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Sample records for gallium 59

  1. Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Discovered in 1875 through a study of its spectral properties, gallium was the first element to be uncovered following the publication of Mendeleev`s Periodic Table. French chemist, P.E. Lecoq de Boisbaudran, named his element discovery in honor of his native country; gallium is derived from the Latin word for France-{open_quotes}Gallia.{close_quotes}. This paper describes the properties, sources, and market for gallium.

  2. Common pathway for tumor cell uptake of gallium-67 and iron-59 via a transferrin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Rasey, J.S.; Allen, D.R.; Nelson, N.J.; Harp, G.D.; Williams, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    We studied the tumor uptake of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate, (/sup 59/Fe)citrate, and /sup 125/I-labeled transferrin (TF) by the in vitro growth form of EMT-6, a sarcoma-like mammary tumor of BALB/c mice. In analyzing the binindg experiments, we developed a new mathematical model based on a formulation originally used to express the interaction of hormones with specific tissue receptors. The uptake of both carrier-free /sup 67/Ga and /sup 59/Fe by tumor cells was mediated by kinetically identical TF receptors. We also studied teric acid extracts of the stroma of EMT-6 tumors grown both in vivo and in vitro. Chromatography of these extracts on Sephacryl S-200 SF demonstrated that the cellular stroma contained specific TF-binding macromolecules. On the basis of these findings, we proposed the transferrin receptor hypothesis for the mechanism of /sup 67/Ga uptake by tumors. According to this view, a tumor-assisted TF receptor is the functional unit responsible for the affinity of gallum for certain neoplasms. This receptor was also active in the uptake of iron by tumors.

  3. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan ... Brown ML, Forstrom LA, et al. Society of nuclear medicine procedure guideline for gallium scintigraphy in inflammation. ...

  4. Gallium and gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Nation's growing concern with the competitiveness of U.S. firms in the world economy, especially with respect to advanced materials, the Bureau of Mines assessed the actual and potential recovery and manufacturing capabilities for gallium and gallium arsenide (GaAs). GaAs has advanced from a laboratory curiosity to a material with important high-tech applications within only the last few years, and although protected North American gallium supplies are currently considered adequate, consumption could grow to the point that this assessment would need reevaluation.

  5. Gallium complexes and solvent extraction of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.P.; Graham, C.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes a process for recovering gallium from aqueous solutions containing gallium which comprises contacting such a solution with an organic solvent containing at least 2% by weight of a water-insoluble N-organo hydroxamic acid having at least about 8 carbon atoms to extract gallium, and separating the gallium loaded organic solvent phase from the aqueous phase.

  6. Investigations in gallium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W.; Beard, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated.

  7. Gallium nitride optoelectronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The growth of bulk gallium nitride crystals was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride. Gallium nitride single crystals up to 2.5 x 0.5 cm in size were produced. The crystals are suitable as substrates for the epitaxial growth of gallium nitride. The epitaxial growth of gallium nitride on sapphire substrates with main faces of (0001) and (1T02) orientations was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride in a gas flow system. The grown layers had electron concentrations in the range of 1 to 3 x 10 to the 19th power/cu cm and Hall mobilities in the range of 50 to 100 sq cm/v/sec at room temperature.

  8. Gallium Arsenide Photocathode Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    r ~\\ 1 1 AD-A018 619 ■ i I 1 GALLIUM ARSENIDE PHOTOCATHODE DEVELOPMENT I Terry Roach, et al 1 1 ■f EPSCO ...aiwiiwnHWlffl’Wip m, «swwerf^MW^S’ GALLIUM ARSENIDE PHOTOCATHODE DEVELOPMENT T. J. Roach Bianca Contractor: EPSCO Laboratories Contract Number: F08606...PHOTOCATHODE DEVELOPMENT 7. AUTHORfaJ T. Roach J. Bianca t. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND AOORESS EPSCO Laboratories 227 High Ridge Road Stauford CT

  9. Preventing Supercooling Of Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massucco, Arthur A.; Wenghoefer, Hans M.; Wilkins, Ronnie

    1994-01-01

    Principle of heterogeneous nucleation exploited to prevent gallium from supercooling, enabling its use as heat-storage material that crystallizes reproducibly at its freezing or melting temperature of 29 to 30 degrees C. In original intended application, gallium used as heat-storage material in gloves of space suits. Terrestrial application lies in preparation of freezing-temperature reference samples for laboratories. Principle of heterogeneous nucleation also exploited similarly in heat pipes filled with sodium.

  10. Electrodeposition of gallium for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.

    2016-08-09

    An electroplating solution and method for producing an electroplating solution containing a gallium salt, an ionic compound and a solvent that results in a gallium thin film that can be deposited on a substrate.

  11. Gallium extraction by microemulsions.

    PubMed

    de Castro Dantas, T N; de Lucena Neto, M H; Dantas Neto, A A

    2002-04-08

    In this work, the use of microemulsion in the extraction of gallium, with Bayer process, has been studied. The studied microemulsion systems were: systems I and II, with saponified coconut oil (SCO) and 4-ethyl,1-methyl,7-octyl,8-hydroxyquinoleine (Kelex-100) as extractants. The extraction essays by microemulsion were carried out by applying an experimental planning method whose microemulsion points were prepared within an experimental domain favorable to the extraction. Gallium and aluminum extraction percentages, in each point, were evaluated via a statistical treatment of the data, with the use of variance analysis and mathematical models. In system I (SCO), percentages of extraction of 85.5% for gallium and 35.4% for aluminum were achieved; in system II (Kelex-100), the yields were 100% for gallium and 99.9% for aluminum. The reextraction study with sulfuric acid presented the same behavior for both systems, with efficiency depending upon the concentration of the acid, and allowing for a selective reextraction of gallium and aluminum.

  12. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks cross resistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed. PMID:22800370

  13. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2012-06-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks crossresistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed.

  14. Bulk Cubic Gallium Nitride

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-09

    microcrysta. form at bottom of «he reaction vessel. The objective of the second step is the solvothermal transport of the gallium nitride residing in the...system using pressure pumps can be used to gain precise control of the pressure. High pressure is typically used for the solvothermal transport. The...takes place in the reaction vessel during heating is a solvothermal reaction that is conducted at or above the critical point of the solvent The

  15. Gallium interactions with Zircaloy

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, A.L.; West, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of gallium ion implantation into zircaloy cladding material to investigate the effects that gallium may have in a reactor. High fluence ion implantation of Ga ions was conducted on heated Zircaloy-4 in the range of 10{sup 16}--10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm2. Surface effects were studied using SEM and electron microprobe analysis. The depth profile of Ga in the Zircaloy was characterized with Rutherford backscattering and SIMS techniques. Results indicate that the Zirc-4 is little affected up to a fluence of 10{sup 17} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation of 10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}, sub-grain features on the order of 2 {micro}m were observed which may be due to intermetallic compound formation between Ga and Zr. For the highest fluence implant, Ga content in the Zirc-4 reached a saturation value of between 30 and 40 atomic %; significant enhanced diffusion was observed but gallium was not seen to concentrate at grain boundaries.

  16. Development of gallium compounds for treatment of lymphoma: gallium maltolate, a novel hydroxypyrone gallium compound, induces apoptosis and circumvents lymphoma cell resistance to gallium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R; Purpi, David P; Woodliff, Jeffrey; Yang, Meiying; Wereley, Janine P

    2007-09-01

    Clinical studies have shown gallium nitrate to have significant antitumor activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer, thus indicating that gallium-based drugs have potential for further development as antineoplastic agents. In this study, we compared the cytotoxicity of gallium maltolate, a novel gallium compound, with gallium nitrate in lymphoma cell lines, including p53 variant and unique gallium nitrate-resistant cells. We found that gallium maltolate inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway at lower concentrations and more rapidly than gallium nitrate. Gallium maltolate produced an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) within 2 h of incubation with cells; this effect could be blocked by mitoquinone, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. The role of the transferrin receptor (TfR) in gallium maltolate's action was examined using monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 42/6 to block TfR function. However, although MoAb 42/6 reduced gallium maltolate-induced caspase-3 activity, it had only a minor effect on cell growth inhibition. Importantly, gallium maltolate induced apoptosis in cells resistant to gallium nitrate, and, unlike gallium nitrate, its cytotoxicity was not affected by cellular p53 status. Cellular gallium uptake was greater with gallium maltolate than with gallium nitrate. We conclude that gallium maltolate inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis more efficiently than gallium nitrate. Gallium maltolate is incorporated into lymphoma cells to a greater extent than gallium nitrate via both TfR-independent and -dependent pathways; it has significant activity against gallium nitrate-resistant cells and acts independently of p53. Further studies to evaluate its antineoplastic activity in vivo are warranted.

  17. Oxidative dissolution of gallium arsenide and separation of gallium from arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.P.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1988-07-26

    The method of dissociating gallium arsenide into a gallium-containing component and an arsenic-containing component, is described which comprises contacting the gallium arsenide with an oxidizing agent and a liquid comprising hydroxamic acid to convert the gallium to a gallium-hydroxamic acid complex and to oxidize the arsenic to a positive valence state.

  18. Gallium--A smart metal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. The French chemist Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered gallium in sphalerite (a zinc-sulfide mineral) in 1875 using spectroscopy. He named the element "gallia" after his native land of France (formerly Gaul; in Latin, Gallia). The existence of gallium had been predicted in 1871 by Dmitri Mendeleev, the Russian chemist who published the first periodic table of the elements. Mendeleev noted a gap in his table and named the missing element "eka-aluminum" because he determined that its location was one place away from aluminum in the table. Mendeleev thought that the missing element (gallium) would be very much like aluminum in its chemical properties, and he was right. Solid gallium has a low melting temperature (~29 degrees Celsius, or °C) and an unusually high boiling point (~2,204 °C). Because of these properties, the earliest uses of gallium were in high-temperature thermometers and in designing metal alloys that melt easily. The development of a gallium-based direct band-gap semiconductor in the 1960s led to what is now one of the most well-known applications for gallium-based products--the manufacture of smartphones and data-centric networks.

  19. Fundamental studies of the metallurgical, electrical, and optical properties of gallium phosphide and gallium phosphide alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Abstracts, bibliographic data, oral presentations, and published papers on (1) Diffusion of Sulfur in Gallium Phosphide and Gallium Arsenide, and (2) Properties of Gallium Phosphide Schottky Barrier Rectifiers for Use at High Temperature are presented.

  20. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; DiNetta, Louis C.; DuganCavanagh, K.; Goetz, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Betavoltaic power supplies based on gallium phosphide can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. Results are presented for GaP devices powered by Ni-63 and tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/cm(exp 2) have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. A small demonstration system has been assembled that generates and stores enough electricity to light up an LED.

  1. Gallium Arsenide Domino Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Long; Long, Stephen I.

    1990-01-01

    Advantages include reduced power and high speed. Experimental gallium arsenide field-effect-transistor (FET) domino circuit replicated in large numbers for use in dynamic-logic systems. Name of circuit denotes mode of operation, which logic signals propagate from each stage to next when successive stages operated at slightly staggered clock cycles, in manner reminiscent of dominoes falling in a row. Building block of domino circuit includes input, inverter, and level-shifting substages. Combinational logic executed in input substage. During low half of clock cycle, result of logic operation transmitted to following stage.

  2. Gallium nitride nanotube lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Hurtado, Antonio; ...

    2015-01-01

    Lasing is demonstrated from gallium nitride nanotubes fabricated using a two-step top-down technique. By optically pumping, we observed characteristics of lasing: a clear threshold, a narrow spectral, and guided emission from the nanotubes. In addition, annular lasing emission from the GaN nanotube is also observed, indicating that cross-sectional shape control can be employed to manipulate the properties of nanolasers. The nanotube lasers could be of interest for optical nanofluidic applications or application benefitting from a hollow beam shape.

  3. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2003-06-01

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  4. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-05-07

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  5. Gallium localization in dissecting aortic aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Haden, H.T.; Lippman, H.R.

    1988-08-01

    Gallium concentration was demonstrated in a dissecting aneurysm of the aortic arch, imaged approximately 2 weeks after dissection. Concentration of gallium was apparently due to the inflammatory reaction associated with the organizing intramural hematoma.

  6. GALLIUM ARSENIDE DENDRITE SINGLE CRYSTAL PROGRAM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARSENIDES, *GALLIUM COMPOUNDS, *LABORATORY FURNACES, * SOLAR CELLS , CRUCIBLES, DESIGN, DIFFUSION, EXPLOSIONS, INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, MATERIALS, PHOSPHORUS, SINGLE CRYSTALS, TEMPERATURE CONTROL, ZINC

  7. Structure of dental gallium alloys.

    PubMed

    Herø, H; Simensen, C J; Jørgensen, R B

    1996-07-01

    The interest in gallium alloys as a replacement for amalgam has increased in recent years due to the risk of environmental pollution from amalgam. Alloy powders with compositions close to those for alloys of amalgam are mixed with a liquid gallium alloy. The mix is condensed into a prepared cavity in much the same way as for amalgam. The aim of the present work was to study the structure of: (1) two commercial alloy powders containing mainly silver, tin and copper, and (2) the phases formed by mixing these powders with a liquid alloy of gallium, indium and tin. One of the alloy powders contained 9 wt% palladium. Cross-sections of cylindrical specimens made by these gallium mixes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Discrete grains of the following phases were found to be present in both gallium alloys: hexagonal Ag2Ga, tetragonal Cu(Pd)Ga2, cubic Ag9In4 and tetragonal beta-Sn. Indications of hexagonal or orthorhombic Ag2Sn were found in the remaining, unreacted alloy particles. In the palladium-containing alloy the X-ray reflections indicate a minor fraction of cubic Cu9Ga4 in addition to the Cu(Pd)Ga2 phase. Particles of beta-Sn are probably precipitated because Sn-Ga phases cannot be formed according to the binary phase diagram.

  8. Progress in gallium arsenide semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, M.H. )

    1990-02-01

    After almost 30 years as the technology of the future, gallium arsenide has begun to make a place for itself, not by supplanting silicon but by complementing it in new applications. The inherent advantages of the material lie in the speed with which electrons move through it, in weak-signal operations and in the generation and detection of light. These advantages suit it for roles in computing, television reception and the optoelectronic transmission of data through optical-fiber networks. Gallium arsenide light-emitting diodes and lasers used in visual-display technologies and audio-disk players already account for more than $1 billion in sales annually. Hundreds of thousands of satellite-receiving dishes that use gallium arsenide detectors are sold every year, and high-speed circuits using gallium arsenide transistors are projected to reach a similar turnover in a few years. In an economy and society that depend on the rapid exchange of information as well as on the processing of it, many silicon-dominated processors will require a considerable admixture of gallium arsenide components in order to do their jobs.

  9. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; Dinetta, L. C.; Goetz, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) energy converters may be successfully deployed to provide new mission capabilities for spacecraft. Betavoltaic power supplies based on the conversion of tritium beta decay to electricity using GaP energy converters can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. High temperature solar cells, also based on GaP, can be used in inward-bound missions greatly reducing the need for thermal dissipation. Results are presented for GaP direct conversion devices powered by Ni-63 and compared to the conversion of light emitted by tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/sq cm have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. Temperature dependent IV, QE, R(sub sh), and V(sub oc) results are also presented. These data are used to predict the high-temperature solar cell and betacell performance of GaP devices and suggest appropriate applications for the deployment of this technology.

  10. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use. PMID:20623028

  11. Medical applications and toxicities of gallium compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2010-05-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  12. Gallium and Reactor Neutrino Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acero, M. A.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.

    2009-03-01

    The observed deficit in the Gallium radioactive source experiments may be interpreted as a possible indication of active-sterile ν mixing. In the effective framework of two-neutrino mixing we obtain sin2ϑ≳0.03 and Δm≳0.1 eV. The compatibility of this result with the data of the Bugey reactor ν disappearance experiments is studied. It is found that the Bugey data present a hint of neutrino oscillations with 0.02≲sin2ϑ≲0.08 and Δm≈1.8 eV, which is compatible with the Gallium allowed region of the mixing parameters. This hint persists in the combined analysis of Gallium, Bugey, and Chooz data.

  13. 36 CFR 59.5-59.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 59.5-59.6 Section 59.5-59.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES §§ 59.5-59.6 ...

  14. 36 CFR 59.5-59.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 59.5-59.6 Section 59.5-59.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES §§ 59.5-59.6 ...

  15. 36 CFR 59.5-59.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 59.5-59.6 Section 59.5-59.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES §§ 59.5-59.6 ...

  16. 36 CFR 59.5-59.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 59.5-59.6 Section 59.5-59.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES §§ 59.5-59.6 ...

  17. 36 CFR 59.5-59.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 59.5-59.6 Section 59.5-59.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES §§ 59.5-59.6 ...

  18. Mineral resource of the month: gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    The metal element gallium occurs in very small concentrations in rocks and ores of other metals — native gallium is not known. As society gets more and more high-tech, gallium becomes more useful. Gallium is one of only five metals that are liquid at or close to room temperature. It has one of the longest liquid ranges of any metal (29.8 degrees Celsius to 2204 degrees Celsius) and has a low vapor pressure even at high temperatures. Ultra-pure gallium has a brilliant silvery appearance, and the solid metal exhibits conchoidal fracture similar to glass.

  19. Sterically crowded gallium amidinate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Dagorne, S.; Jordan, R.F.; Young, V.G. Jr.

    1999-10-25

    The sterically crowded gallium amidinate complexes {l{underscore}brace}{sup t}BuC(NR{prime}){sub 2}{r{underscore}brace}GaX{sub 2} (X = Cl, Me, Et, CH{sub 2}Ph; R{prime} = {sup i}Pr, Cy, {sup t}Bu) have been synthesized in good yield. X-ray crystallographic analyses show that the steric interactions between the {sup t}Bu and R{prime} groups influence the R{prime}{single{underscore}bond}N{single{underscore}bond}Ga angle and the steric environment at gallium.

  20. Renal amyloidosis. Evaluation by gallium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Skinner, M.; Cohen, A.S.; Ngai, S.; Peng, T.T.

    1986-09-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the efficacy of gallium imaging in the detection of renal amyloidosis. Ten of the 11 patients who had biopsy-proven renal amyloidosis demonstrated marked uptake in both kidneys. One patient revealed moderate gallium uptake in his kidneys. None of the patients had underlying renal or extrarenal pathology other than amyloidosis, which could account for renal gallium uptake (renal infection, neoplasm, hepatic failure or frequent blood transfusions). Four patients also had extrarenal foci of abnormal gallium uptake, suggesting other sites of amyloid deposits. Our data strongly suggest that gallium imaging has a high sensitivity for detection of renal amyloidosis. Its specificity is enhanced significantly by careful review of the clinical history to exclude other known causes of renal gallium uptake. Potentially, gallium imaging may be used to monitor the progress of patients under experimental therapy.

  1. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

  2. Toxicity of indium arsenide, gallium arsenide, and aluminium gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo

    2004-08-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium arsenide (InAs), and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) are semiconductor applications. Although the increased use of these materials has raised concerns about occupational exposure to them, there is little information regarding the adverse health effects to workers arising from exposure to these particles. However, available data indicate these semiconductor materials can be toxic in animals. Although acute and chronic toxicity of the lung, reproductive organs, and kidney are associated with exposure to these semiconductor materials, in particular, chronic toxicity should pay much attention owing to low solubility of these materials. Between InAs, GaAs, and AlGaAs, InAs was the most toxic material to the lung followed by GaAs and AlGaAs when given intratracheally. This was probably due to difference in the toxicity of the counter-element of arsenic in semiconductor materials, such as indium, gallium, or aluminium, and not arsenic itself. It appeared that indium, gallium, or aluminium was toxic when released from the particles, though the physical character of the particles also contributes to toxic effect. Although there is no evidence of the carcinogenicity of InAs or AlGaAs, GaAs and InP, which are semiconductor materials, showed the clear evidence of carcinogenic potential. It is necessary to pay much greater attention to the human exposure of semiconductor materials.

