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Sample records for gallium 59

  1. Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Discovered in 1875 through a study of its spectral properties, gallium was the first element to be uncovered following the publication of Mendeleev`s Periodic Table. French chemist, P.E. Lecoq de Boisbaudran, named his element discovery in honor of his native country; gallium is derived from the Latin word for France-{open_quotes}Gallia.{close_quotes}. This paper describes the properties, sources, and market for gallium.

  2. Common pathway for tumor cell uptake of gallium-67 and iron-59 via a transferrin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Rasey, J.S.; Allen, D.R.; Nelson, N.J.; Harp, G.D.; Williams, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    We studied the tumor uptake of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate, (/sup 59/Fe)citrate, and /sup 125/I-labeled transferrin (TF) by the in vitro growth form of EMT-6, a sarcoma-like mammary tumor of BALB/c mice. In analyzing the binindg experiments, we developed a new mathematical model based on a formulation originally used to express the interaction of hormones with specific tissue receptors. The uptake of both carrier-free /sup 67/Ga and /sup 59/Fe by tumor cells was mediated by kinetically identical TF receptors. We also studied teric acid extracts of the stroma of EMT-6 tumors grown both in vivo and in vitro. Chromatography of these extracts on Sephacryl S-200 SF demonstrated that the cellular stroma contained specific TF-binding macromolecules. On the basis of these findings, we proposed the transferrin receptor hypothesis for the mechanism of /sup 67/Ga uptake by tumors. According to this view, a tumor-assisted TF receptor is the functional unit responsible for the affinity of gallum for certain neoplasms. This receptor was also active in the uptake of iron by tumors.

  3. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan ... Brown ML, Forstrom LA, et al. Society of nuclear medicine procedure guideline for gallium scintigraphy in inflammation. ...

  4. Gallium nitride optoelectronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The growth of bulk gallium nitride crystals was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride. Gallium nitride single crystals up to 2.5 x 0.5 cm in size were produced. The crystals are suitable as substrates for the epitaxial growth of gallium nitride. The epitaxial growth of gallium nitride on sapphire substrates with main faces of (0001) and (1T02) orientations was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride in a gas flow system. The grown layers had electron concentrations in the range of 1 to 3 x 10 to the 19th power/cu cm and Hall mobilities in the range of 50 to 100 sq cm/v/sec at room temperature.

  5. Investigations in gallium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W.; Beard, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated.

  6. Preventing Supercooling Of Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massucco, Arthur A.; Wenghoefer, Hans M.; Wilkins, Ronnie

    1994-01-01

    Principle of heterogeneous nucleation exploited to prevent gallium from supercooling, enabling its use as heat-storage material that crystallizes reproducibly at its freezing or melting temperature of 29 to 30 degrees C. In original intended application, gallium used as heat-storage material in gloves of space suits. Terrestrial application lies in preparation of freezing-temperature reference samples for laboratories. Principle of heterogeneous nucleation also exploited similarly in heat pipes filled with sodium.

  7. Electrodeposition of gallium for photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.

    2016-08-09

    An electroplating solution and method for producing an electroplating solution containing a gallium salt, an ionic compound and a solvent that results in a gallium thin film that can be deposited on a substrate.

  8. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2012-06-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks crossresistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed.

  9. Bulk Cubic Gallium Nitride

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-09

    microcrysta. form at bottom of «he reaction vessel. The objective of the second step is the solvothermal transport of the gallium nitride residing in the...system using pressure pumps can be used to gain precise control of the pressure. High pressure is typically used for the solvothermal transport. The...takes place in the reaction vessel during heating is a solvothermal reaction that is conducted at or above the critical point of the solvent The

  10. Gallium interactions with Zircaloy

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, A.L.; West, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of gallium ion implantation into zircaloy cladding material to investigate the effects that gallium may have in a reactor. High fluence ion implantation of Ga ions was conducted on heated Zircaloy-4 in the range of 10{sup 16}--10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm2. Surface effects were studied using SEM and electron microprobe analysis. The depth profile of Ga in the Zircaloy was characterized with Rutherford backscattering and SIMS techniques. Results indicate that the Zirc-4 is little affected up to a fluence of 10{sup 17} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation of 10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}, sub-grain features on the order of 2 {micro}m were observed which may be due to intermetallic compound formation between Ga and Zr. For the highest fluence implant, Ga content in the Zirc-4 reached a saturation value of between 30 and 40 atomic %; significant enhanced diffusion was observed but gallium was not seen to concentrate at grain boundaries.

  11. Development of gallium compounds for treatment of lymphoma: gallium maltolate, a novel hydroxypyrone gallium compound, induces apoptosis and circumvents lymphoma cell resistance to gallium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R; Purpi, David P; Woodliff, Jeffrey; Yang, Meiying; Wereley, Janine P

    2007-09-01

    Clinical studies have shown gallium nitrate to have significant antitumor activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer, thus indicating that gallium-based drugs have potential for further development as antineoplastic agents. In this study, we compared the cytotoxicity of gallium maltolate, a novel gallium compound, with gallium nitrate in lymphoma cell lines, including p53 variant and unique gallium nitrate-resistant cells. We found that gallium maltolate inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway at lower concentrations and more rapidly than gallium nitrate. Gallium maltolate produced an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) within 2 h of incubation with cells; this effect could be blocked by mitoquinone, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. The role of the transferrin receptor (TfR) in gallium maltolate's action was examined using monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 42/6 to block TfR function. However, although MoAb 42/6 reduced gallium maltolate-induced caspase-3 activity, it had only a minor effect on cell growth inhibition. Importantly, gallium maltolate induced apoptosis in cells resistant to gallium nitrate, and, unlike gallium nitrate, its cytotoxicity was not affected by cellular p53 status. Cellular gallium uptake was greater with gallium maltolate than with gallium nitrate. We conclude that gallium maltolate inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis more efficiently than gallium nitrate. Gallium maltolate is incorporated into lymphoma cells to a greater extent than gallium nitrate via both TfR-independent and -dependent pathways; it has significant activity against gallium nitrate-resistant cells and acts independently of p53. Further studies to evaluate its antineoplastic activity in vivo are warranted.

  12. Oxidative dissolution of gallium arsenide and separation of gallium from arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.P.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1988-07-26

    The method of dissociating gallium arsenide into a gallium-containing component and an arsenic-containing component, is described which comprises contacting the gallium arsenide with an oxidizing agent and a liquid comprising hydroxamic acid to convert the gallium to a gallium-hydroxamic acid complex and to oxidize the arsenic to a positive valence state.

  13. Gallium--A smart metal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. The French chemist Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered gallium in sphalerite (a zinc-sulfide mineral) in 1875 using spectroscopy. He named the element "gallia" after his native land of France (formerly Gaul; in Latin, Gallia). The existence of gallium had been predicted in 1871 by Dmitri Mendeleev, the Russian chemist who published the first periodic table of the elements. Mendeleev noted a gap in his table and named the missing element "eka-aluminum" because he determined that its location was one place away from aluminum in the table. Mendeleev thought that the missing element (gallium) would be very much like aluminum in its chemical properties, and he was right. Solid gallium has a low melting temperature (~29 degrees Celsius, or °C) and an unusually high boiling point (~2,204 °C). Because of these properties, the earliest uses of gallium were in high-temperature thermometers and in designing metal alloys that melt easily. The development of a gallium-based direct band-gap semiconductor in the 1960s led to what is now one of the most well-known applications for gallium-based products--the manufacture of smartphones and data-centric networks.

  14. Gallium Arsenide Domino Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Long; Long, Stephen I.

    1990-01-01

    Advantages include reduced power and high speed. Experimental gallium arsenide field-effect-transistor (FET) domino circuit replicated in large numbers for use in dynamic-logic systems. Name of circuit denotes mode of operation, which logic signals propagate from each stage to next when successive stages operated at slightly staggered clock cycles, in manner reminiscent of dominoes falling in a row. Building block of domino circuit includes input, inverter, and level-shifting substages. Combinational logic executed in input substage. During low half of clock cycle, result of logic operation transmitted to following stage.

  15. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; DiNetta, Louis C.; DuganCavanagh, K.; Goetz, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Betavoltaic power supplies based on gallium phosphide can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. Results are presented for GaP devices powered by Ni-63 and tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/cm(exp 2) have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. A small demonstration system has been assembled that generates and stores enough electricity to light up an LED.

  16. Gallium nitride nanotube lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Hurtado, Antonio; ...

    2015-01-01

    Lasing is demonstrated from gallium nitride nanotubes fabricated using a two-step top-down technique. By optically pumping, we observed characteristics of lasing: a clear threshold, a narrow spectral, and guided emission from the nanotubes. In addition, annular lasing emission from the GaN nanotube is also observed, indicating that cross-sectional shape control can be employed to manipulate the properties of nanolasers. The nanotube lasers could be of interest for optical nanofluidic applications or application benefitting from a hollow beam shape.

  17. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-05-07

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  18. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2003-06-01

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  19. GALLIUM ARSENIDE DENDRITE SINGLE CRYSTAL PROGRAM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARSENIDES, *GALLIUM COMPOUNDS, *LABORATORY FURNACES, * SOLAR CELLS , CRUCIBLES, DESIGN, DIFFUSION, EXPLOSIONS, INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, MATERIALS, PHOSPHORUS, SINGLE CRYSTALS, TEMPERATURE CONTROL, ZINC

  20. 36 CFR 59.5-59.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 59.5-59.6 Section 59.5-59.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES §§ 59.5-59.6...

  1. 36 CFR 59.5-59.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 59.5-59.6 Section 59.5-59.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES §§ 59.5-59.6...

  2. 36 CFR 59.5-59.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 59.5-59.6 Section 59.5-59.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES §§ 59.5-59.6...

  3. 36 CFR 59.5-59.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 59.5-59.6 Section 59.5-59.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES §§ 59.5-59.6...

  4. 36 CFR 59.5-59.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 59.5-59.6 Section 59.5-59.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES §§ 59.5-59.6...

  5. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings which meet...

  6. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings which meet...

  7. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings which meet...

  8. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings which meet...

  9. Progress in gallium arsenide semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, M.H. )

    1990-02-01

    After almost 30 years as the technology of the future, gallium arsenide has begun to make a place for itself, not by supplanting silicon but by complementing it in new applications. The inherent advantages of the material lie in the speed with which electrons move through it, in weak-signal operations and in the generation and detection of light. These advantages suit it for roles in computing, television reception and the optoelectronic transmission of data through optical-fiber networks. Gallium arsenide light-emitting diodes and lasers used in visual-display technologies and audio-disk players already account for more than $1 billion in sales annually. Hundreds of thousands of satellite-receiving dishes that use gallium arsenide detectors are sold every year, and high-speed circuits using gallium arsenide transistors are projected to reach a similar turnover in a few years. In an economy and society that depend on the rapid exchange of information as well as on the processing of it, many silicon-dominated processors will require a considerable admixture of gallium arsenide components in order to do their jobs.

  10. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; Dinetta, L. C.; Goetz, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) energy converters may be successfully deployed to provide new mission capabilities for spacecraft. Betavoltaic power supplies based on the conversion of tritium beta decay to electricity using GaP energy converters can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. High temperature solar cells, also based on GaP, can be used in inward-bound missions greatly reducing the need for thermal dissipation. Results are presented for GaP direct conversion devices powered by Ni-63 and compared to the conversion of light emitted by tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/sq cm have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. Temperature dependent IV, QE, R(sub sh), and V(sub oc) results are also presented. These data are used to predict the high-temperature solar cell and betacell performance of GaP devices and suggest appropriate applications for the deployment of this technology.

  11. Medical applications and toxicities of gallium compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2010-05-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  12. Gallium and Reactor Neutrino Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acero, M. A.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.

    2009-03-01

    The observed deficit in the Gallium radioactive source experiments may be interpreted as a possible indication of active-sterile ν mixing. In the effective framework of two-neutrino mixing we obtain sin2ϑ≳0.03 and Δm≳0.1 eV. The compatibility of this result with the data of the Bugey reactor ν disappearance experiments is studied. It is found that the Bugey data present a hint of neutrino oscillations with 0.02≲sin2ϑ≲0.08 and Δm≈1.8 eV, which is compatible with the Gallium allowed region of the mixing parameters. This hint persists in the combined analysis of Gallium, Bugey, and Chooz data.

  13. Mineral resource of the month: gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    The metal element gallium occurs in very small concentrations in rocks and ores of other metals — native gallium is not known. As society gets more and more high-tech, gallium becomes more useful. Gallium is one of only five metals that are liquid at or close to room temperature. It has one of the longest liquid ranges of any metal (29.8 degrees Celsius to 2204 degrees Celsius) and has a low vapor pressure even at high temperatures. Ultra-pure gallium has a brilliant silvery appearance, and the solid metal exhibits conchoidal fracture similar to glass.

  14. Renal amyloidosis. Evaluation by gallium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Skinner, M.; Cohen, A.S.; Ngai, S.; Peng, T.T.

    1986-09-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the efficacy of gallium imaging in the detection of renal amyloidosis. Ten of the 11 patients who had biopsy-proven renal amyloidosis demonstrated marked uptake in both kidneys. One patient revealed moderate gallium uptake in his kidneys. None of the patients had underlying renal or extrarenal pathology other than amyloidosis, which could account for renal gallium uptake (renal infection, neoplasm, hepatic failure or frequent blood transfusions). Four patients also had extrarenal foci of abnormal gallium uptake, suggesting other sites of amyloid deposits. Our data strongly suggest that gallium imaging has a high sensitivity for detection of renal amyloidosis. Its specificity is enhanced significantly by careful review of the clinical history to exclude other known causes of renal gallium uptake. Potentially, gallium imaging may be used to monitor the progress of patients under experimental therapy.

  15. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

  16. Toxicity of indium arsenide, gallium arsenide, and aluminium gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo

    2004-08-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium arsenide (InAs), and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) are semiconductor applications. Although the increased use of these materials has raised concerns about occupational exposure to them, there is little information regarding the adverse health effects to workers arising from exposure to these particles. However, available data indicate these semiconductor materials can be toxic in animals. Although acute and chronic toxicity of the lung, reproductive organs, and kidney are associated with exposure to these semiconductor materials, in particular, chronic toxicity should pay much attention owing to low solubility of these materials. Between InAs, GaAs, and AlGaAs, InAs was the most toxic material to the lung followed by GaAs and AlGaAs when given intratracheally. This was probably due to difference in the toxicity of the counter-element of arsenic in semiconductor materials, such as indium, gallium, or aluminium, and not arsenic itself. It appeared that indium, gallium, or aluminium was toxic when released from the particles, though the physical character of the particles also contributes to toxic effect. Although there is no evidence of the carcinogenicity of InAs or AlGaAs, GaAs and InP, which are semiconductor materials, showed the clear evidence of carcinogenic potential. It is necessary to pay much greater attention to the human exposure of semiconductor materials.

  17. Oligonuclear gallium nitrogen cage compounds: molecular intermediates on the way from gallium hydrazides to gallium nitride.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Werner; Abel, Thomas; Hagemeier, Elke; Hepp, Alexander; Layh, Marcus; Rezaeirad, Babak; Luftmann, Heinrich

    2011-01-03

    Gallium hydrazides are potentially applicable as facile starting compounds for the generation of GaN by thermolysis. The decomposition pathways are, however, complicated and depend strongly on the substituents attached to the gallium atoms and the hydrazido groups. This paper describes some systematic investigations into the thermolysis of the gallium hydrazine adduct Bu(t)(3)Ga←NH(2)-NHMe (1a) and the dimeric gallium hydrazides [R(2)Ga(N(2)H(2)R')](2) (2b, R = Bu(t), R' = Bu(t); 2c, R = Pr(i), R' = Ph; 2d, R = Me, R' = Bu(t)) which have four- or five-membered heterocycles in their molecular cores. Heating of the adduct 1a to 170 °C gave the heterocyclic compound Bu(t)(2)Ga(μ-NH(2))[μ-N(Me)-N(=CH(2))]GaBu(t)(2) (3) by cleavage of N-N bonds and rearrangement. 3 was further converted at 400 °C into the tetrameric gallium cyanide (Bu(t)(2)GaCN)(4) (4). The thermolysis of the hydrazide (Bu(t)(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHBu(t))(2) (2b) at temperatures between 270 and 420 °C resulted in cleavage of all N-N bonds and the formation of an octanuclear gallium imide, (Bu(t)GaNH)(8) (6). The trimeric dialkylgallium amide (Bu(t)(2)GaNH(2))(3) (5) was isolated as an intermediate. Thermolysis of the hydrazides (Pr(i)(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHPh)(NH(2)-NPh) (2c) and (Me(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHBu(t))(2) (2d) proceeded in contrast with retention of the N-N bonds and afforded a variety of novel gallium hydrazido cage compounds with four gallium atoms and up to four hydrazido groups in a single molecule: (Pr(i)Ga)(4)(NH-NPh)(3)NH (7), (MeGa)(4)(NH-NBu(t))(4) (8), (MeGa)(4)(NH-NBu(t))(3)NBu(t) (9), and (MeGa)(4)(NHNBu(t))(3)NH (10). Partial hydrolysis gave reproducibly the unique octanuclear mixed hydrazido oxo compound (MeGa)(8)(NHNBu(t))(4)O(4) (11).

  18. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  19. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan; Fu, Tracy; Ross, Jennifer; Chan, James

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  20. Gallium scan in intracerebral sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Makhija, M.C.; Anayiotos, C.P.

    1981-07-01

    Sarcoidosis involving the nervous system probably occurs in about 4% of patients. The usefulness of brain scintigraphy in these cases has been suggested. In this case of cerebral sarcoid granuloma, gallium imaging demonstrated the lesion before treatment and showed disappearance of the lesion after corticosteroid treatment, which correlated with the patient's clinical improvement.

  1. Liquid gallium rotary electric contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1969-01-01

    Due to its low vapor pressure, gallium, when substituted for mercury in a liquid slip ring system, transmits substantial amounts of electrical current to rotating components in an ultrahigh vacuum. It features low electrical loss, little or no wear, and long maintenance-free life.

  2. Gallium nitride electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Siddharth; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-07-01

    In the past two decades, there has been increasing research and industrial activity in the area of gallium nitride (GaN) electronics, stimulated first by the successful demonstration of GaN LEDs. While the promise of wide band gap semiconductors for power electronics was recognized many years before this by one of the contributors to this issue (J Baliga), the success in the area of LEDs acted as a catalyst. It set the field of GaN electronics in motion, and today the technology is improving the performance of several applications including RF cell phone base stations and military radar. GaN could also play a very important role in reducing worldwide energy consumption by enabling high efficiency compact power converters operating at high voltages and lower frequencies. While GaN electronics is a rapidly evolving area with active research worldwide, this special issue provides an opportunity to capture some of the great advances that have been made in the last 15 years. The issue begins with a section on epitaxy and processing, followed by an overview of high-frequency HEMTs, which have been the most commercially successful application of III-nitride electronics to date. This is followed by review and research articles on power-switching transistors, which are currently of great interest to the III-nitride community. A section of this issue is devoted to the reliability of III-nitride devices, an area that is of increasing significance as the research focus has moved from not just high performance but also production-worthiness and long-term usage of these devices. Finally, a group of papers on new and relatively less studied ideas for III-nitride electronics, such as interband tunneling, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and high-temperature electronics is included. These areas point to new areas of research and technological innovation going beyond the state of the art into the future. We hope that the breadth and quality of articles in this issue will make it

  3. Construction of Gallium Point at NMIJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiatmo, J. V.; Saito, I.; Yamazawa, K.

    2017-03-01

    Two open-type gallium point cells were fabricated using ingots whose nominal purities are 7N. Measurement systems for the realization of the melting point of gallium using these cells were built. The melting point of gallium is repeatedly realized by means of the measurement systems for evaluating the repeatability. Measurements for evaluating the effect of hydrostatic pressure coming from the molten gallium existing during the melting process and the effect of gas pressure that fills the cell were also performed. Direct cell comparisons between those cells were conducted. This comparison was aimed to evaluate the consistency of each cell, especially related to the nominal purity. Direct cell comparison between the open-type and the sealed-type gallium point cell was also conducted. Chemical analysis was conducted using samples extracted from ingots used in both the newly built open-type gallium point cells, from which the effect of impurities in the ingot was evaluated.

