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Sample records for gallstones

  1. Gallstones

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and the whites of your eyes High fever with chills Types of gallstones Types of gallstones that can form in the gallbladder include: Cholesterol gallstones. The most common type of gallstone, called a cholesterol gallstone, often appears yellow in color. These gallstones are composed mainly of ...

  2. Gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Njeze, Gabriel E

    2013-01-01

    Gallstone disease is a worldwide medical problem, but the incidence rates show substantial geographical variation, with the lowest rates reported in African populations. Publications in English language on gallstones which were obtained from reprint requests and PubMed database formed the basis for this paper. Data extracted from these sources included authors, country, year of publication, age and sex of patients, pathogenesis, risk factors for development of gallstones, racial distribution, presenting symptoms, complications and treatment. Gallstones occur worldwide, however it is commonest among North American Indians and Hispanics but low in Asian and African populations. High biliary protein and lipid concentrations are risk factors for the formation of gallstones, while gallbladder sludge is thought to be the usual precursor of gallstones. Biliary calcium concentration plays a part in bilirubin precipitation and gallstone calcification. Treatment of gallstones should be reserved for those with symptomatic disease, while prophylactic cholecystectomy is recommended for specific groups like children, those with sickle cell disease and those undergoing weight-loss surgical treatments. Treatment should be undertaken for a little percentage of patients with gallstones, as majority of those who harbor them never develop symptoms. The group that should undergo cholecystectomy include those with symptomatic gallstones, sickle cell disease patients with gall stones, and patients with morbid obesity who are undergoing laparotomy for other reasons. PMID:24497751

  3. [Management of Gallstone].

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyo Sang

    2018-05-25

    Gallstones are one of the most common diseases worldwide. Recently, the incidence of gallstones has increased and the pattern of gallstones has changed in Korea. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard treatment for symptomatic gallstones. Expectant management is considered the most appropriate choice in patients with asymptomatic gallstones. The dissolution of cholesterol gallstones by oral bile acid, such as ursodeoxycholic acid, can be considered in selected patients with gallstones. Although the advent of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has moved interest away from the pharmacologic treatment of gallstones, several promising agents related to various mechanisms are under investigation.

  4. Gallstones

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the abdomen, back, or just under the right arm. Gallstones are most common among older adults, women, overweight people, Native Americans and Mexican Americans. Gallstones are often found during imaging tests ...

  5. MRI of gallstones with different compositions.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hong-Ming; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Chen, Chiung-Yu; Lin, Pin-Wen; Lin, Jui-Che

    2004-06-01

    Gallstones are usually recognized on MRI as filling defects of hypointensity. However, they sometimes may appear as hyperintensities on T1-weighted imaging. This study investigated how gallstones appear on MRI and how their appearance influences the detection of gallstones. Gallstones from 24 patients who had MRI performed before the removal of the gallstones were collected for study. The gallstones were classified either as cholesterol gallstone (n = 4) or as pigment gallstone (n = 20) according to their gross appearance and based on analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. MRI included three sequences: single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging, 3D fast spoiled gradient-echo T1-weighted imaging, and in-phase fast spoiled gradient-echo T1-weighted imaging. The signal intensity and the detection rate of gallstones on MRI were further correlated with the character of the gallstones. On T1-weighted 3D fast spoiled gradient-echo images, most of the pigment gallstones (18/20) were hyperintense and all the cholesterol gallstones (4/4) were hypointense. The mean ratio of the signal intensity of gallstone to bile was (+/- standard deviation) 3.36 +/- 1.88 for pigment gallstone and 0.24 +/- 0.10 for cholesterol gallstone on the 3D fast spoiled gradient-echo sequence (p < 0.001). Combining the 3D fast spoiled gradient-echo and single-shot fast spin-echo sequences achieved the highest gallstone detection rate (96.4%). Based on the differences of signal intensity of gallstones, the 3D fast spoiled gradient-echo T1-weighted imaging was able to diagnose the composition of gallstones. Adding the 3D fast spoiled gradient-echo imaging to the single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted sequence can further improve the detection rate of gallstones.

  6. Genetics of gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Rebholz, Charlotte; Krawczyk, Marcin; Lammert, Frank

    2018-04-10

    Gallstone disease (GD) belongs to the most frequent disorders in gastroenterology and causes high costs in our health-care systems. Gallstones are uncommon in children but frequent in adults, in particular in women, and are triggered by exogenous risk factors. Here, we summarize the current knowledge concerning the contribution of inherited predisposition to gallstone risk. In this review, we present the current data and recent research on the genetics of gallstone disease. Several GD-predisposing gene variants have been reported, with most prominent effects being conferred by a common variant (p.D19H) of the hepatic and intestinal cholesterol transporter ABCG5/G8. A smaller group of patients might develop gallstones primarily due low phosphatidylcholine concentrations in bile as a result of loss-of-function mutations of the ABCB4 transporter (low phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis syndrome). Regardless of the origin, the risk factors for gallstones lead to the supersaturation of bile with insoluble compounds, in particular cholesterol. As result, cholesterol stones develop and present the most frequent type of gallstones. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with low morbidity and mortality is currently the most common and effective method for the therapy of symptomatic gallbladder stones. Gallstone disease represents a multifactorial condition and previous studies have identified the major genetic contributors to gallstone formation. The increasing knowledge about the pathomechanisms of hepatobiliary metabolism and GD as well as the identification of additional risk factors might help to overcome the current invasive therapy by specific lifestyle intervention and precise molecular treatment. © 2018 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. Cholesterol gallstones and bile host diverse bacterial communities with potential to promote the formation of gallstones.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuhong; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yongkang; Nie, Yuanyang; Xu, Peilun; Xia, Baixue; Tian, Fuzhou; Sun, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cholesterol gallstones has increased in recent years. Bacterial infection correlates with the formation of gallstones. We studied the composition and function of bacterial communities in cholesterol gallstones and bile from 22 cholesterol gallstone patients using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Altogether fourteen and eight bacterial genera were detected in cholesterol gallstones and bile, respectively. Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant bacteria in both cholesterol gallstones and bile. As judged by diversity indices, hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis, the bacterial communities in gallstones were different from those in bile. The gallstone microbiome was considered more stable than that of bile. The different microbial communities may be partially explained by differences in their habitats. We found that 30% of the culturable strains from cholesterol gallstones secreted β-glucuronidase and phospholipase A2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains showed the highest β-glucuronidase activity and produced the highest concentration of phospholipase A2, indicating that Ps. aeruginosa may be a major agent in the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bile acid synthesis is increased in Chilean Hispanics with gallstones and in gallstone high-risk Mapuche Indians.

    PubMed

    Gälman, Cecilia; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Pérez, Rosa Maria; Einarsson, Curt; Ståhle, Lars; Marshall, Guillermo; Nervi, Flavio; Rudling, Mats

    2004-03-01

    Gallstone disease is an important, costly health-care problem in Western societies. It is still unclear whether hepatic lipid regulatory enzymes play primary or secondary roles in gallstone formation. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is increased in gallstone disease and to test whether such a metabolic change, if present, might occur before gallstone formation. A total of 125 Chilean Hispanic women (80 without gallstones and 45 with gallstones) matched for age and body mass index were investigated, along with 40 Chilean Mapuche Indian women (20 without gallstones and 20 with gallstones), a population group in which the prevalence for gallstone disease is very high. Fasting blood plasma samples were assayed for 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and lathosterol, 2 strong indicators for hepatic bile acid and body cholesterol synthesis, respectively. Plasma 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one levels, corrected for plasma cholesterol, were significantly increased by 50% in Hispanic women with gallstones as compared with gallstone-free Hispanics (P < 0.006). As compared with Hispanic women without gallstones, plasma 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one levels were increased by > or =100% (P < 0.002) in Mapuche Indian women, independently of whether gallstones were present. Plasma lathosterol, corrected for plasma cholesterol, was significantly increased by 22% in Hispanic women with gallstones and in Mapuche Indian women compared with Hispanic women. The results indicate that the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol is induced in gallstone disease and precedes gallstone development. These inductions presumably occur as a response to an increased intestinal loss of bile acids.

  9. Mechanical property studies of human gallstones.

    PubMed

    Stranne, S K; Cocks, F H; Gettliffe, R

    1990-08-01

    The recent development of gallstone fragmentation methods has increased the significance of the study of the mechanical properties of human gallstones. In the present work, fracture strength data and microhardness values of gallstones of various chemical compositions are presented as tested in both dry and simulated bile environments. Generally, both gallstone hardness and fracture strength values were significantly less than kidney stone values found in previous studies. However, a single calcium carbonate stone was found to have an outer shell hardness exceeding those values found for kidney stones. Diametral compression measurements in simulated bile conclusively demonstrated low gallstone fracture strength as well as brittle fracture in the stones tested. Based on the results of this study, one may conclude that the wide range of gallstone microhardnesses found may explain the reported difficulties previous investigators have experienced using various fragmentation techniques on specific gallstones. Moreover, gallstone mechanical properties may be relatively sensitive to bile-environment composition.

  10. Gender and metabolic differences of gallstone diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui; Tang, Hong; Jiang, Shan; Zeng, Li; Chen, En-Qiang; Zhou, Tao-You; Wang, You-Juan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors for gallstone disease in the general population of Chengdu, China. METHODS: This study was conducted at the West China Hospital. Subjects who received a physical examination at this hospital between January and December 2007 were included. Body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, serum lipid and lipoproteins concentrations were analyzed. Gallstone disease was diagnosed by ultrasound or on the basis of a history of cholecystectomy because of gallstone disease. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors for gallstone disease, and the Chi-square test was used to analyze differences in the incidence of metabolic disorders between subjects with and without gallstone disease. RESULTS: A total of 3573 people were included, 10.7% (384/3573) of whom had gallstone diseases. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the incidence of gallstone disease in subjects aged 40-64 or ≥ 65 years was significantly different from that in those aged 18-39 years (P < 0.05); the incidence was higher in women than in men (P < 0.05). In men, a high level of fasting plasma glucose was obvious in gallstone disease (P < 0.05), and in women, hypertriglyceridemia or obesity were significant in gallstone disease (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We assume that age and sex are profoundly associated with the incidence of gallstone disease; the metabolic risk factors for gallstone disease were different between men and women. PMID:19370788

  11. Gallstone Ileus: Dilemma in the Management

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Girish D.; Chincholkar, Rajesh G.; Agarwal, Jasmine R.; Gupta, Madhukar R.; Gokhe, Prachiti S.; Nadkarni, Amogh R.

    2017-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a mechanical intestinal obstruction caused due to impaction of a large gallstone within the bowel. The ideal treatment of gallstone ileus remains controversial, with the main dilemma being between a one-stage and a two-stage surgical procedure. A 69-year old male patient presented with gallstone ileus. A one-stage procedure with enterolithotomy and primary closure of duodenal fistula was done. His immediate postoperative recovery was uneventful, but after 3 weeks of surgery, he developed respiratory complications and expired of multi-organ failure. In gallstone ileus, patient presents with symptoms of intestinal obstruction. Enterolithotomy alone remains the most common operative method, but the definitive surgical management is still under research. An intraoperative dilemma between a one-stage or two-stage surgery is difficult to resolve in absence of clear guidelines. Hence, more studies are required to come to a consensus in deciding its definitive management. PMID:28808520

  12. Calcium carbonate gallstones in children.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Mark D; Soloway, Roger D; Taylor, Donald R; Riyad, Kallingal; Toogood, Giles

    2007-10-01

    In the United States, cholesterol stones account for 70% to 95% of adult gallstones and black pigment stones for most of the remainder. Calcium carbonate stones are exceptionally rare. A previous analysis of a small number of pediatric gallstones from the north of England showed a remarkably high prevalence of calcium carbonate stones. The aims of this study were to analyze a much larger series of pediatric gallstones from our region and to compare their chemical composition with a series of adult gallstones from the same geographic area. A consecutive series of gallbladder stones from 63 children and 50 adults from the north of England were analyzed in detail using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. Demographic and clinical data were collected on all patients. The relative proportions of each major stone component were assessed: cholesterol, protein and calcium salts of bilirubin, fatty acids, calcium carbonate, and hydroxyapatite. Thirty-nine (78%) adults had typical cholesterol stones, 7 (14%) had black pigment bilirubinate stones, and only 2 (4%) had calcium carbonate stones. In contrast, 30 (48%) children had black pigment stones, 13 (21%) had cholesterol stones, 15 (24%) had calcium carbonate stones, 3 (5%) had protein dominant stones, and 2 (3%) had brown pigment stones. In children, cholesterol stones were more likely in overweight adolescent girls with a family history of gallstones, whereas black pigment stones were equally common in boys and girls and associated with hemolysis, parenteral nutrition, and neonatal abdominal surgery. Calcium carbonate stones were more common in boys, and almost half had undergone neonatal abdominal surgery and/or required neonatal intensive care. The composition of pediatric gallstones differs significantly from that found in adults. In particular, one quarter of the children in this series had calcium carbonate stones, previously considered rare. Geographic differences are not the major reason for the high

  13. Gallstones and gallbladder cancer-volume and weight of gallstones are associated with gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Roa, Iván; Ibacache, Gilda; Roa, Juan; Araya, Juan; de Aretxabala, Xabier; Muñoz, Sergio

    2006-06-15

    Gallstones are considered the most important risk factor for gallbladder cancer. To identify differences in the number, weight, volume, and density of gallstones associated with chronic cholecystitis (CC), gallbladder dysplasia (GD), and gallbladder cancer (GBC). A total of 125 cases were selected, of which 93 had gallstones associated with GBC and 31 had gallstones associated with GD. The controls were those with CC, matched by sex and age. The number, weight, volume, and density of these gallstones were examined in order to determine differences and relative cancer risk. Number: Multiple gallstones were present in over 76% of cases (GBC and GD) and controls (P = ns). The average number of multiple stones was 21 in GBC versus 14 in controls (P < 0.01). Weight: The average weight of the gallstones was 9.6 g in GBC versus 6.0 g in controls (P = 0.0004). The average weight in multiple stones over 10 g had strong association with GBC (P = 0.0006). Volume: The average volume was 11.7 and 6.48 ml in GBC and controls (P = 0.0002). Average volumes of 6, 8, and 10 ml had a relative cancer risk of 5, 7, and 11 times, respectively. Size: No differences were shown between GBC, GD, and controls. The volume of gallstones associated with other risk factors of GBC may be helpful in prioritizing cholecystectomies in symptomatic patients. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Calcium content of different compositions of gallstones and pathogenesis of calcium carbonate gallstones.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Kuen; Pan, Huichin; Huang, Shing-Moo; Huang, Nan-Lan; Yao, Chung-Chin; Hsiao, Kuang-Ming; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the calcium content of different gallstone compositions and the pathogenic mechanisms of calcium carbonate gallstones. Between August 2001 and July 2007, gallstones from 481 patients, including 68 calcium carbonate gallstones, were analyzed for total calcium content. Gallbladder bile samples from 33 cases and six controls were analyzed for pH, carbonate anion level, free-ionized calcium concentration and saturation index for calcium carbonate. Total calcium content averaged 75.6 %, 11.8 %, and 4.2 % for calcium carbonate, calcium bilirubinate and cholesterol gallstones. In 29.4 % of patients, chronic and/or intermittent cystic duct obstructions were caused by polypoid lesions in the neck region and 70.6 % were caused by stones. A total of 82 % of patients had chronic low-grade inflammation of the gallbladder wall and 18.0 % had acute inflammatory exacerbations. In the bile, we found the mean pH, mean carbonate anion, free-ionized calcium concentrations, and mean saturation index for calcium carbonate to be elevated in comparison to controls. From our study, we found chronic and/or intermittent cystic duct obstructions and low-grade GB wall inflammation lead to GB epithelium hydrogen secretion dysfunction. Increased calcium ion efflux into the GB lumen combined with increased carbonate anion presence increases SI_CaCO(3) from 1 to 22.4. Thus, in an alkaline milieu with pH 7.8, calcium carbonate begins to aggregate and precipitate. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Bouveret syndrome: gallstone ileus of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Englert, Zachary P; Love, Katie; Marilley, Mark D; Bower, Curtis E

    2012-10-01

    This is a case of a 59-year-old woman with Bouveret syndrome. An initial endoscopic approach to management is described. Gallstone ileus occurs when a gallstone passes from a cholecystoduodenal fistula or a choledochoduodenal fistula into the gastrointestinal tract and causes obstruction, usually at the ileocecal valve. Bouveret syndrome is a variant of gallstone ileus where the gallstone lodges in the duodenum or pylorus causing a gastric outlet obstruction. The endoscopic and surgical management of this process are important to keep in mind and may be evolving as endoscopic therapies improve.

  16. Gallstone ileus: An overview of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ploneda-Valencia, C F; Gallo-Morales, M; Rinchon, C; Navarro-Muñiz, E; Bautista-López, C A; de la Cerda-Trujillo, L F; Rea-Azpeitia, L A; López-Lizarraga, C R

    Gallstone ileus represents 4% of the causes of bowel obstruction in the general population, but increases to 25% in patients above the age of 65 years. Gallstone ileus does not present with unique symptoms, making diagnosis difficult. Its management is surgical, but there is no consensus as to which of the different surgical techniques is the procedure of choice. At present, there is no recent review of this pathology. To conduct an up-to-date review of this disease. Articles published within the time frame of 2000 to 2014 were found utilizing the PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library search engines with the terms "gallstone ileus" plus "review" and the following filters: "review", "full text", and "humans". The results of this review showed that gallstone ileus etiology was due to intestinal obstruction from a gallstone that migrated into the intestinal lumen through a bilioenteric fistula. The presence of 2 of the 3 Rigler's triad signs was considered diagnostic. Abdominal tomography was the imaging study of choice for gallstone ileus diagnosis and the surgical procedures for management were enterolithotomy, one-stage surgery, and two-stage surgery. Enterolithotomy had lower morbidity and mortality than the other 2 procedures. The aim of gallstone ileus treatment is to release the obstruction, which is done through enterolithotomy. It is the recommended technique for gallstone ileus management because of its lower morbidity and mortality, compared with the other techniques. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Management guidelines for gallstone pancreatitis. Are the targets achievable?

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Yeeting, Sim; Whigham, Carole; Judson, Hannah K; Kulli, Christoph; Polignano, Francesco M; Tait, Iain S

    2009-01-08

    Current management of gallstone pancreatitis in a university hospital. Comparison of current management of gallstone pancreatitis with recommendations in national guidelines. Tertiary care centre in Scotland. One-hundred consecutive patients admitted with gallstone pancreatitis. All patients that presented with gallstone pancreatitis over a 4-year period were audited retrospectively. Data were collated for radiological diagnosis within 48 hours, ERCP within 72 hours, CT at 6-10 days, and use of high-dependency or intensive therapy units in severe gallstone pancreatitis, and definitive treatment of gallstone pancreatitis within 2 weeks as recommended in national guidelines. Forty-six patients had severe gallstone pancreatitis and 54 patients mild pancreatitis. Etiology was established within 48 hours in 92 patients. Six (13.0%) out of the patients with severe gallstone pancreatitis were managed in a high dependency unit. Fifteen (32.6%) patients with severe gallstone pancreatitis underwent CT within 6-10 days of admission. Four (8.7%) of the 46 patients with severe gallstone pancreatitis had urgent ERCP (less than 72 hours). Overall 22/100 patients unsuitable for surgery underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy as definitive treatment. Seventy-eight patients had surgery, with 40 (51.3%) of these patients undergoing an index admission cholecystectomy, and 38 (48.7%) patients were discharged for interval cholecystectomy. Overall 81 patients with gallstone pancreatitis had definitive therapy during the index to same admission (cholecystectomy or sphincterotomy). Two (5.3%) patients were readmitted whilst awaiting interval cholecystectomy: one with acute cholecystitis and one with acute pancreatitis. There were no mortalities in this cohort. This study has highlighted difficulties in implementation of national guidelines, as the use of critical care, timing of ERCP and CT, and definitive treatment prior to discharge did not concur with national targets for gallstone

  18. Biliary bacterial factors determine the path of gallstone formation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lygia; Grifiss, J McLeod; Jarvis, Gary A; Way, Lawrence W

    2006-11-01

    Bacteria cause pigment gallstones and can act as a nidus for cholesterol gallstone formation. Bacterial factors that facilitate gallstone formation include beta-glucuronidase (bG), phospholipase (PhL), and slime. The current study sought to determine whether bacterial factors influence the path of gallstone formation. A total of 382 gallstones were cultured and/or examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bacteria were tested for bG and slime production. Gallstone composition was determined using infrared spectrography. Ca-palmitate presence documented bacterial PhL production. Groups were identified based upon bacterial factors present: slime and bGPhL (slime/bGPhL), bGPhL only, and slime only. Influence of bacterial stone-forming factors on gallstone composition and morphology was analyzed. Bacteria were present in 75% of pigment, 76% of mixed, and 20% of cholesterol stones. Gallstones with bGPhL producing bacteria contained more pigment (71% vs. 26%, P < .0001). The slime/bGPhL group was associated (79%) with pigment stones, bGPhL was associated (56%) with mixed stones, while slime (or none) only was associated (67%) with cholesterol stones (P < .031, all comparisons). Bacterial properties determined the path of gallstone formation. Bacteria that produced all stone-forming factors promoted pigment stone formation, while those that produced only bGPhL promoted mixed stone formation. Bacteria that only produced slime lacked the ability to generate pigment solids, and consequently were more common in the centers of cholesterol stones. This shows how bacterial characteristics may govern the process of gallstone formation.

  19. Giant gallstone: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Pablo; Becerra, Valentina; Aguilar, Christian; Modragon, Itziar; Cooper, David K.C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There is a high incidence of gallstones in the Chilean population. Presentation of case We report on a 57-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Abdominal ultrasound indicated acute cholecystitis and a single, extremely large pear-shaped gallstone (16.8 cm long, and 7.8 cm at its widest point and 4.1 cm at its narrowest point). Its fresh weight (at operation) was 278.0 g and, after 4 years, its dry weight was 259.5 g. Emergency classical cholecystectomy was carried out successfully. Discussion and Conclusion We have been unable to find a report of a larger gallstone in the English or Spanish language medical literature. PMID:22096735

  20. Gallstone disease. The clinical manifestations of infectious stones.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Stewart, L; Fine, R; Pellegrini, C A; Way, L W

    1989-05-01

    Gallstones from 82 patients were examined under a scanning electron microscope for evidence of bacteria, and the findings were compared with the clinical manifestations of the disease. Bacteria were present in 68% of pigment stones and the pigment portions of 80% of composite stones. These gallstones were referred to as infectious stones. No bacteria were found in cholesterol gallstones. Acute cholangitis was diagnosed in 52% of patients with infectious stones and in 18% of patients with noninfectious stones. Over half of the patients with noninfectious stones presented with mild symptoms. Infectious stones were more often associated with a previous common duct exploration, an urgent operation, infected bile, a common duct procedure, and complications. These data show that gallstone disease is more virulent in patients whose gallstones contain bacteria.

  1. Diet and cholesterol gallstones. A further study.

    PubMed

    Sarles, H; Gerolami, A; Bord, A

    1978-01-01

    In a first study, a population of 1,045 women from 20 to 61 years old has been studies. 24 (2.3%) were known to have gallstones. After excluding these 24 cases, 214 were drawn from the same population and accepted an oral cholecystography. 11 cases of stones (5.1%) were discovered. The diet of these 11 patients and of the 202 women without gallstones was not significantly different. In a second study, the diet of 50 patients with known gallstones and the diet of 50 matched controls have been compared. No significant difference between the two groups can be demonstrated for calories, protein, fat or carbohydrates intake. These results are compared to previous results which showed overconsumption of food in gallstone patients. The method for all studies being similiar, it seems that the dietetic factors are now less important in cholesterol stones pathogenesis than during the period which followed the second world war starvation in southeast France. The assumption that undernutrition diminishes the chance for a women to develop gallstones is proposed.

  2. Changing patterns of gallstone disease in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Hyun; Park, Sang-Jae; Jang, Jin-Young; Ahn, Young Joon; Park, Youn-Chan; Yoon, Yong Bum; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics and changing patterns of gallstone disease in Korea over a recent 20-year period. A total of 4020 gallstone patients who had undergone surgery at Seoul National University Hospital during 1981-2000 were analyzed according to periods: period I (1981-1985: 831 cases); period II (1986-1990: 888 cases); period III (1991-1995: 1040 cases); period IV (1996-2000: 1261 cases). The literature from 13 institutes in Korea reporting a total of 13,101 gallstone cases were reviewed to elucidate the nationwide trend. The number of gallstone cases gradually increased. A female predominance was not noted (F/M = 1.17-1.37) as is seen in Western countries. The patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones were older than those with gallbladder (GB) stones or intrahepatic duct (IHD) stones. Over time, the relative proportion of those with a GB stone increased, plateauing (80-85%) during the 1990s; that of patients with CBD stones decreased (34% --> 19%); and that of those with IHD stones remained unchanged (11-15%). Over the entire period, the rural pattern of gallstone formation (low number of GB stones, high numbers of CBD and IHD stones) has become similar to the urban pattern. The body mass index (BMI) of the GB stone group was above average, as were the BMIs of the CBD stone and IHD stone groups. Throughout the literature review, this same changing pattern of the relative proportion of gallstone disease was confirmed. Thus the pattern of gallstone disease in Korea has become similar to that seen in Western countries except for a high prevalence of hepatolithiasis.

  3. Gallstone disease in Peruvian coastal natives and highland migrants

    PubMed Central

    Moro, P; Checkley, W; Gilman, R; Cabrera, L; Lescano, A; Bonilla, J; Silva, B

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In a previous study, we found that gallstones were a common occurrence in the high altitude villages of the Peruvian Andes.
AIMS—To determine if high altitude (⩾ 1500 m) is a contributing risk factor for gallstone disease.
METHODS—We conducted a cross sectional study in a periurban community in Lima, Peru, and compared the prevalence of gallstone disease between coastal natives, highland (Sierra) natives and Sierra natives who had migrated to the coast. We also compared the prevalence rates from this study with those from a previous study conducted at high altitude. We examined 1534 subjects >15 years of age for gallstone disease. Subjects were interviewed for the presence or absence of risk factors.
RESULTS—Gallstone disease was more common in females (16.1 cases per 100, 95% CI 13.8-18.2) than in males (10.7 per 100, 95% CI 8.0-13.4). Females had a greater risk of gallstone disease, especially if they had used oral contraception and/or had four or more children. The age adjusted prevalence was not significantly different between coastal natives, Sierra migrants, and Andean villagers. The prevalence of gallstone disease was not associated with time since migration or with having native Sierra parents. After adjusting for other risk factors, Sierra natives who migrated to the coast had a lower prevalence of gallstone disease than coastal natives (odds ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94).
CONCLUSIONS—This study indicates that high altitude is not a positive risk factor for gallstone disease and confirms that this disease is common in Peruvians, which may be attributable to Peruvian-Indian ethnicity.


Keywords: gallstone disease; cholelithiasis; high altitude; risk factors; epidemiology; Peru PMID:10716689

  4. [The frequency of bacteria in human gallstones].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Bernadett; Szabó, Györgyi; Szijártó, Attila; Gamal, Eldin Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Complications caused by lost gallstones within the abdominal cavity are well known. Abscesses, perforation of the gastro-intestinal tract were all described in the literature, but gallstones were found in hernial sac, or even in sputum after it penetrated through the diaphragm into the respiratory tract. These complications can develop between several weeks to several years postoperatively. Most complications can be treated surgically only. Fifty gallstones and bile samples were collected from 50 patients who underwent cholecystectomy (36 female / 14 male, avarge age: 60.8 ± 6.8 years). All samples were sent for microbiological examination. bacterial colonization of the gallstone and the bile were found in 16 cases. Four of them showed acute inflammation in the gallbladder while pathological signs of chronic inflammation in the gallbladder wall were detected in eight cases. Empyema was found in four cases. Bacteria from enteral origin (Esherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae) was detected in 13 cases, while non-enteral (Klebsiella penumoniae, Streptococcus alfa-haemoliticus) colony were detected in three cases. Positive bacterial cultures were identified in twelve female and fourmale patients. Different types of bacteria can be found in the gallstones, which may cause various complications.