  3. Oligonuclear gallium nitrogen cage compounds: molecular intermediates on the way from gallium hydrazides to gallium nitride.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Werner; Abel, Thomas; Hagemeier, Elke; Hepp, Alexander; Layh, Marcus; Rezaeirad, Babak; Luftmann, Heinrich

    2011-01-03

    Gallium hydrazides are potentially applicable as facile starting compounds for the generation of GaN by thermolysis. The decomposition pathways are, however, complicated and depend strongly on the substituents attached to the gallium atoms and the hydrazido groups. This paper describes some systematic investigations into the thermolysis of the gallium hydrazine adduct Bu(t)(3)Ga←NH(2)-NHMe (1a) and the dimeric gallium hydrazides [R(2)Ga(N(2)H(2)R')](2) (2b, R = Bu(t), R' = Bu(t); 2c, R = Pr(i), R' = Ph; 2d, R = Me, R' = Bu(t)) which have four- or five-membered heterocycles in their molecular cores. Heating of the adduct 1a to 170 °C gave the heterocyclic compound Bu(t)(2)Ga(μ-NH(2))[μ-N(Me)-N(=CH(2))]GaBu(t)(2) (3) by cleavage of N-N bonds and rearrangement. 3 was further converted at 400 °C into the tetrameric gallium cyanide (Bu(t)(2)GaCN)(4) (4). The thermolysis of the hydrazide (Bu(t)(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHBu(t))(2) (2b) at temperatures between 270 and 420 °C resulted in cleavage of all N-N bonds and the formation of an octanuclear gallium imide, (Bu(t)GaNH)(8) (6). The trimeric dialkylgallium amide (Bu(t)(2)GaNH(2))(3) (5) was isolated as an intermediate. Thermolysis of the hydrazides (Pr(i)(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHPh)(NH(2)-NPh) (2c) and (Me(2)Ga)(2)(NH-NHBu(t))(2) (2d) proceeded in contrast with retention of the N-N bonds and afforded a variety of novel gallium hydrazido cage compounds with four gallium atoms and up to four hydrazido groups in a single molecule: (Pr(i)Ga)(4)(NH-NPh)(3)NH (7), (MeGa)(4)(NH-NBu(t))(4) (8), (MeGa)(4)(NH-NBu(t))(3)NBu(t) (9), and (MeGa)(4)(NHNBu(t))(3)NH (10). Partial hydrolysis gave reproducibly the unique octanuclear mixed hydrazido oxo compound (MeGa)(8)(NHNBu(t))(4)O(4) (11).

  4. Liquid gallium rotary electric contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1969-01-01

    Due to its low vapor pressure, gallium, when substituted for mercury in a liquid slip ring system, transmits substantial amounts of electrical current to rotating components in an ultrahigh vacuum. It features low electrical loss, little or no wear, and long maintenance-free life.

  5. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  6. Gallium scan in intracerebral sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Makhija, M.C.; Anayiotos, C.P.

    1981-07-01

    Sarcoidosis involving the nervous system probably occurs in about 4% of patients. The usefulness of brain scintigraphy in these cases has been suggested. In this case of cerebral sarcoid granuloma, gallium imaging demonstrated the lesion before treatment and showed disappearance of the lesion after corticosteroid treatment, which correlated with the patient's clinical improvement.

  7. P-type gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan; Fu, Tracy; Ross, Jennifer; Chan, James

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  8. Gallium scintigraphy in acute panniculitis

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, D.; Murray, I.P.C.; Ford, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    Gallium scintigraphy was performed in a 27-yr-old female in search of a possible occult focus of infection; it showed an unusual diffuse superficial accumulation in the thighs and buttocks. Biopsy of an area of abnormal uptake showed lobular panniculitis which, in the clinical context, led to the diagnosis of Weber-Christian syndrome.

  9. Upregulation of CD59

    PubMed Central

    Griesemer, Adam D.; Okumi, Masayoshi; Shimizu, Akira; Moran, Shannon; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Iorio, Justin; Arn, J. Scott; Yamada, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Background Survival of ABO-mismatched kidneys with stable renal function despite the persistence of anti-ABO antibodies is called accommodation. The mechanism of accommodation is unclear, but may involve complement regulatory proteins such as CD59. The development of alpha-1,3-Galactosyltransferase knock-out (GalT-KO) swine that produce anti-Gal antibodies provides a large animal model capable of determining the role of complement regulatory proteins in accommodation. Methods ELISA and antibody FACS were used to examine the rate of anti-Gal antibody expression as a function of age. MHC-matched kidneys were transplanted from Gal-positive MGH miniature swine to MGH GalT-KO swine with systemic immunosuppression. One recipient underwent adsorbtion of anti-Gal antibodies prior to transplantation. Graft survival, antibody and complement deposition patterns and CD59 expression were determined. Results Three animals rejected Gal-positive kidneys via humoral mechanisms. One animal with low titers of anti-Gal Ab displayed spontaneous accommodation and the animal that was treated with Ab adsorbtion also displayed accommodation. Rejected grafts had deposition of IgM, IgG, C3 and C5b-9 with low expression of CD59, while accommodated grafts had low deposition of C5b-9 and high expression of CD59. Re-transplantation of one accommodated graft to a naïve GalT-KO animal confirmed that changes in the graft were responsible for the lack of C5b-9 deposition. Conclusion GalT-KO miniature swine produce anti-Gal antibodies and titers increase with age. These anti-Gal antibodies can cause rejection of MHC matched kidneys unless accommodation occurs. CD59 upregulation appears to be involved in the mechanism of accommodation by preventing the formation of the MAC on the accommodated graft. PMID:19424030

  10. Gallium nitride electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Siddharth; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-07-01

    In the past two decades, there has been increasing research and industrial activity in the area of gallium nitride (GaN) electronics, stimulated first by the successful demonstration of GaN LEDs. While the promise of wide band gap semiconductors for power electronics was recognized many years before this by one of the contributors to this issue (J Baliga), the success in the area of LEDs acted as a catalyst. It set the field of GaN electronics in motion, and today the technology is improving the performance of several applications including RF cell phone base stations and military radar. GaN could also play a very important role in reducing worldwide energy consumption by enabling high efficiency compact power converters operating at high voltages and lower frequencies. While GaN electronics is a rapidly evolving area with active research worldwide, this special issue provides an opportunity to capture some of the great advances that have been made in the last 15 years. The issue begins with a section on epitaxy and processing, followed by an overview of high-frequency HEMTs, which have been the most commercially successful application of III-nitride electronics to date. This is followed by review and research articles on power-switching transistors, which are currently of great interest to the III-nitride community. A section of this issue is devoted to the reliability of III-nitride devices, an area that is of increasing significance as the research focus has moved from not just high performance but also production-worthiness and long-term usage of these devices. Finally, a group of papers on new and relatively less studied ideas for III-nitride electronics, such as interband tunneling, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and high-temperature electronics is included. These areas point to new areas of research and technological innovation going beyond the state of the art into the future. We hope that the breadth and quality of articles in this issue will make it

  11. Construction of Gallium Point at NMIJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiatmo, J. V.; Saito, I.; Yamazawa, K.

    2017-03-01

    Two open-type gallium point cells were fabricated using ingots whose nominal purities are 7N. Measurement systems for the realization of the melting point of gallium using these cells were built. The melting point of gallium is repeatedly realized by means of the measurement systems for evaluating the repeatability. Measurements for evaluating the effect of hydrostatic pressure coming from the molten gallium existing during the melting process and the effect of gas pressure that fills the cell were also performed. Direct cell comparisons between those cells were conducted. This comparison was aimed to evaluate the consistency of each cell, especially related to the nominal purity. Direct cell comparison between the open-type and the sealed-type gallium point cell was also conducted. Chemical analysis was conducted using samples extracted from ingots used in both the newly built open-type gallium point cells, from which the effect of impurities in the ingot was evaluated.

  12. Running droplets of gallium from evaporation of gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Tersoff, J; Jesson, D E; Tang, W X

    2009-04-10

    High-temperature annealing of gallium arsenide in vacuum causes excess evaporation of arsenic, with accumulation of gallium as liquid droplets on the surface. Using real-time in situ surface electron microscopy, we found that these droplets spontaneously run across the crystal surface. Running droplets have been seen in many systems, but they typically require special surface preparation or gradient forces. In contrast, we show that noncongruent evaporation automatically provides a driving force for running droplets. The motion is predicted and observed to slow and stop near a characteristic temperature, with the speed increasing both below and above this temperature. The same behavior is expected to occur during the evaporation of similar III-V semiconductors such as indium arsenide.

  13. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  14. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  15. Collector for recovering gallium from weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, C.V.; Anthony, R.G.; Chokkaram, S.

    1998-09-01

    Currently, the separation of gallium from weapons plutonium involves the use of aqueous processing using either solvent extraction of ion exchange. However, this process generates significant quantities of liquid radioactive wastes. A Thermally Induced Gallium Removal process, or TIGR, developed by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratories, is a simpler alternative to aqueous processing. This research examined this process, and the behavior of gallium suboxide, a vapor that is swept away by passing hydrogen/argon over gallium trioxide/plutonium oxide heated at 1100 C during the TIGR process. Through experimental procedures, efforts were made to prevent the deposition of corrosive gallium onto furnace and vent surfaces. Experimental procedures included three options for gallium removal and collection: (1) collection of gallium suboxide through use of a cold finger; (2) collection by in situ air oxidation; and (3) collection of gallium on copper. Results conclude all three collection mechanisms are feasible. In addition, gallium trioxide exists in three crystalline forms, and each form was encountered during each experiment, and that each form will have a different reactivity.

  16. Recovering gallium from residual bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso de Magalhães, Maria Elizabeth; Tubino, Matthieu

    1991-06-01

    Gallium is normally obtained by direct electrolysis as a by-product from Bayer process residual liquor at an aluminum processing plant. However, to permit any net accumulation of the metal, the gallium concentration must be at least about 0.3 g/l in the liquor. This article describes a continuous process of extraction with organic solvents and rhodamine-B, followed by a re-extraction step into aqueous media. The final product is a solid containing up to 18 wt.% Ga in a solid mixture of hydroxides and oxides of gallium and aluminum. This final product can then be electrolyzed to recover the gallium more efficiently.

  17. Gallium-68 in Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Martiniova, Lucia; Palatis, Louis De; Etchebehere, Elba; Ravizzini, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging agents labeled with ;68Gallium (68Ga) have undergone a significant increase in clinical utilization. 68Ga is conveniently produced from a germanium-68/gallium-68 (68Ge/68Ga) generator. Because of the compact size and ease of use of the generator, 68Ga labeled compounds may be more cost-effective than PET radioisotopes that are cyclotron-produced. The convenient half-life of 68Ga (T1/2=68 min) provides sufficient radioactivity for various PET imaging applications, while delivering acceptable radiation doses to patients. This chapter summarizes the emerging clinical utilization of 68Ga-based radiotracers in medical imaging. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. STS-59 crew insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The STS-59 insignia is dominated by Earth, reflecting the focus of the first Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-1) mission upon our planet's surface and atmosphere. The golden symbol of the astronaut corps emblem sweeps over Earth's surface from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, representing the operation of the SIR-C/Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Space (MAPS) sensors. The astronaut emblem also signals the importance of the human element in space exploration and in the study of our planet. The star field visible below Earth represents the many talents and skill of the international SRL-1 team.

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma detection by gallium scan and subsequent treatment by gallium maltolate: rationale and case study.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lawrence R; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J M; Boer, Robbert O

    2011-07-01

    Gallium is antiproliferative to many types of cancer, due primarily to its ability to act as a non-functional mimic of ferric iron (Fe(3+)). Because Fe(3+) is needed for ribonucleotide reductase activity--and thus DNA synthesis--gallium can inhibit DNA production and cell division. Diagnostic gallium scans have shown that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is commonly avid for gallium. Furthermore, in vitro studies have found that gallium nitrate, and particularly gallium maltolate (GaM), have dose-dependent antiproliferative activity against HCC cell lines. Rationale thus exists to use GaM, an orally active compound that has been well tolerated in Phase I clinical trials, to treat patients whose HCC is gallium-avid in a gallium scan. Because gallium absorbed from orally administered GaM is bound predominately to serum transferrin, which travels to all tissues in the body, GaM has the potential to treat even distant metastases. A patient with advanced HCC (20 × 10 cm primary tumor, ascites around liver and spleen, resistant to Nexavar(®) (sorafenib)), whose cancer was highly gallium-avid in a (67)Ga-scan, was treated with oral gallium maltolate at 1500 mg/day q.d. After four weeks of treatment, the patient had a large reduction in pain, with greatly increased mobility and quality of life, and significantly lowered serum bilirubin and inflammation-related liver enzymes. At eight weeks, CT scans showed apparent necrosis of the tumor.

  20. Optical control of gallium nanoparticle growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, K. F.; Fedotov, V. A.; Pochon, S.; Ross, K. J.; Stevens, G. C.; Zheludev, N. I.; Brocklesby, W. S.; Emel'yanov, V. I.

    2002-03-01

    We report that low-intensity light can dramatically influence and regulate the nanoparticle self-assembly process: Illumination of a substrate exposed to a beam of gallium atoms results in the formation of gallium nanoparticles with a relatively narrow size distribution. Very low light intensities, below the threshold for thermally induced evaporation, exert considerable control over nanoparticle formation.

  1. Gallium 67 uptake in thymic rebound

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, R.; Sabio, H.; Teates, C.D.

    1988-09-01

    We have reported a case of localized thymic enlargement and uptake of gallium 67 in a child who had received antineoplastic chemotherapy. The enlarged thymus showed normal histology, a picture consistent with thymic rebound after nonspecific stress. This case further demonstrates the need to consider thymic rebound as a cause of gallium 67 uptake in children with neoplastic diseases.

  2. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thrustor Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given in Fig. 1. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagneticpump[l]. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx.10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx.500 I), send-stage puke which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  3. [Utility of SPECT in gallium scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Uto, Tomoyuki

    2002-11-01

    Whole-body gallium planar scintigraphy is a mainstay for the detection of tumors and inflammatory lesions. Recently, gallium SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) has become more common in the clinical setting. This diagnostic modality is widely employed in our hospital, and lesions are actually detected by SPECT in some cases. Although the contrast of SPECT images is better than that of planar images, spatial resolution is limited by the limited matrix size. Thus, the overall diagnostic utility of SPECT remains to be confirmed. The usefulness of SPECT for the detection of gallium-accumulated lesions was evaluated in a phantom. In this study, we showed that SPECT is able to detect more smaller and lower gallium accumulations than planar imaging. Thus, SPECT imaging is useful in gallium scintigraphy.

  4. Processing to obtain high-purity gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Renato G.

    2003-03-01

    Gallium has become increasingly popular as a substrate material for electronic devices. Aside from ore, gallium can be obtained from such industrial sources as the Bayer process caustic liquor that is a byproduct of bauxite processing, flue dust removed from the fume-collection system in plants that produce aluminum by the electrolytic process, zinc refinery residues, gallium scrap materials, and coal fly ash. The purification process for gallium can start with solvent-extraction processes where the concentrations of impurities, especially metals, are reduced to the ppm range. This article describes how ultra-purification techniques can be employed to reduce the undesirable impurities to the low ppb range. The various procedures described give an idea as to the extent of work needed to obtain and prepare high-purity gallium for electronic application.

  5. STS-59 crew insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-11-01

    STS059-S-001 (November 1993) --- Designed by the crew members, the STS-59 insignia is dominated by Earth, reflecting the focus of the first Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-1) mission upon our planet's surface and atmosphere. The golden symbol of the astronaut corps emblem sweeps over Earth's surface from the space shuttle Endeavour, representing the operation of the SIR-C/Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Space (MAPS) sensors. The astronaut emblem also signals the importance of the human element in space exploration and in the study of our planet. Using the unique vantage point of space, Endeavour and its crew -- along with scientists from around the world -- will study Earth and its environment. The starfield visible below Earth represents the many talents and skills of the international (SRL-1) team in working to make this "Mission to Planet Earth" (MTPE) a scientific and operational success. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Bismuth incorporation into gallium phosphide

    SciTech Connect

    Jena, Puru; Kandalam, Anil K.; Christian, Theresa M.; Beaton, Daniel A.; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Alberi, Kirstin

    2016-12-21

    Gallium phosphide bismide (GaP1-xBix) epilayers with bismuth fractions from 0.9% to 3.2%, as calculated from lattice parameter measurements, were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to directly measure bismuth incorporation. The total bismuth fractions found by RBS were higher than expected from the lattice parameter calculations. Furthermore, in one analyzed sample grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 300 degrees C, 55% of incorporated bismuth was found to occupy interstitial sites. We discuss implications of this high interstitial incorporation fraction and its possible relationship to x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements of GaP0.99Bi0.01.

  7. Bismuth incorporation into gallium phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Theresa M.; Beaton, Daniel A.; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Alberi, Kirstin

    2016-12-01

    Gallium phosphide bismide (GaP1-xBix) epilayers with bismuth fractions from 0.9% to 3.2%, as calculated from lattice parameter measurements, were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to directly measure bismuth incorporation. The total bismuth fractions found by RBS were higher than expected from the lattice parameter calculations. Furthermore, in one analyzed sample grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 300 °C, 55% of incorporated bismuth was found to occupy interstitial sites. We discuss implications of this high interstitial incorporation fraction and its possible relationship to x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements of GaP0.99Bi0.01.

  8. Electrospun Gallium Nitride Nanofibers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, Anamaris; Morales, Kristle; Ramos, Idalia; Campo, Eva; Santiago, Jorge J.

    2009-04-01

    The high thermal conductivity and wide bandgap of gallium nitride (GaN) are desirable characteristics in optoelectronics and sensing applications. In comparison to thin films and powders, in the nanofiber morphology the sensitivity of GaN is expected to increase as the exposed area (proportional to the length) increases. In this work we present electrospinning as a novel technique in the fabrication of GaN nanofibers. Electrospinning, invented in the 1930s, is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid technique to produce microscopically long ultrafine fibers. GaN nanofibers are produced using gallium nitrate and dimethyl-acetamide as precursors. After electrospinning, thermal decomposition under an inert atmosphere is used to pyrolyze the polymer. To complete the preparation, the nanofibers are sintered in a tube furnace under a NH3 flow. Both scanning electron microscopy and profilometry show that the process produces continuous and uniform fibers with diameters ranging from 20 to a few hundred nanometers, and lengths of up to a few centimeters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the development of GaN nanofibers with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Future work includes additional characterization using transmission electron microscopy and XRD to understand the role of precursors and nitridation in nanofiber synthesis, and the use of single nanofibers for the construction of optical and gas sensing devices.

  9. Clinical applications of Gallium-68.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G

    2013-06-01

    Gallium-68 is a positron-emitting radioisotope that is produced from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. As such it is conveniently used, decoupling radiopharmacies from the need for a cyclotron on site. Gallium-68-labeled peptides have been recognized as a new class of radiopharmaceuticals showing fast target localization and blood clearance. (68)Ga-DOTATOC, (8)Ga-DOTATATE, (68)Ga-DOTANOC, are the most prominent radiopharmaceuticals currently in use for imaging and differentiating lesions of various somatostatin receptor subtypes, overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of clinical studies with (68)Ga over the past few years around the world, including within the United States. An estimated ∼10,000 scans are being performed yearly in Europe at about 100 centers utilizing (68)Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs within clinical trials. Two academic sites within the US have also begun to undertake human studies. This review will focus on the clinical experience of selected, well-established and recently applied (68)Ga-labeled imaging agents used in nuclear medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical Applications of Gallium-68

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    Gallium-68 is a positron-emitting radioisotope that is produced from a 68Ge/68Ga generator. As such it is conveniently used, decoupling radiopharmacies from the need for a cyclotron on site. Gallium-68-labeled peptides have been recognized as a new class of radiopharmaceuticals showing fast target localization and blood clearance. 68Ga-DOTATOC, 8Ga-DOTATATE, 68Ga-DOTANOC, are the most prominent radiopharmaceuticals currently in use for imaging and differentiating lesions of various somatostatin receptor subtypes, overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of clinical studies with 68Ga over the past few years around the world, including within the United States. An estimated ~10,000 scans are being performed yearly in Europe at about 100 centers utilizing 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs within clinical trials. Two academic sites within the US have also begun to undertake human studies. This review will focus on the clinical experience of selected, well-established and recently applied 68Ga-labeled imaging agents used in nuclear medicine. PMID:23522791

  11. The surface tension of liquid gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The surface tension of liquid gallium has been measured using the sessile drop technique in an Auger spectrometer. The experimental method is described. The surface tension in mJ/sq m is found to decrease linearly with increasing temperature and may be represented as 708-0.66(T-29.8), where T is the temperature in centigrade. This result is of interest because gallium has been suggested as a model fluid for Marangoni flow experiments. In addition, the surface tension is of technological significance in the processing of compound semiconductors involving gallium.

