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Sample records for gallium 81

  1. Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Discovered in 1875 through a study of its spectral properties, gallium was the first element to be uncovered following the publication of Mendeleev`s Periodic Table. French chemist, P.E. Lecoq de Boisbaudran, named his element discovery in honor of his native country; gallium is derived from the Latin word for France-{open_quotes}Gallia.{close_quotes}. This paper describes the properties, sources, and market for gallium.

  2. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    Liver gallium scan; Bony gallium scan ... You will get a radioactive material called gallium injected into your vein. The gallium travels through the bloodstream and collects in the bones and certain organs. Your health care provider will ...

  3. Gallium complexes and solvent extraction of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.P.; Graham, C.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes a process for recovering gallium from aqueous solutions containing gallium which comprises contacting such a solution with an organic solvent containing at least 2% by weight of a water-insoluble N-organo hydroxamic acid having at least about 8 carbon atoms to extract gallium, and separating the gallium loaded organic solvent phase from the aqueous phase.

  4. Gallium nitride optoelectronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The growth of bulk gallium nitride crystals was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride. Gallium nitride single crystals up to 2.5 x 0.5 cm in size were produced. The crystals are suitable as substrates for the epitaxial growth of gallium nitride. The epitaxial growth of gallium nitride on sapphire substrates with main faces of (0001) and (1T02) orientations was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride in a gas flow system. The grown layers had electron concentrations in the range of 1 to 3 x 10 to the 19th power/cu cm and Hall mobilities in the range of 50 to 100 sq cm/v/sec at room temperature.

  5. Investigations in gallium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W.; Beard, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated.

  6. Gallium nitrate revisited.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2003-04-01

    Gallium nitrate, the nitrate salt of the "near-metal" element gallium, is highly effective in the treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia. Unlike bisphosphonates, gallium nitrate is effective in both parathyroid hormone-related protein-mediated and non-parathyroid hormone-related protein-mediated hypercalcemia. Gallium nitrate's effects on bone are clearly different from those of bisphosphonates. Gallium nitrate enhances calcium and phosphate content of bone and has direct, noncytotoxic effects on osteoclasts at markedly lower doses than those used for the treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia. The drug may have clinical application in a variety of disorders associated with accelerated bone loss, including multiple myeloma. Gallium nitrate was originally evaluated as an antitumor agent. Its antitumor activity occurs at somewhat higher doses than those used in the treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia. Gallium nitrate has substantial single-agent activity in the treatment of advanced lymphoma, particularly diffuse large cell lymphoma, small lymphocytic lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma. Because of its profile, including a different mechanism of action and minimal myelosuppression, the drug merits further evaluation in the treatment of advanced lymphoma. Gallium nitrate also has activity in advanced bladder cancer and may be useful in patients with metastatic or unresectable disease failing first-line chemotherapy regimens. Gallium nitrate exhibits a range of dose-dependent pharmacologic actions that provide a basis for its therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases and warrants further investigational evaluation as an antiresorptive and antitumor agent. PMID:12776253

  7. (Gallium arsenide solar cells)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A transient liquid phase epitaxial growth system is described, including the growth procedure. Also discussed are the antireflection coating of a gallium arsenide solar cell, the metal contact pattern, and current-voltage characteristics. (LEW)

  8. Lung gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation in the lungs, most often due to sarcoidosis or a certain type of pneumonia. Normal Results ... up very little gallium. What Abnormal Results Mean Sarcoidosis Other respiratory infections, most often pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia ...

  9. Properties of gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Properties of Gallium Arsenide' is a handbook of evaluated numeric data and reviewed knowledge distilled by those working at the frontiers of gallium arsenide research. In addition to providing numeric data on basic physical, electronic and optical properties, the book covers many device-related aspects of gallium arsenide. Carrier attributes (ionisation coefficients, concentration, mobility, diffusion etc), deep levels and defects are surveyed and related to the various growth techniques such as MBE, VPE, and MOCVD. Sections on surface structure, oxidation, interfaces and etching are of particular relevance to integrated circuit research. Especially important in the race to achieve commercially usable samples is a state-of-the-art survey on the infra-red imaging of defects in semi-insulating gallium arsenide produced by the liquid-encapsulated Czochralski process.

  10. Preventing Supercooling Of Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massucco, Arthur A.; Wenghoefer, Hans M.; Wilkins, Ronnie

    1994-01-01

    Principle of heterogeneous nucleation exploited to prevent gallium from supercooling, enabling its use as heat-storage material that crystallizes reproducibly at its freezing or melting temperature of 29 to 30 degrees C. In original intended application, gallium used as heat-storage material in gloves of space suits. Terrestrial application lies in preparation of freezing-temperature reference samples for laboratories. Principle of heterogeneous nucleation also exploited similarly in heat pipes filled with sodium.

  11. Electrodeposition of gallium for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.

    2016-08-09

    An electroplating solution and method for producing an electroplating solution containing a gallium salt, an ionic compound and a solvent that results in a gallium thin film that can be deposited on a substrate.

  12. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2012-06-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks crossresistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed.

  13. Gallium interactions with Zircaloy

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, A.L.; West, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of gallium ion implantation into zircaloy cladding material to investigate the effects that gallium may have in a reactor. High fluence ion implantation of Ga ions was conducted on heated Zircaloy-4 in the range of 10{sup 16}--10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm2. Surface effects were studied using SEM and electron microprobe analysis. The depth profile of Ga in the Zircaloy was characterized with Rutherford backscattering and SIMS techniques. Results indicate that the Zirc-4 is little affected up to a fluence of 10{sup 17} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation of 10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}, sub-grain features on the order of 2 {micro}m were observed which may be due to intermetallic compound formation between Ga and Zr. For the highest fluence implant, Ga content in the Zirc-4 reached a saturation value of between 30 and 40 atomic %; significant enhanced diffusion was observed but gallium was not seen to concentrate at grain boundaries.

  14. Oxidative dissolution of gallium arsenide and separation of gallium from arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.P.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1988-07-26

    The method of dissociating gallium arsenide into a gallium-containing component and an arsenic-containing component, is described which comprises contacting the gallium arsenide with an oxidizing agent and a liquid comprising hydroxamic acid to convert the gallium to a gallium-hydroxamic acid complex and to oxidize the arsenic to a positive valence state.

  15. Gallium--A smart metal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. The French chemist Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered gallium in sphalerite (a zinc-sulfide mineral) in 1875 using spectroscopy. He named the element "gallia" after his native land of France (formerly Gaul; in Latin, Gallia). The existence of gallium had been predicted in 1871 by Dmitri Mendeleev, the Russian chemist who published the first periodic table of the elements. Mendeleev noted a gap in his table and named the missing element "eka-aluminum" because he determined that its location was one place away from aluminum in the table. Mendeleev thought that the missing element (gallium) would be very much like aluminum in its chemical properties, and he was right. Solid gallium has a low melting temperature (~29 degrees Celsius, or °C) and an unusually high boiling point (~2,204 °C). Because of these properties, the earliest uses of gallium were in high-temperature thermometers and in designing metal alloys that melt easily. The development of a gallium-based direct band-gap semiconductor in the 1960s led to what is now one of the most well-known applications for gallium-based products--the manufacture of smartphones and data-centric networks.

  16. Gallium nitride nanotube lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Hurtado, Antonio; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Xu, Huiwen; Luk, Ting Shan; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, Steven R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2015-01-01

    Lasing is demonstrated from gallium nitride nanotubes fabricated using a two-step top-down technique. By optically pumping, we observed characteristics of lasing: a clear threshold, a narrow spectral, and guided emission from the nanotubes. In addition, annular lasing emission from the GaN nanotube is also observed, indicating that cross-sectional shape control can be employed to manipulate the properties of nanolasers. The nanotube lasers could be of interest for optical nanofluidic applications or application benefitting from a hollow beam shape.

  17. Gallium Arsenide Domino Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Long; Long, Stephen I.

    1990-01-01

    Advantages include reduced power and high speed. Experimental gallium arsenide field-effect-transistor (FET) domino circuit replicated in large numbers for use in dynamic-logic systems. Name of circuit denotes mode of operation, which logic signals propagate from each stage to next when successive stages operated at slightly staggered clock cycles, in manner reminiscent of dominoes falling in a row. Building block of domino circuit includes input, inverter, and level-shifting substages. Combinational logic executed in input substage. During low half of clock cycle, result of logic operation transmitted to following stage.

  18. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; DiNetta, Louis C.; DuganCavanagh, K.; Goetz, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Betavoltaic power supplies based on gallium phosphide can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. Results are presented for GaP devices powered by Ni-63 and tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/cm(exp 2) have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. A small demonstration system has been assembled that generates and stores enough electricity to light up an LED.

  19. Fundamental studies of the metallurgical, electrical, and optical properties of gallium phosphide and gallium phosphide alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Abstracts, bibliographic data, oral presentations, and published papers on (1) Diffusion of Sulfur in Gallium Phosphide and Gallium Arsenide, and (2) Properties of Gallium Phosphide Schottky Barrier Rectifiers for Use at High Temperature are presented.

  20. Electrospun Gallium Nitride Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, Anamaris; Morales, Kristle; Ramos, Idalia; Campo, Eva; Santiago, Jorge J.

    2009-04-19

    The high thermal conductivity and wide bandgap of gallium nitride (GaN) are desirable characteristics in optoelectronics and sensing applications. In comparison to thin films and powders, in the nanofiber morphology the sensitivity of GaN is expected to increase as the exposed area (proportional to the length) increases. In this work we present electrospinning as a novel technique in the fabrication of GaN nanofibers. Electrospinning, invented in the 1930s, is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid technique to produce microscopically long ultrafine fibers. GaN nanofibers are produced using gallium nitrate and dimethyl-acetamide as precursors. After electrospinning, thermal decomposition under an inert atmosphere is used to pyrolyze the polymer. To complete the preparation, the nanofibers are sintered in a tube furnace under a NH{sub 3} flow. Both scanning electron microscopy and profilometry show that the process produces continuous and uniform fibers with diameters ranging from 20 to a few hundred nanometers, and lengths of up to a few centimeters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the development of GaN nanofibers with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Future work includes additional characterization using transmission electron microscopy and XRD to understand the role of precursors and nitridation in nanofiber synthesis, and the use of single nanofibers for the construction of optical and gas sensing devices.

  1. Gallium interstitial contributions to diffusion in gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, Joseph T.; Morgan, Caroline G.

    2011-09-01

    A new diffusion path is identified for gallium interstitials, which involves lower barriers than the barriers for previously identified diffusion paths [K. Levasseur-Smith and N. Mousseau, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113502 (2008), P. A. Schultz and O. A. von Lilienfeld, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 17, 084007 (2009)] for the charge states which dominate diffusion over most of the available range of Fermi energies. This path passes through the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration, and has a particularly low diffusion barrier of 0.35 eV for diffusion in the neutral charge state. As a part of this work, the character of the charge states for the gallium interstitials which are most important for diffusion is investigated, and it is shown that the last electron bound to the neutral interstitial occupies a shallow hydrogenic bound state composed of conduction band states for the hexagonal interstitial and both tetrahedral interstitials. How to properly account for the contributions of such interstitials is discussed for density-functional calculations with a k-point mesh not including the conduction band edge point. Diffusion barriers for gallium interstitials are calculated in all the charge states which can be important for a Fermi level anywhere in the gap, q = 0, +1, +2, and +3, for diffusion via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration and via the hexagonal interstitial configuration. The lowest activation enthalpies over most of the available range of Fermi energies are found to correspond to diffusion in the neutral or singly positive state via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration. It is shown that several different charge states and diffusion paths contribute significantly for Fermi levels within 0.2 eV above the valence band edge, which may help to explain some of the difficulties [H. Bracht and S. Brotzmann, Phys. Rev. B 71, 115216 (2005)] which have been

  2. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2003-06-01

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  3. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-05-07

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  4. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; Dinetta, L. C.; Goetz, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) energy converters may be successfully deployed to provide new mission capabilities for spacecraft. Betavoltaic power supplies based on the conversion of tritium beta decay to electricity using GaP energy converters can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. High temperature solar cells, also based on GaP, can be used in inward-bound missions greatly reducing the need for thermal dissipation. Results are presented for GaP direct conversion devices powered by Ni-63 and compared to the conversion of light emitted by tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/sq cm have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. Temperature dependent IV, QE, R(sub sh), and V(sub oc) results are also presented. These data are used to predict the high-temperature solar cell and betacell performance of GaP devices and suggest appropriate applications for the deployment of this technology.

  5. Medical applications and toxicities of gallium compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2010-05-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  6. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use. PMID:20623028

  7. A FETISH for gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    An overview of the development of a new dielectric material, cubic-GaS, from the synthesis of new organometallic compounds to the fabrication of a new class of gallium arsenide based transistor is presented as a representative example of the possibility that inorganic chemistry can directly effect the development of new semiconductor devices. The gallium sulfido compound [({sup t}Bu)GaS]{sub 4}, readily prepared from tri-tert-butyl gallium, may be used as a precursor for the growth of GaS thin films by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Photoluminescence and electronic measurements indicate that this material provides a passivation coating for GaAs. Furthermore, the insulating properties of cubic-GaS make it suitable as the insulating gate layer in a new class of GaAs transistor: a field effect transistor with a sulfide heterojunction (FETISH).

  8. Mineral resource of the month: gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    The metal element gallium occurs in very small concentrations in rocks and ores of other metals — native gallium is not known. As society gets more and more high-tech, gallium becomes more useful. Gallium is one of only five metals that are liquid at or close to room temperature. It has one of the longest liquid ranges of any metal (29.8 degrees Celsius to 2204 degrees Celsius) and has a low vapor pressure even at high temperatures. Ultra-pure gallium has a brilliant silvery appearance, and the solid metal exhibits conchoidal fracture similar to glass.

  9. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

  10. Toxicity of indium arsenide, gallium arsenide, and aluminium gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiyo

    2004-08-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium arsenide (InAs), and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) are semiconductor applications. Although the increased use of these materials has raised concerns about occupational exposure to them, there is little information regarding the adverse health effects to workers arising from exposure to these particles. However, available data indicate these semiconductor materials can be toxic in animals. Although acute and chronic toxicity of the lung, reproductive organs, and kidney are associated with exposure to these semiconductor materials, in particular, chronic toxicity should pay much attention owing to low solubility of these materials. Between InAs, GaAs, and AlGaAs, InAs was the most toxic material to the lung followed by GaAs and AlGaAs when given intratracheally. This was probably due to difference in the toxicity of the counter-element of arsenic in semiconductor materials, such as indium, gallium, or aluminium, and not arsenic itself. It appeared that indium, gallium, or aluminium was toxic when released from the particles, though the physical character of the particles also contributes to toxic effect. Although there is no evidence of the carcinogenicity of InAs or AlGaAs, GaAs and InP, which are semiconductor materials, showed the clear evidence of carcinogenic potential. It is necessary to pay much greater attention to the human exposure of semiconductor materials.

  11. Gallium scan in intracerebral sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Makhija, M.C.; Anayiotos, C.P.

    1981-07-01

    Sarcoidosis involving the nervous system probably occurs in about 4% of patients. The usefulness of brain scintigraphy in these cases has been suggested. In this case of cerebral sarcoid granuloma, gallium imaging demonstrated the lesion before treatment and showed disappearance of the lesion after corticosteroid treatment, which correlated with the patient's clinical improvement.

  12. Gallium scintigraphy in acute panniculitis

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, D.; Murray, I.P.C.; Ford, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    Gallium scintigraphy was performed in a 27-yr-old female in search of a possible occult focus of infection; it showed an unusual diffuse superficial accumulation in the thighs and buttocks. Biopsy of an area of abnormal uptake showed lobular panniculitis which, in the clinical context, led to the diagnosis of Weber-Christian syndrome.

  13. Liquid gallium rotary electric contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1969-01-01

    Due to its low vapor pressure, gallium, when substituted for mercury in a liquid slip ring system, transmits substantial amounts of electrical current to rotating components in an ultrahigh vacuum. It features low electrical loss, little or no wear, and long maintenance-free life.

  14. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  15. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan; Fu, Tracy; Ross, Jennifer; Chan, James

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  16. Gallium nitride electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Siddharth; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-07-01

    In the past two decades, there has been increasing research and industrial activity in the area of gallium nitride (GaN) electronics, stimulated first by the successful demonstration of GaN LEDs. While the promise of wide band gap semiconductors for power electronics was recognized many years before this by one of the contributors to this issue (J Baliga), the success in the area of LEDs acted as a catalyst. It set the field of GaN electronics in motion, and today the technology is improving the performance of several applications including RF cell phone base stations and military radar. GaN could also play a very important role in reducing worldwide energy consumption by enabling high efficiency compact power converters operating at high voltages and lower frequencies. While GaN electronics is a rapidly evolving area with active research worldwide, this special issue provides an opportunity to capture some of the great advances that have been made in the last 15 years. The issue begins with a section on epitaxy and processing, followed by an overview of high-frequency HEMTs, which have been the most commercially successful application of III-nitride electronics to date. This is followed by review and research articles on power-switching transistors, which are currently of great interest to the III-nitride community. A section of this issue is devoted to the reliability of III-nitride devices, an area that is of increasing significance as the research focus has moved from not just high performance but also production-worthiness and long-term usage of these devices. Finally, a group of papers on new and relatively less studied ideas for III-nitride electronics, such as interband tunneling, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and high-temperature electronics is included. These areas point to new areas of research and technological innovation going beyond the state of the art into the future. We hope that the breadth and quality of articles in this issue will make it

  17. Running droplets of gallium from evaporation of gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Tersoff, J; Jesson, D E; Tang, W X

    2009-04-10

    High-temperature annealing of gallium arsenide in vacuum causes excess evaporation of arsenic, with accumulation of gallium as liquid droplets on the surface. Using real-time in situ surface electron microscopy, we found that these droplets spontaneously run across the crystal surface. Running droplets have been seen in many systems, but they typically require special surface preparation or gradient forces. In contrast, we show that noncongruent evaporation automatically provides a driving force for running droplets. The motion is predicted and observed to slow and stop near a characteristic temperature, with the speed increasing both below and above this temperature. The same behavior is expected to occur during the evaporation of similar III-V semiconductors such as indium arsenide.

  18. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  19. Recovering gallium from residual bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso de Magalhães, Maria Elizabeth; Tubino, Matthieu

    1991-06-01

    Gallium is normally obtained by direct electrolysis as a by-product from Bayer process residual liquor at an aluminum processing plant. However, to permit any net accumulation of the metal, the gallium concentration must be at least about 0.3 g/l in the liquor. This article describes a continuous process of extraction with organic solvents and rhodamine-B, followed by a re-extraction step into aqueous media. The final product is a solid containing up to 18 wt.% Ga in a solid mixture of hydroxides and oxides of gallium and aluminum. This final product can then be electrolyzed to recover the gallium more efficiently.

  20. Thermal oxidation of gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, O.R.; Evans, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Here we present some results of transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy of thermally oxidized gallium arsenide with different types of dopants. At temperatures below 400 /sup 0/C an amorphous oxide is formed. Oxidation at temperatures between 500 and 600 /sup 0/C initially produces an epitaxial film of ..gamma..-Ga/sub 2/O/sub 3/. As the reaction proceeds, this film becomes polycrystalline and then transforms to ..beta..-Ga/sub 2/O/sub 3/. This film contains small crystallites of As/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the case of the chromium doped samples, whereas only the former was detected in the case of silicon and tellurium doped samples. Elemental arsenic was always found at the interface between the oxide and GaAs. Chromium doped gallium also exhibited a slower oxidation kinetics than the other materials.

  1. Facile synthesis of gallium oxide hydroxide by ultrasonic irradiation of molten gallium in water.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay Bhooshan; Gedanken, Aharon; Porat, Ze'ev

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the single-step synthesis of GaO(OH) by ultrasonic irradiation of molten gallium in warm water. The ultrasonic energy causes dispersion of the liquid gallium into micrometric spheres, as-well-as decomposition of some of the water into H and OH radicals. The OH radicals and the dissolved oxygen react on the surface of the gallium spheres to form crystallites of GaO(OH). These crystallites prevent the re-coalescence of the gallium spheres, and as the reaction proceeds all the gallium is converted into crystalline GaO(OH).

  2. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thrustor Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given in Fig. 1. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagneticpump[l]. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx.10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx.500 I), send-stage puke which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  3. Clinical applications of Gallium-68.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sangeeta Ray; Pomper, Martin G

    2013-06-01

    Gallium-68 is a positron-emitting radioisotope that is produced from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. As such it is conveniently used, decoupling radiopharmacies from the need for a cyclotron on site. Gallium-68-labeled peptides have been recognized as a new class of radiopharmaceuticals showing fast target localization and blood clearance. (68)Ga-DOTATOC, (8)Ga-DOTATATE, (68)Ga-DOTANOC, are the most prominent radiopharmaceuticals currently in use for imaging and differentiating lesions of various somatostatin receptor subtypes, overexpressed in many neuroendocrine tumors. There has been a tremendous increase in the number of clinical studies with (68)Ga over the past few years around the world, including within the United States. An estimated ∼10,000 scans are being performed yearly in Europe at about 100 centers utilizing (68)Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs within clinical trials. Two academic sites within the US have also begun to undertake human studies. This review will focus on the clinical experience of selected, well-established and recently applied (68)Ga-labeled imaging agents used in nuclear medicine.