  4. Running droplets of gallium from evaporation of gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Tersoff, J; Jesson, D E; Tang, W X

    2009-04-10

    High-temperature annealing of gallium arsenide in vacuum causes excess evaporation of arsenic, with accumulation of gallium as liquid droplets on the surface. Using real-time in situ surface electron microscopy, we found that these droplets spontaneously run across the crystal surface. Running droplets have been seen in many systems, but they typically require special surface preparation or gradient forces. In contrast, we show that noncongruent evaporation automatically provides a driving force for running droplets. The motion is predicted and observed to slow and stop near a characteristic temperature, with the speed increasing both below and above this temperature. The same behavior is expected to occur during the evaporation of similar III-V semiconductors such as indium arsenide.

  5. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  6. STS-59 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The STS-59 insignia is dominated by Earth, reflecting the focus of the first Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-1) mission upon our planet's surface and atmosphere. The golden symbol of the astronaut corps emblem sweeps over Earth's surface from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, representing the operation of the SIR-C/Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Space (MAPS) sensors. The astronaut emblem also signals the importance of the human element in space exploration and in the study of our planet. The star field visible below Earth represents the many talents and skill of the international SRL-1 team.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma detection by gallium scan and subsequent treatment by gallium maltolate: rationale and case study.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lawrence R; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J M; Boer, Robbert O

    2011-07-01

    Gallium is antiproliferative to many types of cancer, due primarily to its ability to act as a non-functional mimic of ferric iron (Fe(3+)). Because Fe(3+) is needed for ribonucleotide reductase activity--and thus DNA synthesis--gallium can inhibit DNA production and cell division. Diagnostic gallium scans have shown that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is commonly avid for gallium. Furthermore, in vitro studies have found that gallium nitrate, and particularly gallium maltolate (GaM), have dose-dependent antiproliferative activity against HCC cell lines. Rationale thus exists to use GaM, an orally active compound that has been well tolerated in Phase I clinical trials, to treat patients whose HCC is gallium-avid in a gallium scan. Because gallium absorbed from orally administered GaM is bound predominately to serum transferrin, which travels to all tissues in the body, GaM has the potential to treat even distant metastases. A patient with advanced HCC (20 × 10 cm primary tumor, ascites around liver and spleen, resistant to Nexavar(®) (sorafenib)), whose cancer was highly gallium-avid in a (67)Ga-scan, was treated with oral gallium maltolate at 1500 mg/day q.d. After four weeks of treatment, the patient had a large reduction in pain, with greatly increased mobility and quality of life, and significantly lowered serum bilirubin and inflammation-related liver enzymes. At eight weeks, CT scans showed apparent necrosis of the tumor.

  8. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thrustor Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given in Fig. 1. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagneticpump[l]. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx.10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx.500 I), send-stage puke which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  9. Electrospun Gallium Nitride Nanofibers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, Anamaris; Morales, Kristle; Ramos, Idalia; Campo, Eva; Santiago, Jorge J.

    2009-04-01

    The high thermal conductivity and wide bandgap of gallium nitride (GaN) are desirable characteristics in optoelectronics and sensing applications. In comparison to thin films and powders, in the nanofiber morphology the sensitivity of GaN is expected to increase as the exposed area (proportional to the length) increases. In this work we present electrospinning as a novel technique in the fabrication of GaN nanofibers. Electrospinning, invented in the 1930s, is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid technique to produce microscopically long ultrafine fibers. GaN nanofibers are produced using gallium nitrate and dimethyl-acetamide as precursors. After electrospinning, thermal decomposition under an inert atmosphere is used to pyrolyze the polymer. To complete the preparation, the nanofibers are sintered in a tube furnace under a NH3 flow. Both scanning electron microscopy and profilometry show that the process produces continuous and uniform fibers with diameters ranging from 20 to a few hundred nanometers, and lengths of up to a few centimeters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the development of GaN nanofibers with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Future work includes additional characterization using transmission electron microscopy and XRD to understand the role of precursors and nitridation in nanofiber synthesis, and the use of single nanofibers for the construction of optical and gas sensing devices.

  10. Clinical applications of Gallium-68.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G

    2013-06-01

    Gallium-68 is a positron-emitting radioisotope that is produced from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. As such it is conveniently used, decoupling radiopharmacies from the need for a cyclotron on site. Gallium-68-labeled peptides have been recognized as a new class of radiopharmaceuticals showing fast target localization and blood clearance. (68)Ga-DOTATOC, (8)Ga-DOTATATE, (68)Ga-DOTANOC, are the most prominent radiopharmaceuticals currently in use for imaging and differentiating lesions of various somatostatin receptor subtypes, overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of clinical studies with (68)Ga over the past few years around the world, including within the United States. An estimated ∼10,000 scans are being performed yearly in Europe at about 100 centers utilizing (68)Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs within clinical trials. Two academic sites within the US have also begun to undertake human studies. This review will focus on the clinical experience of selected, well-established and recently applied (68)Ga-labeled imaging agents used in nuclear medicine.

  11. The surface tension of liquid gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The surface tension of liquid gallium has been measured using the sessile drop technique in an Auger spectrometer. The experimental method is described. The surface tension in mJ/sq m is found to decrease linearly with increasing temperature and may be represented as 708-0.66(T-29.8), where T is the temperature in centigrade. This result is of interest because gallium has been suggested as a model fluid for Marangoni flow experiments. In addition, the surface tension is of technological significance in the processing of compound semiconductors involving gallium.

  12. Status of gallium-67 in tumor detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, P.

    1980-04-01

    The efficacy of gallium-67 citrate in detecting specific tumors is discussed. Tumors in which gallium-67 imaging is useful as a diagnostic tool include Hodgkin's disease, histiocystic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, hepatoma melanoma, and leukemia. It has not been found to be effective in diagnosing head and neck tumors, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tract tumors, breast tumors, and pediatric tumors. Gallium may be useful in the evaluation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma, mesothelioma, and carcinoma of the lung. It may also be useful for determining response to treatment and prognosis in some neoplasms.

  13. Survey of the market, supply, and availability of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The present and potential availability of gallium metal in connection with materials evaluation recommendations for satellite power systems is examined in the following areas: (1) market considerations - the present and emerging uses of gallium, as well as the consumption and price of gallium; (2) supply considerations - present sources of gallium, commercial and new methods for extracting gallium from bauxite, and summary comments; (3) methods for purifying gallium to satisfy market demands; (4) principal suppliers of gallium; and (5) gallium availability from bauxite on the basis of primary aluminum production; and bauxite production, reserves and resources. The study was based on published information as well as information derived from private communications with both major and potential suppliers and users of gallium, and with staff members at the Bureau of Mines. 16 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  14. Radiochemical separation of gallium by amalgam exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruch, R.R.

    1969-01-01

    An amalgam-exchange separation of radioactive gallium from a number of interfering radioisotopes has been developed. A dilute (ca. 0.3%) gallium amalgam is agitated with a slightly acidic solution of 72Ga3+ containing concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and either perchlorate or chloride. The amalgam is then removed and the radioactive gallium stripped by agitation with dilute nitric acid. The combined exchange yield of the perchlorate-thiocyanate system is 90??4% and that of the chloride-thiocyanate system is 75??4%. Decontamination yields of most of the 11 interfering isotopes studied were less than 0.02%. The technique is applicable for use with activation analysis for the determination of trace amounts of gallium. ?? 1969.

  15. Materials synthesis: Two-dimensional gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Nikhil A.

    2016-11-01

    Graphene is used as a capping sheet to synthesize 2D gallium nitride by means of migration-enhanced encapsulation growth. This technique may allow the stabilization of 2D materials that are not amenable to synthesis by traditional methods.

  16. Generator for gallium-68 and compositions obtained therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A generator for obtaining radioactive gallium-68 from germanium-68 bound in a resin containing unsubstituted phenolic hydroxyl groups. The germanium-68 is loaded into the resin from an aqueous solution of the germanium-68. A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of gallium-68 solution is obtained. The solution is obtained from the bound germanium-68 which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with a hydrochloric acid solution to form an acidic solution of gallium-68. The acidic solution of gallium-68 can be neutralized.

  17. Gallium poisoning: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Hottel, Timothy L

    2012-02-01

    The authors present a case of a college student who suffered acute gallium poisoning as a result of accidental exposure to gallium halide complexes. This is extremely rare and has never been reported in the literature. Acute symptoms after the incident, which initially presented as dermatitis and appeared relatively not life-threatening, rapidly progressed to dangerous episodes of tachycardia, tremors, dyspnea, vertigo, and unexpected black-outs. Had there been effective emergency medical care protocols, diagnostic testing, treatment and antidotes, the latent manifestations of irreversible cardiomyopathy may have been prevented. Given how quickly exposure led to morbidity, this article aims to raise an awareness of the toxic potential of gallium. This has particular relevance for workers involved in the production of semiconductors where there is a potential for accidental exposure to gallium by-products during device processing. It may also have implications for dentists who use gallium alloys to replace mercury containing amalgam. In the absence of threshold limit values and exposure limits for humans, as well as emergency medical guidelines for treatment of poisoning, the case calls on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to establish guidelines and medical management protocols specific for gallium.

  18. Gallium Arsenide wafer scale integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, J. F.; Taylor, G.; Steinvorth, R.; Donlan, B.; Bergendahl, A. S.

    1985-08-01

    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) digital MESFET technology has recently begun to appear in the semiconductor marketplace. The initial commercial offerings are at the small to medium scale integration levels. The high speed of these parts would seem to be very attractive for designers of high performance signal processing equipment. Persistent yield problems, however, have prevented the appearance of large scale integrated circuits. As a result, intrapackage and interpackage signal propagation problems such as coupling, parasitics and delay are likely to negate much of the benefits of the fast MESFET logic devices for large systems constructed with such small scale building blocks. An early packaging concept, Wafer Scale Integration (WSI), which could possibly be used to address some of these limitations is reexamined.

  19. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  20. Correction: Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S

    2016-05-28

    Correction for 'Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control' by Sujoy Sarkar et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 6407-6410.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  4. Gallium Zeolites for Light Paraffin Aromatization

    SciTech Connect

    Price, G.L.; Dooley, K.M.

    1999-02-10

    The primary original goal of this project was to investigate the active state of gallium-containing MFI catalysts for light paraffin aromatization, in particular the state of gallium in the active material. Our original hypothesis was that the most active and selective materials were those which contained gallium zeolitic cations, and that previously reported conditions for the activation of gallium-containing catalysts served to create these active centers. We believed that in high silica materials such as MFI, ion-exchange is most effectively accomplished with metals in their 1+ oxidation state, both because of the sparsity of the anionic ion-exchange sites associated with the zeolite, and because the large hydration shells associated with aqueous 3+ cations hinder transport. Metals such as Ga which commonly exist in higher oxidation states need to be reduced to promote ion-exchange and this is the reason that reduction of gallium-containing catalysts for light paraffin aromatization often yields a dramatic enhancement in catalytic activity. We have effectively combined reduction with ion-exchange and we term this combined process ''reductive solid-state ion-exchange''. Our hypothesis has largely been proven true, and a number of the papers we have published directly address this hypothesis.

  5. Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S

    2016-05-11

    A ternary, ionically conducting, deep eutectic solvent based on acetamide, urea and gallium nitrate is reported for the electrodeposition of gallium nitride/gallium indium nitride under ambient conditions; blue and white light emitting photoluminescent deposits are obtained under potential control.

  6. Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin C; Choi, Heon-Jin; Knutsen, Kelly P; Schaller, Richard D; Yang, Peidong; Saykally, Richard J

    2002-10-01

    There is much current interest in the optical properties of semiconductor nanowires, because the cylindrical geometry and strong two-dimensional confinement of electrons, holes and photons make them particularly attractive as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronic devices, including lasersand nonlinear optical frequency converters. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a wide-bandgap semiconductor of much practical interest, because it is widely used in electrically pumped ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diodes, lasers and photodetectors. Recent progress in microfabrication techniques has allowed stimulated emission to be observed from a variety of GaN microstructures and films. Here we report the observation of ultraviolet-blue laser action in single monocrystalline GaN nanowires, using both near-field and far-field optical microscopy to characterize the waveguide mode structure and spectral properties of the radiation at room temperature. The optical microscope images reveal radiation patterns that correlate with axial Fabry-Perot modes (Q approximately 10(3)) observed in the laser spectrum, which result from the cylindrical cavity geometry of the monocrystalline nanowires. A redshift that is strongly dependent on pump power (45 meV microJ x cm(-2)) supports the idea that the electron-hole plasma mechanism is primarily responsible for the gain at room temperature. This study is a considerable advance towards the realization of electron-injected, nanowire-based ultraviolet-blue coherent light sources.

  7. New SMU Gallium Fixed-Point Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranostaj, Juraj; Ďuriš, Stanislav; Knorová, Renáta; Kaskötö, Mariana; Vyskočilová, Irena

    2011-08-01

    In the framework of the European research project EURAMET 732, the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) built three primary gallium fixed-point cells of different designs. The cells are designed for the calibration of the long-stem SPRT. In regard to the procedure commonly used at SMU when realizing the gallium point, the cells are designed for use in a stirred liquid bath. This article provides information about the cell designs, materials used, method of filling, and results of the performed experiments. The experiments were focused on the study of the cells' metrological characteristics, some effects that could influence the melting-point temperature and the effect of the melted metal fraction on the immersion profile. New cells were compared with the SMU reference gallium cell.

  8. /sup 67/Gallium lung scans in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, M.; Feiglin, D.; Hyland, R.; Urowitz, M.B.; Shiff, B.

    1983-08-01

    /sup 67/Gallium lung scans were performed in 19 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Results were expressed quantitatively as the /sup 67/Gallium Uptake Index. The mean total pulmonary /sup 67/Gallium Uptake Index in patients was significantly higher than that in controls (41 versus 25), and 4 patients (21%) fell outside the normal range. There were no clinical or laboratory variables that correlated with the /sup 56/Gallium uptake. Increased pulmonary /sup 67/Gallium uptake in scleroderma may prove useful as an index of pulmonary disease activity.

  9. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Joslin, D.; Garlick, J.; Lillington, D.; Gillanders, M.; Cavicchi, B.; Scott-Monck, J.; Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) gallium arsenide cells were irradiated with 1 Mev electrons up to fluences of 1 times 10 to the 16th power cm-2. Measurements of spectral response and dark and illuminated I-V data were made at each fluence and then, using computer codes, the experimental data was fitted to gallium arsenide cell models. In this way it was possible to determine the extent of the damage, and hence damage coefficients in both the emitter and base of the cell.

  10. TI-59 Drilling engineering manual. [Texas Instruments-59 Calculator Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Chenevert, M.E.; Hollo, R.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-seven drilling engineering programs to be used with the Texas Instruments 59 programmable calculator are given, with step-by-step explanations on how to input these on the calculator. Programs for basic drilling engineering, drilling fluid viscosity and circulation, hydrostatic pressure due to gas, surge and swab pressure, and well control are given. (JMT)

  11. TI-59 Reservoir engineering manual. [Texas Instruments-59 Calculator Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hollo, R.; Fifadara, H.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-seven reservoir engineering programs to be used with the Texas Instruments-59 programmable calculator are presented. The programs include methods, equations, and flow charts which describe the required input and resulting output. Also given with each program is an example and a program listing. (JMT)

  12. Four Terminal Gallium Nitride MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veety, Matthew Thomas

    All reported gallium nitride (GaN) transistors to date have been three-terminal devices with source, drain, and gate electrodes. In the case of GaN MOSFETs, this leaves the bulk of the device at a floating potential which can impact device threshold voltage. In more traditional silicon-based MOSFET fabrication a bulk contact can be made on the back side of the silicon wafer. For GaN grown on sapphire substrates, however, this is not possible and an alternate, front-side bulk contact must be investigated. GaN is a III-V, wide band gap semiconductor that as promising material parameters for use in high frequency and high power applications. Possible applications are in the 1 to 10 GHz frequency band and power inverters for next generation grid solid state transformers and inverters. GaN has seen significant academic and commercial research for use in Heterojunction Field Effect Transistors (HFETs). These devices however are depletion-mode, meaning the device is considered "on" at zero gate bias. A MOSFET structure allows for enhancement mode operation, which is normally off. This mode is preferrable in high power applications as the device has lower off-state power consumption and is easier to implement in circuits. Proper surface passivation of seminconductor surface interface states is an important processing step for any device. Preliminary research on surface treatments using GaN wet etches and depletion-mode GaN devices utilizing this process are discussed. Devices pretreated with potassium pursulfate prior to gate dielectric deposition show significant device improvements. This process can be applied to any current GaN FET. Enhancement-mode GaN MOSFETs were fabricated on magnesium doped p-type Wurtzite gallium nitride grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates. Devices utilized ion implant source and drain which was activated under NH3 overpressure in MOCVD. Also, devices were fabricated with a SiO2 gate dielectric

  13. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy of gallium in bladder tissue following gallium maltolate administration during urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ball, Katherine R; Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L; Blyth, Robert I R; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M; Thompson, Julie

    2013-11-01

    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli.

  14. Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy of Gallium in Bladder Tissue following Gallium Maltolate Administration during Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L.; Blyth, Robert I. R.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M.; Thompson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23877680

  15. Bone and gallium scanning in the pre-op evaluation of the infected dysvascular foot

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.; Sakimura, I.; Dillon, A.; Siegel, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the value of bone and gallium scans in predicting healing levels in the dysvascular foot with an infection requiring amputation. Healing requires amputation at a level both free of infection and with adequate blood flow. Forty-one such patients had bone and gallium scans and Doppler studies prior to amputation at a level selected by the surgeon. Eight patients required multiple surgeries before healing was obtained. Bone and soft tissue infections were determined from scans and healing levels predicted (SPHL) as the most distal amputation level free from infection: toectomy, Reye's, transmetatarsal, calcanectomy, Syme's, below knee. Doppler healing levels (DPHL) were predicted using a standard ischemic index. Doppler alone predicted the final healing level (FHL) in 41% with 59% needing more proximal amputation. Scans alone predicted FHL in 64% with 26% needing more proximal amputation. Ten percent were distal to the SPHL and all healed. These scans showed infection at transition sites between amputation levels, and the more proximal level had been predicted. Using the more proximal of the DPHL and SPHL the FHL was predicted in 78% with another 12% having more proximal amputation for nursing reasons. In 10% amputation was performed between DPHL and SPHL or at the more distal level. In no case was successful surgery performed distal to the more distal SPHL or DPHL. Bone and gallium scans used with Doppler studies are useful in optimizing the choice of amputation level in the infected, dysvascular foot.

  16. STS-59 MAPS experiment view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-59's MAPS (Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites) experiment is sending real-time data that provides the most comprehensive view of carbon monoxide concentrations on Earth ever recorded. This computer image shows a summary of 'quick look' data obtained by the MAPS instrument during its first days of operations as part of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's SRL-1 payload.

  17. Gallium-67 imaging in pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma

    SciTech Connect

    Makhija, M.C.; Davis, G.

    1984-03-01

    Gallium-67 citrate has been known to localize in the lungs in a variety of pulmonary diseases. Abnormal lung activity implies active underlying disease. Serial Ga-67 lung scans may be helpful when steroids are used as therapeutic agents. A case of pulmonary eosinophic granuloma is reported here with diffuse bilateral Ga-67 pulmonary activity.

  18. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  19. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C.; Shul, Randy J.

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  20. Solar cell with a gallium nitride electrode

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar cell which comprises a body of silicon having a P-N junction therein with a transparent conducting N-type gallium nitride layer as an ohmic contact on the N-type side of the semiconductor exposed to solar radiation.