  5. Spontaneous external biliary fistula uncomplicated by gallstones.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, B. R.; Cox, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    External biliary fistulae are rare. Only 65 cases have been reported in the literature and in each instance gallstones were a complicating factor. We report in this paper the first case of spontaneous external (cholecystocutaneous) biliary fistula uncomplicated by gallstones. PMID:2068038

  6. Study of different concentric rings inside gallstones with LIBS.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Rai, Nilesh Kumar; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar; Rai, Pradeep Kumar; Rai, Pramod Kumar; Rai, Suman; Baruah, G D

    2011-07-01

    Gallstones obtained from patients from the north-east region of India (Assam) were studied using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. LIBS spectra of the different layers (in cross-section) of the gallstones were recorded in the spectral region 200-900 nm. Several elements, including calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, silicon, phosphorus, iron, sodium and potassium, were detected in the gallstones. Lighter elements, including carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen were also detected, which demonstrates the superiority of the LIBS technique over other existing analytical techniques. The LIBS technique was applied to investigate the evolution of C(2) swan bands and CN violet bands in the LIBS spectra of the gallstones in air and an argon atmosphere. The different layers (dark and light layers) of the gallstones were discriminated on the basis of the presence and intensities of the spectral lines for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and copper. An attempt was also made to correlate the presence of major and minor elements in the gallstones with the common diet of the population of Assam.

  7. [Colonic gallstone ileus: A rare cause of intestinal obstruction].

    PubMed

    Marenco-de la Cuadra, Beatriz; López-Ruiz, José Antonio; Tallón-Aguilar, Luis; López-Pérez, José; Oliva-Mompeán, Fernando

    A gallstone colonic ileus is a very rare condition. The case is reported of an 87 year-old patient who came to the Emergency Department due to an intestinal obstruction of several days onset, which was caused by a gallstone affected sigmoid colon. Colonic gallstone ileus is a rare disease that usually occurs in older patients due to the passage of large gallstone directly from the gallbladder to colon, through a cholecystocolonic fistula. It has a high morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Dieting and Gallstones

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight very quickly may raise your chances of forming gallstones, however. Talk with your health care professional ... as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of ...

  9. Chemical and structural analysis of gallstones from the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Ramana Ramya, J; Thanigai Arul, K; Epple, M; Giebel, U; Guendel-Graber, J; Jayanthi, V; Sharma, M; Rela, M; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2017-09-01

    Representative gallstones from north and southern parts of India were analyzed by a combination of physicochemical methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), CHNS analysis, thermal analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ( 1 H and 13 C). The stones from north Indian were predominantly consisting of cholesterol monohydrate and anhydrous cholesterol which was confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate in the south Indian gallstones. EDX spectroscopy revealed the presence of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, sulfur, sodium and magnesium and chloride in both south Indian and north Indian gallstones. FTIR and NMR spectroscopy confirmed the occurrence of cholesterol in north Indian gallstones. The respective colour of the north Indian and south Indian gallstones was yellowish and black. The morphology of the constituent crystals of the north Indian and south Indian gallstones were platy and globular respectively. The appreciable variation in colour, morphology and composition of south and north Indian gallstones may be due to different food habit and habitat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Migrating gallstone: from Bouveret's syndrome to distal small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Yau, Kwok-Kay; Siu, Wing-Tai; Tsui, Ka-Kin

    2006-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction. When the gallstone lodges inside the duodenum and causes gastric outlet obstruction, it is termed Bouveret's syndrome. However, it is rather unusual to seen the evolution of a migrating gallstone (from duodenum to distal small bowel) in a patient during the same hospital admission. We report a case of gallstone ileus from the initial presentation of gastric outlet obstruction to the development of distal small bowel obstruction within the same hospital admission, and its total laparoscopic treatment.

  11. Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    McConnell, T J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J

    2017-06-01

    Previous small studies have shown either no difference or a lower risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians. This study examined the incidence of symptomatic gallstone disease in a cohort of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians, and investigated the associations between nutrient intake and risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. The data were analysed from 49 652 adults enroled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study, one-third of whom were vegetarian. The linked databases of hospital records were used to identify incident cases. Risk by diet group was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Further analysis quantified risk by intakes of selected macronutrients. There were 1182 cases of symptomatic gallstone disease during 687 822 person-years of follow-up (mean=13.85 years). There was a large significant association between increasing body mass index (BMI) and risk of developing symptomatic gallstone disease (overall trend P<0.001). After adjustment for BMI and other risk factors, vegetarians had a moderately increased risk compared with non-vegetarians (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06-1.41; P=0.006). Although starch consumption was positively associated with gallstones risk (P=0.002 for trend), it did not explain the increased risk in vegetarians. There is a highly significant association of increased BMI with risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. After adjusting for BMI, there is a small but statistically significant positive association between vegetarian diet and symptomatic gallstone disease.

  12. Gallstones in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multiple pregnancies Family history of gallstones Hispanic or American Indian heritage Obesity Rapid loss of weight What is the gallbladder ... Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Obesity ©2018 American College of Gastroenterology 6400 Goldsboro Rd Ste 200 ...

  13. Screen-detected gallstone disease and autoimmune diseases - A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2018-06-01

    Gallstone disease is highly prevalent and is associated with systemic inflammation. To determine whether screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy are associated with the occurrence of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases and the most common subgroups thereof. A cohort study of three randomly selected general population samples from Copenhagen was performed. Participants (n = 5928) were examined in the period 1982-1992, underwent abdominal ultrasound examination to detect gallstone disease, and followed through national registers until December 2014 (median 24.7 years) for occurrence of immunological diseases. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed. Gallstone disease was identified in 10% (591/5928) of participants, of whom 6.8% had gallstones and 3.2% had cholecystectomy at baseline. Gallstone disease was associated with incidence of autoimmune diseases (12.9% versus 7.92%; hazard ratio 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.11;1.91]), diabetes mellitus type 1 (5.95% versus 3.67%; 1.53; [1.02;2.30]), and autoimmune thyroid disease (3.70% versus 1.59%; 2.06; [1.26;3.38]). Rheumatoid arthritis, autoinflammatory diseases, or any subgroups thereof were not associated. In a large general population sample, screen-detected gallstone disease was associated with the development of autoimmune diseases during long-term follow-up. Future research efforts are needed to further explore common disease mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Targets for Current Pharmacological Therapy in Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Wang, David Q.-H.; Wang, Helen H.; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Portincasa, Piero

    2010-01-01

    Summary Gallstone disease is a frequent condition throughout the world and cholesterol stones are the most frequent form in western countries. Current standard treatment of symptomatic gallstone subjects remains laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The selection of patients amenable for non-surgical, medical therapy is of key importance: a careful analysis should consider the natural history of the disease and the overall costs of therapy. Only patients with mild symptoms and small, uncalcified cholesterol gallstones in a functioning gallbladder with a patent cystic duct will be considered for oral litholysis by the hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) hopefully leading to cholesterol desaturation of bile and progressive stone dissolution. Recent studies have raised the possibility that cholesterol-lowering agents which inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis (statins) or intestinal cholesterol absorption (ezetimibe), or drugs acting on specific nuclear receptors involved in cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis may offer, alone or in combination, additional medical therapeutic tools for treating cholesterol gallstones. Recent perspectives on medical treatment of cholesterol gallstone disease will be discussed in this chapter. PMID:20478485

  15. Gallstones in patients with liver cirrhosis: Incidence, etiology, clinical and therapeutical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Acalovschi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Gallstones occur in about one third of the patients having liver cirrhosis. Pigment gallstones are the most frequent type, while cholesterol stones represent about 15% of all stones in cirrhotics. Increased secretion of unconjugated bilirubin, increased hydrolysis of conjugated bilirubin in the bile, reduced secretion of bile acids and phospholipds in bile favor pigment lithogenesis in cirrhotics. Gallbladder hypomotility also contributes to lithogenesis. The most recent data regarding risk factors for gallstones are presented. Gallstone prevalence increases with age, with a ratio male/female higher than in the general population. Chronic alcoholism, viral C cirrhosis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the underlying liver diseases most often associated with gallstones. Gallstones are often asymptomatic, and discovered incidentally. If asymptomatic, expectant management is recommended, as for asymptomatic gallstones in the general population. However, a closer follow-up of these patients is necessary in order to earlier treat symptoms or complications. For symptomatic stones, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the therapy of choice. Child-Pugh class and MELD score are the best predictors of outcome after cholecystectomy. Patients with severe liver disease are at highest surgical risk, therefore gallstone complications should be treated using noninvasive or minimally invasive procedures, until stabilization of the patient condition. PMID:24966598

  16. Analysis of Carcinogenic Heavy Metals in Gallstones and its Role in Gallbladder Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Bikash; Maulik, Dhrubajyoti; Mandal, Mousumi; Sarkar, Gautam Narayan; Sengupta, Sanjay; Ghosh, Debidas

    2017-12-01

    Gallstone is a high-risk factor for gallbladder pre-malignancy or malignancy (GB PM-M) but which substances of gallstones definitely assist to turn out in to GB PM-M, remains unclear. This study aimed to find out the presence of carcinogenic heavy metals in gallstones and to explore the aetiopathogenesis of gallbladder pre-malignancy and malignancy. Presence of elements in gallstones was detected by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then level of carcinogenic heavy metals was estimated in gallstones using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The experiment was carried out in gallstone samples of 46 patients with gallbladder pre-malignant and malignant condition (PM-M group) and 65 sex and age-matched patients with chronic cholecystitis (C-C group). Gallstones were also classified in to three types such as cholesterol stone, mixed stone, and black pigment stone. EDS analysis detected presence of mercury, lead, and cobalt elements in all types of gallstones of both PM-M and C-C groups. AAS analysis revealed significantly higher amount of mercury (p < 0.001), lead (p < 0.0001), cobalt (p < 0.01), and cadmium (p < 0.01) in the gallstones of PM-M than C-C groups. The presence of these heavy metals also varied among stone types of both groups. EDS phase analysis showed 'dense deposits' of these metals in gallstones. Presence of significantly higher amount of mercury, lead, cobalt, and cadmium in gallstones may play a pivotal role as risk factors in the development of gallbladder malignancy or pre-malignancy. 'Dense deposits' of these metals in the gallstones which is the first observation, may act as crucial doses of carcinogens.

  17. Optimal timing of cholecystectomy in children with gallstone pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Badru, Faidah; Saxena, Saurabh; Breeden, Robert; Bourdillon, Maximillan; Fitzpatrick, Colleen; Chatoorgoon, Kaveer; Greenspon, Jose; Villalona, Gustavo

    2017-07-01

    Little data exist regarding the recurrence of pancreatitis in pediatric patients with gallstone pancreatitis awaiting cholecystectomy. This study evaluates the recurrence rate of pancreatitis after acute gallstone pancreatitis based on the timing of cholecystectomy in pediatric patients. A retrospective chart review of all patients admitted with gallstone pancreatitis from 2007 to 2015 was performed. Children were divided into the following five groups. Group 1 had surgery during the index admission. Group 2 had surgery within 2 wk of discharge. Group 3 had surgery between 2 and 6 wk postdischarge. Group 4 had surgery 6 wk after discharge, and group 5 patients had no surgery. The recurrence rates of pancreatitis were calculated for all groups. Forty-eight patients with gallstone pancreatitis were identified in this study. The 19 patients in group 1 had no recurrence of their pancreatitis. Of the remaining 29 patients, nine (31%) had recurrence of pancreatitis or required readmission for abdominal pain prior to their cholecystectomy. In group 2, two of the eight patients (25%) had recurrent pancreatitis. In group 3, three of eight patients (37.5%) developed recurrent pancreatitis. In group 4, three of five patients (60%), and in group 5, one of eight. No children in group 5 had demonstrable gallstones at presentation, only sludge in their gallbladder. Cholecystectomy during the index admission is associated with no recurrence or readmission for pancreatitis. Therefore, we recommend that cholecystectomy be performed after resolution of an episode of gallstone pancreatitis during index admission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gallstone ileus one quarter of a century post cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Saedon, Mahmud; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Salemis, Nikolaos S; Majeed, Ali W; Zavos, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare but potentially serious complication of cholelithiasis. It is usually preceded by history of biliary symptoms. It usually occurs as a result of a large gallstone creating and passing through a cholecysto-enteric fistula. Most of the time, the stone will pass the GI tract without any problems, but large enough stones can cause obstruction. The two most common locations of impaction are the terminal ileum and the ileocaecal valve because of the anatomical small diameter and less active peristalsis. We present an unusual case of small bowel obstruction secondary to gallstone ileus 24 years after an open cholecystectomy.

  19. Symptomatic Gallstones in the Young: Changing Trends of the Gallstone Disease-Related Hospitalization in the State of New York: 1996 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    Chilimuri, Sridhar; Gaduputi, Vinaya; Tariq, Hassan; Nayudu, Suresh; Vakde, Trupti; Glandt, Mariela; Patel, Harish

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate if the gallstone-related hospitalizations in the young (< 20 years of age) have increased over time in both the Bronx County and New York State as a whole. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 15 years (1996 - 2010) of Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) data of New York State Department of Health. Patients with ICD-9 code diagnosis of 574 (cholelithiasis) among the first three discharge diagnoses were reviewed. Results Total number of all cause admissions to hospitals had increased from 2.44 million to 2.77 million (1996 - 2010). However, gallstone-related hospitalizations had decreased from 1.7% to 1.2%. It was noted that there was a 30% increment in the proportion of those below 20 years of age with gallstone disease requiring hospitalization over the same period. This young patient population contributed only 2.04% to all gallstone-related hospitalizations in 1996, whereas it had increased to 2.96% in 2010. This trend was more pronounced in women, Hispanics and in those who were residing in the Bronx County as compared to all other New York counties combined. Conclusion The gallstone-related hospitalizations in the young (< 20 years of age) have increased over time in both the Bronx County and New York State as a whole. This could be due to increasing prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes and early pregnancy. PMID:28090227

  20. Lung abscess due to retained gallstones with an adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Scott G; Crestanello, Juan A; Nguyen, Anh-Quan T; Deschamps, Claude

    2005-03-01

    We describe a patient who had a right lower lobe mass containing calcifications consistent with gallstones develop 3(1)/(2) years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Thoracotomy revealed a chronic abscess containing pigmented gallstones and an adjacent area of bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma involving both N1 and N2 lymph nodes.

  1. Correlations between metabolic syndrome, serologic factors, and gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Jae Hong; Ki, Nam Kyun; Cho, Jae Hwan; Ahn, Jae Ouk; Sunwoo, Jae Gun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the serologic factors associated with metabolic syndrome and gallstones. [Subjects and Methods] The study evaluated subjects who visited a health promotion center in Seoul from March 2, 2013 to February 28, 2014, and had undergone abdominal ultrasonography. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Blood sampling was performed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and red and white blood cell counts. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. [Results] The risk factors for metabolic syndrome in men, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, body mass index, maximum size of gallstones, white blood cell count, waist circumference, and uric acid level. The factors in women, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, presence/absence of gallstones, uric acid level, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, and waist circumference. [Conclusion] Most serum biochemical factors and gallstone occurrence could be used to indicate the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome, independent of gender. PMID:27630427

  2. Large bowel obstruction due to gallstones: an endoscopic problem?

    PubMed Central

    Waterland, Peter; Khan, Faisal Shehzaad; Durkin, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted with symptoms of large bowel obstruction. An emergency CT scan revealed pneumobilia and large bowel obstruction at the level of the rectosigmoid due to a 4×4 cm impacted gallstone. Flexible sigmoidoscopy confirmed the diagnosis but initial attempts to drag the stone into the rectum failed. An endoscopic mechanical lithotripter was employed to repeatedly fracture the gallstone into smaller fragments, which were passed spontaneously the next day. The patient made a complete recovery avoiding the potential dangers of surgery. This case report discusses cholecystoenteric fistula and a novel minimally invasive treatment for large bowel obstruction due to gallstones. PMID:24390966

  3. Large bowel obstruction due to gallstones: an endoscopic problem?

    PubMed

    Waterland, Peter; Khan, Faisal Shehzaad; Durkin, Damien

    2014-01-03

    A 73-year-old man was admitted with symptoms of large bowel obstruction. An emergency CT scan revealed pneumobilia and large bowel obstruction at the level of the rectosigmoid due to a 4×4 cm impacted gallstone. Flexible sigmoidoscopy confirmed the diagnosis but initial attempts to drag the stone into the rectum failed. An endoscopic mechanical lithotripter was employed to repeatedly fracture the gallstone into smaller fragments, which were passed spontaneously the next day. The patient made a complete recovery avoiding the potential dangers of surgery. This case report discusses cholecystoenteric fistula and a novel minimally invasive treatment for large bowel obstruction due to gallstones.

  4. Gallstones, cholecystectomy, and risk of digestive system cancers.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Leticia; Freedman, Neal D; Engels, Eric A; Warren, Joan L; Castro, Felipe; Koshiol, Jill

    2014-03-15

    Gallstones and cholecystectomy may be related to digestive system cancer through inflammation, altered bile flux, and changes in metabolic hormone levels. Although gallstones are recognized causes of gallbladder cancer, associations with other cancers of the digestive system are poorly established. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database (1992-2005), which includes 17 cancer registries that cover approximately 26% of the US population, to identify first primary cancers (n = 236,850) occurring in persons aged ≥66 years and 100,000 cancer-free population-based controls frequency-matched by calendar year, age, and gender. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for the matching factors. Gallstones and cholecystectomy were associated with increased risk of noncardia gastric cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.32) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.40), respectively), small-intestine carcinoid (OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.60) and OR = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.25)), liver cancer (OR = 2.35 (95% CI: 2.18, 2.54) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.41)), and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.31) and OR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.33)). Colorectal cancer risk associated with gallstones and cholecystectomy decreased with increasing distance from the common bile duct (P-trend < 0.001). Hence, gallstones and cholecystectomy are associated with the risk of cancers occurring throughout the digestive tract.

  5. Economic and medical benefits of ultrasound screenings for gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Chung-Te; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2015-03-21

    To investigate whether screening for gallstone disease was economically feasible and clinically effective. This clinical study was initially conducted in 2002 in Taipei, Taiwan. The study cohort total included 2386 healthy adults who were voluntarily admitted to a regional teaching hospital for a physical check-up. Annual follow-up screening with ultrasound sonography for gallstone disease continued until December 31, 2007. A decision analysis using the Markov Decision Model was constructed to compare different screening regimes for gallstone disease. The economic evaluation included estimates of both the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of screening for gallstone disease. Direct costs included the cost of screening, regular clinical fees, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and hospitalization. Indirect costs represent the loss of productivity attributable to the patient's disease state, and were estimated using the gross domestic product for 2011 in Taiwan. Longer time intervals in screening for gallstone disease were associated with the reduced efficacy and utility of screening and with increased cost. The cost per life-year gained (average cost-effectiveness ratio) for annual screening, biennial screening, 3-year screening, 4-year screening, 5-year screening, and no-screening was new Taiwan dollars (NTD) 39076, NTD 58059, NTD 72168, NTD 104488, NTD 126941, and NTD 197473, respectively (P < 0.05). The cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained by annual screening was NTD 40725; biennial screening, NTD 64868; 3-year screening, NTD 84532; 4-year screening, NTD 110962; 5-year screening, NTD 142053; and for the control group, NTD 202979 (P < 0.05). The threshold values indicated that the ultrasound sonography screening programs were highly sensitive to screening costs in a plausible range. Routine screening regime for gallstone disease is both medically and economically valuable. Annual screening for gallstone disease should be recommended.

  6. Liver cirrhosis: a risk factor for gallstone disease in chronic hepatitis C patients in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Wang, Zhongfeng; Wang, Le; Pan, Meng; Gao, Pujun

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the possible link between liver cirrhosis and gallstone risk in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in China.To analyze the association between liver cirrhosis and gallstone development, we compared outcomes of 133 Chinese CHC patients with gallstones and an age-, sex-, and hepatitis C virus RNA level-matched control group of 431 CHC patients without gallstones.We found that liver cirrhosis was more prevalent in gallstone patients (40.6%) than in the control group (24.4%). Logistic regression analyses adjusting for demographic features and other gallstone risk factors revealed that liver cirrhosis increased the risk of gallstone development 2-fold (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.122; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.408-3.198). Moreover, multivariate analyses comparing the risk of gallstone development in liver cirrhosis patients with decompensated or compensated liver cirrhosis yielded an estimated AOR (95% CI) of 2.869 (1.277-6.450) in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Gallstone risk also increased significantly with older age (>60 years) (AOR: 2.019; 95% CI: 1.017-4.009).Liver cirrhosis significantly correlates with increased risk of gallstone development in CHC patients in China. Decompensated liver cirrhosis and older age further heighten this risk in patients diagnosed with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis.

  7. Gallstone ileus, clinical presentation, diagnostic and treatment approach

    PubMed Central

    Nuño-Guzmán, Carlos M; Marín-Contreras, María Eugenia; Figueroa-Sánchez, Mauricio; Corona, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a mechanical intestinal obstruction due to gallstone impaction within the gastrointestinal tract. Less than 1% of cases of intestinal obstruction are derived from this etiology. The symptoms and signs of gallstone ileus are mostly nonspecific. This entity has been observed with a higher frequency among the elderly, the majority of which have concomitant medical illness. Cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases should be considered as they may affect the prognosis. Surgical relief of gastrointestinal obstruction remains the mainstay of operative treatment. The current surgical procedures are: (1) simple enterolithotomy; (2) enterolithotomy, cholecystectomy and fistula closure (one-stage procedure); and (3) enterolithotomy with cholecystectomy performed later (two-stage procedure). Bowel resection is necessary in certain cases after enterolithotomy is performed. Large prospective laparoscopic and endoscopic trials are expected. PMID:26843914

  8. Pathogenesis of pigment gallstones in Western societies: the central role of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lygia; Oesterle, Adair L; Erdan, Ihsan; Griffiss, J MacLeod; Way, Lawrence W

    2002-01-01

    Bacteria are traditionally accorded a greater role in pigment gallstone formation in Eastern populations. Stone color is thought to predict the presence of bacteria; that is, black stones (Western predominant) are supposedly sterile and brown stones (Eastern predominant) contain bacteria. We previously reported that, regardless of appearance, most pigment gallstones contain bacteria. This study examined, in a large Western population (370 patients), the incidence, appearance, and chemical composition of pigment stones, and the characteristics of gallstone bacteria. One hundred eighty-six pigment stones were obtained aseptically. Bacteria were detected by means of scanning electron microscopy and gallstone culture. Chemical composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy. Bacteria were tested for slime and beta-glucuronidase production. Seventy-three percent of pigment stones contained bacteria. Choledocholithiasis was associated with gallstone bacteria. Ca-bilirubinate was present in all pigment stones. Ca-palmitate was characteristic of infected stones, and more than 75% Ca-carbonate was characteristic of sterile stones. Neither chemical composition nor stone appearance predicted the presence of bacteria. Ninety-five percent and 67% of infected pigment stones contained bacteria that produced slime and beta-glucuronidase, respectively. Most pigment stones contained bacteria that produced beta-glucuronidase, slime, and phospholipase, factors that facilitate stone formation. Thus bacteria have a major role in Western pigment gallstone formation. Furthermore, gallstone color did not predict composition or bacterial presence.

  9. The significance of gallstones in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander-Reindorf, C.; Nwaneri, R. U.; Worrell, R. G.; Ogbonna, A.; Uzoma, C.

    1990-01-01

    Infection is the most common cause of high morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality in children with sickle cell anemia. In this study of pediatric sickle cell anemia patients, aged 1 to 19, we explore the hypothesis that gallstones (usually pigment stones) create a nidus of infection, predisposing the affected patients to high morbidity. Our study involved 86 children with sickle cell anemia at the Howard University Center for Sickle Cell Disease, who had been followed at the clinic for a total of 602 patient years. Review of their records revealed that patients with gallstones had a mean number of 10.24 hospitalizations and 25.35 ambulatory visits; those without gallstones had a mean number of only 4.26 hospitalizations and 13.41 ambulatory visits. In children with sickle cell anemia and gallstones, elective cholecystectomy (or, in the future, cholelithotripsy) could reduce the high morbidity caused by infection. PMID:2213913

  10. Gut microbiota dysbiosis and bacterial community assembly associated with cholesterol gallstones in large-scale study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elucidating gut microbiota among gallstone patients as well as the complex bacterial colonization of cholesterol gallstones may help in both the prediction and subsequent lowered risk of cholelithiasis. To this end, we studied the composition of bacterial communities of gut, bile, and gallstones from 29 gallstone patients as well as the gut of 38 normal individuals, examining and analyzing some 299, 217 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from 120 samples. Results First, as compared with normal individuals, in gallstone patients there were significant (P < 0.001) increases of gut bacterial phylum Proteobacteria and decreases of three gut bacterial genera, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, and Roseburia. Second, about 70% of gut bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from gallstone patients were detectable in the biliary tract and bacteria diversity of biliary tract was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that of gut. Third, analysis of the biliary tract core microbiome (represented by 106 bacteria OTUs) among gallstone patients showed that 33.96% (36/106) of constituents can be matched to known bacterial species (15 of which have publicly available genomes). A genome-wide search of MDR, BSH, bG, and phL genes purpotedly associated with the formation of cholesterol gallstones showed that all 15 species with known genomes (e.g., Propionibacterium acnes, Bacteroides vulgates, and Pseudomonas putida) contained at least contained one of the four genes. This finding could potentially provide underlying information needed to explain the association between biliary tract microbiota and the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to discover gut microbiota dysbiosis among gallstone patients, the presence of which may be a key contributor to the complex bacteria community assembly linked with the presence of cholesterol gallstones. Likewise, this study also provides the first large

  11. Multi-spectroscopic analysis of cholesterol gallstone using TOF-SIMS, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaswal, Brij Bir S.; Kumar, Vinay; Swart, H. C.; Sharma, Jitendra; Rai, Pradeep K.; Singh, Vivek K.

    2015-10-01

    For the first time, spatial distribution of major and trace elements has been studied in cholesterol gallstones using time-of-flight secondary mass ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The TOF-SIMS has been used to study the elemental constituents of the center and surface parts of the gallstone sample. We have classified the gallstone sample using Fourier transform spectroscopy. The detected elements in cholesterol gallstone sample were carbon (C), hydrogen (H), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), strontium (Sr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb). The detected molecules in the cholesterol gallstone were CH3 +, CO3 +, CaCO3 + and C3H+. Our results revealed that the contents of these elements in cholesterol gallstone were higher in the center part than that in the surface part. In the present paper, we have also presented the UV-Vis spectroscopic studies of the center and surface parts of the gallstone sample which indicated the presence of a higher content of cholesterol in the surface part and bilirubin in the center part.

  12. IR Spectroscopy and X-Ray Phase Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Gallstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichugina, A. A.; Tsyro, L. V.; Unger, F. G.

    2018-01-01

    The composition of the inorganic and organic parts of gallstones was investigated by x-ray phase analysis and IR spectroscopy. Cholesterol, bilirubin, calcium bilirubinate, calcium carbonate, and calcium hydrogen phosphate are all found in gallstones. The major component is cholesterol. A gallstone was separated into layers and the inorganic part was separated out by annealing. Inorganic compounds were found to predominate in the outer layer of the gallstone, which is related to the mechanism of its formation. The inorganic part contains calcium carbonate, present in both the calcite and waterite modifications.