  12. Status of gallium-67 in tumor detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, P.

    1980-04-01

    The efficacy of gallium-67 citrate in detecting specific tumors is discussed. Tumors in which gallium-67 imaging is useful as a diagnostic tool include Hodgkin's disease, histiocystic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, hepatoma melanoma, and leukemia. It has not been found to be effective in diagnosing head and neck tumors, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tract tumors, breast tumors, and pediatric tumors. Gallium may be useful in the evaluation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma, mesothelioma, and carcinoma of the lung. It may also be useful for determining response to treatment and prognosis in some neoplasms.

  13. Survey of the market, supply, and availability of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The present and potential availability of gallium metal in connection with materials evaluation recommendations for satellite power systems is examined in the following areas: (1) market considerations - the present and emerging uses of gallium, as well as the consumption and price of gallium; (2) supply considerations - present sources of gallium, commercial and new methods for extracting gallium from bauxite, and summary comments; (3) methods for purifying gallium to satisfy market demands; (4) principal suppliers of gallium; and (5) gallium availability from bauxite on the basis of primary aluminum production; and bauxite production, reserves and resources. The study was based on published information as well as information derived from private communications with both major and potential suppliers and users of gallium, and with staff members at the Bureau of Mines. 16 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  14. Radiochemical separation of gallium by amalgam exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruch, R.R.

    1969-01-01

    An amalgam-exchange separation of radioactive gallium from a number of interfering radioisotopes has been developed. A dilute (ca. 0.3%) gallium amalgam is agitated with a slightly acidic solution of 72Ga3+ containing concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and either perchlorate or chloride. The amalgam is then removed and the radioactive gallium stripped by agitation with dilute nitric acid. The combined exchange yield of the perchlorate-thiocyanate system is 90??4% and that of the chloride-thiocyanate system is 75??4%. Decontamination yields of most of the 11 interfering isotopes studied were less than 0.02%. The technique is applicable for use with activation analysis for the determination of trace amounts of gallium. ?? 1969.

  15. Materials synthesis: Two-dimensional gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Nikhil A.

    2016-11-01

    Graphene is used as a capping sheet to synthesize 2D gallium nitride by means of migration-enhanced encapsulation growth. This technique may allow the stabilization of 2D materials that are not amenable to synthesis by traditional methods.

  16. Development of gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of ion implantation as a means of developing gallium arsenide solar cells with high efficiency performance was investigated. Computer calculations on gallium arsenide cell characteristics are presented to show the effects of surface recombination, junction space-charge recombination, and built-in fields produced by nonuniform doping of the surface region. The fabrication technology is summarized. Electrical and optical measurements on samples of solar cells are included.

  17. Generator for gallium-68 and compositions obtained therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A generator for obtaining radioactive gallium-68 from germanium-68 bound in a resin containing unsubstituted phenolic hydroxyl groups. The germanium-68 is loaded into the resin from an aqueous solution of the germanium-68. A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of gallium-68 solution is obtained. The solution is obtained from the bound germanium-68 which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with a hydrochloric acid solution to form an acidic solution of gallium-68. The acidic solution of gallium-68 can be neutralized.

  18. Gallium Arsenide wafer scale integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, J. F.; Taylor, G.; Steinvorth, R.; Donlan, B.; Bergendahl, A. S.

    1985-08-01

    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) digital MESFET technology has recently begun to appear in the semiconductor marketplace. The initial commercial offerings are at the small to medium scale integration levels. The high speed of these parts would seem to be very attractive for designers of high performance signal processing equipment. Persistent yield problems, however, have prevented the appearance of large scale integrated circuits. As a result, intrapackage and interpackage signal propagation problems such as coupling, parasitics and delay are likely to negate much of the benefits of the fast MESFET logic devices for large systems constructed with such small scale building blocks. An early packaging concept, Wafer Scale Integration (WSI), which could possibly be used to address some of these limitations is reexamined.

  19. Gallium poisoning: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Hottel, Timothy L

    2012-02-01

    The authors present a case of a college student who suffered acute gallium poisoning as a result of accidental exposure to gallium halide complexes. This is extremely rare and has never been reported in the literature. Acute symptoms after the incident, which initially presented as dermatitis and appeared relatively not life-threatening, rapidly progressed to dangerous episodes of tachycardia, tremors, dyspnea, vertigo, and unexpected black-outs. Had there been effective emergency medical care protocols, diagnostic testing, treatment and antidotes, the latent manifestations of irreversible cardiomyopathy may have been prevented. Given how quickly exposure led to morbidity, this article aims to raise an awareness of the toxic potential of gallium. This has particular relevance for workers involved in the production of semiconductors where there is a potential for accidental exposure to gallium by-products during device processing. It may also have implications for dentists who use gallium alloys to replace mercury containing amalgam. In the absence of threshold limit values and exposure limits for humans, as well as emergency medical guidelines for treatment of poisoning, the case calls on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to establish guidelines and medical management protocols specific for gallium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanoscale photonics of structural transformations in gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Fedotov, V. A.; MacDonald, K. F.; Stevens, G. C.; Pochon, Sebastien C.; Woodford, M.

    2002-11-01

    We have found recently that Gallium, confined at an interface with silica, responds dramatically to low power optical excitation when held at temperatures close to its melting point (29.8oC). Intensities of just a few kW/cm2 can reversibly modulate the intensity (by up to 40%) and phase (by as much as several degrees) of reflected light as the result of a light-induced structural transition occurring in a layer of gallium of only a few nm thick. Here, we report that this concept - of achieving a nonlinearity via a light-induced transformation in a confined solid at a temperature close to a phase transition temperature - can also be applied to gallium nanoparticles. We present the transient all-optical switching characteristics of gallium nanoparticle films comprising particles, typically 80 nm in diameter, which were formed directly on the ends of optical fibers using a new light-assisted self-assembly technique. We also report, for the first time, that this light-induced structural transition in gallium confined at an interface with silica underlies a new mechanism for photoconductivity. In our opinion, the exploitation of the light-induced phase transition in gallium may be a means of enabling the development of nanoscale photonic devices.

  1. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  2. Correction: Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S

    2016-05-28

    Correction for 'Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control' by Sujoy Sarkar et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 6407-6410.

  3. Indium Gallium Nitride Multijunction Solar Cell Simulation Using Silvaco Atlas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    in production from the mid-1960s until the early 1990s. Their efficiency was close to 15%. The next step consisted of single junction gallium ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited INDIUM GALLIUM ...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Indium Gallium Nitride Multijunction Solar Cell Simulation Using Silvaco Atlas 6

  4. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN P-10...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN P-10...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN P-10...

  7. Gallium Zeolites for Light Paraffin Aromatization

    SciTech Connect

    Price, G.L.; Dooley, K.M.

    1999-02-10

    The primary original goal of this project was to investigate the active state of gallium-containing MFI catalysts for light paraffin aromatization, in particular the state of gallium in the active material. Our original hypothesis was that the most active and selective materials were those which contained gallium zeolitic cations, and that previously reported conditions for the activation of gallium-containing catalysts served to create these active centers. We believed that in high silica materials such as MFI, ion-exchange is most effectively accomplished with metals in their 1+ oxidation state, both because of the sparsity of the anionic ion-exchange sites associated with the zeolite, and because the large hydration shells associated with aqueous 3+ cations hinder transport. Metals such as Ga which commonly exist in higher oxidation states need to be reduced to promote ion-exchange and this is the reason that reduction of gallium-containing catalysts for light paraffin aromatization often yields a dramatic enhancement in catalytic activity. We have effectively combined reduction with ion-exchange and we term this combined process ''reductive solid-state ion-exchange''. Our hypothesis has largely been proven true, and a number of the papers we have published directly address this hypothesis.

  8. Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin C; Choi, Heon-Jin; Knutsen, Kelly P; Schaller, Richard D; Yang, Peidong; Saykally, Richard J

    2002-10-01

    There is much current interest in the optical properties of semiconductor nanowires, because the cylindrical geometry and strong two-dimensional confinement of electrons, holes and photons make them particularly attractive as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronic devices, including lasersand nonlinear optical frequency converters. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a wide-bandgap semiconductor of much practical interest, because it is widely used in electrically pumped ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diodes, lasers and photodetectors. Recent progress in microfabrication techniques has allowed stimulated emission to be observed from a variety of GaN microstructures and films. Here we report the observation of ultraviolet-blue laser action in single monocrystalline GaN nanowires, using both near-field and far-field optical microscopy to characterize the waveguide mode structure and spectral properties of the radiation at room temperature. The optical microscope images reveal radiation patterns that correlate with axial Fabry-Perot modes (Q approximately 10(3)) observed in the laser spectrum, which result from the cylindrical cavity geometry of the monocrystalline nanowires. A redshift that is strongly dependent on pump power (45 meV microJ x cm(-2)) supports the idea that the electron-hole plasma mechanism is primarily responsible for the gain at room temperature. This study is a considerable advance towards the realization of electron-injected, nanowire-based ultraviolet-blue coherent light sources.

  9. Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S

    2016-05-11

    A ternary, ionically conducting, deep eutectic solvent based on acetamide, urea and gallium nitrate is reported for the electrodeposition of gallium nitride/gallium indium nitride under ambient conditions; blue and white light emitting photoluminescent deposits are obtained under potential control.

  10. New SMU Gallium Fixed-Point Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranostaj, Juraj; Ďuriš, Stanislav; Knorová, Renáta; Kaskötö, Mariana; Vyskočilová, Irena

    2011-08-01

    In the framework of the European research project EURAMET 732, the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) built three primary gallium fixed-point cells of different designs. The cells are designed for the calibration of the long-stem SPRT. In regard to the procedure commonly used at SMU when realizing the gallium point, the cells are designed for use in a stirred liquid bath. This article provides information about the cell designs, materials used, method of filling, and results of the performed experiments. The experiments were focused on the study of the cells' metrological characteristics, some effects that could influence the melting-point temperature and the effect of the melted metal fraction on the immersion profile. New cells were compared with the SMU reference gallium cell.

  11. /sup 67/Gallium lung scans in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, M.; Feiglin, D.; Hyland, R.; Urowitz, M.B.; Shiff, B.

    1983-08-01

    /sup 67/Gallium lung scans were performed in 19 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Results were expressed quantitatively as the /sup 67/Gallium Uptake Index. The mean total pulmonary /sup 67/Gallium Uptake Index in patients was significantly higher than that in controls (41 versus 25), and 4 patients (21%) fell outside the normal range. There were no clinical or laboratory variables that correlated with the /sup 56/Gallium uptake. Increased pulmonary /sup 67/Gallium uptake in scleroderma may prove useful as an index of pulmonary disease activity.

  12. 67Gallium lung scans in progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Baron, M; Feiglin, D; Hyland, R; Urowitz, M B; Shiff, B

    1983-08-01

    67Gallium lung scans were performed in 19 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Results were expressed quantitatively as the 67Gallium Uptake Index. The mean total pulmonary 67Gallium Uptake Index in patients was significantly higher than that in controls (41 versus 25), and 4 patients (21%) fell outside the normal range. There were no clinical or laboratory variables that correlated with the 56gallium uptake. Increased pulmonary 67gallium uptake in scleroderma may prove useful as an index of pulmonary disease activity.

  13. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Joslin, D.; Garlick, J.; Lillington, D.; Gillanders, M.; Cavicchi, B.; Scott-Monck, J.; Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) gallium arsenide cells were irradiated with 1 Mev electrons up to fluences of 1 times 10 to the 16th power cm-2. Measurements of spectral response and dark and illuminated I-V data were made at each fluence and then, using computer codes, the experimental data was fitted to gallium arsenide cell models. In this way it was possible to determine the extent of the damage, and hence damage coefficients in both the emitter and base of the cell.

  14. Chlorine and gallium solar neutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Cleveland, B. T.; Davis, R., Jr.; Rowley, J. K.

    1985-05-01

    The authors reevaluate the expected capture rates and their uncertainties for the chlorine and gallium solar neutrino experiments using improved laboratory data and new theoretical calculations. They also derive a minimum value for the flux of solar neutrinos that is expected provided only (1) that the sun is currently producing energy by fusing light nuclei at the rate that it is emitting energy in the form of photons from its surface and (2) that nothing happens to solar neutrinos on their way to earth. These results are used - together with Monte Carlo simulations - to determine how much gallium is required for a solar neutrino experiment.

  15. Capacitive Behavior of Single Gallium Oxide Nanobelt

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Haitao; Liu, Hang; Zhu, Huichao; Shao, Pai; Hou, Changmin

    2015-01-01

    In this research, monocrystalline gallium oxide (Ga2O3) nanobelts were synthesized through oxidation of metal gallium at high temperature. An electronic device, based on an individual Ga2O3 nanobelt on Pt interdigital electrodes (IDEs), was fabricated to investigate the electrical characteristics of the Ga2O3 nanobelt in a dry atmosphere at room temperature. The current-voltage (I-V) and I/V-t characteristics show the capacitive behavior of the Ga2O3 nanobelt, indicating the existence of capacitive elements in the Pt/Ga2O3/Pt structure. PMID:28793506

  16. Four Terminal Gallium Nitride MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veety, Matthew Thomas

    All reported gallium nitride (GaN) transistors to date have been three-terminal devices with source, drain, and gate electrodes. In the case of GaN MOSFETs, this leaves the bulk of the device at a floating potential which can impact device threshold voltage. In more traditional silicon-based MOSFET fabrication a bulk contact can be made on the back side of the silicon wafer. For GaN grown on sapphire substrates, however, this is not possible and an alternate, front-side bulk contact must be investigated. GaN is a III-V, wide band gap semiconductor that as promising material parameters for use in high frequency and high power applications. Possible applications are in the 1 to 10 GHz frequency band and power inverters for next generation grid solid state transformers and inverters. GaN has seen significant academic and commercial research for use in Heterojunction Field Effect Transistors (HFETs). These devices however are depletion-mode, meaning the device is considered "on" at zero gate bias. A MOSFET structure allows for enhancement mode operation, which is normally off. This mode is preferrable in high power applications as the device has lower off-state power consumption and is easier to implement in circuits. Proper surface passivation of seminconductor surface interface states is an important processing step for any device. Preliminary research on surface treatments using GaN wet etches and depletion-mode GaN devices utilizing this process are discussed. Devices pretreated with potassium pursulfate prior to gate dielectric deposition show significant device improvements. This process can be applied to any current GaN FET. Enhancement-mode GaN MOSFETs were fabricated on magnesium doped p-type Wurtzite gallium nitride grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates. Devices utilized ion implant source and drain which was activated under NH3 overpressure in MOCVD. Also, devices were fabricated with a SiO2 gate dielectric

  17. TI-59 Drilling engineering manual. [Texas Instruments-59 Calculator Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Chenevert, M.E.; Hollo, R.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-seven drilling engineering programs to be used with the Texas Instruments 59 programmable calculator are given, with step-by-step explanations on how to input these on the calculator. Programs for basic drilling engineering, drilling fluid viscosity and circulation, hydrostatic pressure due to gas, surge and swab pressure, and well control are given. (JMT)

  18. TI-59 Reservoir engineering manual. [Texas Instruments-59 Calculator Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hollo, R.; Fifadara, H.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-seven reservoir engineering programs to be used with the Texas Instruments-59 programmable calculator are presented. The programs include methods, equations, and flow charts which describe the required input and resulting output. Also given with each program is an example and a program listing. (JMT)

  19. Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride (InGaN/GaN) Nanorods Superlattice (SL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-10

    barrier escape from localized states and/or to the capture at non-radiative centers inside the InGaN wells. Therefore, extraction efficiency and internal...1 Final Report Principal investigator : Prof. Tae Won Kang Title of proposal : Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride ( InGaN /GaN) Nanorods...radiation. One-dimensional nanostructures, such as InGaN /GaN nanorod supperlattice (NRs SL), have attracted much attention because of its potential

  20. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy of gallium in bladder tissue following gallium maltolate administration during urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ball, Katherine R; Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L; Blyth, Robert I R; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M; Thompson, Julie

    2013-11-01

    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli.

  1. Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy of Gallium in Bladder Tissue following Gallium Maltolate Administration during Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L.; Blyth, Robert I. R.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M.; Thompson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23877680

  2. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  3. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankey, T.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  4. SPECT gallium imaging in abdominal lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, K.A.; Friefeld, G.D.; Waldron, J.A. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the abdomen studied by gallium SPECT imaging is reported. The tomographic slices accurately demonstrated the location of residual disease after chemotherapy in the region of the transverse mesocolon. Previous transmission CT had shown considerable persistent retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, but was not helpful in determining the presence of viable lymphoma.

  5. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a...

  6. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a...

  7. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a...

  8. Solar cell with a gallium nitride electrode

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar cell which comprises a body of silicon having a P-N junction therein with a transparent conducting N-type gallium nitride layer as an ohmic contact on the N-type side of the semiconductor exposed to solar radiation.

  9. Gallium-67 imaging in pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma

    SciTech Connect

    Makhija, M.C.; Davis, G.

    1984-03-01

    Gallium-67 citrate has been known to localize in the lungs in a variety of pulmonary diseases. Abnormal lung activity implies active underlying disease. Serial Ga-67 lung scans may be helpful when steroids are used as therapeutic agents. A case of pulmonary eosinophic granuloma is reported here with diffuse bilateral Ga-67 pulmonary activity.

  10. Gallium-positive Lyme disease myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, L.I.; Welch, P.; Fisher, N.

    1985-09-01

    In the course of a work-up for fever of unknown origin associated with intermittent arrhythmias, a gallium scan was performed which revealed diffuse myocardial uptake. The diagnosis of Lyme disease myocarditis subsequently was confirmed by serologic titers. One month following recovery from the acute illness, the abnormal myocardial uptake completely resolved.

  11. Development of gallium aluminum phosphide electroluminescent diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicotka, R. J.; Lorenz, M. R.; Nethercot, A. H.; Pettit, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Work done on the development of gallium aluminum phosphide alloys for electroluminescent light sources is described. The preparation of this wide band gap semiconductor alloy, its physical properties (particularly the band structure, the electrical characteristics, and the light emitting properties) and work done on the fabrication of diode structures from these alloys are broadly covered.

  12. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-02-02

    An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

  13. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C.; Shul, Randy J.

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  14. Gallium Nitride Crystals: Novel Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouzhi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Lv, Jiaxin; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    A type of single-crystal gallium nitride mesoporous membrane is fabricated and its supercapacitor properties are demonstrated for the first time. The supercapacitors exhibit high-rate capability, stable cycling life at high rates, and ultrahigh power density. This study may expand the range of crystals as high-performance electrode materials in the field of energy storage.

  15. A Gallium Multiphase Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Scott; Greeff, Carl

    2009-06-01

    A new SESAME multiphase gallium equation of state (EOS) has been developed. The equation of state includes two of the solid phases (Ga I, Ga III) and a fluid phase. The EOS includes consistent latent heat between the phases. We compare the results to the liquid Hugoniot data. We will also explore refreezing via isentropic release and compression.