  4. The surface tension of liquid gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The surface tension of liquid gallium has been measured using the sessile drop technique in an Auger spectrometer. The experimental method is described. The surface tension in mJ/sq m is found to decrease linearly with increasing temperature and may be represented as 708-0.66(T-29.8), where T is the temperature in centigrade. This result is of interest because gallium has been suggested as a model fluid for Marangoni flow experiments. In addition, the surface tension is of technological significance in the processing of compound semiconductors involving gallium.

  5. Gallium and its competing roles with iron in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2016-08-01

    Gallium, a group IIIa metal, shares chemical properties with iron. Studies have shown that gallium-based compounds have potential therapeutic activity against certain cancers and infectious microorganisms. By functioning as an iron mimetic, gallium perturbs iron-dependent proliferation processes in tumor cells. Gallium's action on iron homeostasis leads to disruption of ribonucleotide reductase, mitochondrial function, and the regulation of transferrin receptor and ferritin. In addition, gallium nitrate stimulates an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in cells which triggers downstream upregulation of metallothionein and hemoxygenase-1. Gallium's anti-infective activity against bacteria and fungi results from disruption of microbial iron utilization through mechanisms which include gallium binding to siderophores and downregulation of bacterial iron uptake. Gallium compounds lack cross-resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and antibiotics thus making them attractive agents for drug development. This review will focus on the mechanisms of action of gallium with emphasis on its interaction with iron and iron proteins. PMID:27150508

  6. Gallium and its competing roles with iron in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2016-08-01

    Gallium, a group IIIa metal, shares chemical properties with iron. Studies have shown that gallium-based compounds have potential therapeutic activity against certain cancers and infectious microorganisms. By functioning as an iron mimetic, gallium perturbs iron-dependent proliferation processes in tumor cells. Gallium's action on iron homeostasis leads to disruption of ribonucleotide reductase, mitochondrial function, and the regulation of transferrin receptor and ferritin. In addition, gallium nitrate stimulates an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in cells which triggers downstream upregulation of metallothionein and hemoxygenase-1. Gallium's anti-infective activity against bacteria and fungi results from disruption of microbial iron utilization through mechanisms which include gallium binding to siderophores and downregulation of bacterial iron uptake. Gallium compounds lack cross-resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and antibiotics thus making them attractive agents for drug development. This review will focus on the mechanisms of action of gallium with emphasis on its interaction with iron and iron proteins.

  7. Gallium-67 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, H.A.; Heimes, K.; Schubotz, R.; von Wichert, P.

    1986-01-01

    Roentgenograms and gallium-67 scans and gallium-67 counts of BAL fluid samples, together with differential cell counts, have proved to be useful in assessing activity and lung involvement in sarcoidosis. In active pulmonary sarcoidosis gallium-67 scans are usually positive. Quantitation of gallium-67 uptake in lung scans, however, may be difficult. Because gallium-67 uptake and cell counts in BAL fluid may be correlated, we set out to investigate gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid recovered from patient of different groups. Sixteen patients with recently diagnosed and untreated sarcoidosis, nine patients with healthy lungs, and five patients with CFA were studied. Gallium-67 uptake of the lung, gallium-67 activity in the lavage fluid, SACE and LACE levels, and alpha 1-AT activity were measured. Significantly more gallium-67 activity was found in BAL fluid from sarcoidosis patients than in that from CFA patients (alpha = .001) or patients with healthy lungs (alpha = .001). Gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid could be well correlated with the number of lymphocytes in BAL fluid, but poorly with the number of macrophages. Subjects with increased levels of SACE or serum alpha 1-AT showed higher lavage gallium-67 activity than did normals, but no correlation could be established. High gallium-67 activity in lavage fluid may be correlated with acute sarcoidosis or physiological deterioration; low activity denotes change for the better. The results show that gallium-67 counts in BAL fluid reflects the intensity of gallium-67 uptake and thus of activity of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  8. Recovery of gallium from aluminum industry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, M.S.; Neto, K.C.M.; Nobrega, A.W.; Medeiros, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is proposed to recover gallium from flue dust aluminum residues produced in plants by using solid-phase extraction with a commercial polyether-type polyurethane foam (PUF). Gallium can be separated from high concentrations of aluminum, iron, nickel, titanium, vanadium, copper, zinc, sulfate, fluoride, and chloride by extraction with PUF from 3 M sulfuric acid and 3 M sodium chloride concentration medium with at least a 92% efficiency. Gallium backextraction was fast and quantitative with ethanol solution. In all recovery steps commercial-grade reagents could be used, including tap water. The recovered gallium was precipitated with sodium hydroxide solution, purified by dissolution and precipitation, calcinated, and the final oxide was 98.6% pure.

  9. Radiochemical separation of gallium by amalgam exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruch, R.R.

    1969-01-01

    An amalgam-exchange separation of radioactive gallium from a number of interfering radioisotopes has been developed. A dilute (ca. 0.3%) gallium amalgam is agitated with a slightly acidic solution of 72Ga3+ containing concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and either perchlorate or chloride. The amalgam is then removed and the radioactive gallium stripped by agitation with dilute nitric acid. The combined exchange yield of the perchlorate-thiocyanate system is 90??4% and that of the chloride-thiocyanate system is 75??4%. Decontamination yields of most of the 11 interfering isotopes studied were less than 0.02%. The technique is applicable for use with activation analysis for the determination of trace amounts of gallium. ?? 1969.

  10. Development of gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of ion implantation as a means of developing gallium arsenide solar cells with high efficiency performance was investigated. Computer calculations on gallium arsenide cell characteristics are presented to show the effects of surface recombination, junction space-charge recombination, and built-in fields produced by nonuniform doping of the surface region. The fabrication technology is summarized. Electrical and optical measurements on samples of solar cells are included.

  11. Generator for gallium-68 and compositions obtained therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A generator for obtaining radioactive gallium-68 from germanium-68 bound in a resin containing unsubstituted phenolic hydroxyl groups. The germanium-68 is loaded into the resin from an aqueous solution of the germanium-68. A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of gallium-68 solution is obtained. The solution is obtained from the bound germanium-68 which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with a hydrochloric acid solution to form an acidic solution of gallium-68. The acidic solution of gallium-68 can be neutralized.

  12. Gallium poisoning: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Ivanoff, Athena E; Hottel, Timothy L

    2012-02-01

    The authors present a case of a college student who suffered acute gallium poisoning as a result of accidental exposure to gallium halide complexes. This is extremely rare and has never been reported in the literature. Acute symptoms after the incident, which initially presented as dermatitis and appeared relatively not life-threatening, rapidly progressed to dangerous episodes of tachycardia, tremors, dyspnea, vertigo, and unexpected black-outs. Had there been effective emergency medical care protocols, diagnostic testing, treatment and antidotes, the latent manifestations of irreversible cardiomyopathy may have been prevented. Given how quickly exposure led to morbidity, this article aims to raise an awareness of the toxic potential of gallium. This has particular relevance for workers involved in the production of semiconductors where there is a potential for accidental exposure to gallium by-products during device processing. It may also have implications for dentists who use gallium alloys to replace mercury containing amalgam. In the absence of threshold limit values and exposure limits for humans, as well as emergency medical guidelines for treatment of poisoning, the case calls on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to establish guidelines and medical management protocols specific for gallium.

  13. Controlled Electrochemical Deformation of Liquid-Phase Gallium.

    PubMed

    Chrimes, Adam F; Berean, Kyle J; Mitchell, Arnan; Rosengarten, Gary; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2016-02-17

    Pure gallium is a soft metal with a low temperature melting point of 29.8 °C. This low melting temperature can potentially be employed for creating optical components with changeable configurations on demand by manipulating gallium in its liquid state. Gallium is a smooth and highly reflective metal that can be readily maneuvered using electric fields. These features allow gallium to be used as a reconfigurable optical reflector. This work demonstrates the use of gallium for creating reconfigurable optical reflectors manipulated through the use of electric fields when gallium is in a liquid state. The use of gallium allows the formed structures to be frozen and preserved as long as the temperature of the metal remains below its melting temperature. The lens can be readily reshaped by raising the temperature above the melting point and reapplying an electric field to produce a different curvature of the gallium reflector. PMID:26820807

  14. Controlled Electrochemical Deformation of Liquid-Phase Gallium.

    PubMed

    Chrimes, Adam F; Berean, Kyle J; Mitchell, Arnan; Rosengarten, Gary; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2016-02-17

    Pure gallium is a soft metal with a low temperature melting point of 29.8 °C. This low melting temperature can potentially be employed for creating optical components with changeable configurations on demand by manipulating gallium in its liquid state. Gallium is a smooth and highly reflective metal that can be readily maneuvered using electric fields. These features allow gallium to be used as a reconfigurable optical reflector. This work demonstrates the use of gallium for creating reconfigurable optical reflectors manipulated through the use of electric fields when gallium is in a liquid state. The use of gallium allows the formed structures to be frozen and preserved as long as the temperature of the metal remains below its melting temperature. The lens can be readily reshaped by raising the temperature above the melting point and reapplying an electric field to produce a different curvature of the gallium reflector.

  15. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  16. Phase Change of Gallium Enables Highly Reversible and Switchable Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhou; Lum, Guo Zhan; Song, Sukho; Rich, Steven; Sitti, Metin

    2016-07-01

    Gallium exhibits highly reversible and switchable adhesion when it undergoes a solid-liquid phase transition. The robustness of gallium is notable as it exhibits strong performance on a wide range of smooth and rough surfaces, under both dry and wet conditions. Gallium may therefore find numerous applications in transfer printing, robotics, electronic packaging, and biomedicine. PMID:27146217

  17. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  20. Gallium Zeolites for Light Paraffin Aromatization

    SciTech Connect

    Price, G.L.; Dooley, K.M.

    1999-02-10

    The primary original goal of this project was to investigate the active state of gallium-containing MFI catalysts for light paraffin aromatization, in particular the state of gallium in the active material. Our original hypothesis was that the most active and selective materials were those which contained gallium zeolitic cations, and that previously reported conditions for the activation of gallium-containing catalysts served to create these active centers. We believed that in high silica materials such as MFI, ion-exchange is most effectively accomplished with metals in their 1+ oxidation state, both because of the sparsity of the anionic ion-exchange sites associated with the zeolite, and because the large hydration shells associated with aqueous 3+ cations hinder transport. Metals such as Ga which commonly exist in higher oxidation states need to be reduced to promote ion-exchange and this is the reason that reduction of gallium-containing catalysts for light paraffin aromatization often yields a dramatic enhancement in catalytic activity. We have effectively combined reduction with ion-exchange and we term this combined process ''reductive solid-state ion-exchange''. Our hypothesis has largely been proven true, and a number of the papers we have published directly address this hypothesis.

  1. Chrome doped gallium arsenide evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M.D.; Morse, J.D.; Brazes, W.F.

    1987-10-10

    We received, for free, two sets of Chrome doped Gallium Arsenide (GaAs:Cr) wafers, one from Cominco Electronic Materials, Inc., and the other from Furakawa Electric Co., for the purpose of evaluation as potential material for high speed photoconductive detectors. In return for the free material we promised to give the two manufacturers feed back on our evaluation of these wafers. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of our evaluation of these wafers and conclusions regarding the usefulness of heavily doped GaAs:Cr for photoconductive detectors. We have found that response times of less than 100 ps (FWHM) are possible with GaAs:Cr detectors, but that there are several time constants to the decay which result in very long ''tails'' to the impulse response of these detectors. These long tails are unacceptable for most detector applications, but there may be some special cases where GaAs:Cr could be used. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S

    2016-05-11

    A ternary, ionically conducting, deep eutectic solvent based on acetamide, urea and gallium nitrate is reported for the electrodeposition of gallium nitride/gallium indium nitride under ambient conditions; blue and white light emitting photoluminescent deposits are obtained under potential control. PMID:27074315

  3. Gallium uptake in myositis ossificans. Potential pitfalls in diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Salzman, L.; Lee, V.W.; Grant, P.

    1987-04-01

    Seven cases of gallium uptake in myositis ossificans are described. Gallium scans are done frequently in paraplegics, quadriplegics, and comatose patients to look for occult infection. It is important to be aware of possible gallium uptake in myositis ossificans, particularly in the extremities, which is frequent in these patients. Gallium uptake may be present prior to any abnormalities seen on plain films or CT scans. It is important to correlate roentgenograms with abnormal gallium scans, particularly in the extremities, to avoid potential pitfalls in diagnosis and prevent unnecessary antibiotic treatment. A bone scan should be obtained whenever possible, particularly when roentgenograms are negative, to confirm the diagnosis.

  4. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Joslin, D.; Garlick, J.; Lillington, D.; Gillanders, M.; Cavicchi, B.; Scott-Monck, J.; Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) gallium arsenide cells were irradiated with 1 Mev electrons up to fluences of 1 times 10 to the 16th power cm-2. Measurements of spectral response and dark and illuminated I-V data were made at each fluence and then, using computer codes, the experimental data was fitted to gallium arsenide cell models. In this way it was possible to determine the extent of the damage, and hence damage coefficients in both the emitter and base of the cell.

  5. Long-chain amine-templated synthesis of gallium sulfide and gallium selenide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seral-Ascaso, A.; Metel, S.; Pokle, A.; Backes, C.; Zhang, C. J.; Nerl, H. C.; Rode, K.; Berner, N. C.; Downing, C.; McEvoy, N.; Muñoz, E.; Harvey, A.; Gholamvand, Z.; Duesberg, G. S.; Coleman, J. N.; Nicolosi, V.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the soft chemistry synthesis of amine-templated gallium chalcogenide nanotubes through the reaction of gallium(iii) acetylacetonate and the chalcogen (sulfur, selenium) using a mixture of long-chain amines (hexadecylamine and dodecylamine) as a solvent. Beyond their role as solvent, the amines also act as a template, directing the growth of discrete units with a one-dimensional multilayer tubular nanostructure. These new materials, which broaden the family of amine-stabilized gallium chalcogenides, can be tentatively classified as direct large band gap semiconductors. Their preliminary performance as active material for electrodes in lithium ion batteries has also been tested, demonstrating great potential in energy storage field even without optimization.We describe the soft chemistry synthesis of amine-templated gallium chalcogenide nanotubes through the reaction of gallium(iii) acetylacetonate and the chalcogen (sulfur, selenium) using a mixture of long-chain amines (hexadecylamine and dodecylamine) as a solvent. Beyond their role as solvent, the amines also act as a template, directing the growth of discrete units with a one-dimensional multilayer tubular nanostructure. These new materials, which broaden the family of amine-stabilized gallium chalcogenides, can be tentatively classified as direct large band gap semiconductors. Their preliminary performance as active material for electrodes in lithium ion batteries has also been tested, demonstrating great potential in energy storage field even without optimization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01663d

  6. In-situ Observation of Surface Graphitization of Gallium Droplet and Concentration of Carbon in Liquid Gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, Ryuichi; Nishijima, Takuya; Hikata, Takeshi; Ookubo, Soichiro; Utsunomiya, Risa; Matsuba, Teruaki; Fujita, Jun-ichi

    2012-06-01

    Although carbon has been recognized to be insoluble in gallium, we found that the outermost surface of gallium has unexpectedly high carbon solubility, particularly the limited region of about a few nanometers in depth. Our in-situ transmission electron microscope observations revealed that a graphene layer was precipitated at the surface of a gallium droplet simultaneously with gallium evaporation, and some of the droplets created an internal graphitic layer. On the basis of these experimental data, we evaluated a substantial carbon solubility that seemed to exceed about 50 at. %, but was realized in a very thin surface region of about 4 nm in depth. We believe that this high carbon solubility at the gallium surface is the key mechanism for the catalytic ability of gallium that was observed at the interface between liquid gallium and solid amorphous carbon.

  7. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy of gallium in bladder tissue following gallium maltolate administration during urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ball, Katherine R; Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L; Blyth, Robert I R; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M; Thompson, Julie

    2013-11-01

    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli.

  8. Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy of Gallium in Bladder Tissue following Gallium Maltolate Administration during Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Francesca; Chirino, Manuel; Hamilton, Don L.; Blyth, Robert I. R.; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Dowling, Patricia M.; Thompson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    A mouse model of cystitis caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was used to study the distribution of gallium in bladder tissue following oral administration of gallium maltolate during urinary tract infection. The median concentration of gallium in homogenized bladder tissue from infected mice was 1.93 μg/g after daily administration of gallium maltolate for 5 days. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bladder sections confirmed that gallium arrived at the transitional epithelium, a potential site of uropathogenic E. coli infection. Gallium and iron were similarly but not identically distributed in the tissues, suggesting that at least some distribution mechanisms are not common between the two elements. The results of this study indicate that gallium maltolate may be a suitable candidate for further development as a novel antimicrobial therapy for urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23877680

  9. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C.; Shul, Randy J.

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  10. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-02-02

    An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

  11. Extrapulmonary localization of gallium in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.; Singh, R.; Vieras, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the spectrum of extrapulmonary localization of gallium in patients with sarcoidosis. The usefulness of Ga-67 scintiscans in detecting clinically occult lesions, in directing clinicians to accessible sites for biopsy, and in following the course of extrapulmonary sites of involvement with therapy is emphasized.

  12. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  13. Solar cell with a gallium nitride electrode

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar cell which comprises a body of silicon having a P-N junction therein with a transparent conducting N-type gallium nitride layer as an ohmic contact on the N-type side of the semiconductor exposed to solar radiation.

  14. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankey, T.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  15. Development of gallium aluminum phosphide electroluminescent diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicotka, R. J.; Lorenz, M. R.; Nethercot, A. H.; Pettit, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Work done on the development of gallium aluminum phosphide alloys for electroluminescent light sources is described. The preparation of this wide band gap semiconductor alloy, its physical properties (particularly the band structure, the electrical characteristics, and the light emitting properties) and work done on the fabrication of diode structures from these alloys are broadly covered.

  16. Gallium Nitride Crystals: Novel Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouzhi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Lv, Jiaxin; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    A type of single-crystal gallium nitride mesoporous membrane is fabricated and its supercapacitor properties are demonstrated for the first time. The supercapacitors exhibit high-rate capability, stable cycling life at high rates, and ultrahigh power density. This study may expand the range of crystals as high-performance electrode materials in the field of energy storage.

  17. Gallium-positive Lyme disease myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, L.I.; Welch, P.; Fisher, N.

    1985-09-01

    In the course of a work-up for fever of unknown origin associated with intermittent arrhythmias, a gallium scan was performed which revealed diffuse myocardial uptake. The diagnosis of Lyme disease myocarditis subsequently was confirmed by serologic titers. One month following recovery from the acute illness, the abnormal myocardial uptake completely resolved.

  18. Gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Levy, P.S.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.

    1988-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease, 45 patients with various glomerulopathies, excluding lupus nephritis and renal vasculitis, were studied. Persistent renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive scintigram, was graded as + (less than), ++ (equal to), and +++ (greater than) the hepatic uptake. Positive scintigrams were seen in ten of 16 cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, six of 11 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis, and one case of minimal change, and one of two cases of membranous nephropathy; also in three of six cases of sickle glomerulopathy, two cases of diabetic neuropathy, one of two cases of amyloidosis, and one case of mild chronic allograft rejection. The 25 patients with positive scans were younger than the 20 with negative scans (31 +/- 12 v 42 +/- 17 years; P less than 0.01), and exhibited greater proteinuria (8.19 +/- 7.96 v 2.9 +/- 2.3 S/d; P less than 0.01) and lower serum creatinine values (2 +/- 2 v 4.1 +/- 2.8 mg/dL; P less than 0.01). The amount of proteinuria correlated directly with the intensity grade of the gallium image (P less than 0.02), but there was no correlation between the biopsy diagnosis and the outcome of the gallium scan. It was concluded that gallium scintigraphy is not useful in the differential diagnosis of the glomerular diseases under discussion. Younger patients with good renal function and heavy proteinuria are likely to have a positive renal scintigram regardless of the underlying glomerulopathy.

  19. Formation of gallium microinclusions in GaAs single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilenko, N.D.; Gorbatyuk, A.Ya.; Maronchuk, I.E.

    1988-08-01

    In this report we analyze the causes of gallium microinclusion formation in gallium arsenide single crystals. We present a model in which microinclusions result from the decomposition of a supersaturated solid solution. From experimental data available in the literature and calculated kinetic parameters of the model we demonstrate that microinclusion formation in bulk single crystals follows the mechanism of homogeneous nucleation and Brownian coalescence of precipitated liquid gallium metal.

  20. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy applied to gallium arsenide surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynik, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical basis for surface photovoltage spectroscopy is outlined. Results of this technique applied to gallium arsenide surfaces, are reviewed and discussed. The results suggest that in gallium arsenide the surface voltage may be due to deep bulk impurity acceptor states that are pinned at the Fermi level at the surface. Establishment of the validity of this model will indicate the direction to proceed to increase the efficiency of gallium arsenide solar cells.

  1. Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

  2. Gallium arsenide phosphide top solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    McNeely, J.B.; Barnett, A.M.

    1986-04-15

    This patent describes a tandem solar cell having a silicon solar cell for a low energy gap bottom cell and a high energy gap top cell. The improvement which a gallium arsenide phosphide top solar cell which described here is a. a transparent gallium phosphide substrate; b. a first active semiconductor layer of GaAs/sub 1-Y/P/sub Y/ and of a first conductivity type overlying the substrate; c. a second active semiconductor layer of GaAs/sub 1-X/P/sub X/ and of a second conductivity type opposite the first conductivity type overlying and forming a photovoltaic junction therewith; d. a transparent first electrical contact in ohmic contact with the substrate; and e. a transparent second electrical contact in ohmic contact with the second active semiconductor layer.