  13. Thyroid dysfunction, either hyper or hypothyroidism, promotes gallstone formation by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Xing; Zhao, Qun-Zi; Zheng, Shu; Qing, Wen-Jie; Miao, Chun-di; Sanjay, Jaiswal

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated comprehensively the effects of thyroid function on gallstone formation in a mouse model. Gonadectomized gallstone-susceptible male C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into three groups each of which received an intervention to induce hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or euthyroidism. After 5 weeks of feeding a lithogenic diet of 15% (w/w) butter fat, 1% (w/w) cholesterol, and 0.5% (w/w) cholic acid, mice were killed for further experiments. The incidence of cholesterol monohydrate crystal formation was 100% in mice with hyperthyroidism, 83% in hypothyroidism, and 33% in euthyroidism, the differences being statistically significant. Among the hepatic lithogenic genes, Trβ was found to be up-regulated and Rxr down-regulated in the mice with hypothyroidism. In contrast, Lxrα, Rxr, and Cyp7α1 were up-regulated and Fxr down-regulated in the mice with hyperthyroidism. In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction, either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, promotes the formation of cholesterol gallstones in C57BL/6 mice. Gene expression differences suggest that thyroid hormone disturbance leads to gallstone formation in different ways. Hyperthyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by regulating expression of the hepatic nuclear receptor genes such as Lxrα and Rxr, which are significant in cholesterol metabolism pathways. However, hypothyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by promoting cholesterol biosynthesis.

  14. Increased Risk of Depressive Disorder following Cholecystectomy for Gallstones.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Hung; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies indicate a possible association between depression and cholecystectomy, but no study has compared the risk of post-operative depressive disorders (DD) after cholecystectomy. This retrospective follow-up study aimed to examine the relationship between cholecystectomy and the risk of DD in patients with gallstones in a population-based database. Using ambulatory care data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, 6755 patients who received a first-time principal diagnosis of gallstones at the emergency room (ER) were identified. Among them, 1197 underwent cholecystectomy. Each patient was then individually followed-up for two years to identify those who were later diagnosed with DD. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate the risk of developing DD between patients with gallstone who did and those who did not undergo cholecystectomy. Of 6755 patients with gallstones, 173 (2.56%) were diagnosed with DD during the two-year follow-up. Among patients who did and those who did not undergo cholecystectomy, 3.51% and 2.36% later developed depressive disorder, respectively. After adjusting for the patient's sex, age and geographic location, the hazard ratio (HR) of DD within two years of gallstone diagnosis was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.02-2.04) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy compared to those who did not. Females, but not males, had a higher the adjusted HR of DD (1.61; 95% CI, 1.08-2.41) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy compared to those who did not. There is an association between cholecystectomy and subsequent risk of DD among females, but not in males.

  15. Large bowel and small bowel obstruction due to gallstones in the same patient

    PubMed Central

    Ranga, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This is the case report of an 85-year-old woman who on two consecutive occasions presented with acute abdominal pain. The first presentation was large bowel obstruction. CT abdomen revealed this was due to a cholecystocolic fistula, allowing a large gallstone to pass and obstruct in the sigmoid colon. The second presentation was after laparotomy; the second CT abdomen revealed another gallstone causing small bowel obstruction. This case is interesting because cholelithiasis rarely leads to sigmoid colon obstruction (gallstone coleus)1 and gallstone ileus. Unfortunately, this patient had both. A gallstone causing obstruction in either the small or large bowel is rare, but occurrence of both in the same patient has not been reported to date. This case also shows how the elderly unwell surgical patient was mismanaged and she could have been spared surgery and irradiation if she was managed appropriately from the start. PMID:22696674

  16. Randomized, Prospective Comparison of Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Prevention of Gallstones after Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Lindsay B; Chang, Craig; Pope, Janet; Kim, Yeonsoo; Liu, Pei; Yates, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have examined the role of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) for the prevention of cholelithiasis (gallstones) following rapid weight loss from restrictive diets, vertical band gastroplasty, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, to date, there have been no prospective, controlled studies examining the role of UDCA for the prevention of gallstones following sleeve gastrectomy (SG). This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of UDCA for prevention of gallstones after SG. Following SG, eligible patients were randomized to a control group who did not receive UDCA treatment or to a group who were prescribed 300 mg UDCA twice daily for 6 months. Gallbladder ultrasounds were performed preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Patients with positive findings preoperatively were excluded from the study. Compliance with UDCA was assessed. Between December 2011 and April 2013, 37 patients were randomized to the UDCA treatment arm and 38 patients were randomized to no treatment. At baseline, the two groups were similar. At 6 months, the UDCA group had a statistically significant lower incidence of gallstones (p = 0.032). Analysis revealed no significant difference in gallstones between the two groups at 1 year (p = 0.553 and p = 0.962, respectively). The overall gallstone formation rate was 29.8%. The incidence of gallstones is higher than previously estimated in SG patients. UDCA significantly lowers the gallstone formation rate at 6 months postoperatively.

  17. Thyroid dysfunction, either hyper or hypothyroidism, promotes gallstone formation by different mechanisms*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Xing; Zhao, Qun-zi; Zheng, Shu; Qing, Wen-jie; Miao, Chun-di; Sanjay, Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated comprehensively the effects of thyroid function on gallstone formation in a mouse model. Gonadectomized gallstone-susceptible male C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into three groups each of which received an intervention to induce hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or euthyroidism. After 5 weeks of feeding a lithogenic diet of 15% (w/w) butter fat, 1% (w/w) cholesterol, and 0.5% (w/w) cholic acid, mice were killed for further experiments. The incidence of cholesterol monohydrate crystal formation was 100% in mice with hyperthyroidism, 83% in hypothyroidism, and 33% in euthyroidism, the differences being statistically significant. Among the hepatic lithogenic genes, Trβ was found to be up-regulated and Rxr down-regulated in the mice with hypothyroidism. In contrast, Lxrα, Rxr, and Cyp7α1 were up-regulated and Fxr down-regulated in the mice with hyperthyroidism. In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction, either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, promotes the formation of cholesterol gallstones in C57BL/6 mice. Gene expression differences suggest that thyroid hormone disturbance leads to gallstone formation in different ways. Hyperthyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by regulating expression of the hepatic nuclear receptor genes such as Lxrα and Rxr, which are significant in cholesterol metabolism pathways. However, hypothyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by promoting cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27381728

  18. Comparison of the gene expression profiles between gallstones and gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanfu; Ge, Xin; Xu, Xu; Zhong, Yonggang; Qie, Zengwang

    2014-01-01

    Gallstones and gallbladder polyps (GPs) are two major types of gallbladder diseases that share multiple common symptoms. However, their pathological mechanism remains largely unknown. The aim of our study is to identify gallstones and GPs related-genes and gain an insight into the underlying genetic basis of these diseases. We enrolled 7 patients with gallstones and 2 patients with GP for RNA-Seq and we conducted functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks analysis for identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs). RNA-Seq produced 41.7 million in gallstones and 32.1 million pairs in GPs. A total of 147 DEGs was identified between gallstones and GPs. We found GO terms for molecular functions significantly enriched in antigen binding (GO:0003823, P=5.9E-11), while for biological processes, the enriched GO terms were immune response (GO:0006955, P=2.6E-15), and for cellular component, the enriched GO terms were extracellular region (GO:0005576, P=2.7E-15). To further evaluate the biological significance for the DEGs, we also performed the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. The most significant pathway in our KEGG analysis was Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (P=7.5E-06). PPI network analysis indicated that the significant hub proteins containing S100A9 (S100 calcium binding protein A9, Degree=94) and CR2 (complement component receptor 2, Degree=8). This present study suggests some promising genes and may provide a clue to the role of these genes playing in the development of gallstones and GPs.

  19. Systematic review with meta-analysis: coffee consumption and the risk of gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-P; Li, W-Q; Sun, Y-L; Zhu, R-T; Wang, W-J

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on coffee consumption reducing the risk of gallstone disease has been contradictory. To perform a meta-analysis of observational studies, to investigate an association and dose-response of coffee consumption with gallstone disease. We used PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify all published studies before June 2015. A random-effects model was used to compute a pooled relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). One case-control study and five prospective cohort studies (with seven cohorts) involving 227,749 participants and 11,477 gallstone disease cases were included. Coffee consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk of gallstone disease (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.89; I(2) = 35.9%), based on prospective studies; specifically, we observed an inverse relation in females, but not in males. The case-control study did not reveal any association between coffee and gallstone disease (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.53). In a dose-response analysis, the RR of gallstone disease was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.91 to 1.00; P = 0.049) per 1 cup/day of coffee consumption. A significant nonlinear dose-response association was also identified (P for nonlinearity = 0.0106). For people who drank 2, 4 and 6 cups of coffee per day, the estimated RRs of gallstone disease were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.99), 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.92) and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.64 to 0.88), respectively, compared with the lowest level drinkers. This study suggests that coffee consumption is related to a significantly decreased risk of gallstone disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ezetimibe prevents the formation of estrogen-induced cholesterol gallstones in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Bari, Ornella; Wang, Helen H.; Portincasa, Piero; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Liu, Min; Wang, David Q.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Estrogen is an important risk factor for cholesterol cholelithiasis not only in women of childbearing age taking oral contraceptives and postmenopausal women undergoing hormone replacement therapy, but also in male patients receiving estrogen therapy for prostatic cancer. In women, hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy markedly increase the risk of developing gallstones. We investigated whether the potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe could prevent the formation of estrogen-induced cholesterol gallstones in mice. Design Following ovariectomy, female AKR mice were implanted subcutaneously with pellets releasing 17β-estradiol at 6 μg/day and fed a lithogenic diet supplemented with ezetimibe in doses of 0 or 8 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. Cholesterol crystallization and gallstone prevalence, lipid concentrations and composition in bile, and biliary lipid output were analyzed by physical-chemical methods. Intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency was determined by fecal dual-isotope ratio methods. Results Ezetimibe inhibited intestinal cholesterol absorption, while significantly reducing hepatic secretion of biliary cholesterol. Consequently, bile was desaturated through the formation of numerous unsaturated micelles and gallstones were prevented by ezetimibe in mice exposed to high doses of estrogen and fed the lithogenic diet. Ezetimibe did not influence mRNA levels of the classical estrogen receptors α (ERα) and ERβ, as well as a novel estrogen receptor the G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) in the liver. Conclusions Ezetimibe protects against the estrogen-mediated lithogenic actions on gallstone formation in mice. Our finding may provide an efficacious novel strategy for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones in high-risk subjects, especially those exposed to high levels of estrogen. PMID:25303682

  1. Gallstones: A Worldwide Multifaceted Disease and Its Correlations with Gallbladder Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raj Kumar; Sonkar, Kanchan; Sinha, Neeraj; Rebala, Pradeep; Albani, Ahmad Ebrah; Behari, Anu; Reddy, Duvvuri Nageshwar; Farooqui, Alvina; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Gallstones (GS) associated diseases are among the most recurrent and frequent diseases delineated in India and United Arab Emirates. Several reports suggest that the association of GS with gallbladder cancer (GBC) is very high in Northern part of India; however, its occurrence in UAE and Southern part of India is notably low. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to perform compositional analysis of GS in three different geographical areas by Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy. Natural abundance 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy is employed for the analysis of human gallstone. Cholesterol, bilirubin and calcium carbonate were present in variant concentrations in GS obtained from three different geographical regions. Cholesterol was present predominantly in gallstones from North India. Bilirubin was found to be a main constituent in gallstones pertaining to South India. Whereas GS from UAE showed both cholesterol and bilirubin as their major constituents. Calcium carbonate was found in varying concentrations in gallstones acquired from different regions. Variation in environmental condition and dietary habits may contribute and affect the GS formation. Alterations in bile composition influence the GB and augment the crystallization of cholesterol. Analysis of different geographical regions GS could be an important stride to understand the etiology of GS diseases.

  2. High Prevalence of Gallstone Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A New Comorbidity Related to Dyslipidemia?

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, María Carmen; de Lama, Eugenia; Ordoñez-Palau, Sergi; Nolla, Joan Miquel; Corbella, Emili; Pintó, Xavier

    2017-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of gallstone disease and identify associated risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared to the general population. Eighty-four women with rheumatoid arthritis were included in the study. Each patient was assessed via a structured interview, physical examination, abdominal ultrasound and blood test including lipid profile. The prevalence of gallstone disease in rheumatoid arthritis was compared with data from a study of the Spanish population matched by age groups. Twenty-eight of the 84 women had gallstone disease (33.3%). RA women with and without gallstone disease were similar in most of the variables assessed, except for older age and menopausal status in the former. A greater prevalence of gallstone disease was seen in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to the general population of the same age; however, the differences were significant only in women aged 60 or older (45.5% versus 23.1% respectively, P-value .008). The age-adjusted OR of developing gallstone disease in RA women compared with general population women was 2,3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.1). A significantly higher HDL3-c subfraction and higher apoA-I/HDL and HDL3-c/TC ratios were observed in patients with gallstone disease. Women with rheumatoid arthritis may have a predisposition to gallstones that can manifest in middle or older age compared with women in the general population. This situation could be related to chronic inflammation and HDL metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  3. Preventing a Mass Disease: The Case of Gallstones Disease: Role and Competence for Family Physicians.

    PubMed

    Portincasa, Piero; Di Ciaula, Agostino; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2016-07-01

    Gallstone formation is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors. We searched and reviewed the available literature to define how the primary prevention of gallstones (cholesterol gallstones in particular) could be applied in general practice. Electronic bibliographical databases were searched. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies and case-controlled studies were analyzed and graded for evidence quality. The epidemiological data confirmed that genetic factors are estimated to account for only approximately 25% of the overall risk of gallstones, while metabolic/environmental factors are at least partially modifiable in stone-free risk groups, and are thus modifiable by primary prevention measures related to diet, lifestyle, and environmental factors (i.e., rapid weight loss, bariatric surgery, somatostatin or analogues therapy, transient gallbladder stasis, and hormone therapy). There is no specific recommendation for the secondary prevention of recurrent gallstones. Family physicians can contribute to preventing gallstones due to their capability to identify and effectively manage several risk factors discussed in this study. Although further studies are needed to better elucidate the involvement of epigenetic factors that may regulate the effect of environment and lifestyle on gene expression in the primary prevention of gallstone formation, preventive interventions are feasible and advisable in the general practice setting.

  4. A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Oleg; Ramesh, Jagannathan; Huleihel, Mahmoud; Cohen, Beny; Kantarovich, Keren; Levi, Chen; Polyak, Boris; Marks, Robert S; Mordehai, Jacov; Cohen, Zahavi; Mordechai, Shaul

    2002-01-01

    Background Cholelithiasis is the gallstone disease (GSD) where stones are formed in the gallbladder. The main function of the gallbladder is to concentrate bile by the absorption of water and sodium. GSD has high prevalence among elderly adults. There are three major types of gallstones found in patients, White, Black and Brown. The major chemical component of white stones is cholesterol. Black and brown stones contain different proportions of cholesterol and bilirubin. The pathogenesis of gallstones is not clearly understood. Analysis of the chemical composition of gallstones using various spectroscopic techniques offers clues to the pathogenesis of gallstones. Recent years has seen an increasing trend in the number of cases involving children. The focus of this study is on the analysis of the chemical composition of gallstones from child and adult patients using spectroscopic methods. Methods In this report, we present FTIR spectroscopic studies and fluorescence microscopic analysis of gallstones obtained from 67 adult and 21 child patients. The gallstones were removed during surgical operations at Soroka University Medical Center. Results Our results show that black stones from adults and children are rich in bilirubin. Brown stones are composed of varying amounts of bilirubin and cholesterol. Green stones removed from an adult, which is rare, was found to be composed mainly of cholesterol. Our results also indicated that cholesterol and bilirubin could be the risk factors for gallstone formation in adults and children respectively. Fluorescence micrographs showed that the Ca-bilirubinate was present in all stones in different quantities and however, Cu-bilirubinate was present only in the mixed and black stones. Conclusions Analysis based on FTIR suggest that the composition of black and brown stones from both children and adults are similar. Various layers of the brown stone from adults differ by having varying quantities of cholesterol and calcium carbonate

  5. Clinical Application of Dual-Energy Spectral Computed Tomography in Detecting Cholesterol Gallstones From Surrounding Bile.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuang-Bo; Zhang, Shuang; Jia, Yong-Jun; Duan, Hai-Feng; Ma, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Xi-Rong; Yu, Yong; He, Tai-Ping

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical value of spectral computed tomography (CT) in the detection of cholesterol gallstones from surrounding bile. This study was approved by the institutional review board. The unenhanced spectral CT data of 24 patients who had surgically confirmed cholesterol gallstones were analyzed. Lipid concentrations and CT numbers were measured from fat-based material decomposition image and virtual monochromatic image sets (40-140 keV), respectively. The difference in lipid concentration and CT number between cholesterol gallstones and the surrounding bile were statistically analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was applied to determine the diagnostic accuracy of using lipid concentration to differentiate cholesterol gallstones from bile. Cholesterol gallstones were bright on fat-based material decomposition images yielding a 92% detection rate (22 of 24). The lipid concentrations (552.65 ± 262.36 mg/mL), CT number at 40 keV (-31.57 ± 16.88 HU) and 140 keV (24.30 ± 5.85 HU) for the cholesterol gallstones were significantly different from those of bile (-13.94 ± 105.12 mg/mL, 12.99 ± 9.39 HU and 6.19 ± 4.97 HU, respectively). Using 182.59 mg/mL as the threshold value for lipid concentration, one could obtain sensitivity of 95.5% and specificity of 100% with accuracy of 0.994 for differentiating cholesterol gallstones from bile. Virtual monochromatic spectral CT images at 40 keV and 140 keV provide significant CT number differences between cholesterol gallstones and the surrounding bile. Spectral CT provides an excellent detection rate for cholesterol gallstones. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative analysis of gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vivek K.; Singh, Vinita; Rai, Awadhesh K.

    2008-11-01

    The utility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for categorizing different types of gallbladder stone has been demonstrated by analyzing their major and minor constituents. LIBS spectra of three types of gallstone have been recorded in the 200-900 nm spectral region. Calcium is found to be the major element in all types of gallbladder stone. The spectrophotometric method has been used to classify the stones. A calibration-free LIBS method has been used for the quantitative analysis of metal elements, and the results have been compared with those obtained from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) measurements. The single-shot LIBS spectramore » from different points on the cross section (in steps of 0.5 mm from one end to the other) of gallstones have also been recorded to study the variation of constituents from the center to the surface. The presence of different metal elements and their possible role in gallstone formation is discussed.« less

  7. Prevention of cholesterol gallstones by inhibiting hepatic biosynthesis and intestinal absorption of cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen H; Portincasa, Piero; de Bari, Ornella; Liu, Kristina J; Garruti, Gabriella; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Wang, David Q.-H

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a multifactorial disease influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors, and represents a failure of biliary cholesterol homeostasis in which the physical-chemical balance of cholesterol solubility in bile is disturbed. The primary pathophysiologic event is persistent hepatic hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol, which has both hepatic and small intestinal components. The majority of the environmental factors are probably related to Western-type dietary habits, including excess cholesterol consumption. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the US, is nowadays a major treatment for gallstones. However, it is invasive and can cause surgical complications, and not all patients with symptomatic gallstones are candidates for surgery. The hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been employed as first-line pharmacological therapy in a subgroup of symptomatic patients with small, radiolucent cholesterol gallstones. Long-term administration of UDCA can promote the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. However, the optimal use of UDCA is not always achieved in clinical practice because of failure to titrate the dose adequately. Therefore, the development of novel, effective, and noninvasive therapies is crucial for reducing the costs of health care associated with gallstones. In this review, we summarize recent progress in investigating the inhibitory effects of ezetimibe and statins on intestinal absorption and hepatic biosynthesis of cholesterol, respectively, for the treatment of gallstones, as well as in elucidating their molecular mechanisms by which combination therapy could prevent this very common liver disease worldwide. PMID:23419155

  8. Risk factors for gallstones and kidney stones in a cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rossel, Jean-Benoît; Biedermann, Luc; Frei, Pascal; Zeitz, Jonas; Spalinger, Marianne; Battegay, Edouard; Zimmerli, Lukas; Vavricka, Stephan R.; Rogler, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Background Gallstones and kidney stones are known complications of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Risk factors have been insufficiently studied and explanatory studies date back up to 30 years. It remains unclear, whether improved treatment options also influenced risk factors for these complications. Objectives Identifying risk factors for gallstones and kidney stones in IBD patients. Methods Using data from the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study we assessed associations of diseases characteristics with gallstones and kidney stones in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Out of 2323 IBD patients, 104 (7.8%) Crohn’s disease (CD) and 38 (3.8%) ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed with gallstones. Significant risk factors for gallstones were diagnosis of CD, age at diagnosis, disease activity and duration, NSAID intake, extra-intestinal manifestations and intestinal surgery. Kidney stones were described in 61 (4.6%) CD and 30 (3.0%) UC patients. Male gender, disease activity, intestinal surgery, NSAID usage and reduced physical activity were significant risk factors. Hospitalization was associated with gallstones and kidney stones. The presence of gallstones increased the risk for kidney stones (OR 4.87, p<0.001). Conclusion The diagnosis of CD, intestinal surgery, prolonged NSAID use, disease activity and duration and bowel stenosis were significantly associated with cholecystonephrolithiasis in IBD. PMID:29023532

  9. Risk factors for gallstones and kidney stones in a cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Fagagnini, Stefania; Heinrich, Henriette; Rossel, Jean-Benoît; Biedermann, Luc; Frei, Pascal; Zeitz, Jonas; Spalinger, Marianne; Battegay, Edouard; Zimmerli, Lukas; Vavricka, Stephan R; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael; Misselwitz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Gallstones and kidney stones are known complications of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Risk factors have been insufficiently studied and explanatory studies date back up to 30 years. It remains unclear, whether improved treatment options also influenced risk factors for these complications. Identifying risk factors for gallstones and kidney stones in IBD patients. Using data from the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study we assessed associations of diseases characteristics with gallstones and kidney stones in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Out of 2323 IBD patients, 104 (7.8%) Crohn's disease (CD) and 38 (3.8%) ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed with gallstones. Significant risk factors for gallstones were diagnosis of CD, age at diagnosis, disease activity and duration, NSAID intake, extra-intestinal manifestations and intestinal surgery. Kidney stones were described in 61 (4.6%) CD and 30 (3.0%) UC patients. Male gender, disease activity, intestinal surgery, NSAID usage and reduced physical activity were significant risk factors. Hospitalization was associated with gallstones and kidney stones. The presence of gallstones increased the risk for kidney stones (OR 4.87, p<0.001). The diagnosis of CD, intestinal surgery, prolonged NSAID use, disease activity and duration and bowel stenosis were significantly associated with cholecystonephrolithiasis in IBD.

  10. Gallbladder mucin production and calcium carbonate gallstones in children.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Craig; Wyatt, Judy; Soloway, Roger D; Taylor, Donald R; Stringer, Mark D

    2007-03-01

    In contrast to adults, calcium carbonate gallstones are relatively common in children. Their pathogenesis is poorly understood. Cystic duct obstruction promotes calcium carbonate formation in bile and increases gallbladder mucin production. We tested the hypothesis that mucin producing epithelial cells would be increased in gallbladders of children with calcium carbonate gallstones. Archival gallbladder specimens from 20 consecutive children who had undergone elective cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis were examined. In each case, gallstone composition was determined by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. Gallbladder specimens from six children who had undergone cholecystectomy for conditions other than cholelithiasis during the same period were used as controls. Multiple sections were examined in a blinded fashion and scored semiquantitatively for mucin production using two stains (alcian blue and periodic acid-Schiff). Increased mucin staining was observed in 50% or more epithelial cells in five gallbladder specimens from seven children with calcium carbonate stones, compared to 5 of 13 with other stone types (P = 0.17) and none of the control gallbladders (P = 0.02). Gallbladders containing calcium carbonate stones were significantly more likely than those containing other stone types or controls to contain epithelial cells with the greatest mucin content (P = 0.03). Gallbladders containing calcium carbonate stones were also more likely to show the ulcer-associated cell lineage. These results demonstrate an increase in mucin producing epithelial cells in gallbladders from children containing calcium carbonate stones. This supports the hypothesis that cystic duct obstruction leading to increased gallbladder mucin production may play a role in the development of calcium carbonate gallstones in children.

  11. [Gas-containing gallstones: value of the "Mercedes-Benz" sign at CT examination].

    PubMed

    Delabrousse, E; Bartholomot, B; Narboux, Y; Barrali, E; Chirouze, C; Kastler, B

    2000-11-01

    Gas-containing gallstones are well-known in vitro. The typical triradiate arrangement of fissures filled with gas, first described on abdominal plain films, was named by Meyers the "Mercedes-Benz" sign. This sign is absent of the recent literature. We report a case where gas was the only CT sign suggesting the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder.

  12. Identification of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Genes Regulated during Biofilm Formation on Cholesterol Gallstone Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are able to form biofilms on abiotic and biotic surfaces. In vivo studies in our laboratory have shown that Salmonella can form biofilms on the surfaces of cholesterol gallstones in the gallbladders of mice and human carriers. Biofilm formation on gallstones has been demonstrated to be a mechanism of persistence. The purpose of this work was to identify and evaluate Salmonella sp. cholesterol-dependent biofilm factors. Differential gene expression analysis between biofilms on glass or cholesterol-coated surfaces and subsequent quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that type 1 fimbria structural genes and a gene encoding a putative outer membrane protein (ycfR) were specifically upregulated in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilms grown on cholesterol-coated surfaces. Spatiotemporal expression of ycfR and FimA verified their regulation during biofilm development on cholesterol-coated surfaces. Surprisingly, confocal and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that a mutant of type 1 fimbria structural genes (ΔfimAICDHF) and a ycfR mutant showed increased biofilm formation on cholesterol-coated surfaces. In vivo experiments using Nramp1+/+ mice harboring gallstones showed that only the ΔycfR mutant formed extensive biofilms on mouse gallstones at 7 and 21 days postinfection; ΔfimAICDHF was not observed on gallstone surfaces after the 7-day-postinfection time point. These data suggest that in Salmonella spp., wild-type type 1 fimbriae are important for attachment to and/or persistence on gallstones at later points of chronic infection, whereas YcfR may represent a specific potential natural inhibitor of initial biofilm formation on gallstones. PMID:23897604

  13. The number of metabolic abnormalities associated with the risk of gallstones in a non-diabetic population.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Yin-Fan; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with gallstones, independent of hepatitis C infection or chronic kidney disease (CKD), in a non-diabetic population. A total of 8,188 Chinese adult participants that underwent a self-motivated health examination were recruited into the final analysis after excluding the subjects who had a history of cholecystectomy, diabetes mellitus, or were currently using antihypertensive or lipid-lowering agents. Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or that attenuated ultrasound transmission. A total of 447 subjects (5.5%) had gallstones, with 239 (5.1%) men and 208 (6.0%) women. After adjusting for age, gender, obesity, education level, and lifestyle factors, included current smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and CKD, there was a positive association between metabolic syndrome and gallstones. Moreover, as compared to subjects without metabolic abnormalities, subjects with one, two, and three or more suffered from a 35, 40, and 59% higher risk of gallstones, respectively. Non-diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome had a higher risk of gallstones independent of hepatitis C or CKD, and a dose-dependent effect of metabolic abnormalities also exists.

