 expression in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Noriko; Morine, Yuji; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Imura, Satoru; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Arakawa, Yusuke; Iwahashi, Shuichi; Saito, Yu; Yamada, Shiniciro; Ishikawa, Daichi; Takasu, Chie; Miyake, Hidenori; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2014-11-01

    CD151 is a member of the tetraspanin family, which interacts with laminin-binding integrins and other tetraspanins. CD151 is involved in several pathologic activities associated with tumor progression, including metastasis and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical use of CD151 expression in gallbladder cancer (GBC). Forty-five patients with GBC who had undergone operative treatment were enrolled in this study. Expressions of CD151 in the resected GBC specimens were evaluated with anti-CD151 antibody. The patients were divided into positive and negative groups according to CD151 expression: CD151-positive group (n = 26) and CD151-negative group (n = 19). Clinicopathologic factors, including Ki-67 and matrix metallopeptidase 9, also were compared between the two groups. CD151-positive expression was 58% and correlated with poorer prognosis; 5-year survival of CD151-positive and CD151-negative groups was 29% and 78%, respectively (P = .006). CD151 expression also correlated with lymphatic invasion and curability. Multivariate analysis revealed that CD151-positive expression was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio 2.97, P = .02). In addition, CD151 expression correlated with matrix metallopeptidase 9 expression (P < .05) but not with Ki67 expression. Those findings suggested that CD151-positive expression might be a potential prognostic indicator and one of the target molecules for the regulation of tumor metastasis for patients with GBC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle Ca2+ homeostasis by acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Morales, Sara; Camello-Almaraz, Cristina; Moreno, Rosario; Pozo, María J; Camello, Pedro J

    2006-01-01

    Impaired smooth muscle contractility is a hallmark of acute acalculous cholecystitis. Although free cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) is a critical step in smooth muscle contraction, possible alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis by cholecystitis have not been elucidated. Our aim was to elucidate changes in the Ca2+ signaling pathways induced by this gallbladder dysfunction. [Ca2+]i was determined by epifluorescence microscopy in fura 2-loaded isolated gallbladder smooth muscle cells, and isometric tension was recorded from gallbladder muscle strips. F-actin content was quantified by confocal microscopy. Ca2+ responses to the inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) mobilizing agonist CCK and to caffeine, an activator of the ryanodine receptors, were impaired in cholecystitic cells. This impairment was not the result of a decrease in the size of the releasable pool. Inflammation also inhibited Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels and capacitative Ca2+ entry induced by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ pools. In addition, the pharmacological phenotype of these channels was altered in cholecystitic cells. Inflammation impaired contractility further than Ca2+ signal attenuation, which could be related to the decrease in F-actin that was detected in cholecystitic smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate that cholecystitis decreases both Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx in gallbladder smooth muscle, but a loss in the sensitivity of the contractile machinery to Ca2+ may also be responsible for the impairment in gallbladder contractility.

  7. [Chemical ablation of the gallbladder with sodium hypochlorite in an animal model].

    PubMed

    Jover Clos, Rafael J; Álamo, Juan P; Matsuzaki, Mónica; Dionisio de Caballier, Maria E; Bustos, Héctor F; Gramatica, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The cholecystectomy is the current treatment of the biliary lithiasis. Nevertheless there have been attempts in order to eliminate the gallbladder epithelium and to generate the sclerosis of the organ using chemical substances, heat and laser. Sodium hypochlorite and fibrin glue is proposed to achieve the ablation of the gallbladder mucosa and sclerosis. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups of 10. Accessing surgically to the gallbladder, sodium hypochlorite was injected, afterward the same was done with fibrin glue to occlude the cystic duct and collapse the organ lumen, avoiding the bile reflux. In the control groups ethanol plus fibrin adhesive and physiological solution was used. In day 65 the animals were sacrificed and the result of the procedure was observed macroscopic and histologically. Eight of the gallbladders treated with sodium hypochlorite disappeared leaving a small subhepatic scar. There were no intra nor postoperative complications. In the group of the ethanol the result was successful only in one case, and with saline solution there was no ablation. A significant difference exists for the group treated with sodium hypochlorite plus fibrin glue compared to the ethanol plus fibrin adhesive group (p <0,0055) and the saline solution group (p <0,0007). In this experimental model there was possible the ablation of the gallbladder using sodium hypochlorite as sclerosing agent and fibrin glue to collapse the lumen and to occlude the cystic duct.

  8. Optical diagnosis of gallbladder cancers via two-photon excited fluorescence imaging of unstained histological sections.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhipeng; Chen, Youting; Chen, Jing; Chen, Hong; Xu, Yahao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Shi, Zheng; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy, based on signal from cells, can provide detailed information on tissue architecture and cellular morphology in unstained histological sections to generate subcellular-resolution images from tissue directly. In this paper, we used TPEF microscopy to image microstructure of human normal gallbladder and three types of differentiated carcinomas in order to investigate the morphological changes of tissue structure, cell, cytoplasm, and nucleus without hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. It displayed that TPEF microscopy can well image the stratified normal gallbladder tissue, including the mucosa, the muscularis, and the serosa. The typical cancer cell, characterized by cellular and nuclear pleomorphism, enlarged nuclei, and augmented nucleolus, can be identified in histological sections without H-E staining as well. The quantitative results showed that the areas of the nucleus and the nucleolus in three types of cancerous cells were all significantly greater than those in normal gallbladder columnar epithelial cells derived from TPEF microscopic images. The studies demonstrated that TPEF microscopy has the ability to characterize tissue structures and cell morphology of gallbladder cancers differentiated from a normal gallbladder in a manner similar to traditional histological analysis. As a novel tool, it has the potential for future retrospective studies of tumor staging and migration by utilizing histological section specimens without H-E staining.

