Science.gov

Sample records for gallon drum standard

  1. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  2. Design and fabrication of 55-gallon drum shuffler standards

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.M.; Hsue, F.; Hoth, C.; Fernandez, R.; Bjork, C.; Sprinkle, J.

    1994-08-01

    To analyze waste with varying levels of nuclear material, suitable standards are needed to calibrate analytical instrumentation. At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, the authors have designed and fabricated a single drum standard for a passive-active neutron counter (shuffler). The standard is modified simply by adding or subtracting plutonium of uranium cylinders to adapt to a range of nuclear material. The plutonium or uranium oxide was placed into small cylindrical containers (1-in. diameter by 5-in. long) and diluted with diatomaceous earth. The cylinders were welded closed and removed from the glove box environment without any external contamination. The containers were leak tested and then placed on a segmented gamma scanner to assure homogeneous distribution of the nuclear material. The cylinders are now placed into the drum to achieve the needed ranges for calibration of the instruments.

  3. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium

  4. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6{prime} diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently.

  5. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  6. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  7. Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

  8. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55 GALLON DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-01-04

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG&G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air).

  9. Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Jason W; Clemmons, James S; Garcia, Michael D; Sur, John C; Zhang, Duan Z; Romero, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

  10. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  11. Flow rate testing of valves used with the 500 gallon collapsible drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdue, William D.

    1992-04-01

    This report covers the test and evaluation of four couplings/valves used with the 500-gallon collapsible drum: the existing poppet valve, a new redesigned poppet valve, a Carter refuel/defuel valve that works in conjunction with the single point refueling nozzle, and a Kamvalok dry-break coupling valve. The purpose of this testing was to determine maximum flow capability of each valve design and identify any new characteristics that may impact performance of the FARE system.

  12. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experience Using 30-Gallon Drum Neutron Multiplicity Counter for Measuring Plutonium-Bearing Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D M; Keeton, S C

    2004-06-22

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been performing accountability measurements of plutonium (Pu) -bearing items with the 30-gallon drum neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) since August 1998. A previous paper focused on the LLNL experience with Pu-bearing oxide and metal items. This paper expands on the LLNL experience with Pu-bearing salts containing low masses of Pu. All Pu-bearing salts used in this study were measured using calorimetry and gamma isotopic analyses (Cal/Iso) as well as the 30-gallon drum NMC. The Cal/Iso values were treated as being the true measure of Pu content because of the inherent high accuracy of the Cal/Iso technique, even at low masses of Pu, when measured over a sufficient period of time. Unfortunately, the long time period required to achieve high accuracy from Cal/Iso can impact other required accountability measurements. The 30-gallon drum NMC is a much quicker system for making accountability measurements of a Pu-bearing salt and might be a desirable tradeoff. The accuracy of 30-gallon drum NMC measurements of Pu-bearing salts, relative to that of Cal/Iso, is presented in relation to the mass range and alpha associated with each item. Conclusions drawn from the use of the 30-gallon drum NMC for accountability measurements of salts are also included.

  13. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contain more than 40 L (11 gallons) of liquids. Body seams must be mechanically seamed or welded on drums intended to contain only solids or 40 L (11 gallons) or less of liquids. (3) Chimes must be mechanically... properties under normal conditions of transport. (8) Maximum capacity of drum: 450 L (119 gallons)....

  14. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... welded on drums designed to contain more than 40 L (11 gallons) of liquids. Body seams must be mechanically seamed or welded on drums intended to contain only solids or 40 L (11 gallons) or less of liquids... retain their protective properties under normal conditions of transport. (8) Maximum capacity of...

  15. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    SciTech Connect

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  16. Results of the gamma-neutron mapper performance test on 55-gallon drums at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Roybal, L.G.; Svoboda, J.M.; Harker, D.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Carpenter, M.V.; Josten, N.E.

    1995-07-01

    The primary purpose of the gamma-neutron mapper (G@) is to provide accurate and quantitative spatial information of the gamma-ray and neutron radiation fields as a function of position about the excavation of a radioactive waste site. The GNM is designed to operate remotely and can be delivered to any point on an excavation by the robotic gantry crane developed by the dig-face project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). It can also be easily adapted to other delivery systems. The GNM can be deployed over a waste site at a predetermined scan rate and has sufficient accuracy to identify and quantify radioactive contaminants of importance. The results reported herein are from a performance test conducted at the Transuranic Storage Area, Building 628, of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex located at the INEL. This building is an active interim-storage area for 55-gal drums of transuranic waste from the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant. The performance test consisted of scanning a stack of drums five high by five wide. Prior to the test, radiation fields were measured by a health physicist at the center of the drums and ranged from 0.5 mR/h to 35 mR/h. Scans of the drums using the GNM were taken at standoff distances from the vertical drum stack of 15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, and 90 cm. Data were acquired at scan speeds of 7.5 cm/s and 15 cm/s. The results of these scans and a comparison of these results with the manifests of these drums are compared and discussed.

  17. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  18. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  19. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  20. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  1. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  2. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  3. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  4. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  5. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  6. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  7. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  8. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum...

  9. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  10. Criticality Safety Analysis on the Mixed Be, Nat-U, and C (Graphite) Reflectors in 55-Gallon Waste Drums and Their Equivalents for HWM Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The objective of this analysis is to develop and establish the technical basis on the criticality safety controls for the storage of mixed beryllium (Be), natural uranium (Nat-U), and carbon (C)/graphite reflectors in 55-gallon waste containers and/or their equivalents in Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on the criticality safety limits and controls outlined in Section 3.0, the operations involving the use of mixed-reflector drums satisfy the double-contingency principle as required by DOE Order 420.1 and are therefore criticality safe. The mixed-reflector mass limit is 120 grams for each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent. a reflector waiver of 50 grams is allowed for Be, Nat-U, or C/graphite combined. The waived reflectors may be excluded from the reflector mass calculations when determining if a drum is compliant. The mixed-reflector drums are allowed to mix with the typical 55-gallon one-reflector drums with a Pu mass limit of 120 grams. The fissile mass limit for the mixed-reflector container is 65 grams of Pu equivalent each. The corresponding reflector mass limits are 300 grams of Be, and/or 100 kilograms of Nat-U, and/or 110 kilograms of C/graphite for each container. All other unaffected control parameters for the one-reflector containers remain in effect for the mixed-reflector drums. For instance, Superior moderators, such as TrimSol, Superla white mineral oil No. 9, paraffin, and polyethylene, are allowed in unlimited quantities. Hydrogenous materials with a hydrogen density greater than 0.133 gram/cc are not allowed. Also, an isolation separation of no less than 76.2 cm (30-inch) is required between a mixed array and any other array. Waste containers in the action of being transported are exempted from this 76.2-cm (30-inch) separation requirement. All deviations from the CS controls and mass limits listed in Section 3.0 will require individual criticality safety analyses on a case-by-case basis for each of them to confirm their

  11. Drum Circles and the National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The beauty of hand drums is that a child of nearly any age can grab one and get a sound. So how can classroom teachers incorporate this enjoyable activity into something that's actually educational? For young students especially, a drum circle can be liberating. Children can be given various responsibilities--as participants, circle organizers,…

  12. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  13. Dose rate distribution from a standard waste drum arrangement.

    PubMed

    Zoeger, N; Brandl, A

    2011-11-01

    The evaluation of the dose rate distributions from radioactive sources, together with the specific detector locations with respect to those sources, in many cases presents a significant analytical challenge. With the exception of a few, simple source-detector geometries, it is not possible to find an analytical expression for these dose rate distributions as functions of detector location. In this paper, the dose rate distributions due to the arrangement of radiological waste drums on a standard wooden transport and storage pallet are investigated. The dose rates at various distances, ranging from 5 cm to 20 m, from the waste drum assembly have been evaluated by Monte Carlo calculations. The simulation data are fitted by smooth analytical functions in two independent regions, the waste drum near zone, where a logarithmic function best described the data, and the far zone, where the functional dependence closely approximates the 1/r2-law for point sources. PMID:21968820

  14. 40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard? 80.271 Section 80.271 Protection of Environment...-2007 per-gallon cap standard? (a) EPA may in its discretion adjust the small refiner per-gallon cap... standard but in no case shall it extend beyond December 31, 2007. (d)(1) A small refiner with an...

  15. Comparison of shuffler and differential die-away technique instruments for the assay of fissile materials in 55-gallon waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Coop, K.L.; Nicholas, N.J.; Menlove, H.O. )

    1994-07-01

    The authors compare the features of a [sup 252]Cf shuffler and a differential die-away technique (DDT) instrument for the assay of 208-L (55-gal.) waste drums and the experimental results obtained using drums with 20 different simulated waste matrices. Active assays of uranium and plutonium were made, along with passive assays of plutonium. The major potential sources of inaccuracy for most wastes are self-shielding and nonuniform distribution of the fissile material throughout a drum's volume. They examined the distribution problem by placing small samples of plutonium and uranium at 15 representative locations within each test matrix. The combined responses from all these locations simulated the case of a uniform distribution. Inaccuracies can grow as the density of moderator or absorber in a matrix is increased, so a wide range of absorber and moderator densities was used in the test drums. Self-shielding and effects due to high-neutron backgrounds were also examined. The instruments' minimum detectable masses for uniform distributions of uranium and plutonium were calculated for the various matrices.

  16. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Blanton, Paul; Bobbitt, John H.

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.

  17. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR... effectiveness of the drum for the purpose intended. A material other than plywood, of at least equivalent strength and durability, may be used for the manufacture of the heads. (2) At least two-ply plywood must...

  18. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... body of the drum must be constructed of multiple plies of heavy paper or fiberboard (without..., waxed kraft paper, metal foil, plastic material, or similar materials. (2) Heads must be of natural wood, fiberboard, metal, plywood, plastics, or other suitable material and may include one or more...

  19. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM SLUDGE SAMPLE BOTTLES CAUSED BY RADIOLYSIS AND CHEMISTRY WITH CONCETNRATION DETERMINATION IN A STANDARD WASTE BOX (SWB) OR DRUM FOR TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    RILEY DL; BRIDGES AE; EDWARDS WS

    2010-03-30

    A volume of 600 mL of sludge, in 4.1 L sample bottles (Appendix 7.6), will be placed in either a Super Pig (Ref. 1) or Piglet (Ref. 2, 3) based on shielding requirements (Ref. 4). Two Super Pigs will be placed in a Standard Waste Box (SWB, Ref. 5), as their weight exceeds the capacity of a drum; two Piglets will be placed in a 55-gallon drum (shown in Appendix 7.2). The generation of hydrogen gas through oxidation/corrosion of uranium metal by its reaction with water will be determined and combined with the hydrogen produced by radiolysis. The hydrogen concentration in the 55-gallon drum and SWB will be calculated to show that the lower flammability limit of 5% hydrogen is not reached. The inner layers (i.e., sample bottle, bag and shielded pig) in the SWB and drum will be evaluated to assure no pressurization occurs as the hydrogen vents from the inner containers (e.g., shielded pigs, etc.). The reaction of uranium metal with anoxic liquid water is highly exothermic; the heat of reaction will be combined with the source term decay heat, calculated from Radcalc, to show that the drum and SWB package heat load limits are satisfied. This analysis does five things: (1) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water; (2) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from radiolysis (using Radcalc 4.1); (3) Combines both H{sub 2} generation amounts, from Items 1 and 2, and determines the percent concentration of H{sub 2} in the interior of an SWB with two Super Pigs, and the interior of a 55-gallon drum with two Piglets; (4) From the combined gas generation rate, shows that the pressure at internal layers is minimal; and (5) Calculates the maximum thermal load of the package, both from radioactive decay of the source and daughter products as calculated/reported by Radcalc 4.1, and from the exothermic reaction of uranium metal with water.

  20. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  1. 40 CFR 80.271 - How can a small refiner obtain an adjustment of its 2004-2007 per-gallon cap standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level (i.e., prior to the use of any credits or allotments) for each year that the adjustment would be... = Vb × (Sb−Sc) Where: CRb = number of sulfur allotments or sulfur credits needed for the gasoline batch...) Sc = Small refiner per-gallon cap standard established for that refinery under § 80.240(a), in...

  2. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  3. Radionuclide measurement proficiency testing for SNAP using NPL waste drum standards.

    PubMed

    Miller, T J

    2010-12-01

    AWE has participated in two rounds of radionuclide measurement proficiency testing using 200 l waste drum standards prepared by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The results achieved, using the SNAP (spectral non-destructive assay platform) system, were generally within a few per cent of the true activities and gave confidence in the ability to allocate wastes to the correct categories in accordance with national legislation. This is important for reasons of public safety and also for minimisation of the amount of RSA (Radioactive Substances Act) Exempt material categorised as LLW (low level waste) as the UK's LLW storage capacity diminishes. PMID:21149939

  4. Waste drum refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, L.J.

    1996-10-18

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of {minus}60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything.

  5. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  6. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  7. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  8. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  9. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  10. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  11. L AREA WASTEWATER STORAGE DRUM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D; Dennis Vinson, D

    2007-11-30

    This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  12. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  16. One-trip drum operating instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-10-01

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant.

  17. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  18. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  19. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  20. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  1. 49 CFR 538.8 - Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL... Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100 Standard Cubic Feet Fuel Gallon equivalent measurement...

  2. Criticality evaluation for the storage of converter plates in drums

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.P.; Rorer, D.C.; Liu, H.B.

    1993-12-31

    A criticality safety evaluation was performed to support the temporary storage of 20%-enriched uranium converter plates for future use in the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). A total of twelve such plates each containing approximately one kilogram of the {sup 235}U will be stored in DOT-certified 6M-drums, which have the same dimensions as standard 55-gallon drums except that they are twice as high (178.5cm). Each drum contains a Celotex liner surrounding a central 12.7cm-dia steel pipe. The plates have a nominal size of 0.3cm{times}l0.5cm{times}l25.7cm and fit inside the steel pipe, which extends 130cm in the axial direction. Because the accommodation of twelve plates in one drum is physically possible and more economical, this option for plate storage would be recommended provided that the criticality safety limit is not exceeded. In this paper, the neutron multiplication K{sub eff} in drums is calculated using the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport code (MCNP). For conservatism, several different configurations which could result.in the most reactive conditions for K{sub eff} have been examined. As part of the effort to optimize the arrangement of plates in drums, a second group of the MCNP calculations is performed using twelve plates evenly contained within two drums placed immediately adjacent to each other model again simulates the most reactive conditions for K{sub eff} estimations.

  3. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  4. 52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A FRENIER PUMP. THE CHARCOAL HOUSE IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND THE DRUM LEANING AGAINST THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL ANNEX. NOTE THE WELDS IN THE DRUM, THEY DELINEATE THE SPIRAL LEADING TO THE CENTER OF THE DRUM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  5. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... invoice referring to spirits of turpentine in containers of 10 gallons content or less, shall mean...

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THE BLANTON CLAMSHELL CLOSUREFOR USE ON RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P

    2007-10-18

    This paper provides a brief history of the U.S. Type B 6M specification container, its introduction into U.S. Code of federal regulations and its scheduled elimination three decades later. The paper also presents development, testing and deployment by the Department of Energy (DOE) of an enhanced drum closure called the 'Blanton Clamshell' (patent pending) that was designed to replace the standard open-head C-ring closure for the 55- and 85-gallon drums described in the 6M specification to extend their safe use. Nuclear Filter Technology has the Exclusive License for Clamshell production. Drum packages utilizing the standard C-ring closure have been a main-stay for over a half of a century in the national and international nuclear industry for shipping radioactive materials and will remain so in the foreseeable future. Drum package use in the U.S. increased heavily in the 1950's with development of the Weapons Complex and subsequently the commercial nuclear reactor industry.

  7. Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E.; Lucero, Randy P.

    2013-07-01

    Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011

  8. Drum drop test report

    SciTech Connect

    McBeath, R.S.

    1995-02-28

    Testing was performed to determine actual damage to drums when dropped from higher than currently stacked elevations. The drum configurations were the same as they are placed in storage; single drums and four drums banded to a pallet. Maximum drop weights were selected based on successful preliminary tests. Material was lost from each of the single drum tests while only a small amount of material was lost from one of the pelletized drums. The test results are presented in this report. This report also provides recommendations for further testing to determine the appropriate drum weight which can be stored on a fourth tier.

  9. Design of benign matrix drums for the non-destructive assay performance demonstration program for the National TRU Program

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP (performance demonstration program) samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards, working reference materials (WRMs). The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standard(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The scope of this document is confined to the design of the PDP drum radioactive standard internal support structure, the matrix type and the as installed configuration. The term benign is used to designate a matrix possessing properties which are nominally non-interfering to waste NDA measurement techniques. Measurement interference sources are technique specific but include attributes such as: high matrix density, heterogeneous matrix distributions, matrix compositions containing high moderator/high Z element concentrations, etc. To the extent practicable the matrix drum design should not unduly bias one NDA modality over another due to the manner in which the matrix drum configuration manifests itself to the measurement system. To this end the PDP matrix drum configuration and composition detailed below is driven primarily by the intent to minimize the incorporation of matrix attributes known to interfere with fundamental waste NDA modalities, i.e. neutron and gamma based techniques.

  10. Magnetic properties of unrusted steel drums from laboratory and field-magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ravat, D.

    1996-09-01

    Detection and precise location of buried ferromagnetic objects and estimation of the type and quantity of the objects are becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations worldwide. If laboratory-derived magnetizations were used to model steel drums, the models would under-estimate the resulting magnetic anomalies considerably and, in turn, would overestimate the number of buried drums at an environmental investigation site. Apparent bulk magnetization values for unrusted vertically oriented 55 and 30 gallon drums have been calculated (i.e., the values corrected for the effect of shape demagnetization of the drums). These range from {approximately}90 to {approximately}125 SI units for volume susceptibility and from {approximately} 325 to {approximately} 2,750 A/m for remanent magnetization (based on eight 55 gallon and four 30 gallon drums). Further deviations in these values could arise from the and thickness of the steel and variations in manufacturing conditions affecting magnetizations. From the point of view of modeling the drums, at most source-to-observation distances applicable to environmental investigations, the equivalent source method is able to approximate the observed anomalies of steel drums better than the 3-D modeling method. With two years of rusting, magnetic anomalies of some of the drums have reduced, while in other drums they have slightly increased. The overall magnetic changes caused by rusting appear to be more complex than anticipated, at least in the initial phase of rusting.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  14. THERMAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR WSB DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2008-06-26

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum.

  15. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF NGS CONCENTRATE DRUM SAMPLES [Next Generation Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Williams, M.

    2013-09-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared two drums (50 gallons each in Drum#2 and Drum#4) of NGS-MCU (Next Generation Solvent-Modular CSSX Unit) concentrate for future use at MCU in downblending the BOBCalixC6 based solvent to produce NGS-MCU solvent. Samples of each drum were sent for analysis. The results of all the analyses indicate that the blend concentrate is of the correct composition and should produce a blended solvent at MCU of the desired formulation.

  16. Neutron absorber inserts for 55-gal drums

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Kim, Y.S.; Toffer, H.

    2000-07-01

    Transport and temporary storage of more than 200 g of fissile material in 55-gal drums at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have received significant attention during the cleanup mission. This paper discusses successful applications and results of extensive computer studies. Interim storage and movement of fissile material in excess of standard drum limits (200 g) in a safe configuration have been accomplished using special drum inserts. Such inserts have constrained the contents of a drum to two 4-{ell} bottles. The content of the bottles was limited to 600 g Pu or U in solution or a total of 1200 g for the entire drum. The inserts were a simple design constructed of stainless steel, forming a vertical cylindrical pipe into which two bottles, one on top of the other, could be centered in the drum. The remaining drum volume was configured to preclude any additional bottle placement external to the vertical cylinder. Such inserts in drums were successfully used in moving high-concentration solution from one building to another for chemical processing. Concern about the knowledge of fissile material concentration in bottles prompted another study for drum inserts. The past practice had been to load up to fourteen 4-{ell} bottles into 55-gal drums, provided the fissile material concentration was <6 g fissile/{ell}, and the total drum contents of 200 g fissile was not exceeded. Only one determination of the solution concentration was needed. An extensive safety analysis concluded that a single measurement of bottle content could not ensure compliance with double-contingency-criterion requirements. A second determination of the bottle contents was required before bottles could be placed in a 55-gal drum. Al alternative to a dual-measurement protocol, which is for bolstering administrative control, was to develop an engineered safety feature that would eliminate expensive tests and administrative decisions. A drum insert design was evaluated that

  17. Unvented Drum Handling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-08-01

    This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The

  18. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at a... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums...

  19. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at...

  20. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at...

  1. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at a... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums...

  2. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  3. Drums for Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneidek, Tony

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Lakota family tradition of passing on the responsibilities of being caretaker of the drum of the Fool Soldiers (Akicita Heyoka), warriors who risked their lives for peace in 1862. The drum and its ceremonial use symbolize nonviolence and cross-cultural understanding between the races and are a part of Lakota spiritual heritage. (SAS)

  4. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  5. Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1gallon paint can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Manufacturing Building, first floor, electric 1-gallon paint can labeling machine (Standard-Knapp of Portland). Note spiral attachment on floor. - Tarr and Wonson Paint Factory, End of Horton Street, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  6. Drum lid removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Pella, Bernard M.; Smith, Philip D.

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  7. EVALUATION OF RADIOLYSIS INDUCED HYDROGEN GENERATION IN DOT 6M DRUMS FROM INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D

    2007-06-18

    Three DOT 6M 30-gallon drums are scheduled to be shipped from the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to L-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These three drums contain radioactive materials that resulted from the material recovery effort following a small explosion that had occurred in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) hot chemistry laboratory (HCL). In support of the shipment and subsequent storage of the three DOT 6M drums, an evaluation of the potential for molecular hydrogen production in the drums has been completed and documented herein. The potential sources of hydrogen evaluated in the current report include radiolytic decomposition of polymeric materials in the DOT 6M drums No.3031 and No.3598 and the radiolytic decomposition of water in drum No.20102. No other potential sources have been identified based upon reported drum contents and packaging configuration. A parametric approach was used to evaluate the maximum quantity of molecular hydrogen that can be expected to evolve in two DOT 6M 30-gallon drums in support of receipt and subsequent interim storage prior to canyon processing. These drums are two of three drums scheduled for shipment from INTEC to SRS as part of the decommissioning effort of the INTEC facility. The three DOT 6M drums will be received at L-Area in SRS and stored for up to 13-years prior to final disposition at HB-Line in 2020. Results of the current analysis do not include parametric analysis of drum No.20102 containing 114/133 SAL (salvage) which contains UO{sub 3} powder. This drum has not been identified as containing polymeric materials and a conservative calculation indicates that the maximum gross molecular hydrogen production due to the radiolysis of adsorbed moisture would yield a production rate of 5.1-cm{sup 3}/yr, driven primarily by the large surface are to volume ratio of the oxide powder. The remaining two drums, No.3031 and No.3598 contain polymer

  8. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other...

  9. 7 CFR 160.92 - Meaning of word “gallon.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of word âgallon.â 160.92 Section 160.92... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.92 Meaning of word “gallon.” The word... used therewith: Provided, That this shall not apply to the meaning of the words “imperial gallon”,...

  10. Rotating drum filter

    DOEpatents

    Anson, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  11. Rotary drum separator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, Michael R. (Inventor); Murdoch, Karen (Inventor); Scull, Timothy D. (Inventor); Fort, James H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rotary phase separator system generally includes a step-shaped rotary drum separator (RDS) and a motor assembly. The aspect ratio of the stepped drum minimizes power for both the accumulating and pumping functions. The accumulator section of the RDS has a relatively small diameter to minimize power losses within an axial length to define significant volume for accumulation. The pumping section of the RDS has a larger diameter to increase pumping head but has a shorter axial length to minimize power losses. The motor assembly drives the RDS at a low speed for separating and accumulating and a higher speed for pumping.