  14. Association between cholesterol gallstones and testosterone replacement therapy in a patient with primary hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Squarza, S; Rossi, U G; Torcia, P; Cariati, M

    A 16-year-old boy had a past medical history of primary hypogonadism, due to bilateral anorchia. He presented with gallstones located in the gallbladder and a mild dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary tree. The histology study reported cholesterol gallstones. The patient had been treated with testosterone replacement therapy since infancy. We suggest a possible correlation between testosterone replacement therapy and the presence of cholesterol gallstones. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Methods of chemical and phase composition analysis of gallstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvorova, E. I.; Pantushev, V. V.; Voloshin, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    This review presents the instrumental methods used for chemical and phase composition investigation of gallstones. A great body of data has been collected in the literature on the presence of elements and their concentrations, obtained by fluorescence microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, proton (particle) induced X-ray emission, atomic absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, electron paramagnetic resonance. Structural methods—powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy—provide information about organic and inorganic phases in gallstones. Stone morphology was studied at the macrolevel with optical microscopy. Results obtained by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry are discussed. The chemical composition and structure of gallstones determine the strategy of removing stone from the body and treatment of patients: surgery or dissolution in the body. Therefore one chapter of the review describes the potential of dissolution methods. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the disease depend on the development of clinical methods for in vivo investigation, which gave grounds to present the main characteristics and potential of ultrasonography (ultrasound scanning), magnetic resonance imaging, and X-ray computed tomography.

  16. YouTube as a source of patient information on gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Suh; Seo, Ho Seok; Hong, Tae Ho

    2014-04-14

    To investigate the quality of YouTube videos on gallstone disease and to assess viewer response according to quality. A YouTube search was performed on September 18, 2013, using the keywords ''gallbladder disease'', ''gallstone disease'', and ''gallstone treatment''. Three researchers assessed the source, length, number of views, number of likes, and days since upload. The upload source was categorised as physician or hospital (PH), medical website or TV channel, commercial website (CW), or civilian. A usefulness score was devised to assess video quality and to categorise the videos into ''very useful'', ''useful'', ''slightly useful'', or ''not useful''. Videos with misleading content were categorised as ''misleading''. One hundred and thirty-one videos were analysed. Seventy-four videos (56.5%) were misleading, 36 (27.5%) were slightly useful, 15 (11.5%) were useful, three (2.3%) were very useful, and three (2.3%) were not useful. The number of mean likes (1.3 ± 1.5 vs 17.2 ± 38.0, P = 0.007) and number of views (756.3 ± 701.0 vs 8910.7 ± 17094.7, P = 0.001) were both significantly lower in the very useful group compared with the misleading group. All three very useful videos were PH videos. Among the 74 misleading videos, 64 (86.5%) were uploaded by a CW. There was no correlation between usefulness and the number of views, the number of likes, or the length. The "gallstone flush" was the method advocated most frequently by misleading videos (25.7%). More than half of the YouTube videos on gallstone disease are misleading. Credible videos uploaded by medical professionals and filtering by the staff of YouTube appear to be necessary.

  17. The value of radiology in predicting gallstone type when selecting patients for medical treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, G D; Dowling, R H; Whitney, B; Sutor, D J

    1975-01-01

    Since medical treatment of gallstones is confined to cholesterol-rich stones, the ability of clinical radiographs to predict gallstone type was tested prospectively by comparing the preoperative radiological appearance of gallstones from 57 unselected patients with cholelithiasis coming to cholecystectomy with the subsequent analysis of the stones both by X-ray diffraction and by chemical techniques. Fifty-two per cent of the patients had 'non-functioning' gallbladders which failed to opacify after at least two contrast examinations and 25 out of 50 had radioopaque stones. Of the 25 patients with radiolucent stones, the stones in 20 ((80%) were predominantly cholesterol in type but radiology was misleading in five; three contained 40-55% calcium salts but were still radiolucent while two were amorphous and contained less than 10% cholesterol by weight on chemical analysis. While radiology was sometimes misleading when the stones were small and irregular, large radiolucent stones with a smooth profile were invariably cholesterol-rich stones. The results also show that in men calcified stones were commoner than in women and that in older women the gallstones contained more calcium salts and less cholesterol than in younger women less than 50 yr). This paper analyses critically the value and limitations of clinical radiology in predicting gallstone type. PMID:1140634

  18. Calcified gallstone fissures: the reversed Mercedes Benz sign.

    PubMed

    Strijk, S P

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the occurrence of an unusual radiating pattern of calcification in the center of large radiolucent gallstones. The radiographic findings are attributed to calcium deposition within the fissures of biliary calculi.

  19. Gallbladder microbiota variability in Colombian gallstones patients.

    PubMed

    Arteta, Ariel Antonio; Carvajal-Restrepo, Hernan; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan Margot; Diaz-Rodriguez, Sergio; Cardona-Castro, Nora

    2017-03-31

    Gallbladder stones are a very frequently occurring condition. Despite bile bactericidal activity, many bacteria have been detected inside the gallbladder, and gallstones facilitate their presence. Between 3% and 5% of the patients with Salmonella spp. infection develop the carrier stage, with the bacteria persisting inside the gallbladder, shedding bacteria in their feces without signs of infection. The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria from Colombian patients with gallstones, using standard culturing methods, and to identify Salmonella spp. carriers by molecular techniques. A total of 149 patients (120 female and 29 male) diagnosed with gallstones who underwent cholecystectomy and who did not have symptoms of acute inflammation were included. Gallbladder tissue and bile were cultured and used for DNA extraction and Salmonella spp. hilA gene detection. Of the 149 patients 28 (19%) had positive cultures. Twenty-one (75%) patients with positive cultures were from Medellin's metropolitan area. In this geographical location, the most frequent isolations were Pseudomonas spp. (38%), Klebsiella spp. (23%), and Proteus spp. (9%) in addition to unique cases of other bacteria. In Apartado, the isolates found were Enterobacter cloacae (50%), Raoultella terrigena (32%), and both Enterobacter cloacae and Raoultella terrigena were isolated in one (18%) male patient. Five (3.3%) of the 149 patients had positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for the hilA gene of Salmonella spp., all of whom were female and residents of the Medellín metropolitan area. The gallbladder microbiota variability found could be related to geographical, ethnic, and environmental conditions.

  20. Therapy of gallstone disease: What it was, what it is, what it will be

    PubMed Central

    Portincasa, Piero; Ciaula, Agostino Di; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Wang, David QH

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol gallstone disease is a common clinical condition influenced by genetic factors, increasing age, female gender, and metabolic factors. Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is currently considered the gold standard in treating patients with symptomatic gallstones, new perspectives regarding medical therapy of cholelithiasis are currently under discussion, also taking into account the pathogenesis of gallstones, the natural history of the disease and the analysis of the overall costs of therapy. A careful selection of patients may lead to successful non-surgical therapy in symptomatic subjects with a functioning gallbladder harboring small radiolucent stones. The classical oral litholysis by ursodeoxycholic acid has been recently paralleled by new experimental observations, suggesting that cholesterol-lowering agents which inhibit cholesterol synthesis (statins) or intestinal cholesterol absorption (ezetimibe), or drugs acting on specific nuclear receptors involved in cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis, might be proposed as additional approaches for treating cholesterol gallstones. In this review we discuss old, recent and future perspectives on medical treatment of cholesterol cholelithiasis. PMID:22577615

  1. Spectrum of gallstone disease in the veterans population.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lygia; Griffiss, J McLeod; Way, Lawrence W

    2005-11-01

    Elderly male patients are thought to have a higher incidence of biliary infections. This demographic is common among veterans, so we analyzed the spectrum of gallstone disease in a large veteran population. A total of 285 patients with gallstone disease were studied. There were 27 women and 258 men, with an average age of 62 years. Gallstones, bile, and blood (as indicated) were cultured. Illness severity was staged as none (no clinical infection), moderate (fever, leukocytosis), or severe (cholangitis, bacteremia, abscess, hypotension, organ failure). Gallstones were grouped by appearance. Three bacterial groups were defined: EK (Escherichia coli or Klebsiella species), N (Enterococcus), or Oth (all other species). Biliary bacteria were present in 145 (51%) patients. Bacterial presence by patient age was 33% for those less than 50 years, 48% for those 50 to 70 years, and 65% for those more than 70 years (P <.02 vs. others). Bacterial presence by stone type was as follows: cholesterol, 11%; mixed, 51%; pigment, 71% (P <.01 vs. others). Illness severity by stone type was as follows for cholesterol: none, 73%; moderate, 27%; severe, 0%; for mixed: none, 62%; moderate, 25%; severe, 13%; for pigment: none, 41%; moderate, 17%; severe, 41% (P <.0001 vs. others). Illness severity by bacterial group was as follows for sterile: none, 77%; moderate, 23%; severe, 0%; for the Oth group: none, 57%; moderate, 22%; severe, 20%; for the N group: none, 32%; moderate, 16%; severe, 52%; for the EK group: none, 18%; moderate, 22%; severe, 60% (P <.0001 vs. sterile/Oth, P = .126 vs. N). Bacterial biliary tree colonization is prevalent in the veterans' population, it increases with age, and is more common with pigment stones. But not all bacterial species cause infectious manifestations. Patients with E coli and/or Klebsiella species commonly showed infectious manifestations, patients with Enterococcus were in an intermediate range, and those with other species had few infectious

  2. Black bile of melancholy or gallstones of biliary colics: historical perspectives on cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    Barely 130 years after its first description, cholecystectomies are among the most commonly performed surgeries in the USA. The success of this operation with subsequent technical improvements, such as laparoscopic approaches, caused a paradigm shift in the management of gallstone disease. However, symptoms persist in 10-40 % of successfully operated patients. Reviewing monographs, textbooks, and articles published during the last 300 years, several important factors emerge as likely contributors to limited or poor treatment responses. Early on, clinicians recognized that cholelithiasis is quite common and thus often an incidental finding, especially if patients present with vague or atypical symptoms. Consistent with these observations, patients with such atypical symptoms are less likely to benefit from cholecystectomy. Similarly, lasting improvements are more reliably seen in patients with symptoms of presumed biliary origin and documented gallstones compared to individuals without stones, an important point in view of increasing rates of surgery for biliary dyskinesia. While cholelithiasis can cause serious complications, the overall incidence of clinically relevant problems is so low that prophylactic cholecystectomy cannot be justified. This conclusion corresponds to epidemiologic data showing that the rise in elective cholecystectomies decreased hospitalizations due to gallstone disease, but was associated with a higher volume of postoperative complications, ultimately resulting in stable combined mortality due to gallstone disease and its treatment. These trends highlight the tremendous gains in managing gallstone disease, while at the same time reminding us that the tightening rather than expanding indications for cholecystectomy may improve outcomes.

  3. Agents for gallstone dissolution.

    PubMed

    Pitt, H A; McFadden, D W; Gadacz, T R

    1987-02-01

    Numerous methods are presently available for gallstone dissolution, including oral bile salts; cholesterol solvents such as mono-octanoin and methyl tert-butyl ether; calcium or pigment solvents such as EDTA and polysorbate; mechanical extraction techniques through a T-tube tract or after endoscopic sphincterotomy; or fragmentation methods such as ultrasonography or electrohydraulic lithotripsy, lasers, and extracorporeal shock waves. Which, if any, of these methods will be appropriate for an individual patient depends on the type of stones, whether they are in the gallbladder or bile ducts, whether access to the biliary tree is available, the patient's age and general medical condition, and the availability of expert radiologists, endoscopists, and newer equipment. In the United States, the only available oral bile salt for cholesterol gallstone dissolution is chenodeoxycholate. Ursodeoxycholate, which is more rapid and less toxic, has not been approved by the Federal Drug Administration. These agents are most effective in thin women with small, floating, radiolucent cholesterol gallstones in a functioning gallbladder. Only about half of this small subset of patients, however, will experience partial or complete dissolution of stones in 6 to 12 months. Moreover, recurrence is very likely, and the potential toxicity of long-term therapy is unknown. Thus, for most patients, cholecystectomy remains the most cost-effective and, perhaps, safest option. Intragallbladder instillation of methyl tert-butyl ether and extracorporeal shock wave therapy are also likely to be applicable to only small subsets of patients and to be associated with high recurrence rates. In patients with retained ductal cholesterol stones and access to the biliary tree, mono-octanoin therapy is advantageous in that it can be begun as soon as cholangiography demonstrates no extravasation. In properly selected patients, a 90 percent success rate with mono-octanoin infusion can be expected within a

  4. Physical Activity and the Risk of Gallstone Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Peng; Zhao, Ya-Lei; Sun, Yu-Ling; Zhu, Rong-Tao; Wang, Wei-Jie; Li, Jian

    2017-10-01

    The role of physical activity in preventing gallstone disease independent of its effect on the body weight has not been well established. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies to analyze this potential association. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify all published studies in English through April 2016. We pooled the relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from individual studies using a random-effects model to investigate associations between physical activity and the risk of gallstone disease. A total of 16 studies comprising 19 independent reports of approximately 260,000 participants met the inclusion criteria, including 6 case-control studies and 13 cohort studies. In a pooled analysis of cohort studies, physical activity (in a comparison of the highest-level and the lowest-level groups) was associated with a reduced risk of gallstone disease (RR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.92; I=79.5%). For men, the RR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.60-0.97), and for women, the RR was similar (RR=0.77; 95% CI, 0.66-0.91). In a dose-response analysis, the RR of gallstone disease was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83-0.92; I=1.0%) per 20 metabolic equivalent-hours of recreational physical per week. In comparison, case-control studies yielded a stronger significant risk reduction for gallstone disease (OR=0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.90; I=76.6%). This study suggests an inverse association between physical activity and gallstone disease in both men and women; however, these findings should be interpreted cautiously because of study heterogeneity.

  5. Gallstone ileus obstructing within an incarcerated lumbar hernia: an unusual presentation of a rare diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ziesmann, Markus Tyler; Alotaiby, Nouf; Al Abbasi, Thamer; Rezende-Neto, Joao B

    2014-12-03

    We describe an unusual case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with signs and symptoms of small-bowel obstruction and a clinically appreciable, irreducible, left-sided lumbar hernia associated with previous iliac crest bone graft harvesting. Palpation of the hernia demonstrated a small, firm mass within the loops of herniated bowel. CT scanning recognised an intraluminal gallstone at the transition point, establishing the diagnosis of gallstone ileus within an incarcerated lumbar hernia. The proposed explanatory mechanism is that of a gallstone migrating into an easily reducible hernia containing small bowel causing obstruction at the hernia neck by a ball-valve mechanism, resulting in proximal bowel dilation and thus hernia incarceration; it remains unclear when the stone entered the hernia, and whether it enlarged in situ or prior to entering the enteral tract. This is only the second reported instance in the literature of an intraluminal gallstone causing hernia incarceration. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Acute pancreatitis. A more common and severe complication of gallstones in males

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Arshad M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe an increased incidence and severity of gallstone pancreatitis in males compared to females. Design: Methods This is a retrospective observational comparative study conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan, over 3 years from June 2008 to June 2011. The study includes two hundred and thirty seven (237) patients with a mean age of 52.38, Std 13.311,65 (22–87) with 157 (66.24%) females and 80 (33.75%) males who were admitted as acute abdominal pain secondary to gallstones. The patients were mostly diagnosed on ultrasonography and enzyme studies. Demographics and other variables are studied and statistical analysis done on SPSS version 20. Results More frequent cases of severe acute pancreatitis were observed in males with gallstones (70%) compared to females (P<0.001). The aged people had a high prevalence while males were more likely to develop local and systemic complications. Severity stratification was done based on different criteria’s like Ranson’s criteria, and APACHEII. Overall mortality was 7.59%. Mortality among males was significantly high (70%, n=16) in our study due to an increased incidence of fulminant course of the disease. Conclusion Contrary to the belief, gallstone associated acute pancreatitis is getting more common in our society and especially so in male population. PMID:26309432

  7. The effect of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine consumption and vegetarian diet on gallstone prevalence.

    PubMed

    Walcher, Thomas; Haenle, Mark Martin; Mason, Richard Andrew; Koenig, Wolfgang; Imhof, Armin; Kratzer, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine consumption and of vegetarian diet on gallstone prevalence in an urban population sample. A total of 2417 individuals underwent ultrasound examination and completed a standardized questionnaire as part of the EMIL study. Statistical analysis of the data considered the known risk factors of age, female sex, BMI, positive family history and potential confounders, such as alcohol, caffeine and tobacco consumption and vegetarian diet using multiple logistic regression with variable selection. The prevalence of gallstones in the population sample was 8% (171 out of 2147). Findings of the study confirmed the classic risk factors of age, female sex, obesity and positive family history. After the variable selection of potential risk factors in a logistic regression that was adjusted for age, female sex, BMI and positive family history, the factors like tobacco [odds ratio (OR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76-1.56, P=0.64] and caffeine consumption (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.42-1.42, P=0.40) as well as vegetarian diet (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.39-3.35, P=0.81) had no effect on gallstone prevalence. A protective effect against development of gallstones was shown for alcohol consumption (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.99, P=0.04). The factors like tobacco and caffeine consumption as well as vegetarian diet exerted no measurable effect on the prevalence of gallstones. A protective effect was found for alcohol consumption.

  8. A case-control study of gallstones: a major risk factor for biliary tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Kato, I; Kato, K; Akai, S; Tominaga, S

    1990-01-01

    Because of the strong association between gallstones and biliary tract cancer, we conducted a case-control study of gallstones at Niigata Cancer Center Hospital. Eighty-six cases with gallstones (33 males and 53 females) and 116 hospital controls (56 males and 60 females) were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Gallstones were categorized into cholesterol stones (25 cases) and pigment stones (30 cases) based on the appearance of the stones. In multivariate analyses based on an unconditional logistic regression model, the risk of total gallstones was positively associated with a taste for salty food (relative risk (RR) = 2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-4.84), an intake of lettuce and cabbage (RR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.47-6.06) and a family history of biliary diseases (RR = 5.63, 95% CI: 1.76-17.95), and inversely associated with an intake of salted and dried fish (RR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.04-0.64). When analyzed by type of stones, cholesterol stones were associated with a taste for oily food (RR = 3.87, 95% CI: 1.36-11.03) and pigment stones were positively associated with professional or administrative occupation (RR = 4.74, 95% CI: 1.35-16.68) and inversely associated with a taste for less greasy food (RR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.10-0.83). Some of these results are consistent with the results of our previous study on biliary tract cancer.

  9. [Effects of vitamin C administration on cholesterol gallstone formation].

    PubMed

    del Pozo, Reginald; Muñoz, Mirna; Dumas, Andrés; Tapia, Claudio; Muñoz, Katia; Fuentes, Felipe; Maldonado, Mafalda; Jüngst, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol is transported by vesicles and micelles. Cholesterol microcrystals are derived from thermodynamically unstable vesicles. In experimental animals vitamin C deficiency leads to a super-saturation of biliary cholesterol and to the formation of gallstones. To search for a possible relationship between serum levels of vitamin C and the formation of cholesterol gallstones in patients with cholelithiasis. Thirteen patients with cholelithiasis and a programmed surgical intervention were treated with 2 g/day of vitamin C per os for two weeks before surgery. Forty nine patients subjected to a cholecystectomy not supplemented with vitamin C were studied as controls. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and lipid profiles were measured. The cholesterol saturation index, crystallization time, cholesterol and phospholipid content in vesicles and micelles, separated by gel filtration chromatography, were studied in bile samples obtained from the gallbladder. Vitamin C supplementation did not change significantly plasma lipids and bile lipid concentrations. However, in supplemented patients, significant reductions in vesicular cholesterol content (6.5 ± 4.8% compared to 17.9 ± 14.0% in the control group; p < 0.05) and vesicular cholesterol/phospholipid ratio (0.71 ± 0.53 compared to 1.36 ± 1.15 in controls; p < 0.05), were observed. Vitamin C administration may modify bile cholesterol crystallization process, the first step in cholesterol gallstone formation.

  10. The outcome of unretrieved gallstones in the peritoneal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Memon, M A; Deeik, R K; Maffi, T R; Fitzgibbons, R J

    1999-09-01

    Gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with spillage of bile and gallstones occurs in a substantial number of patients (up to 40%). Most surgeons believe that free intraperitoneal stones are not a justification for conversion to laparotomy even if a large number of stones are left in situ. There are, however, a number of reports demonstrating that, on occasion, these unretrieved gallstones may cause infection or abscess, inflammation, fibrosis, adhesions, cutaneous sinuses, small bowel obstruction, or generalized septicemia. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of unretrieved gallstones in the peritoneal cavity after gallbladder perforation during LC. In a 7-year period between 1989 and 1996, prospective data were maintained on 856 patients who underwent LCs by a single surgeon (R. J.F.). Of the 856 patients, 165 (16%) had gallbladder perforations resulting in lost gallstones in the peritoneal cavity. A concerted attempt was made to remove the lost stones using a variety of extraction devices. Of these 165 patients, 106 (64%) were available for follow-up through mail (76%) and by telephone (24%). The mean age of these patients was 64.9 years (range, 18 to 98 years), and the mean follow-up was 44.8 months (range 4.9 to 92.3 months). Of the 106 patients with unretrieved gallstones, we identified four patients with short-term complications and one patient with a long-term complication. The first patient with a short-term complication had pyrexia for 10 days postoperatively. Diagnostic evaluation, which included computed tomography (CT) scan, failed to reveal any abnormality. The patient was treated conservatively with a course of oral antibiotics. In the second patient, cellulitis developed at a drain site after its removal, which resolved with oral antibiotics. The third patient acquired an umbilical wound abscess, which drained spontaneously, requiring no treatment. A sterile subphrenic collection developed in the fourth

  11. Abdominal wall sinus due to impacting gallstone during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, T E; Papaziogas, B T; Koutelidakis, I M; Papaziogas, T B

    2002-02-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, perforation of the gallbladder can occurs in < or = 20% of cases, while gallstone spillage occurs in < or = 6% of cases. In most cases, there are no consequences. Gallstones can be lost in the abdominal wall as well as the abdomen during extraction of the gallbladder. The fate of such lost gallstones, which can lead to the formation of an abscess, an abdominal wall mass, or a persistent sinus, has not been studied adequately. Herein we report the case of a persistent sinus of the abdominal wall after an emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an 82-year-old woman with gangrenous cholecystitis and perforation of the friable wall in association with an empyema of the gallbladder. The culture of the obtained pus was positive for Escherichia coli. After a small leak of dirty fluid from the wound of the epigastric port site of 4 months' duration, surgical exploration under local anesthesia revealed that the sinus was caused by spilled gallstones impacting into the abdominal wall between the posterior sheath and left rectus abdominalis muscle. The removal of the stones resulted in complete healing. Long-term complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy involving the abdominal wall are rare but important possible consequences that could be avoided.

  12. Gallstone Disease and Increased Risk of Mortality: Two Large Prospective Studies in US Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Xu, Min; Heianza, Yoriko; Ma, Wenjie; Wang, Tiange; Sun, Dianjianyi; Albert, Christine M; Hu, Frank B; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Manson, Jo Ann E; Qi, Lu

    2018-04-19

    Gallstone disease has been related to a higher prevalence and incidence of chronic conditions, such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, limited data are available regarding whether gallstone disease is related to mortality. We examined the relationship of a history of gallstone disease and risk of death, using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, among 86,030 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 43,949 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. During the up-to 32 years of follow-up, 34,011 all-cause deaths were confirmed, of which 8138 were CVD deaths and 12,173 were cancer deaths. For the participants with a history of gallstone disease compared to those without, the hazard ratio of total mortality was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.20), of CVD mortality 1.11 (1.05-1.17), of cancer mortality 1.15 (1.09-1.20), and of other mortality 1.19 (1.14-1.25) from a pooled-analysis of women and men (all P < 0.001). The multi-adjusted associations between gallstone disease and total mortality persisted among women and men, and among participants with various risk profiles including the different status of body mass index, hormone therapy use, diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia (all P for interaction≥0.09). These data suggest that gallstone disease is associated with a higher risk of total mortality and disease-specific mortality, including CVD and cancer mortality, independent of various traditional risk factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Ursodeoxycholic Acid in the Prevention of Gallstone Formation After Bariatric Surgery: an Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Magouliotis, Dimitrios E; Tasiopoulou, Vasiliki S; Svokos, Alexis A; Svokos, Konstantina A; Chatedaki, Christina; Sioka, Eleni; Zacharoulis, Dimitris

    2017-11-01

    We aim to review the available literature on obese patients treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in order to prevent gallstone formation after bariatric surgery. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria incorporating 1355 patients. Random-effects meta-analysis showed a lower incidence of gallstone formation in patients taking UDCA. Subgroup analysis reported fewer cases of gallstone disease in the UDCA group in relation to different bariatric procedures, doses of administered UDCA, and time from bariatric surgery. Adverse events were similar in both groups. Fewer patients required cholecystectomy in UDCA group. No deaths were reported. The administration of UDCA after bariatric surgery seems to prevent gallstone formation.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of same-admission versus interval cholecystectomy after mild gallstone pancreatitis in the PONCHO trial.

    PubMed

    da Costa, D W; Dijksman, L M; Bouwense, S A; Schepers, N J; Besselink, M G; van Santvoort, H C; Boerma, D; Gooszen, H G; Dijkgraaf, M G W

    2016-11-01

    Same-admission cholecystectomy is indicated after gallstone pancreatitis to reduce the risk of recurrent disease or other gallstone-related complications, but its impact on overall costs is unclear. This study analysed the cost-effectiveness of same-admission versus interval cholecystectomy after mild gallstone pancreatitis. In a multicentre RCT (Pancreatitis of biliary Origin: optimal timiNg of CHOlecystectomy; PONCHO) patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis were randomized before discharge to either cholecystectomy within 72 h (same-admission cholecystectomy) or cholecystectomy after 25-30 days (interval cholecystectomy). Healthcare use of all patients was recorded prospectively using clinical report forms. Unit costs of resources used were determined, and patients completed multiple Health and Labour Questionnaires to record pancreatitis-related absence from work. Cost-effectiveness analyses were performed from societal and healthcare perspectives, with the costs per readmission prevented as primary outcome with a time horizon of 6 months. All 264 trial participants were included in the present analysis, 128 randomized to same-admission cholecystectomy and 136 to interval cholecystectomy. Same-admission cholecystectomy reduced the risk of acute readmission for recurrent gallstone-related complications from 16·9 to 4·7 per cent (P = 0·002). Mean total costs from a societal perspective were €234 (95 per cent c.i. -1249 to 738) less per patient in the same-admission cholecystectomy group. Same-admission cholecystectomy was superior to interval cholecystectomy, with a societal incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -€1918 to prevent one readmission for gallstone-related complications. In mild biliary pancreatitis, same-admission cholecystectomy was more effective and less costly than interval cholecystectomy. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ursodeoxycholic acid improves gastrointestinal motility defects in gallstone patients

    PubMed Central

    Colecchia, A; Mazzella, G; Sandri, L; Azzaroli, F; Magliuolo, M; Simoni, P; Bacchi-Reggiani, ML; Roda, E; Festi, D

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To simultaneously evaluate the presence of defects in gallbladder and gastric emptying, as well as in intestinal transit in gallstone patients (GS) and the effect of chronic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) administration on these parameters and on serum bile acids and clinical outcome in GS and controls (CTR). METHODS: After a standard liquid test meal, gallbla-dder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound), oroileal transit time (OITT) (by an immunoenzymatic technique) and serum bile acids (by HPLC) were evaluated before and after 3 mo of UDCA (12 mg/kg bw/d) or placebo administration in 10 symptomatic GS and 10 matched healthy CTR. RESULTS: OITT was longer in GS than in CTR (P < 0.0001); UDCA significantly reduced OITT in GS (P < 0.0001), but not in CTR. GS had longer gastric half-emptying time (t1/2) than CTR (P < 0.0044) at baseline; after UDCA, t1/2 significantly decreased (P < 0.006) in GS but not in CTR. Placebo administration had no effect on gastric emptying and intestinal transit in both GS and CTR. CONCLUSION: The gallstone patient has simultaneous multiple impairments of gallbladder and gastric emptying, as well as of intestinal transit. UDCA administration restores these defects in GS, without any effect in CTR. These results confirm the pathogenetic role of gastrointestinal motility in gallstone disease and suggest an additional mechanism of action for UDCA in reducing bile cholesterol supersaturation. PMID:16981264

  16. The analogy in the formation of hardness salts and gallstones according to the EPR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichugina, Alina; Tsyro, Larisa; Unger, Felix

    2017-11-01

    The article shows that the hardness salts contain the same crystalline phases as the bile stone pigment. The identity of EPR spectra of hardness salts and pigment of gallstones containing calcium carbonate was established. An analogy between the processes of formation of hardness salts and gallstones is played, in which particles with open spin-orbitals (fermions) play a decisive role.