  9. Metachromatic leukodystrophy and its effects on the gallbladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul M; Byrd, Robert; Hicks, John

    2011-12-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of arylsulfatase A enzyme. This deficiency leads to accumulation of sulfatides in the central nervous system and other organs, such as the gallbladder. Here the authors discuss a 9-year-old Middle Eastern patient with late-infantile-type MLD who presented with symptoms of cholecystitis. Radiographic studies revealed an enlarged gallbladder with a thickened wall and a pericholecystic fluid collection with peripheral calcifications. Gross examination of the gallbladder showed multiple small to medium-sized papillary projections involving the entire mucosal surface. Sections through the gallbladder wall revealed multilocular dilated mucin-producing cystic spaces. Microscopically, the mucosa showed numerous papillary projections with complex folds lined by mucin-producing cuboidal to tall columnar cells. The cystic spaces were composed of numerous markedly distended Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses filled with mucin. Ultrastructurally, the epithelial cells and macrophages showed frequent secondary lysosomes containing closely packed lamellar amorphous to prismatic material with alternating leaflets and tubules, imparting a "herringbone" or "tuffstone" pattern. This case illustrates the features of gallbladder involvement in MLD and the potential role of ultrastructural examination in diagnosis of MLD.

  10. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gallbladder Cancer in a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Giovannucci, Edward L; Wolk, Alicja

    2017-03-01

    Evidence indicates that coffee consumption may reduce the risk of gallstone disease, which is strongly associated with increased risk of gallbladder cancer. The association between coffee consumption and gallbladder cancer incidence was examined in a prospective cohort study of 72 680 Swedish adults (aged 45 - 83 years) who were free of cancer and reported their coffee consumption at baseline. Gallbladder cancers were ascertained by linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register. The data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Statistical tests were two-sided. During 967 377 person-years of follow-up, 74 gallbladder cancer case patients were identified. Compared with consumption of one or less cups of coffee per day, the multivariable hazard ratios were 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41 to 1.41) for two cups per day, 0.50 (95% CI = 0.24 to 1.06) for three cups per day, and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.20 to 0.83) for four or more cups per day. In conclusion, coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of gallbladder cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Pharmacological characterization of cholecystokinin receptors mediating contraction of human gallbladder and ascending colon.

    PubMed

    Morton, M F; Welsh, N J; Tavares, I A; Shankley, N P

    2002-04-15

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) produces contractions of gallbladder and colon in a number of different species. Although the effects of CCK on the human gallbladder are relatively well documented, the CCK receptors in the human colon have not been clearly characterised. Therefore, in this study, the CCK receptors in the human gallbladder and colon were compared using pharmacological techniques. Contraction of specimens of the human tissue was measured using in vitro organ bath bioassay. The effect of selective concentrations of CCK(1) and CCK(2) receptor antagonists (L-364,718 and JB93182, respectively) was determined on agonist concentration-effect (E/[A]) curves obtained by cumulative dosing with sulphated CCK. The CCK(1) antagonist L-364,718 produced a rightward shift of the CCK-8S [E/[A] curve in the human gallbladder (pA(2)=9.15 +/- 0.26) and ascending colon (pA(2)=9.20 +/- .33). In both tissues, the CCK(2) receptor antagonist, JB93182, had no effect on the CCK E/[A] curves. In addition, in the colon, pentagastrin responses were inhibited by L-364,718 but unaffected by JB93182. These data indicate that the CCK-induced contraction of the human colon and gallbladder smooth muscle is mediated solely through the CCK(1) receptor subtype, and the antagonist affinity estimates are consistent with those previously obtained in experiments on animal tissue.

  12. [Vasculogenic mimicry in human primary gallbladder carcinoma and clinical significance thereof].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yue-zu; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Wen-zhong; Ge, Chun-yan

    2007-01-16

    To investigate if there is vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in human primary gallbladder carcinoma and clinical significance thereof. Seventy-four specimens of primary gallbladder carcinoma obtained from operation underwent HE staining and double staining of CD(31) and PAS to observe the existence of VM. The correlation of pathological examination and clinical outcomes was analyzed. VM was seen in 10 of the 74 (13.5%) specimens. VM was not correlated with age, sex, location, diameter, differentiation degree, Nevin stage, and invasion depth of tumor, and existence of lymph node metastasis; but was associated with histological type (chi(2) = 10.241, P = 0.017), hepatic metastasis (chi(2) = 11.904, P = 0.01), and poor overall survival (chi(2) = 5.771, P = 0.016). Cox analysis showed that existence of VM, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, hepatic metastasis, and operational method were independent risk factors of the prognosis of primary gallbladder carcinoma. VM exists in human primary gallbladder carcinoma. Those cases of human primary gallbladder carcinoma with VM have a poorer prognosis.