  1. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-02-02

    An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

  2. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankey, T.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  3. SPECT gallium imaging in abdominal lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, K.A.; Friefeld, G.D.; Waldron, J.A. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the abdomen studied by gallium SPECT imaging is reported. The tomographic slices accurately demonstrated the location of residual disease after chemotherapy in the region of the transverse mesocolon. Previous transmission CT had shown considerable persistent retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, but was not helpful in determining the presence of viable lymphoma.

  4. A Gallium Multiphase Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Scott; Greeff, Carl

    2009-06-01

    A new SESAME multiphase gallium equation of state (EOS) has been developed. The equation of state includes two of the solid phases (Ga I, Ga III) and a fluid phase. The EOS includes consistent latent heat between the phases. We compare the results to the liquid Hugoniot data. We will also explore refreezing via isentropic release and compression.

  5. Gallium-positive Lyme disease myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, L.I.; Welch, P.; Fisher, N.

    1985-09-01

    In the course of a work-up for fever of unknown origin associated with intermittent arrhythmias, a gallium scan was performed which revealed diffuse myocardial uptake. The diagnosis of Lyme disease myocarditis subsequently was confirmed by serologic titers. One month following recovery from the acute illness, the abnormal myocardial uptake completely resolved.

  6. Gallium Nitride Crystals: Novel Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouzhi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Lv, Jiaxin; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    A type of single-crystal gallium nitride mesoporous membrane is fabricated and its supercapacitor properties are demonstrated for the first time. The supercapacitors exhibit high-rate capability, stable cycling life at high rates, and ultrahigh power density. This study may expand the range of crystals as high-performance electrode materials in the field of energy storage.

  7. Development of gallium aluminum phosphide electroluminescent diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicotka, R. J.; Lorenz, M. R.; Nethercot, A. H.; Pettit, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Work done on the development of gallium aluminum phosphide alloys for electroluminescent light sources is described. The preparation of this wide band gap semiconductor alloy, its physical properties (particularly the band structure, the electrical characteristics, and the light emitting properties) and work done on the fabrication of diode structures from these alloys are broadly covered.

  8. Hydrogen chemisorption on gallium oxide polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sebastián E; Baltanás, Miguel A; Bonivardi, Adrian L

    2005-02-01

    The chemisorption of H(2) over a set of gallia polymorphs (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Ga(2)O(3)) has been studied by temperature-programmed adsorption equilibrium and desorption (TPA and TPD, respectively) experiments, using in situ transmission infrared spectroscopy. Upon heating the gallium oxides above 500 K in 101.3 kPa of H(2), two overlapped infrared signals developed. The 2003- and 1980-cm(-1) bands were assigned to the stretching frequencies of H bonded to coordinatively unsaturated (cus) gallium cations in tetrahedral and octahedral positions [nu(Ga(t)-H) and nu(Ga(o)-H), respectively]. Irrespective to the gallium cation geometrical environment, (i) a linear relationship between the integrated intensity of the whole nu(Ga-H) infrared band versus the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of the gallia was found and (ii) TPA and TPD results revealed that molecular hydrogen is dissociatively chemisorbed on any bulk gallium oxide polymorph following two reaction pathways. An endothermal, homolytic dissociation occurs over surface cus-gallium sites at T > 450 K, giving rise to Ga-H(I) bonds. The heat and entropy of this type I hydrogen adsorption were determined by the Langmuir's adsorption model as Deltah(I) = 155 +/- 25 kJ mol(-1) and Deltas(I) = 0.27 +/- 0.11 kJ mol(-1) K(-1). In addition, another exothermic, heterolytic adsorption sets in already in the low-temperature region. This type of hydrogen chemisorption involves surface Ga-O-Ga species, originating GaO-H and Ga-H(II) bonds which can only be removed from the gallia surface after heating under evacuation at T > 650 K. The measured desorption energy of this last, second-order process was equal to 77 +/- 10 kJ mol(-1). The potential of the H(2) chemisorption as a tool to measure or estimate the specific surface area of gallia and to discern the nature and proportion of gallium cation coordination sites on the surface of bulk gallium oxides is also analyzed.

  9. Chemistry and pharmacokinetics of gallium maltolate, a compound with high oral gallium bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, L R; Tanner, T; Godfrey, C; Noll, B

    2000-01-01

    Gallium maltolate, tris(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-onato)gallium (GaM), is an orally active gallium compound for therapeutic use. It is moderately soluble in water (10.7 +/- 0.9 mg/mL at 25 composite functionC) with an octanol partition coefficient of 0.41+/-0.08. The molecule is electrically neutral in aqueous solution at neutral pH; a dilute aqueous solution (2.5 x10-(-5) M) showed little dissociation at pH 5.5-8.0. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis found the GaM molecule to consist of three maltolate ligands bidentately bound to a central gallium atom in a propeller-like arrangement, with one of the ligands disordered in two possible orientations. The compound is orthorhombic, space group Pbca, unit cell a = 16.675(3), b = 12.034(2), c = 18.435(2) A at 158K. GaM was administered to healthy human volunteers at single doses of 100, 200, 300, and 500 mg (three subjects per dose). GaM was very well tolerated. Oral absorption of Ga into plasma was fairly rapid (absorption half life = 0.8-2.0h), with a central compartment excretion half life of 17-21h. Absorption appeared dose proportional over the dosage range studied. Estimated oral gallium bioavailability was approximately 25-57%, based on comparison with published data on intravenous gallium nitrate. Urinary Ga excretion following oral GaM administration was approximately 2% of the administered dose over 72h, in contrast to 49-94% urinary Ga excretion over 24h following i.v. gallium nitrate administration. We suggest that oral administration of GaM results in nearly all plasma gallium being bound to transferrin, whereas i.v. administration of gallium nitrate results in formation of considerable plasma gallate [Ga(OH)(4) (-)], which is rapidly excreted in the urine. These data support the continued investigation of GaM as an orally active therapeutic gallium compound.

  10. Chemistry and Pharmacokinetics of Gallium Maltolate, a Compound With High Oral Gallium Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Trevor; Godfrey, Claire; Noll, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Gallium maltolate, tris(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-onato)gallium (GaM), is an orally active gallium compound for therapeutic use. It is moderately soluble in water (10.7 ± 0.9 mg/mL at 25∘C) with an octanol partition coefficient of 0.41±0.08. The molecule is electrically neutral in aqueous solution at neutral pH; a dilute aqueous solution (2.5 ×10−-5 M) showed little dissociation at pH 5.5-8.0. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis found the GaM molecule to consist of three maltolate ligands bidentately bound to a central gallium atom in a propeller-like arrangement, with one of the ligands disordered in two possible orientations. The compound is orthorhombic, space group Pbca, unit cell a = 16.675(3), b = 12.034(2), c = 18.435(2) Å at 158K. GaM was administered to healthy human volunteers at single doses of 100, 200, 300, and 500 mg (three subjects per dose). GaM was very well tolerated. Oral absorption of Ga into plasma was fairly rapid (absorption half life = 0.8-2.0h), with a central compartment excretion half life of 17-21h. Absorption appeared dose proportional over the dosage range studied. Estimated oral gallium bioavailability was approximately 25-57%, based on comparison with published data on intravenous gallium nitrate. Urinary Ga excretion following oral GaM administration was approximately 2% of the administered dose over 72h, in contrast to 49-94% urinary Ga excretion over 24h following i.v. gallium nitrate administration. We suggest that oral administration of GaM results in nearly all plasma gallium being bound to transferrin, whereas i.v. administration of gallium nitrate results in formation of considerable plasma gallate [Ga(OH)4−], which is rapidly excreted in the urine. These data support the continued investigation of GaM as an orally active therapeutic gallium compound. PMID:18475921

  11. Gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Levy, P.S.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.

    1988-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease, 45 patients with various glomerulopathies, excluding lupus nephritis and renal vasculitis, were studied. Persistent renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive scintigram, was graded as + (less than), ++ (equal to), and +++ (greater than) the hepatic uptake. Positive scintigrams were seen in ten of 16 cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, six of 11 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis, and one case of minimal change, and one of two cases of membranous nephropathy; also in three of six cases of sickle glomerulopathy, two cases of diabetic neuropathy, one of two cases of amyloidosis, and one case of mild chronic allograft rejection. The 25 patients with positive scans were younger than the 20 with negative scans (31 +/- 12 v 42 +/- 17 years; P less than 0.01), and exhibited greater proteinuria (8.19 +/- 7.96 v 2.9 +/- 2.3 S/d; P less than 0.01) and lower serum creatinine values (2 +/- 2 v 4.1 +/- 2.8 mg/dL; P less than 0.01). The amount of proteinuria correlated directly with the intensity grade of the gallium image (P less than 0.02), but there was no correlation between the biopsy diagnosis and the outcome of the gallium scan. It was concluded that gallium scintigraphy is not useful in the differential diagnosis of the glomerular diseases under discussion. Younger patients with good renal function and heavy proteinuria are likely to have a positive renal scintigram regardless of the underlying glomerulopathy.

  12. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  13. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  14. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  15. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  16. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  17. Compilation of Reprints, Number 59.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    for relatively frequent replacement and summer. The only running ripe female of spawned eggs. It seems tmost likely that found was captured at the...Oceanography, OSU. Characters and terminology used for identification and description Characters most useful in the study were premaxillary and dentary... premaxillaries . 6.2 mm HL (Fig. 2D) Trunk pigmentation is less dense than at 5.9mm HL, it is composed of evenly distributed stellate melanophores. Peritoneal

  18. Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

  19. Magnetostriction and Magnetic Heterogeneities in Iron-Gallium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-08

    REPORT Magnetostriction and Magnetic Heterogeneities in Iron-Gallium 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Iron-gallium alloys Fe1-xGax exhibit...an exceptional increase in magnetostriction with gallium content. We present small-angle neutron scattering investigations on a Fe0.81Ga0.19 single...magnetic heterogeneities in the mechanism for magnetostriction in this material. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

  20. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy applied to gallium arsenide surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynik, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical basis for surface photovoltage spectroscopy is outlined. Results of this technique applied to gallium arsenide surfaces, are reviewed and discussed. The results suggest that in gallium arsenide the surface voltage may be due to deep bulk impurity acceptor states that are pinned at the Fermi level at the surface. Establishment of the validity of this model will indicate the direction to proceed to increase the efficiency of gallium arsenide solar cells.

  1. Inflammatory pseudotumor: A gallium-avid mobile mesenteric mass

    SciTech Connect

    Auringer, S.T.; Scott, M.D.; Sumner, T.E. )

    1991-08-01

    An 8-yr-old boy with a 1-mo history of culture-negative fever and anemia underwent gallium, ultrasound, and computed tomography studies as part of the evaluation of a fever of unknown origin. These studies revealed a mobile gallium-avid solid abdominal mass subsequently proven to be an inflammatory pseudotumor of the mesentery, a rare benign mass. This report documents the gallium-avid nature of this rare lesion and discusses associated characteristic clinical, pathologic, and radiographic features.

  2. Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11) by Kenneth A. Jones, Randy P. Tompkins, Michael A. Derenge, Kevin W. Kirchner, Iskander...Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-5903 January 2012 Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11) Kenneth A...DSI 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  3. Interactions of Zircaloy cladding with gallium: 1998 midyear status

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; Strizak, J.P.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.

    1998-06-01

    A program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in a light-water reactor. The graded, four-phase experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of a series of tests for Phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests will determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge}300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Although continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound can result in large stresses that may lead to distortion, this was shown to be extremely unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

  4. Interactions of zircaloy cladding with gallium -- 1997 status

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.

    1997-11-01

    A four phase program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in LWR. This graded, four phase experimental program will evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against: (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of an initial series of tests for phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement (LME), and (3) corrosion mechanical. These tests are designed to determine the corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge} 300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (in parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. While continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound results in large stresses that can lead to distortion, this is also highly unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

  5. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H. L.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires.

  6. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H. L.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires. PMID:26183949

  7. A Gallium multiphase equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Scott D; Greeff, Carl

    2009-01-01

    A new SESAME multiphase Gallium equation of state (EOS) has been developed. The equation of state includes three of the solid phases (Ga I, Ga II, Ga III) and a fluid phase (liquid/gas). The EOS includes consistent latent heat between the phases. We compare the results to the liquid Hugoniol data. We also explore the possibility of re-freezing via dynamic means such as isentropic and shock compression.

  8. Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging in acute pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, G.; Morillo, G.; Alonso, M.; Isikoff, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The symptoms and clinical course of patients with acute pyelonephritis are variable; likewise, urinalysis, blood cultures, and excretory urography may be normal or equivocal. The ability of gallium-67 to accumulate in areas of active inflammation was useful in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in 12 cases. A multiplane tomographic scanner was used for imaging four of these patients. Initial experience with this scanner is also discussed.

  9. a Gallium Multiphase Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Scott D.; Greeff, Carl W.

    2009-12-01

    A new SESAME multiphase Gallium equation of state (EOS) has been developed. It includes three of the solid phases (Ga I, Ga II, Ga III) and a fluid phase (liquid/gas). The EOS includes consistent latent heat between the phases. We compare the results to the liquid Hugoniot data. We also explore the possibility of re-freezing via dynamic means such as isentropic and shock compression. We predict an unusual spontaneous spreading of low pressure shocks from STP.

  10. Positron study of annealing of gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Rice-Evans, P.C.; Smith, D.L.; Evans, H.E.; Gledhill, G.A. )

    1991-02-01

    A positron beam has been used to investigate the sub-surface changes in semi-insulating gallium arsenide which had been annealed to a range of temperatures. The variations of the Doppler S parameter as a function of positron implantation energy, when subjected to a diffusion analysis, indicate variations in positron trapping at different depths. The results indicate the changes in the type of point defect that accompany the annealing.

  11. High-dose gallium imaging in lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.C.; Leonard, R.C.; Canellos, G.P.; Skarin, A.T.; Kaplan, W.D.

    1983-08-01

    The role of gallium-67 imaging in the management of patients with lymphoma, traditionally assessed using low tracer doses and the rectilinear scanner, was assessed when using larger doses (7 to 10 mCi) and a triple-peak Anger camera. Gallium scan results in 51 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 21 patients with Hodgkin's disease were compared with simultaneous radiologic, clinical, and histopathologic reports. Subsequent disease course was also evaluated in light of radionuclide findings. Sensitivity and specificity of the scans were 0.90 or greater for both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease, and overall accuracy by site was 96 percent. Although there are insufficient numbers of pretreatment scans to allow any conclusions, our data suggest that newer approaches to gallium scanning in treated patients are (1) highly specific in all lymphomas and most sensitive in high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease; (2) valuable in assessing the mediastinum in both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease; and (3) helpful adjuncts to computed tomographic scanning and ultrasonography in assessing abdominal node disease.

  12. Compensation and Characterization of Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, Randy Allen

    1995-01-01

    The properties of transition metals in gallium arsenide have been previously investigated extensively with respect to activation energies, but little effort has been made to correlate processing parameters with electronic characteristics. Diffusion of copper in gallium arsenide is of technological importance due to the development of GaAs:Cu bistable photoconductive devices. Several techniques are demonstrated in this work to develop and characterize compensated gallium arsenide wafers. The material is created by the thermal diffusion of copper into silicon-doped GaAs. Transition metals generally form deep and shallow acceptors in GaAs, and therefore compensation is possible by material processing such that the shallow silicon donors are compensated by deep acceptors. Copper is an example of a transition metal that forms deep acceptors in GaAs, and therefore this work will focus on the compensation and characterization of GaAs:Si:Cu. The compensation of the material has shown that the lower diffusion temperatures (500-600^ circC) form primarily the well-known Cu _{rm B} centers whereas the higher temperature anneals (>750 ^circC) result in the formation of CU_{rm A}. Using compensation curves, the copper density is found by comparing the compensation temperature with copper solubility curves given by others. These curves also show that the formation of CU_{rm B}, EL2, and CU_{rm A} can be manipulated by varying processing parameters such as annealing temperature and arsenic pressure. The compensation results are confirmed using Temperature-Dependent Hall (TDH) measurements to detect the copper levels. Also, the photoconductive properties of the material under illumination from 1.06 and 2.1 μm wavelength laser pulses have been used to demonstrate the effects of the different processing procedures. The persistent photoconductivity inherent to these devices under illumination from the 1.06 μm laser pulse is used to predict the concentration of the Cu_ {rm B

  13. Repurposing of gallium-based drugs for antibacterial therapy.

    PubMed

    Bonchi, Carlo; Imperi, Francesco; Minandri, Fabrizia; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    While the occurrence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is vanishing current anti-infective therapies, the antibiotic discovery pipeline is drying up. In the last years, the repurposing of existing drugs for new clinical applications has become a major research area in drug discovery, also in the field of anti-infectives. This review discusses the potential of repurposing previously approved gallium formulations in antibacterial chemotherapy. Gallium has no proven function in biological systems, but it can act as an iron-mimetic in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The activity of gallium mostly relies on its ability to replace iron in redox enzymes, thus impairing their function and ultimately hampering cell growth. Cancer cells and bacteria are preferential gallium targets due to their active metabolism and fast growth. The wealth of knowledge on the pharmacological properties of gallium has opened the door to the repurposing of gallium-based drugs for the treatment of infections sustained by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. The promising antibacterial activity of gallium both in vitro and in different animal models of infection raises the hope that gallium will confirm its efficacy in clinical trials, and will become a valuable therapeutic option to cure otherwise untreatable bacterial infections.

  14. Gallium scintigraphy in bone infarction. Correlation with bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, R.R.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of gallium-67 images in bone infarction was studied in nine patients with sickle cell disease and correlated with the bone scan findings. Gallium uptake in acute infarction was decreased or absent with a variable bone scan uptake, and normal in healing infarcts, which showed increased uptake on bone scan. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  15. Laser photochemistry of gallium-containing compounds. [Trimethylgallium

    SciTech Connect

    Baughcum, S.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The production of gas-phase gallium atoms in the photolysis of trimethylgallium has been investigated at 193 nm and at other laser wavelengths. Ground state (4 /sup 2/P/sup 0//sub 1/2) and metastable (4 /sup 2/P/sup 0//sub 3/2/) gallium atoms are detected using laser-induced fluorescence techniques. Our results indicate that gallium atoms continue to be produced at long times after the laser pulse. The observed dependence on photolysis laser fluence, trimethylgallium pressure, and buffer gas pressure are consistent with a mechanism in which highly excited gallium methyl radicals undergo unimolecular decomposition to produce gallium atoms. Since this process is observed to happen on the time scale of hundreds of microseconds, these results have important implications for studies of metal deposition and direct laser writing by laser photolysis of organometallic compounds. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Sooseok; Park, Dong-Wha

    2016-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO3)3∙xH2O) was used as a raw material and NH3 gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C3H6N6) powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga2O3). Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C3H6N6. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing.

  17. Two chain gallium fluorodiphosphates: synthesis, structure solution, and their transient presence during the hydrothermal crystallisation of a microporous gallium fluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Millange, Franck; Walton, Richard I; Guillou, Nathalie; Loiseau, Thierry; O'Hare, Dermot; Férey, Gérard

    2002-04-21

    Two novel gallium fluorodiphosphates have been isolated and their structures solved ab initio from powder X-ray diffraction data; the materials readily interconvert under hydrothermal conditions, and are metastable with respect to an open-framework zeolitic gallium fluorophosphate, during the synthesis of which they are present as transient intermediates.

  18. The Preparation and Structural Characterization of Three Structural Types of Gallium Compounds Derived from Gallium (II) Chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Edward M.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Duraj. Stan A.; Habash, Tuhfeh S.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Schupp, John D.; Eckles, William E.; Long, Shawn

    1997-01-01

    The three compounds Ga2Cl4(4-mepy)2 (1),[GaCl2(4-mepy)4]GaCl4x1/2(4-mepy); (2) and GaCl2(4-mepy)2(S2CNEt2); (3) (4-mepy= 4-methylpyridine) have been prepared from reactions of gallium (II) chloride in 4-methylpyridine and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Small variations in the reaction conditions for gallium(II) chloride can produce crystals with substantially different structural properties. The three compounds described here encompass a neutral gallium(II) dimer in which each gallium is four-coordinate, an ionic compound containing both anionic and cationic gallium complex ions with different coordination numbers and a neutral six-coordinate heteroleptic

  19. 7 CFR 59.300 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 59.300 Section 59.300 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.300 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart. Boxed...