  17. Transgenic overexpression of Niemann-Pick C2 protein promotes cholesterol gallstone formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Mariana; González-Hódar, Lila; Amigo, Ludwig; Castro, Juan; Morales, M Gabriela; Cancino, Gonzalo I; Groen, Albert K; Young, Juan; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) is a lysosomal protein involved in the egress of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from lysosomes to other intracellular compartments. NPC2 has been detected in several tissues and is also secreted from the liver into bile. We have previously shown that NPC2-deficient mice fed a lithogenic diet showed reduced biliary cholesterol secretion as well as cholesterol crystal and gallstone formation. This study aimed to investigate the consequences of NPC2 hepatic overexpression on liver cholesterol metabolism, biliary lipid secretion, gallstone formation and the effect of NPC2 on cholesterol crystallization in model bile. We generated NPC2 transgenic mice (Npc2.Tg) and fed them either chow or lithogenic diets. We studied liver cholesterol metabolism, biliary lipid secretion, bile acid composition and gallstone formation. We performed cholesterol crystallization studies in model bile using a recombinant NPC2 protein. No differences were observed in biliary cholesterol content or secretion between wild-type and Npc2.Tg mice fed the chow or lithogenic diets. Interestingly, Npc2.Tg mice showed an increased susceptibility to the lithogenic diet, developing more cholesterol gallstones at early times, but did not show differences in the bile acid hydrophobicity and gallbladder cholesterol saturation indices compared to wild-type mice. Finally, recombinant NPC2 decreased nucleation time in model bile. These results suggest that NPC2 promotes cholesterol gallstone formation by decreasing the cholesterol nucleation time, indicating a pro-nucleating function of NPC2 in bile. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of chronic estrogen application on bile and gallstone composition in women with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Sieron, Dominik; Czerny, Boguslaw; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bogacz, Anna; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Kotrych, Daniel; Boron, Dariusz; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2016-03-01

    Chronic application of third generation progestagens as contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) could influence the serum lipid profile, and consequently the bile and gallstone composition. The aim of this study was to determine components of serum, bile and gallstones in women of reproductive age or postmenopausal women using hormonal third generation for at least two years. We enrolled 101 Caucasian women with cholelithiasis. The study included 45 women of reproductive age and 56 postmenopausal women who were divided into subgroups receiving or not exogenous female hormones. In patients we determined serum levels of 17β-estradiol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL cholesterol as well as composition of gallstones and bile. The postmenopausal women showed a significant reduction in the concentration of bile acids in serum while the application of HRT caused an increase in their contents. Serum total and LDL cholesterol in postmenopausal women was higher than in women without hormonal contraception and postmenopausal patients with HRT. Moreover, women taking the exogenous hormones showed a reduced content of calcium ions in both serum, bile and gallstones. Our observations confirm that the chronic use of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy cause an increase in bile lithogenity.

  19. Analysis of heterogeneous gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF).

    PubMed

    Jaswal, Brij Bir S; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Jitendra; Rai, Pradeep K; Gondal, Mohammed A; Gondal, Bilal; Singh, Vivek K

    2016-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, no specific sample preparation requirements, non-destructiveness, and versatility. It has been proven to be a robust elemental analysis tool attracting interest because of being applied to a wide range of materials including biomaterials. In this paper, we have performed spectroscopic studies on gallstones which are heterogeneous in nature using LIBS and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) techniques. It has been observed that the presence and relative concentrations of trace elements in different kind of gallstones (cholesterol and pigment gallstones) can easily be determined using LIBS technique. From the experiments carried out on gallstones for trace elemental mapping and detection, it was found that LIBS is a robust tool for such biomedical applications. The stone samples studied in the present paper were classified using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. WD-XRF spectroscopy has been applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major and trace elements present in the gallstone which was compared with the LIBS data. The results obtained in the present paper show interesting prospects for LIBS and WD-XRF to study cholelithiasis better.

  20. Visualization of extracellular matrix components within sectioned Salmonella biofilms on the surface of human gallstones.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Joanna M; Flechtner, Alan D; La Perle, Krista M; Gunn, John S

    2014-01-01

    Chronic carriage of Salmonella Typhi is mediated primarily through the formation of bacterial biofilms on the surface of cholesterol gallstones. Biofilms, by definition, involve the formation of a bacterial community encased within a protective macromolecular matrix. Previous work has demonstrated the composition of the biofilm matrix to be complex and highly variable in response to altered environmental conditions. Although known to play an important role in bacterial persistence in a variety of contexts, the Salmonella biofilm matrix remains largely uncharacterized under physiological conditions. Initial attempts to study matrix components and architecture of the biofilm matrix on gallstone surfaces were hindered by the auto-fluorescence of cholesterol. In this work we describe a method for sectioning and direct visualization of extracellular matrix components of the Salmonella biofilm on the surface of human cholesterol gallstones and provide a description of the major matrix components observed therein. Confocal micrographs revealed robust biofilm formation, characterized by abundant but highly heterogeneous expression of polysaccharides such as LPS, Vi and O-antigen capsule. CsgA was not observed in the biofilm matrix and flagellar expression was tightly restricted to the biofilm-cholesterol interface. Images also revealed the presence of preexisting Enterobacteriaceae encased within the structure of the gallstone. These results demonstrate the use and feasibility of this method while highlighting the importance of studying the native architecture of the gallstone biofilm. A better understanding of the contribution of individual matrix components to the overall biofilm structure will facilitate the development of more effective and specific methods to disrupt these bacterial communities.

  1. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  2. Assessment of gallstone predictor: comparative analysis of ultrasonographic and biochemical parameters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gallstones represent a significant burden for health care systems worldwide and are one of the most common disorders presenting to emergency room. Ultrasonography, complete blood picture test and liver function tests are procedures of choice in suspected gallstones or biliary diseases. They are the most sensitive, specific, non-invasive and inexpensive tests for the detection of gallstones. Our main objective was to evaluate the relationship of ultrasonographic findings, hemolytic indices and liver function tests with gallstones. Methodology It was a prospective study carried out in Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS) and Liaquat National Hospital, two largest tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Duration of the study was from July 2011 to October 2012. The study was carried out on diagnosed, pre-operative and symptomatic patients of cholelithiases. Exclusion criteria were patients of gallbladder and pancreatic carcinoma, emergency operations, patients having age <12 years and non-cooperative patients, who refused to give written consent for participation in the study. Total two tests were performed on each patient after diagnosis by ultrasonography. These were complete blood count and liver function tests. All the demographic data, laboratory findings and ultrasonographic features were noted in a pre-structured Performa. Sample size was calculated by using open-epidemiological sample size calculator prevalence (p) = 35%, d = 5%, and confidence interval (CI) 95% = 350. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result There were 454 diagnosed and pre-operative cases of gallstones present in the study. There were 120(26.4%) males and 334(73.6%) females, with a mean age of 42.80 ± 12.26 years. Most of the suspects had multiple stones 384 (84.5%) while few had single stones 70(15.4%). Fatty liver was found to be present in 144(31.7%) patients and 92(20.2%) had hepatomegaly. Splenomegaly was present in 16(3.5%) patients

  3. Assessment of gallstone predictor: comparative analysis of ultrasonographic and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Saleem, Shafaq; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Shaikh, Hiba Arshad; Khan, Jehanzeb Daniel; Hafiz, Mehak; Saleem, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Gallstones represent a significant burden for health care systems worldwide and are one of the most common disorders presenting to emergency room. Ultrasonography, complete blood picture test and liver function tests are procedures of choice in suspected gallstones or biliary diseases. They are the most sensitive, specific, non-invasive and inexpensive tests for the detection of gallstones. Our main objective was to evaluate the relationship of ultrasonographic findings, hemolytic indices and liver function tests with gallstones. It was a prospective study carried out in Civil Hospital Karachi (DUHS) and Liaquat National Hospital, two largest tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Duration of the study was from July 2011 to October 2012. The study was carried out on diagnosed, pre-operative and symptomatic patients of cholelithiases. Exclusion criteria were patients of gallbladder and pancreatic carcinoma, emergency operations, patients having age <12 years and non-cooperative patients, who refused to give written consent for participation in the study. Total two tests were performed on each patient after diagnosis by ultrasonography. These were complete blood count and liver function tests. All the demographic data, laboratory findings and ultrasonographic features were noted in a pre-structured Performa. Sample size was calculated by using open-epidemiological sample size calculator prevalence (p) = 35%, d = 5%, and confidence interval (CI) 95% = 350. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. There were 454 diagnosed and pre-operative cases of gallstones present in the study. There were 120(26.4%) males and 334(73.6%) females, with a mean age of 42.80 ± 12.26 years. Most of the suspects had multiple stones 384 (84.5%) while few had single stones 70(15.4%). Fatty liver was found to be present in 144(31.7%) patients and 92(20.2%) had hepatomegaly. Splenomegaly was present in 16(3.5%) patients. Alkaline phosphatase was elevated

  4. Mucin and phospholipids determine viscosity of gallbladder bile in patients with gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Jüngst, Dieter; Niemeyer, Anna; Müller, Iris; Zündt, Benedikta; Meyer, Günther; Wilhelmi, Martin; del Pozo, Reginald

    2001-01-01

    AIM: An increased viscosity of gallbladder bile has been considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease. Besides lipids and proteins, mucin has been suggested to affect the viscosity of bile. To further clarify these issues we compared mucin, protein and the lipid componEnts of hepatic and gallbladder bile and its viscosity in patients with gallstones. METHODS: Viscosity of bile (mPa.s) was measured using rotation viscosimetry in regard to the non Newtonian property of bile at low shear rates. RESULTS: Biliary viscosity was markedly higher in gallbladder bile of patients with cholesterol (5.00 ± 0.60 mPa.s, mean ± SEM, n = 28) and mixed stones (3.50 ± 0.68 mPa.s; n = 8) compared to hepatic bile (0.92 ± 0.06 mPa.s, n = 6). A positive correlation between mucin and viscosity was found in gallbladder biles (r = 0. 65; P < 0.001) but not in hepatic biles. The addition of physiologic and supraphysiologic amounts of mucin to gallbladder bile resulted in a dose dependent non linear increase of its viscosity. A positive correlation was determined between phospholipid concentration and viscosity (r = 0.34, P < 0.005) in gallbladder biles. However, no correlation was found between total protein or the other lipid concentrations and viscosity in both gallbladder and hepatic biles. CONCLUSION: The viscosity of gallbladder bile is markedly higher than that of hepatic bile in patients with gallstones. The concentration of mucin is the major determinant of biliary viscosity and may contribute by this mechanism to the role of mucin in the pathogenesis of gallstones. PMID:11819761

  5. Ursodeoxycholic acid lowers bile lithogenicity by regulating SCP2 expression in rabbit cholesterol gallstone models

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yunfeng; Li, Zhonglian; Zhao, Erpeng; Zhang, Ju; Cui, Naiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We designed this study to get insight into the disorder of lipid metabolism during cholesterol gallstone formation and evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on the improvement of bile lithogenicity and on expression of lipid related genes. Methods: Rabbit cholesterol gallstone models were induced by high cholesterol diet. Bile, blood and liver tissues were obtained from rabbits after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks. Bile and blood lipids were measured enzymatically. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) mRNA expressions were detected by using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol saturation index (CSI) was calculated by using Carey table to represent the bile lithogenicity. Results: Rates of gallstone formation of the 4 and 5 week treatment groups were 100 %, but that of the ursodeoxycholic acid treatment group was only 33.3 %. Expression of HMGCR and SCP2 mRNA in the 4 week group was upregulated and that of CYP7A1 mRNA decreased as compared with the 0 week group. Ursodeoxycholic acid could significantly extend nucleation time of bile and lower CSI. Ursodeoxycholic acid could reduce the expression of SCP2, but couldn't influence expression of HMGCR and CYP7A1. Conclusions: Abnormal expression of HMGCR, CYP7A1 and SCP2 might lead to high lithogenicity of bile. Ursodeoxycholic acid could improve bile lipids and lower bile lithogenicity, thereby reducing the incidence of gallstones. So it might be a good preventive drug for cholesterol gallstones. PMID:27847447

  6. Organochloride pesticides induced hepatic ABCG5/G8 expression and lipogenesis in Chinese patients with gallstone disease

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Guixiang; Xu, Cheng; Sun, Haidong; Liu, Qian; Hu, Hai; Gu, Aihua; Jiang, Zhao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are one kind of persistent organic pollutants. Although they are reported to be associated with metabolic disorders, the underlying mechanism is unclear. We explored the association of OCPs with gallstone disease and its influence on hepatic lipid metabolism. Materials and Methods OCPs levels in omentum adipose tissues from patients with and without gallstone disease between 2008 and 2011 were measured by GC-MS. Differences of gene expression involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and hepatic lipids content were compared in liver biopsies between groups with high and low level of OCPs. Using HepG2 cell lines, the influence on hepatic lipid metabolism by individual OCP was evaluated in vitro. Results In all patients who were from non-occupational population, there were high levels of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and p',p'-dichloroethylene (p',p'-DDE) accumulated in adipose tissues. Both β-HCH and p', p'-DDE levels were significantly higher in adipose tissues from patients with gallstone disease (294.3± 313.5 and 2222± 2279 ng/g of lipid) than gallstone-free controls (282.7± 449.0 and 2025±2664 ng/g of lipid, P< 0.01) and they were strongly related with gallstone disease (P for trend = 0.0004 and 0.0138). Furthermore, higher OCPs in adipose tissue led to increase in the expression of hepatic cholesterol transporters ABCG5 and G8 (+34% and +27%, P< 0.01) and higher cholesterol saturation index in gallbladder bile, and induced hepatic fatty acids synthesis, which was further confirmed in HepG2 cells. Conclusion OCPs might enhance hepatic secretion of cholesterol into bile via ABCG5/G8 which promoting gallstone disease as well as lipogenesis. PMID:27203212

  7. [Gastrointestinal bleeding and delirium, challenges in the diagnosis of gallstone ileus: A case report and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Espinosa, Francisco; Gálvez-Romero, José Luis; Falfán-Moreno, Jesús; Guerrero-Martínez, Gustavo Adolfo; Vargas-Solís, Facundo

    2017-12-01

    Gallstone ileus is a non-strangulated mechanical obstruction of the small bowel or colon as a result of the passage of gallstones through a biliary enteric fistula. It is a rare complication of cholelithiasis, affects patients over 65 years, and the disease occurs predominantly in females. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific signs and symptoms in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. A 93-year-old female presenting with a one-week history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, electrolyte imbalance and community- acquired pneumonia pneumonia. During her prolonged hospital stay she presented an intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of gallstone ileus was made by CT scan. Despite surgical treatment, she died due to late diagnosis. Gallstone ileus is a rare pathology, difficulty in diagnosis prolongs hospital stay, which directly influences mortality. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel associations of bile acid diarrhoea with fatty liver disease and gallstones: a cohort retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Richard N; Nolan, Jonathan D; Johnston, Ian M; Pattni, Sanjeev S; Fox, Jessica; Walters, Julian Rf

    2017-01-01

    Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea with a population prevalence of primary BAD around 1%. Previous studies have identified associations with low levels of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia. The aim of this study was to identify further associations of BAD. A cohort of patients with chronic diarrhoea who underwent 75 selenohomocholic acid taurate (SeHCAT) testing for BAD was further analysed retrospectively. Additional clinical details available from the electronic patient record, including imaging, colonoscopy, chemistry and histopathology reports were used to calculate the prevalence of fatty liver disease, gallstones, colonic neoplasia and microscopic colitis, which was compared for BAD, the primary BAD subset and control patients with diarrhoea. Of 578 patients, 303 (52%) had BAD, defined as a SeHCAT 7d retention value <15%, with 179 (31%) having primary BAD. 425 had an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) recorded, 184 had liver imaging and 176 had both. Overall, SeHCAT values were negatively associated with ALT (r s =-0.19, p<0.0001). Patients with BAD had an OR of 3.1 for an ALT >31 ng/mL with imaging showing fatty liver (p<0.001); similar figures occurred in the primary BAD group. FGF19 was not significantly related to fatty liver but low levels were predictive of ALT >40 IU/L. In 176 subjects with gallbladder imaging, 27% had gallstones, 7% had a prior cholecystectomy and 34% either of these. The median SeHCAT values were lower in those with gallstones (3.8%, p<0.0001), or gallstones/cholecystectomy (7.2%, p<0.001), compared with normal gallbladder imaging (14%). Overall, BAD had an OR of 2.0 for gallstones/cholecystectomy (p<0.05). BAD was not significantly associated with colonic adenoma/carcinoma or with microscopic colitis. The diagnosis of BAD is associated with fatty liver disease and with gallstones. The reasons for these associations require further investigation into

  9. Novel associations of bile acid diarrhoea with fatty liver disease and gallstones: a cohort retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Appleby, Richard N; Nolan, Jonathan D; Johnston, Ian M; Pattni, Sanjeev S; Fox, Jessica; Walters, Julian RF

    2017-01-01

    Background Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea with a population prevalence of primary BAD around 1%. Previous studies have identified associations with low levels of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia. The aim of this study was to identify further associations of BAD. Methods A cohort of patients with chronic diarrhoea who underwent 75selenohomocholic acid taurate (SeHCAT) testing for BAD was further analysed retrospectively. Additional clinical details available from the electronic patient record, including imaging, colonoscopy, chemistry and histopathology reports were used to calculate the prevalence of fatty liver disease, gallstones, colonic neoplasia and microscopic colitis, which was compared for BAD, the primary BAD subset and control patients with diarrhoea. Findings Of 578 patients, 303 (52%) had BAD, defined as a SeHCAT 7d retention value <15%, with 179 (31%) having primary BAD. 425 had an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) recorded, 184 had liver imaging and 176 had both. Overall, SeHCAT values were negatively associated with ALT (rs=−0.19, p<0.0001). Patients with BAD had an OR of 3.1 for an ALT >31 ng/mL with imaging showing fatty liver (p<0.001); similar figures occurred in the primary BAD group. FGF19 was not significantly related to fatty liver but low levels were predictive of ALT >40 IU/L. In 176 subjects with gallbladder imaging, 27% had gallstones, 7% had a prior cholecystectomy and 34% either of these. The median SeHCAT values were lower in those with gallstones (3.8%, p<0.0001), or gallstones/cholecystectomy (7.2%, p<0.001), compared with normal gallbladder imaging (14%). Overall, BAD had an OR of 2.0 for gallstones/cholecystectomy (p<0.05). BAD was not significantly associated with colonic adenoma/carcinoma or with microscopic colitis. Interpretation The diagnosis of BAD is associated with fatty liver disease and with gallstones. The reasons for these

  10. An extended chemical analysis of gallstone.

    PubMed

    Chandran, P; Kuchhal, N K; Garg, P; Pundir, C S

    2007-09-01

    Chemical composition of gall stones is essential for aetiopathogensis of gallstone disease. We have reported quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol bilirubin, calcium, iron and inorganic phosphate in 120 gallstones from haryana. To extend this chemical analysis of gall stones by studying more cases and by analyzing more chemical constituents. A quantitative chemical analysis of total cholesterol, total bilirubin, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, bile acids, soluble proteins, sodium potassium, magnesium, copper, oxalate and chlorides of biliary calculi (52 cholesterol, 76 mixed and 72 pigment) retrieved from surgical operation of 200 patients from Haryana state was carried out. Total cholesterol as the major component and total bilirubin, phospholipids, triglycerides, bile acids, fatty acids (esterified), soluble protein, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium, potassium, inorganic phosphate, oxalate and chloride as minor components were found in all types of calculi. The cholesterol stones had higher content of total cholesterol, phospholipids, fatty acids (esterified), inorganic phosphate and copper compared to mixed and pigment stones. The mixed stones had higher content of iron and triglycerides than to cholesterol and pigment stones. The pigment stones were richer in total bilirubin, bile acids, calcium, oxalate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and soluble protein compared to cholesterol and mixed stones. Although total cholesterol was a major component of cholesterol, mixed and pigment gall stone in Haryana, the content of most of the other lipids, cations and anions was different in different gall stones indicating their different mechanism of formation.

  11. Gallbladder filling and emptying during cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog. A cholescintigraphic study

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Ryan, T.; Broderick, W.

    1986-01-01

    We studied gallbladder bile flow before, during, and after cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog using infusion cholescintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-diethyl iminodiacetic acid. In 18 fasting animals partitioning of bile between gallbladder and intestine was determined every 15 min for 140 min, and gallbladder response to cholecystokinin (5 U/kg X h) was calculated from the gallbladder ejection fraction. Ten prairie dogs were then placed on a 0.4% cholesterol diet and 8 on a regular diet, and the studies were repeated 1, 2, and 6 wk later. The proportion of hepatic bile that entered the gallbladder relative to the intestinemore » varied from one 15-min period to the next, and averaged 28.2% +/- 5.1% at 140 min. Partial spontaneous gallbladder emptying (ejection fraction 11.5% +/- 5.6%) was intermittently observed. Neither the number nor the ejection fraction of spontaneous gallbladder contractions changed during gallstone formation. By contrast, the percent of gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin decreased from 72.1% +/- 5% to 25.9% +/- 9.3% (p less than 0.025) in the first week and was 14.3% +/- 5.5% at 6 wk (p less than 0.01 from prediet values, not significant from first week). Gallbladder filling decreased from 28.2% +/- 5.1% to 6.7% +/- 3% (p less than 0.01), but this change was only observed after 6 wk, when gallstones had formed. This study shows that bile flow into the gallbladder during fasting is not constant; the gallbladder contracts intermittently; gallbladder emptying in response to exogenous cholecystokinin is altered very early during gallstone formation; and gallbladder filling remains unaffected until later stages, when gallstones have formed.« less

  12. Claudin 2 deficiency reduces bile flow and increases susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kengo; Imasato, Mitsunobu; Yamazaki, Yuji; Tanaka, Hiroo; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Nagano, Hiroaki; Hikita, Hayato; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takehara, Tetsuo; Tamura, Atsushi; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2014-11-01

    Bile formation and secretion are essential functions of the hepatobiliary system. Bile flow is generated by transepithelial transport of water and ionic/nonionic solutes via transcellular and paracellular pathways that is mainly driven by osmotic pressure. We examined the role of tight junction-based paracellular transport in bile secretion. Claudins are cell-cell adhesion molecules in tight junctions that create the paracellular barrier. The claudin family has 27 reported members, some of which have paracellular ion- and/or water-channel-like functions. Claudin 2 is a paracellular channel-forming protein that is highly expressed in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes; we examined the hepatobiliary system of claudin 2 knockout (Cldn2(-/-)) mice. We collected liver and biliary tissues from Cldn2(-/-) and Cldn2(+/+) mice and performed histologic, biochemical, and electrophysiologic analyses. We measured osmotic movement of water and/or ions in Cldn2(-/-) and Cldn2(+/+) hepatocytes and bile ducts. Mice were placed on lithogenic diets for 4 weeks and development of gallstone disease was assessed. The rate of bile flow in Cldn2(-/-) mice was half that of Cldn2(+/+) mice, resulting in significantly more concentrated bile in livers of Cldn2(-/-) mice. Consistent with these findings, osmotic gradient-driven water flow was significantly reduced in hepatocyte bile canaliculi and bile ducts isolated from Cldn2(-/-) mice, compared with Cldn2(+/+) mice. After 4 weeks on lithogenic diets, all Cldn2(-/-) mice developed macroscopically visible gallstones; the main component of the gallstones was cholesterol (>98%). In contrast, none of the Cldn2(+/+) mice placed on lithogenic diets developed gallstones. Based on studies of Cldn2(-/-) mice, claudin 2 regulates paracellular ion and water flow required for proper regulation of bile composition and flow. Dysregulation of this process increases susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone disease in mice. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute

  13. Antilithogenic influence of dietary capsaicin and curcumin during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstone in mice.

    PubMed

    Shubha, Malenahalli C; Reddy, Raghunatha R L; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2011-04-01

    Spice bioactive compounds, capsaicin and curcumin, were both individually and in combination examined for antilithogenic potential during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstones in mice. Cholesterol gallstones were induced by feeding mice a high-cholesterol (0.5%) diet for 10 weeks. Groups of mice were maintained on a lithogenic diet that was supplemented with 0.015% capsaicin/0.2% curcumin/0.015% capsaicin + 0.2% curcumin. The lithogenic diet that contained capsaicin, curcumin, or their combination reduced the incidence of cholesterol gallstones by 50%, 66%, and 56%, respectively, compared with lithogenic control. This was accompanied by reduced biliary cholesterol and a marginal increase in phospholipid in these spice-fed groups. Increased cholesterol saturation index and cholesterol : phospholipid ratio in the bile caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds. The antilithogenic influence of spice compounds was attributable to the cholesterol-lowering effect of these dietary spices in blood and liver, as well as a moderate increase in phospholipids. Decreased activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase caused by the lithogenic diet were countered by the combination of capsaicin and curcumin. The increased lipid peroxidation and the decreased concentration of ascorbic acid in the liver that was caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds, individually or in combination. Thus, while the capsaicin and curcumin combination did not have an additive influence in reducing the incidence of cholesterol gallstones in mice, their combination nevertheless was more beneficial in enhancing the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzyme ─ glutathione reductase in the lithogenic situation. The antioxidant effects of dietary spice compounds are consistent with the observed reduction in cholesterol gallstones formed under lithogenic condition.

  14. Early definitive treatment rate as a quality indicator of care in acute gallstone pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Green, R; Charman, S C; Palser, T

    2017-11-01

    Early definitive treatment (cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy in the same admission or within 2 weeks after discharge) of gallstone disease after a biliary attack of acute pancreatitis is standard of care. This study investigated whether compliance with early definitive treatment for acute gallstone pancreatitis can be used as a care quality indicator for the condition. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. All emergency admissions to National Health Service hospitals in England with a first time diagnosis of acute gallstone pancreatitis in the financial years 2008, 2009 and 2010 were examined. Trends in early definitive treatment between hospital trusts were examined and patient morbidity outcomes were determined. During the study interval there were 19 510 patients with an overall rate of early definitive treatment at 34·7 (range 9·4-84·7) per cent. In the 1-year follow-up period, 4661 patients (23·9 per cent) had one or more emergency readmissions for complications related to gallstone pancreatitis. Of these, 2692 (57·8 per cent) were readmissions for acute pancreatitis; 911 (33·8 per cent) were within the first 2 weeks of discharge, with the remaining 1781 (66·2 per cent) occurring after the point at which definitive treatment should have been received. Early definitive treatment resulted in a 39 per cent reduction in readmission risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0·61, 95 per cent c.i. 0·58 to 0·65). The risk was further reduced for acute pancreatitis readmissions to 54 per cent in the early definitive treatment group (adjusted RR 0·46, 0·42 to 0·51). In acute gallstone pancreatitis, compliance with recommended early definitive treatment varied considerably, with associated variation in outcomes. Compliance should be used as a quality indicator to improve care. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Black and brown pigment gallstones differ in microstructure and microcomposition.