  13. Modern perspectives on factors predisposing to the development of gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Charles H C; Groeschl, Ryan T; Christians, Kathleen K; Gamblin, T Clark

    2013-01-01

    Background Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare malignancy, yet certain groups are at higher risk. Knowledge of predisposing factors may facilitate earlier diagnosis by enabling targeted investigations into otherwise non-specific presenting signs and symptoms. Detecting GBC in its initial stages offers patients their best chance of cure. Methods PubMed was searched for recent articles (2008–2012) on the topic of risk factors for GBC. Of 1490 initial entries, 32 manuscripts reporting on risk factors for GBC were included in this review. Results New molecular perspectives on cholesterol cycling, hormonal factors and bacterial infection provide fresh insights into the established risk factors of gallstones, female gender and geographic locality. The significance of polyps in predisposing to GBC is probably overstated given the known dysplasia–carcinoma and adenoma–carcinoma sequences active in this disease. Bacteria such as Salmonella species may contribute to regional variations in disease prevalence and might represent powerful targets of therapy to reduce incidences in high-risk areas. Traditional risk factors such as porcelain gallbladder, Mirizzi's syndrome and bile reflux remain important as predisposing factors. Conclusions Subcentimetre gallbladder polyps rarely become cancerous. Because gallbladder wall thickening is often the first sign of malignancy, all gallbladder imaging should be scrutinized carefully for this feature. PMID:23458506

  14. The Effects of Ginger on Gallbladder Motility in Healthy Male Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Tai, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chi-Sin

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Ginger has been used to treat a number of diseases including those affecting the digestive tract. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of ginger on gallbladder volume and gastrointestinal sensation in healthy male subjects. Methods Nineteen healthy male volunteers (age 21.3 ± 3.9 years, body mass index 21.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) were studied on 2 occasions in a double blind randomized crossover design. After ingesting ginger (1,200 mg) or placebo capsules (starch), abdominal ultrasound was used to measure the gallbladder volume (calculated from gallbladder width, depth and diameter) and ejection fraction following a standard test meal. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also recorded at regular intervals by visual analogue scales. Results There were no differences in gallbladder volume or ejection fraction between ginger and placebo. Abdominal symptoms of bloating, fullness, nausea, discomfort and hunger was not different between the 2 occasions. Conclusions Ginger (1,200 mg) may not affect gallbladder ejection fraction and possible relevant abdominal symptoms in healthy male human subjects. PMID:22148111

  15. The enteric nervous system in patients with calculous and acalculous gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Del Sordo, Rachele; Salemme, Marianna; Cadei, Moris; Sidoni, Angelo; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2016-07-01

    It is generally thought that gallbladder motility plays a more or less important role in the pathogenesis of gallstones. Some studies have shown that some abnormalities of its intrinsic innervations, but these studies were usually limited to one cell component. We investigated the main cell components of gallbladder intrinsic innervation in patients with and without gallstones. Archival gallbladder specimens from 39 patients, 27 with gallstones (age range 45-69 yrs) and 12 patients without gallstones (age range 39-71 yrs) were obtained. Full thickness sections were obtained from the gallbladder neck and immunohistochemistry was carried out for enteric neurons (neuron-specific enolase and calretinin), enteric glia (S100) and interstitial cells of Cajal (CD117 and CD34); tryptase staining was also done to distinguish the latter from mast cells. Apart from calretinin-positive neurons, patients with gallstones featured a significant decrease of neurons, enteric glial cells (EGC) and mast cells compared to those without gallstones; interstitial cells of Cajal were extremely few and only found in two patients, one for each group. The intrinsic innervations of the gallbladder is abnormal in gallstone patients, and this may contribute to gallstone formation in these subjects. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of cholescintigraphy in demonstrating delayed post prandial gallbladder motility in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ruirui; Wang, Huiji; Li, Chunlin; Yang, Jigang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the postprandial gallbladder motility of cirrhotic patients using cholescintigraphy by technetium-99m-ethylhydroiminodiacetic acid ((99m)Tc-EHIDA). Sixty two cirrhotic patients (Child-Pugh A: 28 patients; Child-Pugh B: 21 and Child-Pugh C: 13 patients) and 24 normal subjects were included in this study. All patients underwent cholescintigraphy. Mean gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) and mean ejection period (EP) were acquired by the region of interest method. In order to evaluate gallbladder contractility of cirrhotic patients, their mean GBEF and EP were compared with the same tests of normal subjects using an independent sample t test. The mean GBEF of cirrhotic patients was lower and their mean ER was longer than that of normal subjects. The means of GBEF and EP of cirrhotic patients were different among different Child-Pugh grade groups. All these differences showed statistical significance. This study suggests that post prandial cholescintigraphy by (99m)Tc EHIDA demonstrated slower gallbladder motility in cirrhotic patients. The ejection period of cholescintigraphy by (99m)Tc-EHIDA can be used as an index of abnormal gallbladder motility.