  12. Reference drums used in calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in a 4π counting geometry.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, two kinds of reference drums were developed. One type was constructed with nine layers of large-area sources filled with different materials having five different densities. The other type of reference drums was constructed with nine rod sources filled with the same materials of different densities. The efficiency calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in 4π counting geometry using these two kinds of drums showed that rod-source drums resulted in higher counting efficiency than layered source drums. The counting rates obtained from rod-source drums were closer to those obtained from a standard drum with water solution than counting rates from drums with layered sources. The results of this study recommend to use reference drums with rod-sources to compensate the drawbacks of standard drums with water solution of not being able to adjust the density of material. The proposed reference drums improve the accuracy of radioactivity analysis for waste drums of different densities. PMID:26651167

  13. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    DOEpatents

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  14. Solar drum positioner mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    The need for additional power on spinning satellites required development of deployable solar arrays activated, as on a 3-axis vehicle, after separation from a booster or shuttle orbiter. Mechanisms were developed for telescopically extending a secondary 36.3 kg (80 lb.), 2.13 m (84 in.) diameter spinning solar drum for a distance of 2.0 m (80 in.) or more along the spin axis. After extension, the system has the capability of dynamically controlling the drum tilt angle about the spin axis to provide precision in-orbit balancing of the spacecraft. This approach was selected for the SBS, ANIK C, ANIK D, WESTAR B and PALAPA B satellites. It was successfully demonstrated during the in orbit deployment of the aft solar panels of the SBS F-3 and F-1 satellites, subsequent to the November 1980 and September 1981 launches.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Cherenkov Light Detectors in an Oil Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niduaza, Rexavalmar; Wedel, Zachary; Castro, Juan; Zavala, Favian; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) has been used in a number of research development in astro-particle physics and particle physics. In an effort to further implement the MPPC detector, we constructed a modular experimental setup using a 16-inch tall acrylic cylinder filled with distilled water as the light producing medium to determine its feasibility as a possible detector for weak Cherenkov light. We have since progressed towards utilizing an oil drum (approximately 30 gallons) as our light-tight container replacing our prototype. In this talk, we would discuss the results regarding our investigation utilizing 1-inch and 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) in an oil drum as we did for our prototype. We would also present our experimental findings comparing our prototype and our oil drum setup using PMTs in coincidence with the MPPC coupled with wavelength-shifting fibers that are submerged in distilled water inside the oil drum vessel. Department of Education grant nymber P031S90007.

  16. Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container

    SciTech Connect

    Richins, W.D.

    1996-07-01

    The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to DOT 7A Type A requirements. The controlling qualification test is a 4 ft drop onto a rigid surface. During and after this test, the container contents must remain within the container and shielding must not be reduced. The container is also designed to withstand stacking, internal pressure, lifting loads, tiedown failure, penetration, and a range of temperatures. Nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses were performed using a range of material properties. Loads in the major connections and strains in the stainless steel and lead were monitored as a function of time during impact analyses for three simulated drop orientations. Initial results were used to develop the final design. For the final design, the stainless steel and lead have maximum strains well below ultimate levels except at an impact corner where additional deformation is acceptable. The predicted loads in the connections indicate that some yielding will occur but the containment and shielding will remain intact. The results presented here provide assurance that the container will pass the DOT 7A Type A drop tests as well as the other structural requirements.

  17. 23. BACKING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. MAIN ENGINE STEP DRUM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BACKING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. MAIN ENGINE STEP DRUM IN CENTER. TO RIGHT NOTE CYLINDER, PISTON ROD CROSSHEAD. AT END OF CRANKSHAFT NOTE WRIST PIN AND CRANE DISK. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  18. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  19. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    SciTech Connect

    DEMITER, J.A.

    1998-11-17

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods.

  20. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  5. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  6. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-04-06

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to

  7. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Harvey E.

    1984-01-01

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  8. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, H.E.

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  9. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, F.B.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-02-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation.

  10. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  11. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  12. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  13. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  14. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  15. Response to requests by FMF and DWPF concerning disposal of FMF saltstone drums in Z-Area vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1989-07-25

    Disposal of FMF saltstone in 55 gallon drums in the Z-Area Industrial Waste Landfill requires modification of the landfill permit. Approximately 5000 drums of FMF saltstone are currently stored on SC DHEC-permitted concrete storage pads adjacent to the burial ground. At a meeting with DWPF, FMF, and EPS on July 18, 1989, IWT agreed to supply the following information: (1) Consequence of disposal of CCA (Cu, Cr, As) treated wood pallets in the Z-Area vaults. (Four drums of FMF saltstone are currently banded to each pallet.) (2) Consequence of placing partially filled FMF drums in the Z-Area vaults. (3) Formulation for clean grout back-fill. Grout will be emplaced around and over the drums, thereby isolating them from environment (rainwater) prior to vault capping. (4) Maximum loading of FMF saltstone drums in the Z-Area vaults. (5) Consequence of void volume in drums, in clean grout, or both on groundwater modeling results. This document is a response to the above requests.

  16. Results for the Independent Sampling and Analysis of Used Oil Drums at the Impact Services Facility in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), via the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, perform independent sampling and analysis of used oils contained within eight 55 gallon drums stored at the former IMPACT Services facility, located at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These drums were originally delivered by LATA Sharp Remediation Services (LSRS) to IMPACT Services on January 11, 2011 as part of the Bldg. K-33 demolition project, and the drums plus contents should have been processed as non-hazardous non-radiological waste by IMPACT Services. LSRS received a certificate of destruction on August 29, 2012 (LSRS 2012a). However, IMPACT Services declared bankruptcy and abandoned the site later in 2012, and eight of the original eleven K-33 drums are currently stored at the facility. The content of these drums is the subject of this investigation. The original drum contents were sampled by LSRS in 2010 and analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), using both compositing and grab sampling techniques. The objective of this 2013 sample and analysis effort was to duplicate, to the extent possible, the 2010 sampling and analysis event to support final disposition decisions. Part of that decision process includes either verifying or refuting the assertion that oils that are currently stored in drums at the IMPACT Services facility originated from Bldg. K-33 equipment.

  17. Prototype recirculating aquaculture system design for juvenile red drum production as part of the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation commission’s Hatchery Network Initative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prototype recirculating aquaculture system for the production of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) includes four 10-foot diameter by four foot height tanks for a tank volume of approximately 300 ft3 each (2200 gallons). Water flow for the system is provided for by a low head propeller pump which prov...

  18. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, R.L.; Haecker, C.F.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided.

  19. ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Hand-Drumming to Build Community: The Story of the Whittier Drum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nathan Neil

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares the story of the Whittier Drum Project and how it succeeded. The Whittier Drum Project has brought the community together through the talents of youth and their dedication to drumming, and has used drumming to link professionals to their own communities. The author adapted the model to meet the therapeutic needs…

  1. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  2. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  11. Percussion Discussion: Using Drums To Reconnect Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, John; Harris, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a therapeutic program for juvenile offenders that uses drum playing and drum building to provide alternatives for youth activities. Drums play five important roles for youth: creating a sense of community, reconnecting with history and heritage, promoting healing, educating, and celebrating victories or rites of passage. Provides…

  12. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  3. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  4. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: 6.79434×100 equals 679.43 pounds, net weight of 100 wine gallons of 190 proofs spirits. Example. It....60 pounds, net weight of 100 proof gallons of 190 proof spirits. The slight variation between...

  5. Comparison exercise on activity determination of radioactive waste drums in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wei-Han; Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2016-03-01

    The National Radiation Standard Laboratory of Taiwan organized in 2014 a comparison exercise by distributing 210 L drum-typed samples to seven radioactive waste analysis laboratories in Taiwan. Four drums were filled with uniformly distributed active carbon, water, resin and concrete, respectively and five drums were filled with cracked metals and heterogeneously distributed radioactive sources. Measurement uncertainties of participants results are in the range 3–40% (k=2) and about 96% of the reported results produced En values (ISO, 1997) smaller than one for drums with activity uniformly distributed. The minimum discrepancies, expressed as Bi values (ISO, 1997), of drums with heterogeneously distributed 137Cs and 60Co were 0.34 and 0.17, respectively. PMID:27358943

  6. Low-Level Waste Drum Assay Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Greutzmacher, K.; Kuzminski, J.; Myers, S. C.

    2003-02-26

    Nuclear waste assay is an integral element of programs such as safeguards, waste management, and waste disposal. The majority of nuclear waste is packaged in drums and analyzed by various nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to identify and quantify the radioactive content. Due to various regulations and the public interest in nuclear issues, the analytical results are required to be of high quality and supported by a rigorous Quality Assurance (QA) program. A valuable QA tool is an intercomparison program in which a known sample is analyzed by a number of different facilities. While transuranic waste (TRU) certified NDA teams are evaluated through the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP), low-level waste (LLW) assay specialists have not been afforded a similar opportunity. NDA specialists from throughout the DOE complex were invited to participate in this voluntary drum assay intercomparison study that was organized and facilitated by the Solid Waste Operations and the Safeguards Science and Technology groups at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and by Eberline Services. Each participating NDA team performed six replicate blind measurements of two 55-gallon drums with relatively low-density matrices (a 19.1 kg shredded paper matrix and a 54.4 kg mixed metal, rubber, paper and plastic matrix). This paper presents the results from this study, with an emphasis on discussing the lessons learned as well as desirable follow up programs for the future. The results will discuss the accuracy and precision of the replicate measurements for each NDA team as well as any issues that arose during the effort.

  7. Elevated drum testing Phase 1 test plan

    SciTech Connect

    McBeath, R.S.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1994-09-01

    An important part of the Hanford environmental mission is the packaging, transportation, and storage of solid radioactive wastes in metal drums. Presently storage drums are placed four to a wooden pallet with the drums banded to each other. Palletized drums are stacked three units high in pre-engineered steel structures in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. Permitted storage space is expensive to construct, maintain, and operate. Storage capacity is increased if additional drum can be stacked within existing facilities and a cost savings over new construction realized. The purpose of this plan is to outline the testing required to provide the safety criteria for elevated (i.e., tiers of four high) drum storage. The major safety concern with elevated drum storage is the danger of a significant fire in the storage facility. The major fire load within the storage facilities is combustible material contained in the drums. If a seismic event, fork lift accident, or other credible incident were to cause drum failure or lid separation, combustible material could be available for fuel. To increase the initial burn in the facilities, the drums must spill their combustible contents, making them free for ignition. If it can be shown that there is not sufficient damage to the drums to allow for release of their solid contents, then the data used for safety documentation will be re-examined. Preliminary tests conducted in the configurations detailed in this test plan have shown that drums maintain their integrity; that is the drum covers remain attached and the drums do not breach. These tests will be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Equipment Development organization, who is the designated DOE Center of Excellence to conduct drop tests for Department of Transportation (DOT) certification of DOE designed packages and containers.

  8. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  9. 7 CFR 160.201 - Fees generally for field inspection and certification of naval stores and drum containers of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. 160.201 Section 160.201 Agriculture Regulations of the... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. Except as provided in § 160.204, the following...

  10. 7 CFR 160.201 - Fees generally for field inspection and certification of naval stores and drum containers of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. 160.201 Section 160.201 Agriculture Regulations of the... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. Except as provided in § 160.204, the following...

  11. Field test results for radioactive waste drum characterization with Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1997-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication, factory testing, evaluation and demonstration of waste inspection tomography (WIT). WIT consists of a self-sufficient, mobile semi-trailer for Non-Destructive Evaluation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDE/NDA) characterization of nuclear waste drums using X-ray and gamma-ray tomographic techniques. The 23-month WIT Phase I initial test results include 2 MeV Digital Radiography (DR), Computed Tomography (CT), Anger camera imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Collimated Gamma Scanning (CGS), and Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with three simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were all demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively. Preliminary field tests results with nuclear waste drums are summarized. WIT has inspected drums with 0 to 20 grams plutonium 239. The minimum measured was 0.131 gram plutonium 239 in cement. 8 figs.

  12. 13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  13. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  14. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  15. Drum plug piercing and sampling device and method

    DOEpatents

    Counts, Kevin T.

    2011-04-26

    An apparatus and method for piercing a drum plug of a drum in order to sample and/or vent gases that may accumulate in a space of the drum is provided. The drum is not damaged and can be reused since the pierced drum plug can be subsequently replaced. The apparatus includes a frame that is configured for engagement with the drum. A cylinder actuated by a fluid is mounted to the frame. A piercer is placed into communication with the cylinder so that actuation of the cylinder causes the piercer to move in a linear direction so that the piercer may puncture the drum plug of the drum.

  16. A NOVEL APPROACH TO DRUM VENTING AND DRUM MONITORINGe/pj

    SciTech Connect

    Ohl, P.C.; Farwick, C.C.; Douglas, D.G.; Cruz, E.J.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the details and specifications associated with drum venting and drum monitoring technologies, and discusses the maturity of in-place systems and current applications. Each year, unventilated drums pressurize and develop bulges and/or breaches that can result in potentially hazardous explosions, posing undesirable hazards to workers and the environment. Drum venting is accomplished by the safe and simple installation of ventilated lids at the time of packaging, or by the inherently risky in-situ ventilation (depressurization) of ''bulged'' drums. Drum monitoring employs either a Magnetically Coupled Pressure Gauge (MCPG) Patent Pending and/or a Magnetically Coupled Corrosion Gauge (MCCG) Patent Pending. Through patented magnetic sensor coupling, these devices enable the noninvasive and remote monitoring of the potentially hazardous materials and/or spent nuclear fuel that is contained in 55-gal drums and associated steel overpack containers.

  17. Ellie Mannette: Master of the Steel Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elliot ("Ellie") Mannette who has played a major role in the development and application of steel drums. States that he has spent most of his life designing and teaching the steel drums. Covers interview topics and background information on Mannette. (CMK)

  18. Los Alamos waste drum shufflers users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Painter, J.

    1993-08-24

    This user manual describes the Los Alamos waste drum shufflers. The primary purpose of the instruments is to assay the mass of {sup 235}U (or other fissile materials) in drums of assorted waste. It can perform passive assays for isotopes that spontaneously emit neutrons or active assays using the shuffler technique as described on this manual.

  19. Thermal analysis of the 10-gallon and the 55-gallon DOT-6M containers with thermal boundary conditions corresponding to 10CFR71 normal transport and accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L.C.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Moss, M.; Haseman, G.M.; Fowler, W.E.; Roth, E.P.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the heat transfer analysis of the 10-gallon and 55-gallon 6M containers. The analysis was performed with boundary conditions corresponding to a normal transport condition and a hypothetical accident condition. Computational results indicated that the insulation material in the 6M containers will adequately protect the payload region of the 6M containers. 26 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. 27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each percent of proof of spirituous liquor. 30.65 Section 30.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  1. Environmental policy -- A leaking drum?

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1995-07-01

    Twenty years ago, the US had virtually no overall environmental policy. Since then, one has evolved as a result of accumulated legislation, much of which was crafted in reaction to specific events, typically real or potential disasters. The familiar names of Love Canal, Times Beach, Bhopal and others are the symbolic anchor points of that evolution, which yielded Superfund, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, and other environmental statutes. The laws in each case were developed in response to particular environmental and health issues--clean water for drinking and recreation, unpolluted air, safe production of chemicals and chemical-based products. The result was a growing body of environmental legislation that eventually became an accumulate of requirements lacking internal consistency or coherence. Because policymaking followed, rather than guided, legislative actions, the policy itself became inconsistent and sometimes illogical. Like a drum that gradually and indiscriminately is filled with a mixture of mutually reactive chemicals, environmental policy increasingly became a volatile source of concern for those industries in whose midst it had been placed. Lately, there is growing consensus that the drum not only has been overfilled, it also is leaking.

  2. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Di Massa, F.V.; Elliott, D.B.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 2, the Baseline Detail.

  3. Energy expenditure in rock/pop drumming.

    PubMed

    De La Rue, S E; Draper, S B; Potter, C R; Smith, M S

    2013-10-01

    Despite the vigorous nature of rock/pop drumming, there are no precise data on the energy expenditure of this activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the energy cost of rock/pop drumming. Fourteen male drummers (mean±SD; age 27±8 yrs.) completed an incremental drumming test to establish the relationship between energy expenditure and heart rate for this activity and a ramped cycle ergometer test to exhaustion as a criterion measure for peak values (oxygen uptake and heart rate). During live concert performance heart rate was continuously measured and used to estimate energy expenditure (from the energy expenditure vs. heart rate data derived from the drumming test). During concert performance, estimated energy expenditure (mean±SD) was 623±168 kcal.h⁻¹ (8.1±2.2 METs) during performances of 38.6±15.6 min, and drummers achieved a peak heart rate of 186±16 b.min⁻¹. During the drumming test participants attained 78.7±8.3% of the cycle ergometer peak oxygen uptake. Rock/pop drumming represents a relatively high-intensity form of physical activity and as such involves significant energy expenditure. Rock/pop drumming should be considered as a viable alternative to more traditional forms of physical activity.

  4. Modeling VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the VOC permeability had been measured. Permeabilities for five VOCs [methylene chloride, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethylene] were measured across a polyethylene bag. Comparison of model and experimental results of VOC concentration as a function of time indicate that model accurately accounts for significant VOC transport mechanisms in a lab-scale waste drum.

  5. TRU drum corrosion task team report

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, K.E.; Lavery, C.A.; Zeek, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations.

  6. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum....

  7. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum....

  8. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  20. A Sludge Drum in the APNea System

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, D.

    1998-11-17

    The assay of sludge drums pushes the APNea System to a definite extreme. Even though it seems clear that neutron based assay should be the method of choice for sludge drums, the difficulties posed by this matrix push any NDA technique to its limits. Special emphasis is given here to the differential die-away technique, which appears to approach the desired sensitivity. A parallel analysis of ethafoam drums will be presented, since the ethafoam matrix fits well within the operating range of the AIWea System, and, having been part of the early PDP trials, has been assayed by many in the NDA community.

  1. Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen; Freshwater, David

    2009-07-10

    Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.

  2. Interpreting honeycomb climbing-drum peel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferdie, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Drum-peel tests are made more meaningful by use of approximations to derive analytical expressions relating failures due to bond flatwise tension, inplane tension, and shear, to adhesive weight and method of bond cure.

  3. Pallet fire test for steel drum storage on wooden pallets

    SciTech Connect

    Snook, B.L.

    1992-06-19

    A fire test was conducted by the Martin Marietta PORTS Fire Protection Engineering Department on October 3, 1991. This test was designed and set up to simulate a proposed storage configuration. The array consisted of 55-gallon steel drums, filled with noncombustible waste material, placed on wooden pallets stacked three tiers high. Results from the test served as the basis for determining the fire protection requirements for this type of storage. Data acquired from the test indicated that relatively high temperatures were obtained from the ignition source. These readings, taken during short durations throughout the test, were recorded from digital readouts connected to individual thermocouples. The test demonstrated that the wooden pallets did not significantly ignite and basically self-extinguished once the ignition source was consumed. Based upon these findings, storage of this type may be placed in the high bay (70 foot ceilings) sprinklered areas. This is providing that good housekeeping is implemented, large ignition sources are not allowed to be stored or parked in the area, and flammable and combustible liquids and solids are not permitted within the storage zones. The area shall also be designated as a {open_quotes}NO SMOKING{close_quotes} area.

  4. Cutter drum drive assembly for canted end sections

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, G.L.

    1981-06-02

    A continuous mining machine includes a body portion having a longitudinal axis and mounted on endless tracks. A boom member extends forwardly from the body portion with a cutter drum member rotatably mounted on the front of the boom member. The cutter drum member has an intermediate drum section and a pair of canted end drum section. The intermediate drum section is spaced from the end drum sections to provide openings therebetween. The boom member has front end portions extending through the openings to rotatably support the cutter drum member. Input drive shafts extend from drive motors on the body portion forwardly from the boom member at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the body portion through the openings. In each end drum section meshing spiral bevel gears connect the input drive shaft through a planetary gear train to the end drum drive shaft. Rotation is transmitted from each end drum drive shaft to a drive shaft for rotating the intermediate drum section. Positioning the input drive shafts at an angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the machine body portion facilitates positioning planetary gear trains in the end drum section to locate the cutter drum assembly for efficient feeding of dislodged material onto the machine and reduce the diameter of the intermediate drum section.

  5. 40 CFR 80.1440 - What are the provisions for blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the provisions for blenders... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1440 What are the provisions for blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? (a) Renewable fuel blenders...

  6. 40 CFR 80.1440 - What are the provisions for blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the provisions for blenders... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1440 What are the provisions for blenders who handle and blend less than 125,000 gallons of renewable fuel per year? (a) Renewable fuel blenders...

  7. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives. PMID:26080900

  8. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives. PMID:26080900

  9. Experimental Avalanches in a Rotating Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubard, Aline; O'Hern, Corey; Shattuck, Mark

    We address the question of universality in granular avalanches and the system size effects on it. We set up an experiment made from a quasi-two-dimensional rotating drum half-filled with a monolayer of stainless-steel spheres. We measure the size of the avalanches created by the increased gravitational stress on the pile as we quasi-statically rotate the drum. We find two kinds of avalanches determined by the drum size. The size and duration distributions of the avalanches that do not span the whole system follow a power law and the avalanche shapes are self-similar and nearly parabolic. The distributions of the avalanches that span the whole system are limited by the maximal amount of potential energy stored in the system at the moment of the avalanche. NSF CMMI-1462439, CMMI-1463455.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the shaft,...

  11. 25. View of drum girder, with machinecontrol room above, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. View of drum girder, with machine-control room above, and drum rollers on center pivot pier. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  12. 1. UPPER SEGMENT OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, DRUM GATES ALONG SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. UPPER SEGMENT OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, DRUM GATES ALONG SIDE OF CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH (up the channel) - Tieton Dam, Spillway & Drum Gates, South & East side of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  13. 6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM AT THE STEWARD MINE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST DRUM WAS UNDER SHOT, THE WEST OVERSHOT - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  14. 4. SPILLWAY DRUM GATES AND CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST (upstream face ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SPILLWAY DRUM GATES AND CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST (upstream face and Control House in background) - Tieton Dam, Spillway & Drum Gates, South & East side of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  15. A maximum power point tracking algorithm for buoy-rope-drum wave energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Zhou, Y.; Cui, Z. C.; Zhu, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    The maximum power point tracking control is the key link to improve the energy conversion efficiency of wave energy converters (WEC). This paper presents a novel variable step size Perturb and Observe maximum power point tracking algorithm with a power classification standard for control of a buoy-rope-drum WEC. The algorithm and simulation model of the buoy-rope-drum WEC are presented in details, as well as simulation experiment results. The results show that the algorithm tracks the maximum power point of the WEC fast and accurately.

  16. Drums and Poems: An Intervention Promoting Empathic Connection and Literacy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassen, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Expressive therapies can be used with groups of children to increase empathy and reduce bullying and violence. When educators feel pressured to focus on standardized tests and basic skills, there is little attention and time for such programs. Drums and Poems is an intervention that counselors and teachers can use to address these problems by…

  17. A rotating drum stimulator for scanning embossed patterns and textures across the skin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K O; Phillips, J R

    1988-01-01

    A tactile stimulator is described that moves embossed or textured patterns tangentially across the skin. Patterns constructed by standard photoetching are mounted on the outer surface of a cylinder that rotates at a selected speed and is held in contact with the skin at a selected force. The stimulator operates in several modes to meet the different requirements of psychophysical and neurophysiological experiments. The features of note are (i) relatively small size and weight; (ii) flexible automated control of drum contact with the skin, angular velocity, axial position, and contact force; (iii) monitoring of drum angular and axial location to better than 10 micron accuracy; (iv) construction with commercially available devices; (v) electronic monitoring of skin contact; and (vi) rapid drum changes (2 seconds) during psychophysical or neurophysiological experiments. PMID:3361948

  18. Tensioning of a belt around a drum using membrane element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    An application of the membrane element to the problem of the tensioning of a conveyer belt which wraps around a drum is presented. Two cases were investigated: (1) belt tension increase due to drum edge wear; and (2) material trapped between the drum and the belt. In both cases it was found that the increase in belt tension was due to the additional stretching of the belt resulting from the drum radius change rather than from the transverse deflection of the belt.

  19. Performance of Four Experimental High-btu-per-gallon Fuels in a Single Turbojet Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonash, Edmund R; Metzler, Allen; Butze, Helmut F

    1955-01-01

    Performance characteristics of four hydrocarbon fuels having high Btu per gallon were determined in a single turbojet combustor. At simulated low-altitude operating conditions, the fuels with high Btu per gallon generally produced more carbon than did JP-4 and JP-5 fuels. The deposits were reduced appreciably with a fuel-oil additive. At high-altitude conditions, the high Btu-per-gallon fuels gave lower efficiencies than did JP-4 or JP-5 fuels. No attempts were made to improve performance by combustor design modification.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  5. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  6. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design feature means either the...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... anchor bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist...

  9. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  10. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  11. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  12. Unsteady-state VOC transport in vented waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-08-01

    A model of unsteady-state volatile organic compound (VOC) transport in a vented waste drum has been developed. Model predictions of the VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement and the drum headspace are compared to measurements in lab-scale simulated waste drums.

  13. 4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15-MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD HOUSE (left), OLD PUMP STATION (center), AND EAST FILTER BUILDING (background) - Dalecarlia Water Treatment Plant, 5900 MacArthur Boulevard, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

  15. [Nineteenth century physicians against drum perforation].

    PubMed

    Kierzek, A

    1995-01-01

    The trials of "organic" closure of drum perforation are described. The achievements of Adam Politzer, Hermann Schwartze, Joseph Gruber are presented. The first who used term "myringoplasty" was Emil Berthold. The "epochal" method of Wasilij Okuniew and achievements of Beniamin Gomperz are also depicted. The scientific activities of Polish otologists: Ludwik Guranowski and Rafai Spira were presented.