    PubMed

    Malet, P F; Takabayashi, A; Trotman, B W; Soloway, R D; Weston, N E

    1984-01-01

    The two subtypes of pigment gallstones, black and brown stones, differ in chemical composition and pathogenesis. We examined a black bilirubinate stone and a black phosphate stone (which represented opposite ends of the compositional spectrum of black noncarbonate stones), a black carbonate stone, and a brown pigment stone using scanning electron microscopy and microchemical techniques to determine if stone microstructure and microcomposition reflected different patterns of formation. The cross-sectional surfaces of the black bilirubinate and black phosphate stones were smooth and homogenous. Electron probe microanalysis demonstrated high concentrations of sulfur and copper in the center of the black bilirubinate stone; sulfur was in a low valence state consistent with disulfide linkages in proteins. The brown stone was rough-surfaced with lamellated bands on cross-section. The lighter-colored bands in this stone contained virtually all of the detected calcium palmitate, while the darker sections contained much more calcium bilirubinate. Plasma oxygen etching demonstrated a network of protein interdigitating with calcium bilirubinate salts in the black bilirubinate and black phosphate stones but not in the black carbonate or brown stones. Argon ion etching demonstrated that calcium bilirubinate was in a closely packed rod-shaped arrangement in all three black stones but not in the brown stone. We conclude that the marked differences in structure and composition between the black noncarbonate and brown pigment gallstones support the hypothesis that the two major pigment gallstone types form by different mechanisms. In addition, the layered structures of the black carbonate and brown stones suggest that stone growth is affected by cyclic changes in biliary composition.

  16. Biliary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Telocytes in Gallstone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, Artur; Bugajska, Jolanta; Szura, Mirosław; Walocha, Jerzy A.; Matyja, Andrzej; Gajda, Mariusz; Sztefko, Krystyna; Gil, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. It also influences bile composition, decreasing biliary cholesterol saturation in the bile of patients with gallstones. In addition to bile composition disturbances, gallbladder hypomotility must be a cofactor in the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis, as it leads to the prolonged nucleation phase. Our current knowledge about gallbladder motility has been enhanced by the study of a population of newly described interstitial (stromal) cells—telocytes (TCs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether TC loss, reported by our team recently, might be related to bile lithogenicity, expressed as cholesterol saturation index or the difference in biliary PUFA profiles in patients who suffer from cholecystolithiasis and those not affected by this disease. We determined biliary lipid composition including the fatty acid composition of the phospholipid species in bile. Thus, we investigated whether differences in biliary fatty acid profiles (ω-3 PUFA and ω-6 PUFA) in gallbladder bile may influence its lithogenicity and the quantity of TCs within the gallbladder wall. We conclude that the altered PUFA concentrations in the gallbladder bile, with elevation of ω-6 PUFA, constitute important factors influencing TC density in the gallbladder wall, being one of the possible pathophysiological components for the gallstone disease development. This study established that altered bile composition in patients with cholelithiasis may influence TC quantity within the gallbladder muscle, and we concluded that reduction in TC number may be a consequence of the supersaturated bile toxicity, while some other bile components (ω-3 PUFA, glycocholic, and taurocholic acids) may exert protective effects on TC and thus possibly influence the mechanisms regulating gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct motility. Thus, ω-3 PUFA may represent a possible option to prevent

  17. Gallstones containing bacteria are biofilms: bacterial slime production and ability to form pigment solids determines infection severity and bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lygia; Griffiss, J McLeod; Jarvis, Gary A; Way, Lawrence W

    2007-08-01

    Gallstone bacteria provide a reservoir for biliary infections. Slime production facilitates adherence, whereas beta-glucuronidase and phospholipase generate colonization surface. These factors facilitate gallstone formation, but their influence on infection severity is unknown. Two hundred ninety-two patients were studied. Gallstones, bile, and blood (as applicable) were cultured. Bacteria were tested for beta-glucuronidase/phospholipase production and quantitative slime production. Infection severity was correlated with bacterial factors. Bacteria were present in 43% of cases, 13% with bacteremia. Severe infections correlated directly with beta-glucuronidase/phospholipase (55% with vs 13% without, P < 0.0001), but inversely with slime production (55 vs 8%, slime <75 or >75, P = 0.008). Low slime production and beta-glucuronidase/phospholipase production were additive: Severe infections were present in 76% with both, but 10% with either or none (P < 0.0001). beta-Glucuronidase/phospholipase production facilitated bactibilia (86% with vs 62% without, P = 0.03). Slime production was 19 (+/-8) vs 50 (+/-10) for bacteria that did or did not cause bacteremia (P = 0.004). No bacteria with slime >75 demonstrated bacteremia. Bacteria-laden gallstones are biofilms whose characteristics influence illness severity. Factors creating colonization surface (beta-glucuronidase/phospholipase) facilitated bacteremia and severe infections; but abundant slime production, while facilitating colonization, inhibited detachment and cholangiovenous reflux. This shows how properties of the gallstone biofilm determine the severity of the associated illness.

  18. Making the invisible visible: improving conspicuity of noncalcified gallstones using dual-energy CT.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, Jennifer W; Richardson, Ian J; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI) increases detectability of noncalcified gallstones on dual-energy CT (DECT) compared with conventional CT imaging. This retrospective IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study included consecutive patients who underwent DECT of the abdomen in the Emergency Department during a 30-month period (July 1, 2013-December 31, 2015), with a comparison US or MR within 1-year. 51 patients (36F, 15M; mean age 52 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All DECT were acquired on a dual-source 128 × 2 slice scanner using either 80/Sn140 or 100/Sn140 kVp pairs. Source images at high and low kVp were used for DE post-processing with VMI. Within 3 mm reconstructed images, regions of interest of 0.5 cm 2 were placed on noncalcified gallstones and bile to record hounsfield units (HU) at VMI energy levels ranging between 40 and 190 keV. Noncalcified gallstones uniformly demonstrated lowest HU at 40 keV and increase at higher keV; the HU of bile varied at higher keV. Few of the noncalcified stones are visible at 70 keV (simulating a conventional 120 kVp scan), with measured contrast (bile-stone HU difference) <10 HU in 78%, 10-20 HU in 20%, and >20 HU in 2%. Contrast was maximal at 40 keV, where 100% demonstrated >20 HU difference from surrounding bile, 75% >44 HU difference, and 50% >60 HU difference. A paired t test demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between this stone-bile contrast at 40 vs. 70 keV and 70 vs. 190 keV. Low keV virtual monochromatic imaging increased conspicuity of noncalcified gallstones, improving their detectability.

  19. Isolation of an acidic protein from cholesterol gallstones, which inhibits the precipitation of calcium carbonate in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, S; Sabsay, B; Veis, A; Ostrow, J D; Rege, R V; Dawes, L G

    1989-01-01

    In seeking to identify nucleating/antinucleating proteins involved in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones, a major acidic protein was isolated from each of 13 samples of cholesterol gallstones. After the stones were extracted with methyl t-butyl ether to remove cholesterol, and methanol to remove bile salts and other lipids, they were demineralized with EDTA. The extracts were desalted with Sephadex-G25, and the proteins separated by PAGE. A protein was isolated, of molecular weight below 10 kD, which included firmly-bound diazo-positive yellow pigments and contained 24% acidic, but only 7% basic amino acid residues. The presence of N-acetyl glucosamine suggested that this was a glycoprotein. This protein at concentrations as low as 2 micrograms/ml, but neither human serum albumin nor its complex with bilirubin, inhibited calcium carbonate precipitation from a supersaturated solution in vitro. This protein could be precipitated from 0.15 M NaCl solution by the addition of 0.5 M calcium chloride. Considering that cholesterol gallstones contain calcium and pigment at their centers, and that small acidic proteins are important regulators in other biomineralization systems, this protein seems likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. Images PMID:2592569

  20. Gallstones and common bile duct calculi in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Nguyen, K; Shun, A

    2000-03-01

    Gallstones and common bile duct calculi have been increasingly diagnosed in recent years in infants and children. The present study aims to review the spectrum of this disorder in the last two decades. During the period 1979-96 a total of 102 consecutive infants and children were diagnosed in Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children with gallstones or common bile duct calculi. A detailed retrospective analysis and follow-up of these children form the basis of the present report. The median age at presentation was 10 years. Recurrent right upper quadrant pain was the most common clinical presentation. The male-to-female ratio was 3:2 and this male predominance was noted in all the age groups. Aetiologically three identifiable groupings were noted: idiopathic disease (n = 66), haematological diseases (n = 23) and specific non-haematological disease (n = 13). The incidence of idiopathic and haematological stones had increased two-fold in the second half of the study. The majority of children (86%) underwent surgical correction. Choledocholithiasis (CDL) was noted in 18 children (18%). Jaundice was commonly associated with abdominal pain in this group. A higher incidence of common bile duct calculi was noted in females and children less than 5 years of age (P < 0.01). Common bile duct calculi were accurately diagnosed by pre-operative imaging in all 18 children. Surgical correction was required in all except two. The present study suggests an increasing incidence of gallstones in children. Cholelithiasis in children occurs commonly in boys, is idiopathic in aetiology and presents with a vague right upper quadrant pain. Choledocholithiasis is not uncommon in children, occurs more commonly in girls aged < 5 years and presents with jaundice or abnormal liver function tests.

  1. Future therapeutic targets for the treatment and prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; de Jesús Cárdenas-Vázquez, René; Velázquez-González, Claudia; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

    2015-10-15

    The formation of cholesterol gallstones involves very complex imbalances, such as alterations in the secretion of biliary lipids (which involves the ABCG5, ABCG8, ABCB4 and ABCB11 transporters), biochemical and immunological reactions in the gallbladder that produce biliary sludge (mucins), physicochemical changes in the structure of cholesterol (crystallization), alterations in gallbladder motility, changes in the intestinal absorption of cholesterol (ABCG5/8 transporters and Niemann-Pick C1L1 protein) and alterations in small intestine motility. Some of these proteins have been studied at the clinical and experimental levels, but more research is required. In this review, we discuss the results of studies on some molecules involved in the pathophysiology of gallstones that may be future therapeutic targets to prevent the development of this disease, and possible sites for treatment based mainly on the absorption of intestinal cholesterol (Niemann-Pick C1L1 and ABCG5/8 proteins). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. New insights into the chemical and isotopic composition of human-body biominerals. I: Cholesterol gallstones from England and Greece.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadou, Dimitra; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Karydas, Andreas-Germanos; Dotsika, Elisavet; Potamitis, Constantinos; Zervou, Maria; Xanthos, Stelios; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias; Gooi, Hock Chye; Becker, Udo

    2013-04-01

    We have analyzed gallstones from four patients of Europe and particularly from England (including samples from a mother and a daughter) and Greece. According to the XRD, FTIR, NMR and laser micro-Raman results the studied materials correspond to typical cholesterol monohydrate (ChM). The micro-morphology of cholesterol microcrystals was investigated by means of SEM-EDS. The XRF results revealed that Ca is the dominant non-organic metal in all gallstones (up to ∼1.95wt.%) together with Fe, Cu, Pb and Ni (up to ~19ppm for each metal). Gallstones from England contain additional Mn (up to ~87ppm) and Zn (up to ∼6ppm) while the sample of the mother contains negligible Zn and Mn, compared to that of her daughter, but significant As (~4.5ppm). All cholesterol gallstones examined are well enriched in potentially toxic metals (Pb, as well as Ni in one case) and metalloids (As also in one case) as compared to the global average. The position of Zn, which is a characteristic biometal, in the structure of cholesterol, was investigated by molecular simulation using the Accelrys Materials Studio(®) software. On the basis of IRMS results, all gallstones examined exhibit a very light δ(13)C signature (average δ(13)C ~-24‰ PDB). Gamma-ray spectrometry measurements indicate the presence of (214)Pb and (214)Bi natural radionuclides due to the (238)U series as well as an additional amount of (40)K. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute gallstone pancreatitis in index hospital admission: feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Sangrasi, Ahmed Khan; Syed, Bm; Memon, Amir Iqbal; Laghari, Abdul Aziz; Talpur, K Altaf Hussain; Qureshi, Jawaid Naeem

    2014-05-01

    Acute gallstone pancreatitis is quite common throughout the globe. Conventionally definitive cholecystectomy has been delayed in index hospital admission. Since the last decade timing of cholecystectomy is gradually shifting towards the earlier phase of disease and currently gallstone pancreatitis is being evaluated as a further indication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is also great concern regarding compliance of patients for definitive surgery due to poverty, ignorance and illiteracy in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a definitive treatment in patients with mild and resolving gall stone pancreatitis. This was a prospective study from July 2009 to June 2012. Patients were diagnosed by clinical examination, biochemical tests, ultrasonography and contrast enhanced CT. Patients with mild form of the disease (Ranson Score ≤3) and who showed clinical improvement were offered laparoscopic cholecystectomy in index hospital admission. Those who were unfit for surgery were referred for endoscopic sphincterotomy. Common bile duct stones were excluded preoperatively. A total of 38 patients were admitted with acute gallstone pancreatitis in the study period. The mean age of patients was 46.3 years with male to female ratio of 11/27. 22 (57.8%) patients were selected for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and procedure was completed successfully. Ten (26.3%) patients were referred for ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy and 11 (28.9%) were managed by conservative treatment and went without any definitive treatment. Mean duration of time from onset of symptoms and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 7 days (range 4-10). Mean duration of operative time was 45 minutes and hospital stay was 7 days. There was no operative mortality. No major intra-operative or post-operative complication was recorded. two patients (9%) had minor complications. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely

  4. Metformin treatment prevents gallstone formation but mimics porcelain gallbladder in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Dorvash, Mohammad Reza; Khoshnood, Mohammad Javad; Saber, Hossein; Dehghanian, Amirreza; Mosaddeghi, Pouria; Firouzabadi, Negar

    2018-06-05

    Gallstone disease (GD) is highly correlated with metabolic syndrome and its related illnesses including type II diabetes (DMII) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). While previous studies claimed that metformin decreases the chance of developing GD in PCOS patients, this phenomenon has not been investigated in animal models to date. Here we fed a high fat diet (HFD) containing 2% of cholesterol and 1% of cholic acid to ten-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice for 105 days. The groups were as follows: Low fat diet; HFD; HFD + Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (day 1-105); HFD + Metformin (day 1-105); HFD + Metformin (Met) (day 64-105). All drugs were administered by oral gavage (Met = 300 mg/kg & UDCA = 750 mg/kg). Serum lipid profile and gross organ examination were performed after euthanasia. A microscopic evaluation of the paraffin-embedded gallbladders was done after hematoxylin & eosin and Von Kossa staining. HFD successfully induces gallstone (4 out of 4 of the HFD members). While both UDCA and metformin (d 1-105) prevented gallstone formation and cholecystitis, Metformin (d 64-105) group had a few small stones. Additionally, metformin induces mucosal calcification in gallbladder (porcelain GB) of more than 80% of the HFD + Met (day 1-105) and HFD + Met (day 64-105) groups, collectively, which can be a potential problem by itself. While metformin shows a noticeable benefit towards GB health by reducing the chance for gallstone formation, if it induces porcelain gallbladder in humans as well, it might inflict patients with preventable medical charges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Routine intraoperative cholangiography is unnecessary in patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis and normalizing bilirubin levels.

    PubMed

    Pham, Xuan-Binh D; de Virgilio, Christian; Al-Khouja, Lutfi; Bermudez, Michael C; Schwed, Alexander C; Kaji, Amy H; Plurad, David S; Lee, Steven L; Bennion, Robert S; Saltzman, Darin J; Kim, Dennis Y

    2016-12-01

    The benefit of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is controversial in patients with gallstone pancreatitis whose bilirubin levels are normalizing. IOC with subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may lengthen duration of surgery and length of stay, whereas failure to clear the common bile duct may result in recurrent pancreatitis. We performed a 6-year retrospective cohort analysis of consecutive adult patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis undergoing same-admission cholecystectomy at 2 university-affiliated medical centers. Institution A routinely performed IOC, whereas institution B did not. The primary outcome was readmission within 30 days for recurrent pancreatitis. Of 520 patients evaluated, 246 (47%) were managed at institution A (routine IOC) and 274 (53%) were managed at institution B (restricted IOC). Patients at institution B had a shorter duration of surgery (1.0 vs 1.6 hours, P < .001), shorter length of stay (4 vs 5 days, P < .001), and fewer postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies performed (1.8% vs 21%, P < .001), without a difference in readmissions (1.5% vs 0%, P = .12). Routine IOC is not necessary in the setting of mild gallstone pancreatitis with normalizing bilirubin values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MUC5AC, a Gel-Forming Mucin Accumulating in Gallstone Disease, Is Overproduced via an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway in the Human Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Finzi, Laetitia; Barbu, Véronique; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Mergey, Martine; Kirkwood, Kimberly S.; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Peschaud, Frédérique; Paye, François; Nadel, Jay A.; Housset, Chantal

    2006-01-01

    Despite evidence that mucin overproduction is critical in the pathogenesis of gallstones, the mechanisms triggering mucin production in gallstone disease are unknown. Here, we tested the potential implication of an inflammation-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) pathway in the regulation of gallbladder mucin synthesis. In gallbladder tissue sections from subjects with cholesterol gallstones, mucus accumulation was associated with neutrophil infiltration and with increased expressions of EGF-R and of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In primary cultures of human gallbladder epithelial cells, TNF-α induced EGF-R overexpression. In the presence of TNF-α, EGF-R ligands (either EGF or transforming growth factor-α) caused significant increases in MUC5AC mRNA and protein production, whereas expression of the other gallbladder mucins MUC1, MUC3, and MUC5B was unchanged. In addition, on gallbladder tissue sections from subjects with gallstones, increased MUC5AC immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium and within mucus gel in the lumen. Studies in primary cultures demonstrated that MUC5AC up-regulation induced by the combination of TNF-α with EGF-R ligands was completely blunted by inhibitors of EGF-R tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-related kinase kinase. In conclusion, an inflammation-dependent EGF-R cascade causes overproduction of the gel-forming mucin MUC5AC, which accumulates in cholesterol gallstone disease. The ability to interrupt this cascade is of potential interest in the prevention of cholesterol gallstones. PMID:17148666

  7. The organic matrix of gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Sutor, D. June; Wooley, Susan E.

    1974-01-01

    Dissolution of gallstones consisting of cholesterol, calcium carbonate, or calcium phosphate in different solvents left an amorphous organic gel-like substance (the matrix). Matrix from cholesterol stones could be colourless but was usually orange, yellow, or brown while that from calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate stones was almost invariably coloured black or dark brown. These pigments were also shown to be organic and amorphous. The amount of matrix present and its structure varied with the texture of the crystalline material. Irrespective of their composition, laminated pieces of material yielded compact laminated matrix of the same shape as the original piece and areas of loose crystalline material gave small pieces of non-cohesive matrix. Only large cholesterol crystals which usually radiate from the stone nucleus had no associated matrix. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5 PMID:4854981

  8. Is the loss of gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy an underestimated complication?

    PubMed

    Gerlinzani, S; Tos, M; Gornati, R; Molteni, B; Poliziani, D; Taschieri, A M

    2000-04-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy entails an increased risk of gallbladder rupture and consequent loss of stones in the abdominal cavity. Herein we report the case of a 51-year-old male patient, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy 2 years before presentation to our hospital. He had experienced tension sensation and epigastric pain since 4 months postoperatively. A well-defined epigastric mass, which was hard and painful on palpation, was detected and later confirmed by ultrasonography and CT scan. Explorative laparotomy revealed a mass in the area of the gastrocolic ligament,resulting from biliary gallstones in conjunction with a perimetral inflammatory reaction. A review of the literature showed that the incidence of gallbladder lesions during laparoscopy is 13-40%. In order to prevent this complication, meticulous isolation of the gallbladder, proper dissection of the cystic duct and artery, and careful extraction through the umbilical access are required. Ligation after the rupture or use of an endo-bag may be helpful. The loss of gallstones and their retention in the abdominal cavity should be noted in the description of the surgical procedure.

  9. The rotary gallstone lithotrite to aid gallbladder extraction in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Sackier, J M; Hunter, J G; Paz-Partlow, M; Cuschieri, A

    1992-01-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a large stone burden may cause difficulty when extracting the gallbladder through the abdominal wall. Currently, the alternatives available to the surgeon include increasing the incision, removing stones singly, or utilizing complex fragmentation techniques like the pulsed dye laser. We have employed an electromechanical rotary gallstone lithotrite (RGL) to fragment stones to an aspiratable size. Initially, cholesterol spheres were pulverized in a latex balloon to demonstrate the efficacy of the device. Then, human gallstones were placed in the balloon and reduced to fragments less than or equal to 1 mm from initial sizes of 4-24 mm. Human stones were then inserted in ex vivo porcine gallbladders in a controlled experiment and treated with the device. Ten out of 12 tests were completed within 30 s; one test required 49 s and one 105 s to achieve complete fragmentation. Blinded histological evaluation demonstrated that tissue abrasion caused by use of the device would not interfere with the diagnosis of unsuspected malignancy. Clinical trials have now commenced under the auspices of the hospital ethical committee.

  10. Scoring System for the Management of Acute Gallstone Pancreatitis: Cost Analysis of a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Prigoff, Jake G; Swain, Gary W; Divino, Celia M

    2016-05-01

    Predicting the presence of a persistent common bile duct (CBD) stone is a difficult and expensive task. The aim of this study is to determine if a previously described protocol-based scoring system is a cost-effective strategy. The protocol includes all patients with gallstone pancreatitis and stratifies them based on laboratory values and imaging to high, medium, and low likelihood of persistent stones. The patient's stratification then dictates the next course of management. A decision analytic model was developed to compare the costs for patients who followed the protocol versus those that did not. Clinical data model inputs were obtained from a prospective study conducted at The Mount Sinai Medical Center to validate the protocol from Oct 2009 to May 2013. The study included all patients presenting with gallstone pancreatitis regardless of disease severity. Seventy-three patients followed the proposed protocol and 32 did not. The protocol group cost an average of $14,962/patient and the non-protocol group cost $17,138/patient for procedural costs. Mean length of stay for protocol and non-protocol patients was 5.6 and 7.7 days, respectively. The proposed protocol is a cost-effective way to determine the course for patients with gallstone pancreatitis, reducing total procedural costs over 12 %.

  11. Application of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance to Study of Gallstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, S. A.; Tsyro, L. V.; Afanasiev, D. A.; Unger, F. G.; Soloviev, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of mixed cholesterol gallstones. We have established that free radicals are distributed nonuniformly within the interior of the stone. The type and number of paramagnetic centers depend on the pigment content in the selected layer. We show that the parameters of the sextet lines in the EPR spectrum of the pigment are close to the parameters of lines in the spectrum of a brown pigment stone.

  12. Dietary fiber's benefit for gallstone disease prevention during rapid weight loss in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Bezarashvili, S

    2014-06-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of very low calorie diets - protein rich and dietary fiber rich food based - on gallstones formation during rapid weight loss. 68 patients were involved into the study. The body weight index in all cases exceeding normal value and equaled to 35±4,7 kg/m2. For weight correction purposes during 5 weeks the patients in first group were kept on a 520-800 kcal diet of "Margi" food products, prepared according our technology, and in the second group on a protein rich diet of the same calorie content. The body weight and changes in the gall-bladder wall and content were assessed by sonography before starting the diet, after three weeks from the commencement of the diet and upon its completion. The measurement of the body weight after completion of the 5 week diet revealed decrease by 10.9±1,5kg in the first group and by 11,2±1,1kg in the second group. Sonography disclosed growth in the amount of biliary sludge in 3 cases in the first group and in 9 cases in the second group. The statistical analyses of results indicate successful and nearly equal reduction of body weight by means of dietary fiber rich and protein rich diet, but high fiber consumption showed statistically significant benefits for prevention of biliary slug accumulation. The study showed that, in the respect to weight loss, diets based on fiber rich and protein rich food are equal, but fiber rich diet has considerable privilege in prevention of gallstone disease. Our findings support the presence of known association between increased dietary fiber consumption and reduction of gallstone formation. Obesity and rapid weight loss are risk factors for development of gallstones. Taking in an account the beneficial effect of dietary fiber, the food rich with this nutrient, particularly low-calorie fiber rich food "Margi", can be recommended for rapid weight loss in obese patients.

  13. Referral pathways of patients with gallstones: a potential source of financial waste in the U.K. National Health Service?

    PubMed

    Borowski, David; Knox, Margaret; Kanakala, Venkat; Richardson, Stuart; Seymour, Keith; Attwood, Stephen; Slater, Bary

    2010-01-01

    Gallstone-related illnesses are one of the most common reasons for emergency hospital admissions, often with serious complications. Standard treatment of uncomplicated gallstone-disease is by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which can be safely and cost-effectively performed during a short hospital stay or as day-case. This paper aims to evaluate the referral pattern of patients with gallstones, which treatment is given and whether patients admitted as emergency could have benefited from earlier elective referral. The management of these patients is examined in the context of payment by results to determine cost and potential savings. The approach takens was prospective clinical audit and patient questionnaire in a district general hospital. Cost comparisons were made using secondary care income (NHS tariff) and estimated cost of hospitalisation, investigations and treatment. Between May and July 2007, 114 patients were admitted with symptomatic gallstones, 62 (54.4 per cent) were emergencies. Cholecystectomy was performed in all 52 elective patients and performed or planned for 59/62 (95.2 per cent) emergencies. A total 17/62 emergencies (27.4 per cent) presented with complications of gallstones. 38/62 (61.3 per cent) had similar symptoms before, with 21/38 (55.3 per cent) diagnosed in primary care or by another hospital department. 11 (52.4 per cent) of these had not been referred for a surgical opinion; taking account of age, co-morbidity and data acquired for elective admissions, the cost of their treatment could have been reduced by at least pounds 16,194. A large proportion of patients admitted with symptomatic biliary disease could have been referred earlier and electively. Such referral practice could improve the quality of care and reduce cost for the NHS both in primary and secondary care.