  20. 42 CFR 59.212 - Grantee accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grantee accountability. 59.212 Section 59.212 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.212 Grantee accountability....

  1. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  2. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  3. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  4. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  5. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  6. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal...

  7. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal...

  8. 7 CFR 3550.59 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security requirements. 3550.59 Section 3550.59... security. A loan will be considered adequately secured only when all of the following requirements are met... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.59...

  9. 7 CFR 3550.59 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security requirements. 3550.59 Section 3550.59... security. A loan will be considered adequately secured only when all of the following requirements are met... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.59...

  10. 7 CFR 3550.59 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security requirements. 3550.59 Section 3550.59... security. A loan will be considered adequately secured only when all of the following requirements are met... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.59...

  11. 7 CFR 3550.59 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security requirements. 3550.59 Section 3550.59... security. A loan will be considered adequately secured only when all of the following requirements are met... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.59...

  12. 7 CFR 3550.59 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security requirements. 3550.59 Section 3550.59... security. A loan will be considered adequately secured only when all of the following requirements are met... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.59...

  13. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  14. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  15. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  16. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  17. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  18. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  19. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  20. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  1. 28 CFR 90.59 - Grantee reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grantee reporting. 90.59 Section 90.59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments Discretionary Program § 90.59 Grantee reporting. (a) Upon completion of the grant period under this part,...

  2. 28 CFR 90.59 - Grantee reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grantee reporting. 90.59 Section 90.59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments Discretionary Program § 90.59 Grantee reporting. (a) Upon completion of the grant period under this part,...

  3. 28 CFR 90.59 - Grantee reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grantee reporting. 90.59 Section 90.59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments Discretionary Program § 90.59 Grantee reporting. (a) Upon completion of the grant period under this part,...

  4. 38 CFR 59.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 59.1 Section 59.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.1 Purpose. This part sets forth the...

  5. 42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project requirements. 59.205 Section 59.205 Public... SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.205 Project requirements. An approvable... pursuit of an academic degree. (3) No project personnel or trainees shall on the grounds of sex,...

  6. 14 CFR 65.59 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.59 Section 65.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.59 Skill requirements....

  7. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cracks. 59.10-5 Section 59.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... cracks are veed out so that complete penetration of the weld metal is secured. (b) Circumferential...

  8. 31 CFR 103.59 - Criminal penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal penalty. 103.59 Section 103.59 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.59 Criminal penalty. (a) Any...

  9. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  10. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  11. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  12. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  13. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  14. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  15. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  16. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  17. 40 CFR 172.59 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enforcement. 172.59 Section 172.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for Certain Genetically Modified Microbial Pesticides § 172.59 Enforcement....

  18. 40 CFR 172.59 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enforcement. 172.59 Section 172.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for Certain Genetically Modified Microbial Pesticides § 172.59 Enforcement....

  19. 40 CFR 172.59 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enforcement. 172.59 Section 172.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for Certain Genetically Modified Microbial Pesticides § 172.59 Enforcement....

  20. 40 CFR 172.59 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement. 172.59 Section 172.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for Certain Genetically Modified Microbial Pesticides § 172.59 Enforcement....

  1. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may,...

  2. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may,...

  3. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  4. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  5. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  6. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  7. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  8. 14 CFR 65.59 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.59 Section 65.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.59 Skill requirements....

  9. 14 CFR 65.59 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.59 Section 65.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.59 Skill requirements....

  10. 14 CFR 65.59 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.59 Section 65.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.59 Skill requirements....

  11. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida....

  12. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida....

  13. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida....

  14. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  15. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  16. 18 CFR 701.59 - Advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advisory committees. 701.59 Section 701.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.59 Advisory committees. The Council may establish standing and...

  17. 18 CFR 701.59 - Advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advisory committees. 701.59 Section 701.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.59 Advisory committees. The Council may establish standing and...

  18. 38 CFR 59.50 - Priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority list. 59.50 Section 59.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.50 Priority list. (a) The Secretary will make a list prioritizing the applications...

  19. 25 CFR 700.59 - Displaced person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displaced person. 700.59 Section 700.59 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.59 Displaced person. Displaced person means a member of...

  20. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees,...

  2. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  3. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  4. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  5. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  6. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  7. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has...

  8. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has...

  9. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has...

  10. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has...

  11. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has...

  12. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  13. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  14. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  15. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  16. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  17. 28 CFR 59.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 59.1 Section 59.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ON METHODS OF OBTAINING DOCUMENTARY MATERIALS HELD BY THIRD PARTIES § 59.1 Introduction. (a) A search for documentary materials necessarily...

  18. 42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project requirements. 59.205 Section 59.205 Public... SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.205 Project requirements. An approvable... pursuit of an academic degree. (3) No project personnel or trainees shall on the grounds of sex,...

  19. 42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project requirements. 59.205 Section 59.205 Public... SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.205 Project requirements. An approvable... pursuit of an academic degree. (3) No project personnel or trainees shall on the grounds of sex,...

  20. 42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project requirements. 59.205 Section 59.205 Public... SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.205 Project requirements. An approvable... pursuit of an academic degree. (3) No project personnel or trainees shall on the grounds of sex,...

  1. 42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project requirements. 59.205 Section 59.205 Public... SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.205 Project requirements. An approvable... pursuit of an academic degree. (3) No project personnel or trainees shall on the grounds of sex,...

  2. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  3. 38 CFR 3.59 - Parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Parent. 3.59 Section 3.59..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.59 Parent. (a) The term parent means a... a period of not less than 1 year stood in the relationship of a parent to a veteran at any...

  4. 38 CFR 3.59 - Parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parent. 3.59 Section 3.59..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.59 Parent. (a) The term parent means a... a period of not less than 1 year stood in the relationship of a parent to a veteran at any...

  5. 38 CFR 3.59 - Parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Parent. 3.59 Section 3.59..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.59 Parent. (a) The term parent means a... a period of not less than 1 year stood in the relationship of a parent to a veteran at any...

  6. 38 CFR 3.59 - Parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parent. 3.59 Section 3.59..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.59 Parent. (a) The term parent means a... a period of not less than 1 year stood in the relationship of a parent to a veteran at any...

  7. 38 CFR 3.59 - Parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parent. 3.59 Section 3.59..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.59 Parent. (a) The term parent means a... a period of not less than 1 year stood in the relationship of a parent to a veteran at any...

  8. 40 CFR 59.630 - EPA testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA testing. 59.630 Section 59.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission Families § 59.630 EPA testing....

  9. 40 CFR 59.630 - EPA testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA testing. 59.630 Section 59.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission Families § 59.630 EPA testing....

  10. 40 CFR 59.630 - EPA testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA testing. 59.630 Section 59.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission Families § 59.630 EPA testing....

  11. 40 CFR 59.630 - EPA testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA testing. 59.630 Section 59.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission Families § 59.630 EPA testing....

  12. 40 CFR 59.630 - EPA testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA testing. 59.630 Section 59.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission Families § 59.630 EPA testing....

  13. 28 CFR 90.59 - Grantee reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grantee reporting. 90.59 Section 90.59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments Discretionary Program § 90.59 Grantee reporting. (a) Upon completion of the grant period under this part,...

  14. 38 CFR 59.110 - Recapture provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recapture provisions. 59.110 Section 59.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.110 Recapture provisions. If...

  15. 40 CFR 258.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 258.59 Section 258.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.59...

  16. 40 CFR 258.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 258.59 Section 258.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.59...

  17. 40 CFR 258.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 258.59 Section 258.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.59...

  18. 40 CFR 258.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 258.59 Section 258.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.59...

  19. 40 CFR 258.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true 258.59 Section 258.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.59...

  20. 46 CFR 111.59-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General. 111.59-1 Section 111.59-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-1 General. Each busway must meet Article 368 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by...

  1. 46 CFR 111.59-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General. 111.59-1 Section 111.59-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-1 General. Each busway must meet Article 368 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by...

  2. 46 CFR 111.59-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 111.59-1 Section 111.59-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-1 General. Each busway must meet Article 368 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by...

  3. 46 CFR 111.59-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General. 111.59-1 Section 111.59-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-1 General. Each busway must meet Article 368 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by...

  4. 46 CFR 111.59-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 111.59-1 Section 111.59-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-1 General. Each busway must meet Article 368 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by...

  5. 49 CFR 22.59 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loan modifications. 22.59 Section 22.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.59 Loan modifications. Any modification to the terms of the DOT OSDBU guarantee agreement...

  6. 49 CFR 22.59 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan modifications. 22.59 Section 22.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.59 Loan modifications. Any modification to the terms of the DOT OSDBU guarantee agreement...

  7. 33 CFR 401.59 - Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pollution. 401.59 Section 401.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.59 Pollution. (a) No vessel shall:...

  8. 33 CFR 401.59 - Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollution. 401.59 Section 401.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.59 Pollution. (a) No vessel shall:...

  9. 33 CFR 401.59 - Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollution. 401.59 Section 401.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.59 Pollution. (a) No vessel shall:...

  10. 33 CFR 401.59 - Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pollution. 401.59 Section 401.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.59 Pollution. (a) No vessel shall:...

  11. 33 CFR 401.59 - Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution. 401.59 Section 401.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.59 Pollution. (a) No vessel shall:...

  12. 14 CFR 145.59 - Ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ratings. 145.59 Section 145.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Certification § 145.59 Ratings. The following ratings are issued...

  13. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain...

  14. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.59 Coal... conservation of the coal, while utilizing the best technology currently available to maintain...

  15. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.59 Coal... conservation of the coal, while utilizing the best technology currently available to maintain...

  16. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.59 Coal... conservation of the coal, while utilizing the best technology currently available to maintain...

  17. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain...

  18. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain...

  19. 33 CFR 159.59 - Placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Placard. 159.59 Section 159.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.59 Placard. Each device must have a...

  20. 33 CFR 159.59 - Placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Placard. 159.59 Section 159.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.59 Placard. Each device must have a...

  1. 33 CFR 159.59 - Placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Placard. 159.59 Section 159.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.59 Placard. Each device must have a...

  2. 33 CFR 159.59 - Placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Placard. 159.59 Section 159.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.59 Placard. Each device must have a...

  3. 33 CFR 159.59 - Placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Placard. 159.59 Section 159.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.59 Placard. Each device must have a...

  4. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  5. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  6. Electrical characterization of germanium implanted gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrotti, F. L.

    1980-06-01

    The amphoteric electrical properties of germanium single implants into gallium arsenide, and of dual implants of germanium with either gallium or arsenic into gallium arsenide, have been studied. Room temperature implantation was performed for all implanted ions at 120 keV, with doses ranging from 5E12 to 3E15 ions per square centimeter. Implanted samples were annealed with pyrolytic silicon nitride encapsulants at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 degrees Celsius. Both p- and n-type layers were observed. Type of conductivity, electrical activation, and carrier mobility were found to depend critically upon ion dose and anneal temperature. The general electrical behavior suggests that in samples of lower dose and anneal temperature, the implanted Ge ions go into As sites preferentially, producing p-type activity, whereas in samples of higher dose and anneal temperature, more Ge ions go into Ga sites, producing n-type activity. Conductivity was found to change from p- to n-type at an intermediate dose of 3E14 ions per square centimeter and at an anneal temperature between 900 and 950 degrees Celsius. It has been determined that additional implantation of As into GaAs Ge favors Ge occupancy of Ga sites and an enhancement of n-type activity, whereas the additional implantation of Ga encourages Ge occupancy of As sites and an enhancement of p-type activity. Enhancement factors of as much as 8 for p-type activations, and as much as 50 for n-type activations have been measured.

  7. Gallium scintigraphic pattern in lung CMV infections

    SciTech Connect

    Ganz, W.I.; Cohen, D.; Mallin, W.

    1994-05-01

    Due to extensive use of prophylactic therapy for Pneumonitis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), Cytomegalic Viral (CMV) infection may now be the most common lung infection in AIDS patients. This study was performed to determine Gallium-67 patterns in AIDS patients with CMV. Pathology reports were reviewed in AIDS patients who had a dose of 5 to 10 mCi of Gallium-67 citrate. Analysis of images were obtained 48-72 hours later of the entire body was performed. Gallium-67 scans in 14 AIDS patients with biopsy proven CMV, were evaluated for eye, colon, adrenal, lung and renal uptake. These were compared to 40 AIDS patients without CMV. These controls had infections including PCP, Mycobacterial infections, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. 100% of CMV patients had bowel uptake greater than or equal to liver. Similar bowel activity was seen in 50% of AIDS patients without CMV. 71% had intense eye uptake which was seen in only 10% of patients without CMV. 50% of CMV patients had renal uptake compared to 5% of non-CMV cases. Adrenal uptake was suggested in 50%, however, SPECT imaging is needed for confirmation. 85% had low grade lung uptake. The low grade lung had perihilar prominence. The remaining 15% had high grade lung uptake (greater than sternum) due to superimposed PCP infection. Colon uptake is very sensitive indicator for CMV infection. However, observing eye, renal, and or adrenal uptake improved the diagnostic specificity. SPECT imaging is needed to confirm renal or adrenal abnormalities due to intense bowel activity present in 100% of cases. When high grade lung uptake is seen superimposed PCP is suggested.

  8. Sodium Flux Growth of Bulk Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Dollen, Paul Martin

    This dissertation focused on development of a novel apparatus and techniques for crystal growth of bulk gallium nitride (GaN) using the sodium flux method. Though several methods exist to produce bulk GaN, none have been commercialized on an industrial scale. The sodium flux method offers potentially lower cost production due to relatively mild process conditions while maintaining high crystal quality. But the current equipment and methods for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN are generally not amenable to large-scale crystal growth or in situ investigation of growth processes, which has hampered progress. A key task was to prevent sodium loss or migration from the sodium-gallium growth melt while permitting N2 gas to access the growing crystal, which was accomplished by implementing a reflux condensing stem along with a reusable sealed capsule. The reflux condensing stem also enabled direct monitoring and control of the melt temperature, which has not been previously reported for the sodium flux method. Molybdenum-based materials were identified from a corrosion study as candidates for direct containment of the corrosive sodium-gallium melt. Successful introduction of these materials allowed implementation of a crucible-free containment system, which improved process control and can potentially reduce crystal impurity levels. Using the new growth system, the (0001) Ga face (+c plane) growth rate was >50 mum/hr, which is the highest bulk GaN growth rate reported for the sodium flux method. Omega X-ray rocking curve (?-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were <100 arcseconds. Oxygen impurity concentrations as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were >1020 atoms/cm3, possibly due to reactor cleaning and handling procedures. This dissertation also introduced an in situ technique to correlate changes in N2 pressure with dissolution of nitrogen and precipitation of

  9. Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Fibers for Infrared Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Y. D.; Schweizer, T.; Brady, D. J.; Hewak, D. W.

    Gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) glass and fiber have potential for use in both active and passive infrared applications. In this paper the optical, thermal, and other key properties, which are essential for understanding the applications and crucial in the quest for practical fibres, are discussed. Glass preparation by melt-quenchingand subsequent fibre fabrication is described using both rod-in-tube and extruded preforms. Absorptive and scattering losses are explored as they could represent a fundamental limitation to successful device fabrication. Potential passive and active applications are reported and the prospects for a future generation of sulphide fiber-based devices examined.

  10. Patterned gallium surfaces as molecular mirrors.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Alessandra; Rivetti, Claudio; Mangiarotti, Laura; Whitcombe, Michael J; Turner, Anthony P F; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2007-09-30

    An entirely new means of printing molecular information on a planar film, involving casting nanoscale impressions of the template protein molecules in molten gallium, is presented here for the first time. The metallic imprints not only replicate the shape and size of the proteins used as template. They also show specific binding for the template species. Such a simple approach to the creation of antibody-like properties in metallic mirrors can lead to applications in separations, microfluidic devices, and the development of new optical and electronic sensors, and will be of interest to chemists, materials scientists, analytical specialists, and electronic engineers.

  11. Effect of gallium on growth of Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 and dental tissues.

    PubMed

    Valappil, S P; Owens, G J; Miles, E J; Farmer, N L; Cooper, L; Miller, G; Clowes, R; Lynch, R J M; Higham, S M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium-doped phosphate-based glasses (Ga-PBG) were assessed for their impact on Streptococcus mutans and dental mineralisation, firstly by disc diffusion assays followed by biofilms grown on nitrocellulose filter membrane (NFM) and constant-depth film fermentor (CDFF). Short-time exposure (10 min) effects of Ga-PBG on S. mutans biofilm were compared with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. The effects of Ga-PBG on bovine enamel (which was investigated under pH-cycling condition) and dentine were analysed using transverse microradiography (TMR), profilometry and inductively coupled plasma optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The disc diffusion assays showed inhibition zones of 24.5 ± 0.5 mm for Ga-PBG compared with controls (C-PBG). Ga-PBG showed statistically significant growth inhibition of S. mutans biofilms on NFM (p = 0.001) and CDFF (p < 0.046) compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) and C-PBG. The CDFF assay revealed a maximum of 2.11 log colony-forming unit (CFU) reduction at 48 h, but short-time exposure effects were comparable with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine only on older biofilms (maximum of 0.59 vs. 0.69 log CFU reduction at 120 h). TMR analyses of the enamel revealed non-significant mineral loss (p = 0.37) only in the case of Ga-PBG samples compared with controls including sodium fluoride. ICP-OES analyses indicated transient gallium adsorption into dentine by calcium displacement. The results confirmed that gallium inhibited S. mutans growth and appears to have the potential to protect the enamel surface under conditions representative of the oral environment. Further work is needed to establish whether it has an application in daily oral hygiene procedures to prevent or reduce caries.

  12. Gallium induces the production of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael; Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-02-01

    The novel antimicrobial gallium is a nonredox iron III analogue with bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, effective for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo in mouse and rabbit infection models. It interferes with iron metabolism, transport, and presumably its homeostasis. As gallium exerts its antimicrobial effects by competing with iron, we hypothesized that it ultimately will lead cells to an iron deficiency status. As iron deficiency promotes the expression of virulence factors in vitro and promotes the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa in animal models, it is anticipated that treatment with gallium will also promote the production of virulence factors. To test this hypothesis, the reference strain PA14 and two clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis were exposed to gallium, and their production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipids, elastase, alkaline protease, alginate, pyoverdine, and biofilm was determined. Gallium treatment induced the production of all the virulence factors tested in the three strains except for pyoverdine. In addition, as the Ga-induced virulence factors are quorum sensing controlled, co-administration of Ga and the quorum quencher brominated furanone C-30 was assayed, and it was found that C-30 alleviated growth inhibition from gallium. Hence, adding both C-30 and gallium may be more effective in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.

  13. The effect of gallium nitrate on synoviocyte MMP activity.

    PubMed

    Panagakos, F S; Kumar, E; Venescar, C; Guidon, P

    2000-02-01

    Gallium, a group IIIa metal salt, has been demonstrated to be an effective immunosuppressive agent. Gallium has also been shown to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta, produced by macrophage-like cells in vitro. To further characterize the effects of gallium on the inflammatory process, we examined the effects of gallium nitrate on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity utilizing the rabbit synoviocyte cell line HIG-82. HIG-82 cells were incubated with IL-1beta and TPA, with and without increasing concentrations of gallium nitrate. Conditioned medium was collected and assayed for MMP activity using a synthetic substrate and substrate gel zymography. IL-1beta and TPA alone induced MMP activity in HIG-82 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of IL-1beta and TPA stimulated MMP activity by gallium nitrate at increasing concentrations was observed. This study demonstrates that gallium nitrate can inhibit the activity of MMPs and may be useful as a modulator of inflammation in arthritis.