  16. STS-59 MAPS experiment view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-59's MAPS (Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites) experiment is sending real-time data that provides the most comprehensive view of carbon monoxide concentrations on Earth ever recorded. This computer image shows a summary of 'quick look' data obtained by the MAPS instrument during its first days of operations as part of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's SRL-1 payload.

  17. Hydrogen chemisorption on gallium oxide polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sebastián E; Baltanás, Miguel A; Bonivardi, Adrian L

    2005-02-01

    The chemisorption of H(2) over a set of gallia polymorphs (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Ga(2)O(3)) has been studied by temperature-programmed adsorption equilibrium and desorption (TPA and TPD, respectively) experiments, using in situ transmission infrared spectroscopy. Upon heating the gallium oxides above 500 K in 101.3 kPa of H(2), two overlapped infrared signals developed. The 2003- and 1980-cm(-1) bands were assigned to the stretching frequencies of H bonded to coordinatively unsaturated (cus) gallium cations in tetrahedral and octahedral positions [nu(Ga(t)-H) and nu(Ga(o)-H), respectively]. Irrespective to the gallium cation geometrical environment, (i) a linear relationship between the integrated intensity of the whole nu(Ga-H) infrared band versus the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of the gallia was found and (ii) TPA and TPD results revealed that molecular hydrogen is dissociatively chemisorbed on any bulk gallium oxide polymorph following two reaction pathways. An endothermal, homolytic dissociation occurs over surface cus-gallium sites at T > 450 K, giving rise to Ga-H(I) bonds. The heat and entropy of this type I hydrogen adsorption were determined by the Langmuir's adsorption model as Deltah(I) = 155 +/- 25 kJ mol(-1) and Deltas(I) = 0.27 +/- 0.11 kJ mol(-1) K(-1). In addition, another exothermic, heterolytic adsorption sets in already in the low-temperature region. This type of hydrogen chemisorption involves surface Ga-O-Ga species, originating GaO-H and Ga-H(II) bonds which can only be removed from the gallia surface after heating under evacuation at T > 650 K. The measured desorption energy of this last, second-order process was equal to 77 +/- 10 kJ mol(-1). The potential of the H(2) chemisorption as a tool to measure or estimate the specific surface area of gallia and to discern the nature and proportion of gallium cation coordination sites on the surface of bulk gallium oxides is also analyzed.

  18. Chemistry and pharmacokinetics of gallium maltolate, a compound with high oral gallium bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, L R; Tanner, T; Godfrey, C; Noll, B

    2000-01-01

    Gallium maltolate, tris(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-onato)gallium (GaM), is an orally active gallium compound for therapeutic use. It is moderately soluble in water (10.7 +/- 0.9 mg/mL at 25 composite functionC) with an octanol partition coefficient of 0.41+/-0.08. The molecule is electrically neutral in aqueous solution at neutral pH; a dilute aqueous solution (2.5 x10-(-5) M) showed little dissociation at pH 5.5-8.0. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis found the GaM molecule to consist of three maltolate ligands bidentately bound to a central gallium atom in a propeller-like arrangement, with one of the ligands disordered in two possible orientations. The compound is orthorhombic, space group Pbca, unit cell a = 16.675(3), b = 12.034(2), c = 18.435(2) A at 158K. GaM was administered to healthy human volunteers at single doses of 100, 200, 300, and 500 mg (three subjects per dose). GaM was very well tolerated. Oral absorption of Ga into plasma was fairly rapid (absorption half life = 0.8-2.0h), with a central compartment excretion half life of 17-21h. Absorption appeared dose proportional over the dosage range studied. Estimated oral gallium bioavailability was approximately 25-57%, based on comparison with published data on intravenous gallium nitrate. Urinary Ga excretion following oral GaM administration was approximately 2% of the administered dose over 72h, in contrast to 49-94% urinary Ga excretion over 24h following i.v. gallium nitrate administration. We suggest that oral administration of GaM results in nearly all plasma gallium being bound to transferrin, whereas i.v. administration of gallium nitrate results in formation of considerable plasma gallate [Ga(OH)(4) (-)], which is rapidly excreted in the urine. These data support the continued investigation of GaM as an orally active therapeutic gallium compound.

  19. Chemistry and Pharmacokinetics of Gallium Maltolate, a Compound With High Oral Gallium Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Trevor; Godfrey, Claire; Noll, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Gallium maltolate, tris(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-onato)gallium (GaM), is an orally active gallium compound for therapeutic use. It is moderately soluble in water (10.7 ± 0.9 mg/mL at 25∘C) with an octanol partition coefficient of 0.41±0.08. The molecule is electrically neutral in aqueous solution at neutral pH; a dilute aqueous solution (2.5 ×10−-5 M) showed little dissociation at pH 5.5-8.0. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis found the GaM molecule to consist of three maltolate ligands bidentately bound to a central gallium atom in a propeller-like arrangement, with one of the ligands disordered in two possible orientations. The compound is orthorhombic, space group Pbca, unit cell a = 16.675(3), b = 12.034(2), c = 18.435(2) Å at 158K. GaM was administered to healthy human volunteers at single doses of 100, 200, 300, and 500 mg (three subjects per dose). GaM was very well tolerated. Oral absorption of Ga into plasma was fairly rapid (absorption half life = 0.8-2.0h), with a central compartment excretion half life of 17-21h. Absorption appeared dose proportional over the dosage range studied. Estimated oral gallium bioavailability was approximately 25-57%, based on comparison with published data on intravenous gallium nitrate. Urinary Ga excretion following oral GaM administration was approximately 2% of the administered dose over 72h, in contrast to 49-94% urinary Ga excretion over 24h following i.v. gallium nitrate administration. We suggest that oral administration of GaM results in nearly all plasma gallium being bound to transferrin, whereas i.v. administration of gallium nitrate results in formation of considerable plasma gallate [Ga(OH)4−], which is rapidly excreted in the urine. These data support the continued investigation of GaM as an orally active therapeutic gallium compound. PMID:18475921

  20. Gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Levy, P.S.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.

    1988-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease, 45 patients with various glomerulopathies, excluding lupus nephritis and renal vasculitis, were studied. Persistent renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive scintigram, was graded as + (less than), ++ (equal to), and +++ (greater than) the hepatic uptake. Positive scintigrams were seen in ten of 16 cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, six of 11 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis, and one case of minimal change, and one of two cases of membranous nephropathy; also in three of six cases of sickle glomerulopathy, two cases of diabetic neuropathy, one of two cases of amyloidosis, and one case of mild chronic allograft rejection. The 25 patients with positive scans were younger than the 20 with negative scans (31 +/- 12 v 42 +/- 17 years; P less than 0.01), and exhibited greater proteinuria (8.19 +/- 7.96 v 2.9 +/- 2.3 S/d; P less than 0.01) and lower serum creatinine values (2 +/- 2 v 4.1 +/- 2.8 mg/dL; P less than 0.01). The amount of proteinuria correlated directly with the intensity grade of the gallium image (P less than 0.02), but there was no correlation between the biopsy diagnosis and the outcome of the gallium scan. It was concluded that gallium scintigraphy is not useful in the differential diagnosis of the glomerular diseases under discussion. Younger patients with good renal function and heavy proteinuria are likely to have a positive renal scintigram regardless of the underlying glomerulopathy.

  1. Bone and gallium scanning in the pre-op evaluation of the infected dysvascular foot

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.; Sakimura, I.; Dillon, A.; Siegel, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the value of bone and gallium scans in predicting healing levels in the dysvascular foot with an infection requiring amputation. Healing requires amputation at a level both free of infection and with adequate blood flow. Forty-one such patients had bone and gallium scans and Doppler studies prior to amputation at a level selected by the surgeon. Eight patients required multiple surgeries before healing was obtained. Bone and soft tissue infections were determined from scans and healing levels predicted (SPHL) as the most distal amputation level free from infection: toectomy, Reye's, transmetatarsal, calcanectomy, Syme's, below knee. Doppler healing levels (DPHL) were predicted using a standard ischemic index. Doppler alone predicted the final healing level (FHL) in 41% with 59% needing more proximal amputation. Scans alone predicted FHL in 64% with 26% needing more proximal amputation. Ten percent were distal to the SPHL and all healed. These scans showed infection at transition sites between amputation levels, and the more proximal level had been predicted. Using the more proximal of the DPHL and SPHL the FHL was predicted in 78% with another 12% having more proximal amputation for nursing reasons. In 10% amputation was performed between DPHL and SPHL or at the more distal level. In no case was successful surgery performed distal to the more distal SPHL or DPHL. Bone and gallium scans used with Doppler studies are useful in optimizing the choice of amputation level in the infected, dysvascular foot.

  2. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  3. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  4. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  5. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  6. 47 CFR 27.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 27.59 Section 27.59 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.59...

  7. Inflammatory pseudotumor: A gallium-avid mobile mesenteric mass

    SciTech Connect

    Auringer, S.T.; Scott, M.D.; Sumner, T.E. )

    1991-08-01

    An 8-yr-old boy with a 1-mo history of culture-negative fever and anemia underwent gallium, ultrasound, and computed tomography studies as part of the evaluation of a fever of unknown origin. These studies revealed a mobile gallium-avid solid abdominal mass subsequently proven to be an inflammatory pseudotumor of the mesentery, a rare benign mass. This report documents the gallium-avid nature of this rare lesion and discusses associated characteristic clinical, pathologic, and radiographic features.

  8. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy applied to gallium arsenide surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynik, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical basis for surface photovoltage spectroscopy is outlined. Results of this technique applied to gallium arsenide surfaces, are reviewed and discussed. The results suggest that in gallium arsenide the surface voltage may be due to deep bulk impurity acceptor states that are pinned at the Fermi level at the surface. Establishment of the validity of this model will indicate the direction to proceed to increase the efficiency of gallium arsenide solar cells.

  9. Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11) by Kenneth A. Jones, Randy P. Tompkins, Michael A. Derenge, Kevin W. Kirchner, Iskander...Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-5903 January 2012 Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11) Kenneth A...DSI 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Power Electronics (FY11) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  10. Magnetostriction and Magnetic Heterogeneities in Iron-Gallium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-08

    REPORT Magnetostriction and Magnetic Heterogeneities in Iron-Gallium 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Iron-gallium alloys Fe1-xGax exhibit...an exceptional increase in magnetostriction with gallium content. We present small-angle neutron scattering investigations on a Fe0.81Ga0.19 single...magnetic heterogeneities in the mechanism for magnetostriction in this material. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

  11. Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

  12. Interactions of Zircaloy cladding with gallium: 1998 midyear status

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; Strizak, J.P.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.

    1998-06-01

    A program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in a light-water reactor. The graded, four-phase experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of a series of tests for Phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests will determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge}300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Although continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound can result in large stresses that may lead to distortion, this was shown to be extremely unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

  13. Interactions of zircaloy cladding with gallium -- 1997 status

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.

    1997-11-01

    A four phase program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in LWR. This graded, four phase experimental program will evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against: (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of an initial series of tests for phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement (LME), and (3) corrosion mechanical. These tests are designed to determine the corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge} 300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (in parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. While continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound results in large stresses that can lead to distortion, this is also highly unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

  14. Serum and tissue concentrations of gallium after oral administration of gallium nitrate and gallium maltolate to neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Monk, Caroline S; Sweeney, Raymond W; Bernstein, Lawrence R; Fecteau, Marie-Eve

    2016-02-01

    To determine serum and tissue concentrations of gallium (Ga) after oral administration of gallium nitrate (GaN) and gallium maltolate (GaM) to neonatal calves. 8 healthy neonatal calves. Calves were assigned to 1 of 2 groups (4 calves/group). Gallium (50 mg/kg) was administered as GaN or GaM (equivalent to 13.15 mg of Ga/kg for GaN and 7.85 mg of Ga/kg for GaM) by oral gavage once daily for 5 days. Blood samples were collected 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after Ga administration on day 1; 4 and 24 hours after Ga administration on days 2, 3, and 4; and 4, 12, and 24 hours after Ga administration on day 5. On day 6, calves were euthanized and tissue samples were obtained. Serum and tissue Ga concentrations were measured by use of mass spectrometry. Data were adjusted for total Ga dose, and comparisons were made between the 2 groups. Calves receiving GaM had a significantly higher dose-adjusted area under the curve and dose-adjusted maximum serum Ga concentration than did calves receiving GaN. Despite receiving less Ga per dose, calves receiving GaM had tissue Ga concentrations similar to those for calves receiving GaN. In this study, calves receiving GaM had significantly higher Ga absorption than did calves receiving GaN. These findings suggested that GaM might be useful as a prophylactic agent against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in neonatal calves.

  15. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H. L.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires. PMID:26183949

  16. Zinc diffusion in tellurium doped gallium antimonide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conibeer, G. J.; Willoughby, A. F. W.; Hardingham, C. M.; Sharma, V. K. M.

    1996-07-01

    Zinc diffusion into tellurium doped gallium antimonide, GaSb, has been carried out as a function of time, temperature, and antimony over-pressure. Total zinc profiles as well as carrier concentration profiles have been measured. Results favor a substitutional-interstitial vacancy (Frank-Turnbull)1 or kick-out (Gösele-Morehead)2 mechanism, although there is insufficient evidence to conclusively distinguish between them. There is also an inverse dependence of the diffusivity on antimony over-pressure, this is discussed in terms of zinc diffusion superimposed on gallium vacancy diffusion. Tellurium doping seems to have little effect on the diffusion because of its low level in comparison to that of zinc. Furthermore, at high zinc concentrations, the profiles indicate an additional component associated with a non-electrically active zinc species which has a small, strongly temperature dependent diffusion coefficient.

  17. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H. L.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires.

  18. Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging in acute pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, G.; Morillo, G.; Alonso, M.; Isikoff, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The symptoms and clinical course of patients with acute pyelonephritis are variable; likewise, urinalysis, blood cultures, and excretory urography may be normal or equivocal. The ability of gallium-67 to accumulate in areas of active inflammation was useful in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in 12 cases. A multiplane tomographic scanner was used for imaging four of these patients. Initial experience with this scanner is also discussed.

  19. Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging in acute pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, G. Jr.; Morillo, G.; Alonso, M.; Isikoff, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The symptoms and clinical course of patients with acute pyelonephritis are variable; likewise, urinalysis, blood cultures, and excretory urography may be normal or equivocal. The ability of gallium-67 to accumulate in areas of active inflammation was useful in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in 12 cases. A multiplane tomographic scanner was used for imaging four of these patients. Initial experience with this scanner is also discussed.

  20. Positron study of annealing of gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Rice-Evans, P.C.; Smith, D.L.; Evans, H.E.; Gledhill, G.A. )

    1991-02-01

    A positron beam has been used to investigate the sub-surface changes in semi-insulating gallium arsenide which had been annealed to a range of temperatures. The variations of the Doppler S parameter as a function of positron implantation energy, when subjected to a diffusion analysis, indicate variations in positron trapping at different depths. The results indicate the changes in the type of point defect that accompany the annealing.

  1. a Gallium Multiphase Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, Scott D.; Greeff, Carl W.

    2009-12-01

    A new SESAME multiphase Gallium equation of state (EOS) has been developed. It includes three of the solid phases (Ga I, Ga II, Ga III) and a fluid phase (liquid/gas). The EOS includes consistent latent heat between the phases. We compare the results to the liquid Hugoniot data. We also explore the possibility of re-freezing via dynamic means such as isentropic and shock compression. We predict an unusual spontaneous spreading of low pressure shocks from STP.

  2. A Gallium multiphase equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Scott D; Greeff, Carl

    2009-01-01

    A new SESAME multiphase Gallium equation of state (EOS) has been developed. The equation of state includes three of the solid phases (Ga I, Ga II, Ga III) and a fluid phase (liquid/gas). The EOS includes consistent latent heat between the phases. We compare the results to the liquid Hugoniol data. We also explore the possibility of re-freezing via dynamic means such as isentropic and shock compression.

  3. High-dose gallium imaging in lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.C.; Leonard, R.C.; Canellos, G.P.; Skarin, A.T.; Kaplan, W.D.

    1983-08-01

    The role of gallium-67 imaging in the management of patients with lymphoma, traditionally assessed using low tracer doses and the rectilinear scanner, was assessed when using larger doses (7 to 10 mCi) and a triple-peak Anger camera. Gallium scan results in 51 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 21 patients with Hodgkin's disease were compared with simultaneous radiologic, clinical, and histopathologic reports. Subsequent disease course was also evaluated in light of radionuclide findings. Sensitivity and specificity of the scans were 0.90 or greater for both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease, and overall accuracy by site was 96 percent. Although there are insufficient numbers of pretreatment scans to allow any conclusions, our data suggest that newer approaches to gallium scanning in treated patients are (1) highly specific in all lymphomas and most sensitive in high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease; (2) valuable in assessing the mediastinum in both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease; and (3) helpful adjuncts to computed tomographic scanning and ultrasonography in assessing abdominal node disease.

  4. Applying bacterial metallophores to mobilize gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabe, Ringo; Obst, Britta; Mehnert, Marika; Tischler, Dirk; Wiche, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Metallophores are produced by many organisms such as bacteria, fungi and plants in order to mobilize metals, especially iron (Greek: "siderophore" = iron carrier), to overcome limitations or stress. Respectively, it is well known these compounds loaded with relevant metal ions are used not only by the producing organism but also by others. Thus metallophores as metal carriers are relevant for many processes at various habitats (e.g. metal acquisition, pathogenic factors, antimicrobial activity, sensing). However, metallophores do also mobilize metals of industrial interest which have no critical role in the living world. Here we focused on gallium as industrial relevant metal and compared it to iron which is important for all organisms. The herein described mobilization of valuable metals such as gallium from soils provides first hints towards alternative strategies, such as phytomining, sensor development, or solvent extraction based on metallophores. Two produced metallophore preparations of soil bacteria (Gordonia rubripertincta CWB2 and Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222) and the commercially available metallophore desferrioxamine B were analyzed for iron binding activity by means of a standard chromazurol S assay and equal iron binding activities were employed to treat a soil sample. The pH was set constant to 6 in order to avoid pH related effects. Therefore, the metallophore was prepared in a special medium and control of water and medium were also applied onto the soil. The soil was washed and incubated with the mentioned preparations. The mobilization of iron and gallium was determined prior and after the treatment by means of ICP-MS. Water showed no effect and medium only a little on metal mobilization which is related to its ionic strength. All metallophores mobilized iron at a similar strength but showed significant differences in case of gallium. Here the metallophore mix produced by strain CWB2 showed best results and allowed to mobilize gallium 3-times

  5. Compensation and Characterization of Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, Randy Allen

    1995-01-01

    The properties of transition metals in gallium arsenide have been previously investigated extensively with respect to activation energies, but little effort has been made to correlate processing parameters with electronic characteristics. Diffusion of copper in gallium arsenide is of technological importance due to the development of GaAs:Cu bistable photoconductive devices. Several techniques are demonstrated in this work to develop and characterize compensated gallium arsenide wafers. The material is created by the thermal diffusion of copper into silicon-doped GaAs. Transition metals generally form deep and shallow acceptors in GaAs, and therefore compensation is possible by material processing such that the shallow silicon donors are compensated by deep acceptors. Copper is an example of a transition metal that forms deep acceptors in GaAs, and therefore this work will focus on the compensation and characterization of GaAs:Si:Cu. The compensation of the material has shown that the lower diffusion temperatures (500-600^ circC) form primarily the well-known Cu _{rm B} centers whereas the higher temperature anneals (>750 ^circC) result in the formation of CU_{rm A}. Using compensation curves, the copper density is found by comparing the compensation temperature with copper solubility curves given by others. These curves also show that the formation of CU_{rm B}, EL2, and CU_{rm A} can be manipulated by varying processing parameters such as annealing temperature and arsenic pressure. The compensation results are confirmed using Temperature-Dependent Hall (TDH) measurements to detect the copper levels. Also, the photoconductive properties of the material under illumination from 1.06 and 2.1 μm wavelength laser pulses have been used to demonstrate the effects of the different processing procedures. The persistent photoconductivity inherent to these devices under illumination from the 1.06 μm laser pulse is used to predict the concentration of the Cu_ {rm B

  6. Repurposing of gallium-based drugs for antibacterial therapy.

    PubMed

    Bonchi, Carlo; Imperi, Francesco; Minandri, Fabrizia; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    While the occurrence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is vanishing current anti-infective therapies, the antibiotic discovery pipeline is drying up. In the last years, the repurposing of existing drugs for new clinical applications has become a major research area in drug discovery, also in the field of anti-infectives. This review discusses the potential of repurposing previously approved gallium formulations in antibacterial chemotherapy. Gallium has no proven function in biological systems, but it can act as an iron-mimetic in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The activity of gallium mostly relies on its ability to replace iron in redox enzymes, thus impairing their function and ultimately hampering cell growth. Cancer cells and bacteria are preferential gallium targets due to their active metabolism and fast growth. The wealth of knowledge on the pharmacological properties of gallium has opened the door to the repurposing of gallium-based drugs for the treatment of infections sustained by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. The promising antibacterial activity of gallium both in vitro and in different animal models of infection raises the hope that gallium will confirm its efficacy in clinical trials, and will become a valuable therapeutic option to cure otherwise untreatable bacterial infections. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Two octanuclear gallium metallamacrocycles of topologically different connectivities.