  16. Extendible column can be stowed on drum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtz, G. M.; Howard, E. A.

    1965-01-01

    Column formed from a series of segments held together by an internal spring or cable can be coiled on a drum or extended into a rigid structure. This storable coil is useful in boring for soil samples and supporting electrical and optical sensors.

  17. Food of freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, Michael T.

    1982-01-01

    The abundance of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) suggests they play an important role in the Lake Erie ecosystem. Our analysis of freshwater drum digestive tracts and macrobenthic samples collected from western Lake Erie indicates that drum were selective feeders. Planktonic cladocerans and larval midges (Chironomidae) were the primary prey organisms eaten by drum. Young-of-the-year fed mostly on cladocerans, while yearling and older drum ate both cladocerans and midge larvae. Decapods, pelecypods, and fish were found only in the digestive tracts of drum longer than 250 mm. While the most abundant organisms in benthic samples were cladocerans (ephippial) and oligochaetes (89.5% by number), they constituted less than 1% of the diet. An evaluation of food selectivity, using Ivlev's index of electivity for benthic organisms, indicated that adult drum preferred midges to any other benthic food.

  18. Effects of pre-exposures to a rotating optokinetic drum on adaptation to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Senqi; Stern, Robert M.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of two different preexposure procedures on the adaptation to motion-sickness-causing rotation motion in a rotating optokinetic drum were investigated in three groups of human subjects. The first (control) group had a standard 16-min exposure in a drum rotating at 60 deg/sec, with no preexposure. The second (incremental exposure) group had two separated 4-min preexposure periods, at 15 deg/min and 30 deg/min, immediately prior to the standard 16-min exposure. The third (abrupt exposure) group had the same preexposure but with the second rotation at 60 deg/min, followed by the standard exposure. It was found that subjects in the incremental exposure group had significantly fewer motion sickness symptoms during the standard rotation period than did the subjects in the other two groups.

  19. Characterization of In-Drum Drying Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.; Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Harapin, D.; Hertl, B.

    2006-07-01

    A few years ago Krsko NPP decided to introduce In-Drum Drying technology for treatment and conditioning of evaporator concentrates and spent ion resins. The main reason to employ this technology was the need for waste volume reduction and experience with vermiculite-cement solidification that proved inadequate for Krsko NPP. Use of In-Drum Drying technology was encouraged by good experience in the field at some German and Spanish NPP's. In the paper, solidification techniques in vermiculite-cement matrix and In-Drum Drying System are described briefly. The resulting waste forms (so called solidification and dryer products) and containers that are used for interim storage of these wastes are described as well. A comparison of the drying versus solidification technology is performed and advantages as well as disadvantages are underlined. Experience gained during seven years of system operation has shown that crying technology resulted in volume reduction by factor of 20 for evaporator concentrates, and by factor of 5 for spent ion resin. Special consideration is paid to the characterization of dryer products. For evaporator concentrates the resulting waste form is a solid salt block with up to 5% bound water. It is packaged in stainless steel drums (net volume of 200 l) with bolted lids and lifting rings. The fluidized spent ion resins (primary and blow-down) are sluiced into the spent resin drying tank. The resin is dewatered and dried by electrical jacket heaters. The resulting waste (i.e. fine granulates) is directly discharged into a shielded stainless steel drum with bolted lid and lifting rings. Characterization of both waste forms has been performed in accordance with recommendations given in Characterization of Radioactive Waste Forms and Packages issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997. This means that radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, biological and thermal properties of the waste form has been taken into consideration. In the paper

  20. 40 CFR 417.185 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.185 Standards of performance for new sources. The...

  1. 40 CFR 417.185 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.185 Standards of performance for new sources. The...

  2. 40 CFR 417.185 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.185 Standards of performance for new sources. The...

  3. 40 CFR 417.185 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.185 Standards of performance for new sources. The...

  4. 40 CFR 417.185 - Standards of performance for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.185 Standards of performance for new sources. The...

  5. A UK comparison for measurements of low levels of gamma-emitters in waste drums.

    PubMed

    Dean, Julian

    2009-05-01

    Much of the work of the UK nuclear industry is now concerned with decommissioning many of the existing power stations and other facilities. An important aspect of this work is the accurate measurement of low levels of radioactivity in waste forms such as building materials in order that these materials can be assigned to the correct waste streams. This has led to a call for suitable standards and reference materials, and the specific needs of UK users were identified at an NPL workshop in 2005. One of the highest priorities was for 'soft waste' spiked with gamma-emitters in a 200 L drum format, with an activity concentration of just under 0.4 Bq g(-1). In response, NPL prepared a single reference drum meeting this specification. The low density was achieved by loading the drum with plastic bottles, each partially loaded with ion-exchange resin. The resin in each bottle had been previously spiked with a mixture of (241)Am, (137)Cs and (60)Co, all traceable to national standards. The drum would be used primarily as the basis of a comparison exercise, but feedback on its usefulness as a calibration standard would also be sought. The drum was measured by 17 radioassay groups at 15 UK sites. The monitors used were mostly commercial gamma-spectrometry systems designed to accommodate waste drums. Some groups measured the drum on more than one monitor and some used more than one efficiency calibration. Many of the groups used mathematical modelling to derive their efficiencies. The results of the exercise were discussed at a second NPL workshop (2007), after which the participants were allowed to submit supplementary or replacement results (with reasons for any changes clearly stated). In total, 88 results were submitted. A total of 51 results were in agreement with the NPL values; of the remaining results, 24 were explained by the participants concerned (or were revised to provide supplementary values), but the other 13 results were either clearly discrepant or

  6. Potential VOC Deflagrations in a Vented TRU Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mukesh, GUPTA

    2005-04-07

    The objective of the analysis is to examine the potential for lid ejection from a vented transuranic (TRU) waste drum due to pressure buildup caused by the deflagration of hydrogen and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside the drum. In this analysis, the AICC pressure for a stoichiometric mixture of VOCs is calculated and then compared against the experimental peak pressure of stoichiometric combustion of propane and hexane in a combustion chamber. The experimental peak pressures of propane and hexane are about 12 percent lower than the calculated AICC pressure. Additional losses in the drum are calculated due to venting of the gases, drum bulging, waste compaction, and heat losses from the presence of waste in the drum. After accounting for these losses, the final pressures are compared to the minimum observed pressure that ejects the lid from a TRU drum. The ejection pressure of 105 psig is derived from data that was recorded for a series of tests where hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited inside sealed TRU drums. Since the calculated pressures are below the minimum lid ejection pressure, none of the VOCs and the hydrogen (up to 4 percent) mixtures present in the TRU waste drum is expected to cause lid ejection if ignited. The analysis of potential VOC deflagrations in a vented TRU drum can be applied across the DOE-Complex since TRU waste is stored in drums throughout the complex.

  7. Slit-Drum Camera For Projectile Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liangyi, Chen; Shaoxiang, Zhou; Guanhua, Cha; Yuxi, Hu

    1983-03-01

    The' model XF-70 slit-drum camera has been developed to record projectile in flight for observation and acquisition. It has two operation modes: (1) synchro-ballistic photography, (2) streak record. The film is located on the inner surface of rotating drum to make it travel. The folding mirror is arranged to reflect light beam 90 degree on to film. The assembly of folding mirror and slit aperture can be together rotated about the optical axis of objective so that the camera makes a feature of recording projectile having any launching angle either in synchro-ballistic photography or in streak record through prerotating the folding mirror assembly by an appropriate angle. The mechanical-electric shutter preventing film from reexposing is close to the slit aperture. The loading mechanism is designed for use in daylight. LED fiducial mark and timing mark are printed at the edges of the frame for accurate measurements.

  8. Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane

    2014-05-01

    A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This

  9. [Hypopharyngeal carcinoma and red ear drum].

    PubMed

    Bender, B; Widmann, G; Riechelmann, H; Schmutzhard, J

    2011-04-01

    A 46-year-old male patient with an unresectable hypopharyngeal carcinoma was treated with primary radio-chemotherapy. At follow-up, the patient presented with a red ear drum and combined hearing loss. Because of radiotherapy-induced tubal dysfunction, paracentesis was performed. Biopsy of the polypoid middle ear mucosa revealed petrous bone infiltration of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI studies revealed paracarotideal tumor infiltration to the petrous bone and the middle ear arising from a cervical retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis. PMID:20963385

  10. Size limitation on zebra mussels consumed by freshwater drum may preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Love, Joy G.

    1995-01-01

    The septa lengths of bivalve shells were used to estimate shell lengths of the largest zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) crushed and consumed by freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) to determine if size limitation could preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller of the zebra mussel. We examined gut samples of drum (273 to 542 mm long) collected from western Lake Erie in 1991, found the largest mussel (shell length = 21.4 mm) in the 11th largest drum (TL = 405 mm), and observed a reduction of mussel size in larger drum. The lack of a relationship between mussel size and drum size for larger specimens suggests that either drum prefer smaller mussels or the gape between the upper and lower pharyngeal teeth restricts drum feeding to zebra mussels of limited size. Although drum may reduce zebra mussel populations, because of the apparent size limitation of prey it is unlikely that drum would be fully effective as a biological controller; thus, this fish should not be introduced beyond its native range for that purpose.

  11. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  12. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Schiavio, Andrea; Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  13. Ribbon channel plate rotating drum DNA sequencing device.

    PubMed

    Douthart, R J; Welt, M; Walling, L

    1996-01-01

    A new design DNA sequencing electrophoresis device is described. The device, called the ribbon channeled plate rotating drum (rprd), consists of two major components, the plate assembly and the drum assembly. The plate assembly contains a machined or etched plate of individual micro-channels called the ribbon channeled plate. The ribbon channeled plate and other components of the plate assembly combine the advantages of thin gels and capillary arrays in a single unit with few of the disadvantages. The other major component of rprd is the drum assembly, which facilitates direct blotting onto deposition membranes affixed to a large plastic drum. The drum with attached membrane and deposited electrophoretically resolved ladders is easily moved to special units facilitating downstream processing and detection. The drum unit, although versatile, is specifically designed to be used with multiplex sequencing. PMID:8907517

  14. Characterization and handling of 7500 old drums in Studsvik

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrs, Carin; Lindberg, Maria; Lorenzen, Joachim

    2003-02-27

    7500 old drums were characterized and sorted into a number of categories. The sorting had two main purposes the first is to divide the drums into fractions that have the same content or origin or some other sorting criteria. The second purpose is not less important, it was to limit the amount of drums to work with at each point in time and therefore get a good overview of the drums. The third reason for handling the drums were that some was in poor condition since they previously had been stored outdoors. The drums were sorted into two main fractions, one with Studsvik-ID numbers and one without. These two fractions were then divided into sub-fractions depending on content, origin, dose-rate and a recommended final repository. The work is not yet completed but the procedures are established and work well.

  15. Drum-mate: interaction dynamics and gestures in human-humanoid drumming experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kose-Bagci, Hatice; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Syrdal, Dag S.; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.

    2010-06-01

    This article investigates the role of interaction kinesics in human-robot interaction (HRI). We adopted a bottom-up, synthetic approach towards interactive competencies in robots using simple, minimal computational models underlying the robot's interaction dynamics. We present two empirical, exploratory studies investigating a drumming experience with a humanoid robot (KASPAR) and a human. In the first experiment, the turn-taking behaviour of the humanoid is deterministic and the non-verbal gestures of the robot accompany its drumming to assess the impact of non-verbal gestures on the interaction. The second experiment studies a computational framework that facilitates emergent turn-taking dynamics, whereby the particular dynamics of turn-taking emerge from the social interaction between the human and the humanoid. The results from the HRI experiments are presented and analysed qualitatively (in terms of the participants' subjective experiences) and quantitatively (concerning the drumming performance of the human-robot pair). The results point out a trade-off between the subjective evaluation of the drumming experience from the perspective of the participants and the objective evaluation of the drumming performance. A certain number of gestures was preferred as a motivational factor in the interaction. The participants preferred the models underlying the robot's turn-taking which enable the robot and human to interact more and provide turn-taking closer to 'natural' human-human conversations, despite differences in objective measures of drumming behaviour. The results are consistent with the temporal behaviour matching hypothesis previously proposed in the literature which concerns the effect that the participants adapt their own interaction dynamics to the robot's.

  16. This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the BakerPerkins 150gallon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the Baker-Perkins 150-gallon mixer installation in the building. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "150 Gallon Mixer System Bldg. E-34, Plans, Sections & Details," drawing no. E34/6-0, 10 July 1963. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Mixer, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  18. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  19. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  20. Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, H.M.

    1996-09-16

    This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

  1. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  2. Automated Store Management For Drum Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, W.; Lang, R.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes advanced system technology developed for a new Drum Storage Facility to be operated by Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A logistics management concept is applied for the storage of solid rad-wastes in terms of automated handling, transportation and storing as well as in terms of data management. The individual equipments, such as automated Bridge Cranes, Automatic Guided Vehicles and auxiliary systems are introduced in this paper and the store management process is outlined. The authors report furthermore on challenges during the design and engineering phase and review the project implementation from the equipment supplier's end. (authors)

  3. Thermal sensing for characterizing the contents of waste storage drums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W. D.; Philipson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the feasibility to employ remote sensing for the characterization of the contents of liquid chemical waste storage drums. Philipson et al. (1981) had found that, when the air temperature is changing rapidly, differences in the thermal inertia of the drum contents can lead to detectable differences in the skin temperature of the drums. Thus, postsunset, airborne thermal remote sensing could potentially provide some level of discrimination among chemical storage drums. Discrimination should be possible among steel drums filled largely with: (1) aqueous solvents, (2) organic solvents, or (3) clay packing materials. The response of a drum filled with clay packing materials should be similar to that of an empty drum. The reported study had the objective to verify the theoretical findings, taking into account the use of a hand-held infrared radiometer. It was found that under the proper conditions the temperature differences among drums with the three different types of contents will be significant and consistent.

  4. The Talking Drum: Moving toward a Psychology of Literacy Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Joseph H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the talking drum has been a viable cultural voice for many West and Central African cultures in the acquisition of literacy. Emphasizes musical character of tonal languages and the use of the talking drum for literacy purposes. Proposes research questions regarding function and use of music and language; describes role of the talking…

  5. Rhythmic Characteristics of Improvisational Drumming among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    A call-and-response drumming activity was carried out to determine the rhythmic characteristics of improvised patterns created by preschool children. Specific goals of the study were to: (1) determine the durations, start and stop times, and rhythmic patterns of improvised responses to a simple given call using drums; (2) determine the presence or…

  6. Packaging design criteria for the Type B Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.; Smith, R.J.; Wells, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Type B Drum package is a transportation cask capable of shipping a single 55-gal (208 L) drum of transuranic (TRU) waste. The Type B Drum is smaller than existing certified packages, such as the TRUPACT-II cask, but will allow payloads with higher thermal and gas generation rates, thus providing greater operational flexibility. The Type B Drum package has double containment so that plutonium contents and other radioactive material may be transported in Type B quantities. Conceptual designs of unshielded and shielded versions of the Type B Drum were completed in Report on the Conceptual Design of the Unshielded Type B Drum Packaging and Report on the Conceptual Design of the Shielded type B Drum Packaging (WEC 1994a, WEC 1994b), which demonstrated the Type B Drum to be a viable packaging system. A Type B package containment system must withstand the normal conditions of transport and the hypothetical accident conditions, which include a 9-m (30-ft) drop onto an unyielding surface and a 1-m (3-ft) drop onto a 15-cm (6-in.) diameter pin, and a fire and immersion scenarios.

  7. Drum ring removal/installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Andrade, William Andrew

    2006-11-14

    A handheld tool, or a pair of such tools, such as for use in removing/installing a bolt-type clamping ring on a container barrel/drum, where the clamping ring has a pair of clamping ends each with a throughbore. Each tool has an elongated handle and an elongated lever arm transversely connected to one end of the handle. The lever arm is capable of being inserted into the throughbore of a selected clamping end and leveraged with the handle to exert a first moment on the selected clamping end. Each tool also has a second lever arm, such as a socket with an open-ended slot, which is suspended alongside the first lever arm. The second lever arm is capable of engaging the selected clamping end and being leveraged with the handle to exert a second moment which is orthogonal to the first moment. In this manner, the first and second moments operate to hold the selected clamping end fixed relative to the tool so that the selected clamping end may be controlled with the handle. The pair of clamping ends may also be simultaneously and independently controlled with the use of two handles/tools so as to contort the geometry of the drum clamping ring and enable its removal/installation.

  8. Processing results of 1800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-05-01

    Mercury-contaminated rinse solution was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 reactor shield tank. Approximately 6.8 m{sup 3} (1,800 pi) of waste was generated and placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 2--5 cm in depth, with the average depth of about 6 cm. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/mL while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pCi/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. The resulting solution after treatment had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml.

  9. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-08-23

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site FB-Line conducted atomic energy defense activities consistent with the listing in Section 10101(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The facility mission was to process and convert dilute plutonium solution into highly purified weapons grade plutonium metal. As a result of various activities conducted in support of the mission (e.g., operation, maintenance, repair, clean up, and facility modifications), the facility generated transuranic waste. This document, along with referenced supporting documents, provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration,equipment, process operations, and waste management practices.

  10. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... laminated together and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed kraft paper, metal foil..., plastics, or other suitable material and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed...

  11. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... laminated together and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed kraft paper, metal foil..., plastics, or other suitable material and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed...

  12. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... laminated together and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed kraft paper, metal foil..., plastics, or other suitable material and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed...

  13. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be constructed of multiple plies of heavy paper or fiberboard (without corrugations) firmly glued or laminated together and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed kraft paper, metal foil, plastic material, or similar materials. (2) Heads must be of natural wood, fiberboard, metal,...

  14. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  15. Impacts of a 32-billion-gallon bioenergy landscape on land and fossil fuel use in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Wang, Weiwei; Khanna, Madhu; Long, Stephen P.; Dwivedi, Puneet; Parton, William J.; Hartman, Melannie; Delucia, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable transportation biofuels may require considerable changes in land use to meet mandated targets. Understanding the possible impact of different policies on land use and greenhouse gas emissions has typically proceeded by exploring either ecosystem or economic modelling. Here we integrate such models to assess the potential for the US Renewable Fuel Standard to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector through the use of cellulosic biofuels. We find that 2022 US emissions are decreased by 7.0 ± 2.5% largely through gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage by perennial grasses. If the Renewable Fuel Standard is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, these emissions could be reduced by 12.3 ± 3.4%. Our integrated approach indicates that transitioning to cellulosic biofuels can meet a 32-billion-gallon Renewable Fuel Standard target with negligible effects on food crop production, while reducing fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. However, emissions savings are lower than previous estimates that did not account for economic constraints.

  16. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gallons of gasoline. (a) You must not allow gasoline to be handled in a manner that would result in...

  17. Businaro-Gallone transition as observed in complete charge distributions from compound nucleus decay

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1984-08-01

    The compound nucleus emission of fragments covering the entire mass range has been observed in reactions exploiting both ordinary and reverse kinematics. The compound nucleus mechanism has been inferred from full momentum transfer, angular independence of the fragment center of mass kinetic energies and excitation functions. The drastic change in the observed charge distributions as one crosses A approx. = 100 illustrates the effect of the Businaro-Gallone point.

  18. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  19. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  20. CSER 97-008: 327 Building hot cell and SERF one-gallon can criticality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.G.

    1997-10-22

    This CSER gives the limits for the storage of one-gallon cans in the hot cells and the SERF in the 327 Building. The 327 Building is used to perform post irradiation testing of fissionable materials in remotely manipulated hot cells. Historically, scrap pieces of fuel cladding, cleanup materials, and other items have been placed into one-gallon paint cans for storage and ultimately disposal. These cans of materials had been assumed to contain no (or essentially no) fissionable materials, and therefore were not specifically controlled for material accountability. Recently, eight cans with high radiation levels were selected to be assayed for content. These cans contained from 0 to 2.5 grams of fissionable material, with an average of 1 gram per can. Since several of the hot cells contained a significant quantity of the cans, concerns were raised as to whether a CPS nonconformance had occurred, and should the cans have some limits for operation placed on them. This analysis is a response to the concerns raised, and gives guidance for incorporating operating limits for the one-gallon waste cans.

  1. Materials science and metallurgy of the Caribbean steel drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreyra Tello, Everaldo

    The fabrication of a steel drum (or steelpan), especially the sinking of the drum head by hand with a hammer, has been examined in detail utilizing light metallography (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Residual microstructures corresponding to reductions in thickness of up to 50% at the bottom of the drum-head indicate that dislocation densities in the low carbon (0.04 to 0.09% C), ferritic steels, can exceed 1010 cm -2. This substructure in conjunction with a grain structure consisting of elongated grains produces hardness increases of up to 45% at the bottom of the drum head. The heat treatment (or ``burning'') of the Caribbean steel drum is an essential stage in the fabrication process and has been found to involve strain aging, which increases the hardness by an additional 5 to 20%. This is especially prominent in drum steels containing from 0.04 to 0.09% C. The strain aging combined with the strain hardening applied to the drum head sinking and note fabrication process, produces a requisite elastic-plastic interaction which allows for multi-harmonic tuning and the creation of the unique chromatic tones and harmonic overtones which are characteristic of the various instruments. These unique features of note vibrations were observed by comparing impact hardness profiles with the corresponding static Vickers hardness measurements for actual, tuned notes and the same, corresponding notes extracted from the drum head, respectively. Elastic-plastic and plastic hardness profiles were compared in unique color maps. In an effort to understand the influence of deformation on the sound of the steel drum, circular disks simulating free, ideal notes, and utilizing 316 stainless steel plates (0.05% C), were cold rolled to reductions up to 40%. Disks were hung on a wire through a hole drilled on the edge of the disk, and hit with a heavy (tungsten alloy) mallet to record the acoustic sound spectra. Requisite amounts of carbon interact with dislocations in

  2. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID{number_sign} 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 {mu} to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solution had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml. This solution was disposed of at the TAN warm waste pond, TAN782, TSF-10.

  3. Size-time composition profile of aerosols using the drum sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Feeney, Patrick J.; Eldred, Robert A.

    1987-03-01

    Mie scattering theory imposes strict requirements for both size and compositional information on aerosols associated with visibility degradation. But, at the very clean National Park Service sites where we do such studies, episodes of degraded visibility may be infrequent and of short duration. To meet these needs, an 8 stage impactor of the Battelle/SFU design was mated to rotating drum impaction surfaces of the Lundgren design in a compact and rugged DRUM sampler of Davis design. This unit, three years in development, has been extensively tested using laboratory aerosols and field intercomparisons. The standard unit runs essentially unattended for 14 or 28 days. The samples are analyzed in 2 to 8 hour time segments. Analyses are done by carefully collimated (1 mm, 2 mm) proton beams in a tightly coupled PIXE system, yielding sensitivities of a few {solng}/{m 3}. Dramatic shifts in the size distribution of sulfur versus time have been observed, with direct influence on optical extinction. Further, primary smelter effluents have been clearly identified at Grand Canyon NP, but only in the < 0.15 μm size fraction. The DRUM sampler makes excellent use of PIXE capabilities, but can also be analyzed by lasers (Csoot) and β-gauging (mass).

  4. 55. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, LOOP B, STEAM DRUM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, LOOP B, STEAM DRUM AND DOWNCOMERS LOOKING EAST (LOCATION LLL) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  5. 49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORROLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORR-OLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN THE FILTER CAKE HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  7. The Play as Novel: Reappropriating Brecht's "Drums in the Night."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Della

    1988-01-01

    Applies Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of the novel to Bertolt Brecht's "Drums in the Night" to illuminate the play's dialogic structure and alienation value, and reappropriate its prerevolutionary dimensions for contemporary use. (MM)

  8. SWING BRIDGE AT CENTER OF SPAN. DRUM, ALTHOUGH NOT VISIBLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SWING BRIDGE AT CENTER OF SPAN. DRUM, ALTHOUGH NOT VISIBLE, IS AT CENTER OF PICTURE. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. Slit Logs and Sacred Cows: The History of the Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of the drum is presented in both pictures and prose, from its beginning in Africa and the Far Eastern world to its introduction to the Western world where it is now fully accepted as a serious instrument. (KC)

  10. 47. TRESTLE OVER DRUM ISLAND, WEST END OF COOPER RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. TRESTLE OVER DRUM ISLAND, WEST END OF COOPER RIVER SPAN, FACING NORTHWEST FROM WATER - Grace Memorial Bridge, U.S. Highway 17 spanning Cooper River & Town Creek , Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  11. View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  12. View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  13. Investigation of Cherenkov Light in an Oil Drum with Cosmic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedel, Zachary; Niduaza, Rexavalmar; Castro, Juan; Zavala, Favian; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2014-03-01

    Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) have been around for decades and have become well understood in their use as cosmic ray detectors. Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs), on the other hand, are still being explored as more viable, cost-effective light detector for counting cosmic rays. To detect cosmic rays by the Cherenkov effect, we placed an acrylic cylinder, with wavelength-shifting fibers coiled around it and filled with distilled water, inside a light-tight box that was able to detect the weak light signals with PMTs (1 and 3 inch), an MPPC (3 mm × 3 mm), and with coincidence between different detectors. Additionally, we utilized an oil drum with approximate volume of 30 gallons as a light-tight vessel to conduct coincidence counts for detecting cosmic rays using the PMTs and MPPCs (3 mm × 3 mm and 1 mm × 1 mm). In this poster presentation, we would present our findings as a comparative analysis between the two different vessels and the efficiency thereof of the same to determine whether or not the MPPC is a viable instrument for detecting cosmic rays that produce Cherenkov light. Department of Education grant number P031S90007.