  3. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H. L.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires. PMID:26183949

  4. A Gallium multiphase equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Scott D; Greeff, Carl

    2009-01-01

    A new SESAME multiphase Gallium equation of state (EOS) has been developed. The equation of state includes three of the solid phases (Ga I, Ga II, Ga III) and a fluid phase (liquid/gas). The EOS includes consistent latent heat between the phases. We compare the results to the liquid Hugoniol data. We also explore the possibility of re-freezing via dynamic means such as isentropic and shock compression.

  5. Gallium-67 imaging in muscular sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Edan, G.; Bourguet, P.; Delaval, P.; Herry, J.Y.

    1984-07-01

    A case is presented of sarcoid myopathy in which radiogallium was seen to accumulate in the sites of muscle involvement. Uptake of the radiotracer disappeared following institution of corticosteroid therapy. The exceptional nature of this case contrasts with the high frequency of biopsy evidence of sarcoid granulomas in muscle. Gallium-67 imaging can be used to determine the extent of muscle involvement and, through evaluation of uptake intensity, the degree of disease activity before and after treatment.

  6. Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging in acute pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, G.; Morillo, G.; Alonso, M.; Isikoff, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The symptoms and clinical course of patients with acute pyelonephritis are variable; likewise, urinalysis, blood cultures, and excretory urography may be normal or equivocal. The ability of gallium-67 to accumulate in areas of active inflammation was useful in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in 12 cases. A multiplane tomographic scanner was used for imaging four of these patients. Initial experience with this scanner is also discussed.

  7. Long-chain amine-templated synthesis of gallium sulfide and gallium selenide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Seral-Ascaso, A; Metel, S; Pokle, A; Backes, C; Zhang, C J; Nerl, H C; Rode, K; Berner, N C; Downing, C; McEvoy, N; Muñoz, E; Harvey, A; Gholamvand, Z; Duesberg, G S; Coleman, J N; Nicolosi, V

    2016-06-01

    We describe the soft chemistry synthesis of amine-templated gallium chalcogenide nanotubes through the reaction of gallium(iii) acetylacetonate and the chalcogen (sulfur, selenium) using a mixture of long-chain amines (hexadecylamine and dodecylamine) as a solvent. Beyond their role as solvent, the amines also act as a template, directing the growth of discrete units with a one-dimensional multilayer tubular nanostructure. These new materials, which broaden the family of amine-stabilized gallium chalcogenides, can be tentatively classified as direct large band gap semiconductors. Their preliminary performance as active material for electrodes in lithium ion batteries has also been tested, demonstrating great potential in energy storage field even without optimization. PMID:27221399

  8. P-n junctions formed in gallium antimonide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, R.; Richman, D.; Tietjen, J.

    1970-01-01

    Vapor phase deposition process forms a heavily doped n-region on a melt-grown p-type gallium antimonide substrate. HCl transports gallium to the reaction zone, where it combines with antimony hydride and the dopant carrier, hydrogen telluride. Temperatures as low as 400 degrees C are required.

  9. Behavior of pure gallium in water and various saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Horasawa, N; Nakajima, H; Takahashi, S; Okabe, T

    1997-12-01

    This study investigated the chemical stability of pure gallium in water and saline solutions in order to obtain fundamental knowledge about the corrosion mechanism of gallium-based alloys. A pure gallium plate (99.999%) was suspended in 50 mL of deionized water, 0.01%, 0.1% or 1% NaCl solution at 24 +/- 2 degrees C for 1, 7, or 28 days. The amounts of gallium released into the solutions were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The surfaces of the specimens were examined after immersion by x-ray diffractometry (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the solutions containing 0.1% or more NaCl, the release of gallium ions into the solution was lowered when compared to deionized water after 28-day immersion. Gallium oxide monohydroxide was found by XRD on the specimens immersed in deionized water after 28-day immersion. XPS indicated the formation of gallium oxide/hydroxide on the specimens immersed in water or 0.01% NaCl solution. The chemical stability of pure solid gallium was strongly affected by the presence of Cl- ions in the aqueous solution.

  10. Gallium scintigraphy in bone infarction. Correlation with bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, R.R.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of gallium-67 images in bone infarction was studied in nine patients with sickle cell disease and correlated with the bone scan findings. Gallium uptake in acute infarction was decreased or absent with a variable bone scan uptake, and normal in healing infarcts, which showed increased uptake on bone scan. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  11. Automated realization of the gallium melting and triple points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X.; Duan, Y.; Zhang, J. T.; Wang, W.

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve the automation and convenience of the process involved in realizing the gallium fixed points, an automated apparatus, based on thermoelectric and heat pipe technologies, was designed and developed. This paper describes the apparatus design and procedures for freezing gallium mantles and realizing gallium melting and triple points. Also, investigations on the melting behavior of a gallium melting point cell and of gallium triple point cells were carried out while controlling the temperature outside the gallium point cells at 30 °C, 30.5 °C, 31 °C, and 31.5 °C. The obtained melting plateau curves show dentate temperature oscillations on the melting plateaus for the gallium point cells when thermal couplings occurred between the outer and inner liquid-solid interfaces. The maximum amplitude of the temperature fluctuations was about 1.5 mK. Therefore, the temperature oscillations can be used to indicate the ending of the equilibrium phase transitions. The duration and amplitude of such temperature oscillations depend on the temperature difference between the setting temperature and the gallium point temperature; the smaller the temperature difference, the longer the duration of both the melting plateaus and the temperature fluctuations.

  12. Repurposing of gallium-based drugs for antibacterial therapy.

    PubMed

    Bonchi, Carlo; Imperi, Francesco; Minandri, Fabrizia; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    While the occurrence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is vanishing current anti-infective therapies, the antibiotic discovery pipeline is drying up. In the last years, the repurposing of existing drugs for new clinical applications has become a major research area in drug discovery, also in the field of anti-infectives. This review discusses the potential of repurposing previously approved gallium formulations in antibacterial chemotherapy. Gallium has no proven function in biological systems, but it can act as an iron-mimetic in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The activity of gallium mostly relies on its ability to replace iron in redox enzymes, thus impairing their function and ultimately hampering cell growth. Cancer cells and bacteria are preferential gallium targets due to their active metabolism and fast growth. The wealth of knowledge on the pharmacological properties of gallium has opened the door to the repurposing of gallium-based drugs for the treatment of infections sustained by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. The promising antibacterial activity of gallium both in vitro and in different animal models of infection raises the hope that gallium will confirm its efficacy in clinical trials, and will become a valuable therapeutic option to cure otherwise untreatable bacterial infections.

  13. Two octanuclear gallium metallamacrocycles of topologically different connectivities.

    PubMed

    Park, Mira; John, Rohith P; Moon, Dohyun; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Ghyung Hwa; Lah, Myoung Soo

    2007-12-14

    Two topologically different metallamacrocycles--S8 symmetric octanuclear gallium(III) metalladiazamacrocycle and pseudo-D4 symmetric octanuclear gallium(III) metalladiazamacrocycle--could be prepared using two similar heteroditopic bridging ligands having asymmetrical tridentate-bidentate binding residues.

  14. Chemical state determination of molecular gallium compounds using XPS.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Jeremy L; Biesinger, Mark C; Baines, Kim M

    2016-05-01

    A series of molecular gallium compounds were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specifically, the Ga 2p3/2 and Ga 3d5/2 photoelectron binding energies and the Ga L3M45M45 Auger electron kinetic energies of compounds with gallium in a range of assigned oxidation numbers and with different stabilizing ligands were measured. Auger parameters were calculated and used to generate multiple chemical speciation (or Wagner) plots that were subsequently used to characterize the novel gallium-cryptand[2.2.2] complexes that possess ambiguous oxidation numbers for gallium. The results presented demonstrate the ability of widely accessible XPS instruments to experimentally determine the chemical state of gallium centers and, as a consequence, provide deeper insights into reactivity compared to assigned oxidation and valence numbers.

  15. Nuclear microprobe imaging of gallium nitrate in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Richard; Suda, Asami; Devès, Guillaume

    2003-09-01

    Gallium nitrate is used in clinical oncology as treatment for hypercalcemia and for cancer that has spread to the bone. Its mechanism of antitumor action has not been fully elucidated yet. The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of anticancer drugs is of particular interest in oncology to better understand their cellular pharmacology. In addition, most metal-based anticancer compounds interact with endogenous trace elements in cells, altering their metabolism. The purpose of this experiment was to examine, by use of nuclear microprobe analysis, the cellular distribution of gallium and endogenous trace elements within cancer cells exposed to gallium nitrate. In a majority of cellular analyses, gallium was found homogeneously distributed in cells following the distribution of carbon. In a smaller number of cells, however, gallium appeared concentrated together with P, Ca and Fe within round structures of about 2-5 μm diameter located in the perinuclear region. These intracellular structures are typical of lysosomial material.

  16. The Preparation and Structural Characterization of Three Structural Types of Gallium Compounds Derived from Gallium (II) Chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Edward M.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Duraj. Stan A.; Habash, Tuhfeh S.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Schupp, John D.; Eckles, William E.; Long, Shawn

    1997-01-01

    The three compounds Ga2Cl4(4-mepy)2 (1),[GaCl2(4-mepy)4]GaCl4x1/2(4-mepy); (2) and GaCl2(4-mepy)2(S2CNEt2); (3) (4-mepy= 4-methylpyridine) have been prepared from reactions of gallium (II) chloride in 4-methylpyridine and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Small variations in the reaction conditions for gallium(II) chloride can produce crystals with substantially different structural properties. The three compounds described here encompass a neutral gallium(II) dimer in which each gallium is four-coordinate, an ionic compound containing both anionic and cationic gallium complex ions with different coordination numbers and a neutral six-coordinate heteroleptic

  17. Gallium scintigraphic pattern in lung CMV infections

    SciTech Connect

    Ganz, W.I.; Cohen, D.; Mallin, W.

    1994-05-01

    Due to extensive use of prophylactic therapy for Pneumonitis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), Cytomegalic Viral (CMV) infection may now be the most common lung infection in AIDS patients. This study was performed to determine Gallium-67 patterns in AIDS patients with CMV. Pathology reports were reviewed in AIDS patients who had a dose of 5 to 10 mCi of Gallium-67 citrate. Analysis of images were obtained 48-72 hours later of the entire body was performed. Gallium-67 scans in 14 AIDS patients with biopsy proven CMV, were evaluated for eye, colon, adrenal, lung and renal uptake. These were compared to 40 AIDS patients without CMV. These controls had infections including PCP, Mycobacterial infections, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. 100% of CMV patients had bowel uptake greater than or equal to liver. Similar bowel activity was seen in 50% of AIDS patients without CMV. 71% had intense eye uptake which was seen in only 10% of patients without CMV. 50% of CMV patients had renal uptake compared to 5% of non-CMV cases. Adrenal uptake was suggested in 50%, however, SPECT imaging is needed for confirmation. 85% had low grade lung uptake. The low grade lung had perihilar prominence. The remaining 15% had high grade lung uptake (greater than sternum) due to superimposed PCP infection. Colon uptake is very sensitive indicator for CMV infection. However, observing eye, renal, and or adrenal uptake improved the diagnostic specificity. SPECT imaging is needed to confirm renal or adrenal abnormalities due to intense bowel activity present in 100% of cases. When high grade lung uptake is seen superimposed PCP is suggested.

  18. Gallium-67 imaging in muscular sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Edan, G.; Bourguet, P.; Delaval, P.; Herry, J.Y.

    1984-07-01

    A case is presented of sarcoid myopathy in which radiogallium was seen to accumulate in the sites of muscle involvement. Uptake of the radiotracer disappeared following institution of corticosteroid therapy. The exceptional nature of this case contrasts with the high frequency of biopsy evidence of sarcoid muscle disease but is consistent with the rarity of clinical evidence of sarcoid granulomas in muscle. Gallium-67 imaging can be used to determine the extent of muscle involvement and, through evaluation of uptake intensity, the degree of disease activity before and after treatment.

  19. Assessment of gallium-67 scanning in pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, H.L.; Gushue, G.F.; Park, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Gallium-67 scans have been widely employed in patients with sarcoidosis as a means of indicating alveolitis and the need for corticosteroid therapy. Observation of 32 patients followed 3 or more years after gallium scans showed no correlation between findings and later course: of 10 patients with pulmonary uptake, 7 recovered with minor residuals; of 18 patients with mediastinal of extrathoracic uptake, 10 had persistent or progressive disease; of 4 patients with negative initial scans, 2 had later progression. The value of gallium-67 scans as an aid to diagnosis was studied in 40 patients with extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. In 12 patients, abnormal lacrimal, nodal, or pulmonary uptake aided in selection of biopsy sites. Gallium-67 scans and serum ACE levels were compared in 97 patients as indices of clinical activity. Abnormal gallium-67 uptake was observed in 96.3% of the tests in active disease, and ACE level elevation occurred in 56.3%. In 24 patients with inactive or recovered disease, abnormal gallium-67 uptake occurred in 62.5% and ACE level elevation in 37.5%. Gallium-67 scans have a limited but valuable role in the diagnosis and management of sarcoidosis.

  20. Gallium induces the production of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael; Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-02-01

    The novel antimicrobial gallium is a nonredox iron III analogue with bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties, effective for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo in mouse and rabbit infection models. It interferes with iron metabolism, transport, and presumably its homeostasis. As gallium exerts its antimicrobial effects by competing with iron, we hypothesized that it ultimately will lead cells to an iron deficiency status. As iron deficiency promotes the expression of virulence factors in vitro and promotes the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa in animal models, it is anticipated that treatment with gallium will also promote the production of virulence factors. To test this hypothesis, the reference strain PA14 and two clinical isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis were exposed to gallium, and their production of pyocyanin, rhamnolipids, elastase, alkaline protease, alginate, pyoverdine, and biofilm was determined. Gallium treatment induced the production of all the virulence factors tested in the three strains except for pyoverdine. In addition, as the Ga-induced virulence factors are quorum sensing controlled, co-administration of Ga and the quorum quencher brominated furanone C-30 was assayed, and it was found that C-30 alleviated growth inhibition from gallium. Hence, adding both C-30 and gallium may be more effective in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.

  1. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-12-01

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  2. The effects of gallium nitrate on bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Bockman, Richard

    2003-04-01

    Gallium nitrate has been shown to be an effective treatment for patients with cancer-related hypercalcemia. Clinical studies have also suggested the drug may have considerably broader use in other diseases associated with accelerated bone loss including multiple myeloma, bone metastases, Paget's disease, and osteoporosis. The actions of gallium nitrate on bone are quite distinct from those of bisphosphonates. Preclinical studies show that gallium preferentially accumulates in trace amounts in metabolically active regions of bone. When present, gallium favorably alters the mineral properties to enhance hydroxyapatite crystallization and reduce mineral solubility. The drug also acts on the cellular components of bone to reduce bone resorption by decreasing acid secretion by osteoclasts. This effect appears to be mediated by inhibition of the ATPase-dependent proton pump of the osteoclast's ruffled membrane. Gallium does not inhibit the development or recruitment of osteoclasts to bone tissue, unlike many bisphosphonates that may induce osteoclast apoptosis. Together, these pharmacologic actions may yield a skeletal system with increased calcium and phosphate content and improved biomechanical strength. Gallium nitrate has potent antiresorptive effects on bone that can be achieved at considerably lower doses than are currently used for cancer-related hypercalcemia. Parenteral and oral formulations of gallium appear to have high activity in bone resorptive disorders, and thus development should be vigorously pursued in these diseases. PMID:12776254

  3. Limiting pump intensity for sulfur-doped gallium selenide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; Li, D.-J.; Xie, J.-J.; Zhang, L.-M.; Feng, Z.-S.; Andreev, Yu M.; Kokh, K. A.; Lanskii, G. V.; Potekaev, A. I.; Shaiduko, A. V.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.

    2014-05-01

    High optical quality undoped and sulfur-doped gallium selenide crystals were grown from melts by the modified vertical Bridgman method. Detailed study of the damage produced under femtosecond pulse exposure has shown that evaluation of the damage threshold by visual control is unfounded. Black matter spots produced on crystal surfaces do not noticeably decrease either its transparency or its frequency conversion efficiency as opposed to real damage identified as caked well-cohesive gallium structures. For the first time it was demonstrated that optimally sulfur-doped gallium selenide crystal possesses the highest resistivity to optical emission (about four times higher in comparison with undoped gallium selenide).

  4. Antitumor effect of novel gallium compounds and efficacy of nanoparticle-mediated gallium delivery in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wehrung, Daniel; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2012-02-01

    The widespread application of gallium (Ga) in cancer therapy has been greatly hampered by lack of specificity resulting in poor tumor accumulation and retention. To address the challenge, two lipophilic gallium (III) compounds (gallium hexanedione; GaH and gallium acetylacetonate; GaAcAc) were synthesized and antitumor studies were conducted in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Nanoparticles (NPs) containing various concentrations of the Ga compounds were prepared using a binary mixture of Gelucire 44/14 and cetyl alcohol as matrix materials. NPs were characterized based on size, morphology, stability and biocompatibility. Antitumor effects of free or NP-loaded Ga compounds were investigated based on cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species and reduction of mitochondrial potential. Compared to free Ga compounds, cytotoxicity of NP-loaded Ga (5-150 microg/ml) was less dependent on concentration and incubation time (exposure) with A549 cells. NP-mediated delivery (5-150 microg Ga/ml) enhanced antitumor effects of Ga compounds and the effect was pronounced at: (i) shorter incubation times; and (ii) at low concentrations of gallium (approximately 50 microg/ml) (p < 0.0006). Additional studies showed that NP-mediated Ga delivery was not dependent on transferrin receptor uptake mechanism (p > 0.13) suggesting the potential in overcoming gallium resistance in some tumors. In general, preparation of stable and biocompatible NPs that facilitated Ga tumor uptake and antitumor effects could be effective in gallium-based cancer therapy.

  5. Fabrication of Aluminum Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride MESFET And It's Applications in Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alur, Siddharth

    Gallium Nitride has been researched extensively for the past three decades for its application in Light Emitting Diodes (LED's), power devices and UV photodetectors. With the recent developments in crystal growth technology and the ability to control the doping there has been an increased interest in heterostructures formed between Gallium nitride and it's alloy Aluminium Gallium Nitride. These heterostructures due to the combined effect of spontaneous and piezoelectric effect can form a high density and a high mobility electron gas channel without any intentional doping. This high density electron gas makes these heterostructures ideal to be used as sensors. Gallium Nitride is also chemically very stable. Detection of biomolecules in a fast and reliable manner is very important in the areas of food safety and medical research. For biomolecular detection it is paramount to have a robust binding of the probes on the sensor surface. Therefore, in this dissertation, the fabrication and application of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors for the detection of DNA and Organophosphate hydrolase enzyme is discussed. In order to use these AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors capable of working in a liquid environment photodefinable polydimethyl-siloxane is used as an encapsulant. The immobilization conditions for a robust binding of thiolated DNA and the catalytic receptor enzyme organophosphate hydrolase on gold surfaces is developed with the help of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. DNA and OPH are detected by measuring the change in the drain current of the device as a function of time.

  6. Measurement of arsenic and gallium content of gallium arsenide semiconductor waste streams by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Torrance, Keith W; Keenan, Helen E; Hursthouse, Andrew S; Stirling, David

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry of semiconductor wafer processing liquid waste, contaminated by heavy metals, was investigated to determine arsenic content. Arsenic and gallium concentrations were determined for waste slurries collected from gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer processing at three industrial sources and compared to slurries prepared under laboratory conditions. The arsenic and gallium content of waste slurries was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) and it is reported that the arsenic content of the waste streams was related to the wafer thinning process, with slurries from wafer polishing having the highest dissolved arsenic content at over 1,900 mgL(-1). Lapping slurries had much lower dissolved arsenic (< 90 mgL(-1)) content, but higher particulate contents. It is demonstrated that significant percentage of GaAs becomes soluble during wafer lapping. Grinding slurries had the lowest dissolved arsenic content at 15 mgL(-1). All three waste streams are classified as hazardous waste, based on their solids content and dissolved arsenic levels and treatment is required before discharge or disposal. It is calculated that as much as 93% of material is discarded through the entire GaAs device manufacturing process, with limited recycling. Although gallium can be economically recovered from waste slurries, there is little incentive to recover arsenic, which is mostly landfilled. Options for treating GaAs processing waste streams are reviewed and some recommendations made for handling the waste. Therefore, although the quantities of hazardous waste generated are miniscule in comparison to other industries, sustainable manufacturing practices are needed to minimize the environmental impact of GaAs semiconductor device fabrication.

  7. Synthesis of conjugated polymers containing gallium atoms and evaluation of conjugation through four-coordinate gallium atoms.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Onishi, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Kazuo; Fueno, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-12-25

    The synthesis and analysis of the electronic states of the main-chain type-organogallium polymers are presented. We synthesized the polymers containing four-coordinate gallium atoms by organometal coupling reactions. The synthesized polymers showed good solubility in common organic solvents and enough stability for measuring a series of properties under ambient conditions. In the UV-vis absorption spectra, the electronic interaction through four-coordinate gallium atoms was suggested from the peak shifts of the polymer compared to the model compounds. Theoretical calculation of these molecules supports the extended electronic interaction through the polymer main-chain involving gallium atoms.