  17. High dietary carbohydrates decrease gallbladder volume and enhance cholesterol crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Abhishek; Megan, Marine; Al-Azzawi, Hayder H; Lu, Debao; Swartz-Basile, Deborah A; Nakeeb, Attila; Pitt, Henry A

    2007-05-01

    Animal and human data suggest that a diet high in refined carbohydrates leads to gallstone formation. However, no data are available on the role of dietary carbohydrates on gallbladder volume or on cholesterol crystal formation. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a high carbohydrate diet would alter gallbladder volume and enhance cholesterol crystal formation. At 8 weeks of age, 60 lean and 36 obese leptin-deficient female mice were fed a 45% carbohydrate diet while an equal number of lean and obese mice were fed a 75% carbohydrate diet for 4 weeks. All animals then underwent cholecystectomy, and gallbladder bile volume was recorded. Bile was pooled, filtered, and maintained in a water bath at 37 degrees C for 14 days. Birefringent cholesterol crystals in bile were counted daily; crystal observation time and crystal mass were determined. The crystal observation time was significantly shortened in both lean and obese mice on the 75% diet compared with their counterparts on the 45% diet. The crystal mass was significantly increased in the lean mice on the 75% diet compared with the 45% diet. Gallbladder volumes were significantly reduced in both lean and obese mice on the 75% diet compared with their counterparts on the 45% diet. These data suggest that a high carbohydrate diet decreases gallbladder volume, shortens cholesterol crystal observation time, and increases crystal mass. We conclude that dietary carbohydrates may play a role in cholesterol gallstone formation by altering biliary motility and by enhancing crystal formation.

  18. Risk factors for gallbladder contractility after cholecystolithotomy in elderly high-risk surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Luo, Hao; Yan, Hong-tao; Zhang, Guo-hu; Liu, Wei-hui; Tang, Li-jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cholecystolithiasis is a common disease in the elderly patient. The routine therapy is open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In the previous study, we designed a minimally invasive cholecystolithotomy based on percutaneous cholecystostomy combined with a choledochoscope (PCCLC) under local anesthesia. Methods To investigate the effect of PCCLC on the gallbladder contractility function, PCCLC and laparoscope combined with a choledochoscope were compared in this study. Results The preoperational age and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, as well as postoperational lithotrity rate and common biliary duct stone rate in the PCCLC group, were significantly higher than the choledochoscope group. However, the pre- and postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction was not significantly different. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that the preoperational thickness of gallbladder wall (odds ratio [OR]: 0.540; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.317–0.920; P=0.023) and lithotrity (OR: 0.150; 95% CI: 0.023–0.965; P=0.046) were risk factors for postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.714 (P=0.016; 95% CI: 0.553–0.854). Conclusion PCCLC strategy should be carried out cautiously. First, restricted by the diameter of the drainage tube, the PCCLC should be used only for small gallstones in high-risk surgical patients. Second, the usage of lithotrity should be strictly limited to avoid undermining the gallbladder contractility and increasing the risk of secondary common bile duct stones. PMID:28138229

  19. Topics in histopathology of sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ansai, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews several topics regarding sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms. First, the clinicopathological characteristics of poroid neoplasms are summarized. It was recently reported that one-fourth of poroid neoplasms are composite tumors and one-fourth are apocrine type lesions. Recent progress in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of sweat gland neoplasms is also reviewed. CD117 can help to distinguish sweat gland or sebaceous tumors from other non-Merkel cell epithelial tumors of the skin. For immunohistochemical differential diagnosis between sweat gland carcinoma (SGC) other than primary cutanesous apocrine carcinoma and skin metastasis of breast carcinoma (SMBC), a panel of antibodies may be useful, including p63 (SGC(+) , SMBC(-) ), CK5/6 (SGC(+) , SMBC(-) ), podoplanin (SGC(+) , SMBC(-) ) and mammaglobin (SGC(-) , SMBC(+) ). Comparison of antibodies used for immunohistochemical diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma (SC) suggests that adipophilin has the highest sensitivity and specificity. Some authors have found that immunostaining for survivin, androgen receptor and ZEB2/SIP1 has prognostic value for ocular SC, but not extraocular SC. In situ SC is rare, especially extraocular SC, but there have been several recent reports that actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease are the source of invasive SC. Finally, based on recent reports, classification of sebaceous neoplasms into three categories is proposed, which are sebaceoma (a benign neoplasm with well-defined architecture and no atypia), borderline sebaceous neoplasm (low-grade SC; an intermediate tumor with well-defined architecture and nuclear atypia) and SC (a malignant tumor with invasive growth and evident nuclear atypia).

  20. Claudin-7-positive synchronous spontaneous intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma and adenomas of the gallbladder in a Bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Szabó, Zoltán; Gálfi, Péter; Marosán, Miklós; Kulka, Janina; Gál, János

    2011-03-01

    In this study, synchronous spontaneous, independent liver and gallbladder tumours were detected in a Bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). The multiple tumours consisted of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma as well as in situ adenocarcinoma and two adenomas of the gallbladder. The biliary epithelial cells and the cholangiocarcinoma showed membranous cross-immunoreactivity for claudin-7. The gallbladder epithelial cells, its adenoma and adenocarcinoma showed basolateral cross-reactivity for claudin-7. We think that the humanised anti-claudin-7 antibody is a good marker for the detection of different primary cholangiocellular and gallbladder tumours in Bearded dragons. The cholangiocytes, the cholangiocarcinoma, the endothelial cells of the liver and the epithelial cells and gallbladder tumours all showed claudin-5 cross-reactivity. The humanised anti-cytokeratin AE1-AE3 antibody showed cross-reactivity in the biliary epithelial cells, cholangiocarcinoma cells, epithelial cells and tumour cells of the gallbladder. It seems that this humanised antibody is a useful epithelial marker for the different neoplastic lesions of epithelial cells in reptiles. The humanised anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibody showed intense cross-reactivity in the smooth muscle cells of the hepatic vessels and in the muscle layer of the gallbladder. The portal myofibroblasts, the endothelial cells of the sinusoids and the stromal cells of the cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder tumours were positive for α-SMA. The antibovine anti-vimentin and humanised anti-Ki-67 antibodies did not show crossreactivity in the different samples from the Bearded dragon.