    PubMed

    Park, Mira; John, Rohith P; Moon, Dohyun; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Ghyung Hwa; Lah, Myoung Soo

    2007-12-14

    Two topologically different metallamacrocycles--S8 symmetric octanuclear gallium(III) metalladiazamacrocycle and pseudo-D4 symmetric octanuclear gallium(III) metalladiazamacrocycle--could be prepared using two similar heteroditopic bridging ligands having asymmetrical tridentate-bidentate binding residues.

  8. Myopericarditis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosed by gallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Cregler, L.L.; Sosa, I.; Ducey, S.; Abbey, L. )

    1990-07-01

    Myocarditis is among the cardiac complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and, yet, is often not discovered until autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy has been employed in diagnosing this entity, but few data are available about its diagnostic accuracy and value. Here, the authors report two cases of myopericarditis as diagnosed by gallium scan.

  9. Gallium scintigraphy in bone infarction. Correlation with bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, R.R.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of gallium-67 images in bone infarction was studied in nine patients with sickle cell disease and correlated with the bone scan findings. Gallium uptake in acute infarction was decreased or absent with a variable bone scan uptake, and normal in healing infarcts, which showed increased uptake on bone scan. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  10. Nuclear microprobe imaging of gallium nitrate in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Richard; Suda, Asami; Devès, Guillaume

    2003-09-01

    Gallium nitrate is used in clinical oncology as treatment for hypercalcemia and for cancer that has spread to the bone. Its mechanism of antitumor action has not been fully elucidated yet. The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of anticancer drugs is of particular interest in oncology to better understand their cellular pharmacology. In addition, most metal-based anticancer compounds interact with endogenous trace elements in cells, altering their metabolism. The purpose of this experiment was to examine, by use of nuclear microprobe analysis, the cellular distribution of gallium and endogenous trace elements within cancer cells exposed to gallium nitrate. In a majority of cellular analyses, gallium was found homogeneously distributed in cells following the distribution of carbon. In a smaller number of cells, however, gallium appeared concentrated together with P, Ca and Fe within round structures of about 2-5 μm diameter located in the perinuclear region. These intracellular structures are typical of lysosomial material.

  11. Laser photochemistry of gallium-containing compounds. [Trimethylgallium

    SciTech Connect

    Baughcum, S.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The production of gas-phase gallium atoms in the photolysis of trimethylgallium has been investigated at 193 nm and at other laser wavelengths. Ground state (4 /sup 2/P/sup 0//sub 1/2) and metastable (4 /sup 2/P/sup 0//sub 3/2/) gallium atoms are detected using laser-induced fluorescence techniques. Our results indicate that gallium atoms continue to be produced at long times after the laser pulse. The observed dependence on photolysis laser fluence, trimethylgallium pressure, and buffer gas pressure are consistent with a mechanism in which highly excited gallium methyl radicals undergo unimolecular decomposition to produce gallium atoms. Since this process is observed to happen on the time scale of hundreds of microseconds, these results have important implications for studies of metal deposition and direct laser writing by laser photolysis of organometallic compounds. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Sooseok; Park, Dong-Wha

    2016-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO3)3∙xH2O) was used as a raw material and NH3 gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C3H6N6) powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga2O3). Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C3H6N6. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing.

  13. Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanopowder from Gallium Nitrate Hydrate and Melamine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Sooseok; Park, Dong-Wha

    2016-02-24

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanopowder used as a blue fluorescent material was synthesized by using a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma. Gallium nitrate hydrate (Ga(NO₃)₃∙xH₂O) was used as a raw material and NH₃ gas was used as a nitridation source. Additionally, melamine (C₃H₆N₆) powder was injected into the plasma flame to prevent the oxidation of gallium to gallium oxide (Ga₂O₃). Argon thermal plasma was applied to synthesize GaN nanopowder. The synthesized GaN nanopowder by thermal plasma has low crystallinity and purity. It was improved to relatively high crystallinity and purity by annealing. The crystallinity is enhanced by the thermal treatment and the purity was increased by the elimination of residual C₃H₆N₆. The combined process of thermal plasma and annealing was appropriate for synthesizing crystalline GaN nanopowder. The annealing process after the plasma synthesis of GaN nanopowder eliminated residual contamination and enhanced the crystallinity of GaN nanopowder. As a result, crystalline GaN nanopowder which has an average particle size of 30 nm was synthesized by the combination of thermal plasma treatment and annealing.

  14. Two chain gallium fluorodiphosphates: synthesis, structure solution, and their transient presence during the hydrothermal crystallisation of a microporous gallium fluorophosphate.

    PubMed

    Millange, Franck; Walton, Richard I; Guillou, Nathalie; Loiseau, Thierry; O'Hare, Dermot; Férey, Gérard

    2002-04-21

    Two novel gallium fluorodiphosphates have been isolated and their structures solved ab initio from powder X-ray diffraction data; the materials readily interconvert under hydrothermal conditions, and are metastable with respect to an open-framework zeolitic gallium fluorophosphate, during the synthesis of which they are present as transient intermediates.

  15. Calcium - niobium - gallium and calcium - lithium - niobium - gallium garnet crystals as active media for diode-pumped lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Voronko, Yu K; Es'kov, N A; Podstavkin, A S; Ryabochkina, P A; Sobol, A A; Ushakov, S N

    2001-06-30

    The energy and spectral parameters of calcium - niobium - gallium and calcium - lithium - niobium - gallium garnet crystals pumped by a 2 - W laser diode are studied. The stable parameters of laser radiation are demonstrated upon small variations in the temperature of the pump laser diode. (lasers, active media)

  16. The Preparation and Structural Characterization of Three Structural Types of Gallium Compounds Derived from Gallium (II) Chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Edward M.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Duraj. Stan A.; Habash, Tuhfeh S.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Schupp, John D.; Eckles, William E.; Long, Shawn

    1997-01-01

    The three compounds Ga2Cl4(4-mepy)2 (1),[GaCl2(4-mepy)4]GaCl4x1/2(4-mepy); (2) and GaCl2(4-mepy)2(S2CNEt2); (3) (4-mepy= 4-methylpyridine) have been prepared from reactions of gallium (II) chloride in 4-methylpyridine and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Small variations in the reaction conditions for gallium(II) chloride can produce crystals with substantially different structural properties. The three compounds described here encompass a neutral gallium(II) dimer in which each gallium is four-coordinate, an ionic compound containing both anionic and cationic gallium complex ions with different coordination numbers and a neutral six-coordinate heteroleptic

  17. The Preparation and Structural Characterization of Three Structural Types of Gallium Compounds Derived from Gallium (II) Chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Edward M.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Duraj. Stan A.; Habash, Tuhfeh S.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Schupp, John D.; Eckles, William E.; Long, Shawn

    1997-01-01

    The three compounds Ga2Cl4(4-mepy)2 (1),[GaCl2(4-mepy)4]GaCl4x1/2(4-mepy); (2) and GaCl2(4-mepy)2(S2CNEt2); (3) (4-mepy= 4-methylpyridine) have been prepared from reactions of gallium (II) chloride in 4-methylpyridine and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Small variations in the reaction conditions for gallium(II) chloride can produce crystals with substantially different structural properties. The three compounds described here encompass a neutral gallium(II) dimer in which each gallium is four-coordinate, an ionic compound containing both anionic and cationic gallium complex ions with different coordination numbers and a neutral six-coordinate heteroleptic

  18. Gallium scintigraphic pattern in lung CMV infections

    SciTech Connect

    Ganz, W.I.; Cohen, D.; Mallin, W.

    1994-05-01

    Due to extensive use of prophylactic therapy for Pneumonitis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), Cytomegalic Viral (CMV) infection may now be the most common lung infection in AIDS patients. This study was performed to determine Gallium-67 patterns in AIDS patients with CMV. Pathology reports were reviewed in AIDS patients who had a dose of 5 to 10 mCi of Gallium-67 citrate. Analysis of images were obtained 48-72 hours later of the entire body was performed. Gallium-67 scans in 14 AIDS patients with biopsy proven CMV, were evaluated for eye, colon, adrenal, lung and renal uptake. These were compared to 40 AIDS patients without CMV. These controls had infections including PCP, Mycobacterial infections, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. 100% of CMV patients had bowel uptake greater than or equal to liver. Similar bowel activity was seen in 50% of AIDS patients without CMV. 71% had intense eye uptake which was seen in only 10% of patients without CMV. 50% of CMV patients had renal uptake compared to 5% of non-CMV cases. Adrenal uptake was suggested in 50%, however, SPECT imaging is needed for confirmation. 85% had low grade lung uptake. The low grade lung had perihilar prominence. The remaining 15% had high grade lung uptake (greater than sternum) due to superimposed PCP infection. Colon uptake is very sensitive indicator for CMV infection. However, observing eye, renal, and or adrenal uptake improved the diagnostic specificity. SPECT imaging is needed to confirm renal or adrenal abnormalities due to intense bowel activity present in 100% of cases. When high grade lung uptake is seen superimposed PCP is suggested.

  19. Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Fibers for Infrared Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Y. D.; Schweizer, T.; Brady, D. J.; Hewak, D. W.

    Gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) glass and fiber have potential for use in both active and passive infrared applications. In this paper the optical, thermal, and other key properties, which are essential for understanding the applications and crucial in the quest for practical fibres, are discussed. Glass preparation by melt-quenchingand subsequent fibre fabrication is described using both rod-in-tube and extruded preforms. Absorptive and scattering losses are explored as they could represent a fundamental limitation to successful device fabrication. Potential passive and active applications are reported and the prospects for a future generation of sulphide fiber-based devices examined.

  20. Sodium Flux Growth of Bulk Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Dollen, Paul Martin

    This dissertation focused on development of a novel apparatus and techniques for crystal growth of bulk gallium nitride (GaN) using the sodium flux method. Though several methods exist to produce bulk GaN, none have been commercialized on an industrial scale. The sodium flux method offers potentially lower cost production due to relatively mild process conditions while maintaining high crystal quality. But the current equipment and methods for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN are generally not amenable to large-scale crystal growth or in situ investigation of growth processes, which has hampered progress. A key task was to prevent sodium loss or migration from the sodium-gallium growth melt while permitting N2 gas to access the growing crystal, which was accomplished by implementing a reflux condensing stem along with a reusable sealed capsule. The reflux condensing stem also enabled direct monitoring and control of the melt temperature, which has not been previously reported for the sodium flux method. Molybdenum-based materials were identified from a corrosion study as candidates for direct containment of the corrosive sodium-gallium melt. Successful introduction of these materials allowed implementation of a crucible-free containment system, which improved process control and can potentially reduce crystal impurity levels. Using the new growth system, the (0001) Ga face (+c plane) growth rate was >50 mum/hr, which is the highest bulk GaN growth rate reported for the sodium flux method. Omega X-ray rocking curve (?-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were <100 arcseconds. Oxygen impurity concentrations as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were >1020 atoms/cm3, possibly due to reactor cleaning and handling procedures. This dissertation also introduced an in situ technique to correlate changes in N2 pressure with dissolution of nitrogen and precipitation of

  1. Development of gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of ion implantation as a means to the development of high efficiency gallium arsenide solar cells is investigated. Summaries are included of the results of computer calculations of GaAs cell characteristics, based on a model which includes the effects of surface recombination, junction space-charge region recombination, and built-in fields produced by nonuniform doping in the region; of the fabrication technology developed under the program; and of the results of electrical and optical measurements on the samples produced during the program. It was determined that measured AMO efficiencies were more than a factor of two lower than the calculated values.

  2. Patterned gallium surfaces as molecular mirrors.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Alessandra; Rivetti, Claudio; Mangiarotti, Laura; Whitcombe, Michael J; Turner, Anthony P F; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2007-09-30

    An entirely new means of printing molecular information on a planar film, involving casting nanoscale impressions of the template protein molecules in molten gallium, is presented here for the first time. The metallic imprints not only replicate the shape and size of the proteins used as template. They also show specific binding for the template species. Such a simple approach to the creation of antibody-like properties in metallic mirrors can lead to applications in separations, microfluidic devices, and the development of new optical and electronic sensors, and will be of interest to chemists, materials scientists, analytical specialists, and electronic engineers.

  3. STS-59 MAPS experiment view

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-04-12

    STS059-S-040 (12 April 1994) --- STS-59's MAPS (Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites) experiment is sending real-time data that provides the most comprehensive view of carbon monoxide concentrations on Earth ever recorded. This computer image shows a summary of "quick look" data obtained by the MAPS instrument during its first days of operations as part of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's SRL-1 payload. This data will be processed using more sophisticated techniques following the flight. The color red indicates areas with the highest levels of carbon monoxide. These Northern Hemisphere springtime carbon monoxide values are generally significantly higher than the values found in the Southern Hemisphere. This is in direct contrast to the data obtained by the MAPS experiment during November 1981 and October 1984, i.e. during Northern Hemisphere fall. The astronauts aboard Endeavour have seen fires in most of the areas showing higher carbon monoxide values (China, Eastern Australia, and equatorial Africa). The relationship between the observed fires and the higher carbon monoxide values will be investigated following SRL-1 by combining the MAPS data with meteorological data, surface imagery, and Space Shuttle hand-held photographs. By the end of SRL-1, MAPS will have acquired data over most of the globe between 57 degrees north and 57 degrees south latitudes. The entire data set will be carefully analyzed using sophisticated post-flight data processing techniques. The data will then be applied in a variety of scientific studies concerning chemistry and transport processes in the atmosphere. The MAPS experiment measures the carbon monoxide in the lower atmosphere. This gas is produced both as a result of natural processes and as a result of human activities. The primary human resources of carbon monoxide are automobiles and industry and the burning of plant materials. The primary natural source is the interaction of sunlight with naturally occurring ozone and water

  4. 7 CFR 987.59 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 987.59 Section 987.59 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... objectives of this part. Reports and Records ...

  5. 14 CFR 65.59 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.59 Section 65.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.59 Skill requirements....

  6. 14 CFR 65.59 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.59 Section 65.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.59 Skill requirements....

  7. 14 CFR 65.59 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.59 Section 65.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.59 Skill requirements....

  8. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  9. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  10. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  11. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  12. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  13. 40 CFR 258.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 258.59 Section 258.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.59...

  14. 40 CFR 258.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 258.59 Section 258.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.59...

  15. 40 CFR 258.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 258.59 Section 258.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.59...

  16. 40 CFR 258.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 258.59 Section 258.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.59...

  17. 40 CFR 258.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true 258.59 Section 258.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.59...

  18. 42 CFR 59.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 59.2 Section 59.2 Public Health PUBLIC... Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.2 Definitions. As used in this subpart: Act means the... not exceed 100 percent of the most recent Poverty Guidelines issued pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 9902(2...

  19. 42 CFR 59.212 - Grantee accountability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grantee accountability. 59.212 Section 59.212 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.212 Grantee accountability....

  20. 33 CFR 401.59 - Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution. 401.59 Section 401.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.59 Pollution. (a) No vessel shall: (1...

  1. 33 CFR 401.59 - Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pollution. 401.59 Section 401.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.59 Pollution. (a) No vessel shall:...

  2. 33 CFR 401.59 - Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollution. 401.59 Section 401.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.59 Pollution. (a) No vessel shall:...

  3. 33 CFR 401.59 - Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollution. 401.59 Section 401.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.59 Pollution. (a) No vessel shall:...

  4. 33 CFR 401.59 - Pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pollution. 401.59 Section 401.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.59 Pollution. (a) No vessel shall:...

  5. 49 CFR 22.59 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loan modifications. 22.59 Section 22.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.59 Loan modifications. Any modification to the terms of the DOT OSDBU guarantee agreement...

  6. 49 CFR 22.59 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan modifications. 22.59 Section 22.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.59 Loan modifications. Any modification to the terms of the DOT OSDBU guarantee agreement...

  7. 28 CFR 90.59 - Grantee reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grantee reporting. 90.59 Section 90.59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments Discretionary Program § 90.59 Grantee reporting. (a) Upon completion of the grant period under this part,...

  8. 18 CFR 701.59 - Advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advisory committees. 701.59 Section 701.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.59 Advisory committees. The Council may establish standing and ad...

  9. 18 CFR 701.59 - Advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advisory committees. 701.59 Section 701.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.59 Advisory committees. The Council may establish standing and ad...

  10. 18 CFR 701.59 - Advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advisory committees. 701.59 Section 701.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.59 Advisory committees. The Council may establish standing and ad...

  11. 18 CFR 701.59 - Advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advisory committees. 701.59 Section 701.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.59 Advisory committees. The Council may establish standing and ad...

  12. 18 CFR 701.59 - Advisory committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Advisory committees. 701.59 Section 701.59 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Headquarters Organization § 701.59 Advisory committees. The Council may establish standing and ad...

  13. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are preempted... preemption under section 521(b) of the act: (a) Florida Statutes, section 468.135(5). (b) Florida...

  14. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are preempted... preemption under section 521(b) of the act: (a) Florida Statutes, section 468.135(5). (b) Florida...

  15. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are preempted... preemption under section 521(b) of the act: (a) Florida Statutes, section 468.135(5). (b) Florida...

  16. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are preempted... preemption under section 521(b) of the act: (a) Florida Statutes, section 468.135(5). (b) Florida...

  17. 21 CFR 808.59 - Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Florida. 808.59 Section 808.59 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.59 Florida. The following Florida medical device requirements are preempted... preemption under section 521(b) of the act: (a) Florida Statutes, section 468.135(5). (b) Florida...

  18. 38 CFR 59.110 - Recapture provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recapture provisions. 59.110 Section 59.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.110 Recapture provisions. If...

  19. 14 CFR 145.59 - Ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ratings. 145.59 Section 145.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Certification § 145.59 Ratings. The following ratings are issued...

  20. 7 CFR 4279.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 4279.59 Section 4279.59 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING General § 4279.59 ...

  1. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  2. 40 CFR 59.207 - Test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

  3. 28 CFR 90.59 - Grantee reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grantee reporting. 90.59 Section 90.59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments Discretionary Program § 90.59 Grantee reporting. (a) Upon completion of the grant period under this part, an...

  4. 45 CFR 2400.59 - Other awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other awards. 2400.59 Section 2400.59 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.59 Other awards. Fellows may accept grants from...

  5. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain environmental...

  6. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.59 Coal... conservation of the coal, while utilizing the best technology currently available to maintain environmental...

  7. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.59 Coal... conservation of the coal, while utilizing the best technology currently available to maintain environmental...

  8. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain environmental...

  9. 14 CFR 65.59 - Skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.59 Section 65.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.59 Skill requirements. An...

  10. 25 CFR 700.59 - Displaced person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displaced person. 700.59 Section 700.59 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.59 Displaced person. Displaced person means a member of...