  8. Preliminary Experimental Measurements for a Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Glumac, Nick G.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    A low-energy gallium plasma source is used to perform a spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range. Neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium are present in a 20 J, 1.8 kA (peak) arc discharge operating with a central cathode. When the polarity of the inner electrode is reversed the discharge current and arc voltage waveforms remain similar. Utilizing a central anode configuration, multiple Ga lines are absent in the 270-340 nm range. In addition, neutral and singly ionized Fe spectral lines are present, indicating erosion of the outer electrode. With graphite present on the insulator to facilitate breakdown, line emission from the gallium species is further reduced and while emissions from singly and doubly ionized carbon atoms and molecular carbon (C2) radicals are observed. These data indicate that a significant fraction of energy is shifted from the gallium and deposited into the various carbon species.

  9. All-optical modulation in gallium arsenide integrated optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    McWright, G.; Ross, B.; Guthreau, W.; Lafaw, D.; Lowry, M.; Tindall, W.

    1988-01-27

    We have investigated all-optical modulators in gallium arsenide integrated optical waveguides; these modulators use electron-hole pair generation to alter the propagation characteristics of a guided light beam. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Computer simulation of radiation damage in gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stith, John J.; Davenport, James C.; Copeland, Randolph L.

    1989-01-01

    A version of the binary-collision simulation code MARLOWE was used to study the spatial characteristics of radiation damage in proton and electron irradiated gallium arsenide. Comparisons made with the experimental results proved to be encouraging.

  11. Reversible expansion of gallium-stabilized (delta)-plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W G; Oudot, B; Baclet, N

    2006-02-27

    It is shown that the transient expansion of plutonium-gallium alloys observed both in the lattice parameter as well as in the dimension of a sample held at ambient temperature can be explained by assuming incipient precipitation of Pu{sub 3}Ga. However, this ordered {zeta}-phase is also subject to radiation-induced disordering. As a result, the gallium-stabilized {delta}-phase, being metastable at ambient temperature, is driven towards thermodynamic equilibrium by radiation-enhanced diffusion of gallium and at the same time reverted back to its metastable state by radiation-induced disordering. A steady state is reached in which only a modest fraction of the gallium present is arranged in ordered {zeta}-phase regions.

  12. Reversible expansion of gallium-stabilized delta-plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W; Oudot, B; Baclet, N

    2006-01-26

    The transient expansion of plutonium-gallium alloys observed both in the lattice parameter as well as in the dimension of a sample held at ambient temperature is explained by assuming incipient precipitation of Pu{sub 3}Ga. However, this ordered {zeta}{prime}-phase is also subject to radiation-induced disordering. As a result, the gallium-stabilized {delta}-phase, being metastable at ambient temperature, is both driven towards thermodynamic equilibrium by radiation-enhanced diffusion of gallium and at the same time pushed back to its metastable state by radiation-induced disordering. A steady state is reached in which only a modest fraction of the gallium present is tied up in the {zeta}{prime}-phase.

  13. Gallium scanning in Paget's disease of bone: effect of calcitonin

    SciTech Connect

    Waxman, A.D.; McKee, D.; Siemsen, J.K.; Singer, F.R.

    1980-02-01

    Calcitonin has been used in the treatment of Paget's disease of bone, and serum alkaline phosphatase level and 24 hr urinary hydroxyproline excretion have been used to follow therapeutic response. The radionuclide bone scan has been used as a visual indicator; however, there is some uncertainty as to its value in following changes in disease activity. Four patients with both serial technetium phosphate bone scans and serial gallium studies were studied. In each case the beneficial effect of calcitonin was demonstrated more accurately with gallium than with technetium diphosphonate. Since biochemical changes in Paget's disease are believed to be mediated at the cellular level and gallium uptake depends on cellular activity, it is proposed that gallium uptake is more appropriate measure of the activity of Paget's disease than a noncellular marker such as a technetium-containing bone scan agent.

  14. Generator for ionic gallium-68 based on column chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 fluorides, having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of solution is provided. The solution is obtained from a generator comprising germanium-68 hexafluoride bound to a column of an anion exchange resin which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with an acid solution to form a solution containing .sup.68 Ga-fluorides. The solution then is neutralized prior to administration.

  15. Complexometric determination of gallium with calcein blue as indicator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsheimer, H.N.

    1967-01-01

    A metalfluorechromic indicator, Calcein Blue, has been used for the back-titration of milligram amounts of EDTA in presence of gallium complexes. The indicator was used in conjunction with an ultraviolet titration assembly equipped with a cadmium sulphide detector cell and a microammeter for enhanced end-point detection. The result is a convenient and rapid method with an accuracy approaching 0.1 % and a relative standard deviation of about 0.4% for 10 mg of gallium. ?? 1967.

  16. Detection of deep venous thrombophlebitis by gallium 67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.

    1981-07-01

    Deep venous thrombophlebitis may escape clinical detection. Three cases are reported in which whole-body gallium 67 scintigraphy was used to detect unsuspected deep venous thrombophlebitis related to indwelling catheters in three children who were being evaluated for fevers of unknown origin. Two of these children had septicemia from Candida organisms secondary to these venous lines. Gallium 67 scintigraphy may be useful in the detection of complications of indwelling venous catheters.

  17. Gallium-68 PSMA uptake in adrenal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Law, W Phillip; Fiumara, Frank; Fong, William; Miles, Kenneth A

    2016-08-01

    Gallium-68 (Ga-68) labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) has emerged as a promising tool for staging of prostate cancer and restaging of disease in recurrence or biochemical failure after definitive treatment of prostate cancer. Ga-68 PSMA PET produces high target-to-background images of prostate cancer and its metastases which are reflective of the significant overexpression of PSMA in these cells and greatly facilitates tumour detection. However, relatively little is known about the PSMA expression of benign neoplasms and non-prostate epithelial malignancies. This is a case report of PSMA uptake in an adrenal adenoma incidentally discovered on PET performed for restaging of biochemically suspected prostate cancer recurrence. With the increasing use of PSMA PET in the management of prostate cancer - and the not infrequent occurrence of adrenal adenomas - the appearance of low- to moderate-grade PSMA uptake in adrenal adenomas should be one with which reporting clinicians are familiar.

  18. Contact formation in gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments were performed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are explained by invoking this mechanism.

  19. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Garlick, G. F. J.

    1987-01-01

    High-efficiency gallium arsenide cells, made by the liquid epitaxy method (LPE), have been irradiated with 1-MeV electrons up to fluences of 10 to the 16th e/sq cm. Measurements have been made of cell spectral response and dark and light-excited current-voltage characteristics and analyzed using computer-based models to determine underlying parameters such as damage coefficients. It is possible to use spectral response to sort out damage effects in the different cell component layers. Damage coefficients are similar to other reported in the literature for the emitter and buffer (base). However, there is also a damage effect in the window layer and possibly at the window emitter interface similar to that found for proton-irradiated liquid-phase epitaxy-grown cells. Depletion layer recombination is found to be less than theoretically expected at high fluence.

  20. The interaction of gold with gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar-cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments designed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions have yielded several interesting results. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are also explained by invoking this mechanism.

  1. Producing gallium arsenide crystals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The production of high quality crystals in space is a promising near-term application of microgravity processing. Gallium arsenide is the selected material for initial commercial production because of its inherent superior electronic properties, wide range of market applications, and broad base of on-going device development effort. Plausible product prices can absorb the high cost of space transportation for the initial flights provided by the Space Transportation System. The next step for bulk crystal growth, beyond the STS, is planned to come later with the use of free flyers or a space station, where real benefits are foreseen. The use of these vehicles, together with refinement and increasing automation of space-based crystal growth factories, will bring down costs and will support growing demands for high quality GaAs and other specialty electronic and electro-optical crystals grown in space.

  2. Gallium Arsenide solar cell radiation damage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.; Herbert, G. A.; Meulenberg, A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells for space applications from three different manufactures were irradiated with 10 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. The electrical performance of the cells was measured at several fluence levels and compared. Silicon cells were included for reference and comparison. All the GaAs cell types performed similarly throughout the testing and showed a 36 to 56 percent power areal density advantage over the silicon cells. Thinner (8-mil versus 12-mil) GaAs cells provide a significant weight reduction. The use of germanium (Ge) substrates to improve mechanical integrity can be implemented with little impact on end of life performance in a radiation environment.

  3. Optical properties of gadolinium gallium garnet.

    PubMed

    Wood, D L; Nassau, K

    1990-09-01

    The refractive index, the temperature coefficient of the refractive index, and the optical transparency of gadolinium gallium garnet are reported as a function of wavelength from the near UV to the middle IR. The materialis transparent enough for good optical components between 0.36 and 6.0 microm, and the refractive index ranges from 2.0 at the UV end to 1.8 at the IR end of the spectrum. The wavelength dependence of index is expressed as a three-term Sellmeier formula with agreement better than two parts in the fourth decimal between calculated and experimental values. Variations in composition depending on growth from various melts (e.g., stoichiometric vs congruent) have no effect on the optical parameters at this level of precision.

  4. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Barclay, Paul E.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8 × 105 and mode volumes <10(λ/n)3, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0 × 104 intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 μm and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g0/2π˜30 kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz.

  5. Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Gallium nitride [GaN] nanorods grown on a Si(111) substrate at 720°C via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied by field-emission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence [CL]. The surface topography and optical properties of the GaN nanorod cluster and single GaN nanorod were measured and discussed. The defect-related CL spectra of GaN nanorods and their dependence on temperature were investigated. The CL spectra along the length of the individual GaN nanorod were also studied. The results reveal that the 3.2-eV peak comes from the structural defect at the interface between the GaN nanorod and Si substrate. The surface state emission of the single GaN nanorod is stronger as the diameter of the GaN nanorod becomes smaller due to an increased surface-to-volume ratio. PMID:22168896

  6. Direct band gap wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Assali, S; Zardo, I; Plissard, S; Kriegner, D; Verheijen, M A; Bauer, G; Meijerink, A; Belabbes, A; Bechstedt, F; Haverkort, J E M; Bakkers, E P A M

    2013-04-10

    The main challenge for light-emitting diodes is to increase the efficiency in the green part of the spectrum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the green emission efficiency. Band structure calculations have predicted a direct band gap for wurtzite GaP. Here, we report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong photoluminescence at a wavelength of 594 nm with short lifetime, typical for a direct band gap. Furthermore, by incorporation of aluminum or arsenic in the GaP nanowires, the emitted wavelength is tuned across an important range of the visible light spectrum (555-690 nm). This approach of crystal structure engineering enables new pathways to tailor materials properties enhancing the functionality.

  7. Gallium arsenide solar array subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs of a number of technology areas are examined for a gallium arsenide space solar array. Four specific configurations were addressed: (1) a 250 KWe LEO mission - planer array; (2) a 250 KWe LEO mission - with concentration; (3) a 50 KWe GEO mission planer array; (4) a 50 KWe GEO mission - with concentration. For each configuration, a baseline system conceptual design was developed and the life cycle costs estimated in detail. The baseline system requirements and design technologies were then varied and their relationships to life cycle costs quantified. For example, the thermal characteristics of the baseline design are determined by the array materials and masses. The thermal characteristics in turn determine configuration, performance, and hence life cycle costs.

  8. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E.; Hryciw, Aaron C.

    2014-04-07

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8 × 10{sup 5} and mode volumes <10(λ/n){sup 3}, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0 × 10{sup 4} intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 μm and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g{sub 0}/2π∼30 kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz.

  9. The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to have been asked by Louis Rosen to tell you about the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). This undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. Its purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for international collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy neutrino flux. This paper reviews this experiment. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Direct Band Gap Wurtzite Gallium Phosphide Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The main challenge for light-emitting diodes is to increase the efficiency in the green part of the spectrum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the green emission efficiency. Band structure calculations have predicted a direct band gap for wurtzite GaP. Here, we report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong photoluminescence at a wavelength of 594 nm with short lifetime, typical for a direct band gap. Furthermore, by incorporation of aluminum or arsenic in the GaP nanowires, the emitted wavelength is tuned across an important range of the visible light spectrum (555–690 nm). This approach of crystal structure engineering enables new pathways to tailor materials properties enhancing the functionality. PMID:23464761

  11. THERMALLY-INDUCED GALLIUM REMOVAL FROM PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE FOR MOX FUEL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    D. KOLMAN; M. GRIEGO; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    A process for the separation of gallium oxide from plutonium dioxide using a ''dry'' process has been developed. The process uses a reducing gas to generate a volatile gallium specie which is collected downstream. The effects of temperature, duration, flow rate, and sample size have been examined. Results indicate that temperature plays a strong role in the efficacy of gallium removal. Other variables have a much smaller effect on gallium removal efficiency. Gallium removal to approximately 1 ppm (atomic) has been observed. Gallium removal to sub-ppm levels appears feasible based on results-to-date.

  12. Method of fabricating germanium and gallium arsenide devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzban (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of semiconductor diode fabrication is disclosed which relies on the epitaxial growth of a precisely doped thickness layer of gallium arsenide or germanium on a semi-insulating or intrinsic substrate, respectively, of gallium arsenide or germanium by either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The method involves: depositing a layer of doped or undoped silicon dioxide on a germanium or gallium arsenide wafer or substrate, selectively removing the silicon dioxide layer to define one or more surface regions for a device to be fabricated thereon, growing a matched epitaxial layer of doped germanium or gallium arsenide of an appropriate thickness using MBE or MOCVD techniques on both the silicon dioxide layer and the defined one or more regions; and etching the silicon dioxide and the epitaxial material on top of the silicon dioxide to leave a matched epitaxial layer of germanium or gallium arsenide on the germanium or gallium arsenide substrate, respectively, and upon which a field effect device can thereafter be formed.

  13. Handling characteristics of gallium alloy for dental restoration.

    PubMed

    Mash, L K; Miller, B H; Nakajima, H; Collard, S M; Guo, I Y; Okabe, T

    1993-12-01

    The handling characteristics of a gallium alloy (Gallium Alloy GF) were compared to those of a spherical high-copper amalgam (Tytin). Ten dentists each restored four identical MO preparations in acrylic typodont teeth (no. 30), two with amalgam and two with gallium alloy. Each restoration was evaluated immediately following completion by the operator for six clinically relevant criteria. Each criterion was scored between 1 and 5, where 1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = fair, 4 = good, and 5 = very good. Three two-sided Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the median scores for significant differences (P < 0.05). The first test indicated no significant difference between scores for the first- and second-placed restorations, within criteria and within alloy type (n = 10). The second test indicated a significant difference between amalgam and gallium alloy, within criteria and within restoration sequence (n = 10), for each criterion except resistance to fracture during removal of the matrix band. The third test indicated a significant difference between amalgam and gallium alloy, within each criteria, combining scores for first- and second-placed restorations (n = 20). During simulated clinical placement, amalgam was rated significantly higher than gallium alloy in each handling characteristic evaluated.

  14. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  15. Determination of submicrogram amounts of gallium by ion-exchanger fluorimetry Determination of gallium in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Capitan, F; Navalon, A; Vilchez, J L; Capitan-Vallvey, L F

    1990-02-01

    A method for microdetermination of gallium at ng/ml level has been developed, based on ion-exchanger fluorimetry. The gallium reacts with salicylidene-o-aminophenol to give a highly fluorescent complex, which is fixed on a dextran-type cationic resin. The fluorescence of the resin, packed in a 1-mm silica cell, is measured directly with a solid-surface attachment. The range of concentration of the method is 2.0-10.0 ng/ml, the RSD 1.3% and the detection limit 0.3 ng/ml. The method has been applied to the determination of gallium in natural waters. The gallium content found in tap water was higher than that in raw water. This is related to the use of commercial aluminium salts in the water-treatment plant. PMID:18964929

  16. Gallium Adhesion: Phase Change of Gallium Enables Highly Reversible and Switchable Adhesion (Adv. Mater. 25/2016).

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhou; Lum, Guo Zhan; Song, Sukho; Rich, Steven; Sitti, Metin

    2016-07-01

    M. Sitti and co-workers find that gallium exhibits highly reversible and switchable adhesive characteristics during the liquid-solid phase change. As described on page 5088, this reversible adhesive allows miniature capsule-like robots, which are able to easily pick-and-place objects with irregular geometries and rough surfaces, and thus assemble such objects into a complex structure. The contact interface between gallium and the rough object is illustrated in the magnified image. PMID:27372722

  17. 40 CFR 81.332 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../Attainment McKinley County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.121. Rio Arriba County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.121. San Juan County (part) Remainder of county Sandoval County, as described under 40 CFR 81.121. Valencia County, as described under 40 CFR 81.121. AQCR 152 Albuquerque-Mid Rio...

  18. 40 CFR 81.333 - New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 81.333, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New York. 81.333 Section 81.333... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.333 New...

  19. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 81.340 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode...

  20. 40 CFR 81.332 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../Attainment McKinley County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.121. Rio Arriba County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.121. San Juan County (part) Remainder of county Sandoval County, as described under 40 CFR 81.121. Valencia County, as described under 40 CFR 81.121. AQCR 152 Albuquerque-Mid Rio...

  1. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine... CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181 Piscataquis County (part) see 40 CFR 81.181 Washington County AQCR...

  2. 32 CFR 644.81 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General. 644.81 Section 644.81 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Purchase, Donation, and Transfer § 644.81 General. Sections 644.81 through...

  3. 32 CFR 644.81 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General. 644.81 Section 644.81 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Purchase, Donation, and Transfer § 644.81 General. Sections 644.81 through...

  4. 10 CFR 81.52 - Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals Board. 81.52 Section 81.52 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.52 Appeals Board. (a) NRC Invention Licensing Appeal Board. Upon notice of an appeal in accordance with § 81.51, the Executive Director for Operations of the...

  5. Gallium Potentiates the Antibacterial Effect of Gentamicin against Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The reasons why aminoglycosides are bactericidal have not been not fully elucidated, and evidence indicates that the cidal effects are at least partly dependent on iron. We demonstrate that availability of iron markedly affects the susceptibility of the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. Specifically, the intracellular depots of iron were inversely correlated to gentamicin susceptibility, whereas the extracellular iron concentrations were directly correlated to the susceptibility. Further proof of the intimate link between iron availability and antibiotic susceptibility were the findings that a ΔfslA mutant, which is defective for siderophore-dependent uptake of ferric iron, showed enhanced gentamicin susceptibility and that a ΔfeoB mutant, which is defective for uptake of ferrous iron, displayed complete growth arrest in the presence of gentamicin. Based on the aforementioned findings, it was hypothesized that gallium could potentiate the effect of gentamicin, since gallium is sequestered by iron uptake systems. The ferrozine assay demonstrated that the presence of gallium inhibited >70% of the iron uptake. Addition of gentamicin and/or gallium to infected bone marrow-derived macrophages showed that both 100 μM gallium and 10 μg/ml of gentamicin inhibited intracellular growth of SCHU S4 and that the combined treatment acted synergistically. Moreover, treatment of F. tularensis-infected mice with gentamicin and gallium showed an additive effect. Collectively, the data demonstrate that SCHU S4 is dependent on iron to minimize the effects of gentamicin and that gallium, by inhibiting the iron uptake, potentiates the bactericidal effect of gentamicin in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26503658

  6. Gallium Potentiates the Antibacterial Effect of Gentamicin against Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Helena; Sjöstedt, Anders

    2015-10-26

    The reasons why aminoglycosides are bactericidal have not been not fully elucidated, and evidence indicates that the cidal effects are at least partly dependent on iron. We demonstrate that availability of iron markedly affects the susceptibility of the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis strain SCHU S4 to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. Specifically, the intracellular depots of iron were inversely correlated to gentamicin susceptibility, whereas the extracellular iron concentrations were directly correlated to the susceptibility. Further proof of the intimate link between iron availability and antibiotic susceptibility were the findings that a ΔfslA mutant, which is defective for siderophore-dependent uptake of ferric iron, showed enhanced gentamicin susceptibility and that a ΔfeoB mutant, which is defective for uptake of ferrous iron, displayed complete growth arrest in the presence of gentamicin. Based on the aforementioned findings, it was hypothesized that gallium could potentiate the effect of gentamicin, since gallium is sequestered by iron uptake systems. The ferrozine assay demonstrated that the presence of gallium inhibited >70% of the iron uptake. Addition of gentamicin and/or gallium to infected bone marrow-derived macrophages showed that both 100 μM gallium and 10 μg/ml of gentamicin inhibited intracellular growth of SCHU S4 and that the combined treatment acted synergistically. Moreover, treatment of F. tularensis-infected mice with gentamicin and gallium showed an additive effect. Collectively, the data demonstrate that SCHU S4 is dependent on iron to minimize the effects of gentamicin and that gallium, by inhibiting the iron uptake, potentiates the bactericidal effect of gentamicin in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.

    1996-07-01

    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 81

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2008-10-15

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclei with mass number A = 81 (Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb) have been compiled and evaluated and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This publication for A = 81 supersedes the previous publication (Coral M. Baglin, Nuclear Data Sheets79, 447 (1996), literature cutoff 1 November 1996) and the subsequent updates by C. Baglin for {sup 81}Y (literature cutoff 8 October 1998) and {sup 81}Zr (literature cutoff 24 March 2000). All literature available prior to 15 August 2008 has been considered. Subsequent to previous A = 81 evaluations, excited states have been reported for the first time in {sup 81}Ga, and knowledge of excited state properties for {sup 81}Y and {sup 81}Zr has been significantly expanded. However, the expected {epsilon}+{beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 81}Zr has yet to be studied.