  1. Preoperative ultrasonographic assessment of the number and size of gallbladder stones: is it a useful predictor of asymptomatic choledochal lithiasis?

    PubMed

    Costi, Renato; Sarli, Leopoldo; Caruso, Giuseppe; Iusco, Domenico; Gobbi, Sara; Violi, Vincenzo; Roncoroni, Luigi

    2002-09-01

    To evaluate whether preoperative ultrasonographic assessment of the number and size of gallbladder stones can identify patients at increased risk of having asymptomatic common bile duct stones. Ultrasonographic data for 300 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were analyzed. Patients were divided into a group in which multiple small (< or = 5 mm) or multiple variably sized (both < or = 5 and > 5 mm) gallbladder stones were present ("positive" stones) and a group with multiple large (> 5 mm) or single gallbladder stones, considered "negative." The ultrasonographic description was compared with surgical findings; finally, the prevalence of asymptomatic common bile duct stones in the 2 groups was compared. Ultrasonographic classification of gallbladder stones was confirmed at surgery in 285 cases (95%). Asymptomatic common bile duct stones were diagnosed in 9.5% of patients with an ultrasonographic diagnosis of positive gallbladder stones and in only 2.3% of patients with a diagnosis of negative gallbladder stones (P < .05). Ultrasonography is able to accurately show gallbladder stones; the appearance of multiple small and variably sized gallbladder stones represent a risk factor for synchronous asymptomatic common bile duct stones.

  2. TG18 management strategies for gallbladder drainage in patients with acute cholecystitis: Updated Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (with videos).

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasuhisa; Itoi, Takao; Baron, Todd H; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M; Pitt, Henry A; Ukai, Tomohiko; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Asbun, Horacio J; Endo, Itaru; Yokoe, Masamichi; Miura, Fumihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Wakabayashi, Go; Han, Ho-Seong; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Chen, Miin-Fu; Garden, O James; Singh, Harjit; Liau, Kui-Hin; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Gouma, Dirk Joan; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Windsor, John Albert; Lau, Wan Yee; Cherqui, Daniel; Jagannath, Palepu; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Deziel, Daniel J; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Jonas, Eduard C; Padbury, Robert; Mukai, Shuntaro; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; Asai, Koji; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Hirata, Koichi; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2017-09-09

    Since the publication of the Tokyo Guidelines in 2007 and their revision in 2013, appropriate management for acute cholecystitis has been more clearly established. Since the last revision, several manuscripts, especially for alternative endoscopic techniques, have been reported; therefore, additional evaluation and refinement of the 2013 Guidelines is required. We describe a standard drainage method for surgically high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis and the latest developed endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques described in the updated Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18). Our study confirmed that percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage should be considered the first alternative to surgical intervention in surgically high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Also, endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage or endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage can be considered in high-volume institutes by skilled endoscopists. In the endoscopic transpapillary approach, either endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage or gallbladder stenting can be considered for gallbladder drainage. We also introduce special techniques and the latest outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.C.; Lichtenstein, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Oertel, J.E.; Dachman, A.H.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1985-02-01

    Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas is an uncommon low grade malignant tumor histologically distinct from the usual ductal adenocarcinoma and amenable to cure by surgical excision. It tends to occur in black women in their second or third decade of life and has often been misclassified as nonfunctional islet cell tumor or as cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Twelve cases were reviewed. Sonography and CT of solid and pipillary epithelial neoplasms depict a well-demarcated mass that can be solid, mixed cystic and solid, or largely cystic. The radiologic appearance is dependent on the maintenance of the integrity of the neoplasm versus the extent of retrogressive changes that have occurred.

  4. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman Oneil; al Qadhi, Hani; al Wahibi, Khalifa

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN) and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN). The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of size ≥10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as “worrisome features.” Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The understanding of

  5. Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adsay, N V; Adair, C F; Heffess, C S; Klimstra, D S

    1996-08-01

    We describe the clinical and pathologic features of 11 intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas, a hitherto unrecognized tumor. The patients were six men and five women, and most of the tumors were in the head (head: body/tail = 8:3). The mean patient age was 62 (range, 39-78), and the average tumor size was 6 cm. Grossly the tumors exhibited mucin-filled cysts containing nodular papillary projections. Dilated ducts communicating with the main tumor were sometimes noted. Microscopically the cystic structures appeared to represent dilated ducts containing intraductal tumor. The tumors were characterized by variably complex, arborizing papillary structures. The papillae had thin, delicate fibrovascular cores with focal myxoid changes and were lined by stratified oncocytic cells. Goblet cells and intra-epithelial mucin-containing lumina were present, the latter resulting in a characteristic cribriform pattern. The exuberance of the epithelial proliferation varied from case to case and between different regions within individual tumors; solid sheets of cells were often identified. Although the degree of cytologic atypia was not generally severe, the complexity of the architecture justified a designation of intraductal oncocytic papillary carcinoma in 10 of the 11 cases. In nine cases the tumor was entirely intraductal; one case exhibited focal microinvasion and another showed widespread invasive carcinoma, the invasive elements appearing cytologically similar to the intraductal papillary components. The oncocytic cells stained positively with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin and Novelli stains. Immunohistochemically, all cases stained positively for B72.3, and five cases showed focal, weak luminal membrane staining for carcinoembryonic antigen. Ultrastructurally many of the cells were packed with mitochondria, and mucin was also identified. Seven patients were alive and free of tumor from 1 month to 3 years (average, 1 year) after resection. Two

  6. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Justin L, Regner Angela, Lomas

    2016-03-25

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics and scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet.