  14. Large >60 gallon/day ‘pulse-tube’ oxygen liquefier for aircraft carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoor, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    An oxygen liquefier using a large ‘pulse-tube’ or acoustic-Stirling cryocooler is described, which has a liquefaction rate in excess of 60 gallons per day (227 liters per day) as measured by the increase in weight of a storage dewar, from <20 kWe input. Several of these systems will be deployed on U.S. Navy aircraft carriers to provide shipboard liquid oxygen. Paths to improvement in future systems are identified, although it is noted that since the present system exceeds the required specifications, these improvements may not be implemented in the near term.

  15. Cost effective closure of five 1,500,000 gallons underground tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Meuse, R.J.; Balco, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    Tank closure may be considered routine -- unless they are five 1.5 million-gallon bomb proof underground storage tanks and are located adjacent to a 14-story hotel and under an operating trucking terminal! The site is the former US Navy Fuel Storage Annex in East Boston, Massachusetts. This 4.2-million dollar program was implemented under the US Army Corps of Engineers Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP). The project demonstrated that intensive site study is not required to begin site closure, non-conventional approaches can be cost-effective and unanticipated events can be addressed without jeopardizing project objectives.

  16. Small scale ethanol production: design manual. [10 to 15 gallons per hour

    SciTech Connect

    Adcock, L.E. II; Eley, M.H.; Schroer, B.J.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. The scope of the study was to satisfy four specific objectives. The first objective was to design a small scale continuous distillation unit capable of producing 10 to 15 gallons per hour of 170 to 190 proof ethanol. A second objective was to economically fabricate the distillation unit. A third objective was to thoroughly evaluate the unit with emphasis on production potential, operation considerations, and energy balance. The fourth objective was to work with the Farm Bureau in identifying an organization that would place the unit in a production environment. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit is capable of producing and average of 9 to 14 gallons per hour (based on alcohol percent in beer) of 174 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation is a positive 3:1. Once the unit has reached steady state very little operator attention is required with the exception of periodically refluxing. Material cost of the plate column is approximately $5000. The unit could be built by an individual provided he is trained in welding and has the necessary shop equipment. 39 figures, 12 tables.

  17. Continuous mining machine and cutter drum drive therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Lebegue, M.K.

    1980-09-30

    A cutter drum member of a continuous mining machine is rotatably mounted on the front end of the machine. The drum member includes an intermediate section and a pair of canted end sections. Cutting elements extend from the surface of the respective drum sections and provide a continuous cutting pattern along the entire length of the drum member. Input drive shafts extend through rear openings between the adjacent ends of the intermediate section and the end sections. Rotation is transmitted from the input drive shafts through meshing bevel gears and planetary gears to rotate the intermediate section. The adjacent ends of the intermediate section and end sections include meshing gear teeth secured to the external surface of the sections so that the canted end sections are driven by the external meshing gear teeth. Passageways formed between the gear teeth on the external cylindrical surfaces of the drum sections facilitate the flow of dislodged material between the gear teeth to prevent material from accumulating between the teeth and thereby ensure positive drive to the canted end sections.

  18. Brittle fractures of the drums of high-pressure boilers: Main causes and methods for preventing them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grin', E. A.

    2008-02-01

    Factors causing damage to the metal of the drums of high-pressure boilers, as well as the known cases of drum failures, are analyzed. The totality of factors determining the operational reliability of drums is systematized. The process-related mechanism governing the destruction of the drums at the Kurgan cogeneration station and TETs-3 Yaroslavl cogeneration station, and the general factors caused these drums to fail are identified. Recommendations for reducing the risk of drum failures are formulated.

  19. Tread drum for animals. [having an electrical shock station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A device for exercising animals such as primates is described, which includes a cylindrical housing mounted for rotation about a horizontal axis of revolution and has a cylindrical treadway portion on which the animal treads while the drum is rotated by means of a motorized drive. The treadway portion of the drum includes an electrode structure with sectors being independently energizable by means of a commutator and source of potential so that an electrical shock station is created behind a running-in-place station on the moving treadway. In this manner, if the animal should fall behind its running-in-place station, it may be shocked by treading on the energized electrode structure. One end of the tread drum comprises a transparent wall for unobstructed viewing of the animal being exercised.

  20. Alternatives to reduce corrosion of carbon steel storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    The major tasks of this research were (a) pollution prevention opportunity assessments on the overpacking operations for failed or corroded drums, (b) research on existing container corrosion data, (c) investigation of the storage environment of the new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Type II storage modules, (d) identification of waste streams that demonstrate deleterious corrosion affects on drum storage life, and (e) corrosion test cell program development. Twenty-one waste streams from five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites within the DOE Complex were identified to demonstrate a deleterious effect to steel storage drums. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure: 0.5 to 2 years. The results of this research support the position that pollution prevention evaluations at the front end of a project or process will reduce pollution on the back end.

  1. Image data rate converter having a drum with a fixed head and a rotatable head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A data-rate converter is disclosed comprising a rotatable data-storing drum with at least one fixed read/record head and a rotatable read/record head. The latter is rotatable in a circular path about the drum axis of rotation. The drum is positionable in any one of a plurality of axial positions with respect to the heads, so that at least one drum track is aligned with the fixed head in one drum position and with the rotatable head in another drum position. When a track is aligned with the fixed head, data may be recorded therin or read out therefrom at a rate which is a function of drum rotation, while when aligned with the rotatable head, data may be recorded or read out at a rate which is a function of the rates and directions of rotation of both the drum and the head.

  2. Case studies of corrosion of mixed waste and transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents three case studies of corrosion of waste drums at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Corrosion was not anticipated by the waste generators, but occurred because of subtle chemical or physical mechanisms. In one case, drums of a cemented transuranic (TRU) sludge experienced general and pitting corrosion. In the second instance, a chemical from a commercial paint stripper migrated from its primary containment drums to chemically attack overpack drums made of mild carbon steel. In the third case, drums of mixed low level waste (MLLW) soil corroded drum packaging even though the waste appeared to be dry when it was placed in the drums. These case studies are jointly discussed as ``lessons learned`` to enhance awareness of subtle mechanisms that can contribute to the corrosion of radioactive waste drums during interim storage.

  3. Traveling wave of segregation in a highly filled rotating drum.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Shio; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2010-09-10

    The dynamics of a segregation pattern for a granular mixture in a highly filled rotating drum were studied. A spontaneously segregated band pattern traveled laterally and was accompanied by the repeated creation of new bands near the center of the drum and annihilation at both of its ends. The presence of nearly stationary convection plays an essential role in causing this traveling wave. Based on direct observations of both the interior and the exterior of the segregation pattern, this spatiotemporal pattern is interpreted in terms of a one-dimensional Cahn-Hilliard equation by including the effect of stationary convection. PMID:20867609

  4. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes.

  5. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Drum, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Scott A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Solana, Amy E.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rowley, Steven; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-10-20

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Drum, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Drum took place on May 4 and 5, 2010.

  6. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, C.F.,; Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R.,

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  7. Specific Instructions Are Important for Continuous Bimanual Drumming in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringenbach, Shannon D.; Allen, Heather; Chung, Susan; Jung, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined continuous and discrete bimanual drumming in response to different instructions in 10 adults with Down syndrome, 10 mental age-matched and 10 chronological age-matched groups. For continuous drumming, participants hit two drums with both hands at the same time following verbal (e.g., "up" and "down"), visual (e.g., video…

  8. How to Drum Up a Conversation in a Required Music Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Barry Charles

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities in a secondary music class in which students communicate with talking drums. Maintains that the class project was developed during a teaching unit on the musical practices of the Ashanti ethnic group in Ghana. Includes instructions for making talking drums and four examples of orchestrating name rhythms for drums. (CFR)

  9. The Oral Tradition in the Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble is a Ghanaian drum and dance ensemble that focusses on music in the Ewe tradition. It is based in an elementary school in the Greater Toronto Area and consists of students in Grade 4 through Grade 8. Students in the ensemble study Ghanaian traditional Ewe drumming and dancing in the oral tradition. Nine students…

  10. Persons with and without Down Syndrome Use Similar Strategies when Using Visual Instructions for Bimanual Drumming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringenbach, S. D. (Robertson); Mulvey, G. M.; Beachy, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggested that persons with Down syndrome (DS) used a different strategy to drum than typical adults. Methods: The present study examined continuous bimanual drumming strategies in response to different instructions in 10 persons with DS, 10 mental age-matched and 10 chronological age-matched groups. The drumming task…

  11. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel hoist should be provided with a locking mechanism or interlocked with the brake to prevent...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel hoist should be provided with a locking mechanism or interlocked with the brake to prevent...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel hoist should be provided with a locking mechanism or interlocked with the brake to prevent...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel hoist should be provided with a locking mechanism or interlocked with the brake to prevent...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel hoist... shaft sumps. (f) Workers should wear safety belts while doing work in or over shafts....

  16. The Impact of Group Drumming on Social-Emotional Behavior in Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ping; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Bloch, Lian; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2011-01-01

    Low-income youth experience social-emotional problems linked to chronic stress that are exacerbated by lack of access to care. Drumming is a non-verbal, universal activity that builds upon a collectivistic aspect of diverse cultures and does not bear the stigma of therapy. A pretest-post-test non-equivalent control group design was used to assess the effects of 12 weeks of school counselor-led drumming on social-emotional behavior in two fifth-grade intervention classrooms versus two standard education control classrooms. The weekly intervention integrated rhythmic and group counseling activities to build skills, such as emotion management, focus and listening. The Teacher's Report Form was used to assess each of 101 participants (n = 54 experimental, n = 47 control, 90% Latino, 53.5% female, mean age 10.5 years, range 10–12 years). There was 100% retention. ANOVA testing showed that intervention classrooms improved significantly compared to the control group in broad-band scales (total problems (P < .01), internalizing problems (P < .02)), narrow-band syndrome scales (withdrawn/depression (P < .02), attention problems (P < .01), inattention subscale (P < .001)), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales (anxiety problems (P < .01), attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (P < .01), inattention subscale (P < .001), oppositional defiant problems (P < .03)), and other scales (post-traumatic stress problems (P < .01), sluggish cognitive tempo (P < .001)). Participation in group drumming led to significant improvements in multiple domains of social-emotional behavior. This sustainable intervention can foster positive youth development and increase student-counselor interaction. These findings underscore the potential value of the arts as a therapeutic tool. PMID:21660091

  17. Characterization of chaotic motion in a rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidheiser, James E.

    Numerous studies in the past have demonstrated the potential for geometrically simple fluid systems to produce complicated dynamical behavior. In particular, small collections of non-Brownian particles moving within viscous fluids can follow chaotic trajectories. In this work, we study a rotating drum filled with pure glycerol and three large, heavy particles. In studying these rotating drum systems, we have found a rich and varied phase space, made up of several previously unseen behaviors. With varying rotation rate, the particles can undergo straightforward cascading periodic behavior, and grouped periodic cascades we have labeled as doublet and triplet states. Furthermore, we find two regimes of qualitatively distinct chaotic behavior, with one type biased to either side of the drum, and the other lacking bias. The rotating drum experiment serves as a simple model system to demonstrate chaotic behavior in fluid dynamical systems. The existence of such model systems gives a baseline to which other systems can be compared and better understood, and our use of robust, easily implemented measurements serves as a straightforward comparison point which can be applied to various other chaotic fluid systems.

  18. Middle School Drum Ensemble: An Unlikely Experience in Classroom Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbre, James

    2013-01-01

    Though music has a long and successful history within education, it is often one of the first sacrificial lambs when school budgets tighten. Over the course of an academic year, a documentary film sought to tell the story of an American middle school drum ensemble. The context of this group provided an ideal way to examine the nature of student…

  19. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html.

  20. Support for transmission shaft and hydraulic servo drum

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, K.; Sumiya, K.; Taga, Y.; Watanabe, K.

    1987-09-15

    In a support for use in an automatic transmission apparatus of the type having a transmission shaft for transmitting power, an annular hydraulic servo drum and a piston fitted in the hydraulic servo drum for engaging and disengaging a friction engaging means is described, wherein the support has an axially extending tubular supporting portion having an inner peripheral surface for supporting the transmission shaft, an outer peripheral surface for supporting an inner cylindrical portion of the hydraulic servo drum, and working oil passages formed and adapted for supplying and discharging a working oil to and from the hydraulic servo drum. The improvement consists of: a support body made of light material having a first radially extending oil passage leading from an oil pressure controller for supplying and discharging a working oil and communicating with the inner peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion; an inner sleeve of a heavier material than the support body fitting on the inner peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion to cover the inner axially extending oil groove thereby forming an oil passage for working oil; and an outer sleeve of a heavier material than the support body fitting on the outer peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion.

  1. The Way of the Drum: When Earth Becomes Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Grafton; Turchetti, Lois Provost

    Two Native people describe their respective journeys to healing, journeys that involved the rediscovery of language and culture. In Part I, "Healing the Tears of Yesterday by the Drum Today: The Oneida Language Is a Healing Medicine" (Grafton Antone), the first narrator taught the Oneida language to adult students at a community center. Lacking…

  2. 3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, NORTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, NORTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM MACHINERY ROOM. MOTOR #1 COMPARTMENT IN REAR, AUXILIARY MOTOR DRIVE SHAFT, POWER PANELS ON BACK OF AUXILIARY MOTOR HOUSE. BRIDGE DECK FRAMING ABOVE. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  3. Flow Straightener for a Rotating-Drum Liquid Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Coin, James R.; Converse, David G.; Rethke, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    A flow straightener has been incorporated into a rotary liquid separator that originally comprised an inlet tube, a shroud plate, an impeller, an inner drum, an outer drum, a housing, a pitot tube, and a hollow shaft motor. As a consequence of the original geometry of the impeller, shroud, inner drum, and hollow shaft, swirl was created in the airflow inside the hollow shaft during operation. The swirl speed was large enough to cause a significant pressure drop. The flow straightener consists of vanes on the back side of the shroud plate. These vanes compartmentalize the inside of the inner drum in such a way as to break up the flow path and thereby stop the air from swirling; as a result, the air enters the hollow shaft with a predominantly axial velocity instead of a swirl. Tests of the rotary liquid separator at an airflow rate of 10 cu ft/min (0.0047 cu m/s) revealed that the dynamic pressure drop was 8 in. of water (approx.=2 kPa) in the absence of the flow straightener and was reduced to 1 in. of water (approx.=0.25 kPa) in the presence of the flow straightener.

  4. Development of Interpersonal Coordination between Peers during a Drumming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Ramenzoni, Veronica C. O.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their drumming with a peer. Results showed that all children…

  5. Memory Drum Theory's C Movement: Revelations from Franklin Henry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Mark G.; Christina, Robert W.; Anson, J. Greg

    2008-01-01

    Franklin Henry's "memory drum" theory of neuromotor reaction (Henry & Rogers, 1960) was one of the most influential studies of the response programming stage of information processing. The paper is the most-cited study ever published in the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport." However, few people know there is a noteworthy error in the…

  6. Greenhouse gas implications of a 32 billion gallon bioenergy landscape in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, E. H.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Wang, W.; Khanna, M.; Long, S.; Dwivedi, P.; Parton, W. J.; Hartman, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable bioenergy for transportation fuel and greenhouse gas (GHGs) reductions may require considerable changes in land use. Perennial grasses have been proposed because of their potential to yield substantial biomass on marginal lands without displacing food and reduce GHG emissions by storing soil carbon. Here, we implemented an integrated approach to planning bioenergy landscapes by combining spatially-explicit ecosystem and economic models to predict a least-cost land allocation for a 32 billion gallon (121 billion liter) renewable fuel mandate in the US. We find that 2022 GHG transportation emissions are decreased by 7% when 3.9 million hectares of eastern US land are converted to perennial grasses supplemented with corn residue to meet cellulosic ethanol requirements, largely because of gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage. If renewable fuel production is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by 12%, because it induces more cellulosic biofuel and land under perennial grasses (10 million hectares) than under the mandate alone. While GHG reducing bioenergy landscapes that meet RFS requirements and do not displace food are possible, the reductions in GHG emissions are 50% less compared to previous estimates that did not account for economically feasible land allocation.

  7. Measurement of the U-235 Content of Concreted Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rackham, J.; Hughes, K.; Oldeide, R.; Sharpe, J.; Morgan, S.

    2008-07-01

    A challenging assay situation recently arose, whereby the fissile (i.e. total plutonium plus U-235) content of a population of 164 historical waste drums containing concrete needed to be measured, to comply with nuclear safety limits for transport to, and interim storage within, an Engineered Drum Store. BIL Solutions Ltd has developed a new methodology for measurement of the U-235 content of these 'concrete' drums, because the approach normally used by the in-situ Drum Monitors was found to be overly pessimistic. Initial investigations indicated significant quantities of uranium were present in these drums (but negligible plutonium), mixed with Np-237 and / or Ra-226. These initial measurements also indicated that the uranium was likely to be depleted in enrichment. The U-235 content was therefore determined by measuring the U-238 mass via the passive coincident neutron emission, and combining this with the U-235 and U-238 isotopic abundances, obtained by analysis of a gamma spectrum. Of the uranium isotopic analysis codes available, the FRAM (Fixed energy, Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) software was selected as being most suitable for this application. A wide gamma-ray energy range is used (i.e. 120 keV to 1200 keV) which was considered more likely to yield results when there is significant attenuation. The software is also user configurable, enabling interferences from the other radionuclides present (i.e. Np-237 and Ra-226) to be accounted for. A series of test measurements were performed with well-characterised uranium sources attenuated by concrete shielding, to gain confidence in the performance of FRAM under such conditions. These test measurements indicated that FRAM was able to correctly determine the enrichment of heavily shielded uranium. The new U-235 measurement methodology was then applied to the population of concrete drums; successfully yielding U-235 results despite the dense waste matrix and significant interference from

  8. The drum is the shaman, the spear guides his voice.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, J

    1988-01-01

    Kodi rituals of curing use anthropomorphized objects--the drum and the spear--as intermediaries to communicate with the spirits causing the affliction. The spear 'cuts through' to the cause of the illness at the divination, by guiding the arm and voice of the human diviner. The drum beaten during an all night ceremony has a more important role: a myth at the opening of the ceremony tells the drum's personal story or biography, which is identified with the suffering patient. In the course of the ceremony it travels on a shamanistic journey to the upperworld to seek the blessings of health and well-being. The myth of the drum's origin provides a narrative structure for the whole ritual, and defines the basis for its efficacy. The percussive sounds of the drum and gongs are said to make the patient feel better. A case study shows how 'ordered sound' is used to dissolve social tensions into a culturally structured pattern, so that consensus can be achieved in implicit accommodations in which neither party loses face. An older man's illness awakens guilty feelings among his younger relatives, whose thieving is believed to be responsible. The healing ritual creates the context for them to express contrition without confessing. Thus, although the rite re-establishes communication between persons and between the human and spirit worlds, it involves deception and silences as well as revelations. Through an analytic comment on social tensions, artistic illusions are used to overcome the airing of social differences. The healing rite is intended to restore a social consensus, produced by a combination of music, speech and actions, which allow signs to triumph over substance.

  9. EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-29

    The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive tests of these at Savannah River Laboratory (now Savannah River National Laboratory) were performed in 1969 and 1970. The results of these tests were reported in 'Drum and Board-Type Insulation Overpacks of Shipping Packages for Radioactive Materials', by E. E. Lewallen. The Lewallen Report was foundational to design of subsequent drum type RAM packaging. This paper summarizes this important early study of drum type packagings. The Lewallen Report demonstrated the ability packagings employing drum and insulation board overpacks and engineered containment vessels to meet the Type B package requirements. Because of the results of the Lewallen Report, package designers showed high concern for thermal protection of 'Celotex'. Subsequent packages addressed this by following strategies like those recommended by Lewallen and by internal metal shields and supplemental, encapsulated insulation disks, as in 9975. The guidance provide by the Lewallen Report was employed in design of a large number of drum size packagings over the following three decades. With the increased public concern over transportation of radioactive materials and recognition of the need for larger margins of safety, more sophisticated and complex packages have been developed and have replaced the simple packagings developed under the Lewallen Report paradigm.

  10. Environmental conditions in water storage drums and influences on Aedes aegypti in Trinidad, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Hemme, Ryan R; Tank, Jennifer L; Chadee, Dave D; Severson, David W

    2009-10-01

    Water storage drums are often a primary breeding site for Aedes aegypti in developing countries. Habitat characteristics can impact both adult and larval fitness and survival, which may potentially influence arbovirus transmission. Our objective was to compare fundamental environmental differences in water drums based on the presence or absence of larvae in Trinidad. Drums were categorized according to the larval status, and if the drum was constructed of steel or plastic. Water samples were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Continuous surface water temperatures were also recorded. Nutrient concentrations were considerably lower than those reported for other container breeding mosquitoes. No nutrient measured differed in concentration between drums positive compared to those that were negative for the presence of A. aegypti larvae. Levels of SRP and ammonium in steel drums were significantly lower than in plastic water drums. Both maximum and minimum surface temperatures were significantly lower in drums positive for the presence of larvae than in drums without larvae. Water temperatures in March and May were warmer than during October sampling periods. Larval presence is likely dependent upon the interaction among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. Despite appearance, not all water storage drums are equally suitable for A. aegypti development. Exposing water storage drums to direct sunlight or increased heat may be used in conjunction with sealing containers to reduce production of A. aegypti when draining and chemical treatment are impractical.

  11. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in § 63.11113. (d) Portable gasoline containers that meet the requirements of 40 CFR part 59... monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...

  12. 40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63.11117 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gasoline or more. (a) You must comply with the requirements in section § 63.11116(a). (b) Except...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11118 Section 63.11118 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gasoline or more. (a) You must comply with the requirements in §§ 63.11116(a) and 63.11117(b). (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63.11117 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gasoline or more. (a) You must comply with the requirements in section § 63.11116(a). (b) Except...

  15. 40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63.11117 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gasoline or more. (a) You must comply with the requirements in section § 63.11116(a). (b) Except...

  16. 40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63.11117 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gasoline or more. (a) You must comply with the requirements in section § 63.11116(a). (b) Except...

  17. 40 CFR 63.11116 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in § 63.11113. (d) Portable gasoline containers that meet the requirements of 40 CFR part 59... monthly throughput of less than 10,000 gallons of gasoline. 63.11116 Section 63.11116 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations...

  18. 40 CFR 63.11117 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of 10,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11117 Section 63.11117 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gasoline or more. (a) You must comply with the requirements in section § 63.11116(a). (b) Except...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11118 Section 63.11118 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gasoline or more. (a) You must comply with the requirements in §§ 63.11116(a) and 63.11117(b). (b)...

  20. 40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more. 63.11118 Section 63.11118 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and... gasoline or more. (a) You must comply with the requirements in §§ 63.11116(a) and 63.11117(b). (b)...

  1. New Zealand's 70 million sheep create 350 million methane gallons daily

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    If you could hook up a sheep to the carburetor of a car, you could run it for several kilometers a day. To power the same vehicle by people, you'd need a whole football team and a couple of kegs of beer. That observation is made by David Lowe, a geophysicist with the New Zealand Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Wellington. Scientists are studying the methane output because of its potential serious threat by contributing to global warming via the greenhouse effect. According to a report in the Wall Street Journal, analysis of ancient air bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice shows that 30,000 years ago methane concentration in the Earth's atmosphere was only a third as much as it is today. Radioactive dating can distinguish ages of different types of methane in the air, and researchers hope to quantify sources from sheep, swamps, people or industry. Sheep methane is collected at a local agricultural university from sheep with tubes protruding from their intestines. Sample collector Lowe alternates specimens from the university and the digester tank at the sewage treatment plant. The cleanest air samples, by contrast, are collected by Lowe at Baring Head, the first outcrop of land Antarctic winds hit after crossing thousands of miles of open sea. So far, Lowe and his colleagues have found that 75% of methane in the atmosphere is biological and of very recent origin. While the research goes on, New Zealand's sheep population continue to churn out 2.5 billion gallons of methane every week.