  9. Gallium derivatives of tetraborane(10): can bis(digallanyl) isomers exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, V.; Duke, B. J.; McKee, M. L.

    All derivatives of tetraborane(10) with one or more boron atoms replaced by gallium have been investigated using quantum chemical methods. Particular attention is given to the relative stability of the 'butterfly' arachno-structures and the bis(diboranyl) structures. It is concluded that these two structures have very close energies if the bis(diboranyl) structures contain a central gallium-gallium bond. These gallium substituted bis(diboranyl) structures are thus a fascinating synthetic target.

  10. Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action

    SciTech Connect

    Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R. ); Jones, K.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Gallium based low-interaction anions

    DOEpatents

    King, Wayne A.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

  12. Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, S.J.

    1983-03-13

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  13. Pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P- type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components an n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffused layer and the substrate layer, wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  14. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. Gallium scintigraphy in a case of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Malat, J.; Gladstone, A.G.; Richman, A.H.

    1986-09-01

    Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis, a relatively uncommon disease entity, frequently can be fatal. Early diagnosis is imperative in order that appropriate treatment be instituted. A 59-year-old woman who was admitted to our institution with complaints of diplopia, blurred vision and fevers that developed following a tooth extraction is presented. Initial CT and lumbar puncture on the day of admission were totally normal. A repeat CT performed 48 hours after admission, on the same day as gallium imaging, demonstrated findings consistent with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Gallium imaging demonstrated intense uptake in the left cavernous sinus and left orbit as well as moderately increased activity in the right cavernous sinus and orbit, confirming infection. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and repeat CT and gallium imaging were performed ten days later, both of which demonstrated near total resolution of the disease process. Conceivably, if gallium imaging had been initiated on the day of admission it may have been the first study to demonstrate an infectious process in the cavernous sinus. Gallium imaging should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the noninvasive workup of this entity.

  20. Preliminary Spectroscopic Measurements for a Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Glumac, Nick G.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    As a propellant option for electromagnetic thrusters, liquid ,gallium appears to have several advantages relative to other propellants. The merits of using gallium in an electromagnetic thruster (EMT) are discussed and estimates of discharge current levels and mass flow rates yielding efficient operation are given. The gallium atomic weight of 70 predicts high efficiency in the 1500-2000 s specific impulse range, making it ideal for higher-thrust, near-Earth missions. A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma and estimate electron temperature. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in a 20 J, 1.8 kA (peak) are discharge. With graphite present on the insulator to facilitate breakdown, singly and doubly ionized carbon atoms are also present, and emission is observed from molecular carbon (CZ) radicals. A determination of the electron temperature was attempted using relative emission line data, and while the spatially and temporally averaged, spectra don't fit well to single temperatures, the data and presence of doubly ionized gallium are consistent with distributions in the 1-3 eV range.

  1. Characterization of semi-insulating gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakemore, John S.

    1993-11-01

    The project was established 18 Nov. 1992 to continue for 12 months. Its purpose has been electrical and optical characterization of samples from semi-insulating (SI) melt-grown crystals of gallium arsenide (GaAs). As a further definition of the project's purpose, the primary goal has been to assist NRL in assessing the properties of SI GaAs crystals grown at NRL by the vertical zone melt (VZM) method. A second aspect of this characterization work has involved samples from SI GaAs crystals grown by various commercial vendors including samples of pre-synthesized GaAs evaluated for its suitability as starting 'feedstock' for VZM growth. Measurements made at Western Washington University (WWU) under the terms of this project accord with a Statement of Work provided at the outset. These have included the following: (1) low-field dc electrical transport data for SI GaAs samples, as functions of temperature; (2) near-infrared (NIR) transmittance/absorption spectra of polished slabs, with data concerning the well-known EL2 defect determined from NIR absorption strength and spectral form; and (3) mid-IR data on absorption caused by carbon acceptors in SI GaAs.

  2. Gallium nitride based logpile photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Li, Qiming; Lee, Yun-Ju; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Wang, George T; Fischer, Arthur J

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate a nine-layer logpile three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) composed of single crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods, ∼100 nm in size with lattice constants of 260, 280, and 300 nm with photonic band gap in the visible region. This unique GaN structure is created through a combined approach of a layer-by-layer template fabrication technique and selective metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). These GaN 3DPC exhibit a stacking direction band gap characterized by strong optical reflectance between 380 and 500 nm. By introducing a "line-defect" cavity in the fifth (middle) layer of the 3DPC, a localized transmission mode with a quality factor of 25-30 is also observed within the photonic band gap. The realization of a group III nitride 3DPC with uniform features and a band gap at wavelengths in the visible region is an important step toward realizing complete control of the electromagnetic environment for group III nitride based optoelectronic devices.

  3. Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Schenk, Hermann; Williams, Gary M; Cohen, Samuel M

    2013-05-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is an important semiconductor material. In 2-year inhalation studies, GaAs increased the incidence of lung tumors in female rats, but not in male rats or male and female mice. Alveolar proteinosis followed by chronic active inflammation was the predominant non-neoplastic pulmonary findings. IARC classified GaAs as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) based on the assumption that As and Ga ions are bioavailable. The European Chemical Agency Risk Assessment Committee concluded that GaAs should be classified into Carcinogenicity Category 1B (presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans; ECHA). We evaluate whether these classifications are justified. Physico-chemical properties of GaAs particles and the degree of mechanical treatment are critical in this evaluation. The available data on mode of action (MOA), genotoxicity and bioavailability do not support the contribution of As or Ga ions to the lung tumors in female rats. Most toxicological studies utilized small particles produced by strong mechanical treatment, destroying the crystalline structure. The resulting amorphous GaAs is not relevant to crystalline GaAs at production and processing sites. The likely tumorigenic MOA is lung toxicity related to particulate-induced inflammation and increased proliferation. It is concluded that there is no evidence for a primary carcinogenic effect of GaAs.

  4. Investigation on gallium ions impacting monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xin; Zhao, Haiyan Yan, Dong; Pei, Jiayun

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, the physical phenomena of gallium (Ga{sup +}) ion impacting monolayer graphene in the nanosculpting process are investigated experimentally, and the mechanisms are explained by using Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Firstly, the MC method is employed to clarify the phenomena happened to the monolayer graphene target under Ga{sup +} ion irradiation. It is found that substrate has strong influence on the damage mode of graphene. The mean sputtering yield of graphene under 30 keV Ga{sup +} ion irradiation is 1.77 and the least ion dose to completely remove carbon atoms in graphene is 21.6 ion/nm{sup 2}. Afterwards, the focused ion beam over 21.6 ion/nm{sup 2} is used for the irradiation on a monolayer graphene supported by SiO2 experimentally, resulting in the nanostructures, i.e., nanodot and nanowire array on the graphene. The performances of the nanostructures are characterized by atomic force microscopy and Raman spectrum. A plasma plume shielding model is put forward to explain the nanosculpting results of graphene under different irradiation parameters. In addition, two damage mechanisms are found existing in the fabrication process of the nanostructures by using empirical MD simulations. The results can help us open the possibilities for better control of nanocarbon devices.

  5. Gallium-based avalanche photodiode optical crosstalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Sopko, Bruno; Chren, Dominik

    2006-11-01

    Solid-state single photon detectors based on avalanche photodiode are getting more attention in various areas of applied physics: optical sensors, quantum key distribution, optical ranging and Lidar, time-resolved spectroscopy, X-ray laser diagnostics, and turbid media imaging. Avalanche photodiodes specifically designed for single photon counting semiconductor avalanche structures have been developed on the basis of various materials: Si, Ge, GaP, GaAsP, and InGaP/InGaAs at the Czech Technical University in Prague during the last 20 years. They have been tailored for numerous applications. Trends in demand are focused on detection array construction recently. Even extremely small arrays containing a few cells are of great importance for users. Electrical crosstalk between individual gating and quenching circuits and optical crosstalk between individual detecting cells are serious limitation for array design and performance. Optical crosstalk is caused by the parasitic light emission of the avalanche which accompanies the photon detection process. We have studied in detail the optical emission of the avalanche photon counting structure in the silicon- and gallium-based photodiodes. The timing properties and spectral distribution of the emitted light have been measured for different operating conditions to quantify optical crosstalk. We conclude that optical crosstalk is an inherent property of avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode. The only way to minimize optical crosstalk in avalanche photodiode array is to build active quenching circuit with minimum response time.

  6. Measuring Nanoscale Heat Transfer for Gold-(Gallium Oxide)-Gallium Nitride Interfaces as a Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwejkowski, Chester; Sun, Kai; Constantin, Costel; Giri, Ashutosh; Saltonstall, Christopher; Hopkins, Patrick; NanoSynCh Team; Exsite Team

    2014-03-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is considered the most important semiconductor after the discovery of Silicon. Understanding the properties of GaN is imperative in determining the utility and applicability of this class of materials to devices. We present results of time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) measurements as a function of surface root mean square (RMS) roughness. We used commercially available 5mm x 5mm, single-side polished GaN (3-7 μm)/Sapphire (430 μm) substrates that have a Wurtzite crystal structure and are slightly n-type doped. The GaN substrates were annealed in the open atmosphere for 10 minutes (900-1000 °C). This high-temperature treatment produced RMS values from 1-60 nm and growth of gallium oxide (GaO) as measured with an atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy respectively. A gold film (80nm) was deposited on the GaN surface using electron beam physical vapor deposition which was verified using ellipsometry and profilometry. The TDTR measurements suggest that the thermal conductivity decays exponentially with RMS roughness and that there is a minimum value for thermal boundary conductance at a roughness of 15nm.

  7. Native gallium adatoms discovered on atomically-smooth gallium nitride surfaces at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khan; Foley, Andrew; Smith, Arthur R

    2015-03-11

    In advanced compound semiconductor devices, such as in quantum dot and quantum well systems, detailed atomic configurations at the growth surfaces are vital in determining the structural and electronic properties. Therefore, it is important to investigate the surface reconstructions in order to make further technological advancements. Usually, conventional semiconductor surfaces (e.g., arsenides, phosphides, and antimonides) are highly reactive due to the existence of a high density of group V (anion) surface dangling bonds. However, in the case of nitrides, group III rich growth conditions in molecular beam epitaxy are usually preferred leading to group III (Ga)-rich surfaces. Here, we use low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy to reveal a uniform distribution of native gallium adatoms with a density of 0.3%-0.5% of a monolayer on the clean, as-grown surface of nitrogen polar GaN(0001̅) having the centered 6 × 12 reconstruction. Unseen at room temperature, these Ga adatoms are strongly bound to the surface but move with an extremely low surface diffusion barrier and a high density saturation coverage in thermodynamic equilibrium with Ga droplets. Furthermore, the Ga adatoms reveal an intrinsic surface chirality and an asymmetric site occupation. These observations can have important impacts in the understanding of gallium nitride surfaces.

  8. Gallium plasmonics: deep subwavelength spectroscopic imaging of single and interacting gallium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Knight, Mark W; Coenen, Toon; Yang, Yang; Brenny, Benjamin J M; Losurdo, Maria; Brown, April S; Everitt, Henry O; Polman, Albert

    2015-02-24

    Gallium has recently been demonstrated as a phase-change plasmonic material offering UV tunability, facile synthesis, and a remarkable stability due to its thin, self-terminating native oxide. However, the dense irregular nanoparticle (NP) ensembles fabricated by molecular-beam epitaxy make optical measurements of individual particles challenging. Here we employ hyperspectral cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy to characterize the response of single Ga NPs of various sizes within an irregular ensemble by spatially and spectrally resolving both in-plane and out-of-plane plasmonic modes. These modes, which include hybridized dipolar and higher-order terms due to phase retardation and substrate interactions, are correlated with finite difference time domain (FDTD) electrodynamics calculations that consider the Ga NP contact angle, substrate, and native Ga/Si surface oxidation. This study experimentally confirms previous theoretical predictions of plasmonic size-tunability in single Ga NPs and demonstrates that the plasmonic modes of interacting Ga nanoparticles can hybridize to produce strong hot spots in the ultraviolet. The controlled, robust UV plasmonic resonances of gallium nanoparticles are applicable to energy- and phase-specific applications such as optical memory, environmental remediation, and simultaneous fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies.

  9. Antibacterial effect of gallium and silver on Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with gallium-silver-phosphate-based glasses.

    PubMed

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Higham, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses were evaluated for antibacterial effect on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a leading cause of opportunistic infections. The glasses were produced by conventional melt quenching methods at 1100°C for 1 h. Glass degradation studies were conducted by weight loss method. Disc diffusion assay and cell viability assay displayed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.0005) effect on P. aeruginosa growth which increased with decreasing calcium content in the glasses. The gallium ion release rates (1.83, 0.69 and 0.48 ppm·h(-1)) and silver ion release rates (2.97, 2.84 and 2.47 ppm·h(-1)) were found to account for this variation. Constant depth film fermentor was used to evaluate the anti-biofilm properties of the glasses. Both gallium and silver in the glass contributed to biofilm growth inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa (up to 2.68 reduction in log 10 values of the viable counts compared with controls). The glasses were found to deliver gallium and silver in a controlled way and exerted cumulative antibacterial action on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. The antibacterial, especially anti-biofilm, properties of the gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses make them a potential candidate to combat infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  10. Determination of gallium originated from a gallium-based anticancer drug in human urine using ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Filatova, Darya G; Seregina, Irina F; Foteeva, Lidia S; Pukhov, Vladimir V; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Bolshov, Mikhail A

    2011-05-01

    Urine analysis gives an insight into the excretion of the administered drug which is related to its reactivity and toxicity. In this work, the capability of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure ultratrace metal levels was utilized for rapid assaying of gallium originating from the novel gallium anticancer drug, tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) (GaQ(3)), in human urine. Sample dilution with 1% (v/v) HNO(3) as the only required pre-treatment was shown to prevent contamination of the sample introduction system and to reduce polyatomic interferences from sample components. The origin of the blank signal at masses of gallium isotopes, 71 and 69, was investigated using high-resolution ICP-MS and attributed, respectively, to the formation of (36)Ar(35)Cl(+) and (40)Ar(31)P(+) ions and, tentatively, to a triplet of doubly charged ions of Ba, La, and Ce. The accuracy and precision performance was tested by evaluating a set of parameters for analytical method validation. The developed assay has been applied for the determination of gallium in urine samples spiked with GaQ(3). The achieved recoveries (95-102%) and quantification limit of 0.2 μg L(-1) emphasize the practical applicability of the presented analytical approach to monitor renal elimination of GaQ(3) at all dose levels in clinical trials that are currently in progress.

  11. Antibacterial effect of gallium and silver on Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with gallium-silver-phosphate-based glasses.

    PubMed

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Higham, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses were evaluated for antibacterial effect on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a leading cause of opportunistic infections. The glasses were produced by conventional melt quenching methods at 1100°C for 1 h. Glass degradation studies were conducted by weight loss method. Disc diffusion assay and cell viability assay displayed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.0005) effect on P. aeruginosa growth which increased with decreasing calcium content in the glasses. The gallium ion release rates (1.83, 0.69 and 0.48 ppm·h(-1)) and silver ion release rates (2.97, 2.84 and 2.47 ppm·h(-1)) were found to account for this variation. Constant depth film fermentor was used to evaluate the anti-biofilm properties of the glasses. Both gallium and silver in the glass contributed to biofilm growth inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa (up to 2.68 reduction in log 10 values of the viable counts compared with controls). The glasses were found to deliver gallium and silver in a controlled way and exerted cumulative antibacterial action on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. The antibacterial, especially anti-biofilm, properties of the gallium and silver incorporated phosphate-based glasses make them a potential candidate to combat infections caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:24840197

  12. Effect of bronchoscopy on localization of gallium-67 citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, B.A.; Cooper, K.R.; Fratkin, M.J.

    1983-03-01

    Bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and 67Ga lung scans are frequently performed for diagnosis or follow-up of patients with sarcoidosis, interstitial pneumonitis, lymphoma, infections, and bronchogenic carcinoma. Because many patients undergo all 3 of these procedures, it is important to determine what effects bronchoscopy and/or BAL may have on gallium imaging. Because 67Ga accumulates in neutrophils at the site of an inflammatory lesion as well as in those circulating in the vascular compartment, it seems reasonable to postulate that bronchoscopy could cause migration of labeled neutrophils into the lung, resulting in false positive gallium scans. To test this hypothesis, we studied 5 patients with varying chronologic relationships of 67Ga injection, gallium scanning, and bronchoscopy with BAL. In all patients, the repeat 67Ga lung scans remained normal or showed no change after bronchoscopy and BAL. We conclude that bronchoscopy with or without BAL does not cause increased 67Ga uptake by the lung.

  13. 9 CFR 381.81 - Tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 381.81 Section 381.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.81 Tuberculosis. Carcasses of poultry affected with tuberculosis shall be condemned....

  14. 9 CFR 381.81 - Tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 381.81 Section 381.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.81 Tuberculosis. Carcasses of poultry affected with tuberculosis shall be condemned....

  15. 9 CFR 381.81 - Tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 381.81 Section 381.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.81 Tuberculosis. Carcasses of poultry affected with tuberculosis shall be condemned....

  16. 9 CFR 381.81 - Tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 381.81 Section 381.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.81 Tuberculosis. Carcasses of poultry affected with tuberculosis shall be condemned....

  17. 9 CFR 381.81 - Tuberculosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 381.81 Section 381.81 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 381.81 Tuberculosis. Carcasses of poultry affected with tuberculosis shall be condemned....

  18. 40 CFR 81.305 - California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... described under 40 CFR 81.275 6/1/98 Attainment Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin Area 6/11/07 Attainment... Unclassifiable/Attainment El Dorado County (part) Lake Tahoe Area: As described under 40 CFR 81.275. Placer County (part) Lake Tahoe Area: As described under 40 CFR 81.275. Mountain Counties Air Basin...

  19. 40 CFR 81.305 - California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... including said Lake, as described under 40 CFR 81.275 6/1/98 Attainment Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin... Unclassifiable/Attainment El Dorado County (part) Lake Tahoe Area: As described under 40 CFR 81.275. Placer County (part) Lake Tahoe Area: As described under 40 CFR 81.275. Mountain Counties Air Basin...

  20. 40 CFR 81.305 - California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... described under 40 CFR 81.275 6/1/98 Attainment Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin Area 6/11/07 Attainment... Unclassifiable/Attainment El Dorado County (part) Lake Tahoe Area: As described under 40 CFR 81.275. Placer County (part) Lake Tahoe Area: As described under 40 CFR 81.275. Mountain Counties Air Basin...

  1. 40 CFR 81.305 - California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... described under 40 CFR 81.275 6/1/98 Attainment Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin Area 6/11/07 Attainment... Unclassifiable/Attainment El Dorado County (part) Lake Tahoe Area: As described under 40 CFR 81.275. Placer County (part) Lake Tahoe Area: As described under 40 CFR 81.275. Mountain Counties Air Basin...

  2. 40 CFR 81.305 - California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... including said Lake, as described under 40 CFR 81.275 6/1/98 Attainment Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin... Unclassifiable/Attainment El Dorado County (part) Lake Tahoe Area: As described under 40 CFR 81.275. Placer County (part) Lake Tahoe Area: As described under 40 CFR 81.275. Mountain Counties Air Basin...

  3. 45 CFR 81.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 81.78 Section 81.78 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  4. 45 CFR 81.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Evidence. 81.78 Section 81.78 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  5. 40 CFR 164.81 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 164.81 Section 164.81... (Other Than Expedited Hearings) The Hearings § 164.81 Evidence. (a) General. The Administrative Law Judge shall admit all relevant, competent and material evidence, except evidence that is unduly...

  6. 45 CFR 81.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 81.78 Section 81.78 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  7. 40 CFR 164.81 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 164.81 Section 164.81... (Other Than Expedited Hearings) The Hearings § 164.81 Evidence. (a) General. The Administrative Law Judge shall admit all relevant, competent and material evidence, except evidence that is unduly...

  8. 40 CFR 164.81 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 164.81 Section 164.81... (Other Than Expedited Hearings) The Hearings § 164.81 Evidence. (a) General. The Administrative Law Judge shall admit all relevant, competent and material evidence, except evidence that is unduly...

  9. 40 CFR 164.81 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 164.81 Section 164.81... (Other Than Expedited Hearings) The Hearings § 164.81 Evidence. (a) General. The Administrative Law Judge shall admit all relevant, competent and material evidence, except evidence that is unduly...

  10. 45 CFR 81.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 81.78 Section 81.78 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  11. 45 CFR 81.78 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Evidence. 81.78 Section 81.78 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.78 Evidence. Irrelevant, immaterial, unreliable, and unduly repetitious evidence will be excluded....

  12. 14 CFR 141.81 - Ground training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground training. 141.81 Section 141.81... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.81 Ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each instructor who is assigned to a ground training course...

  13. 10 CFR 110.81 - Written comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Written comments. 110.81 Section 110.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.81 Written comments. (a) The Commission encourages...

  14. 10 CFR 110.81 - Written comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Written comments. 110.81 Section 110.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.81 Written comments. (a) The Commission encourages...

  15. 10 CFR 110.81 - Written comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Written comments. 110.81 Section 110.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.81 Written comments. (a) The Commission encourages...