  7. Undifferentiated carcinoma of the gallbladder with endothelial differentiation: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Yoshitaka; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Wakahara, Takashi; Akimoto, Harutoshi; Yanagie, Hironobu; Harigaya, Kenichi; Yasuhara, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Undifferentiated carcinoma of the gallbladder is a rare cancer type with a poor prognosis. The present study described a case of undifferentiated gallbladder carcinoma of the spindle- and giant-cell type, according to the 2010 World Health Organization classification. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that the tumor consisted of dense interlacing bundles of spindle-shaped cells. No evidence of cartilaginous, osseous or rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation was observed. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that spindle- and polygonal-shaped cells of the undifferentiated carcinoma were positive for cytokeratin AE1/3, vimentin and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, numerous spindle-shaped cells were positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)34 and CD31, and certain spindle-shaped cells were positive for Factor VIII. These results suggested classification of the present case as ‘undifferentiated gallbladder carcinoma with endothelial differentiation’. PMID:28101355

  8. Role of sincalide cholescintigraphy in the evaluation of patients with acalculus gallbladder disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pickleman, J.; Peiss, R.L.; Henkin, R.; Salo, B.; Nagel, P.

    1985-06-01

    Thirty-six patients with biliary colic and normal oral cholecystograms, upper gastrointestinal tract roentgenograms, and results of gallbladder ultrasonography underwent sincalide-stimulated biliary excretion scanning. Nineteen of these patients subsequently underwent cholecystectomies. Gallbladder ejection fractions (EFs) ranged from 0% to 88% (mean, 38%) and nine of 19 patients had exact pain reproduction with sincalide. All patients except one (EF, 35%) were cured of their symptoms. However, five patients were also cured who had a normal EF (greater than 50%). Histologically, 11 gallbladders showed chronic cholecystitis and eight were normal. The authors conclude that the sincalide biliary excretion scan is a useful test to study this group of patients. In patients with a decreased EF, cholecystectomy can be recommended with a high probability of symptom relief. In patients with normal EFs, clinical judgment is required, as some of these patients (five of five in this series) may still benefit from operation.

  9. DNA promoter methylation as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker in gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is an infrequent neoplasia with noticeable geographical variations in its incidence around the world. In Chile, it is the main cause of death owing to cancer in women over 40 years old, with mortality rates up to 16.5 per 100,000 cases. The prognosis is poor with few therapeutic options; in advanced cases there is only a 10% survival at 5 years. Several studies mention the possible role of DNA methylation in gallbladder carcinogenesis. This epigenetic modification affects tumor suppressor genes involved in regulation pathways, cell cycle control, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix degradation, in a sequential and cumulative way. Determining DNA methylation patterns would allow them to be used as biomarkers for the early detection, diagnosis, prognosis and/or therapeutic selection in gallbladder cancer. PMID:22794276

  10. The Imaging and Pathological Features of Metastatic Leiomyosarcoma in the Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi; Chen, Eleanor; Davidson, Darin J.; Pillarisetty, Venu G.; Jones, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy with poor overall prognosis. There have been few reports of metastatic leiomyosarcoma in the gallbladder. We report a case of a 41-year-old female who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy due to presumed uterine fibroids. The postoperative pathology revealed high-grade pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma, with involvement of the uterine serosal surface. She subsequently underwent exploratory laparotomy, followed by pelvic radiation and chemotherapy. Since initial management she has developed metastatic disease and has been under treatment and surveillance for 11 years. She has undergone multiple surgical procedures and numerous lines of systemic therapy for metastatic leiomyosarcoma, including cholecystectomy for a metastatic lesion in the gallbladder. There have been no previous reports of metastatic leiomyosarcoma in the gallbladder. Despite extensive metastatic disease this patient has had prolonged survival with multi-modality management. PMID:28191293

  11. A rare case of ascariasis in the gallbladder, choledochus and pancreatic duct.

    PubMed

    Gönen, Korcan Aysun; Mete, Rafet

    2010-12-01

    Due to the anatomical characteristics of the biliary tract, Ascaris lumbricoides rarely settles in the gallbladder, which makes biliary ascariasis a rare clinical condition. Ultrasonography plays a significant and practical role in the diagnosis and follow-up of suspected cases of biliary ascariasis. The 15-year-old case presented herein had been complaining of abdominal pain and dyspepsia for three months, and the clinical and laboratory findings for the patient indicated acute abdomen. Abdominal ultrasonography showed worms consistent with Ascaris inside a normal-sized gallbladder, dilated choledochus and the pancreatic duct. We started antiparasitic treatment in the patient, with cholangitis and pancreatitis diagnoses. Post-treatment follow-up ultrasonography showed a normal gallbladder, choledochus and pancreatic duct.