  2. Low tension graphene drums for electromechanical pressure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Raj N.; Mathew, John P.; Borah, Abhinandan; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a process to fabricate electromechanical pressure sensors using multilayer graphene in a sealed drum geometry. The drum resonators are fabricated on insulating sapphire substrates with a local back gate for direct radio frequency ({\\text{}}{{rf}}) actuation and detection of the mechanical modes. Using this scheme, we show the detection and electrostatic tuning of multiple resonant modes of the membrane up to 200 MHz. The geometry of the device also helps in attaining low tensile stress in the membrane, thereby giving high gate tunability (∼1 MHz/V) of the resonator modes. We study the resonant frequency shifts in the presence of helium gas and demonstrate a sensing capability of 1 Torr pressure in a cryogenic environment.

  3. Flow of magnetized grains in a rotating drum.

    PubMed

    Lumay, G; Vandewalle, N

    2010-10-01

    We have experimentally investigated the influence of a magnetic interaction between the grains on the flow of a granular material in a rotating drum. The magnetic cohesion is induced by applying a homogeneous external magnetic field B oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the gravity g. The drum rotating speed has been selected to obtain a continuous flow when the magnetic field is switched off. We show that, for both magnetic field orientations, the cohesion is able to induce a transition between the continuous flow regime to the discrete avalanche regime. The avalanche dynamics is periodic when B⊥g and irregular when B∥g. Moreover, the maximal angle of stability θ(m) increases strongly with the cohesion strength and could be higher than 90° when B⊥g. A toy model based on the stability of a magnetic block on a magnetic inclined plane is proposed to explain this behavior. PMID:21230228

  4. Flow of magnetized grains in a rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumay, G.; Vandewalle, N.

    2010-10-01

    We have experimentally investigated the influence of a magnetic interaction between the grains on the flow of a granular material in a rotating drum. The magnetic cohesion is induced by applying a homogeneous external magnetic field B⃗ oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the gravity g⃗ . The drum rotating speed has been selected to obtain a continuous flow when the magnetic field is switched off. We show that, for both magnetic field orientations, the cohesion is able to induce a transition between the continuous flow regime to the discrete avalanche regime. The avalanche dynamics is periodic when B⃗⊥g⃗ and irregular when B⃗∥g⃗ . Moreover, the maximal angle of stability θm increases strongly with the cohesion strength and could be higher than 90° when B⃗⊥g⃗ . A toy model based on the stability of a magnetic block on a magnetic inclined plane is proposed to explain this behavior.

  5. The evolution of harmonic Indian musical drums: A mathematical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudet, Samuel; Gauthier, Claude; Léger, Sophie

    2006-03-01

    We explain using mathematics how harmonic musical drums were discovered by Indian artisans and musicians more than 2000 years ago. To this end, we introduce a harmonic error function which measures the quality of the harmonic relationship and degeneracy of the first modes of vibration of a centrally symmetric loaded membrane. We explain that although the tabla configuration found by the ancient Indians is the most natural one, other configurations exist and some are harmonically superior to the classical one.

  6. 26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting on fixed turntable upon masonry center pier. Swing drive shaft (vertical) is turned by level gear of horizontal shaft (protruding through machine room wall), which turns pinion gear toothed to fixed turntable rack below rollers. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  7. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Gilliam, T.M.; Harrington, E.S.; Youngblood, E.L. ); Baer, M.B. )

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Scaling of heat transfer in granular material in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohannes, Bereket; Emady, Heather; Pardes, Ingrid; Javed, Maham; Borghard, William; Glasser, Benjamin; Muzzio, Fernando; Cuitino, Alberto

    Several industrial processes involve thermal treatment of granular materials and powders, in devices such as rotating drums, to bring about a desired chemical and/or physical transformation. Developing a better understanding of the heat transfer process can significantly improve the quality of the end product and efficiency. However, there is a lack of predictive models, for example, to predict the evolution of the distribution and average of the particles' temperature, particularly for the purposes of scale-up from laboratory scale experiments to manufacturing scale productions. We used discrete element method (DEM) based simulations to study the distribution of particles' temperature in rotating drums at low temperature. Various physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of particles were considered in the simulations and in the analysis. In addition, the effect of operating conditions such as size of drum, material fill level, and speed of rotation on the heat transfer were investigated. Based on the simulations, we identified timescales relevant to the heat transfer process and developed a relationship between these timescales that can be used to predict the average temperature of particles. We also found that the evolution of the temperature distribution, since different particles may have different temperatures, can be predicted based on these timescales. These findings can be used to predict the required time to heat up all particles to the desired temperature.

  9. Axial transport of bidisperse granular mixtures in a rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zeina

    2005-03-01

    Bidisperse granular mixtures rapidly size segregate when tumbled in a partially filled, horizontal drum. The smaller component moves radially toward the axis of rotation and forms a buried core. On a longer time scale, axial modulations of the core may develop and grow into a series of bands along the drum, which become visible upon breaking the surface. Using a narrow pulse of the smaller component as the intitial condition, we observe that the axial transport of the radial core is a subdiffusive front advancement process. The front motion is subdiffusive in the sense that the radially integrated concentration forms a self-similar, compact axial pulse whose width grows as t^α, with α˜1/3 < 1/2, and hence it spreads much more slowly than by diffusion in a mixture which does not exhibit axial banding. By coloring some of the larger grains, we find that the mixing and axial transport of the larger grains is similarly subdiffusive. We report on the effects of changing relative grain size and drum diameter on the axial transport of grains. We find that mixing occurs in the radial core, and axial band formation is enhaced in these cases.

  10. Subdiffusion of segregated granular materials in a long rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zeina S.; Tokaruk, Wayne A.; Morris, Stephen W.

    2004-03-01

    Granular mixtures rapidly segregate radially by size when tumbled in a partially filled horizontal drum. The smaller component moves toward the axis of rotation and forms a buried core. On a longer time scale, axial modulations of the core may develop and grow into a series of bands along the drum, visible upon breaking the surface. Segregation models have generally assumed that axial diffusion of the smaller component determines the short wavelength cutoff of the band pattern. Using narrow pulses of the smaller component as initial conditions, we have characterized axial transport in the core. We find that the axial advance of the segregated core is well described by a self-similar concentration profile whose width scales as t^α, with α ˜ 0.3 < 1/2. Thus the process is subdiffusive rather than diffusive as previously assumed. We find that α is nearly independent of the grain type and drum rotation rate within the smoothly streaming regime. We compare our results to two one-dimensional PDE models which contain self-similarity and subdiffusion; a linear fractional diffusion model and the nonlinear porous medium equation.

  11. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. 30.63 Section 30.63... gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. When the weight or proof of a quantity of... Total 16,884.1 That is, the total weight of 60,378 pounds of spirits at 190 proof is equal to...

  12. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described.

  13. Hypoxia tolerance decreases with body size in red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y K; Ern, R; Esbaugh, A J

    2016-08-01

    Mass-specific oxygen consumption rate, i.e. standard metabolic rate (Rs ) and critical oxygen tension (Pcrit ) of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus were measured and scaled over a 2500-fold range in mass (MF ; 0·26-686 g). Rs conformed to well established models (Rs  = 3·73·91 MF (-0·21) ; r(2)  = 0·86) while Pcrit increased over the size range (Pcrit  = 3·15 log10 MF  + 16·19; r(2)  = 0·44). This relationship may be ecologically advantageous as it would allow smaller S. ocellatus to better utilize hypoxic zones as habitat and refuge from predators. PMID:27328965

  14. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1990-10-01

    Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste drums were sampled for gas composition. Glass, metal, graphite, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values were calculated for the waste drums. G(H{sub 2}) was below 0.6 and G(Total) was below 1.3 for all waste forms discussed in this report. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1995-08-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  16. Characterization of voic volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-12-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  17. Incidence of the leech Actinobdella pediculata on freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    Actinobdella pediculata (Glossiphoniidae), a freshwater leech, was found attached to freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie during 1991 through 1993. The animal was first observed during routine examinations of freshwater drum collected in May 1991. The leeches were usually attached to the inside, lower portion of the opercula near the isthmus. Incidence of attachment increased with freshwater drum age and length. No noticeable adverse effects on the fish from attachment by the leech were noted.

  18. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  19. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  20. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-06-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  1. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG&G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured.

  2. Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum Venting - Operational Experience and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Th.L.Jr.; Bhatt, R.N.; Troescher, P.D.; Lattin, W.J.

    2008-07-01

    Remote-handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste drums must be vented to meet transportation and disposal requirement before shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The capability to perform remote venting of drums was developed and implemented at the Idaho National Laboratory. Over 490 drums containing RH TRU waste were successfully vented. Later efforts developed and implemented a long-stem filter to breach inner waste bags, which reduced layers of confinement and mitigated restrictive transportation wattage limits. This paper will provide insight to the technical specifications for the drum venting system, development, and testing activities, startup, operations, and lessons learned. (authors)

  3. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-06-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles.

  4. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  5. Color image digitization and analysis for drum inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.C.; Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-05-01

    A rust inspection system that uses color analysis to find rust spots on drums has been developed. The system is composed of high-resolution color video equipment that permits the inspection of rust spots on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1-in.) in diameter. Because of the modular nature of the system design, the use of open systems software (X11, etc.), the inspection system can be easily integrated into other environmental restoration and waste management programs. The inspection system represents an excellent platform for the integration of other color inspection and color image processing algorithms.

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Larval and juvenile red drum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, Jack

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for larval and juvenile red drum. The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for estimating model variables are provided.

  7. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Larval and Juvenile Red Drum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, Jack

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for larval and juvenile red drum. The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for estimating model variables are provided.

  9. NREL Helps Clean Cities Displace Billions of Gallons of Petroleum, One Vehicle at a Time (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    With more than 15 years and nearly 3 billion gallons of displaced petroleum under its belt, the Clean Cities program relies on the support and expertise of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). An initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Clean Cities creates public-private partnerships with a common mission: to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Since the inception of Clean Cities in 1993, NREL has played a central role in supporting the program, an effort that stems from the laboratory's strategy to put scientific innovation into action in the marketplace.

  10. Improvement of Algorithms for Pressure Maintenance Systems in Drum-Separators of RBMK-1000 Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksakov, A. N. Yankovskiy, K. I.; Dunaev, V. I.; Kushbasov, A. N.

    2015-05-15

    The main tasks and challenges for pressure regulation in the drum-separators of RBMK-1000 reactors are described. New approaches to constructing algorithms for pressure control in drum-separators by electro-hydraulic turbine control systems are discussed. Results are provided from tests of the operation of modernized pressure regulators during fast transients with reductions in reactor power.

  11. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  12. Monkey drumming reveals common networks for perceiving vocal and nonvocal communication sounds.

    PubMed

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2009-10-20

    Salient sounds such as those created by drumming can serve as means of nonvocal acoustic communication in addition to vocal sounds. Despite the ubiquity of drumming across human cultures, its origins and the brain regions specialized in processing such signals remain unexplored. Here, we report that an important animal model for vocal communication, the macaque monkey, also displays drumming behavior, and we exploit this finding to show that vocal and nonvocal communication sounds are represented by overlapping networks in the brain's temporal lobe. Observing social macaque groups, we found that these animals use artificial objects to produce salient periodic sounds, similar to acoustic gestures. Behavioral tests confirmed that these drumming sounds attract the attention of listening monkeys similarly as conspecific vocalizations. Furthermore, in a preferential looking experiment, drumming sounds influenced the way monkeys viewed their conspecifics, suggesting that drumming serves as a multimodal signal of social dominance. Finally, by using high-resolution functional imaging we identified those brain regions preferentially activated by drumming sounds or by vocalizations and found that the representations of both these communication sounds overlap in caudal auditory cortex and the amygdala. The similar behavioral responses to drumming and vocal sounds, and their shared neural representation, suggest a common origin of primate vocal and nonvocal communication systems and support the notion of a gestural origin of speech and music. PMID:19805199

  13. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  14. Motion of a free cylinder inside a rotating water-filled drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, R. H.; Vial, A.; Barraud, C.

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental results on the motion and levitation of a freely to-move heavy cylinder, of constant diameter and varying mass, inside a water-filled drum rotating around its horizontal axis. The resulting flow field and the cylinder dynamics were determined with the aid of flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry methods. The spatial tracking of the inner cylinder was done with the aid of Fourier cross correlation methods. The steady bulk flow field created by the drum rotation generated forces that make the inner cylinder to counter-rotate without contact with the drum walls. Testing different cylinder masses and rotating drum frequencies has shown that there exists a range of stable spatial positions of the inner cylinder describing an angular segment inside the drum flow. The cylinder frequency can be set to zero if we increase the drum frequency beyond a threshold value. Increasing the drum frequency produces a stronger secondary flow circulation which is the key-mechanism responsible of the counter-rotating cylinder frequency. At this point, the inner cylinder levitates with a constant separation from the drum walls close to half of its diameter. Tests on heavy hollow cylinders revealed that the fluid filling the cylinder remains at rest while the cylinder was under levitation with zero rotation frequency.

  15. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums - an interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine if the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the drum headspace is representative of the VOC concentration in the entire drum void space and to demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. An experimental test plan was developed requiring gas sampling of 66 transuranic (TRU) waste drums. This interim report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement from waste drums sampled and analyzed in FY 1994.

  16. The effect of zebra mussel consumption on growth of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.

    1996-01-01

    We examined food habits and scale annuli of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie to determine whether increasing predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) had affected growth of freshwater drum. The volume of zebra mussels in drum guts was greater in older fish. Growth of age classes 3–4, which consumed few zebra mussels, was greater in the most productive year for zebra mussels, July 1990–August 1991, than in three prior years. The total lengths of 5-year-old drum changed little. The mean total length of 6-year-old females has declined since the zebra mussel invaded Lake Erie, even through mussels comprised more than two-thirds of gut samples in these fish. These studies suggest that zebra mussels may not benefit freshwater drum when serving as a staple in the diet. PDF

  17. Potential Vulnerability Issues for Drum-Type Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, L.B.; Sheaffer, M.K.; Anderson, B.L.; Hafner, R.S.; Witte, M.C.

    2000-05-24

    Type B and Type A fissile drum packages are required to undergo a series of tests that simulate both normal conditions of transport (NCT) and hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) as specified in 10 CFR Part 71. In particular for HAC, it must be demonstrated that the package can withstand a 30 ft. drop in the most unfavorable orientation without damage that would compromise its ability to survive a subsequent regulatory fire test. Historically, it has usually been assumed that the most unfavorable orientations are those that allow the maximum amount of available kinetic energy to be used for package deformation. Therefore, drop test orientations have been mostly limited to Top-Down, Bottom-Down, Side, and C.G. Over Top-Corner. (Where C.G. refers to the center of gravity of the package.) Here, it is shown that shallow angle top impact, where a portion of the translational kinetic energy of the package is transformed into rotational kinetic energy at impact, may also be a likely orientation that will lead to failure of drum packages that use bolted ring closures.

  18. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.D.; Rahimi, R.S.; Edling, D.

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Di Massa, F.V.; Elliott, D.B.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 2, the Baseline Detail.

  20. Fleets and fuel prices in Latin America Part II - Gasoline: Gallons of gasoline per week per passenger car selected countries in Latin America, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-31

    According to latest available statistics, one in fourteen persons in Latin America has a car and consumes 13 gallons of gasoline per week, on average. This is low but is likely to rise dramatically if current economic thinking holds.

  1. Synchronized Drumming Enhances Activity in the Caudate and Facilitates Prosocial Commitment - If the Rhythm Comes Easily

    PubMed Central

    Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter “accidentally” dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system. PMID:22110623

  2. 40 CFR 417.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standards establishes the quantity or... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 417.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standards establishes the quantity or... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 417.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standards establishes the quantity or... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 417.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standards establishes the quantity or... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 417.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standards establishes the quantity or... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.186 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new source subject to...

  7. Granular flow in a rotating drum: Experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Li, L.; Smith, B.; Grinspun, E.

    2015-12-01

    Erosion at the base of a debris flow fundamentally controls how large the flow will become and how far it will travel. Experimental observations of this important phenomenon are rather limited, and this lack has led theoretical treatments to making ad hoc assumptions about the basal process. In light of this, we carried out a combination of laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis of granular flow in a rotating drum, a canonical example of steady grain motion in which entrainment rates can be precisely controlled. Our main result is that basal sediment is entrained as the velocity profile adjusts to imbalance in the flow of kinetic energy.Our experimental apparatus consisted of a 40cm-diameter drum, 4cm-deep, half-filled with 2.3mm grains. Rotation rates varied from 1-70 rpm. We varied the effective scale by varying effective gravity from 1g to 70g on a geotechnical centrifuge. The field of grain motion was recorded using high-speed video and mapped using particle tracking velocimetry. In tandem we developed a depth-averaged theory using balance equations for mass, momentum and kinetic energy. We assumed a linearized GDR Midi granular rheology [da Cruz, 2005] and a Coulomb friction law along the sidewalls [Jop et al., 2005]. A scaling analysis of our equations yields a dimensionless "entrainment number" En, which neatly parametrizes the flow geometry in the drum for a wide range of variables, e.g., rotation rate and effective gravity. At low En, the flow profile is planar and kinetic energy is balanced locally in the flow layer. At high En, the flow profile is sigmoidal (yin-yang shaped) and the kinetic energy is dominated by longitudinal, streamwise transfer. We observe different scaling behavior under each of these flow regimes, e.g., between En and kinetic energy, surface slope and flow depth. Our theory correctly predicts their scaling exponents and the value of En at which the regime transition takes place. We are also able to make corrections for

  8. Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) drumming log and habitat use in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhler, M.L.; Anderson, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    We described 15 Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) drumming logs and adjacent habitat within Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Drumming logs and adjacent habitat differed from 30 random non-drumming sites. Drumming logs had fewer limbs (8; P = 0.003) and a smaller percentage of bark remaining (12%; P = 0.0001). These logs were in advanced stages of decay but were still firm to the touch. Additionally, drumming logs were found close to clearings but in areas with increased amounts of undergrowth and mature trees. Adjacent habitat analysis (0.04-ha circular plot centered on logs) indicated drumming locations had significantly greater average canopy height, more vegetative cover consisting of conifer and total canopy cover, and more vertical foliage between 0.3 m and 3.0 m in height. Adjacent habitat was in advanced stages of maturity as indicated by significant numbers of both large-diameter logs and large-diameter lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) snags. Tree species dominating the canopy and subcanopy were large-diameter Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), lodgepole pine, and quaking aspen. Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and quaking aspen saplings were more numerous at used sites. Ruffed Grouse drummed in coniferous areas within close proximity of quaking aspen.

  9. Variation in movement patterns of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) inferred from conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Paramore, L.M.; Burdick, S.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    We used 25 years of conventional tagging data (n=6173 recoveries) and 3 years of ultrasonic telemetry data (n=105 transmitters deployed) to examine movement rates and directional preferences of four age classes of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in estuarine and coastal waters of North Carolina. Movement rates of conventionally tagged red drum were dependent on the age, region, and season of tagging. Age-1 and age-2 red drum tagged along the coast generally moved along the coast, whereas fish tagged in oligohaline waters far from the coast were primarily recovered in coastal regions in fall months. Adult (age-4+) red drum moved from overwintering grounds on the continental shelf through inlets into Pamlico Sound in spring and summer months and departed in fall. Few tagged red drum were recovered in adjacent states (0.6% of all recoveries); however, some adult red drum migrated seasonally from overwintering grounds in coastal North Carolina northward to Virginia in spring, returning in fall. Age-2 transmittertracked red drum displayed seasonal emigration from a small tributary, but upstream and downstream movements within the tributary were correlated with fluctuating salinity regimes and not season. Large-scale conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry programs can provide valuable insights into the complex movement patterns of estuarine fish.

  10. Continuum theory of axial segregation in a long rotating drum

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I.S.; Vinokur, V.M.; Tsimring, L.S.

    1999-08-01

    We develop a continuum description for the axial segregation of granular materials in a long rotating drum based on the dynamics of the thin near-surface granular flow coupled to bulk flow. The equations of motion are reduced to the one-dimensional system for two local variables only, the concentration difference and the dynamic angle of repose, or the average slope of the free surface. The parameters of the system are established from comparison with experimental data. The resulting system describes both initial transient traveling wave dynamics and the formation of quasi-stationary bands of segregated materials. A long-term evolution proceeds through slow logarithmic coarsening of the band structure which is analogous to the spinoidal decomposition described by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Passive neutron design study for 200-L waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.B.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-09-01

    We have developed a passive neutron counter for the measurement of plutonium in 200-L drums of scrap and waste. The counter incorporates high efficiency for the multiplicity counting in addition to the traditional coincidence counting. The {sup 252}Cf add-a-source feature is used to provide an accurate assay over a wide range of waste matrix materials. The room background neutron rate is reduced by using 30 cm of external polyethylene shielding and the cosmic-ray background is reduced by statistical filtering techniques. Monte Carlo Code calculations were used to determine the optimum detector design, including the gas pressure, size, number, and placement of the {sup 3}He tubes in the moderator. Various moderators, including polyethylene, plastics, teflon, and graphite, were evaluated to obtain the maximum efficiency and minimum detectable mass of plutonium.

  12. A thermal analysis for the use of cooled rotating drums in electron processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, P. Michael; Williams, Kenneth E.

    The thermal response of rotating drums under an electron beam has been analyzed using a finite difference thermal analysis computer code. Rotating drums are used to convey thin webs or films under the electron beams while controlling their temperature and, in some cases, in dissipating the exotherm involved in curing coatings applied to them. Each portion of the drum surface receives one heat pulse per rotation as it passes under the beam. The drum's thermal behavior shows both an immediate response to each heat pulse and a more gradual response to the average heat acquired over many pulses. After many rotations a steady state is reached where there is only an immediate response to each heat pulse but the gradual heating has tapered off. Nevertheless the steady state temperatures are strongly dependent on the gradual heating that led to them. Slow and fast speeds of rotation are compared showing the effects of both gradual and immediate heating components. The thermal analysis is extended to include the coolant fluid inside the drum shell and the web on the drum surface. The coolant's incoming temperature, volumetric flow rate, flow speed through the coolant channels and film coefficient between the outer shell and fluid are all included in the analysis. The small air gap between the web and drum, the convective cooling of the web to the ambient air, and the exothermic reaction of any chemical reactions on the web are included. The stresses produced in the drum shell (i.e. between the outer surface and the temperature-controlling fluid within the drum) are analyzed in order to define safe e-beam powers and rotating speeds. The analysis provides the basis for many design decisions and can give an end-user a full temperature history for his product for any set of conditions.

  13. A genetic linkage map of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Renshaw, M A; Hollenbeck, C M; Gold, J R

    2010-12-01

    Second-generation, sex-specific genetic linkage maps were generated for the economically important estuarine-dependent marine fish Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum). The maps were based on F(1) progeny from each of two single-pair mating families. A total of 237 nuclear-encoded microsatellite markers were mapped to 25 linkage groups. The female map contained 226 markers, with a total length of 1270.9 centiMorgans (cM) and an average inter-marker interval of 6.53 cM; the male map contained 201 markers, with a total length of 1122.9 cM and an average inter-marker interval of 6.03 cM. The overall recombination rate was approximately equal in the two sexes (♀:♂=1.03:1). Recombination rates in a number of linkage intervals, however, differed significantly between the same sex in both families and between sexes within families. The former occurred in 2.4% of mapped intervals, while the latter occurred in 51.2% of mapped intervals. Sex-specific recombination rates varied within chromosomes, with regions of both female-biased and male-biased recombination. Original clones from which the microsatellite markers were generated were compared with genome sequence data for the spotted green puffer, Tetraodon nigroviridis; a total of 43 matches were located in 17 of 21 chromosomes of T. nigroviridis, while seven matches were in unknown portions of the T. nigroviridis genome. The map for red drum provides a new, useful tool for aquaculture, population genetics, and comparative genomics of this economically important marine species. PMID:20477786

  14. Drum silencer with shallow cavity filled with helium.

    PubMed

    Choy, Y S; Huang, Lixi

    2003-09-01

    The motivation of this study is twofold: (a) to produce a flow-through silencer with zero pressure loss for pressure-critical applications, and (b) to tackle low frequency noise with limited sideway space using cavities filled with helium. The work represents a further development of our recently conceived device of a drum-like silencer with conventional air cavity [Huang, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2014-2025 (2002); Choy and Huang, ibid. 112, 2026-2035 (2002)]. Theoretical predictions are validated by experimental data. The new silencer consists of two highly tensioned membranes lining part of a duct, and each membrane is backed by a cavity filled with helium. For a typical configuration of a duct with height h, membrane length L = 7h, cavity depth h = 0.2h, and tension T = 0.52rho0c0(2)h2, where rho0 and c0 are the ambient density and speed of sound in air, respectively, the transmission loss has a continuous stop band of TL > 6.35 dB for frequency 0.03c0/h to 0.064c0/h, which is much better than traditional duct lining. In addition to the mechanisms at work for drum silencers with air cavity, the low density of helium reduces the masslike reactance of the cavity on the second in vacuo mode of membrane vibration. The reduction greatly enhances the membrane response at this mode, which is found to be critical for achieving a broadband performance in the low-frequency regime.