  16. 10 CFR 110.81 - Written comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Written comments. 110.81 Section 110.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.81 Written comments. (a) The Commission encourages...

  17. 40 CFR 81.419 - New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Hampshire. 81.419 Section 81.419 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.419 New Hampshire. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  18. 40 CFR 81.331 - New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Jersey. 81.331 Section 81.331... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.331 New Jersey. New Jersey—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  19. 40 CFR 81.420 - New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Jersey. 81.420 Section 81.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.420 New Jersey. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  20. 40 CFR 81.419 - New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Hampshire. 81.419 Section 81.419 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.419 New Hampshire. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  1. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  2. 40 CFR 81.420 - New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Jersey. 81.420 Section 81.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.420 New Jersey. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  3. 40 CFR 81.421 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Mexico. 81.421 Section 81.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.421 New Mexico. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  4. 40 CFR 81.331 - New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Jersey. 81.331 Section 81.331... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.331 New Jersey. New Jersey—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  5. 25 CFR 81.19 - Absentee voting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absentee voting. 81.19 Section 81.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT TRIBAL REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.19 Absentee voting. (a) Nonresident members who have registered may vote by absentee...

  6. 25 CFR 81.9 - Voting districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Voting districts. 81.9 Section 81.9 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.9 Voting districts. If: (a) Voting districts have not already been designated for tribal... board's judgment voting districts are needed, the board shall establish them and designate a...

  7. 25 CFR 81.9 - Voting districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voting districts. 81.9 Section 81.9 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.9 Voting districts. If: (a) Voting districts have not already been designated for tribal... board's judgment voting districts are needed, the board shall establish them and designate a...

  8. 25 CFR 81.19 - Absentee voting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absentee voting. 81.19 Section 81.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT TRIBAL REORGANIZATION UNDER A FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.19 Absentee voting. (a) Nonresident members who have registered may vote by absentee...

  9. 40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  10. 40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  11. 40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  12. 40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  13. 40 CFR 81.424 - Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oklahoma. 81.424 Section 81.424 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.424 Oklahoma. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  14. 40 CFR 98.81 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.81 Section 98.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.81 Reporting threshold. You must report...

  15. 28 CFR 8.1 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition. 8.1 Section 8.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.1 Definition. For the purpose of this part, the term statutes shall include the following statutes unless otherwise noted...

  16. 28 CFR 8.1 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 8.1 Section 8.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.1 Definition. For the purpose of this part, the term statutes shall include the following statutes unless otherwise noted...

  17. 28 CFR 8.1 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition. 8.1 Section 8.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.1 Definition. For the purpose of this part, the term statutes shall include the following statutes unless otherwise noted...

  18. 45 CFR 81.56 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motions. 81.56 Section 81.56 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 81.56 Motions. Motions and petitions shall state the... as a formal motion. Motions, answers, and replies shall be addressed to the presiding officer, if...

  19. 45 CFR 81.56 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motions. 81.56 Section 81.56 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 81.56 Motions. Motions and petitions shall state the... as a formal motion. Motions, answers, and replies shall be addressed to the presiding officer, if...

  20. 45 CFR 81.56 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motions. 81.56 Section 81.56 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 81.56 Motions. Motions and petitions shall state the... as a formal motion. Motions, answers, and replies shall be addressed to the presiding officer, if...

  1. 45 CFR 81.56 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Motions. 81.56 Section 81.56 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 81.56 Motions. Motions and petitions shall state the... as a formal motion. Motions, answers, and replies shall be addressed to the presiding officer, if...

  2. 45 CFR 81.56 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motions. 81.56 Section 81.56 Public Welfare... 80 OF THIS TITLE Proceedings Prior to Hearing § 81.56 Motions. Motions and petitions shall state the... as a formal motion. Motions, answers, and replies shall be addressed to the presiding officer, if...

  3. 48 CFR 852.236-81 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 852.236-81 Section 852.236-81 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.236-81...

  4. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81 Alcoholic beverages. Entering or remaining in any national wildlife refuge when under the influence of alcohol, to...

  5. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81 Alcoholic beverages. Entering or remaining in any national wildlife refuge when under the influence of alcohol, to...

  6. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81 Alcoholic beverages. Entering or remaining in any national wildlife refuge when under the influence of alcohol, to...

  7. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81 Alcoholic beverages. Entering or remaining in any national wildlife refuge when under the influence of alcohol, to...

  8. 50 CFR 27.81 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 27.81 Section 27.81... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: Personal Conduct § 27.81 Alcoholic beverages. Entering or remaining in any national wildlife refuge when under the influence of alcohol, to...

  9. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the Secretary... Secretary shall require the GSE to submit a housing plan for approval by the Secretary. (b) Nature of...

  10. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the Secretary... Secretary shall require the GSE to submit a housing plan for approval by the Secretary. (b) Nature of...

  11. 24 CFR 81.22 - Housing plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing plans. 81.22 Section 81.22... LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.22 Housing plans. (a) If the Secretary... Secretary shall require the GSE to submit a housing plan for approval by the Secretary. (b) Nature of...

  12. 47 CFR 8.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 8.1 Section 8.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to preserve the Internet as an open platform enabling consumer choice, freedom of...

  13. 47 CFR 8.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8.1 Section 8.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to preserve the Internet as an open platform enabling consumer choice, freedom of...

  14. 47 CFR 8.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 8.1 Section 8.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to preserve the Internet as an open platform enabling consumer choice, freedom of...

  15. 47 CFR 8.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 8.1 Section 8.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to preserve the Internet as an open platform enabling consumer choice, freedom of...

  16. 40 CFR 81.403 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arizona. 81.403 Section 81.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.403 Arizona. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  17. 21 CFR 600.81 - Distribution reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distribution reports. 600.81 Section 600.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.81 Distribution reports. The...

  18. 21 CFR 600.81 - Distribution reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distribution reports. 600.81 Section 600.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.81 Distribution reports. The...

  19. 21 CFR 600.81 - Distribution reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distribution reports. 600.81 Section 600.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.81 Distribution reports. The...

  20. 40 CFR 81.415 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minnesota. 81.415 Section 81.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.415 Minnesota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  1. 40 CFR 81.415 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minnesota. 81.415 Section 81.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.415 Minnesota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  2. 40 CFR 81.415 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minnesota. 81.415 Section 81.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.415 Minnesota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  3. 40 CFR 81.415 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minnesota. 81.415 Section 81.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.415 Minnesota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  4. 40 CFR 81.415 - Minnesota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minnesota. 81.415 Section 81.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.415 Minnesota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  5. 40 CFR 81.353 - Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guam. 81.353 Section 81.353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.353 Guam. Guam—TSP Designated area Does not meet...

  6. 40 CFR 413.81 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 413.81 Section 413.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Printed Circuit Board Subcategory § 413.81...

  7. 40 CFR 413.81 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specialized definitions. 413.81 Section 413.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Printed Circuit Board Subcategory § 413.81...

  8. 36 CFR 8.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 8.1 Section 8.1... APPLICABLE TO EMPLOYEES OF NATIONAL PARK SERVICE CONCESSIONERS § 8.1 Definitions. As used in this part: (a... Secretary or the Director. (c) Employee includes any individual employed by a concessioner in...

  9. 7 CFR 993.81 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessments. 993.81 Section 993.81 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 993.81 Assessments. (a) Each handler shall pay to... assessment per ton fixed by the Secretary. At any time during or after a crop year the Secretary may...

  10. 7 CFR 993.81 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessments. 993.81 Section 993.81 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 993.81 Assessments. (a) Each handler shall pay to... assessment per ton fixed by the Secretary. At any time during or after a crop year the Secretary may...

  11. 7 CFR 993.81 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessments. 993.81 Section 993.81 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 993.81 Assessments. (a) Each handler shall pay to... assessment per ton fixed by the Secretary. At any time during or after a crop year the Secretary may...

  12. 7 CFR 993.81 - Assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessments. 993.81 Section 993.81 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 993.81 Assessments. (a) Each handler shall pay to... assessment per ton fixed by the Secretary. At any time during or after a crop year the Secretary may...

  13. 10 CFR 81.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communications. 81.3 Section 81.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES General Provisions § 81.3 Communications. All communications concerning the regulations in this part,...

  14. 10 CFR 81.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 81.3 Section 81.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES General Provisions § 81.3 Communications. All communications concerning the regulations in this part,...

  15. 10 CFR 81.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communications. 81.3 Section 81.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES General Provisions § 81.3 Communications. All communications concerning the regulations in this part,...

  16. 10 CFR 81.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communications. 81.3 Section 81.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES General Provisions § 81.3 Communications. All communications concerning the regulations in this part,...

  17. 10 CFR 81.3 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communications. 81.3 Section 81.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES General Provisions § 81.3 Communications. All communications concerning the regulations in this part,...

  18. 10 CFR 110.81 - Written comments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Written comments. 110.81 Section 110.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.81 Written comments. (a) The Commission encourages...

  19. 33 CFR 159.81 - Baffles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Baffles. 159.81 Section 159.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.81 Baffles. Baffles in sewage retention tanks,...

  20. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the inauguration of in-plant inspection services, and at...

  1. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or...

  2. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the inauguration of in-plant inspection services, and at...

  3. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  4. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  5. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  6. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  7. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  8. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  9. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  10. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  11. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  12. 40 CFR 81.432 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.432 Section 81.432... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.432 Virgin Islands. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Virgin Islands NP 12,295 84-925 USDI-NPS...

  13. 45 CFR 1356.81 - Reporting population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... care as defined in 45 CFR 1355.20 and reaches his or her 17th birthday during Federal fiscal year (FFY... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting population. 1356.81 Section 1356.81... § 1356.81 Reporting population. The reporting population is comprised of all youth in the...

  14. 45 CFR 1356.81 - Reporting population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... care as defined in 45 CFR 1355.20 and reaches his or her 17th birthday during Federal fiscal year (FFY... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting population. 1356.81 Section 1356.81... § 1356.81 Reporting population. The reporting population is comprised of all youth in the...

  15. 45 CFR 1356.81 - Reporting population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... care as defined in 45 CFR 1355.20 and reaches his or her 17th birthday during Federal fiscal year (FFY... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting population. 1356.81 Section 1356.81... § 1356.81 Reporting population. The reporting population is comprised of all youth in the...

  16. 45 CFR 1356.81 - Reporting population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... care as defined in 45 CFR 1355.20 and reaches his or her 17th birthday during Federal fiscal year (FFY... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting population. 1356.81 Section 1356.81... § 1356.81 Reporting population. The reporting population is comprised of all youth in the...

  17. 45 CFR 1356.81 - Reporting population.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... care as defined in 45 CFR 1355.20 and reaches his or her 17th birthday during Federal fiscal year (FFY... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting population. 1356.81 Section 1356.81... § 1356.81 Reporting population. The reporting population is comprised of all youth in the...

  18. 7 CFR 81.15 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeals. 81.15 Section 81.15 Agriculture Regulations.../DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.15 Appeals. Any producer who is dissatisfied with a determination made pursuant to this part may make a request for reconsideration or appeal of such determination. The...

  19. 49 CFR 33.81 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appeals. 33.81 Section 33.81 Transportation Office..., Exceptions, and Appeals § 33.81 Appeals. (a) Any person who has had a request for adjustment or exception denied by the Defense Production Act Activities Coordinator under § 33.80, may appeal to the...

  20. 10 CFR 217.81 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeals. 217.81 Section 217.81 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Adjustments, Exceptions, and Appeals § 217.81 Appeals. (a..., may appeal to the Office of Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration who shall review...

  1. 25 CFR 81.14 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election notices. 81.14 Section 81.14 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.14 Election notices. Not less than 30 nor more than 60 days notice shall be given of the date of the election. Such notice shall include the location of where the results will be posted....

  2. 25 CFR 81.14 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election notices. 81.14 Section 81.14 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.14 Election notices. Not less than 30 nor more than 60 days notice shall be given of the date of the election. Such notice shall include the location of where the results will be posted....

  3. 25 CFR 81.8 - Election board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election board. 81.8 Section 81.8 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.8 Election board. (a) There shall be an election board consisting of the officer in charge... the board. (b) It shall be the duty of the board to conduct elections in compliance with...

  4. 25 CFR 81.8 - Election board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election board. 81.8 Section 81.8 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.8 Election board. (a) There shall be an election board consisting of the officer in charge... the board. (b) It shall be the duty of the board to conduct elections in compliance with...

  5. 25 CFR 81.14 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election notices. 81.14 Section 81.14 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.14 Election notices. Not less than 30 nor more than 60 days notice shall be given of the date of the election. Such notice shall include the location of where the results will be posted....

  6. 25 CFR 81.8 - Election board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election board. 81.8 Section 81.8 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.8 Election board. (a) There shall be an election board consisting of the officer in charge... the board. (b) It shall be the duty of the board to conduct elections in compliance with...

  7. 25 CFR 81.14 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Election notices. 81.14 Section 81.14 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.14 Election notices. Not less than 30 nor more than 60 days notice shall be given of the date of the election. Such notice shall include the location of where the results will be posted....

  8. 25 CFR 81.14 - Election notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Election notices. 81.14 Section 81.14 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.14 Election notices. Not less than 30 nor more than 60 days notice shall be given of the date of the election. Such notice shall include the location of where the results will be posted....

  9. 25 CFR 81.8 - Election board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Election board. 81.8 Section 81.8 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.8 Election board. (a) There shall be an election board consisting of the officer in charge... the board. (b) It shall be the duty of the board to conduct elections in compliance with...

  10. 14 CFR 158.81 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General. 158.81 Section 158.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Termination § 158.81 General. This subpart contains the procedures for...

  11. 14 CFR 158.81 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General. 158.81 Section 158.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Termination § 158.81 General. This subpart contains the procedures for...

  12. 14 CFR 158.81 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General. 158.81 Section 158.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Termination § 158.81 General. This subpart contains the procedures for...

  13. 4 CFR 81.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Administration. 81.2 Section 81.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS § 81.2 Administration. GAO's Chief Quality Officer administers this part and may promulgate such supplemental rules...

  14. 4 CFR 81.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 81.2 Section 81.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS § 81.2 Administration. The Chief Quality Officer administers this part and may promulgate such supplemental rules...

  15. 4 CFR 81.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administration. 81.2 Section 81.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS § 81.2 Administration. GAO's Chief Quality Officer administers this part and may promulgate such supplemental rules...

  16. 4 CFR 81.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administration. 81.2 Section 81.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS § 81.2 Administration. GAO's Chief Quality Officer administers this part and may promulgate such supplemental rules...

  17. 4 CFR 81.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 81.2 Section 81.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS § 81.2 Administration. The Chief Quality Officer administers this part and may promulgate such supplemental rules...

  18. 40 CFR 98.81 - Reporting threshold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting threshold. 98.81 Section 98.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.81 Reporting threshold. You must report...

  19. 44 CFR 8.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 8.1 Section 8.1 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 8.1 Purpose. (a) Section 5.3(b) of Executive Order (EO)...

  20. 44 CFR 8.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Purpose. 8.1 Section 8.1 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 8.1 Purpose. (a) Section 5.3(b) of Executive Order (EO)...

  1. 44 CFR 8.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 8.1 Section 8.1 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 8.1 Purpose. (a) Section 5.3(b) of Executive Order (EO)...

  2. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  3. 40 CFR 81.433 - Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virginia. 81.433 Section 81.433 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.433 Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  4. 40 CFR 81.433 - Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virginia. 81.433 Section 81.433 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.433 Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  5. 40 CFR 81.433 - Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virginia. 81.433 Section 81.433 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.433 Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  6. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  7. 40 CFR 81.433 - Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virginia. 81.433 Section 81.433 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.433 Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  8. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  9. 40 CFR 81.433 - Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virginia. 81.433 Section 81.433 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.433 Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  10. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing...

  11. 40 CFR 81.406 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Colorado. 81.406 Section 81.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.406...

  12. 40 CFR 440.81 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 440.81 Section 440.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a Byproduct) § 440.81...

  13. 21 CFR 312.81 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Drugs Intended to Treat Life-threatening and Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.81 Scope. This section applies to new drug and biological products that are being studied for... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 312.81 Section 312.81 Food and Drugs...

  14. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or...

  15. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Requirements for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or...

  16. 7 CFR 1212.81 - Referenda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referenda. 1212.81 Section 1212.81 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Miscellaneous § 1212.81 Referenda. (a) After the initial referendum, the Secretary shall conduct subsequent referenda; (1) Every seven years, to determine...

  17. 7 CFR 1212.81 - Referenda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referenda. 1212.81 Section 1212.81 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Miscellaneous § 1212.81 Referenda. (a) After the initial referendum, the Secretary shall conduct subsequent referenda; (1) Every seven years, to determine...

  18. 40 CFR 81.421 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico. 81.421 Section 81.421 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.421 New Mexico. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  19. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.81 New Mexico. The following New Mexico medical device requirement is... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: New Mexico Statutes Annotated, section 67-36-16(F)....

  20. 40 CFR 81.429 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Texas. 81.429 Section 81.429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.429 Texas. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  1. 40 CFR 81.429 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Texas. 81.429 Section 81.429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.429 Texas. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  2. 40 CFR 81.429 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Texas. 81.429 Section 81.429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.429 Texas. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  3. 40 CFR 81.429 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Texas. 81.429 Section 81.429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.429 Texas. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  4. 40 CFR 81.11 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 81.11 Section 81.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.11 Scope....

  5. 40 CFR 81.11 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope. 81.11 Section 81.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.11 Scope....

  6. 31 CFR 8.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 8.1 Section 8.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS General Requirements § 8.1 Scope. This part contains rules governing the recognition...

  7. 10 CFR 40.81 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Violations. 40.81 Section 40.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL Enforcement § 40.81 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of the provisions of— (1) The...

  8. 10 CFR 40.81 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations. 40.81 Section 40.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL Enforcement § 40.81 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of the provisions of— (1) The...

  9. 10 CFR 40.81 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Violations. 40.81 Section 40.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL Enforcement § 40.81 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of the provisions of— (1) The...

  10. 10 CFR 40.81 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Violations. 40.81 Section 40.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL Enforcement § 40.81 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of the provisions of— (1) The...

  11. 10 CFR 40.81 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Violations. 40.81 Section 40.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL Enforcement § 40.81 Violations. (a) The Commission may obtain an injunction or other court order to prevent a violation of the provisions of— (1) The...

  12. 40 CFR 440.81 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 440.81 Section 440.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a Byproduct) § 440.81...

  13. 1 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.1 Policy. (a) Pursuant to chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, the Director of...

  14. 1 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.1 Policy. (a) Pursuant to chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, the Director of...

  15. 1 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.1 Policy. (a) Pursuant to chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, the Director of...

  16. 21 CFR 600.81 - Distribution reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution reports. 600.81 Section 600.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.81 Distribution reports. The...

  17. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181...

  18. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181...

  19. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181...

  20. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.320 Maine. Maine... Aroostook Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aroostook County (part) see 40 CFR 81.179 AQCR 109 Down East Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Penobscot County (part), as described under 40 CFR 81.181...

  1. 10 CFR 50.81 - Creditor regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditor regulations. 50.81 Section 50.81 Energy NUCLEAR...-Creditors' Rights-Surrender of Licenses § 50.81 Creditor regulations. (a) Pursuant to section 184 of the Act... Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and regulations issued by the Commission pursuant to said Act;...

  2. 10 CFR 50.81 - Creditor regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Creditor regulations. 50.81 Section 50.81 Energy NUCLEAR...-Creditors' Rights-Surrender of Licenses § 50.81 Creditor regulations. (a) Pursuant to section 184 of the Act... Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and regulations issued by the Commission pursuant to said Act;...

  3. 10 CFR 50.81 - Creditor regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Creditor regulations. 50.81 Section 50.81 Energy NUCLEAR...-Creditors' Rights-Surrender of Licenses § 50.81 Creditor regulations. (a) Pursuant to section 184 of the Act... Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and regulations issued by the Commission pursuant to said Act;...

  4. 10 CFR 50.81 - Creditor regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Creditor regulations. 50.81 Section 50.81 Energy NUCLEAR...-Creditors' Rights-Surrender of Licenses § 50.81 Creditor regulations. (a) Pursuant to section 184 of the Act... Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and regulations issued by the Commission pursuant to said Act;...

  5. 7 CFR 989.81 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting. 989.81 Section 989.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 989.81 Accounting. (a) If, at the end of...

  6. 7 CFR 989.81 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting. 989.81 Section 989.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 989.81 Accounting. (a) If, at the end of...

  7. 7 CFR 989.81 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting. 989.81 Section 989.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 989.81 Accounting. (a) If, at the end of...

  8. 10 CFR 4.81 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Judicial review. 4.81 Section 4.81 Energy NUCLEAR... and Title IV of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 Judicial Review § 4.81 Judicial review. Action taken pursuant to section 602 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is subject to judicial review as...

  9. 45 CFR 81.114 - Expeditious treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expeditious treatment. 81.114 Section 81.114... HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Judicial Standards of Practice § 81.114 Expeditious treatment. Requests for expeditious treatment of matters pending before the responsible Department official or...

  10. 45 CFR 81.114 - Expeditious treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expeditious treatment. 81.114 Section 81.114... HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Judicial Standards of Practice § 81.114 Expeditious treatment. Requests for expeditious treatment of matters pending before the responsible Department official or...