  14. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-12-01

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  15. Behavior of Zircaloy Cladding in the Presence of Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fuel, on cladding material performance. An experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium, and (2) various concentrations of G~03. Three types of tests were performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests were to determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Results have generally been favorable for the use of weapons-grade (WG) MOX fhel. The Zircaloy cladding does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at >3000 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium or liquid metal embrittlement was observed.

  16. Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

    1987-12-01

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

  17. Antitumor effect of novel gallium compounds and efficacy of nanoparticle-mediated gallium delivery in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wehrung, Daniel; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2012-02-01

    The widespread application of gallium (Ga) in cancer therapy has been greatly hampered by lack of specificity resulting in poor tumor accumulation and retention. To address the challenge, two lipophilic gallium (III) compounds (gallium hexanedione; GaH and gallium acetylacetonate; GaAcAc) were synthesized and antitumor studies were conducted in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Nanoparticles (NPs) containing various concentrations of the Ga compounds were prepared using a binary mixture of Gelucire 44/14 and cetyl alcohol as matrix materials. NPs were characterized based on size, morphology, stability and biocompatibility. Antitumor effects of free or NP-loaded Ga compounds were investigated based on cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species and reduction of mitochondrial potential. Compared to free Ga compounds, cytotoxicity of NP-loaded Ga (5-150 microg/ml) was less dependent on concentration and incubation time (exposure) with A549 cells. NP-mediated delivery (5-150 microg Ga/ml) enhanced antitumor effects of Ga compounds and the effect was pronounced at: (i) shorter incubation times; and (ii) at low concentrations of gallium (approximately 50 microg/ml) (p < 0.0006). Additional studies showed that NP-mediated Ga delivery was not dependent on transferrin receptor uptake mechanism (p > 0.13) suggesting the potential in overcoming gallium resistance in some tumors. In general, preparation of stable and biocompatible NPs that facilitated Ga tumor uptake and antitumor effects could be effective in gallium-based cancer therapy.

  18. Interactions of Zircaloy Cladding with Gallium: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Wilson; E.T. Manneschmidt; J.F. King; J.P. Strizak; J.R. DiStefano

    1998-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fhel, on cladding material performance. Three previous repmts"3 identified several compatibility issues relating to the presence of gallium in MOX fuel and its possible reaction with fiel cladding. Gallium initially present in weapons-grade (WG) plutonium is largely removed during processing to produce MOX fhel. After blending the plutonium with uranium, only 1 to 10 ppm gallium is expected in the sintered MOX fuel. Gallium present as gallium oxide (G~OJ could be evolved as the suboxide (G~O). Migration of the evolved G~O and diffusion of gallium in the MOX matrix along thermal gradients could lead to locally higher concentrations of G~03. Thus, while an extremely low concentration of gallium in MOX fiel almost ensures a lack of significant interaction of gallium whh Zircaloy fhel cladding, there remains a small probability that corrosion effects will not be negligible. General corrosion in the form of surface alloying resulting from formation of intermetallic compounds between Zircaloy and gallium should be ma& limited and, therefore, superficial because of the expected low ratio of gallium to the surface area or volume of the Zircaloy cladding. Although the expected concentration of gallium is low and there is very limited volubility of gallium in zirconium, especially at temperatures below 700 "C,4 grain boundary penetration and liquid metal embrittlement (LME) are forms of localized corrosion that were also considered. One fuel system darnage mechanism, pellet clad interaction, has led to some failure of the Zircaloy cladding in light-water reactors (LWRS

  19. High frequency of benign mediastinal uptake of gallium-67 after completion of chemotherapy in children with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Peylan-Ramu, N.; Haddy, T.B.; Jones, E.; Horvath, K.; Adde, M.A.; Magrath, I.T. )

    1989-12-01

    We observed increased gallium-67 uptake in the mediastinum after completion of chemotherapy in 10 of 62 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. All 10 were under 15 years of age, yielding a frequency of 43% in this age group. The interval between cessation of chemotherapy and the development of increased gallium-67 uptake ranged from 1 to 8 months, and the abnormality persisted for 2 to 59 months. Serial chest x-rays were performed in all patients, and four of the 10 had transient widening of the mediastinum that remained within normal limits for the children's ages. Three patients had chest computed tomographic (CT) scans at the time of increased gallium-67 uptake, and one of the three had serial scans that showed a mediastinal mass consistent with thymic enlargement. All of the patients were asymptomatic and none were biopsied. All 10 remained well, with a mean follow-up of 52.5 months. The phenomenon we describe is probably due to rebound thymic hyperplasia, which is a benign and transient condition. We conclude that abnormal mediastinal gallium-67 uptake after completion of chemotherapy is likely to be benign and transient if the patients are young, have small non-cleaved-cell histology, are without other evidence of lymphoma recurrence, and do not have initial mediastinal involvement. Progressive widening of the mediastinum on chest x-ray is cause for suspicion and requires further evaluation. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels may not be helpful in differentiating a benign from a malignant process.

  20. Fabrication of Aluminum Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride MESFET And It's Applications in Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alur, Siddharth

    Gallium Nitride has been researched extensively for the past three decades for its application in Light Emitting Diodes (LED's), power devices and UV photodetectors. With the recent developments in crystal growth technology and the ability to control the doping there has been an increased interest in heterostructures formed between Gallium nitride and it's alloy Aluminium Gallium Nitride. These heterostructures due to the combined effect of spontaneous and piezoelectric effect can form a high density and a high mobility electron gas channel without any intentional doping. This high density electron gas makes these heterostructures ideal to be used as sensors. Gallium Nitride is also chemically very stable. Detection of biomolecules in a fast and reliable manner is very important in the areas of food safety and medical research. For biomolecular detection it is paramount to have a robust binding of the probes on the sensor surface. Therefore, in this dissertation, the fabrication and application of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors for the detection of DNA and Organophosphate hydrolase enzyme is discussed. In order to use these AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors capable of working in a liquid environment photodefinable polydimethyl-siloxane is used as an encapsulant. The immobilization conditions for a robust binding of thiolated DNA and the catalytic receptor enzyme organophosphate hydrolase on gold surfaces is developed with the help of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. DNA and OPH are detected by measuring the change in the drain current of the device as a function of time.

  1. Measurement of arsenic and gallium content of gallium arsenide semiconductor waste streams by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Torrance, Keith W; Keenan, Helen E; Hursthouse, Andrew S; Stirling, David

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry of semiconductor wafer processing liquid waste, contaminated by heavy metals, was investigated to determine arsenic content. Arsenic and gallium concentrations were determined for waste slurries collected from gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer processing at three industrial sources and compared to slurries prepared under laboratory conditions. The arsenic and gallium content of waste slurries was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) and it is reported that the arsenic content of the waste streams was related to the wafer thinning process, with slurries from wafer polishing having the highest dissolved arsenic content at over 1,900 mgL(-1). Lapping slurries had much lower dissolved arsenic (< 90 mgL(-1)) content, but higher particulate contents. It is demonstrated that significant percentage of GaAs becomes soluble during wafer lapping. Grinding slurries had the lowest dissolved arsenic content at 15 mgL(-1). All three waste streams are classified as hazardous waste, based on their solids content and dissolved arsenic levels and treatment is required before discharge or disposal. It is calculated that as much as 93% of material is discarded through the entire GaAs device manufacturing process, with limited recycling. Although gallium can be economically recovered from waste slurries, there is little incentive to recover arsenic, which is mostly landfilled. Options for treating GaAs processing waste streams are reviewed and some recommendations made for handling the waste. Therefore, although the quantities of hazardous waste generated are miniscule in comparison to other industries, sustainable manufacturing practices are needed to minimize the environmental impact of GaAs semiconductor device fabrication.

  2. The dimeric nature of bonding in gallium: from small clusters to the α-gallium phase.

    PubMed

    Tonner, Ralf; Gaston, Nicola

    2014-11-28

    We consider the structural similarity of small gallium clusters to the bulk structure of α-gallium, which has been previously described as a molecular metal, via density functional theory-based computations. Previous calculations have shown that the tetramer, the hexamer, and the octamer of gallium are all structurally similar to the α-phase. We perform an analysis of the bonding in these clusters in terms of the molecular orbitals and atoms in molecules description in order to assess whether we can see similarities at these sizes to the bonding pattern, which is ascribed to the co-existence of covalent and metallic bonding in the bulk. The singlet Ga4 and Ga8 clusters can be constructed in a singlet ground state from the Ga-dimers in the first excited triplet state of the Ga2-molecule, the (3)Σg(-) state. Molecular orbital (MO) analysis confirms that the dimer is an essential building block of these small clusters. Comparison of the AIM characteristics of the bonds within the clusters to the bonds in the bulk α-phase supports the identification of the covalent bond in the bulk as related to the (3)Σg(-) state of the dimer.

  3. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (78 Stat. 252, 42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) and...

  4. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (78 Stat. 252, 42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) and...

  5. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (78 Stat. 252, 42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) and...

  6. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (78 Stat. 252, 42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) and...

  7. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (78 Stat. 252, 42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) and...

  8. 40 CFR 59.514 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.514 Circumvention. Each manufacturer,...

  9. 40 CFR 59.411 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.411 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  10. 40 CFR 59.212 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.212 Circumvention. No regulated entity subject...

  11. 40 CFR 59.514 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.514 Circumvention. Each manufacturer,...

  12. 40 CFR 59.410 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.410 State authority. The provisions of...

  13. 40 CFR 59.410 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.410 State authority. The provisions of...

  14. 40 CFR 59.411 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.411 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  15. 40 CFR 59.410 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.410 State authority. The provisions of...

  16. 40 CFR 59.514 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.514 Circumvention. Each manufacturer,...

  17. 40 CFR 59.513 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.513 State authority. The provisions in...

  18. 40 CFR 59.410 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.410 State authority. The provisions of...

  19. 40 CFR 59.513 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.513 State authority. The provisions in...

  20. 40 CFR 59.513 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.513 State authority. The provisions in...

  1. 40 CFR 59.514 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.514 Circumvention. Each manufacturer,...

  2. 40 CFR 59.513 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.513 State authority. The provisions in...

  3. 40 CFR 59.411 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.411 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  4. 40 CFR 59.212 - Circumvention.

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    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.212 Circumvention. No regulated entity subject...

  5. 40 CFR 59.411 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.411 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  6. 40 CFR 59.108 - State Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.108 State Authority. The provisions...

  7. 40 CFR 59.106 - Variance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.106 Variance. (a) Any regulated...

  8. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  9. 40 CFR 59.212 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.212 Circumvention. No regulated entity subject...

  10. 40 CFR 59.109 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.109 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  11. 40 CFR 59.109 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.109 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  12. 40 CFR 59.109 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.109 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  13. 40 CFR 59.106 - Variance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.106 Variance. (a) Any regulated...

  14. 40 CFR 59.106 - Variance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.106 Variance. (a) Any regulated...

  15. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  16. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  17. 40 CFR 59.212 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.212 Circumvention. No regulated entity subject...

  18. 40 CFR 59.106 - Variance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.106 Variance. (a) Any regulated...

  19. 40 CFR 59.108 - State Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.108 State Authority. The provisions...

  20. 40 CFR 59.212 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.212 Circumvention. No regulated entity subject...

  1. 40 CFR 59.106 - Variance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.106 Variance. (a) Any regulated...

  2. 40 CFR 59.513 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.513 State authority. The provisions in...

  3. 40 CFR 59.410 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.410 State authority. The provisions of...

  4. 40 CFR 59.411 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.411 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  5. 40 CFR 59.514 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.514 Circumvention. Each manufacturer,...

  6. Computer simulation of radiation damage in gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stith, John J.; Davenport, James C.; Copeland, Randolph L.

    1989-01-01

    A version of the binary-collision simulation code MARLOWE was used to study the spatial characteristics of radiation damage in proton and electron irradiated gallium arsenide. Comparisons made with the experimental results proved to be encouraging.

  7. Gallium accumulation in early pulmonary Pneumocystis carinii infection

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.A.; Allegra, J.C.

    1986-09-01

    The accumulation of gallium 67 citrate in pulmonary Pneumocystis carinii is well known. The sensitivity of gallium uptake in detecting early inflammatory processes, even when conventional roentgenograms are normal, would seem to make it possible in immunocompromised patients to make a presumptive diagnosis of this serious infection early in its course without using invasive techniques to demonstrate the organism. However, the presence of gallium uptake in radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary drug toxicity, and other processes that also occur in this group limit its usefulness. In our two patients--a young woman with Hodgkin's disease and an elderly woman with small cell lung cancer--this technique proved helpful. Although the latter patient was successfully treated empirically, such empiric treatment should be reserved for patients unable or unwilling to undergo invasive tests. Pulmonary gallium uptake in patients with respiratory symptoms, even with a normal chest film, should prompt attempts to directly demonstrate the organism.

  8. Preliminary Experimental Measurements for a Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Glumac, Nick G.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    A low-energy gallium plasma source is used to perform a spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range. Neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium are present in a 20 J, 1.8 kA (peak) arc discharge operating with a central cathode. When the polarity of the inner electrode is reversed the discharge current and arc voltage waveforms remain similar. Utilizing a central anode configuration, multiple Ga lines are absent in the 270-340 nm range. In addition, neutral and singly ionized Fe spectral lines are present, indicating erosion of the outer electrode. With graphite present on the insulator to facilitate breakdown, line emission from the gallium species is further reduced and while emissions from singly and doubly ionized carbon atoms and molecular carbon (C2) radicals are observed. These data indicate that a significant fraction of energy is shifted from the gallium and deposited into the various carbon species.

  9. Ellipsometric study of silicon nitride on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Bu-Abbud, G. H.; Woollam, J. A.; Liu, D.; Chung, Y.; Langer, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for optimizing the sensitivity of ellipsometric measurements for thin dielectric films on semiconductors is described in simple physical terms. The technique is demonstrated for the case of sputtered silicon nitride films on gallium arsenide.

  10. Complexometric determination of gallium with calcein blue as indicator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsheimer, H.N.

    1967-01-01

    A metalfluorechromic indicator, Calcein Blue, has been used for the back-titration of milligram amounts of EDTA in presence of gallium complexes. The indicator was used in conjunction with an ultraviolet titration assembly equipped with a cadmium sulphide detector cell and a microammeter for enhanced end-point detection. The result is a convenient and rapid method with an accuracy approaching 0.1 % and a relative standard deviation of about 0.4% for 10 mg of gallium. ?? 1967.

  11. Generator for ionic gallium-68 based on column chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 fluorides, having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of solution is provided. The solution is obtained from a generator comprising germanium-68 hexafluoride bound to a column of an anion exchange resin which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with an acid solution to form a solution containing .sup.68 Ga-fluorides. The solution then is neutralized prior to administration.

  12. Method of fabricating germanium and gallium arsenide devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzban (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of semiconductor diode fabrication is disclosed which relies on the epitaxial growth of a precisely doped thickness layer of gallium arsenide or germanium on a semi-insulating or intrinsic substrate, respectively, of gallium arsenide or germanium by either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The method involves: depositing a layer of doped or undoped silicon dioxide on a germanium or gallium arsenide wafer or substrate, selectively removing the silicon dioxide layer to define one or more surface regions for a device to be fabricated thereon, growing a matched epitaxial layer of doped germanium or gallium arsenide of an appropriate thickness using MBE or MOCVD techniques on both the silicon dioxide layer and the defined one or more regions; and etching the silicon dioxide and the epitaxial material on top of the silicon dioxide to leave a matched epitaxial layer of germanium or gallium arsenide on the germanium or gallium arsenide substrate, respectively, and upon which a field effect device can thereafter be formed.

  13. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. Direct Band Gap Wurtzite Gallium Phosphide Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The main challenge for light-emitting diodes is to increase the efficiency in the green part of the spectrum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the green emission efficiency. Band structure calculations have predicted a direct band gap for wurtzite GaP. Here, we report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong photoluminescence at a wavelength of 594 nm with short lifetime, typical for a direct band gap. Furthermore, by incorporation of aluminum or arsenic in the GaP nanowires, the emitted wavelength is tuned across an important range of the visible light spectrum (555–690 nm). This approach of crystal structure engineering enables new pathways to tailor materials properties enhancing the functionality. PMID:23464761

  15. Producing gallium arsenide crystals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The production of high quality crystals in space is a promising near-term application of microgravity processing. Gallium arsenide is the selected material for initial commercial production because of its inherent superior electronic properties, wide range of market applications, and broad base of on-going device development effort. Plausible product prices can absorb the high cost of space transportation for the initial flights provided by the Space Transportation System. The next step for bulk crystal growth, beyond the STS, is planned to come later with the use of free flyers or a space station, where real benefits are foreseen. The use of these vehicles, together with refinement and increasing automation of space-based crystal growth factories, will bring down costs and will support growing demands for high quality GaAs and other specialty electronic and electro-optical crystals grown in space.

  16. The interaction of gold with gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar-cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments designed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions have yielded several interesting results. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are also explained by invoking this mechanism.

  17. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Garlick, G. F. J.

    1987-01-01

    High-efficiency gallium arsenide cells, made by the liquid epitaxy method (LPE), have been irradiated with 1-MeV electrons up to fluences of 10 to the 16th e/sq cm. Measurements have been made of cell spectral response and dark and light-excited current-voltage characteristics and analyzed using computer-based models to determine underlying parameters such as damage coefficients. It is possible to use spectral response to sort out damage effects in the different cell component layers. Damage coefficients are similar to other reported in the literature for the emitter and buffer (base). However, there is also a damage effect in the window layer and possibly at the window emitter interface similar to that found for proton-irradiated liquid-phase epitaxy-grown cells. Depletion layer recombination is found to be less than theoretically expected at high fluence.

  18. Contact formation in gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments were performed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are explained by invoking this mechanism.

  19. Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Gallium nitride [GaN] nanorods grown on a Si(111) substrate at 720°C via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied by field-emission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence [CL]. The surface topography and optical properties of the GaN nanorod cluster and single GaN nanorod were measured and discussed. The defect-related CL spectra of GaN nanorods and their dependence on temperature were investigated. The CL spectra along the length of the individual GaN nanorod were also studied. The results reveal that the 3.2-eV peak comes from the structural defect at the interface between the GaN nanorod and Si substrate. The surface state emission of the single GaN nanorod is stronger as the diameter of the GaN nanorod becomes smaller due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio. PMID:22168896

  20. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E.; Hryciw, Aaron C.

    2014-04-07

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8 × 10{sup 5} and mode volumes <10(λ/n){sup 3}, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0 × 10{sup 4} intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 μm and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g{sub 0}/2π∼30 kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz.

  1. Gallium Arsenide solar cell radiation damage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.; Herbert, G. A.; Meulenberg, A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells for space applications from three different manufactures were irradiated with 10 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. The electrical performance of the cells was measured at several fluence levels and compared. Silicon cells were included for reference and comparison. All the GaAs cell types performed similarly throughout the testing and showed a 36 to 56 percent power areal density advantage over the silicon cells. Thinner (8-mil versus 12-mil) GaAs cells provide a significant weight reduction. The use of germanium (Ge) substrates to improve mechanical integrity can be implemented with little impact on end of life performance in a radiation environment.

  2. Gallium arsenide solar array subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs of a number of technology areas are examined for a gallium arsenide space solar array. Four specific configurations were addressed: (1) a 250 KWe LEO mission - planer array; (2) a 250 KWe LEO mission - with concentration; (3) a 50 KWe GEO mission planer array; (4) a 50 KWe GEO mission - with concentration. For each configuration, a baseline system conceptual design was developed and the life cycle costs estimated in detail. The baseline system requirements and design technologies were then varied and their relationships to life cycle costs quantified. For example, the thermal characteristics of the baseline design are determined by the array materials and masses. The thermal characteristics in turn determine configuration, performance, and hence life cycle costs.

  3. Gallium arsenide - Solar panel assembly technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemmrich, D.; Mardesich, N.; Macfarlane, B.; Loo, R.