  15. Drum silencer with shallow cavity filled with helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Y. S.; Huang, Lixi

    2003-09-01

    The motivation of this study is twofold: (a) to produce a flow-through silencer with zero pressure loss for pressure-critical applications, and (b) to tackle low frequency noise with limited sideway space using cavities filled with helium. The work represents a further development of our recently conceived device of a drum-like silencer with conventional air cavity [Huang, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2014-2025 (2002); Choy and Huang, ibid. 112, 2026-2035 (2002)]. Theoretical predictions are validated by experimental data. The new silencer consists of two highly tensioned membranes lining part of a duct, and each membrane is backed by a cavity filled with helium. For a typical configuration of a duct with height h, membrane length L=7h, cavity depth hc=0.2h, and tension T=0.52ρ0c02h2, where ρ0 and c0 are the ambient density and speed of sound in air, respectively, the transmission loss has a continuous stop band of TL>6.35 dB for frequency 0.03c0/h to 0.064c0/h, which is much better than traditional duct lining. In addition to the mechanisms at work for drum silencers with air cavity, the low density of helium reduces the masslike reactance of the cavity on the second in vacuo mode of membrane vibration. The reduction greatly enhances the membrane response at this mode, which is found to be critical for achieving a broadband performance in the low-frequency regime.

  16. Thermal stabilization of superconducting sigma strings and their drum vortons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Brandon; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2002-05-01

    We discuss various issues related to stabilized embedded strings in a thermal background. In particular, we demonstrate that such strings will generically become superconducting at moderately low temperatures, thus enhancing their stability. We then present a new class of defects-drum vortons-which arise when a small symmetry breaking term is added to the potential. We display these points within the context of the O(4) sigma model, relevant for hadrodynamics below the QCD scale. This model admits ``embedded defects'' (topological defect configurations of a simpler-in this case O(2) symmetric-model obtained by imposing an embedding constraint) that are unstable in the full model at zero temperature, but that can be stabilized (by electromagnetic coupling to photons) in a thermal gas at moderately high termperatures. It is shown here that below the embedded defect stabilization threshold, there will still be stabilized cosmic string defects. However, they will not be of the symmetric embedded vortex type, but of an ``asymmetric'' vortex type, and are automatically superconducting. In the presence of weak symmetry breaking terms, such as arise naturally when using the O(4) model for hadrodynamics, the strings become the boundary of a new kind of cosmic sigma membrane, with tension given by the pion mass. The string current would then make it possible for a loop to attain a (classically) stable equilibrium state that differs from an ``ordinary'' vorton state by the presence of a sigma membrane stretched across it in a drum-like configuration. Such defects will however be entirely destabilized if the symmetry breaking is too strong, as is found to be the case-due to the rather large value of the pion mass-in the hadronic application of the O(4) sigma model.

  17. MULTIPLE INPUT BINARY ADDER EMPLOYING MAGNETIC DRUM DIGITAL COMPUTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1960-12-01

    A digital computing apparatus is described for adding a plurality of multi-digit binary numbers. The apparatus comprises a rotating magnetic drum, a recording head, first and second reading heads disposed adjacent to the first and second recording tracks, and a series of timing signals recorded on the first track. A series of N groups of digit-representing signals is delivered to the recording head at time intervals corresponding to the timing signals, each group consisting of digits of the same significance in the numbers, and the signal series is recorded on the second track of the drum in synchronism with the timing signals on the first track. The multistage registers are stepped cyclically through all positions, and each of the multistage registers is coupled to the control lead of a separate gate circuit to open the corresponding gate at only one selected position in each cycle. One of the gates has its input coupled to the bistable element to receive the sum digit, and the output lead of this gate is coupled to the recording device. The inputs of the other gates receive the digits to be added from the second reading head, and the outputs of these gates are coupled to the adding register. A phase-setting pulse source is connected to each of the multistage registers individually to step the multistage registers to different initial positions in the cycle, and the phase-setting pulse source is actuated each N time interval to shift a sum digit to the bistable element, where the multistage register coupled to bistable element is operated by the phase- setting pulse source to that position in its cycle N steps before opening the first gate, so that this gate opens in synchronism with each of the shifts to pass the sum digits to the recording head.

  18. Re-evaluation of the 1995 Hanford Large Scale Drum Fire Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J M

    2007-05-02

    A large-scale drum performance test was conducted at the Hanford Site in June 1995, in which over one hundred (100) 55-gal drums in each of two storage configurations were subjected to severe fuel pool fires. The two storage configurations in the test were pallet storage and rack storage. The description and results of the large-scale drum test at the Hanford Site were reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246, ''Solid Waste Drum Array Fire Performance,'' Rev. 0, 1995. This was one of the main references used to develop the analytical methodology to predict drum failures in WHC-SD-SQA-ANAL-501, 'Fire Protection Guide for Waste Drum Storage Array,'' September 1996. Three drum failure modes were observed from the test reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246. They consisted of seal failure, lid warping, and catastrophic lid ejection. There was no discernible failure criterion that distinguished one failure mode from another. Hence, all three failure modes were treated equally for the purpose of determining the number of failed drums. General observations from the results of the test are as follows: {lg_bullet} Trash expulsion was negligible. {lg_bullet} Flame impingement was identified as the main cause for failure. {lg_bullet} The range of drum temperatures at failure was 600 C to 800 C. This is above the yield strength temperature for steel, approximately 540 C (1,000 F). {lg_bullet} The critical heat flux required for failure is above 45 kW/m{sup 2}. {lg_bullet} Fire propagation from one drum to the next was not observed. The statistical evaluation of the test results using, for example, the student's t-distribution, will demonstrate that the failure criteria for TRU waste drums currently employed at nuclear facilities are very conservative relative to the large-scale test results. Hence, the safety analysis utilizing the general criteria described in the five bullets above will lead to a technically robust and defensible product that bounds the potential consequences from postulated

  19. Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R.

    1999-03-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques.

  20. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    SciTech Connect

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  1. Using generalized linear models to estimate selectivity from short-term recoveries of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: Effects of gear, fate, and regulation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Hightower, J.E.; Burdick, S.M.; Paramore, L.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Pollock, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the selectivity patterns of various fishing gears is a critical component of fisheries stock assessment due to the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from most gears. We used short-term recoveries (n = 3587) of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus to directly estimate age- and length-based selectivity patterns using generalized linear models. The most parsimonious models were selected using AIC, and standard deviations were estimated using simulations. Selectivity of red drum was dependent upon the regulation period in which the fish was caught, the gear used to catch the fish (i.e., hook-and-line, gill nets, pound nets), and the fate of the fish upon recovery (i.e., harvested or released); models including all first-order interactions between main effects outperformed models without interactions. Selectivity of harvested fish was generally dome-shaped and shifted toward larger, older fish in response to regulation changes. Selectivity of caught-and-released red drum was highest on the youngest and smallest fish in the early and middle regulation periods, but increased on larger, legal-sized fish in the late regulation period. These results suggest that catch-and-release mortality has consistently been high for small, young red drum, but has recently become more common in larger, older fish. This method of estimating selectivity from short-term tag recoveries is valuable because it is simpler than full tag-return models, and may be more robust because yearly fishing and natural mortality rates do not need to be modeled and estimated. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Using generalized linear models to estimate selectivity from short-term recoveries of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: Effects of gear, fate, and regulation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Paramore, Lee M.; Buckel, Jeffrey A.; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the selectivity patterns of various fishing gears is a critical component of fisheries stock assessment due to the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from most gears. We used short-term recoveries (n = 3587) of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus to directly estimate age- and length-based selectivity patterns using generalized linear models. The most parsimonious models were selected using AIC, and standard deviations were estimated using simulations. Selectivity of red drum was dependent upon the regulation period in which the fish was caught, the gear used to catch the fish (i.e., hook-and-line, gill nets, pound nets), and the fate of the fish upon recovery (i.e., harvested or released); models including all first-order interactions between main effects outperformed models without interactions. Selectivity of harvested fish was generally dome-shaped and shifted toward larger, older fish in response to regulation changes. Selectivity of caught-and-released red drum was highest on the youngest and smallest fish in the early and middle regulation periods, but increased on larger, legal-sized fish in the late regulation period. These results suggest that catch-and-release mortality has consistently been high for small, young red drum, but has recently become more common in larger, older fish. This method of estimating selectivity from short-term tag recoveries is valuable because it is simpler than full tag-return models, and may be more robust because yearly fishing and natural mortality rates do not need to be modeled and estimated.

  3. What Employees Need (and Want) to Hear When Justifying the Suspension of a Regulated Metals Plan for the Processing of Drums Containing Metal Turnings

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Potts, T.; Hylko, J.M.

    2008-07-01

    A Regulated Metals Plan (RMP) was implemented for outdoor work activities involving the removal and disposition of approximately 4,000 deteriorated waste drums containing 236 metric tonnes (260 tons) of lead turnings from various, unspecified machine shop facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Until exposure monitoring could prove otherwise, the work area established for processing the drums was conservatively defined as a Lead Regulated Area (LRA) subject to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Lead Standard found in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.1025. The vast majority of the analytical results for the industrial hygiene breathing zone samples collected and tested for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, selenium, silver, and thallium using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's analytical method 7300 were equivalent to the laboratory detection limits for each analyte. All results were less than 6% of their respective Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL), except for one nickel result that was approximately 17% of its PEL. The results provided justification to eventually down-post the LRA to existing employee protection requirements. In addition to removing the deteriorated drums and accompanying debris, the success of this project was quantified in terms of zero recordable injuries. The primary contributor in achieving this success was the sharing and communication of information between management, safety, and the field teams. Specifically, this was what the employees needed (and wanted) to hear when justifying the suspension of the RMP for the processing of drums containing metal turnings. Daily briefings on the status of the project and field monitoring results were just as important as maintaining budget and schedule milestones. Also, the Environmental, Safety and Health organization maintained its presence by continuing to monitor evolving field conditions to ensure the

  4. Passive neutron assay of heterogeneous waste drums using the segmented Add-a-Source method

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.

    1995-07-01

    We have developed passive neutron detectors that include the Add-a-Source (AS) technique to improve the accuracy of the nondestructive assay of plutonium in large waste containers. We have improved the AS by incorporating multiple positions for the {sup 252}Cf source on the exterior of a 200-L drum. The multiple positions give a better coverage of the drum and have the effect of segmenting the matrix as a function of fill height. We have applied the multiposition AS to the assay of drums with heterogeneous matrix combinations of concrete, polyethylene, wood, paper, and metal. The measurement errors caused by the matrix significantly reduced by the AS technique and anomalous shielding material in the drum can be flagged for more detailed investigation.

  5. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of Settlement. SUMMARY: Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency...

  6. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of settlement. SUMMARY: Under Section 122(h)(1) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States...

  7. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  8. Identification of the fast and thermal neutron characteristics of transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, B.H. Jr.; Bramblett, R.L.; Hensley, C.

    1997-11-01

    Fissile and spontaneously fissioning material in transuranic waste drums can be most sensitively assayed using an active and passive neutron assay system such as the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay. Both the active and the passive assays are distorted by the presence of the waste matrix and containerization. For accurate assaying, this distortion must be characterized and accounted for. An External Matrix Probe technique has been developed that accomplishes this task. Correlations between in-drum neutron flux measurements and monitors in the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay chamber with various matrix materials provide a non-invasive means of predicting the thermal neutron flux in waste drums. Similarly, measures of the transmission of fast neutrons emitted from sources in the drum. Results obtained using the Lockheed Martin Specialty Components Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay system are discussed. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. In-depth survey report: evaluation of brake-drum-service controls at United States Postal Service, vehicle maintenance facility, Nashville, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Godbey, F.W.; Cooper, T.C.; Sheehy, J.W.; O'Brien, D.M.; Van Wagenen, H.D.

    1987-08-01

    The effectiveness of a brake-washer assembly unit (Kleer-Flo Model LW-22 Rollabout) for limiting exposure to asbestos during the servicing of automotive brakes was evaluated as the U.S. Post Office Maintenance Garage in Nashville, TN. A fleet of 575 Jeep delivery vehicles are serviced at the facility. Most of the vehicles had 13- or 14-inch wheels and 10-inch long brake shoes. Ventilation in the garage was minimal. During winter months, there was no provision for fresh, heated air from the outside. When the 14 bay doors were open in the summer, they provided good ventilation in conjunction with roof fans. One gallon of concentrated detergent, Greasoff No. 19, was used diluted to clean 40 to 50 wheels. Very low asbestos exposures were recorded when the washing assembly was in operation. Personal air samples for the brake mechanics averaged less than the detection limit of 0.004 fibers/cubic centimeter (f/cc) with only one sample above 0.004f/cc. Of the ten vehicles tested, fibers found in the drums were between 83 to 100% chrysotile, with two vehicles having 100% asbestos fibers.

  10. Analysis of dashpot performance for rotating control drums of a lithium cooled fast reactor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzler, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    A dashpot was incorporated in the design of the drive train of the rotating control drum to prevent shock damage to the control drum and drive train at the termination of a scram action. A rotating vane dashpot using reactor coolant lithium as a damping fluid appears to be the best candidate of the various damping devices explored. A performance analysis, results and discussion of vane type dashpots are presented.

  11. Mercury concentrations in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from estuarine and offshore waters of Florida.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Onorato, Gregory V

    2005-03-01

    Dorsal muscle tissue from 712 red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from Florida waters were analyzed for total mercury content. Mercury levels detected in these red drum varied but in most study areas were usually lower than regulatory threshold guidelines. Total mercury levels in individual fish from all study areas ranged from 0.020 to 3.6 ppm (wet weight). Total mercury levels detected in red drum from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area were often higher than those in fish from all other estuarine study areas. Positive relationships between total mercury levels and fish size (length and weight) and fish age were observed in most Florida study areas, indicating that mercury levels tend to increase over time as red drum grow. The majority of large, mature red drum examined contained mercury levels greater than the 0.5-ppm threshold level set by the Florida Department of Health (DOH). Approximately 94% of all adult red drum from offshore waters adjacent to Tampa Bay contained mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level, and 64% contained levels greater than or equal to the DOH 1.5-ppm "no consumption" level. All fish from this area with mercury levels greater than 1.5 ppm were large individuals (670 mm SL). Eight percent of legal-size red drum from Florida waters contained total mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level. The majority (52%) of these legal-size fish greater than or equal to 0.5 ppm were from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area. In the Florida recreational fishery, the current maximum size limit for this species is an effective filter that prevents humans from consuming those red drum with the greatest likelihood of containing high mercury levels. PMID:15757692

  12. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... steering axle of a truck, truck-tractor or bus shall not be less than 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) at the shoe center....6 mm (1/16 inch) or less for hydraulic disc, drum and electric brakes. (2) Non-steering axle brakes... for drum brakes); or less than 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) for disc brakes. Hydraulic or electric...

  13. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application.

  14. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; McFeeters, T.L.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1991-02-11

    Rocky Flats Plant Transuranic Waste Drums were sampled for gas composition. Combustibles, plastics, Raschig rings, solidified organic sludge, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. Plastic bag material and waste samples were also taken from some solidified sludge waste drums. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values (gas generation) were calculated for the waste drums. Analytical results indicate that very low concentrations of potentially flammable or corrosive gas mixtures will be found in vented drums. G(H{sub 2}) was usually below 1.6, while G(Total) was below 4.0. Hydrogen permeability tests on different types of plastic waste bags used at Rocky Flats were also conducted. Polyvinylchloride was slightly more permeable to hydrogen than polyethylene for new or creased material. Permeability of aged material to hydrogen was slightly higher than for new material. Solidified organic and inorganic sludges were sampled for volatile organics. The analytical results from two drums of solidified organic sludges showed concentrations were above detection limits for four of the 36 volatile organics analyzed. The analytical results for four of the five solidified inorganic sludges show that concentrations were below detection limits for all volatile organics analyzed. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  16. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, E; Bernardi, R; Hollerbach, K; Logan, C; Martz, H; Roberson, G P

    1999-06-01

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have been increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed. (1) The computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. (2) They are developing NDE and NDE techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  17. Residence time distributions of gas flowing through rotating drum bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hardin, M T; Howes, T; Mitchell, D A

    2001-07-20

    Residence time distribution studies of gas through a rotating drum bioreactor for solid-state fermentation were performed using carbon monoxide as a tracer gas. The exit concentration as a function of time differed considerably from profiles expected for plug flow, plug flow with axial dispersion, and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) models. The data were then fitted by least-squares analysis to mathematical models describing a central plug flow region surrounded by either one dead region (a three-parameter model) or two dead regions (a five-parameter model). Model parameters were the dispersion coefficient in the central plug flow region, the volumes of the dead regions, and the exchange rates between the different regions. The superficial velocity of the gas through the reactor has a large effect on parameter values. Increased superficial velocity tends to decrease dead region volumes, interregion transfer rates, and axial dispersion. The significant deviation from CSTR, plug flow, and plug flow with axial dispersion of the residence time distribution of gas within small-scale reactors can lead to underestimation of the calculation of mass and heat transfer coefficients and hence has implications for reactor design and scale-up. PMID:11370003

  18. Modeling variations of medium porosity in rotating drum biofilter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunping; Chen, Hong; Zeng, Guangming; Yu, Guanlong; Liu, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Rotating drum biofilters (RDBs) mounted with reticulated polyurethane sponge media has showed high removal efficiencies over a long period of time when used for volatile organic compound (VOC) removal. Due to the accumulation of biomass within the sponge medium, the porosity of a filter bed usually changes dynamically, which makes it difficult to predict and to control. In this paper, the porosity of a multi-layer RDB bed was investigated by a diffusion-reaction model in which biofilm growth and decay were taken into account at the pore scale of the sponge medium. Temporal and spatial changes of porosity were studied under various organic loadings and gas empty bed contact times (EBCTs). The porosity of the biofilter bed was assumed to be a function of biofilm thickness, and all the pores were assumed to be uniform. Toluene was selected as the model VOC. The model was solved using numerical methods through the MATLAB software. Results show that the porosity decreased with increased time of operation, increased toluene loading, or decreased gas EBCT value. The porosity in the outermost medium layer was less than that in the inner medium layers. Toluene removal efficiencies and porosities calculated from this model correlated with the experimental data well. Porosity variation was proposed to be an indicator for prediction of biofilter performance in biofilters as a consequence. PMID:18951611

  19. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Harry E.; Roberson, G. Patrick; Hollerbach, Karin; Logan, Clinton M.; Ashby, Elaine; Bernardi, Richard

    1999-12-02

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have seen increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed, 1.) Our computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. 2.) We are developing NDE and NDA techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  20. Limitation of tritium outgassing from tritiated solid waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liger, K.; Trabuc, P.; Lefebvre, X.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C.

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the development of fusion thermonuclear reactors, tritiated solid waste is foreseen and will have to be managed. The management of tritiated waste implies limitations in terms of activity and tritium degassing. The degassing tritium can be under the form of tritiated hydrogen, tritiated water and, in some specific cases, negligible amount of tritiated volatile organic compound. Hence, considering the major forms of degassing tritium, CEA has developed a mixed-compound dedicated to tritium trapping in drums. Based on several experiments, the foreseen mixed compound is composed of MnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}O, Pt and molecular sieve, the three first species having the ability to convert tritiated hydrogen into tritiated water and the last one acting as a trap for tritiated water. To assess the performance of the trapping mixture, experimental tests were performed at room temperature on tritiated dust composed of beryllium and carbon. It was shown that the metallic oxides mixture used for tritiated hydrogen conversion is efficient and that tritiated water adsorption was limited due to an inefficient regeneration of the molecular sieve prior to its use. Apart from this point, the tritium release from waste was reduced by a factor of 5.5, which can be improved up to 87 if the adsorption step is efficient.

  1. Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, Leland E.

    1990-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  2. Utilizing Drumming for American Indians/Alaska Natives with Substance Use Disorders: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Daniel; Robichaud, Francis; Teruya, Cheryl; Nagaran, Kathleen; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    Background Drumming has been utilized among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes for centuries to promote healing and self-expression. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA), currently under development, is a substance abuse treatment utilizing drumming as a core component. Objectives Focus groups were conducted to assist in the development of the DARTNA protocol. Feedback obtained from these focus groups will inform a subsequent pretest of DARTNA and an empirical study analyzing its effectiveness. Methods Three focus groups were conducted among AIs/ANs with substance use disorders (n = 6), substance abuse treatment providers (n = 8), and a community advisory board (n = 4) to solicit feedback prior to a pretest of the DARTNA protocol. Results Overall, participants indicated that DARTNA could be beneficial for AIs/ANs with substance use disorders. Four overarching conceptual themes emerged across the focus groups: (1) benefits of drumming, (2) importance of a culture-based focus, (3) addressing gender roles in drumming activities, and (4) providing a foundation of common AI/AN traditions. Conclusions The DARTNA protocol is a potentially beneficial and culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment strategy for AIs/ANs. In order to optimize the potential benefits of a substance abuse treatment protocol utilizing drumming for AIs/ANs, adequate attention to tribal diversity and gender roles is needed. Scientific Significance Due to the shortage of substance abuse treatments utilizing traditional healing activities for AIs/ANs, including drumming, results from this study provide an opportunity to develop an intervention that may meet the unique treatment needs of AIs/ANs. PMID:22931086

  3. Considerations for an active and passive scanner to assay nuclear waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.; Azevedo, S.G.; Roberson, G.P.; Schneberk, D.J.; Koenig, Z.M.; Camp, D.C. )

    1990-06-08

    Radioactive wastes are generated at many DOE laboratories, military facilities, fuel fabrication and enrichment plants, reactors, hospitals, and university research facilities. At all of these sites, wastes must be separated, packaged, categorized, and packed into some sort of container--usually 208-L (55-gal) drums--for shipment to waste-storage sites. Prior to shipment, the containers must be labeled, assayed, and certified; the assay value determines the ultimate disposition of the waste containers. An accurate nondestructive assay (NDA) method would identify all the radioisotopes present and provide a quantitative measurement of their activity in the drum. In this way, waste containers could be routed in the most cost-effective manner and without having to reopen them. Currently, the most common gamma-ray method used to assay nuclear waste drums is segmented gamma-ray scanning (SGS) spectrometer that crudely measures only the amount of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu present in the drum. This method uses a spatially-averaged, integrated, emitted gamma-ray-intensity value. The emitted intensity value is corrected by an assumed constant-attenuation value determined by a spatially-averaged, transmission (or active) measurement. Unfortunately, this typically results in an inaccurate determination of the radioactive activities within a waste drum because this measurement technique is valid only for homogeneous-attenuation or known drum matrices. However, since homogeneous-attenuation matrices are not common and may be unknown, other NDA techniques based on active and Passive CT (A PCT) are under development. The active measurement (ACT) yields a better attenuation matrix for the drum, while the passive measurement (PCT) more accurately determines the identity of the radioisotopes present and their activities. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  4. 40 CFR 80.511 - What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of the refiner or... marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of...

  5. 40 CFR 80.511 - What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of the refiner or... marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of...

  6. 40 CFR 80.511 - What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of the refiner or... marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of...

  7. 40 CFR 80.511 - What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of the refiner or... marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of...

  8. 40 CFR 80.511 - What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of the refiner or... marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of...

  9. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table 3, for determining... TREASURY LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Prescribed Tables § 30.63 Table 3, for determining the number of proof... distilled spirits is not found in Table 2, the proof gallons may be ascertained from Table 3. The...

  10. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor. 30.63 Section 30.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL GAUGING MANUAL Prescribed Tables...

  11. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Table 3, for determining... TREASURY ALCOHOL GAUGING MANUAL Prescribed Tables § 30.63 Table 3, for determining the number of proof... distilled spirits is not found in Table 2, the proof gallons may be ascertained from Table 3. The...

  12. 27 CFR 30.63 - Table 3, for determining the number of proof gallons from the weight and proof of spirituous liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Table 3, for determining... TREASURY LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Prescribed Tables § 30.63 Table 3, for determining the number of proof... distilled spirits is not found in Table 2, the proof gallons may be ascertained from Table 3. The...