  14. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute gallstone pancreatitis in index hospital admission: feasibility and safety

    PubMed Central

    Sangrasi, Ahmed Khan; Syed, BM; Memon, Amir Iqbal; Laghari, Abdul Aziz; Talpur, K. Altaf Hussain; Qureshi, Jawaid Naeem

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Acute gallstone pancreatitis is quite common throughout the globe. Conventionally definitive cholecystectomy has been delayed in index hospital admission. Since the last decade timing of cholecystectomy is gradually shifting towards the earlier phase of disease and currently gallstone pancreatitis is being evaluated as a further indication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is also great concern regarding compliance of patients for definitive surgery due to poverty, ignorance and illiteracy in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a definitive treatment in patients with mild and resolving gall stone pancreatitis. Methods: This was a prospective study from July 2009 to June 2012. Patients were diagnosed by clinical examination, biochemical tests, ultrasonography and contrast enhanced CT. Patients with mild form of the disease (Ranson Score ≤3) and who showed clinical improvement were offered laparoscopic cholecystectomy in index hospital admission. Those who were unfit for surgery were referred for endoscopic sphincterotomy. Common bile duct stones were excluded preoperatively. Results: A total of 38 patients were admitted with acute gallstone pancreatitis in the study period. The mean age of patients was 46.3 years with male to female ratio of 11/27. 22 (57.8%) patients were selected for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and procedure was completed successfully. Ten (26.3%) patients were referred for ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy and 11 (28.9%) were managed by conservative treatment and went without any definitive treatment. Mean duration of time from onset of symptoms and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 7 days (range 4-10). Mean duration of operative time was 45 minutes and hospital stay was 7 days. There was no operative mortality. No major intra-operative or post-operative complication was recorded. two patients (9%) had minor complications

  15. Decreased number of interstitial cells of Cajal play an important role in the declined intestinal transit during cholesterol gallstone formation in guinea pigs fed on high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ying; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Fu, Bei-Bei; Weng, Chao; Wang, Xin-Peng

    2014-01-01

    To study the changes of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and expression of c-kt and scf mRNA in terminal ileum tissue during cholesterol gallstone formation in guinea pigs fed on high cholesterol diet, forty guinea pigs were divided into the gallstone group and the control group. The animals in the gallstone group were fed on a high cholesterol diet (HCD), while those in the control group fed on a standard diet (StD). The guinea pigs were sacrificed at the 8th week. The expression of c-kit and scf in terminal ileum were determined by RT-PCR and the morphological characteristics and number of ICCs were observed and calculated by using immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR showed that, compared with the control group, the c-kit and scf mRNA expression levels in the gallstone group were significantly declined. In the animal assay, the decreased number of ICCs was present obviously in the gallstone group. We concluded from the study that decreased number of ICCs, decreased expression of c-kit and scf in terminal ileum are present in guinea pigs fed on high cholesterol diet. The c-kit/scf pathway inhibition might be involved in the decline of intestinal transit function during cholesterol gallstone formation. PMID:24995081

  16. Subphrenic and Pleural Abscess Due to Spilled Gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Varker, Kimberly A.; Zaydfudim, Victor; McKee, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Background: A 70-year-old male approximately 3 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy presented to his primary care physician with a 4-month history of generalized malaise. Methods: A workup included magnetic resonance imaging that revealed a perihepatic abscess. The patient underwent ultrasound-guided drainage, with the removal of 1400 mL of purulent fluid and placement of 2 drains. Computed tomographic scanning showed resolution, and he was discharged home on oral antibiotics. At 2-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic, denying any constitutional symptoms. However, abdominal computed tomographic scanning revealed recurrence of the abscess, which measured approximately 18x9x7.5 cm, with mass effect on the liver. The patient was placed on intravenous antibiotics and scheduled for operative drainage. The abdomen was entered with a right subcostal incision, and 900 mL of purulent fluid was drained. We also noted abscess erosion through the inferolateral aspect of the right diaphragm into the pleural space. The pleural abscess was loculated and isolated from the lung parenchyma. Palpation within the abscess cavity revealed 9 large gallstones. Following copious irrigation and debridement of necrotic tissue, 3 drains were placed and the incision was closed. Results: The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged home on postoperative day number 6. Follow-up imaging at 3 months demonstrated resolution of the collection. Conclusion: Spillage of gallstones is a complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, occurring in 6% to 16% of all cases. Retained stones rarely result in a problem, but when complications arise, aggressive surgical intervention is usually necessary. PMID:16709371

  17. Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 and 2 receptor mRNA in gallbladder tissue of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Gao, Hong; Shi, Gang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Kong, Jing; Tian, Zhong; Su, Yang

    2006-03-07

    To detect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor 1 (VPCAP1-R)and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps. The expression of VPCAP1-R and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues was detected in 25 patients with gallstone,8 patients with gallbladder polyps and 7 donors of liver transplantation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The VPCAP2-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.09+/-0.58) was lower than that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.64+/-0.56) and the gallstone group (1.55+/-0.45) (P<0.05) while the VPCAP1-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.15+/-0.23) was not apparently different from that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.28+/-0.56) and the gallstone group (1.27+/-0.38). The abnormal expression of VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissue may play a role in the formation of gallbladder stone and gallbladder polyps.

  18. Genetic variants involved in gallstone formation and capsaicin metabolism, and the risk of gallbladder cancer in Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    Báez, Sergio; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Calvo, Alfonso; Pruyas, Martha; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Oyama, Mari; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of genetic variants associated with gallstone formation and capsaicin (a pungent component of chili pepper) metabolism on the risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC). METHODS: A total of 57 patients with GBC, 119 patients with gallstones, and 70 controls were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from their blood or paraffin block sample using standard commercial kits. The statuses of the genetic variants were assayed using Taqman® SNP Genotyping Assays or Custom Taqman® SNP Genotyping Assays. RESULTS: The non-ancestral T/T genotype of apolipoprotein B rs693 polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of GBC (OR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.03-0.63). The T/T genotype of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) rs708272 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of GBC (OR: 5.04, 95% CI: 1.43-17.8). CONCLUSION: Genetic variants involved in gallstone formation such as the apolipoprotein B rs693 and CETP rs708272 polymorphisms may be related to the risk of developing GBC in Chilean women. PMID:20082485

  19. DNA sequences and proteic antigens of H. pylori in cholecystic bile and tissue of patients with gallstones.

    PubMed

    Neri, V; Margiotta, M; de Francesco, V; Ambrosi, A; Valle, N Della; Fersini, A; Tartaglia, N; Minenna, M F; Ricciardelli, C; Giorgio, F; Panella, C; Ierardi, E

    2005-10-15

    Although Helicobacter pylori DNA sequences have been detected in cholecystic bile and tissue of patients with gallstones, controversial results are reported from different geographic areas. To detect H. pylori in cholecystic bile and tissue of patients with gallstones from a previously uninvestigated geographic area, southern Italy. Detection included both the bacterial DNA and the specific antigen (H. pylori stool antigen) identified in the stools of infected patients for diagnostic purposes. The study enclosed 33 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones. DNA sequences of H. pylori were detected by polymerase chain reaction in both cholecystic bile and tissue homogenate. Moreover, we assayed H.pylori stool antigen on gall-bladder cytosolic and biliary proteins after their extraction. Bacterial presence in the stomach was assessed by urea breath test in all patients and Deltadelta13CPDB value assumed as marker of intragastric load. Fisher's exact probability and Student's t-tests were used for statistical analysis. DNA sequences of H. pylori in bile were found in 51.5% and significantly correlated with its presence in cholecystic tissue homogenate (P<0.005), H. pylori stool antigen in gall-bladder (P=0.0013) and bile (P=0.04) proteins, gastric infection (P<0.01) and intragastric bacterial load (P<0.001). No correlation was found, however, with sex and age of the patients. Our prevalence value of bacterial DNA in bile and gall-bladder of patients with gallstones agreed with that of the only other Italian study. The simultaneous presence of both bacterial DNA and proteic antigen suggests that the same prototype of bacterium could be located at both intestinal and cholecystic level and, therefore, the intestine represents the source of biliary contagion.

  20. Efficacy of Magnesium Trihydrate of Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Chenodeoxycholic Acid for Gallstone Dissolution: A Prospective Multicenter Trial.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck; Dong, Seok Ho; Lee, Seung-Ok; Ryu, Ji Kon; Lee, Don Haeng; Jeong, Seok; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Lee, Jin; Koh, Dong Hee; Park, Eun Taek; Lee, In-Seok; Yoo, Byung Moo; Kim, Jin Hong

    2015-07-01

    Cholecystectomy is necessary for the treatment of symptomatic or complicated gallbladder (GB) stones, but oral litholysis with bile acids is an attractive alternative therapeutic option for asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of magnesium trihydrate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on gallstone dissolution and to investigate improvements in gallstone-related symptoms. A prospective, multicenter, phase 4 clinical study to determine the efficacy of orally administered magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA was performed from January 2011 to June 2013. The inclusion criteria were GB stone diameter ≤15 mm, GB ejection fraction ≥50%, radiolucency on plain X-ray, and asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic patients. The patients were prescribed one capsule of magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA at breakfast and two capsules at bedtime for 6 months. The dissolution rate, response rate, and change in symptom score were evaluated. A total of 237 subjects were enrolled, and 195 subjects completed the treatment. The dissolution rate was 45.1% and the response rate was 47.2% (92/195) after 6 months of administration of magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA. Only the stone diameter was significantly associated with the response rate. Both the symptom score and the number of patients with symptoms significantly decreased regardless of stone dissolution. Adverse events necessitating discontinuation of the drug, surgery, or endoscopic management occurred in 2.5% (6/237) of patients. Magnesium trihydrate of UDCA and CDCA is a well-tolerated bile acid that showed similar efficacy for gallstone dissolution and improvement of gallstone-related symptoms as that shown in previous studies.

  1. Calcium carbonate in human gallstones and total CO2 in bile.

    PubMed Central

    Sutor, D J; Wilkie, L I

    1978-01-01

    Measurement of total CO2 concentrations in bile from patients undergoing cholecystectomy because of gallstones has shown that the presence of calcium carbonate in the stones can be associated with a raised total CO2 concentration in the common duct bile. In bile from functioning and poorly-functioning gallbladders, total CO2 was nearly always related to pH irrespective of stone composition. PMID:631643

  2. Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 and 2 receptor mRNA in gallbladder tissue of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Gao, Hong; Shi, Gang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Kong, Jing; Tian, Zhong; Su, Yang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor 1 (VPCAP1-R) and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps. METHODS: The expression of VPCAP1-R and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues was detected in 25 patients with gallstone, 8 patients with gallbladder polyps and 7 donors of liver transplantation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: The VPCAP2-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.09±0.58) was lower than that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.64 ± 0.56) and the gallstone group (1.55±0.45) (P < 0.05) while the VPCAP1-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.15 ± 0.23) was not apparently different from that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.28±0.56) and the gallstone group (1.27 ± 0.38). CONCLUSION: The abnormal expression of VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissue may play a role in the formation of gallbladder stone and gallbladder polyps. PMID:16552823

  3. A prospective cohort study on the association between coffee drinking and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Viktor; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-05-28

    Only one previous study has examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of acute pancreatitis, and it found a reduced risk for alcohol-related episodes among high consumers of coffee. Therefore, we examined (1) the association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and (2) whether this association was modified by alcohol intake. Data were obtained from two prospective cohorts, the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 76 731 men and women (born 1914-1952). Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline with a FFQ, and the cohorts were followed up between 1998 and 2012 via linkage to national health registries. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. During 1 035 881 person-years of total follow-up, 383 cases (246 in men and 137 in women) of incident non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis were identified. Overall, and irrespective of whether a categorical or a continuous exposure model was used, we observed no association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (e.g. the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for each 1 cup/d increase in coffee consumption was 0·97; 95 % CI 0·92, 1·03). There was no evidence of effect modification by alcohol intake (P interaction=0·77). In conclusion, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis in this large prospective cohort study. Because of the limited number of epidemiological studies and their conflicting results, further research is needed to elucidate this potential association.

  4. Systematic review of the clinical and cost effectiveness of cholecystectomy versus observation/conservative management for uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones or cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Brazzelli, Miriam; Cruickshank, Moira; Kilonzo, Mary; Ahmed, Irfan; Stewart, Fiona; McNamee, Paul; Elders, Andy; Fraser, Cynthia; Avenell, Alison; Ramsay, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Gallstone disease is a common gastrointestinal disorder in industrialised countries. Although symptoms can be severe, some people can be symptom free for many years after the original attack. Surgery is the current treatment of choice, but evidence suggests that observation is also feasible and safe. We reviewed the evidence on cholecystectomy versus observation for uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones and conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis. We searched six electronic databases (last search April 2014). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or non-randomised comparative studies where adults received either cholecystectomy or observation/conservative management for the first episode of symptomatic gallstone disease (biliary pain or cholecystitis) being considered for surgery in secondary care. Meta-analysis was used to combine results. A de novo Markov model was developed to assess the cost effectiveness of the interventions. Two RCTs (201 participants) were included. Eighty-eight percent of people randomised to surgery and 45 % of people randomised to observation underwent cholecystectomy during the 14-year follow-up period. Participants randomised to observation were significantly more likely to experience gallstone-related complications (RR = 6.69, 95 % CI = 1.57-28.51, p = 0.01), in particular acute cholecystitis (RR = 9.55, 95 % CI = 1.25-73.27, p = 0.03), and less likely to undergo surgery (RR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.34-0.73, p = 0.0004) or experience surgery-related complications (RR = 0.36, 95 % CI = 0.16-0.81, p = 0.01) than those randomised to surgery. Fifty-five percent of people randomised to observation did not require surgery, and 12 % of people randomised to cholecystectomy did not undergo surgery. On average, surgery costs £1,236 more per patient than conservative management, but was more effective. Cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment for symptomatic gallstones. However, approximately half the observation group did not require

  5. The Role of Endoscopic Biliary Drainage without Sphincterotomy in Gallstone Patients with Cholangitis and Suspected Common Bile Duct Stones Not Detected by Cholangiogram or Intraductal Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Goong, Hyeon Jeong; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Yun Nah; Choi, Hyun Jong; Choi, Seo-Youn; Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Min Jin; Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Hae Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Treatment for cholangitis without common bile duct (CBD) stones has not been established in patients with gallstones. We investigated the usefulness of endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) without endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in patients diagnosed with gallstones and cholangitis without CBD stones by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS). Methods EBD using 5F plastic stents without EST was performed prospectively in patients with gallstones and cholangitis if CBD stones were not diagnosed by ERCP and IDUS. After ERCP, all patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The primary outcomes were clinical and technical success. The secondary outcomes were recurrence rate of biliary events and procedure-related adverse events. Results Among 187 patients with gallstones and cholangitis, 27 patients without CBD stones according to ERCP and IDUS received EBD using 5F plastic stents without EST. The stents were maintained in all patients until laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and recurrence of cholangitis was not observed. After cholecystectomy, the stents were removed spontaneously in 12 patients and endoscopically in 15 patients. Recurrence of CBD stones was not detected during the follow-up period (median, 421 days). Conclusions EBD using 5F plastic stents without EST may be safe and effective for the management of cholangitis accompanied by gallstones in patients without CBD stones according to ERCP and IDUS. PMID:28104896

  6. Telocytes: new insight into the pathogenesis of gallstone disease

    PubMed Central

    Matyja, Andrzej; Gil, Krzysztof; Pasternak, Artur; Sztefko, Krystyna; Gajda, Mariusz; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Matyja, Maciej; Walocha, Jerzy A; Kulig, Jan; Thor, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The major mechanisms of gallstone formation include biliary cholesterol hypersecretion, supersaturation and crystallization, mucus hypersecretion, gel formation and bile stasis. Gallbladder hypomotility seems to be a key event that triggers the precipitation of cholesterol microcrystals from supersaturated lithogenic bile. Telocytes, a new type of interstitial cells, have been recently identified in many organs, including gallbladder. Considering telocyte functions, it is presumed that these cells might be involved in the signalling processes. The purpose of this study was to correlate the quantity of telocytes in the gallbladder with the lithogenicity of bile. Gallbladder specimens were collected from 24 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. The control group consisted of 25 consecutive patients who received elective treatment for pancreatic head tumours. Telocytes were visualized in paraffin sections of gallbladders with double immunofluorescence using primary antibodies against c-Kit (anti-CD117) and anti-mast cell tryptase. Cholesterol, phospholipid and bile acid levels were measured in gallbladder bile. The number of telocytes in the gallbladder wall was significantly lower in the study group than that in the control group (3.03 ± 1.43 versus 6.34 ± 1.66 cell/field of view in the muscularis propria, P < 0.001) and correlated with a significant increase in the cholesterol saturation index. The glycocholic and taurocholic acid levels were significantly elevated in the control subjects compared with the study group. The results suggest that bile composition may play an important role in the reduction in telocytes density in the gallbladder. PMID:23551596

  7. Comparison of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation and sphincterotomy in young patients with CBD stones and gallstones.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu Ri; Moon, Jong Ho; Choi, Hyun Jong; Kim, Dong Choon; Ha, Ji Su; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo; Cho, Young Deok; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2014-05-01

    Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EBS) results in permanent loss of sphincter function and its long-term complications are unknown. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is an alternative procedure that preserves sphincter function, although it is associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis than is EBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and outcomes of EPBD with limited indications for removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones combined with gallstones in patients younger than 40 years. Young (age < 40 years) patients who had CBD stones combined with gallstones on imaging studies were enrolled in this study. A total of 132 patients were randomly divided into the EPBD group (n = 62) or the EBS group (n = 70) for extraction of CBD stones. The ballooning size of EPBD ranged from 6 to 10 mm. Complete bile duct clearance was achieved in 98.4 % (61/62) of the EPBD group and 100 % (70/70) of the EBS group. Mechanical lithotripsy was required in 8.1 % (5/62) of the EPBD group and 8.6 % (6/70) of the EBS group. The early complication rates were 8.1 % (5/62) (five pancreatitis) in the EPBD group and 11.4 % (8/70) (five [7.1 %] pancreatitis, two bleeding and one perforation) in the EBS group. The recurrence rates of CBD stones were 1.6 % (1/62) in the EPBD group and 5.7 % (4/70) in the EBS group. EPBD with limited indications was safe and effective as EBS for removal of CBD stones combined with gallstones in young patients who had a longer life expectancy.

  8. Laparoscopic Management of a Proximal Jejunal Gallstone Ileus with Patulous Ampulla and Choledochal Cyst-a Report of Unusual Presentation and a Review.

    PubMed

    Narkhede, Rajvilas Anil; Bada, Vijaykumar C; Kona, Lakshmi Kumari

    2017-02-01

    Gallstone ileus is a diagnosis of rarity, and a proximal site of obstruction in a young patient is even rare. Of the three cases in our experience, we found two cases of gallstone ileus (GSI) with typical epidemiology and presentation, one had combination of multiple rare associations. We report such a case, suspected to have gallstone ileus on ultrasound and confirmed diagnosis on computed tomography. Presence of biliary-enteric fistula, old age, and obstructive features, as in typical cases, was a bigger asset for diagnosis, but it was difficult to entertain diagnosis of GSI in young girl in absence of a demonstrable biliary-enteric fistula, with uncommon association of choledochal cyst and sickle cell disease. A very surprising finding, dilated major papilla, could however explain the pathogenesis which has also been reported in the past. Although differential opinions regarding management exist, we decided to follow two-stage surgery as our institute protocol. A minimal access approach has been immensely helpful in accurate diagnosis, and expedative management with early recovery has been proven in the past studies which we agreed with our experience.

  9. Mucin gene expression in bile of patients with and without gallstone disease, collected by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Vilkin, Alexander; Geller, Alex; Levi, Zohar; Niv, Yaron

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pattern of mucin expression and concentration in bile obtained during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in relation to gallstone disease. METHODS: Bile samples obtained at ERC from 29 consecutive patients, 17 with and 12 without gallstone disease were evaluated for mucin content by gel filtration on a Sepharose CL-4B column. Dot blot analysis for bile mucin apoproteins was performed with antibodies to Mucin 1 (MUC1), MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6. Staining intensity score (0-3) was used as a measure of antigen expression. RESULTS: MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6 were demonstrated in 34.4%, 34.4%, 51.7%, 51.7%, 55.1% and 27.5% of bile samples, respectively. The staining intensity scores were 0.62 ± 0.94, 0.58 ± 0.90, 0.79 ± 0.97, 1.06 ± 1.22, 1.20 ± 1.26 and 0.41 ± 0.73, respectively. Mean mucin concentration measured in bile by the Sepharose CL-4B method was 22.8 ± 24.0 mg/mL (range 3.4-89.0 mg/mL). Mean protein concentration was 8.1 ± 4.8 mg/mL (range 1.7-23.2 mg/mL). CONCLUSION: High levels of MUC3, MUC5AC and MUC5B are expressed in bile aspirated during ERC examination. A specific pattern of mucin gene expression or change in mucin concentration was not found in gallstone disease. PMID:19452580

  10. Small Gallstone Size and Delayed Cholecystectomy Increase the Risk of Recurrent Pancreatobiliary Complications After Resolved Acute Biliary Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bum; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Chung, Hyun Hee; Kim, Kook Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is a severe complication of gallstone disease with considerable mortality, and its recurrence rate is reported as 50-90% for ABP patients who do not undergo cholecystectomy. However, the incidence of and risk factors for recurrent pancreatobiliary complications after the initial improvement of ABP are not well established in the literature. The aims of this study were to determine the risk factors for recurrent pancreatobiliary complications and to compare the outcomes between early (within 2 weeks after onset of pancreatitis) and delayed cholecystectomy in patients with ABP. Patients diagnosed with ABP at Yeungnam University Hospital from January 2004 to July 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The following risk factors for recurrent pancreatobiliary complications (acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and acute cholangitis) were analyzed: demographic characteristics, laboratory data, size and number of gallstones, severity of pancreatitis, endoscopic sphincterotomy, and timing of cholecystectomy. Patients were categorized into two groups: patients with recurrent pancreatobiliary complications (Group A) and patients without pancreatobiliary complications (Group B). Of the total 290 patients with ABP (age 66.8 ± 16.0 years, male 47.9%), 56 (19.3%) patients developed recurrent pancreatobiliary complications, of which 35 cases were acute pancreatitis, 11 cases were acute cholecystitis, and 10 cases were acute cholangitis. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and cholecystectomy were performed in 134 (46.2%) patients and 95 (32.8%) patients, respectively. Age, sex, BMI, diabetes, number of stone, severity of pancreatitis, and laboratory data were not significantly correlated with recurrent pancreatobiliary complications. The risk of recurrent pancreatobiliary complications was significantly increased in the delayed cholecystectomy group compared with the early cholecystectomy group (45.5 vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001). Based on the multivariate

  11. Morpho-functional gastric pre-and post-operative changes in elderly patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstone related disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cholecystectomy, gold standard treatment for gallbladder lithiasis, is closely associated with increased bile reflux into the stomach as amply demonstrated by experimental studies. The high prevalence of gallstones in the population and the consequent widespread use of surgical removal of the gallbladder require an assessment of the relationship between cholecystectomy and gastric mucosal disorders. Morphological evaluations performed on serial pre and post – surgical biopsies have provided new acquisitions about gastric damage induced by bile in the organ. Methods 62 elderly patients with gallstone related disease were recruited in a 30 months period. All patients were subjected to the most appropriate treatment (Laparoscopic cholecystectomy). The subjects had a pre-surgical evaluation with: • dyspeptic symptoms questionnaire, • gastric endoscopy with body, antrum, and fundus random biopsies, • histo-pathological analysis of samples and elaboration of bile reflux index (BRI). The same evaluation was repeated at a 6 months follow-up. Results In our series the duodeno-gastric reflux and the consensual biliary gastritis, assessed histologically with the BRI, was found in 58% of the patients after 6 months from cholecystectomy. The demonstrated bile reflux had no effect on H. pylori’s gastric colonization nor on the induction of gastric precancerous lesions. Conclusions Cholecystectomy, gold standard treatment for gallstone-related diseases, is practiced in a high percentage of patients with this condition. Such procedure, considered by many harmless, was, in our study, associated with a significant risk of developing biliary gastritis after 6 months during the postoperative period. PMID:23173777

  12. Gallstone dissolution using mono-octanoin infusion through an endoscopically placed nasobiliary catheter.

    PubMed

    Venu, R P; Geenen, J E; Toouli, J; Hogan, W J; Kozlov, N; Stewart, E T

    1982-04-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is widely being used for the treatment of common bile duct stones. In a small group of patients the gallstones are large in size and, hence, difficult to be extracted after a successful endoscopic sphincterotomy. We used a constant infusion of mono-octanoin through a nasobiliary catheter in nine such patients. This method was successful in partial or complete dissolution of the stones in 74% of the patients. In the remaining 36% of the patients, the stones were noted to be soft allowing easy extraction by crushing.

  13. Laparoscopic and ultrasound assisted management of gallstone ileus after biliointestinal bypass Case report and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Zago, Mauro; Bozzo, Samantha; Centurelli, Andrea; Giovanelli, Alessandro; Vasino, Michele Ciocca

    2016-05-24

    To report about an additional case of biliary ileus after bariatric surgery is reported and extensively reviewing the literature on this topic. We reviewed the literature and found three cases of gallstone ileus (GI) that occurred after bariatric surgery. A 41 year old patient presented a GI eight years after a biliointestinal bypass (BIB) for morbid obesity. The patient complained of abdominal pain for two weeks. Computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasound (US) allowed a preoperative diagnosis of GI and planning of surgical strategy. Surgical treatment was carried out through laparoscopic-assisted enterolithotomy alone procedure. This choice is supported discussing the related issues: morbidity, potential recurrence, eventual developing of gallbladder carcinoma. It is the first reported case of GI after BIB preoperatively diagnosed through CT scan and US, and treated with a laparoscopic assisted approach. Additional considerations concerning preoperative diagnosis, surgical strategy, technical details and follow-up can be usefully applied even in non post-bariatric biliary ileus. Biliointestinal bypass, Gallstone ileus, Laparoscopy, Ultrasonography.

  14. Sphincterotomy in patients with gallstones, elevated LFTs and a normal CBD on ERCP.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Iqbal; Mohan, Krishna; Khajah, Abdulkareem; Hasan, Fuad; Memon, Anjum; Kalaoui, Maher; al-Shamali, Mohammad; Patty, Istvan; al-Nakib, Basil

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether an endoscopic sphincterotomy affects outcome in patients with symptomatic gallstones, elevated liver function tests and a normal common bile duct on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram. A total of 163 patients with symptomatic gallstones and elevated liver function tests, and found to have a normal common bile duct on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram were included in the study. Endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed in 78 (47.8%) patients, while 85 (52.1%) patients did not have an endoscopic sphincterotomy. The two groups were compared for detection of small unseen common bile duct stones/debris, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram related complications, and biliary complications after cholecystectomy. Small common bile duct stones/debris were recovered in 11/43 (25.5%) patients who had instrumentation of the common bile duct performed after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Common bile duct instrumentation was not performed in any of the patients without endoscopic sphincterotomy. No patient had any biliary complication after cholecystectomy, both in the immediate postoperative period and on a follow-up of 37.5 +/- 13.6 months (range 17-66). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram related complications occurred in 8 patients who had an endoscopic sphincterotomy and in 2 without endoscopic sphincterotomy (p < 0.05). Performing an endoscopic sphincterotomy in these patients increases the detection of small unseen common bile duct stones/debris without changing the clinical outcome after cholecystectomy. It also increases the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram related complication rate, and therefore may not be necessary.