  11. 46 CFR 111.59-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 111.59-1 Section 111.59-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-1 General. Each busway must meet Article 368 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by reference...

  12. 38 CFR 3.59 - Parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Parent. 3.59 Section 3.59..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.59 Parent. (a) The term parent means a... a period of not less than 1 year stood in the relationship of a parent to a veteran at any...

  13. 38 CFR 3.59 - Parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parent. 3.59 Section 3.59..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.59 Parent. (a) The term parent means a... a period of not less than 1 year stood in the relationship of a parent to a veteran at any...

  14. 38 CFR 3.59 - Parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Parent. 3.59 Section 3.59..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.59 Parent. (a) The term parent means a... a period of not less than 1 year stood in the relationship of a parent to a veteran at any...

  15. 38 CFR 3.59 - Parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Parent. 3.59 Section 3.59..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.59 Parent. (a) The term parent means a... a period of not less than 1 year stood in the relationship of a parent to a veteran at any...

  16. 38 CFR 3.59 - Parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parent. 3.59 Section 3.59..., and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.59 Parent. (a) The term parent means a... a period of not less than 1 year stood in the relationship of a parent to a veteran at any...

  17. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the absence...

  18. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the absence...

  19. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the absence...

  20. 42 CFR 59.207 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments. 59.207 Section 59.207 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.207 Payments. The Secretary shall from time to time make...

  1. 42 CFR 59.214 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.214 Section 59.214 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.214 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with...

  2. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may, with...

  3. 42 CFR 59.213 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 59.213 Section 59.213 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.213 ...

  4. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees,...

  6. 46 CFR 111.59-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General. 111.59-1 Section 111.59-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-1 General. Each busway must meet Article 368 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by...

  7. 46 CFR 111.59-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General. 111.59-1 Section 111.59-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-1 General. Each busway must meet Article 368 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by...

  8. 46 CFR 111.59-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General. 111.59-1 Section 111.59-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-1 General. Each busway must meet Article 368 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by...

  9. 46 CFR 111.59-1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General. 111.59-1 Section 111.59-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Busways § 111.59-1 General. Each busway must meet Article 368 of NFPA NEC 2002 (incorporated by...

  10. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has been...

  11. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has been...

  12. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has been...

  13. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has been...

  14. 10 CFR 26.59 - Authorization reinstatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization reinstatement. 26.59 Section 26.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.59 Authorization reinstatement. (a) In order to grant authorization to an individual whose authorization has been...

  15. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false OJP's responsibilities. 91.59 Section 91.59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's...

  16. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cracks. 59.10-5 Section 59.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... cracks are veed out so that complete penetration of the weld metal is secured. (b) Circumferential...

  17. 7 CFR 3550.59 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security requirements. 3550.59 Section 3550.59... security. A loan will be considered adequately secured only when all of the following requirements are met... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.59...

  18. 7 CFR 3550.59 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security requirements. 3550.59 Section 3550.59... security. A loan will be considered adequately secured only when all of the following requirements are met... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.59...

  19. 7 CFR 3550.59 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security requirements. 3550.59 Section 3550.59... security. A loan will be considered adequately secured only when all of the following requirements are met... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.59...

  20. 7 CFR 3550.59 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security requirements. 3550.59 Section 3550.59... security. A loan will be considered adequately secured only when all of the following requirements are met... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.59...

  1. 7 CFR 3550.59 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security requirements. 3550.59 Section 3550.59... security. A loan will be considered adequately secured only when all of the following requirements are met... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.59...

  2. 40 CFR 59.630 - EPA testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA testing. 59.630 Section 59.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission Families § 59.630 EPA testing....

  3. 40 CFR 59.630 - EPA testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA testing. 59.630 Section 59.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission Families § 59.630 EPA testing....

  4. 40 CFR 59.630 - EPA testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA testing. 59.630 Section 59.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission Families § 59.630 EPA testing....

  5. 40 CFR 59.630 - EPA testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA testing. 59.630 Section 59.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission Families § 59.630 EPA testing....

  6. 40 CFR 59.630 - EPA testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA testing. 59.630 Section 59.630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Emissions From New and In-Use Portable Fuel Containers Certifying Emission Families § 59.630 EPA testing....

  7. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and not...

  8. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and not...

  9. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and not...

  10. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and not...

  11. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and not...

  12. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  13. 42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project requirements. 59.205 Section 59.205 Public... SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.205 Project requirements. An approvable... pursuit of an academic degree. (3) No project personnel or trainees shall on the grounds of sex, religion...

  14. 42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project requirements. 59.205 Section 59.205 Public... SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.205 Project requirements. An approvable... pursuit of an academic degree. (3) No project personnel or trainees shall on the grounds of sex, religion...

  15. 42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project requirements. 59.205 Section 59.205 Public... SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.205 Project requirements. An approvable... pursuit of an academic degree. (3) No project personnel or trainees shall on the grounds of sex, religion...

  16. 42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project requirements. 59.205 Section 59.205 Public... SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.205 Project requirements. An approvable... pursuit of an academic degree. (3) No project personnel or trainees shall on the grounds of sex, religion...

  17. 42 CFR 59.205 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project requirements. 59.205 Section 59.205 Public... SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.205 Project requirements. An approvable... pursuit of an academic degree. (3) No project personnel or trainees shall on the grounds of sex, religion...

  18. 40 CFR 172.59 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Enforcement. 172.59 Section 172.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for Certain Genetically Modified Microbial Pesticides § 172.59 Enforcement....

  19. 40 CFR 172.59 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enforcement. 172.59 Section 172.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for Certain Genetically Modified Microbial Pesticides § 172.59 Enforcement....

  20. 40 CFR 172.59 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enforcement. 172.59 Section 172.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS Notification for Certain Genetically Modified Microbial Pesticides § 172.59 Enforcement....

  1. 28 CFR 90.59 - Grantee reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grantee reporting. 90.59 Section 90.59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments Discretionary Program § 90.59 Grantee reporting. (a) Upon completion of the grant period under this part, an...

  2. 28 CFR 90.59 - Grantee reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grantee reporting. 90.59 Section 90.59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments Discretionary Program § 90.59 Grantee reporting. (a) Upon completion of the grant period under this part, an...

  3. 7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 906.59 Section 906.59 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.59 Agents. The Secretary... States, or name any agency in the United States Department of Agriculture, to act as his agent or...

  4. 7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 906.59 Section 906.59 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.59 Agents. The Secretary... States, or name any agency in the United States Department of Agriculture, to act as his agent or...

  5. 7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 906.59 Section 906.59 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.59 Agents. The Secretary... States, or name any agency in the United States Department of Agriculture, to act as his agent or...

  6. 7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 906.59 Section 906.59 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.59 Agents. The Secretary... States, or name any agency in the United States Department of Agriculture, to act as his agent or...

  7. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  8. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  9. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  10. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  11. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  12. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  13. 45 CFR 86.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advertising. 86.59 Section 86.59 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference, limitation, specification,...

  14. 7 CFR 15a.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 15a.59 Section 15a.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM... Activities Prohibited § 15a.59 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to...

  15. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces...

  16. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces...

  17. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and...

  18. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces...

  19. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and...

  2. 38 CFR 59.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 59.1 Section 59.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.1 Purpose. This part sets forth the...

  3. 45 CFR 2400.59 - Other awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other awards. 2400.59 Section 2400.59 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.59 Other awards. Fellows may accept grants from...

  4. 45 CFR 2400.59 - Other awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other awards. 2400.59 Section 2400.59 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.59 Other awards. Fellows may accept grants from...

  5. 42 CFR 59.12 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 59.12 Section 59.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.12 Additional conditions. The Secretary may,...

  6. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  7. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  8. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice for FAA Hearings § 13.59 Evidence. (a) Each party to a hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence...

  9. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  10. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  11. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  12. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  13. 49 CFR 801.59 - Geological records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geological records. 801.59 Section 801.59... PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.59 Geological records. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(9), records concerning geological wells are exempt from public disclosure....

  14. 38 CFR 59.120 - Hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hearings. 59.120 Section 59.120 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.120 Hearings. If the Secretary determines that...

  15. 38 CFR 59.120 - Hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hearings. 59.120 Section 59.120 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.120 Hearings. If the Secretary determines that...

  16. 38 CFR 59.120 - Hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hearings. 59.120 Section 59.120 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.120 Hearings. If the Secretary determines that...

  17. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  18. 46 CFR 69.59 - Enclosed spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enclosed spaces. 69.59 Section 69.59 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.59 Enclosed spaces. Enclosed space means a space which..., in a deck or in a covering of a space, or in the partitions or bulkheads of a space, nor the...

  19. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain...

  20. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.59 Coal... conservation of the coal, while utilizing the best technology currently available to maintain...

  1. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.59 Coal... conservation of the coal, while utilizing the best technology currently available to maintain...

  2. 30 CFR 817.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal recovery. 817.59 Section 817.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.59 Coal... conservation of the coal, while utilizing the best technology currently available to maintain...

  3. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain...

  4. 30 CFR 816.59 - Coal recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal recovery. 816.59 Section 816.59 Mineral... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.59 Coal recovery... coal, while utilizing the best appropriate technology currently available to maintain...

  5. 42 CFR 59.11 - Confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality. 59.11 Section 59.11 Public Health... Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.11 Confidentiality. All information as to personal facts... confidentiality. Otherwise, information may be disclosed only in summary, statistical, or other form which does...

  6. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess cranberries...

  7. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess cranberries...

  8. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess cranberries...

  9. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess cranberries...

  10. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess cranberries...

  11. 19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs Duties U.S...) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and... handled by the Postal Service as specified in §§ 145.51 and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or...

  12. 19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs Duties U.S...) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and... handled by the Postal Service as specified in §§ 145.51 and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or...

  13. 19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs Duties U.S...) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and... handled by the Postal Service as specified in §§ 145.51 and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or...

  14. 19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs Duties U.S...) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and... handled by the Postal Service as specified in §§ 145.51 and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or...

  15. 19 CFR 145.59 - Seizures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Seizures. 145.59 Section 145.59 Customs Duties U.S...) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Restricted and Prohibited Merchandise § 145.59 Seizures. (a) Articles prohibited and... handled by the Postal Service as specified in §§ 145.51 and 145.52. (b) Notification of seizure or...

  16. 31 CFR 103.59 - Criminal penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal penalty. 103.59 Section 103.59 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.59 Criminal penalty. (a) Any person...

  17. 7 CFR 59.300 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 59.300 Section 59.300 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.300 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart. Boxed...

  18. 33 CFR 159.59 - Placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Placard. 159.59 Section 159.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.59 Placard. Each device must have a...

  19. 33 CFR 159.59 - Placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Placard. 159.59 Section 159.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.59 Placard. Each device must have a...

  20. 33 CFR 159.59 - Placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Placard. 159.59 Section 159.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.59 Placard. Each device must have a...

  1. 33 CFR 159.59 - Placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Placard. 159.59 Section 159.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.59 Placard. Each device must have a...

  2. 33 CFR 159.59 - Placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Placard. 159.59 Section 159.59 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.59 Placard. Each device must have a...

  3. Gallium induces the production of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael; Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-02-01

    The novel antimicrobial gallium is a nonredox iron III analogue with bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, effective for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo in mouse and rabbit infection models. It interferes with iron metabolism, transport, and presumably its homeostasis. As gallium exerts its antimicrobial effects by competing with iron, we hypothesized that it ultimately will lead cells to an iron deficiency status. As iron deficiency promotes the expression of virulence factors in vitro and promotes the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa in animal models, it is anticipated that treatment with gallium will also promote the production of virulence factors. To test this hypothesis, the reference strain PA14 and two clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis were exposed to gallium, and their production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipids, elastase, alkaline protease, alginate, pyoverdine, and biofilm was determined. Gallium treatment induced the production of all the virulence factors tested in the three strains except for pyoverdine. In addition, as the Ga-induced virulence factors are quorum sensing controlled, co-administration of Ga and the quorum quencher brominated furanone C-30 was assayed, and it was found that C-30 alleviated growth inhibition from gallium. Hence, adding both C-30 and gallium may be more effective in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of gallium nitrate on synoviocyte MMP activity.

    PubMed

    Panagakos, F S; Kumar, E; Venescar, C; Guidon, P

    2000-02-01

    Gallium, a group IIIa metal salt, has been demonstrated to be an effective immunosuppressive agent. Gallium has also been shown to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta, produced by macrophage-like cells in vitro. To further characterize the effects of gallium on the inflammatory process, we examined the effects of gallium nitrate on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity utilizing the rabbit synoviocyte cell line HIG-82. HIG-82 cells were incubated with IL-1beta and TPA, with and without increasing concentrations of gallium nitrate. Conditioned medium was collected and assayed for MMP activity using a synthetic substrate and substrate gel zymography. IL-1beta and TPA alone induced MMP activity in HIG-82 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of IL-1beta and TPA stimulated MMP activity by gallium nitrate at increasing concentrations was observed. This study demonstrates that gallium nitrate can inhibit the activity of MMPs and may be useful as a modulator of inflammation in arthritis.

  5. Gallium vacancies in β-Ga2O3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kananen, B. E.; Halliburton, L. E.; Stevens, K. T.; Foundos, G. K.; Giles, N. C.

    2017-05-01

    The gallium vacancy, an intrinsic acceptor, is identified in β-Ga2O3 using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Spectra from doubly ionized ( VG a 2 - ) and singly ionized ( VG a - ) gallium vacancies are observed at room temperature, without photoexcitation, after an irradiation with high-energy neutrons. The VG a 2 - centers (with S = 1/2) have a slight angular variation due to a small anisotropy in the g matrix (principal values are 2.0034, 2.0097, and 2.0322). The VG a 2 - centers also exhibit a resolved hyperfine structure due to equal and nearly isotropic interactions with the 69,71Ga nuclei at two Ga sites (the hyperfine parameters are 1.28 and 1.63 mT for the 69Ga and 71Ga nuclei, respectively, when the field is along the a direction). Based on these g-matrix and hyperfine results, the model for the ground state of the doubly ionized vacancy ( VG a 2 - ) has a hole localized on one threefold-coordinated oxygen ion. The vacancy is located at one of the three neighboring gallium sites, and the remaining two gallium neighbors are responsible for the equal hyperfine interactions. The singly ionized ( VG a - ) gallium vacancies are also paramagnetic. In this latter acceptor, the two holes are localized on separate oxygen ions adjacent to one gallium vacancy. Their spins align parallel to give a triplet S = 1 EPR spectrum with resolved hyperfine structure from interactions with gallium neighbors.

  6. Behavior of Zircaloy Cladding in the Presence of Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fuel, on cladding material performance. An experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium, and (2) various concentrations of G~03. Three types of tests were performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests were to determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Results have generally been favorable for the use of weapons-grade (WG) MOX fhel. The Zircaloy cladding does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at >3000 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium or liquid metal embrittlement was observed.

  7. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-12-01

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  8. Effect of gallium on growth of Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 and dental tissues.

    PubMed

    Valappil, S P; Owens, G J; Miles, E J; Farmer, N L; Cooper, L; Miller, G; Clowes, R; Lynch, R J M; Higham, S M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium-doped phosphate-based glasses (Ga-PBG) were assessed for their impact on Streptococcus mutans and dental mineralisation, firstly by disc diffusion assays followed by biofilms grown on nitrocellulose filter membrane (NFM) and constant-depth film fermentor (CDFF). Short-time exposure (10 min) effects of Ga-PBG on S. mutans biofilm were compared with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. The effects of Ga-PBG on bovine enamel (which was investigated under pH-cycling condition) and dentine were analysed using transverse microradiography (TMR), profilometry and inductively coupled plasma optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The disc diffusion assays showed inhibition zones of 24.5 ± 0.5 mm for Ga-PBG compared with controls (C-PBG). Ga-PBG showed statistically significant growth inhibition of S. mutans biofilms on NFM (p = 0.001) and CDFF (p < 0.046) compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) and C-PBG. The CDFF assay revealed a maximum of 2.11 log colony-forming unit (CFU) reduction at 48 h, but short-time exposure effects were comparable with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine only on older biofilms (maximum of 0.59 vs. 0.69 log CFU reduction at 120 h). TMR analyses of the enamel revealed non-significant mineral loss (p = 0.37) only in the case of Ga-PBG samples compared with controls including sodium fluoride. ICP-OES analyses indicated transient gallium adsorption into dentine by calcium displacement. The results confirmed that gallium inhibited S. mutans growth and appears to have the potential to protect the enamel surface under conditions representative of the oral environment. Further work is needed to establish whether it has an application in daily oral hygiene procedures to prevent or reduce caries.

  9. Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

    1987-12-01

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

  10. Thoracic gallium uptake in patients with lymphomatoid granulomatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, R.; Moore, W.H.; Glasser, L.M.; Dhekne, R.D.; Long, S.E.

    1988-12-01

    Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LG) is a rare condition with histological similarities to Wegener's granulomatosis and malignant lymphoma. Characteristically there is an angiocentric, angiodestructive lymphoreticular cell infiltrate. The lungs are usually affected, and, less frequently, the skin, nervous system, kidney, and bowel are involved. The prognosis is poor and frank lymphoma develops, in some cases terminally. The usual radiological appearance of the lungs consists of bilateral nodular lower zone opacities. The authors report two patients (siblings) with LG, and their gallium scans are presented. In each case there was a significant accumulation of gallium in the lungs at times of clinically active disease. The limited role of gallium imaging in this disease is discussed.

  11. Antitumor effect of novel gallium compounds and efficacy of nanoparticle-mediated gallium delivery in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wehrung, Daniel; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2012-02-01

    The widespread application of gallium (Ga) in cancer therapy has been greatly hampered by lack of specificity resulting in poor tumor accumulation and retention. To address the challenge, two lipophilic gallium (III) compounds (gallium hexanedione; GaH and gallium acetylacetonate; GaAcAc) were synthesized and antitumor studies were conducted in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Nanoparticles (NPs) containing various concentrations of the Ga compounds were prepared using a binary mixture of Gelucire 44/14 and cetyl alcohol as matrix materials. NPs were characterized based on size, morphology, stability and biocompatibility. Antitumor effects of free or NP-loaded Ga compounds were investigated based on cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species and reduction of mitochondrial potential. Compared to free Ga compounds, cytotoxicity of NP-loaded Ga (5-150 microg/ml) was less dependent on concentration and incubation time (exposure) with A549 cells. NP-mediated delivery (5-150 microg Ga/ml) enhanced antitumor effects of Ga compounds and the effect was pronounced at: (i) shorter incubation times; and (ii) at low concentrations of gallium (approximately 50 microg/ml) (p < 0.0006). Additional studies showed that NP-mediated Ga delivery was not dependent on transferrin receptor uptake mechanism (p > 0.13) suggesting the potential in overcoming gallium resistance in some tumors. In general, preparation of stable and biocompatible NPs that facilitated Ga tumor uptake and antitumor effects could be effective in gallium-based cancer therapy.