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell devices are maturing at 18 percent AM0 efficiencies for liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technology, and efforts must be intensified placing necessary focus on the development of panel assembly techniques, and ultimately panel manufacturing methods capable of maintaining these high efficiencies for on-panel operation. Key problems and solutions are described which were experienced during the assembly of flight qualified solar panels using Spectrolab's mature (silicon) panel manufacturing processes for assembly of LPE GaAs solar cells. These cells were produced by Hughes Malibu (supplied by the U.S. Air Force WPAFB) ranging in efficiency from 15 to 17 percent, air mass zero (AM0) 28 C. Cell assembly methods for coverglass installation, submodule, and circuit soldering, as well as panel bonding are discussed. The LIPS II satellite, using a GaAs solar cell panel was successfully launched in 1983.

  4. Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Chang; Li, Guan-Hua; Lin, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Ching-Wen; Wadekar, Paritosh; Chen, Quark Yung-Sung; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Julien, François Henri; Tu, Li-Wei

    2011-12-14

    Gallium nitride [GaN] nanorods grown on a Si(111) substrate at 720°C via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied by field-emission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence [CL]. The surface topography and optical properties of the GaN nanorod cluster and single GaN nanorod were measured and discussed. The defect-related CL spectra of GaN nanorods and their dependence on temperature were investigated. The CL spectra along the length of the individual GaN nanorod were also studied. The results reveal that the 3.2-eV peak comes from the structural defect at the interface between the GaN nanorod and Si substrate. The surface state emission of the single GaN nanorod is stronger as the diameter of the GaN nanorod becomes smaller due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio.

  5. Thickness dependent thermal conductivity of gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziade, Elbara; Yang, Jia; Brummer, Gordie; Nothern, Denis; Moustakas, Theodore; Schmidt, Aaron J.

    2017-01-01

    As the size of gallium nitride (GaN) transistors is reduced in order to reach higher operating frequencies, heat dissipation becomes the critical bottleneck in device performance and longevity. Despite the importance of characterizing the physics governing the thermal transport in thin GaN films, the literature is far from conclusive. In this letter, we report measurements of thermal conductivity in a GaN film with thickness ranging from 15-1000 nm grown on 4H-SiC without a transition layer. Additionally, we measure the thermal conductivity in the GaN film when it is 1 μm-thick in the temperature range of 300 < T < 600 K and use a phonon transport model to explain the thermal conductivity in this film.

  6. 9 CFR 3.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 3.59 Section 3.59 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and...

  7. 9 CFR 3.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 3.59 Section 3.59 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and...

  8. 9 CFR 3.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 3.59 Section 3.59 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 3.59 Section 3.59 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and...

  10. 4 CFR 28.59 - Official record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official record. 28.59 Section 28.59 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD; PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO CLAIMS CONCERNING EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES AT THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE...

  11. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... recovery. Underground mining activities shall be conducted so as to maximize the utilization...

  12. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... recovery. Underground mining activities shall be conducted so as to maximize the utilization...

  13. 36 CFR 59.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 59.2 Section 59.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  14. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  15. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 59.2 Section 59.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  17. 36 CFR 59.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information collection. 59.2 Section 59.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  18. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  19. 36 CFR 59.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information collection. 59.2 Section 59.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  20. 36 CFR 59.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 59.2 Section 59.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  1. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  2. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  3. 10 CFR 61.59 - Institutional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Institutional requirements. 61.59 Section 61.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE... Commission; and administration of funds to cover the costs for these activities. The period of...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.59 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3560.59 Section 3560.59... Environmental requirements. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Agency is required to assess the potential impact of the proposed action on protected environmental resources. Measures to avoid or at...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.59 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3560.59 Section 3560.59... Environmental requirements. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Agency is required to assess the potential impact of the proposed action on protected environmental resources. Measures to avoid or at...

  6. 36 CFR 910.59 - Development parcel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Development parcel. 910.59 Section 910.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA...

  7. 27 CFR 29.59 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records. 29.59 Section 29... TREASURY LIQUORS STILLS AND MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS Stills § 29.59 Records. A copy of each notice of.... In addition, each manufacturer or vendor of stills shall maintain at their premises a record...

  8. 27 CFR 29.59 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records. 29.59 Section 29... TREASURY LIQUORS STILLS AND MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS Stills § 29.59 Records. A copy of each notice of.... In addition, each manufacturer or vendor of stills shall maintain at their premises a record...

  9. 27 CFR 29.59 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records. 29.59 Section 29... TREASURY ALCOHOL STILLS AND MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS Stills § 29.59 Records. A copy of each notice of.... In addition, each manufacturer or vendor of stills shall maintain at their premises a record...

  10. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  11. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  12. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  13. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  14. 10 CFR 55.59 - Requalification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requalification. 55.59 Section 55.59 Energy NUCLEAR... reactor startups to include a range that reactivity feedback from nuclear heat addition is noticeable and... outside containment). (AA) A nuclear instrumentation failure. (ii) Each licensed operator and...

  15. 12 CFR 5.9 - Public availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public availability. 5.9 Section 5.9 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR..., Communications Division, at the address listed in the Manual. Requests should be in writing. The OCC may impose...

  16. 27 CFR 20.59 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continuing partnerships. 20.59 Section 20.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not teminated on death or insolvency of a...

  17. 27 CFR 20.59 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuing partnerships. 20.59 Section 20.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not teminated on death or insolvency of a...

  18. 27 CFR 20.59 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Continuing partnerships. 20.59 Section 20.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not teminated on death or insolvency of a...

  19. 27 CFR 20.59 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Continuing partnerships. 20.59 Section 20.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not teminated on death or insolvency of a...

  20. 27 CFR 20.59 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuing partnerships. 20.59 Section 20.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not teminated on death or insolvency of a...

  1. 18 CFR 701.59 - Advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advisory committees. 701.59 Section 701.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL... accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) and other pertinent law and directives....

  2. 18 CFR 701.59 - Advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Advisory committees. 701.59 Section 701.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL... accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) and other pertinent law and directives....

  3. 18 CFR 701.59 - Advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advisory committees. 701.59 Section 701.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL... accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) and other pertinent law and directives....

  4. 7 CFR 201.59 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application. 201.59 Section 201.59 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  5. 38 CFR 59.30 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation. 59.30... STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.30 Documentation. For a State to obtain a grant and grant funds under this part, the State must submit to VA documentation that the site of...

  6. 7 CFR 201.59 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application. 201.59 Section 201.59 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  7. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  8. 9 CFR 3.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 3.59 Section 3.59 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and...

  9. 42 CFR 59a.5 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Awards. 59a.5 Section 59a.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants... number of graduate and undergraduate students, and physicians and other practitioners in...

  10. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS... have the same meaning as provided in the Act. As used in this subpart: Act means the Public...

  11. 42 CFR 59a.5 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Awards. 59a.5 Section 59a.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants... number of graduate and undergraduate students, and physicians and other practitioners in...

  12. 42 CFR 59a.5 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Awards. 59a.5 Section 59a.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants... number of graduate and undergraduate students, and physicians and other practitioners in...

  13. 42 CFR 59a.5 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Awards. 59a.5 Section 59a.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants... number of graduate and undergraduate students, and physicians and other practitioners in...

  14. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS... have the same meaning as provided in the Act. As used in this subpart: Act means the Public...

  15. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS... have the same meaning as provided in the Act. As used in this subpart: Act means the Public...

  16. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS... have the same meaning as provided in the Act. As used in this subpart: Act means the Public...

  17. 28 CFR 59.4 - Procedures. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures. 1 59.4 Section 59.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ON METHODS OF OBTAINING DOCUMENTARY MATERIALS HELD BY... clinic shall be deemed to be in the private possession of the physician, unless the clinic or hospital...

  18. Samarium- and ytterbium-promoted oxidation of silicon and gallium arsenide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Franciosi, A.

    1989-02-21

    A method is described for promoting oxidation of a silicon or gallium arsenide surface comprising: depositing a ytterbium overlayer on the silicon or gallium arsenide surface prior to the oxidation of the surface.

  19. Gallium Potentiates the Antibacterial Effect of Gentamicin against Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Helena; Sjöstedt, Anders

    2015-10-26

    The reasons why aminoglycosides are bactericidal have not been not fully elucidated, and evidence indicates that the cidal effects are at least partly dependent on iron. We demonstrate that availability of iron markedly affects the susceptibility of the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. Specifically, the intracellular depots of iron were inversely correlated to gentamicin susceptibility, whereas the extracellular iron concentrations were directly correlated to the susceptibility. Further proof of the intimate link between iron availability and antibiotic susceptibility were the findings that a ΔfslA mutant, which is defective for siderophore-dependent uptake of ferric iron, showed enhanced gentamicin susceptibility and that a ΔfeoB mutant, which is defective for uptake of ferrous iron, displayed complete growth arrest in the presence of gentamicin. Based on the aforementioned findings, it was hypothesized that gallium could potentiate the effect of gentamicin, since gallium is sequestered by iron uptake systems. The ferrozine assay demonstrated that the presence of gallium inhibited >70% of the iron uptake. Addition of gentamicin and/or gallium to infected bone marrow-derived macrophages showed that both 100 μM gallium and 10 μg/ml of gentamicin inhibited intracellular growth of SCHU S4 and that the combined treatment acted synergistically. Moreover, treatment of F. tularensis-infected mice with gentamicin and gallium showed an additive effect. Collectively, the data demonstrate that SCHU S4 is dependent on iron to minimize the effects of gentamicin and that gallium, by inhibiting the iron uptake, potentiates the bactericidal effect of gentamicin in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.

    1996-07-01

    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  1. Gallium Potentiates the Antibacterial Effect of Gentamicin against Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The reasons why aminoglycosides are bactericidal have not been not fully elucidated, and evidence indicates that the cidal effects are at least partly dependent on iron. We demonstrate that availability of iron markedly affects the susceptibility of the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. Specifically, the intracellular depots of iron were inversely correlated to gentamicin susceptibility, whereas the extracellular iron concentrations were directly correlated to the susceptibility. Further proof of the intimate link between iron availability and antibiotic susceptibility were the findings that a ΔfslA mutant, which is defective for siderophore-dependent uptake of ferric iron, showed enhanced gentamicin susceptibility and that a ΔfeoB mutant, which is defective for uptake of ferrous iron, displayed complete growth arrest in the presence of gentamicin. Based on the aforementioned findings, it was hypothesized that gallium could potentiate the effect of gentamicin, since gallium is sequestered by iron uptake systems. The ferrozine assay demonstrated that the presence of gallium inhibited >70% of the iron uptake. Addition of gentamicin and/or gallium to infected bone marrow-derived macrophages showed that both 100 μM gallium and 10 μg/ml of gentamicin inhibited intracellular growth of SCHU S4 and that the combined treatment acted synergistically. Moreover, treatment of F. tularensis-infected mice with gentamicin and gallium showed an additive effect. Collectively, the data demonstrate that SCHU S4 is dependent on iron to minimize the effects of gentamicin and that gallium, by inhibiting the iron uptake, potentiates the bactericidal effect of gentamicin in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26503658

  2. Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action

    SciTech Connect

    Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R. ); Jones, K.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, S.J.

    1983-03-13

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  4. Pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P- type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components an n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffused layer and the substrate layer, wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  5. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. Gallium nitrate inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating mesenchymal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Boskey, A L; Ziecheck, W; Guidon, P; Doty, S B

    1993-02-01

    The effect of gallium nitrate on alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell culture was monitored in order to gain insight into the observation that rachitic rats treated with gallium nitrate failed to show the expected increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Cultures maintained in media containing 15 microM gallium nitrate showed drastically decreased alkaline phosphatase activities in the absence of significant alterations in total protein synthesis and DNA content. However, addition of 15 microM gallium nitrate to cultures 18 h before assay for alkaline phosphatase activity had little effect. At the light microscopic and electron microscopic level, gallium-treated cultures differed morphologically from gallium-free cultures: with gallium present, there were fewer hypertrophic chondrocytes and cartilage nodules were flatter and further apart. Because of altered morphology, staining with an antibody against chick cartilage alkaline phosphatase appeared less extensive; however, all nodules stained equivalently relative to gallium-free controls. Histochemical staining for alkaline phosphatase activity was negative in gallium-treated cultures, demonstrating that the alkaline phosphatase protein present was not active. The defective alkaline phosphatase activity in cultures maintained in the presence of gallium was also evidenced when cultures were supplemented with the alkaline phosphatase substrate, beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP). The data presented suggest that gallium inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in this culture system and that gallium causes alterations in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  11. Electroluminescence Studies on Longwavelength Indium Arsenide Quantum Dot Microcavities Grown on Gallium Arsenide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONG WAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS John C...11-46 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE THESIS...58 1 ELECTROLUMINESCENCE STUDIES ON LONGWAVELENGTH INDIUM ARSENIDE QUANTUM DOT MICROCAVITIES GROWN ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE I

  12. 40 CFR 59.211 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.211 State authority. (a) The provisions in...

  13. 40 CFR 59.211 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.211 State authority. (a) The provisions in...

  14. 40 CFR 59.406 - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.406 Compliance provisions. (a... predicting that the coating has been formulated as intended (e.g., quality assurance checks,...

  15. 38 CFR 4.59 - Painful motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.59 Painful motion. With any form of arthritis... assist the identification. Sciatic neuritis is not uncommonly caused by arthritis of the spine....

  16. 38 CFR 4.59 - Painful motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.59 Painful motion. With any form of arthritis... assist the identification. Sciatic neuritis is not uncommonly caused by arthritis of the spine....

  17. 40 CFR 59.109 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.109 Circumvention. Each manufacturer and importer of any automobile refinish coating or component subject to the provisions of this subpart must...

  18. 40 CFR 59.109 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.109 Circumvention. Each manufacturer and importer of any automobile refinish coating or component subject to the provisions of this subpart must...

  19. 7 CFR 1948.59 - Ineligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Program § 1948.59 Ineligible activities. (a) Growth management and housing planning grant funds may not be... Governments;” (5) Planning for areas other than approved designated areas; (6) Planning other than...

  20. 40 CFR 59.211 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.211 State authority. (a) The provisions in...

  1. 40 CFR 59.205 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.205 Labeling. (a) The container or package of...

  2. 40 CFR 59.206 - Variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.206 Variances. (a) Any regulated entity who...

  3. 40 CFR 59.205 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.205 Labeling. (a) The container or package of...

  4. 40 CFR 59.205 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.205 Labeling. (a) The container or package of...

  5. 40 CFR 59.211 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.211 State authority. (a) The provisions in...

  6. 40 CFR 59.206 - Variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.206 Variances. (a) Any regulated entity who...

  7. 40 CFR 59.206 - Variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.206 Variances. (a) Any regulated entity who...

  8. 40 CFR 59.211 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.211 State authority. (a) The provisions in...

  9. 40 CFR 59.205 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.205 Labeling. (a) The container or package of...

  10. 40 CFR 59.206 - Variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.206 Variances. (a) Any regulated entity who...

  11. 40 CFR 59.206 - Variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.206 Variances. (a) Any regulated entity who...

  12. 40 CFR 59.205 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.205 Labeling. (a) The container or package of...

  13. Gallium based low-interaction anions

    DOEpatents

    King, Wayne A.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

  14. Star Formation near Berkeley 59: Embedded Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosvick, J. M.; Majaess, D.

    2013-12-01

    A group of suspected protostars in a dark cloud northwest of the young (~2 Myr) cluster Berkeley 59 and two sources in a pillar south of the cluster have been studied in order to determine their evolutionary stages and ascertain whether their formation was triggered by Berkeley 59. Narrowband near-infrared observations from the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic, 12CO (J = 3-2) and SCUBA-2 (450 and 850 μm) observations from the JCMT, 2MASS, and WISE images, and data extracted from the IPHAS survey catalog were used. Of 12 sources studied, two are Class I objects, while three others are flat/Class II, one of which is a T Tauri candidate. A weak CO outflow and two potential starless cores are present in the cloud, while the pillar possesses substructure at different velocities, with no outflows present. The CO spectra of both regions show peaks in the range v LSR = -15 to -17 km s-1, which agrees with the velocity adopted for Berkeley 59 (-15.7 km s-1), while spectral energy distribution models yield an average interstellar extinction AV and distance of 15 ± 2 mag and 830 ± 120 pc, respectively, for the cloud, and 6.9 mag and 912 pc for the pillar, indicating that the regions are in the same vicinity as Berkeley 59. The formation of the pillar source appears to have been triggered by Berkeley 59. It is unclear whether Berkeley 59 triggered the association's formation.

  15. Preliminary Spectroscopic Measurements for a Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Glumac, Nick G.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    As a propellant option for electromagnetic thrusters, liquid ,gallium appears to have several advantages relative to other propellants. The merits of using gallium in an electromagnetic thruster (EMT) are discussed and estimates of discharge current levels and mass flow rates yielding efficient operation are given. The gallium atomic weight of 70 predicts high efficiency in the 1500-2000 s specific impulse range, making it ideal for higher-thrust, near-Earth missions. A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma and estimate electron temperature. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in a 20 J, 1.8 kA (peak) are discharge. With graphite present on the insulator to facilitate breakdown, singly and doubly ionized carbon atoms are also present, and emission is observed from molecular carbon (CZ) radicals. A determination of the electron temperature was attempted using relative emission line data, and while the spatially and temporally averaged, spectra don't fit well to single temperatures, the data and presence of doubly ionized gallium are consistent with distributions in the 1-3 eV range.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of gallium nitride electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jerry Wayne

    Gallium nitride (GaN)-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), and Schottky rectifiers were fabricated and characterized. Novel dielectric materials Gd 2O3 and ScO were evaluated as potential gate dielectrics for GaN MOS applications. The devices presented herein show tremendous potential for elevated temperature, high frequency, and/or high voltage operation. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs were grown by MOCVD on sapphire and SiC substrates and by RF-MBE on sapphire substrates. Devices were fabricated with gate lengths from 100 nm to 1.2 mum. Drain current density approached 1 A/mm and extrinsic transconductance exceeded 200 mS/mm for small gate periphery devices. For the shortest gate length, a unity-gain cutoff frequency (fT) of 59 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) of 90 GHz were extracted from measured scattering parameters. The experimental s-parameters were in excellent agreement with simulated results from small-signal linear modeling. Large signal characterization of 0.25 x 150 mum2 devices produced 2.75 W/mm at 3 GHz and 1.7 W/mm at 10 GHz. Devices fabricated on high thermal conductivity SiC substrates exhibited superior high temperature performance and a reduced density of threading dislocations. Novel gate dielectrics Gd2O3 and ScO were grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE). Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) data were collected from MOS capacitors to evaluate the bulk and interfacial electrical properties of the insulators. Single crystal Gd2O 3 was demonstrated on GaN, but the resultant MOSFET exhibited a large gate leakage attributed to defects and dislocations in the oxide. MOSFETs with a stacked gate dielectric of Gd2O3/SiO2 were operational at a drain source bias of 80 V and a gate bias of +7 V. Bulk GaN templates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HYPE) were used to fabricate vertical geometry Schottky rectifiers. Size- and temperature

  17. Gallium plasmonics: deep subwavelength spectroscopic imaging of single and interacting gallium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Knight, Mark W; Coenen, Toon; Yang, Yang; Brenny, Benjamin J M; Losurdo, Maria; Brown, April S; Everitt, Henry O; Polman, Albert

    2015-02-24

    Gallium has recently been demonstrated as a phase-change plasmonic material offering UV tunability, facile synthesis, and a remarkable stability due to its thin, self-terminating native oxide. However, the dense irregular nanoparticle (NP) ensembles fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy make optical measurements of individual particles challenging. Here we employ hyperspectral cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy to characterize the response of single Ga NPs of various sizes within an irregular ensemble by spatially and spectrally resolving both in-plane and out-of-plane plasmonic modes. These modes, which include hybridized dipolar and higher-order terms due to phase retardation and substrate interactions, are correlated with finite difference time domain (FDTD) electrodynamics calculations that consider the Ga NP contact angle, substrate, and native Ga/Si surface oxidation. This study experimentally confirms previous theoretical predictions of plasmonic size-tunability in single Ga NPs and demonstrates that the plasmonic modes of interacting Ga nanoparticles can hybridize to produce strong hot spots in the ultraviolet. The controlled, robust UV plasmonic resonances of gallium nanoparticles are applicable to energy- and phase-specific applications such as optical memory, environmental remediation, and simultaneous fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies.