  12. Agenesis of the Gallbladder: Role of Clinical Suspicion and Magnetic Resonance to Avoid Unnecessary Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tagliaferri, Eugenio; Bergmann, Heinrich; Hammans, Sebastian; Shiraz, Aziz; Stüber, Eckhard; Seidlmayer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Isolated agenesis of the gallbladder is usually a rare asymptomatic anatomical variation, with an estimated incidence of 10–65 per 100,000. Females are more commonly affected (ratio 3: 1), with the disease typically presenting in the second or third decade of their life. Despite an absent gallbladder, half of the patients present with symptoms similar to biliary colic, which is poorly understood. The rarity of this condition combined with its clinical and radiological features often lead to a wrong preoperative diagnosis so that many patients undergo unnecessary operative intervention. Herein, we present the case of a 56-year-old female with a typical biliary colic who was diagnosed to have gallbladder agenesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography allowed correct treatment and prevented an unnecessary intervention. PMID:28203130

  13. Gallbladder dynamics induced by a fatty meal in normal subjects and patients with gallstones: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Bobba, V R; Krishnamurthy, G T; Kingston, E; Turner, F E; Brown, P H; Langrell, K

    1984-01-01

    A study was undertaken to establish the pattern of gallbladder emptying in normal subjects and in patients with gallstones, using a fatty meal as stimulus to release endogenous cholecystokinin. The time from meal ingestion to beginning of gallbladder emptying (latent period), the total duration of emptying (ejection period), degree of emptying (ejection fraction), and the rate of emptying (ejection fraction/ejection period) were measured noninvasively by a nongeometric scintigraphic technique. The mean latent period and ejection rate were similar in normal subjects and patients with gallstones, but the mean ejection period and ejection fraction were significantly reduced in the patients. This study suggests that for an identical stimulus, the gallbladder in cholelithiasis begins to empty at the normal time but empties for a shorter duration; the result is a reduction of ejection fraction but not of ejection rate.

  14. Docetaxel-induced mitotic arrest in epithelium of gallbladder: a hitherto unreported occurrence.

    PubMed

    Melgoza, Frank; Narula, Navneet; Wu, Mark Li-cheng

    2008-04-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents that bind tubulin cause mitotic arrest, which may be seen histologically. Such mitotic arrest has been reported to occur in the skin, alimentary canal, lungs, liver, bone marrow, endometrium, breasts, or in ascites following treatment with paclitaxel, vincristine, colchicine, podophyllotoxin, or maytansine. Mitotic arrest as a result of docetaxel, a taxane that binds tubulin, has yet to be reported. Mitotic arrest in the gallbladder has also yet to be reported. We recently encountered a case of dramatic mitotic arrest as a result of docetaxel, involving the gallbladder of a 66-year-old man with metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma. Strikingly abundant bizarre mitoses initially prompted a diagnosis of primary carcinoma. Carcinoma was eventually excluded based on the absence of dysplasia in all cells at interphase and the history of recent administration of docetaxel. This is the first case of mitotic arrest involving docetaxel or the gallbladder. Awareness of this phenomenon is necessary to avoid misdiagnosing carcinoma.

  15. The expression of B7-H3 and B7-H4 in human gallbladder carcinoma and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, C-L; Zang, X-X; Huang, H; Zhang, H; Wang, C; Kong, Y-L; Zhang, H-Y

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the expression of B7-H3 and B7-H4 and their clinical implications in human gallbladder carcinoma. The expression of B7-H3 and B7-H4 in the 252 samples (126 cases of chronic cholecystitis and 126 cases of gallbladder cancer) was detected by the streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical method, and their associations with tumor classification, clinical grade, and recurrence were assessed. In chronic cholecystitis tissue, B7-H3 and B7-H4 were not detected. In 126 cases of gallbladder carcinoma, the positive rates of B7-H3 and B7-H4 expression were 66.67% and 69.05% respectively (p < 0.05). The positive rate of B7-H3 in the primary-onset group was 53.57%, and that in recurrence group was 92.86% (p < 0.05). The positive rate of B7-H4 in the primary-onset group was 85.19%, and that in recurrence group was 40.00% (p < 0.05). Expression of B7-H3 was consistent with B7-H4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma. B7-H3 and B7-H4 were up-regulated in gallbladder cancer; the high expression of B7-H3 may contribute to the early diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma and the assessment of postoperative survival and recurrence. B7-H4 may play an important role in the incidence of gallbladder cancer. B7-H3 and B7-H4 may play a synergetic role in gallbladder carcinoma. Combined tests were available for the diagnosis, degree assessment and prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma, which may be a new target for molecular targeted therapy of gallbladder carcinoma.

  16. Perimuscular connective tissue contains more and larger lymphatic vessels than the shallower layers in human gallbladders.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Shirai, Yoshio; Wakai, Toshifumi; Sakata, Jun; Ajioka, Yoichi; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi

    2007-09-07

    To clarify whether perimuscular connective tissue contains more lymphatic vessels than the shallower layers in human gallbladders. Lymphatic vessels were stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibody D2-40, which is a specific marker of lymphatic endothelium, in representative sections of 12 normal human gallbladders obtained at the time of resection for colorectal carcinoma liver metastases. In individual gallbladder specimens, nine high-power (x 200) fields with the highest lymphatic vessel density (LVD), termed "hot spots", were identified for each layer (mucosa, muscle layer, and perimuscular connective tissue). In individual hot spots, the LVD and relative lymphatic vessel area (LVA) were measured microscopically using a computer-aided image analysis system. The mean LVD and LVA values for the nine hot spots in each layer were used for statistical analyses. In the mucosa, muscle layer, and perimuscular connective tissue, the LVD was 16.1 +/- 9.2, 35.4 +/- 15.7, and 65.5 +/- 12.2, respectively, and the LVA was 0.4 +/- 0.4, 2.1 +/- 1.1, and 9.4 +/- 2.6, respectively. Thus, both the LVD and LVA differed significantly (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively; Kruskal-Wallis test) among the individual layers of the wall of the gallbladder, with the highest LVD and LVA values in the perimuscular connective tissue. Most (98 of 108) of the hot spots within the perimuscular connective tissue were located within 500 mum of the lower border of the muscle layer. The perimuscular connective tissue contains more and larger lymphatic vessels than the shallower layers in the human gallbladder. This observation partly explains why the incidence of lymph node metastasis is high in T2 (tumor invading the perimuscular connective tissue) or more advanced gallbladder carcinoma.

  17. New-Style Laparoscope and Endoscope Cooperative Gallbladder-Preserving Surgery for Polyps.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Wu, Haorong; Wei, Shaohua

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new style of Laparoscope and Endoscope Cooperative gallbladderpreserving Surgery (LECS), an improved method of minimally invasive gallbladder-preserving polypectomy. An experimental study. Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, China, from January 2009 to July 2013. Clinical data of patients subjected to LECS and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC) was analysed. The inclusion criteria were normal size clear gallbladder bile with total volume (FV) of the gallbladder = 15 - 25 ml, the Residual Volume (RV) = 5 ml, and the Emptying Figure (EF) > 75%, with polyps diagnosed definitively by B-type ultrasonic imaging or CTdesirous of preserving gallbladder. Exclusion criteria were a history of midsection surgery, serious diseases of any organ, hepatic injury, or coagulation disturbance. Mean hospital stay and complications were also noted. Independent sample t-test, the frequency comparison used chi-square test (N > 5), and Fisher's exact test (N < 5) were used for statistical test. The mean hospital stay after LECS was 3.50 ±0.31 days, and 3.50 ±0.31 days for the LC group. The mean age in LC and LECS group was 50 ±25.4 and 44 ±12.1 years, respectively. Complications after operation in the LECS were indigestion and diarrhea; LC group had indigestion (9.33%), diarrhea (10.67%), and gastroesophageal reflux (6.6.7%). In the 3 months follow-up after discharging from the hospital, no patient had recurrence of any gallbladder disease; at 1 year follow-up, 1 patient (1.28%) developed cholesterol crystals; at 3-year follow-up, 3 cases (3.84%) were found to have recurring polyps (2~4 pieces), and 2 (2.56%) patients developed cholesterol crystals. Minimally invasive gallbladder-preserving polypectomy which used a CHIAO cholecystoscopy compared with a laparoscope is safe, feasible, and can effectively reduce the vestiges and recrudescence of polyps in gallbladderpreserving surgery.

  18. The Hematopoietic Niche in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt-Graeff, Annette H.; Nitschke, Roland; Zeiser, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Specialized microanatomical areas of the bone marrow provide the signals that are mandatory for the maintenance and regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells. A complex microenvironment adjacent to the marrow vasculature (vascular niche) and close to the endosteum (endosteal niche) harbors multiple cell types including mesenchymal stromal cells and their derivatives such as CAR cells expressing high levels of chemokines C-X-C motif ligand 12 and early osteoblastic lineage cells, endothelial cells, and megakaryocytes. The characterization of the cellular and molecular networks operating in the HSC niche has opened new perspectives for the understanding of the bidirectional cross-talk between HSCs and stromal cell populations in normal and malignant conditions. A structural and functional remodeling of the niche may contribute to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Malignant HSCs may alter the function and survival of MSCs that do not belong to the neoplastic clone. For example, a regression of nestin+ MSCs by apoptosis has been attributed to neuroglial damage in MPN. Nonneoplastic MSCs in turn can promote aggressiveness and drug resistance of malignant cells. In the future, strategies to counteract the pathological interaction between the niche and neoplastic HSCs may offer additional treatment strategies for MPN patients. PMID:26696752

  19. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology: Part I. Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the field of medicine. In this article, the first of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to neoplasms, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake.

  20. Calreticulin Exon 9 Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background Calreticulin (CALR) mutations were recently discovered in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We studied the frequency and type of CALR mutations and their hematological characteristics. Methods A total of 168 MPN patients (36 polycythemia vera [PV], 114 essential thrombocythemia [ET], and 18 primary myelofibrosis [PMF] cases) were included in the study. CALR mutation was analyzed by the direct sequencing method. Results CALR mutations were detected in 21.9% of ET and 16.7% of PMF patients, which accounted for 58.5% and 33.3% of ET and PMF patients without Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) or myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogenes (MPL) mutations, respectively. A total of five types of mutation were detected, among which, L367fs*46 (53.6%) and K385fs*47 (35.7%) were found to be the most common. ET patients with CALR mutation had lower leukocyte counts and ages compared with JAK2-mutated ET patients. Conclusion Genotyping for CALR could be a useful diagnostic tool for JAK2-or MPL-negative ET or PMF patients. CALR mutation may be a distinct disease group, with different hematological characteristics than that of JAK2-positive patients. PMID:25553276