  13. Site health and safety plan/work plan for further characterization of waste drums at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Abston, J.P.; Burman, S.N.; Jones, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    The health and safety plan/work plan describes a strategy for characterizing the contents of 172 liquid waste and 33 solid waste drums. It also addresses the control measures that will be taken to (1) prevent or minimize any adverse impact on the environment or personnel safety and health and (2) meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. When writing this document, the authors considered past experiences, recommendations, and best management practices to minimize possible hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or unplanned releases of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water.

  14. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  15. A photometric analysis of tablet movement in a side-vented perforated drum (Accela-Cota).

    PubMed

    Leaver, T M; Shannon, H D; Rowe, R C

    1985-01-01

    A novel particle tracing technique has been used to study the effect of the normal process variables i.e. drum speed, drum loading and the presence/absence of mixing elements (baffles) on the movement of tablets in a side-vented perforated drum (24 in diameter Accela-Cota). The technique involves measuring the duration of light emission from a single luminous tablet using a photomultiplier mounted to scan the same area as a spray gun, and has enabled the quantification of both the time that the tablet spends on the surface per pass (surface time) and the time that the tablet spends within the bulk of the tablet bed (circulation time) over run lengths equating to the normal tablet coating cycle. The technique also allows the study of the uniformity of tablet appearances by means of circulation profiles. It was found that, while both the surface and circulation times decreased with increasing drum speed and loading, there was irregularity of tablet appearance especially at low drum speeds and in the absence of baffles.

  16. Discrete particle simulations predicting mixing behavior of solid substrate particles in a rotating drum fermenter.

    PubMed

    Schutyser, M A; Padding, J T; Weber, F J; Briels, W J; Rinzema, A; Boom, R

    2001-12-20

    A soft-sphere discrete particle model was used to simulate mixing behavior of solid substrate particles in a slow rotating drum for solid-state fermentation. In this approach, forces acting on and subsequent motion of individual particles can be predicted. The (2D) simulations were qualitatively and quantitatively validated by mixing experiments using video and image analysis techniques. It was found that the simulations successfully predicted the mixing progress as a function of the degree of filling and size of the drum. It is shown that only relatively large, straight baffles perpendicular to the drum wall (67% of the drum radius) increase the mixing performance of the rotating drum. Considering the different aspects of mixing dealt with in this work, it is concluded that the soft sphere discrete particle model can serve as a valuable tool for investigating mixing of solid substrate particles. Finally, it is expected that this model may evolve into a potential tool for design and scale-up of mixed solid-state fermenters. PMID:11745144

  17. The hybrid energy spectrum of Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and surface array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M. G.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The Telescope Array experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using a hybrid detector. Fluorescence telescopes measure the longitudinal development of the extensive air shower generated when a primary cosmic ray particle interacts with the atmosphere. Meanwhile, scintillator detectors measure the lateral distribution of secondary shower particles that hit the ground. The Middle Drum (MD) fluorescence telescope station consists of 14 telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment, providing a direct link back to the HiRes measurements. Using the scintillator detector data in conjunction with the telescope data improves the geometrical reconstruction of the showers significantly, and hence, provides a more accurate reconstruction of the energy of the primary particle. The Middle Drum hybrid spectrum is presented and compared to that measured by the Middle Drum station in monocular mode. Further, the hybrid data establishes a link between the Middle Drum data and the surface array. A comparison between the Middle Drum hybrid energy spectrum and scintillator Surface Detector (SD) spectrum is also shown.

  18. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    SciTech Connect

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C.; Bachelet, F.

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  19. Numerical Studies on Time-Varying Stiffness of Disk-Drum Type Rotor with Bolt Loosening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhaoye; Chu, Fulei

    2015-07-01

    Disk-drum type rotors are widely used in industry for their high stiffness and low weight properties. In disk-drum type rotors, the adjacent disks and drums are commonly connected by bolted joints. Those rotating joint interfaces are subjected to numerous combinations of loads during normal operation, where loosening of the connecting bolts might occur. The bolt loosening will change the local stiffness of the rotor, which in turn affect the rotor dynamics and even result in structural failures. In this paper, the local stiffness of a disk- drum rotor with bolt loosening is investigated numerically. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model for the bolted disk-drum joint is established in ANSYS, where the bolt loosening is simulated by reducing the preloads of certain bolts, and removing those bolts as the limiting case. Simulations are performed on the FE model to evaluate the joint behaviour under static loads. Periodic variations of the joint deflections with respect to the rotation angle of the shaft are obtained, which implies the appearance of the time-varying local stiffness in the rotor system. The studies in this paper help accurate prediction of the rotor dynamics and early detection of bolt loosening.

  20. Hazards Associated with Legacy Nitrate Salt Waste Drums Managed under the Container Isolation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-07

    At present, there are 29 drums of nitrate waste salts (oxidizers with potentially acidic liquid bearing RCRA characteristics D001 and D002) that are awaiting processing, specifically to eliminate these characteristics and to allow for ultimate disposition at WIPP. As a result of the Feb. 14th, 2014 drum breach at WIPP, and the subsequent identification of the breached drum as a product ofLANL TRU waste disposition on May 15th, 2014, these 29 containers were moved into the Perrnacon in Dome 231 at TA-54 Area G, as part of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) approved container isolation plan. The plan is designed to mitigate hazards associated with the nitrate salt bearing waste stream. The purpose of this document is to articulate the hazards associated with un-remediated nitrate salts while in storage at LANL. These hazards are distinctly different from the Swheat-remediated nitrate salt bearing drums, and this document is intended to support the request to remove the un-remediated drums from management under the container isolation plan. Plans to remediate and/or treat both of these waste types are being developed separately, and are beyond the scope of this document.

  1. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... substance contained or by ultra-violet radiation. Any permeation of the substance contained may not constitute a danger under normal conditions of transport. (2) If protection against ultra-violet radiation is... ultra-violet radiation is not limited. (3) Additives serving purposes other than protection...

  2. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... caused either by the substance contained or by ultra-violet radiation. Any permeation of the substance...-violet radiation is required, it must be provided by the addition of carbon black or other suitable... content of inhibitors of ultra-violet radiation is not limited. (3) Additives serving purposes other...

  3. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... substance contained or by ultra-violet radiation. Any permeation of the substance contained may not constitute a danger under normal conditions of transport. (2) If protection against ultra-violet radiation is... ultra-violet radiation is not limited. (3) Additives serving purposes other than protection...

  4. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... substance contained or by ultra-violet radiation. Any permeation of the substance contained may not constitute a danger under normal conditions of transport. (2) If protection against ultra-violet radiation is... ultra-violet radiation is not limited. (3) Additives serving purposes other than protection...

  5. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... substance contained or by ultra-violet radiation. Any permeation of the substance contained may not constitute a danger under normal conditions of transport. (2) If protection against ultra-violet radiation is... ultra-violet radiation is not limited. (3) Additives serving purposes other than protection...

  6. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Peterson, E.S.

    1995-03-01

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report.

  7. Ringlike spin segregation of binary mixtures in a high-velocity rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decai, Huang; Ming, Lu; Gang, Sun; Yaodong, Feng; Min, Sun; Haiping, Wu; Kaiming, Deng

    2012-03-01

    This study presents molecular dynamics simulations on the segregation of binary mixtures in a high-velocity rotating drum. Depending on the ratio between the particle radius and density, similarities to the Brazil-nut effect and its reverse form are shown in the ringlike spin segregation patterns in radial direction. The smaller and heavier particles accumulated toward the drum wall, whereas the bigger and lighter particles accumulated toward the drum center. The effects of particle radius and density on the segregation states were quantified and the phase diagram of segregation in the ρb/ρs - rb/rs space was plotted. The observed phenomena can be explained by the combined percolation and the buoyancy effects.

  8. Corrosion of steel drums containing cemented ion-exchange resins as intermediate level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Schulz, F. M.

    2013-07-01

    Exhausted ion-exchange resins used in nuclear reactors are immobilized by cementation before being stored. They are contained in steel drums that may undergo internal corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The objective of this work is to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins with different aggressive species. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, and the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored for 900 days. Results show that the cementation of ion-exchange resins seems not to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums. The corrosion rate of the steel in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins in the absence of contaminants or in the presence of 2.3 wt.% sulphate content remains low (less than 0.1 μm/year) during the whole period of the study (900 days). The presence of chloride ions increases the corrosion rate of the steel at the beginning of the exposure but, after 1 year, the corrosion rate drops abruptly reaching a value close to 0.1 μm/year. This is probably due to the lack of water to sustain the corrosion process. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years, it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. Cementation of ion-exchange resins does not seem to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums that contained them; even in the case the matrix is highly contaminated with chloride ions.

  9. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application. PMID:22134026

  10. Hyperventilation and blood acid-base balance in hypercapnia exposed red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Ern, Rasmus; Esbaugh, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Hyperventilation is a common response in fish exposed to elevated water CO2. It is believed to lessen the respiratory acidosis associated with hypercapnia by lowering arterial PCO2, but the contribution of hyperventilation to blood acid-base compensation has yet to be quantified. Hyperventilation may also increase the flux of irons across the gill epithelium and the cost of osmoregulation, owing to the osmo-respiratory compromise. Therefore, hypercapnia exposed fish may increase standard metabolic rate (SMR) leaving less energy for physiological functions such as foraging, migration, growth and reproduction. Here we show that gill ventilation, blood PCO2 and total blood [CO2] increased in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) exposed to 1000 and 5000 µatm water CO2, and that blood PCO2 and total blood [CO2] decrease in fish during hypoxia induced hyperventilation. Based on these results we estimate the ventilatory contributions to total acid-base compensation in 1000 and 5000 µatm water CO2. We find that S. ocellatus only utilize a portion of its ventilatory capacity to reduce the acid-base disturbance in 1000 µatm water CO2. SMR was unaffected by both salinity and hypercapnia exposure indicating that the cost of osmoregulation is small relative to SMR, and that the lack of increased ventilation in 1000 µatm water CO2 despite the capacity to do so is not due to an energetic tradeoff between acid-base balance and osmoregulation. Therefore, while ocean acidification may impact ventilatory parameters, there will be little impact on the overall energy budget of S. ocellatus. PMID:26922790

  11. Drumming as a Medium to Promote Emotional and Social Functioning of Children in Middle Childhood in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Kim; van Niekerk, Caroline; le Roux, Liana

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential of drumming to enhance emotional and social functioning of children in residential care. Fifteen children (aged 7-12) from a child and youth care centre in South Africa attended four months of weekly drumming sessions. Gestalt theory principles informed the workshops' theoretical foundation and interpretation of…

  12. 7 CFR 160.201 - Fees generally for field inspection and certification of naval stores and drum containers of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. 160.201 Section 160.201 Agriculture Regulations of the... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. Except as provided in § 160.204, the following fees shall be paid to the United States for the field inspection and certification of naval stores and...

  13. 7 CFR 160.201 - Fees generally for field inspection and certification of naval stores and drum containers of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. 160.201 Section 160.201 Agriculture Regulations of the... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. Except as provided in § 160.204, the following fees shall be paid to the United States for the field inspection and certification of naval stores and...

  14. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked... regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178 and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container...

  15. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked... regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178 and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container...

  16. 7 CFR 160.201 - Fees generally for field inspection and certification of naval stores and drum containers of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. 160.201 Section 160.201 Agriculture Regulations of the... of naval stores and drum containers of rosin. Except as provided in § 160.204, the following fees shall be paid to the United States for the field inspection and certification of naval stores and...

  17. Measurements of the corrosion of low-carbon steel drums under environmental conditions at Hanford: One-year test results

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the methods used to expose low-carbon steel drums to atmospheric and soil corrosion and describes the methods used to examine specimens retrieved from both types of tests. These drums are being tested to meet requirements of radioactive waste storage for both low-level radioactive wastes and transuranic wastes.

  18. An ABC of Drumming: Children's Narratives about Beat, Rhythm and Groove in a Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I use a bricolage of arts-based research and writing practices to explore narratives by Grade 4 children about their experiences in a drumming circle called "Bam Bam" as represented in a text they created with me called An ABC of drumming. The term "narrative" is used here in a contemporary sense to…

  19. Batteryless wireless transmission system for electronic drum uses piezoelectric generator for play signal and power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Takemura, K.; Tanaka, A.; Douseki, T.

    2015-12-01

    A batteryless self-powered wireless transmission system has been developed that sends a signal from a drum pad to a synthesizer. The power generated by a piezoelectric generator functions both as the “Play” signal for the synthesizer and as the power source for the transmitter. An FM transmitter, which theoretically operates with zero latency, and a receiver with quick-response squelch of the received signal were developed for wireless transmission with a minimum system delay. Experimental results for an electronic drum without any connecting wires fully demonstrated the feasibility of self-powered wireless transmission with a latency of 900 μs.

  20. Analysis of a boron-carbide-drum-controlled critical reactor experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, W. T.

    1972-01-01

    In order to validate methods and cross sections used in the neutronic design of compact fast-spectrum reactors for generating electric power in space, an analysis of a boron-carbide-drum-controlled critical reactor was made. For this reactor the transport analysis gave generally satisfactory results. The calculated multiplication factor for the most detailed calculation was only 0.7-percent Delta k too high. Calculated reactivity worth of the control drums was $11.61 compared to measurements of $11.58 by the inverse kinetics methods and $11.98 by the inverse counting method. Calculated radial and axial power distributions were in good agreement with experiment.

  1. Short-term physiological responses of wild and hatchery-produced red drum during angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallman, E.A.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1999-01-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations, plasma glucose concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, and plasma osmolalities increased in red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (26.0-65.5 cm total length) during angling in estuarine waters (17-33 g/L salinity, 21-31??C). Angling time varied from as fast as possible (10 s) to the point when fish ceased resisting (up to 350 s). The increases in the physiological characteristics were similar in wild and hatchery-produced fish. This study indicates that hatchery-produced red drum may be used in catch-and-release studies to simulate the responses of wild fish.

  2. 7 CFR 160.24a - Inspection as to condition of drums containing rosin and the quality and condition of the rosin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection as to condition of drums containing rosin... of drums containing rosin and the quality and condition of the rosin therein upon request. Before or after the shipment in commerce of any lot of rosin in drums from a processing or storage point, and...

  3. 7 CFR 160.24a - Inspection as to condition of drums containing rosin and the quality and condition of the rosin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection as to condition of drums containing rosin... of drums containing rosin and the quality and condition of the rosin therein upon request. Before or after the shipment in commerce of any lot of rosin in drums from a processing or storage point, and...

  4. 7 CFR 160.24a - Inspection as to condition of drums containing rosin and the quality and condition of the rosin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection as to condition of drums containing rosin... of drums containing rosin and the quality and condition of the rosin therein upon request. Before or after the shipment in commerce of any lot of rosin in drums from a processing or storage point, and...

  5. 7 CFR 160.24a - Inspection as to condition of drums containing rosin and the quality and condition of the rosin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection as to condition of drums containing rosin... of drums containing rosin and the quality and condition of the rosin therein upon request. Before or after the shipment in commerce of any lot of rosin in drums from a processing or storage point, and...

  6. 7 CFR 160.24a - Inspection as to condition of drums containing rosin and the quality and condition of the rosin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection as to condition of drums containing rosin... of drums containing rosin and the quality and condition of the rosin therein upon request. Before or after the shipment in commerce of any lot of rosin in drums from a processing or storage point, and...

  7. Inspection, testing, and operating requiremens for the packaging and shipping of uranium trioxide in 55-gallon Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 6M shipping packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Toomer, D.V.

    1991-06-01

    This document identifies the inspection, testing and operating requirements for the packaging, loading, and shipping of uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}) in 55-gallon DOT Specification 6M shipping packagings from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Compliance with this document assures established controls for the purchasing, packaging, loading, and shipping of DOT Specification 6M shipping packagings are maintained in strict accordance with applicable Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Synchronized drumming enhances activity in the caudate and facilitates prosocial commitment--if the rhythm comes easily.

    PubMed

    Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter "accidentally" dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system. PMID:22110623

  9. Mechanical evaluation of the differential drum concept for optical fiber pay-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayson, Stephen C.

    1989-07-01

    This report describes the design of a differential drum system for optical fiber pay-out. The critical design parameters, such as the stresses and deflections in high-speed machinery, are discussed and the equations that govern them are developed. These equations are then applied and two systems are designed which meet the requirements.

  10. PCR primer pairs for 100 microsatellites in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were isolated and characterized. Eight of the microsatellites had tetra-nucleotide motifs, while 92 had di-nucleotide motifs. The average number of alleles at the 100 microsatellites among a sa...

  11. Low-head recirculating aquaculture system for juvenile red drum production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service and the Center for Aquaculture and Stock Enhancement at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute-FAU (HBOI-FAU) are collaborating to evaluate low-head recirculating aquaculture system designs to intensively produce red drum juveniles as part of the Florida Fish an...

  12. Drum drying performance of condensed distillers solubles and comparison to performance of modified condensed distillers solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condensed distillers solubles (CDS) is a viscous, syrupy co-product of ethanol production from corn; CDS exhibits strong recalcitrance to drying due to its chemical composition, which includes a substantial amount of glycerol. The objectives of this study were to determine the drum drying performan...

  13. Dyadic Drumming across the Lifespan Reveals a Zone of Proximal Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinspehn-Ammerlahn, Anna; Riediger, Michaela; Schmiedek, Florian; von Oertzen, Timo; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Many social interactions require the synchronization--be it automatically or intentionally--of one's own behavior with that of others. Using a dyadic drumming paradigm, the authors delineate lifespan differences in interpersonal action synchronization (IAS). Younger children, older children, younger adults, and older adults in same- and mixed-age…

  14. Capturing the S in Segregation: A Simple Model of Flowing Granular Mixtures in Rotating Drums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tordesillas, A.; Arber, D.

    2005-01-01

    Flowing granular mixtures in rotating cylindrical drums arise in numerous industrial settings and are of great technological significance worldwide. To date, the development of a robust mathematical model for this process remains an open research problem. However, simple mathematical models may be developed that capture some of the underlying…

  15. Leaders of the Pack: Responsibilities and Experiences of Collegiate Drum Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Wesley D.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the responsibilities and experiences of three collegiate drum majors as student leaders of a marching band at a major university. Marching band continues to be a prevalent and highly visible aspect of music education in the United States. The preparation and utilization of student leaders in music remains common, but little…

  16. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  1. 5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. MOTOR/WINCH DRUM ASSEMBLY FOR OXYGEN LANCE HOISTING RIG ON THE WEIGHING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Modeling of automotive drum brakes for squeal and parameter sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinchun; Krousgrill, Charles M.; Bajaj, Anil K.

    2006-01-01

    Many fundamental studies have been conducted to explain the occurrence of squeal in disc and drum brake systems. The elimination of brake squeal, however, still remains a challenging area of research. Here, a numerical modeling approach is developed for investigating the onset of squeal in a drum brake system. The brake system model is based on the modal information extracted from finite element models for individual brake components. The component models of drum and shoes are coupled by the shoe lining material which is modeled as springs located at the centroids of discretized drum and shoe interface elements. The developed multi degree of freedom coupled brake system model is a linear non-self-adjoint system. Its vibrational characteristics are determined by a complex eigenvalue analysis. The study shows that both the frequency separation between two system modes due to static coupling and their associated mode shapes play an important role in mode merging. Mode merging and veering are identified as two important features of modes exhibiting strong interactions, and those modes are likely candidates that lead to coupled-mode instability. Techniques are developed for a parameter sensitivity analysis with respect to lining stiffness and the stiffness of the brake actuation system. The influence of lining friction coefficient on the propensity to squeal is also discussed.

  3. ANALYSIS OF AVAILABLE HYDROGEN DATA & ACCUMULATION OF HYDROGEN IN UNVENTED TRANSURANIC (TRU) DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    DAYLEY, L

    2004-06-24

    This document provides a response to the second action required in the approval for the Justification for Continued Operations (JCO) Assay and Shipment of Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers in 218-W-4C. The Waste Management Project continues to make progress toward shipping certified TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As the existing inventory of TRU waste in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) storage buildings is shipped, and the uncovered inventory is removed from the trenches and prepared for shipment from the Hanford Site, the covered inventory of suspect TRU wastes must be retrieved and prepared for processing for shipment to WIPP. Accumulation of hydrogen in unvented TRU waste containers is a concern due to the possibility of explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. The frequency and consequence of these gas mixtures resulting in an explosion must be addressed. The purpose of this study is to recommend an approach and schedule for venting TRU waste containers in the low-level burial ground (LLBG) trenches in conjunction with TRU Retrieval Project activities. This study provides a detailed analysis of the expected probability of hydrogen gas accumulation in significant quantities in unvented drums. Hydrogen gas accumulation in TRU drums is presented and evaluated in the following three categories: Hydrogen concentrations less than 5 vol%; Hydrogen between 5-15 vol%; and Hydrogen concentrations above 15 vol%. This analysis is based on complex-wide experience with TRU waste drums, available experimental data, and evaluations of storage conditions. Data reviewed in this report includes experience from the Idaho National Environmental Engineering Laboratories (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratories, (ORNL), Rocky Flats sites, Matrix Depletion Program and the National Transportation and Packaging Program. Based on this analysis, as well as an assessment of the probability and

  4. ACE-Asia: Size/Time/Compositionally Resolved Aerosols During ACE-Asia Using Continuously Sampling DRUM Technology and Synchrotron-XRF Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, T. A.; Cliff, S. S.; Jimenez-Cruz, M.; Perry, K. D.

    2001-12-01

    The adaptation of focused beam technology to continuously sampling drum impactors (DRUMs) has allowed for an unprecedented number of size/time/compositional analyses of aerosols during the Spring, 2001 ACE-Asia study and a summer follow-on. While continuously sampling and sizing inertial drum impactors have been available for aerosol monitoring and research for the past 30 years, cost and sensitivity considerations have generally limited their use, even in research studies. These constraints have been greatly relaxed by our application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) analysis for elemental analysis of aerosols, both increasing sensitivity and decreasing cost. The intense polarized x-ray beams of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (ALS) allows us to eliminate 99% of all the background normally present in x-ray analysis while matching the x-ray beam spot to the 0.2 mm "footprint" of our DRUM impactors. This combination allows non-destructive analyses of elements from sodium to uranium (with some minor elements masked by interferences) with a time resolution set during analysis, not during sampling. The DELTA Group and its many collaborators executed a 21 site network of continuously sampling 3 and 8 stage DRUM impactors for the 6 weeks of ACE-Asia. Fewer than 5% of the potential 80,000 samples were lost due to sampling problems. During S-XRF analysis, a nominal time resolution of 6 hrs was chosen, with 2 hrs available as needed during aerosol episodes. The 168 mm drum strips were mounted in frames and exposed to the "white" polarized x-ray beam of ALS Beam Line 10.3.1 for 30 seconds, yielding quantitative elemental determinations from sodium through molybdenum plus heavy elements, certified by 80 analytical standards and NIST SRMs. Minimum detectable limits ranged from 0.1 ng/m3 for sulfur to 0.005 ng/m3 for transition metals such as zinc, allowing scores of positive elemental determinations in each spectrum. During ACE

  5. Decreased sexual signalling reveals reduced viability in small populations of the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata.

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Jari J; Alatalo, Rauno V; Mappes, Johanna; Vertainen, Laura

    2004-09-01

    One of the important goals in conservation biology is to determine reliable indicators of population viability. Sexual traits have been suggested to indicate population extinction risk, because they may be related to viability through condition dependence. Moreover, condition-dependent sexual traits may be more sensitive indicators of population viability than early life-history traits, because deleterious fitness effects of inbreeding tend to be expressed mainly at the end of the species' life history. However, empirical evidence of the significance of sexual behaviour for population viability is missing. In this study, we examined two male sexual traits and survival in 39 different-sized and isolated natural populations of the wolf spider, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. We also used several traits to estimate female reproductive success in 25 populations of H. rubrofasciata. According to previous studies, H. rubrofasciata males have a costly and condition-dependent acoustic signal, courtship drumming, which is the target of female choice. Males with a high drumming rate have considerably higher viability than males with a low drumming rate, and females that mate with the more actively drumming males gain genetic benefits in terms of increased offspring viability. Our results show that males in small populations had both lower survival and lower drumming rate than males in larger populations. However, we did not find any evidence for a decline in important early life-history traits (offspring number, hatching success or offspring body mass) or female body mass in small populations. Our results have two important messages for conservation biology. First, they show that sexual traits can be used as sensitive indicators of population viability. Second, the indirect benefits of female choice in terms of good genes might partially compensate for the reduction of viability in declining populations. Also, our results support the view that deleterious effects of small

  6. Granular avalanches in a two-dimensional rotating drum with imposed vertical vibration.

    PubMed

    Amon, Daniel L; Niculescu, Tatiana; Utter, Brian C

    2013-07-01

    We present statistics on granular avalanches in a rotating drum with and without imposed vertical vibration. The experiment consists of a quasi-two-dimensional, vertical drum containing pentagonal particles and rotated at a constant angular velocity. The drum rests on an electromagnetic shaker to allow vibration of the assembly as it rotates. We measure time series of the slope of the interface and find that the critical angle for slope failure θ(c) and the resulting angle of repose θ(r) are broadly distributed with an approximate power-law distribution of avalanches θ(c)-θ(r) for large avalanches. The faceted pentagonal grains used lead to significant interlocking with critical and repose angles (θ(c)≈45° and θ(r)≈39°) larger than experiments using spherical grains, even with vibration, and avalanche magnitudes correlated with the prior build-up and anti-correlated with the prior avalanche. We find that the stability of the assembly increases with small vibrations and is destabilized at vibration amplitudes above a dimensionless acceleration (peak acceleration divided by acceleration due to gravity) of Γ=0.2. We also study history dependence of the avalanches by periodically oscillating the drum to compare the initial avalanche upon reversal of shear to steady-state distributions for avalanches during continuous rotation. We observe history dependence as an initial decrease in critical angle upon reversal of the drum rotation direction, indicating that a texture is induced to resist continued shear such that the surface is weaker to reversals in shear direction. Memory of this history is removed by sufficient external vibration (Γ≥0.8), which leads to compaction and relaxation of the surface layer grains responsible for avalanching dynamics, as initial and steady-state avalanche distributions become indistinguishable.