  18. Native gallium adatoms discovered on atomically-smooth gallium nitride surfaces at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khan; Foley, Andrew; Smith, Arthur R

    2015-03-11

    In advanced compound semiconductor devices, such as in quantum dot and quantum well systems, detailed atomic configurations at the growth surfaces are vital in determining the structural and electronic properties. Therefore, it is important to investigate the surface reconstructions in order to make further technological advancements. Usually, conventional semiconductor surfaces (e.g., arsenides, phosphides, and antimonides) are highly reactive due to the existence of a high density of group V (anion) surface dangling bonds. However, in the case of nitrides, group III rich growth conditions in molecular beam epitaxy are usually preferred leading to group III (Ga)-rich surfaces. Here, we use low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy to reveal a uniform distribution of native gallium adatoms with a density of 0.3%-0.5% of a monolayer on the clean, as-grown surface of nitrogen polar GaN(0001̅) having the centered 6 × 12 reconstruction. Unseen at room temperature, these Ga adatoms are strongly bound to the surface but move with an extremely low surface diffusion barrier and a high density saturation coverage in thermodynamic equilibrium with Ga droplets. Furthermore, the Ga adatoms reveal an intrinsic surface chirality and an asymmetric site occupation. These observations can have important impacts in the understanding of gallium nitride surfaces.

  19. Simulation studies on the evolution of gallium nitride on a liquid gallium surface under plasma bombardment.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, M R; Flauta, R E; Wada, M

    2008-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to study the formation of gallium-nitride (GaN) layer on liquid gallium (Ga) sputtering target immersed in nitrogen (N(2)) plasma. In the simulation model, N ions were assumed to possess energy equal to the bias voltage applied to the sputtering target with respect to the plasma. The results showed the surface morphology of GaN changed from a relatively smooth GaN on Ga surface at 50 eV N ion energy to a rough surface with GaN dendrites on liquid Ga at 500 eV ion energy. Further increase in N ion energy up to 1 keV resulted in smaller density of GaN dendrites on surface. Increasing surface coverage of Ga by GaN substantially reduced the sputtering yield of Ga from the target. These simulation results were correlated with previously reported experimental observations on liquid Ga surface immersed in the nitrogen plasma of a plasma-sputter-type ion source.

  20. Gallium nitride photocathodes for imaging photon counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Hull, Jeffrey S.; Tremsin, Anton S.; McPhate, Jason B.; Dabiran, Amir M.

    2010-07-01

    Gallium nitride opaque and semitransparent photocathodes provide high ultraviolet quantum efficiencies from 100 nm to a long wavelength cutoff at ~380 nm. P (Mg) doped GaN photocathode layers ~100 nm thick with a barrier layer of AlN (22 nm) on sapphire substrates also have low out of band response, and are highly robust. Opaque GaN photocathodes are relatively easy to optimize, and consistently provide high quantum efficiency (70% at 120 nm) provided the surface cleaning and activation (Cs) processes are well established. We have used two dimensional photon counting imaging microchannel plate detectors, with an active area of 25 mm diameter, to investigate the imaging characteristics of semitransparent GaN photocathodes. These can be produced with high (20%) efficiency, but the thickness and conductivity of the GaN must be carefully optimized. High spatial resolution of ~50 μm with low intrinsic background (~7 events sec-1 cm-2) and good image uniformity have been achieved. Selectively patterned deposited GaN photocathodes have also been used to allow quick diagnostics of optimization parameters. GaN photocathodes of both types show great promise for future detector applications in ultraviolet Astrophysical instruments.

  1. Gallium nitride photocathode development for imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John V.; McPhate, Jason B.; Hull, Jeffrey S.; Malloy, James; Dabiran, Amir M.

    2008-07-01

    Recent progress in Gallium Nitride (GaN, AlGaN, InGaN) photocathodes show great promise for future detector applications in Astrophysical instruments. Efforts with opaque GaN photocathodes have yielded quantum efficiencies up to 70% at 120 nm and cutoffs at ~380 nm, with low out of band response, and high stability. Previous work with semitransparent GaN photocathodes produced relatively low quantum efficiencies in transmission mode (4%). We now have preliminary data showing that quantum efficiency improvements of a factor of 5 can be achieved. We have also performed two dimensional photon counting imaging with 25mm diameter semitransparent GaN photocathodes in close proximity to a microchannel plate stack and a cross delay line readout. The imaging performance achieves spatial resolution of ~50μm with low intrinsic background (below 1 event sec-1 cm-2) and reasonable image uniformity. GaN photocathodes with significant quantum efficiency have been fabricated on ceramic MCP substrates. In addition GaN has been deposited at low temperature onto quartz substrates, also achieving substantial quantum efficiency.

  2. Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Schenk, Hermann; Williams, Gary M; Cohen, Samuel M

    2013-05-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is an important semiconductor material. In 2-year inhalation studies, GaAs increased the incidence of lung tumors in female rats, but not in male rats or male and female mice. Alveolar proteinosis followed by chronic active inflammation was the predominant non-neoplastic pulmonary findings. IARC classified GaAs as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) based on the assumption that As and Ga ions are bioavailable. The European Chemical Agency Risk Assessment Committee concluded that GaAs should be classified into Carcinogenicity Category 1B (presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans; ECHA). We evaluate whether these classifications are justified. Physico-chemical properties of GaAs particles and the degree of mechanical treatment are critical in this evaluation. The available data on mode of action (MOA), genotoxicity and bioavailability do not support the contribution of As or Ga ions to the lung tumors in female rats. Most toxicological studies utilized small particles produced by strong mechanical treatment, destroying the crystalline structure. The resulting amorphous GaAs is not relevant to crystalline GaAs at production and processing sites. The likely tumorigenic MOA is lung toxicity related to particulate-induced inflammation and increased proliferation. It is concluded that there is no evidence for a primary carcinogenic effect of GaAs.

  3. Gallium-based avalanche photodiode optical crosstalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Sopko, Bruno; Chren, Dominik

    2006-11-01

    Solid-state single photon detectors based on avalanche photodiode are getting more attention in various areas of applied physics: optical sensors, quantum key distribution, optical ranging and Lidar, time-resolved spectroscopy, X-ray laser diagnostics, and turbid media imaging. Avalanche photodiodes specifically designed for single photon counting semiconductor avalanche structures have been developed on the basis of various materials: Si, Ge, GaP, GaAsP, and InGaP/InGaAs at the Czech Technical University in Prague during the last 20 years. They have been tailored for numerous applications. Trends in demand are focused on detection array construction recently. Even extremely small arrays containing a few cells are of great importance for users. Electrical crosstalk between individual gating and quenching circuits and optical crosstalk between individual detecting cells are serious limitation for array design and performance. Optical crosstalk is caused by the parasitic light emission of the avalanche which accompanies the photon detection process. We have studied in detail the optical emission of the avalanche photon counting structure in the silicon- and gallium-based photodiodes. The timing properties and spectral distribution of the emitted light have been measured for different operating conditions to quantify optical crosstalk. We conclude that optical crosstalk is an inherent property of avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode. The only way to minimize optical crosstalk in avalanche photodiode array is to build active quenching circuit with minimum response time.

  4. Investigation on gallium ions impacting monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xin; Zhao, Haiyan Yan, Dong; Pei, Jiayun

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, the physical phenomena of gallium (Ga{sup +}) ion impacting monolayer graphene in the nanosculpting process are investigated experimentally, and the mechanisms are explained by using Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Firstly, the MC method is employed to clarify the phenomena happened to the monolayer graphene target under Ga{sup +} ion irradiation. It is found that substrate has strong influence on the damage mode of graphene. The mean sputtering yield of graphene under 30 keV Ga{sup +} ion irradiation is 1.77 and the least ion dose to completely remove carbon atoms in graphene is 21.6 ion/nm{sup 2}. Afterwards, the focused ion beam over 21.6 ion/nm{sup 2} is used for the irradiation on a monolayer graphene supported by SiO2 experimentally, resulting in the nanostructures, i.e., nanodot and nanowire array on the graphene. The performances of the nanostructures are characterized by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectrum. A plasma plume shielding model is put forward to explain the nanosculpting results of graphene under different irradiation parameters. In addition, two damage mechanisms are found existing in the fabrication process of the nanostructures by using empirical MD simulations. The results can help us open the possibilities for better control of nanocarbon devices.

  5. Gallium nitride T-ray transmission characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Bradley; Mickan, Samuel P.; Hubbard, Seth; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Abbott, Derek

    2001-11-01

    T-ray imaging and spectroscopy both exploit the terahertz (THz) region of the spectrum. This gives rise to very promising industrial and biomedical applications, where non-invasive and sensitive identification of a substance is achievable, through a material's distinct absorption features in the THz band. Present T-ray systems are limited by low output power, and the race is now on to find more efficient THz emitters. We discuss the feasibility of a novel high-power gallium nitride emitter for terahertz generation. This paper details the advantages of such an emitter, primarily by virtue of its high-voltage capability, and evaluates the benefits of sapphire and silicon carbide substrates. The far-infrared transmission spectra for thin samples of GaN, sapphire and SiC are reported. A high-power THz emitter, that operates at room temperature and is potentially low-cost will open up a host of new possibilities and applications. The central result in this paper demonstrates that sapphire is the better choice over SiC, for the GaN supporting substrate, as we show that it has superior THz transmission characteristics.

  6. IBIC analysis of gallium arsenide Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittone, E.; Fizzotti, F.; Mirri, K.; Gargioni, E.; Polesello, P.; LoGiudice, A.; Manfredotti, C.; Galassini, S.; Rossi, P.; Vanni, P.; Nava, F.

    1999-10-01

    Semi-insulating (SI) gallium arsenide (GaAs) devices operating as a reverse biased Schottky diode offer an attractive choice as radiation detector at room temperature both in high energy physics experiments and as X-ray image sensors. However, SI GaAs devices contain a high concentration of traps, which decreases the charge collection efficiency (cce), and affects the energy resolution of such detectors working as nuclear spectrometers. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of the spatial uniformity of the cce carried out by analysing ion beam induced charge (IBIC) space maps obtained by scanning a focused 2 MeV proton microbeam on a SI n-GaAs Schottky diode. The microbeam irradiated both the front (Schottky) and back (ohmic) contacts in order to evaluate the transport properties of both electrons and holes generated by ionisation. The IBIC space maps show a clear non-uniformity of the cce. The poor energy resolution previously observed in such detectors working as alpha particle spectrometers is ascribed to the presence of two different "phases" in the material, which produce two distinct collection efficiency spectra. Such "phases" show different behaviour as a function of the applied bias voltage which is most likely due to the different electric field dependence of the relevant capture cross sections of the trapping centres for both charge carriers.

  7. Electrical characterization of magnesium implanted gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krtschil, A.; Kielburg, A.; Witte, H.; Christen, J.; Krost, A.; Wenzel, A.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2002-01-01

    Gallium nitride layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c axis oriented sapphire substrates were implanted with 180 keV magnesium ions with ion doses between 1×1014 and 1×1016cm-2. The implantation induced defect states were investigated by temperature dependent conductivity (TDC) as well as by thermal and optical admittance spectroscopy (TAS, OAS) measurements. Dominant carrier emissions having thermal activation energies between 360 and 800 meV were found in TAS and TDC. These states are assigned to implantation induced electron traps since they do not appear in the nonimplanted reference sample. Defect states with similar transition energies were also observed in OAS resulting in an enhancement of defect-to-band transitions in the near band-gap region around 3.45 eV, in the blue band around 3.0 eV, as well as in the midgap range for photon energies between 2.5 and 1.80 eV, respectively. In addition, new transitions were found at 2.1 and 1.95 eV. Furthermore, transitions from implantation induced shallow states were observed, i.e., the magnesium acceptor as well as a new donor level at about 70 meV, tentatively discussed as nitrogen vacancy. The critical ion dose for amorphization was determined to be between 5×1015 and 1×1016Mg+ cm-2 using x-ray diffraction.

  8. Funneling electron beams from gallium arsenide photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Omer Habib

    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) is the most widely used source of polarized electrons around the world. Electrons are extracted from a GaAs surface, terminated by a cesium-oxygen layer. The electrons are accelerated to form a beam by a DC electric field. This beam can ionize residual gas in the chamber, and the DC field accelerates the resulting ions into the cathode surface, damaging the Cesium- Oxygen layer. This process, called Ion Back Bombardment, is the dominant mechanism for limiting photocathode lifetime. As a result, high average current operation yields charge lifetimes too low to be used in a collider design. One idea to extend the charge lifetime is to funnel the beams from multiple cathodes using a rotating magnetic field-if operation of one cathode does not affect the operation of another cathode in the same chamber, then the source's lifetime can be extended by simply adding more cathodes. This dissertation presents the design, construction and commissioning of a unique electron gun capable of operating twenty cathodes. Results of funneling two electron beams with a rotating magnetic field are also presented. For average currents at 175 nA and 350 nA, the charge lifetimes for individual cathodes and two-cathode operation were measured, showing that the charge lifetime for two beam funneling is the sum of the individual ion back bombardment charge lifetimes. The addition of charge lifetime implies that beam funneling can be used to increase charge lifetime by an order of magnitude.

  9. Gallium Nitride Based Logpile Photonic Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Li, Qiming; Lee, Yun-Ju; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Wang, George T.; Fischer, Arthur J.

    2011-11-09

    A nine-layer logpile three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) is demonstrated composed of single crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods, ~ 100 nm in size with lattice constants of 260, 280, and 300 nm with photonic band gap in the visible region. This unique GaN structure is created through a combined approach of a layer-by-layer template fabrication technique and selective metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). These GaN 3DPC exhibit a stacking direction band gap characterized by strong optical reflectance between 380 and 500 nm. By introducing a ''line-defect'' cavity in the fifth (middle) layer of the 3DPC, a localized transmission mode with a quality factor of 25–30 is also observed within the photonic band gap. The realization of a group III nitride 3DPC with uniform features and a band gap at wavelengths in the visible region is an important step toward realizing complete control of the electromagnetic environment for group III nitride-based optoelectronic devices.

  10. Gallium nitride based logpile photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Li, Qiming; Lee, Yun-Ju; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Wang, George T; Fischer, Arthur J

    2011-11-09

    We demonstrate a nine-layer logpile three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) composed of single crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods, ∼100 nm in size with lattice constants of 260, 280, and 300 nm with photonic band gap in the visible region. This unique GaN structure is created through a combined approach of a layer-by-layer template fabrication technique and selective metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). These GaN 3DPC exhibit a stacking direction band gap characterized by strong optical reflectance between 380 and 500 nm. By introducing a "line-defect" cavity in the fifth (middle) layer of the 3DPC, a localized transmission mode with a quality factor of 25-30 is also observed within the photonic band gap. The realization of a group III nitride 3DPC with uniform features and a band gap at wavelengths in the visible region is an important step toward realizing complete control of the electromagnetic environment for group III nitride based optoelectronic devices.

  11. Determination of gallium originated from a gallium-based anticancer drug in human urine using ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Filatova, Darya G; Seregina, Irina F; Foteeva, Lidia S; Pukhov, Vladimir V; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Bolshov, Mikhail A

    2011-05-01

    Urine analysis gives an insight into the excretion of the administered drug which is related to its reactivity and toxicity. In this work, the capability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure ultratrace metal levels was utilized for rapid assaying of gallium originating from the novel gallium anticancer drug, tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) (GaQ(3)), in human urine. Sample dilution with 1% (v/v) HNO(3) as the only required pre-treatment was shown to prevent contamination of the sample introduction system and to reduce polyatomic interferences from sample components. The origin of the blank signal at masses of gallium isotopes, 71 and 69, was investigated using high-resolution ICP-MS and attributed, respectively, to the formation of (36)Ar(35)Cl(+) and (40)Ar(31)P(+) ions and, tentatively, to a triplet of doubly charged ions of Ba, La, and Ce. The accuracy and precision performance was tested by evaluating a set of parameters for analytical method validation. The developed assay has been applied for the determination of gallium in urine samples spiked with GaQ(3). The achieved recoveries (95-102%) and quantification limit of 0.2 μg L(-1) emphasize the practical applicability of the presented analytical approach to monitor renal elimination of GaQ(3) at all dose levels in clinical trials that are currently in progress.

  12. Antibacterial effect of gallium and silver on Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with gallium-silver-phosphate-based glasses.

    PubMed

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Higham, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses were evaluated for antibacterial effect on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a leading cause of opportunistic infections. The glasses were produced by conventional melt quenching methods at 1100°C for 1 h. Glass degradation studies were conducted by weight loss method. Disc diffusion assay and cell viability assay displayed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.0005) effect on P. aeruginosa growth which increased with decreasing calcium content in the glasses. The gallium ion release rates (1.83, 0.69 and 0.48 ppm·h(-1)) and silver ion release rates (2.97, 2.84 and 2.47 ppm·h(-1)) were found to account for this variation. Constant depth film fermentor was used to evaluate the anti-biofilm properties of the glasses. Both gallium and silver in the glass contributed to biofilm growth inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa (up to 2.68 reduction in log 10 values of the viable counts compared with controls). The glasses were found to deliver gallium and silver in a controlled way and exerted cumulative antibacterial action on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. The antibacterial, especially anti-biofilm, properties of the gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses make them a potential candidate to combat infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  13. The Soviet-American gallium experiment at Baksan

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, A. I.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Anosov, O. L.; Danshin, S. N.; Eroshkina, L. A.; Faizov, E. L.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Knodel, T. V.; Knyshenko, I. I.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Mezentseva, S. A.; Mirmov, I. N.; Ostrinsky, A. I.; Petukhov, V. V; Pshukov, A. M.; Revzin, N. Ye; Shikhin, A. A.; Slyusareva, Ye. D.; Timofeyev, P. V.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Vermul, V. M.; Yantz, V. E.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zhandarov, V. I.

    1990-01-01

    A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to the full range of the solar neutrino spectrum, including the low-energy neutrinos from the fundamental proton-proton fusion reaction. If neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed {sup 8}B flux measured by the Homestake {sup 37}Cl experiment and the Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector, then a comparison of the gallium, chlorine, and water results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 30-ton gallium detector is currently operating in the Baksan laboratory in the Soviet Union, with a ratio of expected solar signal to measured background (during the first one to two {sup 71}Ge half lives) of approximately one. 28 refs.

  14. Interaction of sodium with tellurium in gallium melts

    SciTech Connect

    Dergacheva, M.B.; Sarsekeeva, R.Zh.; Kozin, L.F.

    1988-09-20

    The purpose of this work was to study interaction of sodium with admixtures of tellurium and to determine the composition and phase state of the intermetallic compounds formed. The investigations were carried out by a potentiometric method with measurement of emf of the concentration cells. Sodium was introduced into the original gallium-tellurium binary alloy by electrolysis. The results of measurements of the emf of the cell were used for plotting potentiometric curves. The emf values found on the horizontal region of the potentiometric were subjected to mathematical analysis for determination of deviations from the regression line of the results of three parallel series of measurement. The emf of concentration cells with a solid electrolyte, based on melts of the gallium-sodium-tellurium ternary system, deviate from the theoretical values at 855 K; this is attributed to formation of the intermetallic compound, sparingly soluble in gallium, the free energy of formation of which is -266 +/- 15 kJ/mole.

  15. Extremely-efficient, miniaturized, long-lived alpha-voltaic power source using liquid gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A power source converts .alpha.-particle energy to electricity for use in electrical systems. Liquid gallium or other liquid medium is subjected to .alpha.-particle emissions. Electrons are freed by collision from neutral gallium atoms to provide gallium ions. The electrons migrate to a cathode while the gallium ions migrate to an anode. A current and/or voltage difference then arises between the cathode and anode because of the work function difference of the cathode and anode. Gallium atoms are regenerated by the receiving of electrons from the anode enabling the generation of additional electrons from additional .alpha.-particle collisions.