  11. 45 CFR 81.114 - Expeditious treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Expeditious treatment. 81.114 Section 81.114... HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Judicial Standards of Practice § 81.114 Expeditious treatment. Requests for expeditious treatment of matters pending before the responsible Department official or...

  12. 45 CFR 81.114 - Expeditious treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Expeditious treatment. 81.114 Section 81.114... HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Judicial Standards of Practice § 81.114 Expeditious treatment. Requests for expeditious treatment of matters pending before the responsible Department official or...

  13. 45 CFR 81.114 - Expeditious treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Expeditious treatment. 81.114 Section 81.114... HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Judicial Standards of Practice § 81.114 Expeditious treatment. Requests for expeditious treatment of matters pending before the responsible Department official or...

  14. 40 CFR 81.409 - Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaii. 81.409 Section 81.409 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.409...

  15. 40 CFR 81.409 - Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii. 81.409 Section 81.409 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.409...

  16. 37 CFR 2.81 - Post publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Post publication. 2.81 Section 2.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.81 Post publication....

  17. 37 CFR 2.81 - Post publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Post publication. 2.81 Section 2.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.81 Post publication....

  18. 37 CFR 2.81 - Post publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post publication. 2.81 Section 2.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.81 Post publication....

  19. 37 CFR 2.81 - Post publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post publication. 2.81 Section 2.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.81 Post publication....

  20. 37 CFR 2.81 - Post publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post publication. 2.81 Section 2.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.81 Post publication....

  1. 40 CFR 81.308 - Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delaware. 81.308 Section 81.308 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.308 Delaware. Delaware—TSP Designated area Does not...

  2. 40 CFR 81.429 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Texas. 81.429 Section 81.429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.429 Texas. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  3. 50 CFR 81.15 - Audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audits. 81.15 Section 81.15 Wildlife and..., WILDLIFE, AND PLANTS-COOPERATION WITH THE STATES § 81.15 Audits. The State is required to conduct an audit.... Failure to conduct audits as required may result in withholding of grant payments or such other...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.81 - Exception authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Exception authority. 1955.81 Section 1955.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.81 Exception...

  5. 45 CFR 81.11 - Appearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appearance. 81.11 Section 81.11 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Appearance and Practice § 81.11 Appearance. A party may appear in person or...

  6. 7 CFR 989.81 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting. 989.81 Section 989.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 989.81 Accounting. (a) If, at the end of...

  7. 7 CFR 989.81 - Accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting. 989.81 Section 989.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 989.81 Accounting. (a) If, at the end of...

  8. 14 CFR 151.81 - Taxiway paving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Taxiway paving. 151.81 Section 151.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.81 Taxiway paving. (a) The...

  9. 14 CFR 151.81 - Taxiway paving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxiway paving. 151.81 Section 151.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.81 Taxiway paving. (a) The...

  10. 14 CFR 151.81 - Taxiway paving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxiway paving. 151.81 Section 151.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.81 Taxiway paving. (a) The...

  11. 14 CFR 151.81 - Taxiway paving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxiway paving. 151.81 Section 151.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.81 Taxiway paving. (a) The...

  12. 14 CFR 151.81 - Taxiway paving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxiway paving. 151.81 Section 151.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.81 Taxiway paving. (a) The...

  13. 18 CFR 401.81 - Hearings generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hearings generally. 401.81 Section 401.81 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Administrative and Other Hearings § 401.81...

  14. 14 CFR 34.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel specifications. 34.81 Section 34.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  15. 7 CFR 1779.81 - Liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Liquidation. 1779.81 Section 1779.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.81 Liquidation. Liquidation will occur when the lender concludes...

  16. 38 CFR 61.81 - Outreach activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Outreach activities. 61.81 Section 61.81 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.81 Outreach activities. Recipients of capital grants and per diem under this part relating...

  17. 38 CFR 61.81 - Outreach activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Outreach activities. 61.81 Section 61.81 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM Awards, Monitoring, and Enforcement of Agreements § 61.81 Outreach activities. Recipients of...

  18. 40 CFR 87.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 87.81 Section 87.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as provided in §...

  19. 7 CFR 3015.81 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General. 3015.81 Section 3015.81 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Financial Reporting Requirements § 3015.81 General. (a... that a recipient's accounting system does not meet the standards for financial management...

  20. 45 CFR 81.131 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 81.131 Section 81.131 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Definitions § 81.131 Definitions. The definitions contained in § 80.13 of...

  1. 45 CFR 81.131 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 81.131 Section 81.131 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Definitions § 81.131 Definitions. The definitions contained in § 80.13 of...

  2. 45 CFR 81.131 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 81.131 Section 81.131 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Definitions § 81.131 Definitions. The definitions contained in § 80.13 of...

  3. 45 CFR 81.131 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 81.131 Section 81.131 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Definitions § 81.131 Definitions. The definitions contained in § 80.13 of...

  4. 40 CFR 81.403 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arizona. 81.403 Section 81.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.403...

  5. 40 CFR 81.403 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arizona. 81.403 Section 81.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.403...

  6. 40 CFR 81.403 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arizona. 81.403 Section 81.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.403...

  7. 1 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.1 Policy. (a) Pursuant to chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, the Director of...

  8. 1 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.1 Policy. (a) Pursuant to chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, the Director of...

  9. 10 CFR 81.51 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals. 81.51 Section 81.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES Nrc-Owned Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.51 Appeals. An applicant for a license, a licensee, or a third party who...

  10. 10 CFR 81.10 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority. 81.10 Section 81.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES Nrc-Owned Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.10 Authority. The regulations of this subpart governing the licensing...

  11. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES Nrc-Owned Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses,...

  12. 12 CFR 1209.81 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability. 1209.81 Section 1209.81 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.81 Applicability. The inflation adjustments set out...

  13. 12 CFR 1209.81 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability. 1209.81 Section 1209.81 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.81 Applicability. The inflation adjustments set out...

  14. 12 CFR 1209.81 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability. 1209.81 Section 1209.81 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.81 Applicability. The inflation adjustments set out...

  15. Extremely-efficient, miniaturized, long-lived alpha-voltaic power source using liquid gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A power source converts .alpha.-particle energy to electricity for use in electrical systems. Liquid gallium or other liquid medium is subjected to .alpha.-particle emissions. Electrons are freed by collision from neutral gallium atoms to provide gallium ions. The electrons migrate to a cathode while the gallium ions migrate to an anode. A current and/or voltage difference then arises between the cathode and anode because of the work function difference of the cathode and anode. Gallium atoms are regenerated by the receiving of electrons from the anode enabling the generation of additional electrons from additional .alpha.-particle collisions.

  16. Microfluidic platforms for gallium-based liquid metal alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeyoung

    As an alternative to toxic mercury, non-toxic gallium-based liquid metal alloy has been gaining popularity due to its higher thermal and electrical conductivities, and low toxicity along with liquid property. However, it is difficult to handle as the alloy becomes readily oxidized in atmospheric air environment. This instant oxidation causes the gallium-based liquid metal alloy to wet almost any solid surface. Therefore, it has been primarily limited to applications which rely only on its deformability, not on its mobility. In this research, various approaches to mobilize gallium-based liquid metal alloy were investigated. Multi-scale surface patterned with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro pillar array showed super-lyophobic property against gallium-based liquid metal alloy by minimizing the contact area between the solid surface and the liquid metal, and it was expanded to a three-dimensional tunnel shaped microfluidic channel. Vertically-aligned carbon nanotube forest leads to another promising super-lyophobic surface due to its hierarchical micro/nano scale combined structures and chemical inertness. When the carbon nanotubes were transferred onto flexible PDMS by imprinting, the super-lyophobic property was still maintained even under the mechanical deformation such as stretching and bending. Alternatively, the gallium-based liquid metal can be manipulated by modifying the surface of liquid metal itself. With chemical reaction with HCl 'vapor', the oxidized surface (mainly Ga2O3/Ga2O) of gallium-based liquid metal was converted to GaCl3/InCl 3 resulting in the recovery of non-wetting characteristics. Paper which is intrinsically porous is attractive as a super-lyophobic surface and it was found that hydrochloric acid (HCl) impregnation enhanced the anti-wetting property by the chemical reaction. As another alternative method, by coating the viscoelastic oxidized surface of liquid metal with ferromagnetic materials (CoNiMnP or Fe), it showed non

  17. On-chip superconductivity via gallium overdoping of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Skrotzki, R.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Heera, V.; Voelskow, M.; Muecklich, A.; Schmidt, B.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Wosnitza, J.; Fiedler, J.; Gobsch, G.

    2010-11-08

    We report on superconducting properties of gallium-enriched silicon layers in commercial (100) oriented silicon wafers. Ion implantation and subsequent rapid thermal annealing have been applied for realizing gallium precipitation beneath a silicon-dioxide cover layer. Depending on the preparation parameters, we observe a sharp drop to zero resistance at 7 K. The critical-field anisotropy proofs the thin-film character of superconductivity. In addition, out-of-plane critical fields of above 9 T and critical current densities exceeding 2 kA/cm{sup 2} promote these structures to be possible playgrounds for future microelectronic technology.

  18. Construction of an electrode modified with gallium(III) for voltammetric detection of ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Okusawa, Makoto; Takano, Yusaku; Kadoya, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Electrodes modified with gallium(III) complexes were constructed to detect ovalbumin (OVA). For immobilization of a gallium(III)-nitrilotriacetate (NTA) complex, the electrode was first covered with collagen film. After the amino groups of the film had reacted with isothiocyanobenzyl-NTA, the gallium(III) was then able to combine with the NTA moieties. Another design featured an electrode cast with a gallium(III)-acetylacetonate (AA) complex. The amount of gallium(III) in the NTA complex was equivalent to one-quarter of the gallium(III) that could be utilized from an AA complex. However, the calibration curves of OVA using gallium(III)-NTA and gallium(III)-AA complexes were linear in the ranges of 7.0 × 10(-11) - 3.0 × 10(-9) M and 5.0 × 10(-10) - 8.0 × 10(-9) M, respectively. The gallium(III) on the electrode with NTA complex had high flexibility due to the existence of a spacer between the NTA and the collagen film, and, therefore, the reactivity of the gallium(III) to OVA was superior to that of the gallium(III)-AA complex with no spacer.

  19. Gallium-based anti-infectives: targeting microbial iron-uptake mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kelson, Andrew B; Carnevali, Maia; Truong-Le, Vu

    2013-10-01

    Microbes have evolved elaborate iron-acquisition systems to sequester iron from the host environment using siderophores and heme uptake systems. Gallium(III) is structurally similar to iron(III), except that it cannot be reduced under physiological conditions, therefore gallium has the potential to serve as an iron analog, and thus an anti-microbial. Because Ga(III) can bind to virtually any complex that binds Fe(III), simple gallium salts as well as more complex siderophores and hemes are potential carriers to deliver Ga(III) to the microbes. These gallium complexes represent a new class of anti-infectives that is different in mechanism of action from conventional antibiotics. Simple gallium salts such as gallium nitrate, maltolate, and simple gallium siderophore complexes such as gallium citrate have shown good antibacterial activities. The most studied complex has been gallium citrate, which exhibits broad activity against many Gram negative bacteria at ∼1-5μg/ml MICs, strong biofilm activity, low drug resistance, and efficacy in vivo. Using the structural features of specific siderophore and heme made by pathogenic bacteria and fungi, researchers have begun to evaluate new gallium complexes to target key pathogens. This review will summarize potential iron-acquisition system targets and recent research on gallium-based anti-infectives.

  20. Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Eric D.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.

  1. Method for improving the growth of cadmium telluride on a gallium arsenide substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, J.L.

    1990-12-31

    A method for preparing a gallium arsenide substrate, prior to growing a layer of cadmium telluride on a support surface thereof. The preparation includes the steps of cleaning the gallium arsenide substrate and thereafter forming prepatterned shapes on the support surface of the gallium arsenide substrate. The layer of cadmium telluride then grown on the prepared substrate results in dislocation densities of approximately 1{times}10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2} or less. The prepatterned shapes on the support surface of the gallium arsenide substrate are formed by reactive ion etching an original outer surface of the gallium arsenide substrate and into the body of the gallium arsenide substrate to a depth of at least two microns. The prepatterned shapes have the appearance of cylindrical mesas each having a diameter of at lease twelve microns. After the mesas are formed on the support surface of the gallium arsenide substrate, the substrate is again cleaned.

  2. Gallium-67 uptake by the thyroid associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoberg, R.J.; Blue, P.W.; Kidd, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Although thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 has been described in several thyroid disorders, gallium-67 scanning is not commonly used in the evaluation of thyroid disease. Thyroidal gallium-67 uptake has been reported to occur frequently with subacute thyroiditis, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma, and occasionally with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular thyroid carcinoma. A patient is described with progressive systemic sclerosis who, while being scanned for possible active pulmonary involvement, was found incidentally to have abnormal gallium-67 uptake only in the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs with increased frequency in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 associated with progressive systemic sclerosis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. Since aggressive thyroid malignancies frequently are imaged by gallium-67 scintigraphy, fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid often is essential in the evaluation of thyroidal gallium-67 uptake.

  3. Electrooptic Waveguide Directional Coupler Modulator in Aluminum Gallium Arsenide-Gallium Arsenide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mujibun Nisa

    A novel optical waveguide intensity modulator in aluminum gallium arsenide and gallium arsenide material system is modeled, designed, and experimentally demonstrated at 0.83 μm wavelength. The modulator utilizes the linear electrooptic effect in a coupled waveguide structure to achieve high extinction ratio at low drive voltage. The device structure consists of a differentially -etched ridge directional coupler, where the ridge height in the gap is smaller that that of the outer sides. The effective index and semivectorial finite difference modeling techniques are developed to analyze the single ridge guides and directional coupler structures. The mode structure results from the two models are compared and the limitations of the effective index method are determined. The differential -etch design is employed to reduce the length as well as the drive voltage of the modulator. A modulation voltage of 2 volts for a 3.5-mm-long device is achieved, which is the lowest reported in literature. These results are compared with those obtained from the simplified analytical expressions for conventional couplers, and higher performance expected from the differential-etch design is verified. The modulator extinction ratio is measured to be 13 dB at 2 volts. The measured optical propagation loss of approximately 3.4 dB/cm for the modulator is speculated to be primarily due to the surface morphology of the epitaxially-grown material, and the light scattering from rough ridge walls produced during the anisotropic dry etching process. The high microwave loss of 15 dB/cm calculated for the modulator electrode design suggests a trade-off between the modulation voltage and the bandwidth, which is expected to be limited to 500 MHz. The measurement of the modulator frequency response up to 100 KHz is presented, because of the test limitations at higher frequencies due to the weak modulated intensity signals.

  4. Discovery of gallium, germanium, lutetium, and hafnium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, J.L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-09-15

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  5. [Dimensional changes of silver and gallium-based alloy].

    PubMed

    Ballester, R Y; Markarian, R A; Loguercio, A D

    2001-01-01

    Gallium-based dental alloys were created with the aim of solving the problem of toxicity of mercury. The material shows mechanical properties similar to those of dental amalgam, but researches point out two unfavorable characteristics: great corrosion and excessive post-setting expansion, and the latter is capable of cracking dental structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate, during 7 days, the in vitro dimensional alteration of a gallium dental alloy (Galloy, SDI, Australia), in comparison with a dental amalgam containing zinc (F400, SDI, Australia), as a function of the contact with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) during the setting period. The storage experimental conditions were: storage in dry environment, immersion in saline solution and contamination during condensation. Additionally, the effects of contamination during the trituration of dental amalgam and the effects of protecting the surface of the gallium alloy with a fluid resin were studied. Specimens were stored at 37 degrees C +/- 1 degree C, and measuring was carried out, sequentially, every 24 h during 7 days. When the gallium alloy was either contaminated or immersed, an expansion significantly greater than that observed in the other experimental conditions was noticed after 7 days. The application of a fluid resin to protect the surface of the cylinders was able to avoid the increase in expansion caused by superficial moisture. The amalgam alloy did not show significant dimensional alterations, except when it was contaminated during trituration.

  6. Modeling of Copper Indium/Gallium Diselenide Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scurlock, Steven

    2005-03-01

    The copper indium/gallium diselenide superlattice is investigated numerically for different layer lengths of this particular lattice matched crystal. The main emphasis is on applying the Kronig-Penny model for the relevant band gap energies. By varying the sizes of the layers, the region where superlattice behavior should exist is determined.

  7. Cellular uptake and anticancer activity of carboxylated gallium corroles.

    PubMed

    Pribisko, Melanie; Palmer, Joshua; Grubbs, Robert H; Gray, Harry B; Termini, John; Lim, Punnajit

    2016-04-19

    We report derivatives of gallium(III) tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole, 1 [Ga(tpfc)], with either sulfonic (2) or carboxylic acids (3, 4) as macrocyclic ring substituents: the aminocaproate derivative, 3 [Ga(ACtpfc)], demonstrated high cytotoxic activity against all NCI60 cell lines derived from nine tumor types and confirmed very high toxicity against melanoma cells, specifically the LOX IMVI and SK-MEL-28 cell lines. The toxicities of 1, 2, 3, and 4 [Ga(3-ctpfc)] toward prostate (DU-145), melanoma (SK-MEL-28), breast (MDA-MB-231), and ovarian (OVCAR-3) cancer cells revealed a dependence on the ring substituent: IC50values ranged from 4.8 to >200 µM; and they correlated with the rates of uptake, extent of intracellular accumulation, and lipophilicity. Carboxylated corroles 3 and 4, which exhibited about 10-fold lower IC50values (<20 µM) relative to previous analogs against all four cancer cell lines, displayed high efficacy (Emax= 0). Confocal fluorescence imaging revealed facile uptake of functionalized gallium corroles by all human cancer cells that followed the order: 4 > 3 > 2 > 1 (intracellular accumulation of gallium corroles was fastest in melanoma cells). We conclude that carboxylated gallium corroles are promising chemotherapeutics with the advantage that they also can be used for tumor imaging.

  8. The 100 micron detector development program. [gallium doped germanium photoconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    An effort to optimize gallium-doped germanium photoconductors (Ge:Ga) for use in space for sensitive detection of far infrared radiation in the 100 micron region is described as well as the development of cryogenic apparatus capable of calibrating detectors under low background conditions.

  9. Visible light electroluminescent diodes of indium-gallium phosphide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, R.; Richman, D.; Tietjen, J.

    1970-01-01

    Vapor deposition and acceptor impurity diffusion techniques are used to prepare indium-gallium phosphide junctions. Certain problems in preparation are overcome by altering gas flow conditions and by increasing the concentration of phosphine in the gas. A general formula is given for the alloy's composition.

  10. Mechanical retention versus bonding of amalgam and gallium alloy restorations.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Staninec, M; Yip, R L; Chavez, M A

    1994-10-01

    The retention of amalgam and gallium alloy restorations in proximal box forms was measured in vitro, and three different adhesives to conventional undercuts were compared. For control, restorations were placed without undercuts or adhesives. No significant difference was found between amalgam and gallium alloys with each of the five methods of retention used. Alloys placed without retention or adhesives were significantly less retentive than all other groups. When Tytin alloy was used, no difference was found in retention among the restorations retained with Panavia or All-Bond adhesive or an occlusal dovetail and retention grooves, but Amalgambond adhesive was less retentive than all three of these methods. When gallium alloy was used, both Panavia and All-Bond adhesive were more retentive than undercuts, but the effect of Amalgambond adhesive was more retentive than undercuts, but the effect of Amalgambond adhesive was comparable to that of undercuts. The results of this study indicate that adhesives could be used in place of traditional undercuts to retain amalgam and gallium alloys, thus saving a considerable amount of tooth structure. PMID:7990038

  11. STS-81 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-81 mission, Commander Michael A. Baker, Pilot Brent W. Jett Jr, and Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld, Marsha S. Ivins, Peter J.K. Wisoff, and Jerry M. Linenger present a video mission over-view of their space flight. Images include prelaunch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the "white room" for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. During the presentation the astronauts take turns discussing aspects of the mission including: the SPACEHAB a double module that provides additional middeck locker space for secondary experiments. During the five days of docked operations with Mir, the crews is seen transferring water and supplies from one spacecraft to the other.