  12. Interactions of Zircaloy Cladding with Gallium: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Wilson; E.T. Manneschmidt; J.F. King; J.P. Strizak; J.R. DiStefano

    1998-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fhel, on cladding material performance. Three previous repmts"3 identified several compatibility issues relating to the presence of gallium in MOX fuel and its possible reaction with fiel cladding. Gallium initially present in weapons-grade (WG) plutonium is largely removed during processing to produce MOX fhel. After blending the plutonium with uranium, only 1 to 10 ppm gallium is expected in the sintered MOX fuel. Gallium present as gallium oxide (G~OJ could be evolved as the suboxide (G~O). Migration of the evolved G~O and diffusion of gallium in the MOX matrix along thermal gradients could lead to locally higher concentrations of G~03. Thus, while an extremely low concentration of gallium in MOX fiel almost ensures a lack of significant interaction of gallium whh Zircaloy fhel cladding, there remains a small probability that corrosion effects will not be negligible. General corrosion in the form of surface alloying resulting from formation of intermetallic compounds between Zircaloy and gallium should be ma& limited and, therefore, superficial because of the expected low ratio of gallium to the surface area or volume of the Zircaloy cladding. Although the expected concentration of gallium is low and there is very limited volubility of gallium in zirconium, especially at temperatures below 700 "C,4 grain boundary penetration and liquid metal embrittlement (LME) are forms of localized corrosion that were also considered. One fuel system darnage mechanism, pellet clad interaction, has led to some failure of the Zircaloy cladding in light-water reactors (LWRS

  13. Measurement of arsenic and gallium content of gallium arsenide semiconductor waste streams by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Torrance, Keith W; Keenan, Helen E; Hursthouse, Andrew S; Stirling, David

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry of semiconductor wafer processing liquid waste, contaminated by heavy metals, was investigated to determine arsenic content. Arsenic and gallium concentrations were determined for waste slurries collected from gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer processing at three industrial sources and compared to slurries prepared under laboratory conditions. The arsenic and gallium content of waste slurries was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) and it is reported that the arsenic content of the waste streams was related to the wafer thinning process, with slurries from wafer polishing having the highest dissolved arsenic content at over 1,900 mgL(-1). Lapping slurries had much lower dissolved arsenic (< 90 mgL(-1)) content, but higher particulate contents. It is demonstrated that significant percentage of GaAs becomes soluble during wafer lapping. Grinding slurries had the lowest dissolved arsenic content at 15 mgL(-1). All three waste streams are classified as hazardous waste, based on their solids content and dissolved arsenic levels and treatment is required before discharge or disposal. It is calculated that as much as 93% of material is discarded through the entire GaAs device manufacturing process, with limited recycling. Although gallium can be economically recovered from waste slurries, there is little incentive to recover arsenic, which is mostly landfilled. Options for treating GaAs processing waste streams are reviewed and some recommendations made for handling the waste. Therefore, although the quantities of hazardous waste generated are miniscule in comparison to other industries, sustainable manufacturing practices are needed to minimize the environmental impact of GaAs semiconductor device fabrication.

  14. Fabrication of Aluminum Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride MESFET And It's Applications in Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alur, Siddharth

    Gallium Nitride has been researched extensively for the past three decades for its application in Light Emitting Diodes (LED's), power devices and UV photodetectors. With the recent developments in crystal growth technology and the ability to control the doping there has been an increased interest in heterostructures formed between Gallium nitride and it's alloy Aluminium Gallium Nitride. These heterostructures due to the combined effect of spontaneous and piezoelectric effect can form a high density and a high mobility electron gas channel without any intentional doping. This high density electron gas makes these heterostructures ideal to be used as sensors. Gallium Nitride is also chemically very stable. Detection of biomolecules in a fast and reliable manner is very important in the areas of food safety and medical research. For biomolecular detection it is paramount to have a robust binding of the probes on the sensor surface. Therefore, in this dissertation, the fabrication and application of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors for the detection of DNA and Organophosphate hydrolase enzyme is discussed. In order to use these AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors capable of working in a liquid environment photodefinable polydimethyl-siloxane is used as an encapsulant. The immobilization conditions for a robust binding of thiolated DNA and the catalytic receptor enzyme organophosphate hydrolase on gold surfaces is developed with the help of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. DNA and OPH are detected by measuring the change in the drain current of the device as a function of time.

  15. Exploiting the Negative Polarization Properties of Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN)/Gallium Nitride (GaN) Heterostructures to Achieve Frequency Doubled Blue-green Lasers with Deep UV (250 nm) Emission (Year 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Exploiting the Negative Polarization Properties of Indium Gallium Nitride ( InGaN )/Gallium Nitride (GaN) Heterostructures to Achieve Frequency...Polarization Properties of Indium Gallium Nitride ( InGaN )/Gallium Nitride (GaN) Heterostructures to Achieve Frequency Doubled Blue-green Lasers...Exploiting the Negative Polarization Properties of Indium Gallium Nitride ( InGaN )/Gallium Nitride (GaN) Heterostructures to Achieve Frequency Doubled

  16. Exploiting the Negative Polarization Properties of Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN)/Gallium Nitride (GaN) Heterostructures to Achieve Frequency Doubled Blue-green Lasers with Deep Ultraviolet (UV) (

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Exploiting the Negative Polarization Properties of Indium Gallium Nitride ( InGaN )/Gallium Nitride (GaN) Heterostructures to Achieve Frequency...Exploiting the Negative Polarization Properties of Indium Gallium Nitride ( InGaN )/Gallium Nitride (GaN) Heterostructures to Achieve...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploiting the Negative Polarization Properties of Indium Gallium Nitride ( InGaN )/Gallium Nitride (GaN) Heterostructures to Achieve

  17. The dimeric nature of bonding in gallium: from small clusters to the α-gallium phase.

    PubMed

    Tonner, Ralf; Gaston, Nicola

    2014-11-28

    We consider the structural similarity of small gallium clusters to the bulk structure of α-gallium, which has been previously described as a molecular metal, via density functional theory-based computations. Previous calculations have shown that the tetramer, the hexamer, and the octamer of gallium are all structurally similar to the α-phase. We perform an analysis of the bonding in these clusters in terms of the molecular orbitals and atoms in molecules description in order to assess whether we can see similarities at these sizes to the bonding pattern, which is ascribed to the co-existence of covalent and metallic bonding in the bulk. The singlet Ga4 and Ga8 clusters can be constructed in a singlet ground state from the Ga-dimers in the first excited triplet state of the Ga2-molecule, the (3)Σg(-) state. Molecular orbital (MO) analysis confirms that the dimer is an essential building block of these small clusters. Comparison of the AIM characteristics of the bonds within the clusters to the bonds in the bulk α-phase supports the identification of the covalent bond in the bulk as related to the (3)Σg(-) state of the dimer.

  18. Gallium accumulation in early pulmonary Pneumocystis carinii infection

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.A.; Allegra, J.C.

    1986-09-01

    The accumulation of gallium 67 citrate in pulmonary Pneumocystis carinii is well known. The sensitivity of gallium uptake in detecting early inflammatory processes, even when conventional roentgenograms are normal, would seem to make it possible in immunocompromised patients to make a presumptive diagnosis of this serious infection early in its course without using invasive techniques to demonstrate the organism. However, the presence of gallium uptake in radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary drug toxicity, and other processes that also occur in this group limit its usefulness. In our two patients--a young woman with Hodgkin's disease and an elderly woman with small cell lung cancer--this technique proved helpful. Although the latter patient was successfully treated empirically, such empiric treatment should be reserved for patients unable or unwilling to undergo invasive tests. Pulmonary gallium uptake in patients with respiratory symptoms, even with a normal chest film, should prompt attempts to directly demonstrate the organism.

  19. Computer simulation of radiation damage in gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stith, John J.; Davenport, James C.; Copeland, Randolph L.

    1989-01-01

    A version of the binary-collision simulation code MARLOWE was used to study the spatial characteristics of radiation damage in proton and electron irradiated gallium arsenide. Comparisons made with the experimental results proved to be encouraging.

  20. Preliminary Experimental Measurements for a Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Glumac, Nick G.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    A low-energy gallium plasma source is used to perform a spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range. Neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium are present in a 20 J, 1.8 kA (peak) arc discharge operating with a central cathode. When the polarity of the inner electrode is reversed the discharge current and arc voltage waveforms remain similar. Utilizing a central anode configuration, multiple Ga lines are absent in the 270-340 nm range. In addition, neutral and singly ionized Fe spectral lines are present, indicating erosion of the outer electrode. With graphite present on the insulator to facilitate breakdown, line emission from the gallium species is further reduced and while emissions from singly and doubly ionized carbon atoms and molecular carbon (C2) radicals are observed. These data indicate that a significant fraction of energy is shifted from the gallium and deposited into the various carbon species.

  1. Gallium-67 uptake in the lung associated with metastatic calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, J.M.; Ho, J.

    1981-03-01

    The case of a patient in whom pulmonary calcification appeared rapidly, accompanied by diffuse gallium-67 uptake in the lungs is reported. This finding, associated with metastatic calcification in the absence of inflammation or neoplasm, has not been previously reported.

  2. Ellipsometric study of silicon nitride on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Bu-Abbud, G. H.; Woollam, J. A.; Liu, D.; Chung, Y.; Langer, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for optimizing the sensitivity of ellipsometric measurements for thin dielectric films on semiconductors is described in simple physical terms. The technique is demonstrated for the case of sputtered silicon nitride films on gallium arsenide.

  3. High frequency of benign mediastinal uptake of gallium-67 after completion of chemotherapy in children with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Peylan-Ramu, N.; Haddy, T.B.; Jones, E.; Horvath, K.; Adde, M.A.; Magrath, I.T. )

    1989-12-01

    We observed increased gallium-67 uptake in the mediastinum after completion of chemotherapy in 10 of 62 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. All 10 were under 15 years of age, yielding a frequency of 43% in this age group. The interval between cessation of chemotherapy and the development of increased gallium-67 uptake ranged from 1 to 8 months, and the abnormality persisted for 2 to 59 months. Serial chest x-rays were performed in all patients, and four of the 10 had transient widening of the mediastinum that remained within normal limits for the children's ages. Three patients had chest computed tomographic (CT) scans at the time of increased gallium-67 uptake, and one of the three had serial scans that showed a mediastinal mass consistent with thymic enlargement. All of the patients were asymptomatic and none were biopsied. All 10 remained well, with a mean follow-up of 52.5 months. The phenomenon we describe is probably due to rebound thymic hyperplasia, which is a benign and transient condition. We conclude that abnormal mediastinal gallium-67 uptake after completion of chemotherapy is likely to be benign and transient if the patients are young, have small non-cleaved-cell histology, are without other evidence of lymphoma recurrence, and do not have initial mediastinal involvement. Progressive widening of the mediastinum on chest x-ray is cause for suspicion and requires further evaluation. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels may not be helpful in differentiating a benign from a malignant process.

  4. Detection of deep venous thrombophlebitis by Gallium 67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1981-07-01

    Deep venous thrombophlebitis may escape clinical detection. Three cases are reported in which whole-body gallium 67 scintigraphy was used to detect unsuspected deep venous thrombophlebitis related to indwelling catheters in three children who were being evaluated for fevers of unknown origin. Two of these children had septicemia from Candida organisms secondary to these venous lines. Gallium 67 scintigraphy may be useful in the detection of complications of indwelling venous catheters.

  5. Detection of deep venous thrombophlebitis by gallium 67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1981-07-01

    Deep venous thrombophlebitis may escape clinical detection. Three cases are reported in which whole-body gallium 67 scintigraphy was used to detect unsuspected deep venous thrombophlebitis related to indwelling catheters in three children who were being evaluated for fevers of unknown origin. Two of these children had septicemia from Candida organisms secondary to these venous lines. Gallium 67 scintigraphy may be useful in the detection of complications of indwelling venous catheters.

  6. Generator for ionic gallium-68 based on column chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 fluorides, having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of solution is provided. The solution is obtained from a generator comprising germanium-68 hexafluoride bound to a column of an anion exchange resin which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with an acid solution to form a solution containing .sup.68 Ga-fluorides. The solution then is neutralized prior to administration.

  7. Complexometric determination of gallium with calcein blue as indicator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsheimer, H.N.

    1967-01-01

    A metalfluorechromic indicator, Calcein Blue, has been used for the back-titration of milligram amounts of EDTA in presence of gallium complexes. The indicator was used in conjunction with an ultraviolet titration assembly equipped with a cadmium sulphide detector cell and a microammeter for enhanced end-point detection. The result is a convenient and rapid method with an accuracy approaching 0.1 % and a relative standard deviation of about 0.4% for 10 mg of gallium. ?? 1967.

  8. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...

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    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.108 State Authority. The provisions...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.212 Circumvention. No regulated entity subject...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.212 Circumvention. No regulated entity subject...

  12. 40 CFR 59.514 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.514 Circumvention. Each manufacturer,...

  13. 40 CFR 59.410 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.410 State authority. The provisions of...

  14. 40 CFR 59.410 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.410 State authority. The provisions of...

  15. 40 CFR 59.411 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.411 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  16. 40 CFR 59.410 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.410 State authority. The provisions of...

  17. 40 CFR 59.514 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.514 Circumvention. Each manufacturer,...

  18. 40 CFR 59.513 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.513 State authority. The provisions in...

  19. 40 CFR 59.410 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.410 State authority. The provisions of...

  20. 40 CFR 59.513 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.513 State authority. The provisions in...

  1. 40 CFR 59.513 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.513 State authority. The provisions in...

  2. 40 CFR 59.514 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.514 Circumvention. Each manufacturer,...

  3. 40 CFR 59.513 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.513 State authority. The provisions in...

  4. 40 CFR 59.411 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.411 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  5. 40 CFR 59.212 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.212 Circumvention. No regulated entity subject...

  6. 40 CFR 59.411 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.411 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  7. 40 CFR 59.105 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.105 Reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 59.513 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.513 State authority. The provisions in...

  9. 40 CFR 59.410 - State authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.410 State authority. The provisions of...

  10. 40 CFR 59.411 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.411 Circumvention. Each manufacturer...

  11. 40 CFR 59.514 - Circumvention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings § 59.514 Circumvention. Each manufacturer,...

  12. Gallium arsenide solar array subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs of a number of technology areas are examined for a gallium arsenide space solar array. Four specific configurations were addressed: (1) a 250 KWe LEO mission - planer array; (2) a 250 KWe LEO mission - with concentration; (3) a 50 KWe GEO mission planer array; (4) a 50 KWe GEO mission - with concentration. For each configuration, a baseline system conceptual design was developed and the life cycle costs estimated in detail. The baseline system requirements and design technologies were then varied and their relationships to life cycle costs quantified. For example, the thermal characteristics of the baseline design are determined by the array materials and masses. The thermal characteristics in turn determine configuration, performance, and hence life cycle costs.

  13. Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Gallium nitride [GaN] nanorods grown on a Si(111) substrate at 720°C via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied by field-emission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence [CL]. The surface topography and optical properties of the GaN nanorod cluster and single GaN nanorod were measured and discussed. The defect-related CL spectra of GaN nanorods and their dependence on temperature were investigated. The CL spectra along the length of the individual GaN nanorod were also studied. The results reveal that the 3.2-eV peak comes from the structural defect at the interface between the GaN nanorod and Si substrate. The surface state emission of the single GaN nanorod is stronger as the diameter of the GaN nanorod becomes smaller due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio. PMID:22168896

  14. The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to have been asked by Louis Rosen to tell you about the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). This undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. Its purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for international collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy neutrino flux. This paper reviews this experiment. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Direct Band Gap Wurtzite Gallium Phosphide Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The main challenge for light-emitting diodes is to increase the efficiency in the green part of the spectrum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the green emission efficiency. Band structure calculations have predicted a direct band gap for wurtzite GaP. Here, we report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong photoluminescence at a wavelength of 594 nm with short lifetime, typical for a direct band gap. Furthermore, by incorporation of aluminum or arsenic in the GaP nanowires, the emitted wavelength is tuned across an important range of the visible light spectrum (555–690 nm). This approach of crystal structure engineering enables new pathways to tailor materials properties enhancing the functionality. PMID:23464761

  16. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Garlick, G. F. J.

    1987-01-01

    High-efficiency gallium arsenide cells, made by the liquid epitaxy method (LPE), have been irradiated with 1-MeV electrons up to fluences of 10 to the 16th e/sq cm. Measurements have been made of cell spectral response and dark and light-excited current-voltage characteristics and analyzed using computer-based models to determine underlying parameters such as damage coefficients. It is possible to use spectral response to sort out damage effects in the different cell component layers. Damage coefficients are similar to other reported in the literature for the emitter and buffer (base). However, there is also a damage effect in the window layer and possibly at the window emitter interface similar to that found for proton-irradiated liquid-phase epitaxy-grown cells. Depletion layer recombination is found to be less than theoretically expected at high fluence.

  17. Contact formation in gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments were performed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are explained by invoking this mechanism.

  18. The interaction of gold with gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar-cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments designed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions have yielded several interesting results. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are also explained by invoking this mechanism.

  19. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E.; Hryciw, Aaron C.

    2014-04-07

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8 × 10{sup 5} and mode volumes <10(λ/n){sup 3}, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0 × 10{sup 4} intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 μm and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g{sub 0}/2π∼30 kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz.

  20. Zinc diffusion in tellurium doped gallium antimonide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conibeer, G. J.; Willoughby, A. F. W.; Hardingham, C. M.; Sharma, V. K. M.

    1996-07-01

    Zinc diffusion into tellurium doped gallium antimonide, GaSb, has been carried out as a function of time, temperature and antimony over-pressure. Total zinc profiles as well as carrier concentration profiles have been measured. Results indicate an inverse dependence of the diffusivity on antimony over-pressure and favour an interstitial-substitutional vacancy [F.C. Frank and D. Turnbull, Phys. Rev. 104 (1956) 617] or kick-out [U. Gösele and F. Morehead, J. Appl. Phys. 52 (1981) 4617] mechanism. Furthermore, at high zinc concentrations, the profiles indicate an additional component associated with a non-electrically active zinc species which has a small, strongly temperature dependent diffusion coefficient.

  1. Gallium Arsenide solar cell radiation damage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.; Herbert, G. A.; Meulenberg, A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells for space applications from three different manufactures were irradiated with 10 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. The electrical performance of the cells was measured at several fluence levels and compared. Silicon cells were included for reference and comparison. All the GaAs cell types performed similarly throughout the testing and showed a 36 to 56 percent power areal density advantage over the silicon cells. Thinner (8-mil versus 12-mil) GaAs cells provide a significant weight reduction. The use of germanium (Ge) substrates to improve mechanical integrity can be implemented with little impact on end of life performance in a radiation environment.

  2. Producing gallium arsenide crystals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The production of high quality crystals in space is a promising near-term application of microgravity processing. Gallium arsenide is the selected material for initial commercial production because of its inherent superior electronic properties, wide range of market applications, and broad base of on-going device development effort. Plausible product prices can absorb the high cost of space transportation for the initial flights provided by the Space Transportation System. The next step for bulk crystal growth, beyond the STS, is planned to come later with the use of free flyers or a space station, where real benefits are foreseen. The use of these vehicles, together with refinement and increasing automation of space-based crystal growth factories, will bring down costs and will support growing demands for high quality GaAs and other specialty electronic and electro-optical crystals grown in space.

  3. Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Chang; Li, Guan-Hua; Lin, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Ching-Wen; Wadekar, Paritosh; Chen, Quark Yung-Sung; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Julien, François Henri; Tu, Li-Wei

    2011-12-14

    Gallium nitride [GaN] nanorods grown on a Si(111) substrate at 720°C via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied by field-emission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence [CL]. The surface topography and optical properties of the GaN nanorod cluster and single GaN nanorod were measured and discussed. The defect-related CL spectra of GaN nanorods and their dependence on temperature were investigated. The CL spectra along the length of the individual GaN nanorod were also studied. The results reveal that the 3.2-eV peak comes from the structural defect at the interface between the GaN nanorod and Si substrate. The surface state emission of the single GaN nanorod is stronger as the diameter of the GaN nanorod becomes smaller due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio.

  4. Thickness dependent thermal conductivity of gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziade, Elbara; Yang, Jia; Brummer, Gordie; Nothern, Denis; Moustakas, Theodore; Schmidt, Aaron J.

    2017-01-01

    As the size of gallium nitride (GaN) transistors is reduced in order to reach higher operating frequencies, heat dissipation becomes the critical bottleneck in device performance and longevity. Despite the importance of characterizing the physics governing the thermal transport in thin GaN films, the literature is far from conclusive. In this letter, we report measurements of thermal conductivity in a GaN film with thickness ranging from 15-1000 nm grown on 4H-SiC without a transition layer. Additionally, we measure the thermal conductivity in the GaN film when it is 1 μm-thick in the temperature range of 300 < T < 600 K and use a phonon transport model to explain the thermal conductivity in this film.