  16. Magnetostriction and magnetic heterogeneities in iron-gallium.

    PubMed

    Laver, M; Mudivarthi, C; Cullen, J R; Flatau, A B; Chen, W-C; Watson, S M; Wuttig, M

    2010-07-09

    Iron-gallium alloys Fe(1-x)Ga(x) exhibit an exceptional increase in magnetostriction with gallium content. We present small-angle neutron scattering investigations on a Fe(0.81)Ga(0.19) single crystal. We uncover heterogeneities with an average spacing of 15 nm and with magnetizations distinct from the matrix. The moments in and around the heterogeneities are observed to reorient with an applied magnetic field or mechanical strain. We discuss the possible roles played by nanoscale magnetic heterogeneities in the mechanism for magnetostriction in this material.

  17. Magnetostriction and Magnetic Heterogeneities in Iron-Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Laver, M.; Mudivarthi, C.; Cullen, J. R.; Wuttig, M.; Flatau, A. B.; Chen, W.-C.; Watson, S. M.

    2010-07-09

    Iron-gallium alloys Fe{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x} exhibit an exceptional increase in magnetostriction with gallium content. We present small-angle neutron scattering investigations on a Fe{sub 0.81}Ga{sub 0.19} single crystal. We uncover heterogeneities with an average spacing of 15 nm and with magnetizations distinct from the matrix. The moments in and around the heterogeneities are observed to reorient with an applied magnetic field or mechanical strain. We discuss the possible roles played by nanoscale magnetic heterogeneities in the mechanism for magnetostriction in this material.

  18. Absence of gallium-67 avidity in diffuse pulmonary calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Lecklitner, M.L.; Foster, R.W.

    1985-09-01

    Diffuse pulmonary uptake by bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported previously but, in the same patient, would pulmonary uptake of Ga-67 citrate yield clinically meaningful results. A patient with hypercalcemia and renal failure in whom bone scintigraphy demonstrated striking diffuse bilateral pulmonary uptake, but subsequent gallium imaging demonstrated no evidence of pulmonary uptake greater than body background, is discussed. We conclude that pulmonary uptake of gallium cannot be attributed to calcium deposition and should carry the same clinical significance in regard to inflammatory and malignant lesions as would be assigned to patients without pulmonary calcific deposits.

  19. Renal lymphoma imaged by ultrasound and Gallium-67

    SciTech Connect

    Shirkhoda, A.; Staab, E.V.; Mittelstaedt, C.A.

    1980-10-01

    Lymphomatous involvement of the kidneys, usually a secondary process, may be seen as single or multiple sonolucent or weakly echogenic masses on ultrasound. The majority of these patients have a known diagnosis of lymphoma and are being evaluated for change in nodal mass size, flank pain, and/or deteriorating renal function. Occasionally, these masses are discovered on an excretory urogram and are further investigated with ultrasound. The ultrasound findings may be confirmed with gallium scanning. Five such cases are presented along with the ultrasonic and gallium scan findings.

  20. Gallium-based anti-infectives: targeting microbial iron-uptake mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kelson, Andrew B; Carnevali, Maia; Truong-Le, Vu

    2013-10-01

    Microbes have evolved elaborate iron-acquisition systems to sequester iron from the host environment using siderophores and heme uptake systems. Gallium(III) is structurally similar to iron(III), except that it cannot be reduced under physiological conditions, therefore gallium has the potential to serve as an iron analog, and thus an anti-microbial. Because Ga(III) can bind to virtually any complex that binds Fe(III), simple gallium salts as well as more complex siderophores and hemes are potential carriers to deliver Ga(III) to the microbes. These gallium complexes represent a new class of anti-infectives that is different in mechanism of action from conventional antibiotics. Simple gallium salts such as gallium nitrate, maltolate, and simple gallium siderophore complexes such as gallium citrate have shown good antibacterial activities. The most studied complex has been gallium citrate, which exhibits broad activity against many Gram negative bacteria at ∼1-5μg/ml MICs, strong biofilm activity, low drug resistance, and efficacy in vivo. Using the structural features of specific siderophore and heme made by pathogenic bacteria and fungi, researchers have begun to evaluate new gallium complexes to target key pathogens. This review will summarize potential iron-acquisition system targets and recent research on gallium-based anti-infectives.

  1. Construction of an electrode modified with gallium(III) for voltammetric detection of ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Okusawa, Makoto; Takano, Yusaku; Kadoya, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Electrodes modified with gallium(III) complexes were constructed to detect ovalbumin (OVA). For immobilization of a gallium(III)-nitrilotriacetate (NTA) complex, the electrode was first covered with collagen film. After the amino groups of the film had reacted with isothiocyanobenzyl-NTA, the gallium(III) was then able to combine with the NTA moieties. Another design featured an electrode cast with a gallium(III)-acetylacetonate (AA) complex. The amount of gallium(III) in the NTA complex was equivalent to one-quarter of the gallium(III) that could be utilized from an AA complex. However, the calibration curves of OVA using gallium(III)-NTA and gallium(III)-AA complexes were linear in the ranges of 7.0 × 10(-11) - 3.0 × 10(-9) M and 5.0 × 10(-10) - 8.0 × 10(-9) M, respectively. The gallium(III) on the electrode with NTA complex had high flexibility due to the existence of a spacer between the NTA and the collagen film, and, therefore, the reactivity of the gallium(III) to OVA was superior to that of the gallium(III)-AA complex with no spacer.

  2. Unintentional gallium incorporation in InGaN layers during epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kun; Ren, Huaijin; Ikeda, Masao; Liu, Jianping; Ma, Yi; Gao, Songxin; Tang, Chun; Li, Deyao; Zhang, Liquan; Yang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Unintentional gallium incorporation was observed and investigated in the epitaxial growth of InGaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. InGaN was grown without intentional gallium precursor and the gallium incorporation rate was found not dependent on TEGa source but was significantly influenced by temperature and TMIn source flow. The source of the unintentional gallium incorporation is confirmed to be from the flow distributor of the reactor. The incorporation mechanism was analyzed to be the diffusion of resultant of transmetalation reaction between TMIn or its decomposed products (for example DMIn) and residual gallium. Due to the unintentional gallium incorporation, the growth rate and indium content of InGaN layer are determined by indium source, gallium source and the growth temperature.

  3. Method for improving the growth of cadmium telluride on a gallium arsenide substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, J.L.

    1990-12-31

    A method for preparing a gallium arsenide substrate, prior to growing a layer of cadmium telluride on a support surface thereof. The preparation includes the steps of cleaning the gallium arsenide substrate and thereafter forming prepatterned shapes on the support surface of the gallium arsenide substrate. The layer of cadmium telluride then grown on the prepared substrate results in dislocation densities of approximately 1{times}10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2} or less. The prepatterned shapes on the support surface of the gallium arsenide substrate are formed by reactive ion etching an original outer surface of the gallium arsenide substrate and into the body of the gallium arsenide substrate to a depth of at least two microns. The prepatterned shapes have the appearance of cylindrical mesas each having a diameter of at lease twelve microns. After the mesas are formed on the support surface of the gallium arsenide substrate, the substrate is again cleaned.

  4. Gallium-67 uptake by the thyroid associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoberg, R.J.; Blue, P.W.; Kidd, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Although thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 has been described in several thyroid disorders, gallium-67 scanning is not commonly used in the evaluation of thyroid disease. Thyroidal gallium-67 uptake has been reported to occur frequently with subacute thyroiditis, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma, and occasionally with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular thyroid carcinoma. A patient is described with progressive systemic sclerosis who, while being scanned for possible active pulmonary involvement, was found incidentally to have abnormal gallium-67 uptake only in the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs with increased frequency in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 associated with progressive systemic sclerosis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. Since aggressive thyroid malignancies frequently are imaged by gallium-67 scintigraphy, fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid often is essential in the evaluation of thyroidal gallium-67 uptake.

  5. BARNARD 59: NO EVIDENCE FOR FURTHER FRAGMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Zuniga, C. G.; Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Alves, Joao F.

    2012-03-10

    The dense molecular clump at the center of the Barnard 59 (B59) complex is the only region in the Pipe Nebula that has formed a small, stellar cluster. The previous analysis of a high-resolution near-IR dust extinction map revealed that the nuclear region in B59 is a massive, mostly quiescent clump of 18.9 M{sub Sun }. The clump shows a monolithic profile, possibly indicating that the clump is on the way to collapse, with no evident fragmentation that could lead to another group of star systems. In this paper, we present new analysis that compares the dust extinction map with a new dust emission radio-continuum map of higher spatial resolution. We confirm that the clump does not show any significant evidence for prestellar fragmentation at scales smaller than those probed previously.

  6. STAR FORMATION NEAR BERKELEY 59: EMBEDDED PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rosvick, J. M.; Majaess, D.

    2013-12-01

    A group of suspected protostars in a dark cloud northwest of the young (∼2 Myr) cluster Berkeley 59 and two sources in a pillar south of the cluster have been studied in order to determine their evolutionary stages and ascertain whether their formation was triggered by Berkeley 59. Narrowband near-infrared observations from the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic, {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2) and SCUBA-2 (450 and 850 μm) observations from the JCMT, 2MASS, and WISE images, and data extracted from the IPHAS survey catalog were used. Of 12 sources studied, two are Class I objects, while three others are flat/Class II, one of which is a T Tauri candidate. A weak CO outflow and two potential starless cores are present in the cloud, while the pillar possesses substructure at different velocities, with no outflows present. The CO spectra of both regions show peaks in the range v {sub LSR} = –15 to –17 km s{sup –1}, which agrees with the velocity adopted for Berkeley 59 (–15.7 km s{sup –1}), while spectral energy distribution models yield an average interstellar extinction A{sub V} and distance of 15 ± 2 mag and 830 ± 120 pc, respectively, for the cloud, and 6.9 mag and 912 pc for the pillar, indicating that the regions are in the same vicinity as Berkeley 59. The formation of the pillar source appears to have been triggered by Berkeley 59. It is unclear whether Berkeley 59 triggered the association's formation.

  7. CD59 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    CD59 is an 18- to 25-kD glycoprotein expressed on all human peripheral blood leukocytes, erythrocytes, and several human cell lines. CD59 is a potent inhibitor of the complement membrane attack complex (MAC) action. It acts by binding to the C8 and/or C9 complements of the assembling MAC, thereby preventing incorporation of the multiple copies of C9 required for complete formation of the osmolytic pore. This inhibitor appears to be species-specific and is involved in signal transduction for T-cell activation complexed to a protein tyrosine kinase.

  8. Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Eric D.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.

  9. Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Eric D.

    1989-09-01

    The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.

  10. Nucleation mechanism of gallium-assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth of gallium arsenide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Fontcuberta i Morral, A.; Colombo, C.; Abstreiter, G.; Arbiol, J.; Morante, J. R.

    2008-02-11

    Molecular beam epitaxy Ga-assisted synthesis of GaAs nanowires is demonstrated. The nucleation and growth are seen to be related to the presence of a SiO{sub 2} layer previously deposited on the GaAs wafer. The interaction of the reactive gallium with the SiO{sub 2} pinholes induces the formation of nanocraters, found to be the key for the nucleation of the nanowires. With SiO{sub 2} thicknesses up to 30 nm, nanocraters reach the underlying substrate, resulting into a preferential growth orientation of the nanowires. Possibly related to the formation of nanocraters, we observe an incubation period of 258 s before the nanowires growth is initiated.

  11. 44 CFR 59.4 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 59.4 References. (a) The following are statutory references for the National Flood Insurance Program, under which these regulations are issued: (1) National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (title XIII of the Housing...

  12. 44 CFR 59.4 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 59.4 References. (a) The following are statutory references for the National Flood Insurance Program, under which these regulations are issued: (1) National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 (title XIII of the Housing...

  13. 40 CFR 59.407 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.407 Recordkeeping... water and exempt compounds and excluding the volume of any colorant added to tint bases. (6) The...

  14. 40 CFR 59.404 - Tonnage exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.404 Tonnage exemption. (a..., including the volume of any water and exempt compounds and excluding the volume of any colorant added...

  15. 40 CFR 59.408 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.408 Reporting requirements. (a... exempt compounds and excluding the volume of any colorant added to tint bases. (6) The annual fee...

  16. 40 CFR 59.408 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.408 Reporting requirements. (a... exempt compounds and excluding the volume of any colorant added to tint bases. (6) The annual fee...

  17. 40 CFR 59.407 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.407 Recordkeeping... water and exempt compounds and excluding the volume of any colorant added to tint bases. (6) The...

  18. 40 CFR 59.408 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.408 Reporting requirements. (a... exempt compounds and excluding the volume of any colorant added to tint bases. (6) The annual fee...

  19. 40 CFR 59.403 - Exceedance fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.403 Exceedance fees. (a) Except as provided in... year, in liters, including the volume of any water and exempt compounds and excluding the volume of...

  20. 40 CFR 59.403 - Exceedance fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.403 Exceedance fees. (a) Except as provided in... year, in liters, including the volume of any water and exempt compounds and excluding the volume of...

  1. 40 CFR 59.407 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.407 Recordkeeping... water and exempt compounds and excluding the volume of any colorant added to tint bases. (6) The...

  2. 40 CFR 59.408 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.408 Reporting requirements. (a... exempt compounds and excluding the volume of any colorant added to tint bases. (6) The annual fee...

  3. 40 CFR 59.407 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.407 Recordkeeping... water and exempt compounds and excluding the volume of any colorant added to tint bases. (6) The...

  4. 40 CFR 59.403 - Exceedance fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.403 Exceedance fees. (a) Except as provided in... year, in liters, including the volume of any water and exempt compounds and excluding the volume of...

  5. 40 CFR 59.404 - Tonnage exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.404 Tonnage exemption. (a..., including the volume of any water and exempt compounds and excluding the volume of any colorant added...

  6. 40 CFR 59.403 - Exceedance fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.403 Exceedance fees. (a) Except as provided in... year, in liters, including the volume of any water and exempt compounds and excluding the volume of...

  7. 33 CFR 151.59 - Placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.59 Placards. (a) The master or...

  8. 33 CFR 151.59 - Placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.59 Placards. (a) This section...

  9. 33 CFR 151.59 - Placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.59 Placards. (a) This section...

  10. 33 CFR 151.59 - Placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.59 Placards. (a) This section...

  11. 33 CFR 151.59 - Placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.59 Placards. (a) The master or...

  12. 46 CFR 59.10-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-1 Scope. (a) Repairs to boilers or pressure vessels in service may be performed by welding provided the welding meets the applicable requirements of part 57 of this subchapter. (b) No repairs by welding shall be made...

  13. 46 CFR 59.10-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-1 Scope. (a) Repairs to boilers or pressure vessels in service may be performed by welding provided the welding meets the applicable requirements of part 57 of this subchapter. (b) No repairs by welding shall be made...

  14. 46 CFR 59.10-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-1 Scope. (a) Repairs to boilers or pressure vessels in service may be performed by welding provided the welding meets the applicable requirements of part 57 of this subchapter. (b) No repairs by welding shall be made...

  15. 46 CFR 59.10-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-1 Scope. (a) Repairs to boilers or pressure vessels in service may be performed by welding provided the welding meets the applicable requirements of part 57 of this subchapter. (b) No repairs by welding shall be made...

  16. 38 CFR 59.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this part: Acquisition means the purchase of a facility in which to establish a State home for the provision of... staff, with an emphasis on helping participants and their caregivers to develop the knowledge and...

  17. 7 CFR 319.59-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-1 Definitions. Administrator... locality in which it was grown. Grain. Wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), and... host crop. Host crops. Plants or plant parts, including grain, seed, or hay, of wheat...

  18. 7 CFR 319.59-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-1 Definitions. Administrator... considered to be “from” any country or locality in which it was grown. Grain. Wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), and triticale (Triticum aestivum X Secale cereale) used for consumption...

  19. 7 CFR 319.59-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-1 Definitions. Administrator... locality in which it was grown. Grain. Wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), and... host crop. Host crops. Plants or plant parts, including grain, seed, or hay, of wheat...

  20. 7 CFR 319.59-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-1 Definitions. Administrator... locality in which it was grown. Grain. Wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), and... host crop. Host crops. Plants or plant parts, including grain, seed, or hay, of wheat...

  1. 7 CFR 319.59-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Wheat Diseases § 319.59-1 Definitions. Administrator... locality in which it was grown. Grain. Wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), and... host crop. Host crops. Plants or plant parts, including grain, seed, or hay, of wheat...

  2. 10 CFR 61.59 - Institutional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.59 Institutional requirements. (a) Land ownership... Commission; and administration of funds to cover the costs for these activities. The period of...

  3. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  4. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are...

  5. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are...

  6. 21 CFR 558.59 - Apramycin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.59 Apramycin. (a) Approvals. Type A articles to sponsors identified in § 510.600(c)...

  7. 42 CFR 59.11 - Confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.11 Confidentiality. All information as to personal facts and circumstances obtained by the project staff about individuals receiving services must be...

  8. 42 CFR 59.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.2 Definitions. As used in this subpart: Act means the..., but who, as determined by the project director, are unable, for good reasons, to pay for...

  9. 42 CFR 59.11 - Confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.11 Confidentiality. All information as to personal facts and circumstances obtained by the project staff about individuals receiving services must be...

  10. 42 CFR 59.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.2 Definitions. As used in this subpart: Act means the..., but who, as determined by the project director, are unable, for good reasons, to pay for...

  11. 47 CFR 59.1 - General duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SHARING § 59.1 General duty. Incumbent local exchange carriers (as defined in 47 U.S.C. section 251(h)) shall make available to any qualifying carrier such public switched network infrastructure, technology... provide access to information services, in the service area in which such qualifying carrier has...

  12. 7 CFR 59.300 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engaged in the business of buying lambs in commerce for purposes of slaughter, of manufacturing or... preceding 5 calendar years. Additionally, the term includes a lamb processing plant that did not slaughter... REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.300 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart. Boxed...

  13. 7 CFR 59.300 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engaged in the business of buying lambs in commerce for purposes of slaughter, of manufacturing or... preceding 5 calendar years. Additionally, the term includes a lamb processing plant that did not slaughter... REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.300 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart. Boxed...

  14. 7 CFR 59.300 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... engaged in the business of buying lambs in commerce for purposes of slaughter, of manufacturing or... preceding 5 calendar years. Additionally, the term includes a lamb processing plant that did not slaughter... REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.300 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart. Boxed...

  15. 40 CFR 59.104 - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primers: Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, the acid weight percent of pretreatment wash primers must be determined using the American Society for Testing and Materials Test Method D 1613-96 (incorporated by reference in § 59.110). If the pigment in a pretreatment wash primer prevents the use of...

  16. 40 CFR 59.104 - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primers: Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, the acid weight percent of pretreatment wash primers must be determined using the American Society for Testing and Materials Test Method D 1613-96 (incorporated by reference in § 59.110). If the pigment in a pretreatment wash primer prevents the use of...

  17. 40 CFR 59.104 - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primers: Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, the acid weight percent of pretreatment wash primers must be determined using the American Society for Testing and Materials Test Method D 1613-96 (incorporated by reference in § 59.110). If the pigment in a pretreatment wash primer prevents the use of...

  18. 40 CFR 59.104 - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primers: Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, the acid weight percent of pretreatment wash primers must be determined using the American Society for Testing and Materials Test Method D 1613-96 (incorporated by reference in § 59.110). If the pigment in a pretreatment wash primer prevents the use of...

  19. 40 CFR 59.104 - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primers: Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, the acid weight percent of pretreatment wash primers must be determined using the American Society for Testing and Materials Test Method D 1613-96 (incorporated by reference in § 59.110). If the pigment in a pretreatment wash primer prevents the use of...

  20. Official STS-59 preflight crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the Official STS-59 preflight crew portrait. Sidney M. Gutierrez, mission commander is standing (right) along with Kevin P. Chilton, pilot. Others, left to right are Limda M. Godwin, payload commander; and Thomas D. Jones, Jerome (Jay) Apt and Michael R. (Rich) Clifford, all mission specialists. All are wearing orange launch and entry suits.