  12. Metal Insulator Semiconductor Structures on Gallium Arsenide.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Sean Denis

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The compound semiconductor gallium arsenide and its associated aluminium alloys have been the subject of intensive research in recent years. These materials offer the advantage of high electron mobilities coupled with the ability to be 'barrier engineered' leading to high injection efficiencies in bipolar devices. From a technological viewpoint however these materials are difficult to work with and device realisation is a major problem. Both thermal and anodic oxidation of these materials fail to produce a dielectric of sufficient quality for device applications and as a result devices tend to be complex non planar, mesa structures. A technique is proposed whereby the electrical interface is separated from the dielectric by means of a thin layer of AlGaAs, carrier confinement in the active GaAs region being maintained by the potential barriers to holes and electrons formed by the GaAs-AlGaAs junction. The integrity of these barriers is maintained by the provision of a suitable 'capping' dielectric. The electrical characteristics of various dielectric systems on GaAs have been investigated by means of current -voltage, capacitance-voltage and electronic breakdown measurements. Transport mechanisms for leakage current through these systems are identified and the interface properties (viz Fermi level pinning etc.) assessed by means of a direct comparison between experimental capacitance-voltage curves and theoretical data obtained from classical theory. As a technique for producing a convenient, in house 'capping' dielectric with good electrical and mechanical properties, the plasma anodisation of deposited aluminium films has been investigated. The anodisation parameters have been optimised for oxidation of these films in a microwave sustained oxygen plasma to give alumina films of around 500 A. A qualitative model for the anodisation process, involving linear and parabolic growth kinetics is proposed and

  13. Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide

    SciTech Connect

    Nicols, Samuel Piers

    2002-03-26

    The technological age has in large part been driven by the applications of semiconductors, and most notably by silicon. Our lives have been thoroughly changed by devices using the broad range of semiconductor technology developed over the past forty years. Much of the technological development has its foundation in research carried out on the different semiconductors whose properties can be exploited to make transistors, lasers, and many other devices. While the technological focus has largely been on silicon, many other semiconductor systems have applications in industry and offer formidable academic challenges. Diffusion studies belong to the most basic studies in semiconductors, important from both an application as well as research standpoint. Diffusion processes govern the junctions formed for device applications. As the device dimensions are decreased and the dopant concentrations increased, keeping pace with Moore's Law, a deeper understanding of diffusion is necessary to establish and maintain the sharp dopant profiles engineered for optimal device performance. From an academic viewpoint, diffusion in semiconductors allows for the study of point defects. Very few techniques exist which allow for the extraction of as much information of their properties. This study focuses on diffusion in the semiconductor gallium antimonide (GaSb). As will become clear, this compound semiconductor proves to be a powerful one for investigating both self- and foreign atom diffusion. While the results have direct applications for work on GaSb devices, the results should also be taken in the broader context of III-V semiconductors. Results here can be compared and contrasted to results in systems such as GaAs and even GaN, indicating trends within this common group of semiconductors. The results also have direct importance for ternary and quaternary semiconductor systems used in devices such as high speed InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT) [Dvorak

  14. Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Chintalapalle, Ramana V.

    2015-04-30

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were produced by sputter deposition by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (Ts=25-800 °C). The structural characteristics and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of growth temperature is significant on the chemistry, crystal structure and morphology of Ga2O3 films. XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the Ga2O3 films grown at lower temperatures were amorphous while those grown at Ts≥500 oC were nanocrystalline. RBS measurements indicate the well-maintained stoichiometry of Ga2O3 films at Ts=300-800 °C. The electronic structure determination indicated that the nanocrystalline Ga2O3films exhibit a band gap of ~5 eV. Tungsten (W) incorporated Ga2O3 films were produced by co-sputter deposition. W-concentration was varied by the applied sputtering-power. No secondary phase formation was observed in W-incorporated Ga2O3 films. W-induced effects were significant on the structure and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films. The band gap of Ga2O3 films without W-incorporation was ~5 eV. Oxygen sensor characteristics evaluated using optical and electrical methods indicate a faster response in W-doped Ga2O3 films compared to intrinsic Ga2O3 films. The results demonstrate the applicability of both intrinsic and W-doped Ga-oxide films for oxygen sensor application at temperatures ≥700 °C.

  15. Pair distribution function study on compression of liquid gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Shengnian; Yu, Tony; Chen, Jiuhua; Ehm, Lars; Guo, Quanzhong; Parise, John

    2008-01-01

    Integrating a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and focused high energy x-ray beam from the superconductor wiggler X17 beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we have successfully collected high quality total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium. The experiments were conducted at a pressure range from 0.1GPa up to 2GPa at ambient temperature. For the first time, pair distribution functions (PDF) for liquid gallium at high pressure were derived up to 10 {angstrom}. Liquid gallium structure has been studied by x-ray absorption (Di Cicco & Filipponi, 1993; Wei et al., 2000; Comez et al., 2001), x-ray diffraction studies (Waseda & Suzuki, 1972), and molecular dynamics simulation (Tsay, 1993; Hui et al., 2002). These previous reports have focused on the 1st nearest neighbor structure, which tells us little about the atomic arrangement outside the first shell in non- crystalline materials. This study focuses on the structure of liquid gallium and the atomic structure change due to compression. The PDF results show that the observed atomic distance of the first nearest neighbor at 2.78 {angstrom} (first G(r) peak and its shoulder at the higher Q position) is consistent with previous studies by x-ray absorption (2.76 {angstrom}, Comez et al., 2001). We have also observed that the first nearest neighbor peak position did not change with pressure increasing, while the farther peaks positions in the intermediate distance range decreased with pressure increasing. This leads to a conclusion of the possible existence of 'locally rigid units' in the liquid. With the addition of reverse Monte Carlo modeling, we have observed that the coordination number in the local rigit unit increases with pressure. The bulk modulus of liquid gallium derived from the volume compression curve at ambient temperature (300K) is 12.1(6) GPa.

  16. Adsorption of primary substituted hydrocarbons onto solid gallium substrates.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Chrishani M; Pandey, Bipin; Li, Feng; Ito, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    Adsorption of a series of primary substituted hydrocarbons (RX; C18H37PO(OH)2 (ODPA), C17H35COOH, C18H37OH, C18H37NH2, and C18H37SH) onto solid gallium substrates with and without UV/ozone treatment was studied using contact angle goniometry, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). UV/ozone treatment offered a hydrophilic surface (water contact angle (θ(water)) less than 10°), reflecting the formation of a surface oxide layer with the maximum thickness of ca. 1 nm and possibly the removal of surface contaminants. Upon immersion in a toluene solution of a RX, θ(water) increased due to adsorption of the RX onto gallium substrates. In particular, UV/ozone-treated gallium substrates (UV-Ga) immersed in an ODPA solution exhibited θ(water) close to 105°. The ellipsometric thickness of the adsorbed ODPA layer was ca. 2.4 nm, and CV data measured in an acetonitrile solution showed significant inhibition of redox reaction on the substrate surface. These results indicate the formation of a densely packed ODPA monolayer on UV-Ga. The coverage of a C17H35COOH layer adsorbed onto UV-Ga was lower, as shown by smaller θ(water) (ca. 99°), smaller ellipsometric thickness (ca. 1.3 nm), and smaller electrode reaction inhibition. Adsorption of the other RX onto UV-Ga was weaker, as indicated by smaller θ(water) (82°-92°). ODPA did not strongly adsorb onto UV-untreated gallium substrates, suggesting that the ODPA adsorption mainly originates from hydrogen bond interaction of a phosphonate group with surface oxide. These results will provide a means for controlling the surface properties of oxide-coated gallium that play an essential role in monolayer conductivity measurements and electroanalytical applications.

  17. Sputtering of tin and gallium-tin clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Lill, T.; Calaway, W.F.; Ma, Z.; Pellin, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    Tin and gallium-tin clusters have been produced by 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment of polycrystalline tin and the gallium-tin eutectic alloy and analyzed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sputtered neutral species were photoionized with 193 nm (6.4 eV) excimer laser light. Neutral tin clusters containing up to 10 atoms and mixed gallium-tin clusters Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} with n {<=} 4 for the neutrals and N {<=} 3 for the sputtered ionic species have been detected. Laser power density dependent intensity measurements, relative yields, and kinetic energy distributions have been measured. The abundance distributions of the mixed clusters have been found to be nonstatistical due to significant differences in the ionization efficiencies for clusters with equal nuclearity but different number of tin atoms. The results indicate that Ga{sub 2}Sn and Ga{sub 3}Sn like the all-gallium clusters have ionization potentials below 6.4 eV. In the case of Sn{sub 5}, Sn{sub 6}, GaSn and Ga{sub (n-m)}Sn{sub m} clusters with n=2 to 4 and m>1, the authors detect species that have sufficient internal energy to be one photon ionized despite ionization potentials that are higher 6.4 eV. The tin atom signal that is detected can be attributed to photofragmentation of dimers for both sputtering from polycrystalline tin and from the gallium-tin eutectic alloy.

  18. Gallium nitrate ameliorates type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Hyeog; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Roh, Kug-Hwan; Seo, Su-Kil; Choi, Il-Whan; Park, Sae-Gwang; Lim, Jun-Goo; Lee, Won-Jin; Kim, Myoung-Hun; Cho, Kwang-rae; Kim, Young-Jae

    2014-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease. Gallium nitrate has been reported to reserve immunosuppressive activities. Therefore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of gallium nitrate in the mouse model of developed type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced by bovine type II collagen with Complete Freund's adjuvant. CIA mice were intraperitoneally treated from day 36 to day 49 after immunization with 3.5mg/kg/day, 7mg/kg/day gallium nitrate or vehicle. Gallium nitrate ameliorated the progression of mice with CIA. The clinical symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis did not progress after treatment with gallium nitrate. Gallium nitrate inhibited the increase of CD4(+) T cell populations (p<0.05) and also inhibited the type II collagen-specific IgG2a-isotype autoantibodies (p<0.05). Gallium nitrate reduced the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ (p<0.05) and the mRNA expression levels of these cytokine and MMPs (MMP2 and MMP9) in joint tissues. Western blotting of members of the NF-κB signaling pathway revealed that gallium nitrate inhibits the activation of NF-κB by blocking IκB degradation. These data suggest that gallium nitrate is a potential therapeutic agent for autoimmune inflammatory arthritis through its inhibition of the NF-κB pathway, and these results may help to elucidate gallium nitrate-mediated mechanisms of immunosuppression in patients with RA.

  19. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of yeast-incorporated gallium with those of inorganic gallium on ovariectomized osteopenic rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhaoji; Fu, Qin

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect and toxicity of yeast-incorporated gallium (YG) with inorganic gallium (gallium nitrate, IG) in preventing osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar female rats. After the rats were treated orally with YG and IG respectively, the urine calcium, plasma calcium, plasma phosphorus, bone mineral content, mechanical testing, and the mass of uterus, thymus, and body were examined. Treatments were performed over an 8-week period. Both YG and IG have a positive effect on mechanical strength and mineral content of OVX osteopenic rats. However, treatment with YG only caused a 24.3% and 41.4% decrease in plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate concentrations, whereas IG decreased plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate concentrations by up to 39.9% and 49.0%, respectively. It was different significantly. At the same time, YG significantly increased weights of atrophic uteri, weights of body, and also decreased the thymus mass in OVX animals, while IG did not exhibit any such effects. Our experiments have demonstrated that YG may reduce gallium-associated toxicity, hypocalcemia, and maintain its effect, while IG maintains both of its effect on osteoporosis and side effect of hypocalcemia. PMID:19652924

  20. 27 CFR 6.81 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General. 6.81 Section 6.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.81 General. (a) Application. Section 105(b)(3) of the Act enumerates means to induce that may be...

  1. 27 CFR 6.81 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General. 6.81 Section 6.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.81 General. (a) Application. Section 105(b)(3) of the Act enumerates means to induce that may be...

  2. 27 CFR 6.81 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General. 6.81 Section 6.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.81 General. (a) Application. Section 105(b)(3) of the Act enumerates means to induce that may be...

  3. 27 CFR 6.81 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General. 6.81 Section 6.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.81 General. (a) Application. Section 105(b)(3) of the Act enumerates means to induce that may be...

  4. 27 CFR 6.81 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General. 6.81 Section 6.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.81 General. (a) Application. Section 105(b)(3) of the Act enumerates means to induce that may be...

  5. 40 CFR 81.434 - Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Washington. 81.434 Section 81.434... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.434 Washington. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Alpine Lakes Wild 303,508 94-357 USDA-FS Glacier Peak Wild 464,258 88-577 USDA-FS Goat Rocks...

  6. 14 CFR 34.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as...

  7. 14 CFR 34.81 - Fuel specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.81 Fuel specifications. Fuel having specifications as...

  8. Synthesis of gallium nitride nanostructures by nitridation of electrochemically deposited gallium oxide on silicon substrate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the nitridation of the electrochemically deposited gallium oxide (Ga2O3) through the utilization of a so-called ammoniating process. Ga2O3 nanostructures were firstly deposited on Si substrate by a simple two-terminal electrochemical technique at a constant current density of 0.15 A/cm2 using a mixture of Ga2O3, HCl, NH4OH and H2O for 2 h. Then, the deposited Ga2O3 sample was ammoniated in a horizontal quartz tube single zone furnace at various ammoniating times and temperatures. The complete nitridation of Ga2O3 nanostructures at temperatures of 850°C and below was not observed even the ammoniating time was kept up to 45 min. After the ammoniating process at temperature of 900°C for 15 min, several prominent diffraction peaks correspond to hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) planes were detected, while no diffraction peak of Ga2O3 structure was detected, suggesting a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN. Thus, temperature seems to be a key parameter in a nitridation process where the deoxidization rate of Ga2O3 to generate gaseous Ga2O increase with temperature. The growth mechanism for the transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN was proposed and discussed. It was found that a complete transformation can not be realized without a complete deoxidization of Ga2O3. A significant change of morphological structures takes place after a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN where the original nanorod structures of Ga2O3 diminish, and a new nanowire-like GaN structures appear. These results show that the presented method seems to be promising in producing high-quality h-GaN nanostructures on Si. PMID:25593562

  9. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.427 Section 81.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Identification of Mandatory Class I Federal Areas Where Visibility Is an Important Value §...

  10. 34 CFR 81.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Evidence. 81.15 Section 81.15 Education Office of the... Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence do not apply to proceedings under this part. However, the ALJ accepts only evidence that is— (1) Relevant; (2) Material; (3) Not unduly repetitious; and (4)...

  11. 34 CFR 81.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 81.15 Section 81.15 Education Office of the... Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence do not apply to proceedings under this part. However, the ALJ accepts only evidence that is— (1) Relevant; (2) Material; (3) Not unduly repetitious; and (4)...

  12. 34 CFR 81.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 81.15 Section 81.15 Education Office of the... Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence do not apply to proceedings under this part. However, the ALJ accepts only evidence that is— (1) Relevant; (2) Material; (3) Not unduly repetitious; and (4)...

  13. 34 CFR 81.15 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 81.15 Section 81.15 Education Office of the... Evidence. (a) The Federal Rules of Evidence do not apply to proceedings under this part. However, the ALJ accepts only evidence that is— (1) Relevant; (2) Material; (3) Not unduly repetitious; and (4)...

  14. 7 CFR 982.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 982.81 Section 982.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  15. 7 CFR 982.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 982.81 Section 982.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  16. 7 CFR 982.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 982.81 Section 982.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  17. 7 CFR 982.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 982.81 Section 982.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  18. 7 CFR 982.81 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 982.81 Section 982.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  19. 40 CFR 152.81 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 152.81 Section 152.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE... the sole purpose of facilitating the marketing of a product in different geographic regions...

  20. 25 CFR 81.12 - Voting list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voting list. 81.12 Section 81.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN....12 Voting list. The election board shall compile in alphabetical order an official list of registered voters arranged by voting districts, if any. This list shall designate, where applicable, those who...

  1. 25 CFR 81.12 - Voting list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Voting list. 81.12 Section 81.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN....12 Voting list. The election board shall compile in alphabetical order an official list of registered voters arranged by voting districts, if any. This list shall designate, where applicable, those who...

  2. 7 CFR 27.81 - Fees; certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees; certificates. 27.81 Section 27.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  3. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  4. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  5. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  6. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  7. 7 CFR 81.15 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals. 81.15 Section 81.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS...

  8. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following...

  9. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following...

  10. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following...

  11. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following...

  12. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following...

  13. 10 CFR 81.20 - Nonexclusive licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The license may extend to wholly-owned subsidiaries of the licensee but shall be nonassignable, or... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonexclusive licenses. 81.20 Section 81.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES...

  14. 18 CFR 367.81 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance. 367.81... Expense Instructions § 367.81 Maintenance. (a) The cost of maintenance chargeable to the various operating... maintenance work. A list of work operations applicable generally to service company property is included...

  15. 18 CFR 367.81 - Maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maintenance. 367.81... Expense Instructions § 367.81 Maintenance. (a) The cost of maintenance chargeable to the various operating... maintenance work. A list of work operations applicable generally to service company property is included...

  16. 45 CFR 81.73 - Testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that the direct testimony of any witness be prepared in writing and served on all parties in advance of the hearing. Such testimony may be adopted by the witness at the hearing, and filed as part of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testimony. 81.73 Section 81.73 Public...

  17. 40 CFR 152.81 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 152.81 Section 152.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Procedures To Ensure Protection of Data Submitters' Rights §...

  18. 40 CFR 428.81 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 428.81 Section 428.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed...

  19. 40 CFR 428.81 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 428.81 Section 428.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed...

  20. 40 CFR 428.81 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 428.81 Section 428.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber...

  1. 40 CFR 428.81 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 428.81 Section 428.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber...

  2. 40 CFR 428.81 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specialized definitions. 428.81 Section 428.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed...

  3. 9 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 81.1 Section 81.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN DEER, ELK, AND...

  4. 10 CFR 74.81 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... where nuclear reactor fuel is fabricated or processed, each licensee shall upon request by the Director... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspections. 74.81 Section 74.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement §...

  5. 10 CFR 74.81 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... where nuclear reactor fuel is fabricated or processed, each licensee shall upon request by the Director... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspections. 74.81 Section 74.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement §...

  6. 10 CFR 74.81 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... where nuclear reactor fuel is fabricated or processed, each licensee shall upon request by the Director... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspections. 74.81 Section 74.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement §...

  7. 10 CFR 74.81 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... where nuclear reactor fuel is fabricated or processed, each licensee shall upon request by the Director... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspections. 74.81 Section 74.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement §...

  8. 10 CFR 74.81 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... where nuclear reactor fuel is fabricated or processed, each licensee shall upon request by the Director... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspections. 74.81 Section 74.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement §...

  9. 18 CFR 401.81 - Hearings generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... decide the merits of any matter arising under the separate laws of a signatory party (other than the... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearings generally. 401.81 Section 401.81 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

  10. 18 CFR 401.81 - Hearings generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... decide the merits of any matter arising under the separate laws of a signatory party (other than the... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Hearings generally. 401.81 Section 401.81 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

  11. 18 CFR 401.81 - Hearings generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... decide the merits of any matter arising under the separate laws of a signatory party (other than the... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearings generally. 401.81 Section 401.81 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

  12. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  13. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  14. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary and Secondary) Designated area Does not meet... Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1 X Remainder of AQCR X 1 EPA designation replaces...

  15. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  16. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356... Islands. Virgin Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards Cannot be classified Better than national standards Virgin Islands AQCR: St. Croix (southern) 1...

  17. 25 CFR 81.8 - Election board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Election board. 81.8 Section 81.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Election board. (a) There shall be an election board consisting of the officer in charge acting as chairman... board. (b) It shall be the duty of the board to conduct elections in compliance with the...

  18. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific...

  19. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific...

  20. 21 CFR 808.81 - New Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false New Mexico. 808.81 Section 808.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific...

  1. 50 CFR 81.3 - Cooperative Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative Agreement. 81.3 Section 81.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED AND...

  2. 50 CFR 81.6 - Project Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project Agreement. 81.6 Section 81.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED AND...

  3. 21 CFR 640.81 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Processing. 640.81 Section 640.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... treatment. Heating of the final containers of Albumin (Human) shall begin within 24 hours after...

  4. 21 CFR 640.81 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing. 640.81 Section 640.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... treatment. Heating of the final containers of Albumin (Human) shall begin within 24 hours after...

  5. 24 CFR 81.64 - Periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Periodic reports. 81.64 Section 81.64 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE) AND...

  6. 24 CFR 81.64 - Periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Periodic reports. 81.64 Section 81.64 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE) AND...

  7. 24 CFR 81.62 - Mortgage reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage reports. 81.62 Section 81.62 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Mortgage reports. Each GSE shall submit to the Secretary quarterly a Mortgage Report. The fourth...

  8. 24 CFR 81.62 - Mortgage reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mortgage reports. 81.62 Section 81.62 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... Mortgage reports. Each GSE shall submit to the Secretary quarterly a Mortgage Report. The fourth...

  9. 40 CFR 440.81 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 440.81 Section 440.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a...

  10. 40 CFR 440.81 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 440.81 Section 440.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a...

  11. 40 CFR 440.81 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 440.81 Section 440.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a...

  12. 40 CFR 81.346 - Vermont.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.346 Vermont... classified Better than national standard Champlain Valley Air Management Area: Essex Town (includes Essex.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 81.346 see the List of CFR Sections...

  13. 14 CFR 221.81 - Suspension supplement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suspension supplement. 221.81 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Suspension of Tariff Provisions by Department § 221.81 Suspension supplement. (a) Suspension supplement. Upon receipt of an order of the Department suspending any...

  14. 40 CFR 81.338 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... purposes of 40 CFR part 51 subpart X. Oregon—PM-10 Designated Area Designation Date Type Classification... citations affecting § 81.338 see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.338...

  15. 44 CFR 8.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 8.1 Section 8.1 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... the extent that these regulations affect members of the public, these policies are to be published...

  16. 21 CFR 26.81 - Final provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final provisions. 26.81 Section 26.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT...

  17. 21 CFR 26.81 - Final provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final provisions. 26.81 Section 26.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT...

  18. 21 CFR 26.81 - Final provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Final provisions. 26.81 Section 26.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT...

  19. 21 CFR 26.81 - Final provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final provisions. 26.81 Section 26.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT...

  20. 34 CFR 81.18 - The record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The record. 81.18 Section 81.18 Education Office of the... The record. (a) The ALJ arranges for any evidentiary hearing or oral argument to be recorded and transcribed and makes the transcript available to the parties. Transcripts are made available to...