  5. Gallium arsenide - Solar panel assembly technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemmrich, D.; Mardesich, N.; Macfarlane, B.; Loo, R.

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell devices are maturing at 18 percent AM0 efficiencies for liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technology, and efforts must be intensified placing necessary focus on the development of panel assembly techniques, and ultimately panel manufacturing methods capable of maintaining these high efficiencies for on-panel operation. Key problems and solutions are described which were experienced during the assembly of flight qualified solar panels using Spectrolab's mature (silicon) panel manufacturing processes for assembly of LPE GaAs solar cells. These cells were produced by Hughes Malibu (supplied by the U.S. Air Force WPAFB) ranging in efficiency from 15 to 17 percent, air mass zero (AM0) 28 C. Cell assembly methods for coverglass installation, submodule, and circuit soldering, as well as panel bonding are discussed. The LIPS II satellite, using a GaAs solar cell panel was successfully launched in 1983.

  6. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Role of the gallium scan in Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hagemeister, F B; Fesus, S M; Lamki, L M; Haynie, T P

    1990-03-01

    The reports of 240 gallium scans on 165 patients with Hodgkin's disease were reviewed to compare results with higher doses with those in earlier studies that employed lower doses. Tracer concentrations in specific sites were correlated with radiologic and pathologic reports and with the clinical courses of the patients studied. There were no significant differences in overall results between newer and older gallium scanning techniques. For untreated patients, the overall sensitivity was only 64%, but the overall specificity was 98%. For untreated patients and for patients with relapsing disease, the presence of gallium concentration in a specific site was highly predictive of active Hodgkin's disease at that site. However, for routine follow-up of treated patients, 95% of unsuspected relapses were missed by the scan, indicating the limited usefulness of negative scan results in this setting. For patients with residual abnormalities after therapy, demonstrated by other radiographic means, increased uptake of gallium in abdominal or peripheral lymph nodes also indicated active disease, although lack of uptake was reliable only in the mediastinum. Based on these results, it appears that the higher doses used in this study have not substantially improved the role of gallium scanning in this disease. Although it is potentially useful in providing confirmatory data at diagnosis or in patients with new or residual objective abnormalities after treatment, routine use of gallium scanning in Hodgkin's disease is not recommended.

  8. Method of fabricating germanium and gallium arsenide devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzban (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of semiconductor diode fabrication is disclosed which relies on the epitaxial growth of a precisely doped thickness layer of gallium arsenide or germanium on a semi-insulating or intrinsic substrate, respectively, of gallium arsenide or germanium by either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The method involves: depositing a layer of doped or undoped silicon dioxide on a germanium or gallium arsenide wafer or substrate, selectively removing the silicon dioxide layer to define one or more surface regions for a device to be fabricated thereon, growing a matched epitaxial layer of doped germanium or gallium arsenide of an appropriate thickness using MBE or MOCVD techniques on both the silicon dioxide layer and the defined one or more regions; and etching the silicon dioxide and the epitaxial material on top of the silicon dioxide to leave a matched epitaxial layer of germanium or gallium arsenide on the germanium or gallium arsenide substrate, respectively, and upon which a field effect device can thereafter be formed.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of gallium maltolate after intragastric administration in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Martens, Ronald J; Mealey, Katrina; Cohen, Noah D; Harrington, Jessica R; Chaffin, M Keith; Taylor, Robert J; Bernstein, Lawrence R

    2007-10-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of gallium maltolate (GaM) after intragastric administration in healthy foals. 6 healthy neonatal foals. Each foal received GaM (20 mg/kg) by intragastric administration. Blood samples were obtained before (time 0) and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after GaM administration for determination of serum gallium concentrations by use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Mean +/- SD pharmacokinetic variables were as follows: peak serum gallium concentration, 1,079 +/- 311 ng/mL; time to peak serum concentration, 4.3 +/- 2.0 hours; area under the serum concentration versus time curve, 40,215 +/- 8,420 ng/mL/h; mean residence time, 39.5 +/- 17.2 hours; area under the moment curve, 1,636,554 +/- 931,458 ng([h](2)/mL); and terminal half-life, 26.6 +/- 11.6 hours. The mean serum concentration of gallium at 12 hours was 756 +/- 195 ng/mL. Gallium maltolate administered via nasogastric tube at a dose of 20 mg/kg to neonatal foals resulted in gallium serum concentrations considered sufficient to suppress growth or kill Rhodococcus equi in macrophages and other infected tissues.

  10. Liquid membrane processes for gallium recovery from alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, F.F.; Fane, A.G.; Fell, C.J.D.

    1995-05-01

    Gallium is an important material in the semiconductor industry. Intermetallic compounds with gallium have applications as high-temperature rectifiers and transistors, solar batteries, and other devices where the photovoltaic effect can be used. In this paper, the authors examine the possibility of using membrane extraction and supported liquid membranes to recover gallium from alkaline solutions. Membrane extraction proves to be an alternative process to recover gallium from such liquors. In order to maximize mass transfer, highly hydrophilic membranes should be used in both the membrane extraction and stripping processes. The optimum composition of the membrane extractant is 10--15% Kelex 100, 10% n-decanol, 5% Versatic 10, and kerosene (vol %). The highest gallium permeability was obtained when the feed solution contained about 1.5 mol/l sodium hydroxide. The supported liquid membrane used failed to transport gallium because of instability. The dominant mechanisms for failure are considered to be spontaneous formation of a water-in-oil emulsion and formation of precipitates, causing membrane pore obstruction.

  11. Direct observation of frozen gallium gas on wurtzite gallium nitride (0001) using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Khan; Foley, Andrew; Lin, Wenzhi; Corbett, Joseph; Ma, Yingqiao; Pak, Jeongihm; Smith, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Gallium nitride layers are ordinarily grown under gallium-rich growth conditions by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to obtain the highest material quality. In 1997, Smith et al. reported the family of reconstructions existing on the growth surface at room temperature, the highest-order being the c(6x12). Additional gallium deposition does not lead to new reconstructions. Instead, excess gallium atoms are presumed to exist in a 2-dimensional gas state. Using a custom-built MBE/low-temperature (4.2 K) STM system, we have imaged this gallium gas for the first time by freezing out the motion. The frozen-out gallium atoms are visualized as asymmetric `L-shaped' features, with left-handed and right-handed L's scattered randomly across the surface. Interestingly, on any given atomic terrace we observe a 4x greater probability of left-handed versus right-handed L's (or vice versa), which inverts across bilayer-height steps. The cause of this asymmetry is explored by zooming in with atomic resolution, revealing two inequivalent adsorption sites.

  12. 27 CFR 29.59 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records. 29.59 Section 29... TREASURY ALCOHOL STILLS AND MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS Stills § 29.59 Records. A copy of each notice of.... In addition, each manufacturer or vendor of stills shall maintain at their premises a record showing...

  13. 4 CFR 28.59 - Official record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official record. 28.59 Section 28.59 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD; PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO CLAIMS CONCERNING EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES AT THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE...

  14. 7 CFR 201.59 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application. 201.59 Section 201.59 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED...

  15. 38 CFR 59.30 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation. 59.30... STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.30 Documentation. For a State to obtain a grant and grant funds under this part, the State must submit to VA documentation that the site of...

  16. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS... have the same meaning as provided in the Act. As used in this subpart: Act means the Public Health...

  17. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as the...

  18. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as the...

  19. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as the...

  20. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as the...

  1. 42 CFR 59a.5 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Awards. 59a.5 Section 59a.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants... number of graduate and undergraduate students, and physicians and other practitioners in...

  2. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS... have the same meaning as provided in the Act. As used in this subpart: Act means the Public...

  3. 42 CFR 59a.5 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Awards. 59a.5 Section 59a.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants... number of graduate and undergraduate students, and physicians and other practitioners in...

  4. 42 CFR 59a.5 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Awards. 59a.5 Section 59a.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants... number of graduate and undergraduate students, and physicians and other practitioners in...

  5. 42 CFR 59a.5 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Awards. 59a.5 Section 59a.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Grants... number of graduate and undergraduate students, and physicians and other practitioners in...

  6. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS... have the same meaning as provided in the Act. As used in this subpart: Act means the Public...

  7. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS... have the same meaning as provided in the Act. As used in this subpart: Act means the Public...

  8. 42 CFR 59a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.2 Section 59a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS... have the same meaning as provided in the Act. As used in this subpart: Act means the Public...

  9. 36 CFR 59.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 59.2 Section 59.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND... been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and assigned...

  10. 9 CFR 3.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 3.59 Section 3.59 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and...

  11. 7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 906.59 Section 906.59 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO...

  12. 40 CFR 59.101 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 59.101 Section 59.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL..., bulldozers, concrete mixers); farming equipment (wheel tractor, plow, pesticide sprayer); hauling equipment...

  13. 59 MDW/Science and Technology Poster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-28

    materials. If you have any questions or concerns. please contact the 59 CRO /Publications and Presentations Section at 292-7141 for assistance. 8. The...approval. 10. If your manuscript is accepted for scientific publication. please contact the 59 CRO /Publicalions and Presentations Section at 292-7141

  14. 12 CFR 5.9 - Public availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public availability. 5.9 Section 5.9 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES, POLICIES, AND PROCEDURES FOR..., Communications Division, at the address listed in the Manual. Requests should be in writing. The OCC may impose...

  15. 7 CFR 948.59 - Qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification. 948.59 Section 948.59 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO...

  16. 7 CFR 948.59 - Qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification. 948.59 Section 948.59 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO...

  17. 7 CFR 948.59 - Qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualification. 948.59 Section 948.59 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO...

  18. 38 CFR 59.30 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... project is in reasonable proximity to a sufficient concentration and population of veterans that are 65... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Documentation. 59.30 Section 59.30 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO...

  19. 38 CFR 59.30 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... project is in reasonable proximity to a sufficient concentration and population of veterans that are 65... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Documentation. 59.30 Section 59.30 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO...

  20. 38 CFR 59.30 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... project is in reasonable proximity to a sufficient concentration and population of veterans that are 65... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Documentation. 59.30 Section 59.30 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO...

  1. 38 CFR 59.30 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... project is in reasonable proximity to a sufficient concentration and population of veterans that are 65... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Documentation. 59.30 Section 59.30 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO...

  2. 10 CFR 55.59 - Requalification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reactor startups to include a range that reactivity feedback from nuclear heat addition is noticeable and... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requalification. 55.59 Section 55.59 Energy NUCLEAR... coverage is needed in the following subjects: (i) Theory and principles of operation. (ii) General...

  3. 10 CFR 55.59 - Requalification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reactor startups to include a range that reactivity feedback from nuclear heat addition is noticeable and... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requalification. 55.59 Section 55.59 Energy NUCLEAR... coverage is needed in the following subjects: (i) Theory and principles of operation. (ii) General...

  4. 10 CFR 55.59 - Requalification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reactor startups to include a range that reactivity feedback from nuclear heat addition is noticeable and... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requalification. 55.59 Section 55.59 Energy NUCLEAR... coverage is needed in the following subjects: (i) Theory and principles of operation. (ii) General...

  5. 10 CFR 55.59 - Requalification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reactor startups to include a range that reactivity feedback from nuclear heat addition is noticeable and... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requalification. 55.59 Section 55.59 Energy NUCLEAR... coverage is needed in the following subjects: (i) Theory and principles of operation. (ii) General...

  6. 27 CFR 20.59 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continuing partnerships. 20.59 Section 20.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not teminated on death or insolvency of a...

  7. 27 CFR 20.59 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuing partnerships. 20.59 Section 20.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not teminated on death or insolvency of a...

  8. 27 CFR 20.59 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Continuing partnerships. 20.59 Section 20.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not teminated on death or insolvency of a...

  9. 27 CFR 20.59 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Continuing partnerships. 20.59 Section 20.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not teminated on death or insolvency of a...

  10. 27 CFR 20.59 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuing partnerships. 20.59 Section 20.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not teminated on death or insolvency of a...

  11. 27 CFR 29.59 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records. 29.59 Section 29... TREASURY LIQUORS STILLS AND MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS Stills § 29.59 Records. A copy of each notice of.... In addition, each manufacturer or vendor of stills shall maintain at their premises a record...

  12. 27 CFR 29.59 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records. 29.59 Section 29... TREASURY LIQUORS STILLS AND MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS Stills § 29.59 Records. A copy of each notice of.... In addition, each manufacturer or vendor of stills shall maintain at their premises a record...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.59 - Hazard communication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard communication. 1926.59 Section 1926.59 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls...

  14. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE... hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence in...

  15. 14 CFR 13.59 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence. 13.59 Section 13.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE... hearing may present the party's case or defense by oral or documentary evidence, submit evidence in...

  16. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  17. 36 CFR 59.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 59.2 Section 59.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE...

  18. 36 CFR 59.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 59.1 Section 59.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES...

  19. 36 CFR 59.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information collection. 59.2 Section 59.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE...

  20. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE...

  1. 36 CFR 59.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 59.2 Section 59.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE...

  2. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE...

  3. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE...

  4. 36 CFR 59.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 59.1 Section 59.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES...

  5. 36 CFR 59.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information collection. 59.2 Section 59.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE...

  6. 36 CFR 59.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 59.1 Section 59.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES...

  7. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE...

  8. 36 CFR 59.4 - Residency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Residency requirements. 59.4 Section 59.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE...

  9. 36 CFR 59.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 59.1 Section 59.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES...

  10. 36 CFR 59.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 59.1 Section 59.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES...

  11. 44 CFR 59.3 - Emergency program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance to be sold before a study is conducted to determine risk premium rates for the community. The... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency program. 59.3 Section 59.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 36 CFR 59.3 - Conversion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conversion requirements. 59.3 Section 59.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  13. 36 CFR 59.3 - Conversion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conversion requirements. 59.3 Section 59.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  14. 36 CFR 59.3 - Conversion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conversion requirements. 59.3 Section 59.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  15. 36 CFR 59.3 - Conversion requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conversion requirements. 59.3 Section 59.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONSERVATION FUND PROGRAM OF ASSISTANCE TO STATES; POST-COMPLETION...

  16. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  17. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  18. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  19. 34 CFR 106.59 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising. 106.59 Section 106.59 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment indicate preference,...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.59 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3560.59 Section 3560.59... Environmental requirements. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Agency is required to assess the potential impact of the proposed action on protected environmental resources. Measures to avoid or at least...

  1. 7 CFR 3560.59 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3560.59 Section 3560.59... Environmental requirements. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Agency is required to assess the potential impact of the proposed action on protected environmental resources. Measures to avoid or at least...

  2. 7 CFR 3560.59 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3560.59 Section 3560.59... Environmental requirements. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Agency is required to assess the potential impact of the proposed action on protected environmental resources. Measures to avoid or at least...

  3. 10 CFR 61.59 - Institutional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Institutional requirements. 61.59 Section 61.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE... Commission; and administration of funds to cover the costs for these activities. The period of...

  4. 46 CFR 59.01-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 59.01-1 Section 59.01-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND... boilers, appurtenances and pressure vessels subject to inspection by the Coast Guard. ...

  5. 46 CFR 59.01-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 59.01-1 Section 59.01-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND... boilers, appurtenances and pressure vessels subject to inspection by the Coast Guard. ...

  6. 46 CFR 59.01-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 59.01-1 Section 59.01-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND... boilers, appurtenances and pressure vessels subject to inspection by the Coast Guard. ...

  7. 46 CFR 59.01-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 59.01-1 Section 59.01-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND... boilers, appurtenances and pressure vessels subject to inspection by the Coast Guard. ...

  8. 46 CFR 59.01-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope. 59.01-1 Section 59.01-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND... boilers, appurtenances and pressure vessels subject to inspection by the Coast Guard. ...

  9. 36 CFR 910.59 - Development parcel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Development parcel. 910.59 Section 910.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  10. 36 CFR 910.59 - Development parcel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Development parcel. 910.59 Section 910.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  11. 36 CFR 910.59 - Development parcel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Development parcel. 910.59 Section 910.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  12. 36 CFR 910.59 - Development parcel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Development parcel. 910.59 Section 910.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE...

  13. 47 CFR 59.1 - General duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General duty. 59.1 Section 59.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INFRASTRUCTURE...)) shall make available to any qualifying carrier such public switched network infrastructure, technology...

  14. 9 CFR 3.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 3.59 Section 3.59 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and...

  15. 9 CFR 3.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 3.59 Section 3.59 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and...

  16. 9 CFR 3.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 3.59 Section 3.59 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and...

  17. 9 CFR 3.59 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 3.59 Section 3.59 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Animal Health and...

  18. Samarium- and ytterbium-promoted oxidation of silicon and gallium arsenide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Franciosi, A.

    1989-02-21

    A method is described for promoting oxidation of a silicon or gallium arsenide surface comprising: depositing a ytterbium overlayer on the silicon or gallium arsenide surface prior to the oxidation of the surface.

  19. Gallium Potentiates the Antibacterial Effect of Gentamicin against Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The reasons why aminoglycosides are bactericidal have not been not fully elucidated, and evidence indicates that the cidal effects are at least partly dependent on iron. We demonstrate that availability of iron markedly affects the susceptibility of the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. Specifically, the intracellular depots of iron were inversely correlated to gentamicin susceptibility, whereas the extracellular iron concentrations were directly correlated to the susceptibility. Further proof of the intimate link between iron availability and antibiotic susceptibility were the findings that a ΔfslA mutant, which is defective for siderophore-dependent uptake of ferric iron, showed enhanced gentamicin susceptibility and that a ΔfeoB mutant, which is defective for uptake of ferrous iron, displayed complete growth arrest in the presence of gentamicin. Based on the aforementioned findings, it was hypothesized that gallium could potentiate the effect of gentamicin, since gallium is sequestered by iron uptake systems. The ferrozine assay demonstrated that the presence of gallium inhibited >70% of the iron uptake. Addition of gentamicin and/or gallium to infected bone marrow-derived macrophages showed that both 100 μM gallium and 10 μg/ml of gentamicin inhibited intracellular growth of SCHU S4 and that the combined treatment acted synergistically. Moreover, treatment of F. tularensis-infected mice with gentamicin and gallium showed an additive effect. Collectively, the data demonstrate that SCHU S4 is dependent on iron to minimize the effects of gentamicin and that gallium, by inhibiting the iron uptake, potentiates the bactericidal effect of gentamicin in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26503658

  20. Gallium Potentiates the Antibacterial Effect of Gentamicin against Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Helena; Sjöstedt, Anders

    2015-10-26

    The reasons why aminoglycosides are bactericidal have not been not fully elucidated, and evidence indicates that the cidal effects are at least partly dependent on iron. We demonstrate that availability of iron markedly affects the susceptibility of the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. Specifically, the intracellular depots of iron were inversely correlated to gentamicin susceptibility, whereas the extracellular iron concentrations were directly correlated to the susceptibility. Further proof of the intimate link between iron availability and antibiotic susceptibility were the findings that a ΔfslA mutant, which is defective for siderophore-dependent uptake of ferric iron, showed enhanced gentamicin susceptibility and that a ΔfeoB mutant, which is defective for uptake of ferrous iron, displayed complete growth arrest in the presence of gentamicin. Based on the aforementioned findings, it was hypothesized that gallium could potentiate the effect of gentamicin, since gallium is sequestered by iron uptake systems. The ferrozine assay demonstrated that the presence of gallium inhibited >70% of the iron uptake. Addition of gentamicin and/or gallium to infected bone marrow-derived macrophages showed that both 100 μM gallium and 10 μg/ml of gentamicin inhibited intracellular growth of SCHU S4 and that the combined treatment acted synergistically. Moreover, treatment of F. tularensis-infected mice with gentamicin and gallium showed an additive effect. Collectively, the data demonstrate that SCHU S4 is dependent on iron to minimize the effects of gentamicin and that gallium, by inhibiting the iron uptake, potentiates the bactericidal effect of gentamicin in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.