  7. Decreased sexual signalling reveals reduced viability in small populations of the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata.

    PubMed Central

    Ahtiainen, Jari J.; Alatalo, Rauno V.; Mappes, Johanna; Vertainen, Laura

    2004-01-01

    One of the important goals in conservation biology is to determine reliable indicators of population viability. Sexual traits have been suggested to indicate population extinction risk, because they may be related to viability through condition dependence. Moreover, condition-dependent sexual traits may be more sensitive indicators of population viability than early life-history traits, because deleterious fitness effects of inbreeding tend to be expressed mainly at the end of the species' life history. However, empirical evidence of the significance of sexual behaviour for population viability is missing. In this study, we examined two male sexual traits and survival in 39 different-sized and isolated natural populations of the wolf spider, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. We also used several traits to estimate female reproductive success in 25 populations of H. rubrofasciata. According to previous studies, H. rubrofasciata males have a costly and condition-dependent acoustic signal, courtship drumming, which is the target of female choice. Males with a high drumming rate have considerably higher viability than males with a low drumming rate, and females that mate with the more actively drumming males gain genetic benefits in terms of increased offspring viability. Our results show that males in small populations had both lower survival and lower drumming rate than males in larger populations. However, we did not find any evidence for a decline in important early life-history traits (offspring number, hatching success or offspring body mass) or female body mass in small populations. Our results have two important messages for conservation biology. First, they show that sexual traits can be used as sensitive indicators of population viability. Second, the indirect benefits of female choice in terms of good genes might partially compensate for the reduction of viability in declining populations. Also, our results support the view that deleterious effects of small

  8. Three-dimensional simulation of grain mixing in three different rotating drum designs for solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Schutyser, M A I; Weber, F J; Briels, W J; Boom, R M; Rinzema, A

    2002-08-01

    A previously published two-dimensional discrete particle simulation model for radial mixing behavior of various slowly rotating drums for solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been extended to a three-dimensional model that also predicts axial mixing. Radial and axial mixing characteristics were predicted for three different drum designs: (1) without baffles; (2) with straight baffles; and (3) with curved baffles. The axial mixing behavior was studied experimentally with video- and image-analysis techniques. In the drum without baffles and with curved baffles the predicted mixing behavior matched the observed behavior adequately. The predicted axial mixing behavior in the drum with straight baffles was predicted less accurately, and it appeared to be strongly dependent on particle rotation, which was in contrast to the other drum designs. In the drum with curved baffles complete mixing in the radial and axial direction was achieved much faster than in the other designs; that is, it was already achieved after three to four rotations. This drum design may therefore be very well suited to SSF. It is concluded that discrete particle simulations provide valuable detailed knowledge about particle transport processes, and this may help to understand and optimize related heat and mass transfer processes in SSF. PMID:12115417

  9. A Review of the Different Methods to Quantify Tritium Inside Waste Drums via Helium-3 Mass Spectrometric Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Demange, D.; Varescon, M.; Le Gal, P.; Daclin, J.P.; Hubinois, J.C.; Douche, C.; Lattaud, C

    2005-07-15

    This work deals with an indirect and non destructive measurement of tritium in solids. Instead of measuring tritium, we propose to measure the production rate of the decay product: {sup 3}He.The amount of tritium enclosed inside a waste drum can be determined with an adapted {sup 3}He ingrowth method that takes into account the leak rate of the drum. The model leads to different ways to quantify tritium in the drum. It is confirmed using reference drums that measuring the {sup 3}He leak by confining the drum during its equilibrium state gives the same result as sampling the drum atmosphere at the beginning of the storage. For each method, the appropriate apparatus, experimental procedures and calculation of tritium activity from mass spectrometric {sup 3}He measurements are detailed. Performances of these techniques are studied and discussed.In addition, we describe a novel and fully automated apparatus based on the confinement method that makes it possible to achieve a close tritium inventory of all the waste drums stored or produced at CEA Valduc.

  10. Social, contextual, and individual factors affecting the occurrence and acoustic structure of drumming bouts in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Babiszewska, Magdalena; Schel, Anne Marijke; Wilke, Claudia; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-01-01

    The production of structured and repetitive sounds by striking objects is a behavior found not only in humans, but also in a variety of animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this study we examined individual and social factors that may influence the frequency with which individuals engage in drumming behavior when producing long distance pant hoot vocalizations, and analyzed the temporal structure of those drumming bouts. Male chimpanzees from Budongo Forest, Uganda, drummed significantly more frequently during travel than feeding or resting and older individuals were significantly more likely to produce drumming bouts than younger ones. In contrast, we found no evidence that the presence of estrus females, high ranking males and preferred social partners in the caller's vicinty had an effect on the frequency with which an individual accompanied their pant hoot vocalization with drumming. Through acoustic analyses, we demonstrated that drumming sequences produced with pant hoots may have contained information on individual identity and that qualitatively, there was individual variation in the complexity of the temporal patterns produced. We conclude that drumming patterns may act as individually distinctive long-distance signals that, together with pant hoot vocalizations, function to coordinate the movement and spacing of dispersed individuals within a community, rather than as signals to group members in the immediate audience.

  11. Method of production H/sub 2/ using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, L.E.

    1988-05-13

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300/degree/ to 1400/degree/F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices. 1 fig.

  12. 40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and.... (c) The emission sources listed in paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this section are not required...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11118 - Requirements for facilities with monthly throughput of 100,000 gallons of gasoline or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Emission Limitations and.... (c) The emission sources listed in paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this section are not required...

  14. Technical/commercial feasibility study of the production of fuel-grade ethanol from corn: 100-million-gallon-per-year production facility in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-31

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing motor fuel alcohol from corn in a 100 million gallon per year plant to be constructed in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana is evaluated. The evaluation includes a detailed process design using proven technology, a capital cost estimate for the plant, a detailed analysis of the annual operating cost, a market study, a socioeconomic, environmental, health and safety analysis, and a complete financial analysis. Several other considerations for production of ethanol were evaluated including: cogeneration and fuel to be used in firing the boilers; single by-products vs. multiple by-products; and use of boiler flue gas for by-product drying.

  15. Technical/commercial feasibility study of the production of fuel-grade ethanol from corn: 100-million-gallon-per-year production facility in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing motor fuel alcohol from corn in a 100 million gallon per year plant to be constructed in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana is evaluated. The evaluation includes a detailed process design using proven technology, a capital cost estimate for the plant, a detailed analysis of the annual operating cost, a market study, a socioeconomic, environmental, health and safety analysis, and a complete financial analysis. Several other considerations for production of ethanol were evaluated including: cogeneration and fuel to be used in firing the boilers; single by-products vs. multiple by-products; and use of boiler flue gas for by-product drying.

  16. Drumming in immersive virtual reality: the body shapes the way we play.

    PubMed

    Kilteni, Konstantina; Bergstrom, Ilias; Slater, Mel

    2013-04-01

    It has been shown that it is possible to generate perceptual illusions of ownership in immersive virtual reality (IVR) over a virtual body seen from first person perspective, in other words over a body that visually substitutes the person's real body. This can occur even when the virtual body is quite different in appearance from the person's real body. However, investigation of the psychological, behavioral and attitudinal consequences of such body transformations remains an interesting problem with much to be discovered. Thirty six Caucasian people participated in a between-groups experiment where they played a West-African Djembe hand drum while immersed in IVR and with a virtual body that substituted their own. The virtual hand drum was registered with a physical drum. They were alongside a virtual character that played a drum in a supporting, accompanying role. In a baseline condition participants were represented only by plainly shaded white hands, so that they were able merely to play. In the experimental condition they were represented either by a casually dressed dark-skinned virtual body (Casual Dark-Skinned - CD) or by a formal suited light-skinned body (Formal Light-Skinned - FL). Although participants of both groups experienced a strong body ownership illusion towards the virtual body, only those with the CD representation showed significant increases in their movement patterns for drumming compared to the baseline condition and compared with those embodied in the FL body. Moreover, the stronger the illusion of body ownership in the CD condition, the greater this behavioral change. A path analysis showed that the observed behavioral changes were a function of the strength of the illusion of body ownership towards the virtual body and its perceived appropriateness for the drumming task. These results demonstrate that full body ownership illusions can lead to substantial behavioral and possibly cognitive changes depending on the appearance of the virtual

  17. 27 CFR 27.202 - Standards of fill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Bottles § 27.202 Standards of fill. Distilled spirits imported into the United States in containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less for sale shall be imported only in liquor bottles, including liquor bottles... of this chapter. Empty liquor bottles, including liquor bottles of less than 200 ml capacity,...

  18. 27 CFR 27.202 - Standards of fill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Bottles § 27.202 Standards of fill. Distilled spirits imported into the United States in containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less for sale shall be imported only in liquor bottles, including liquor bottles... of this chapter. Empty liquor bottles, including liquor bottles of less than 200 ml capacity,...

  19. 40 CFR 406.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.16 Pretreatment... new corn wet milling source to be discharged to the POTW (gallons per one hour for flow and pounds...

  20. 40 CFR 406.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.16 Pretreatment... new corn wet milling source to be discharged to the POTW (gallons per one hour for flow and pounds...

  1. 40 CFR 406.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.16 Pretreatment... new corn wet milling source to be discharged to the POTW (gallons per one hour for flow and pounds...

  2. 40 CFR 406.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.16 Pretreatment... new corn wet milling source to be discharged to the POTW (gallons per one hour for flow and pounds...

  3. 40 CFR 406.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Corn Wet Milling Subcategory § 406.16 Pretreatment... new corn wet milling source to be discharged to the POTW (gallons per one hour for flow and pounds...

  4. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). Red drum. [Sciaenops ocellatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, R.E.

    1985-06-01

    The red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) is an estuarine dependent species. It spends its entire life in estuaries or nearshore coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Red drum spawn from mid-August to November; peak spawning is from mid-September through October. Larvae and juveniles remain in estuaries and adults live along the coast and in passes. Commercial landings in Louisiana (1971-81) ranged from 723,700 to 2,212,500 lb. Texas closed commercial fishing in 1979. In most Gulf States, the sport catch usually exceeds commercial landings. There are few data on population dynamics of the species. Larval and juvenile red drum eat primarily invertebrates; adults feed on fish, shrimp, and crabs. Red drum tolerate a wide range of temperatures (2/sup 0/ to 37.5/sup 0/C) and salinities (0.14 to 50 ppt). 47 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. The design of a mechanical referencing system for the rear drum of the Longwall Shearer Coal Miner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. W.; Yang, T. C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design of two systems which reference the position of a longwall shearer coal miner to the mine roof of the present cut and of the last cut are presented. This system is part of an automation system that will guide the rear cutting drum in such a manner that the total depth of cut remains constant even though the front drum may be following an undulating roof profile. The rear drum referencing mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof to the floor for the present cut. This system provides a signal to control a constant depth of cut. The last cut follower mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof of the prior cut to the cutting drum. This latter system provides a signal to minimize the step height in the roof between cuts. The dynamic response of this hydraulic-pneumatic and mechanical system is analyzed to determine accumulator size and precharge pressure.

  6. Motion sickness and gastric myoelectric activity as a function of speed of rotation of a circular vection drum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Senqi; Stern, Robert M.; Vasey, Michael W.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and electrogastrograms (EGGs) were obtained from 60 healthy subjects while they viewed an optokinetic drum rotated at one of four speeds: 15, 30, 60 or 90 deg/s. All subjects experienced vection, illusory self-motion. Motion sickness symptoms increased as drums speed increased up to 60 deg/s. Power, spectral intensity, of the EGG at the tachygastria frequencies (4-9 cpm) was calculated at each drum rotation speed. The correlation between the motion sickness symptoms and the power at 4-9 cpm was significant. Thus, drum rotation speed influenced the spectral power of the EGG at 4-9 cpm, tachygastria, and the intensity of motion sickness symptoms.

  7. An analysis of thermionic space nuclear reactor power system: II. Merits of using safety drums for backup control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mahomed S.; Xue, Huimin

    1993-01-01

    An analysis is performed to investigate the merits of using the TOPAZ-II safety drums for a backup control to prevent a reactivity excursion, stabilize the reactor, and achieve steady-state power operation, following a severe hypothetical reactivity initiated accident (RIA). Such an RIA is assumed to occur during the system start-up in orbit due to a malfunction of the drive mechanism of the control drums, causing the nine drums to accidentally rotate the full 180° outward. Results show that an immediate, inward rotation of the three safety drums to an angle of 80° will shutdown the reactor, however, a delay time of 10 s will not only prevents a reactivity excursion, but also enables operating the reactor at a steady-state thermal power of about 33.3 kW (0.9 kW per TFE). Conversely, when the immediate rotation of the safety drums is to a larger angle of 100°, a steady-state operation at about 37 kW can be achieved, but a delay of 10 s causes a reactivity excursion and overheating of the TFEs. It is therefor concluded that, should the drive mechanism be modified to enable rotating the safety drums for TOPAZ-II reactor at variable speeds of and below 22.5°/s, the three safety drums could be used successfully for a backup control, following an RIA. However, since the reactivity worth of the three safety drums is only 2.0, the maximum steady-state electric power achievable for the system is limited to approximately 0.25 kW, at which the fission power is about 37 kW and the emitter temperature is approximaely 1500 K. To alleviate such a limitation and enable operation at nominal design conditions (fission power of about 107 kW or a system's total electric power of 5.6 kW), the reactivity worth of the safety drums would have to be increased by at least 0.24. An additional increase in the safety drums' worth will also be necessary to maintain steady-state operation of the system at nominal conditions throughout the mission lifetime, with all nine control drums fully

  8. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  9. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-03-31

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site.

  10. Drop Simulation of 6M Drum with Locking-Ring Closure and Liquid Contents

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T

    2006-04-17

    This paper presents the dynamic simulation of the 6M drum with a locking-ring type closure subjected to a 4.9-foot drop. The drum is filled with water to 98 percent of overflow capacity. A three dimensional finite-element model consisting of metallic, liquid and rubber gasket components is used in the simulation. The water is represented by a hydrodynamic material model in which the material's volume strength is determined by an equation of state. The explicit numerical method based on the theory of wave propagation is used to determine the combined structural response to the torque load for tightening the locking-ring closure and to the impact load due to the drop.

  11. Analysis Methodologies and Ameliorative Techniques for Mitigation of the Risk in Churches with Drum Domes

    SciTech Connect

    Zingone, Gaetano; Licata, Vincenzo; Calogero, Cucchiara

    2008-07-08

    The present work fits into the interesting theme of seismic prevention for protection of the monumental patrimony made up of churches with drum domes. Specifically, with respect to a church in the historic area of Catania, chosen as a monument exemplifying the typology examined, the seismic behavior is analyzed in the linear field using modern dynamic identification techniques. The dynamically identified computational model arrived at made it possible to identify the macro-element most at risk, the dome-drum system. With respect to this system the behavior in the nonlinear field is analyzed through dynamic tests on large-scale models in the presence of various types of improving reinforcement. The results are used to appraise the ameliorative contribution afforded by each of them and to choose the most suitable type of reinforcement, optimizing the stiffness/ductility ratio of the system.

  12. Characterization Studies of Radioactive Waste Drums Using High Resolution Gamma Spectrometric Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, M.; Cristache, C.; Done, L.; Dragolici, F.; Sima, O.

    2010-01-21

    The problem of radioactive waste has become a critical issue in the country and worldwide. The radioactive waste containers, containing different radioactive materials, have to be characterized before their final disposal. Destructive methods, although being the most precise, are also the most expensive and not the easiest ones from the radioprotection point of view. In this situation, high resolution gamma spectrometry proved to be a reliable method for the non destructive assay method. However, the non-homogenous composition of the radioactive waste inside the drum makes the quantitative characterization of the radioactive waste drum a difficult task. Experimental studies and computed results, combined with Monte Carlo simulations using GESPECOR, are presented in this paper as a possibility to achieve this task.

  13. Lanthanide nano-drums: a new class of molecular nanoparticles for potential biomedical applications†

    PubMed Central

    Gnanam, Annie J.; Arambula, Jonathan F.; Jones, Jessica N.; Swaminathan, Jagannath; Yang, Xiaoping; Schipper, Desmond; Hall, Justin W.; DePue, Lauren J.; Dieye, Yakhya; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Chandler, Don J.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Ehrlich, Lauren I. R.; Brown, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a new class of lanthanide-based self-assembling molecular nanoparticles as potential reporter molecules for imaging, and as multi-functional nanoprobes or nanosensors in diagnostic systems. These lanthanide “nano-drums” are homogeneous 4d–4f clusters approximately 25 to 30 Å in diameter that can emit from the visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Here, we present syntheses, crystal structures, photophysical properties, and comparative cytotoxicity data for six nano-drums containing either Eu, Tb, Lu, Er, Yb or Ho. Imaging capabilities of these nano-drums are demonstrated using epifluorescence, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), and two-photon microscopy. We discuss how these molecular nanoparticles can to be adapted for a range of assays, particularly by taking advantage of functionalization strategies with chemical moieties to enable conjugation to protein or nucleic acids. PMID:25284181

  14. Ecological performance of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae exposed to environmental levels of the insecticide malathion.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Alvarez, Maria; Fuiman, Lee A

    2006-05-01

    Malathion is a highly soluble organophosphate insecticide that is widely used in agriculture and mosquito eradication campaigns. Fish species, such as red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), that use seagrass beds as nursery areas could be affected by runoff waters contaminated with malathion. We exposed red drum larvae at the size they reach in estuarine nursery areas to environmentally realistic and sublethal levels of malathion (0, 1, and 10 microg/L). We evaluated the effects of such exposure on ecologically significant behaviors (routine swimming and predator evasion), growth, and resting metabolism. Malathion exposure to relatively low but ecologically realistic concentrations did not affect routine behavior, escape behavior, resting metabolic rate, or growth, indicating that reported environmental levels may be safe for young fishes. However, a recent substantial increase in the use of malathion may elevate surface-water concentrations to levels above those tested in the present study. PMID:16704078

  15. Equivalent circuit modeling and vibrometry measurements of the Nigerian-origin Udu Utar drum.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian E; Hilton, C Beau; Giorgini, Frank

    2013-03-01

    The Udu drum, sometimes called the water pot drum, is a traditional Nigerian instrument. Musicians who play the Udu exploit its aerophone and idiophone resonances. This paper will discuss an electrical equivalent circuit model for the Udu Utar, a modern innovation of the traditional Udu, to predict the low frequency aerophone resonances and will also present scanning laser vibrometer measurements to determine the mode shapes of the dominant idiophone resonances. These analyses not only provide an understanding of the unique sound of the Udu instrument but may also be used by instrument designers to create instruments with resonance frequencies at traditional musical intervals for the various tones produced and to create musical harmonic ratios. The information, specifically the laser vibrometry measurements, may also be useful to musicians in knowing the best places to strike the Udu to excite musical tones.

  16. Test plan for a live drum survey using the gamma-neutron sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Roybal, L.G.; Thompson, D.N.

    1995-07-01

    This plan describes performance tests to be made with the Gamma/Neutron Sensor (GNS), which that was designed and built for infield assay at an excavation site. The performance tests will be performed in Building WMF-628 in the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on stored 55-gal drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant. The GNS is mounted on a wooden pallet that will allow horizontal and vertical scans of the stacked drums. Scanning speed and GNS sensitivity for gamma and neutron radiation fields will be estimated. Effects of temperature, electronic, and acoustic noise will be evaluated. Two- and three-dimensional plots of radiation field as a function of position will be developed from the data.

  17. Equivalent circuit modeling and vibrometry measurements of the Nigerian-origin Udu Utar drum.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian E; Hilton, C Beau; Giorgini, Frank

    2013-03-01

    The Udu drum, sometimes called the water pot drum, is a traditional Nigerian instrument. Musicians who play the Udu exploit its aerophone and idiophone resonances. This paper will discuss an electrical equivalent circuit model for the Udu Utar, a modern innovation of the traditional Udu, to predict the low frequency aerophone resonances and will also present scanning laser vibrometer measurements to determine the mode shapes of the dominant idiophone resonances. These analyses not only provide an understanding of the unique sound of the Udu instrument but may also be used by instrument designers to create instruments with resonance frequencies at traditional musical intervals for the various tones produced and to create musical harmonic ratios. The information, specifically the laser vibrometry measurements, may also be useful to musicians in knowing the best places to strike the Udu to excite musical tones. PMID:23464041

  18. Normal Condition on Transport Thermal Analysis and Testing of a Type B Drum Package

    SciTech Connect

    Jerrell, J.W.; van Alstine, M.N.; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-03-21

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance.

  19. Estimation of the matrix attenuation in heterogeneous radioactive waste drums using dual-energy computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert-Coutant, C.; Moulin, V.; Sauze, R.; Rizo, P.; Casagrande, J. M.

    1999-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy measurements of the activity of radionuclides in nuclear waste drums must be corrected for the attenuation due to the non-homogeneous waste matrix. The attenuation factors depend on the matrix local density and effective atomic number, and on the energy of the gamma rays emitted by the radionuclides. The requirements for the system presented in this paper are to estimate the attenuation in low-density (<0.4 g/cm 3), 120 l drums containing radionuclides emitting in the (59.5 keV, 1.4 MeV) energy range. A series of three-dimensional (3D) attenuation maps of the drum are computed using a dual-energy computerized tomography (DE-CT) system with an external, polychromatic X-ray source. The system successively records low-energy (mean energy about 62 keV) and high-energy (about 300 keV) projections using different tube voltages, anode current, and filtration. Each projection is acquired by 22 BGO scintillators - PM detectors in fan-beam geometry. The drum is rotated and elevated in a helical scan. A DE calibration transforms pairs of DE projections into pairs of "equivalent basis materials (BM)" projections. This non-linear transformation allows to correct for polychromaticity. After reconstruction, the two "equivalent BM" 3D maps are used, together with tabulated attenuation data of the BMs, in order to extrapolate the 3D attenuation map at any energy peak. Maps of the mass density and of the effective atomic number can also be computed. The total examination time is less than 5 min. Experimental images are shown.

  20. Application of active and passive neutron non destructive assay methods to concrete radioactive waste drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Brackx, E.

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with the application of non-destructive neutron measurement methods to control and characterize 200 l radioactive waste drums filled with a concrete matrix. Due to its composition, and particularly to hydrogen, concrete penalizes the use of such methods to quantify uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) components, which are mainly responsible of the α-activity of the waste. The determination of the alpha activity is the main objective of neutron measurements, in view to verify acceptance criteria in surface storage. Calibration experiments of the Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI) method lead to Detection Limit Masses (DLM) of about 1 mg of 239Pu eff in the total counting mode, and of about 10 mg of 239Pu eff in the coincidence counting mode, in case of a homogeneous Pu source and measurement times between one and two hours. Monte Carlo calculation results show a very satisfactory agreement between experimental values and calculated ones. Results of the application of passive and active neutron methods to control two real drums are presented in the last part of the paper. They show a good agreement between measured data and values declared by the waste producers. The main difficulties that had to be overcome are the low neutron signal in passive and active coincidence counting modes due to concrete, the analysis of the passive neutron signal in presence of 244Cm in the drum, which is a strong spontaneous fission neutron emitter, the variation of the active background with the concrete composition, and the analysis of the active prompt neutron signal due to the simultaneous presence of U and Pu in the drums.