  15. The economic burden of gallstone lithotripsy. Will cost determine its fate?

    PubMed Central

    Nealon, W H; Urrutia, F; Fleming, D; Thompson, J C

    1991-01-01

    Gallstone lithotripsy (LITHO) was performed on 52 patients who underwent 107 procedures. Two hundred sixty-seven gallstone patients were screened and 215 (81%) were excluded. Excessive stone burden and nonvisualization by oral cholecystogram (OCG) were the most common reasons for exclusion. The hospital course of 100 excluded patients who later underwent elective cholecystectomy was evaluated for length of hospital stay (2.3 days) and total cost of treatment ($3685.00). Successful fragmentation to less than 5 mm was achieved in 43 LITHO patients (83%). Five LITHO patients (10%) required conversion to operative management. Complications of LITHO included acute cholecystitis (1 of 52 patients) and biliary colic (17 of 52 patients, or 33%). Multiple procedures in one patient were common. Costs for LITHO were calculated in two ways: first the individual cost for each of the 52 candidates; second the cost for successful LITHO was calculated by excluding five patients who required operation as well as five patients (10%) who are predicted failures of LITHO. Including the preoperative evaluation, treatment, recovery room, and follow-up, the individual LITHO cost for 52 patients was $8275.00. If the same total expenditure is calculated after excluding patients who required operation and those predicted to fail, the cost per 'successful' LITHO procedure was $10,245. The cost of 1 year of bile acid therapy is $1949.00 or $2413.00 per 'successful' procedure. Follow-up costs were $1232.00 per patient or $1525.00 per 'successful' procedure. The added LITHO cost incurred by screening eventual noncandidates was $904.00 per successful procedure. The sum of these individual costs was $15,087.00 per success, as compared to $3685.00 for cholecystectomy. No allowance was made for cost of stone recurrence. Lithotripsy costs appear to be sufficiently high to render the procedure unlikely to emerge as the treatment of choice. PMID:2039296

  16. The economic burden of gallstone lithotripsy. Will cost determine its fate?

    PubMed

    Nealon, W H; Urrutia, F; Fleming, D; Thompson, J C

    1991-06-01

    Gallstone lithotripsy (LITHO) was performed on 52 patients who underwent 107 procedures. Two hundred sixty-seven gallstone patients were screened and 215 (81%) were excluded. Excessive stone burden and nonvisualization by oral cholecystogram (OCG) were the most common reasons for exclusion. The hospital course of 100 excluded patients who later underwent elective cholecystectomy was evaluated for length of hospital stay (2.3 days) and total cost of treatment ($3685.00). Successful fragmentation to less than 5 mm was achieved in 43 LITHO patients (83%). Five LITHO patients (10%) required conversion to operative management. Complications of LITHO included acute cholecystitis (1 of 52 patients) and biliary colic (17 of 52 patients, or 33%). Multiple procedures in one patient were common. Costs for LITHO were calculated in two ways: first the individual cost for each of the 52 candidates; second the cost for successful LITHO was calculated by excluding five patients who required operation as well as five patients (10%) who are predicted failures of LITHO. Including the preoperative evaluation, treatment, recovery room, and follow-up, the individual LITHO cost for 52 patients was $8275.00. If the same total expenditure is calculated after excluding patients who required operation and those predicted to fail, the cost per 'successful' LITHO procedure was $10,245. The cost of 1 year of bile acid therapy is $1949.00 or $2413.00 per 'successful' procedure. Follow-up costs were $1232.00 per patient or $1525.00 per 'successful' procedure. The added LITHO cost incurred by screening eventual noncandidates was $904.00 per successful procedure. The sum of these individual costs was $15,087.00 per success, as compared to $3685.00 for cholecystectomy. No allowance was made for cost of stone recurrence. Lithotripsy costs appear to be sufficiently high to render the procedure unlikely to emerge as the treatment of choice.

  17. Effect of the type of dietary fat on biliary lipid composition and bile lithogenicity in humans with cholesterol gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Yago, María Dolores; González, Victoria; Serrano, Pilar; Calpena, Rafael; Martínez, María Alba; Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Mañas, Mariano

    2005-03-01

    The effect of the type of dietary fat on bile lipids and lithogenicity is unclear. This study compared the effects of two dietary oils that differed in fatty acid profile on biliary lipid composition in humans. Female patients who had cholesterol gallstones and were scheduled for elective cholecystectomy were studied. For 30 d before surgery, subjects were kept on diets that contained olive oil (olive oil group, n = 9) or sunflower oil (sunflower oil group, n = 9) as the main source of fat. Gallbladder bile and stones were sampled at surgery. After cholecystectomy, duodenal samples were collected by nasoduodenal intubation during fasting and after administration of mixed liquid meals that included the corresponding dietary oil. Duodenal and gallbladder bile samples were analyzed for cholesterol, phospholipids, and total bile acids by established methods. Individual bile acid conjugates in gallbladder bile were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Gallstones were analyzed by semiquantitative polarizing light microscopy. Despite marked differences in the absolute concentration of biliary lipids and total lipid content, manipulation of dietary fat ingestion did not influence the cholesterol saturation or the profile of individual bile acids in gallbladder bile obtained from patients who had gallstones. All but one subject had mixed cholesterol stones. A cholesterol saturation index of hepatic bile in fasted cholecystectomized patients was similar in both dietary groups and indicative of supersaturation. In response to the test meal, the cholesterol saturation index decreased significantly in patients given the olive oil diet, reaching values lower than one at 120 min postprandially. In contrast, hepatic bile secreted by patients who consumed sunflower oil appeared supersaturated (cholesterol saturation index >1.5) throughout the experiment. Our results suggest that the type of dietary fat habitually consumed can influence bile composition in humans. In

  18. Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams of unconjugated bilirubin IXα as functions of pH in model bile systems: Implications for pigment gallstone formation

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marvin D.

    2014-01-01

    Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams for unconjugated bilirubin IXα (UCB) in bile are yet to be determined for understanding the physical chemistry of pigment gallstone formation. Also, UCB is a molecule of considerable biomedical importance because it is a potent antioxidant and an inhibitor of atherogenesis. We employed principally a titrimetric approach to obtain metastable and equilibrium UCB solubilities in model bile systems composed of taurine-conjugated bile salts, egg yolk lecithin (mixed long-chain phosphatidylcholines), and cholesterol as functions of total lipid concentration, biliary pH values, and CaCl2 plus NaCl concentrations. Metastable and equilibrium precipitation pH values were obtained, and average pKa values of the two carboxyl groups of UCB were calculated. Added lecithin and increased temperature decreased UCB solubility markedly, whereas increases in bile salt concentrations and molar levels of urea augmented solubility. A wide range of NaCl and cholesterol concentrations resulted in no specific effects, whereas added CaCl2 produced large decreases in UCB solubilities at alkaline pH values only. UV-visible absorption spectra were consistent with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between UCB and bile salts that were strongly influenced by pH. Reliable literature values for UCB compositions of native gallbladder biles revealed that biles from hemolytic mice and humans with black pigment gallstones are markedly supersaturated with UCB and exhibit more acidic pH values, whereas biles from nonstone control animals and patients with cholesterol gallstone are unsaturated with UCB. PMID:25359538

  19. Comparison on Response and Dissolution Rates Between Ursodeoxycholic Acid Alone or in Combination With Chenodeoxycholic Acid for Gallstone Dissolution According to Stone Density on CT Scan: Strobe Compliant Observation Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Min; Hyun, Jong Jin; Choi, In Young; Yeom, Suk Keu; Kim, Seung Young; Jung, Sung Woo; Jung, Young Kul; Koo, Ja Seol; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hong Sik; Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Chang Duck

    2015-12-01

    Medical dissolution of gallstone is usually performed on radiolucent gallstones in a functioning gallbladder. However, absence of visible gallstone on plain abdominal x-ray does not always preclude calcification. This study aims to compare the response and dissolution rates between ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) alone or in combination with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) according to stone density on computed tomography (CT) scan. A total of 126 patients underwent dissolution therapy with either UDCA alone or combination of CDCA and UDCA (CNU) from December 2010 to March 2014 at Korea University Ansan Hospital. In the end, 81 patients (CNU group = 44, UDCA group = 37) completed dissolution therapy for 6 months. Dissolution rate (percentage reduction in the gallstone volume) and response to therapy (complete dissolution or partial dissolution defined as reduction in stone volume of >50%) were compared between the 2 groups. Dissolution and response rates of sludge was also compared between the 2 groups. The overall response rate was 50.6% (CNU group 43.2% vs UDCA group 59.5%, P = 0.14), and the overall dissolution rate was 48.34% (CNU group 41.5% vs UDCA group 56.5%, P = 0.13). When analyzed according to stone density, response rate was 33.3%, 87.1%, 30.0%, and 6.2% for hypodense, isodense, hyperdense, and calcified stones, respectively. Response rate (85.7% vs 88.2%, P = 0.83) and dissolution rate (81.01% vs 85.38%, P = 0.17) of isodense stones were similar between CNU and UDCA group. When only sludge was considered, the overall response rate was 87.5% (CNU group 71.4% vs UDCA group 94.1%, P = 0.19), and the overall dissolution rate was 85.42% (CNU group 67.9% vs UDCA group 92.7%, P = 0.23). Patients with isodense gallstones and sludge showed much better response to dissolution therapy with CNU and UDCA showing comparable efficacy. Therefore, CT scan should be performed before medication therapy if stone dissolution is intended.

  20. [Bouveret's syndrome: A rare presentation of gallstone ileus].

    PubMed

    Franco-Avilés, Luis; Arce-Guridi, Héctor Tonalli; Mercado, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    Bouveret's syndrome is defined as gastric outlet obstruction caused by duodenal impaction of a gallstone which passes into the duodenal bulb through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. We reported the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented intermittent epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss of 2-months duration. The patient admitted alcohol and methamphetamine abuse. She had not fever, dehydration or jaundice. Amylase, electrolytes, enzymes, and creatinine level were within normal limits. Seven months previously she was seen in the emergency department for acute cholecystitis. In that occasion, an abdominal ultrasound was reported with cholelithiasis without dilatation of the intra/extra-hepatic bile duct. Abdominal plain radiographs showed no relevant findings. A laparoscopic surgery was performed. During the procedure a sub-hepatic plastron with firm adhesions was found. The gallbladder was found attached to the duodenal bulb and an impacted calculus in the duodenum. The procedure was converted to surgery. Surgeon decided to perform a Bilroth 1 as the best choice. Seven days later, she was discharged. The clinical manifestations of the Bouveret's syndrome are nonspecific. Preoperative diagnosis is a challenge for clinicians because of the rarity of this condition. Treatment must be individualized.

  1. Shared decision-making during surgical consultation for gallstones at a safety-net hospital.

    PubMed

    Mueck, Krislynn M; Leal, Isabel M; Wan, Charlie C; Goldberg, Braden F; Saunders, Tamara E; Millas, Stefanos G; Liang, Mike K; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S

    2018-04-01

    Understanding patient perspectives regarding shared decision-making is crucial to providing informed, patient-centered care. Little is known about perceptions of vulnerable patients regarding shared decision-making during surgical consultation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a validated tool reflects perceptions of shared decision-making accurately among patients seeking surgical consultation for gallstones at a safety-net hospital. A mixed methods study was conducted in a sample of adult patients with gallstones evaluated at a safety-net surgery clinic between May to July 2016. Semi-structured interviews were conducted after their initial surgical consultation and analyzed for emerging themes. Patients were administered the Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire and Autonomy Preference Scale. Univariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with shared decision-making and to compare the results of the surveys to those of the interviews. The majority of patients (N = 30) were female (90%), Hispanic (80%), Spanish-speaking (70%), and middle-aged (45.7 ± 16 years). The proportion of patients who perceived shared decision-making was greater in the Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire versus the interviews (83% vs 27%, P < .01). Age, sex, race/ethnicity, primary language, diagnosis, Autonomy Preference Scale score, and decision for operation was not associated with shared decision-making. Contributory factors to this discordance include patient unfamiliarity with shared decision-making, deference to surgeon authority, lack of discussion about different treatments, and confusion between aligned versus shared decisions. Available questionnaires may overestimate shared decision-making in vulnerable patients suggesting the need for alternative or modifications to existing methods. Furthermore, such metrics should be assessed for correlation with patient-reported outcomes, such as satisfaction with decisions and health status

  2. Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams of unconjugated bilirubin IXα as functions of pH in model bile systems: Implications for pigment gallstone formation.

    PubMed

    Berman, Marvin D; Carey, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams for unconjugated bilirubin IXα (UCB) in bile are yet to be determined for understanding the physical chemistry of pigment gallstone formation. Also, UCB is a molecule of considerable biomedical importance because it is a potent antioxidant and an inhibitor of atherogenesis. We employed principally a titrimetric approach to obtain metastable and equilibrium UCB solubilities in model bile systems composed of taurine-conjugated bile salts, egg yolk lecithin (mixed long-chain phosphatidylcholines), and cholesterol as functions of total lipid concentration, biliary pH values, and CaCl2 plus NaCl concentrations. Metastable and equilibrium precipitation pH values were obtained, and average pKa values of the two carboxyl groups of UCB were calculated. Added lecithin and increased temperature decreased UCB solubility markedly, whereas increases in bile salt concentrations and molar levels of urea augmented solubility. A wide range of NaCl and cholesterol concentrations resulted in no specific effects, whereas added CaCl2 produced large decreases in UCB solubilities at alkaline pH values only. UV-visible absorption spectra were consistent with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between UCB and bile salts that were strongly influenced by pH. Reliable literature values for UCB compositions of native gallbladder biles revealed that biles from hemolytic mice and humans with black pigment gallstones are markedly supersaturated with UCB and exhibit more acidic pH values, whereas biles from nonstone control animals and patients with cholesterol gallstone are unsaturated with UCB. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. On the growth rate of gallstones in the human gallbladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nudelman, I.

    1993-05-01

    The growth rate of a single symmetrically oval shaped gallbladder stone weighing 10.8 g was recorded over a period of six years before surgery and removal. The length of the stone was measured by ultrasonography and the growth rate was found to be linear with time, with a value of 0.4 mm/year. A smaller stone growing in the wall of the gallbladder was detected only three years before removal and grew at a rate of ˜ 1.33 mm/year. The morphology and metallic ion chemical composition of the large stone and of a randomly selected small stone weighing about 1.1 g, extracted from another patient, were analyzed and compared. It was found that the large stone contained besides calcium also lead, whereas the small stone contained mainly calcium. It is possible that the lead causes a difference in mechanism between the growth of a single large and growth of multiple small gallstones.

  4. Evaluation of plasma microRNA-122, high-mobility group box 1 and keratin-18 concentrations to stratify acute gallstone disease: a pilot observational cohort study in an emergency general surgery unit.

    PubMed

    Th'ng, Francesca; Vliegenthart, Bastiaan; Lea, Jonathan D; Antoine, Daniel J; Dear, James W; Mole, Damian J

    2018-04-27

    To obtain pilot data to evaluate the discriminatory power of biomarkers microRNA-122 (miR-122), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), full-length keratin-18 (flk-18) and caspase-cleaved keratin-18 (cck-18) in plasma to identify potential biliary complications that may require acute intervention. An observational biomarker cohort pilot study. In a Scottish University teaching hospital for 12 months beginning on 3 September 2014. Blood samples were collected from adults (≥16 years old) referred with acute biliary-type symptoms who have presented to hospital within 24 hours prior were recruited. Patients unable or refused to give informed consent or were transferred from a hospital outside the National Health Service regional trust were excluded. To evaluate whether circulating miR-122, HMGB1, flk-18 and cck-18 can discriminate between people with and without gallstone disease and uncomplicated from complicated gallstone disease during the first 24 hours of hospital admission. 300 patients were screened of which 285 patients were included. Plasma miR-122, cck-18 and flk-18 concentrations were increased in patients with gallstones compared with those without (miR-122: median: 2.89×10 4  copies/mL vs 0.90×10 4  copies/mL (p<0.001); cck-18: 121.2 U/L vs 103.5 U/L (p=0.031); flk-18: 252.4 U/L vs 145.1 U/L (p<0.001)). Uncomplicated gallstone disease was associated with higher miR-122 and cck-18 concentrations than complicated disease (miR-122: 5.72×10 4  copies/mL vs 2.26×10 4  copies/mL (p=0.023); cck-18: 139.7 U/L vs 113.6 U/L (p=0.047)). There was no significant difference in HMGB1 concentration between patients with and without gallstones (p=0.559). Separation between groups for all biomarkers was modest. miR-122 and keratin-18 plasma concentrations are elevated in patients with gallstones. However, this result is confounded by the association between biomarker concentrations, age and gender. In this pilot study, miR-122 and keratin-18 were

  5. Management of complicated gallstones: results of an alternative approach to difficult cholecystectomies.

    PubMed

    Lirici, Marco Maria; Califano, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard treatment of gallstones. Nevertheless, the incidence of conversion and injuries to the biliary tract is still high in difficult cholecystectomies. In this study we sought to determine how using operative risk predictive scores (PSs) and the Nassar scale to grade the difficulty of LC would optimize the perioperative management of complicated gallstone patients. We also evaluated whether the "fundus-first" approach to LC combined with ultrasonic dissection minimizes the risk of conversion and biliary injury in difficult cholecystectomies, and avoids routine intraoperative cholangiography. A prospective non-randomized study was carried out from 2005 to 2007 including 237 patients referred for gallbladder diseases. All patients were evaluated using an operative risk PS. The LC grade of difficulty was assessed according to Nassar. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of PS were calculated. LC in difficult cases was accomplished with a fundus-first approach. Outcome measures included: Conversion rate, bile duct (BD) injury rate, and postoperative complications according to Clavien. In 178 out of 237 patients, a higher risk of conversion and complication was predicted. In 146 out of these 178 cases, intra-operative grading confirmed the difficulty of the procedure. The PS diagnostic accuracy was 0.865, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity 65%. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 0.82 and 1, respectively. Conversion rate was 2.7%. Mean operating time and postoperative length of hospital stay were 75 minutes and 3.5 days. Intra-operative cholangiography was necessary in five cases, and one intraoperative biliary complication occurred with an uneventful postoperative course. Overall, postoperative complications were 2.7% with a mortality rate of 0.68% (1 myocardial infarction). Fundus-first LC by ultrasonic dissection is safe and minimizes the risk of conversion and biliary injuries

  6. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  7. Gallstones in children with sickle cell disease followed up at a Brazilian hematology center.

    PubMed

    Gumiero, Ana Paula dos Santos; Bellomo-Brandão, Maria Angela; Costa-Pinto, Elizete Aparecida Lomazi da

    2008-01-01

    Sickle cell disease causes chronic and recurrent hemolysis which is a recognized risk factor for cholelithiasis. This complication occurs in 50% of adults with sickle cell disease. Surgery is the consensual therapy for symptomatic patients, but the surgical approach is still controversial in asymptomatic individuals. To determine the frequency and to describe and discuss the outcome of children with sickle cell disease complicated with gallstones followed up at a tertiary pediatric hematology center. In a retrospective and descriptive study, 225 charts were reviewed and data regarding patient outcome were recorded. The prevalence of cholelithiasis was 45% and half the patients were asymptomatic. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of cholelithiasis and surgical treatment was 12.5 years (standard deviation = 5) and 14 years (standard deviation = 5.4), respectively. The prevalence of cholelithiasis was higher in patients with SS homozygous and Sb heterozygous thalassemia when compared to patients with sickle cell disease. In 50% of symptomatic patients, recurrent abdominal pain was the single or predominant symptom. Thirty-nine of 44 patients submitted to surgery reported symptom relief after the surgical procedure. Asymptomatic individuals who did not undergo surgical treatment were followed up for 7 years (standard deviation = 4.8), and none of them presented complications related to cholelithiasis during this period. The frequency of cholelithiasis in the study population was 45%. One-third of the patients were diagnosed before 10 years of age. Patients with the SS homozygous or Sb heterozygous phenotype were at a higher risk for the development of cholelithiasis than patients with sickle cell disease. About 50% of patients with gallstones were asymptomatic, the most of them did not undergo surgery and did not present complications during a 7-year follow-up period. Cholecystectomy must be considered in symptomatic patients. In asymptomatic patients, conservative

  8. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus small incision cholecystectomy in symptomatic gallstones disease.

    PubMed

    Mehrvarz, Shaban; Mohebi, Hassan Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

    2012-10-01

    To compare the results and outcomes of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with the small incision cholecystectomy (SIC). Observational study. Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from February 2008 to March 2009. Patients with symptomatic gallstones that were referred and enrolled in the study for LC or SIC. Operation, anaesthesia, analgesics and postoperative care were standardized. The patients were assessed for operation time, postoperative pain, nausea, vomiting, hospital stay, return to work time and complications in the postoperative period on day 1, 1 week, 1 month and 6 months, postoperatively. Of 144 patients, 81 underwent LC and 63 underwent SIC. Both groups were matched for age, gender, BMI, clinical findings and ASA grading. The mean duration of operation was 74 and 62 minutes in the LC and SIC groups, respectively (p = 0.0059). Duration of hospital stay and return to regular activities were shorter after LC compared to SIC. Pain scores, nausea and vomiting were the same in both groups, although the frequency of intra-operative complications were greater in LC compared to SIC. Outcome and complications of SIC were comparable with those of LC.

  9. High protein buckwheat flour suppresses hypercholesterolemia in rats and gallstone formation in mice by hypercholesterolemic diet and body fat in rats because of its low protein digestibility.

    PubMed

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Naoe; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Ohinata, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Rikio; Kayashita, Jun; Kato, Norihisa

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the physiologic properties of high protein buckwheat flour (PBF) by examining its effects on serum cholesterol and body fat in rats and on cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Animals were fed experimental diets that contained casein, buckwheat protein extract (BWP), or PBF as a protein source (net protein content 200 g/kg). In experiment 1, consumption of PBF and BWP for 10 d caused 33% and 31% decreases, respectively, in serum cholesterol of rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets when compared with consumption of casein (P < 0.05). Dietary PBF caused a significant decrease in liver cholesterol, whereas dietary BWP caused only a slight decrease (P > 0.05). Fecal excretion of neutral and acidic steroids in the PBF group was significantly higher than those in the BWP and casein groups. In experiment 2, consumption of PBF for 10 d significantly suppressed adipose tissue weight and hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase in rats fed cholesterol-free diets compared with consumption of casein (P < 0.05), whereas that of BWP for this period caused only a slight decrease in adipose tissue weight (P > 0.05). In experiment 3, dietary PBF and BWP significantly decreased the incidence of cholesterol gallstones and lithogenic index in mice fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 27 d, which was associated with increased fecal excretion of acidic steroids. This study demonstrated that PBF has strong activities against hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and gallstone formation, suggesting a potential usefulness of PBF as functional ingredient.

  10. Pigment gallstone pathogenesis: slime production by biliary bacteria is more important than beta-glucuronidase production.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L; Ponce, R; Oesterle, A L; Griffiss, J M; Way, L W

    2000-01-01

    Pigment stones are thought to form as a result of deconjugation of bilirubin by bacterial beta-glucuronidase, which results in precipitation of calcium bilirubinate. Calcium bilirubinate is then aggregated into stones by an anionic glycoprotein. Slime (glycocalyx), an anionic glycoprotein produced by bacteria causing foreign body infections, has been implicated in the formation of the precipitate that blocks biliary stents. We previously showed that bacteria are present within the pigment portions of gallstones and postulated a bacterial role in pigment stone formation through beta-glucuronidase or slime production. Ninety-one biliary bacterial isolates from 61 patients and 12 control stool organisms were tested for their production of beta-glucuronidase and slime. The average slime production was 42 for biliary bacteria and 2.5 for stool bacteria (P <0.001). Overall, 73% of biliary bacteria and 8% of stool bacteria produced slime (optical density >3). In contrast, only 38% of biliary bacteria produced beta-glucuronidase. Eighty-two percent of all patients, 90% of patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones, 100% of patients with primary CBD stones, and 93% of patients with biliary tubes had one or more bacterial species in their stones that produced slime. By comparison, only 47% of all patients, 60% of patients with CBD stones, 62% of patients with primary CBD stones, and 50% of patients with biliary tubes had one or more bacteria that produced beta-glucuronidase. Most biliary bacteria produced slime, and slime production correlated better than beta-glucuronidase production did with stone formation and the presence of biliary tubes or stents. Patients with primary CBD stones and biliary tubes had the highest incidence of slime production. These findings suggest that bacterial slime is important in gallstone formation and the blockage of biliary tubes.

  11. [Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of gallstones].

    PubMed

    Freund, H R; Lebensart, P D; Muggia-Sullam, M; Durst, A L

    1989-08-01

    We performed 16 extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsies (ESWL) to fragment gallstones in 11 women and 2 men, aged 19 to 57 (mean 41 +/- 10) years, during the past 10 months. Criteria for selection included a history of biliary colic, not more than 3 stones with a total diameter of not more than 30 mm, and a functioning gallbladder. 210 patients were examined, of whom 98 were referred for additional screening by combined ultrasonography and oral cholecystography. This resulted in rejection of another 71 patients due to multiple stones (38%), nonfunctioning gallbladder (22%), calcified stones (12%), stones not visualized in the prone position (9%), excessively large stones (3%) and other reasons (16%). Only 27 patients fulfilled all the criteria. Under epidural or general anesthesia (11 and 2 patients, respectively), we administered 1200-3500 (mean 2250 +/- 750) shock waves at 20-24 KV with the Tripter X1 (Direx, Israel-USA). This is an ultrasound-guided, modular portable, shock-wave generator utilizing underwater high energy spark discharge. Chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acid, 10 mg/kg/day, was started 1 week prior to ESWL and continued for 3 months after disappearance of fragments and debris. We encountered skin petechiae in all patients, transient hematuria in 8, mild biliary colic in 1 and a small liver hematoma in 1. To date, 3 patients are free of stones, while in 7 only sludge and tiny fragments are present which we expect to disappear as a result of the litholytic therapy. 3 patients had fragments larger than 5 mm and required a second ESWL. Thus ESWL, which was indicated in only 13% of screened patients, proved to be safe and can be expected to be successful in 75% of selected candidates.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Early Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) ± Endoscopic Sphincterotomy (ES) Versus Conservative Management for Gallstone Pancreatitis (GSP).

    PubMed

    Burstow, Matthew J; Yunus, Rossita M; Hossain, Md Belal; Khan, Shahjahan; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed A

    2015-06-01

    The utility of early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) ± endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) in the treatment of gallstone pancreatitis (GSP) is still contentious. The aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the treatment of GSP by early ERCP ± ES versus conservative management and analyzing the patient outcomes. A search of Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews identified all RCTs comparing early ERCP to conservative management in GSP published between January 1970 and January 2014. Search terms included "Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)"; "Endoscopic sphincterotomy"; "Gallstones"; "Bile duct stones"; "Gallstone pancreatitis"; "Biliary pancreatitis"; "Randomize/Randomised controlled trials"; "Conservative management/treatment"; "Human"; "English." Only prospective RCTs comparing early intervention (ie, between 24 and 72 h) with ERCP ± ES versus conservative management in GSP were included. Data extraction and critical appraisal was carried out independently by 2 authors (M.J.B. and M.A.M.) using predefined data fields. Variables analyzed included severity of pancreatitis (mild or severe), overall mortality, overall complications which included pseudocyst formation, organ failure (renal, respiratory, and cardiac), abnormal coagulation, biliary sepsis, and development of pancreatic abscess/phlegmon. The quality of RCTs was assessed using Jadad's scoring system. Random-effects model was used to calculate the outcomes of both binary and continuous data. Heterogeneity among the outcome variables of these trials was determined by the Cochran Q statistic and I2 index. The meta-analysis was prepared in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. Eleven RCTs consisting of 1314 patients (conservative management=662, ERCP=652) were analyzed. There was a

  13. Gallstones, a cholecystectomy, chronic pancreatitis, and the risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer in diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Tsai, I-Ju; Chen, Pei-Chun; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chou, Jen-Wei; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Lai, Shih-Wei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Morisky, Donald E

    2013-06-01

    The causal association between diabetes and pancreatic cancer remains unclear in Asian populations. This study examined whether gallstones, a cholecystectomy, chronic pancreatitis and the treatment of antidiabetic agents affect the risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer for patients with diabetes in a Taiwanese population. Using claims data from the universal health insurance program in Taiwan, 449,685 newly diagnosed diabetic cases among insured people from 2000 to 2003 were identified as the case group. The comparison group, matched for gender, age, and the index year of the diabetes cohort, consisted of 325,729 persons without diabetes. Pancreatic cancer incidence was measured in both groups until the end of 2008. Other risk factors associated with this cancer were also measured. The incidence of pancreatic cancer in the diabetic cohort was 2-fold greater than that in the comparison group (1.46 vs. 0.71 per 10,000 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.75 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.45-2.10]. The risk slightly increased for diabetic patients with gallstones, cholecystitis, and a cholecystectomy (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.18-3.11), but greatly increased for those with comorbidity of chronic pancreatitis (HR 22.9, 95% CI 12.6-41.4). Pancreatic cancer risk also increased significantly for those patients who used more insulin for treating diabetes (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.45). Our data suggest that the risk of pancreatic cancer is moderately increased in patients with diabetes, especially those using insulin therapy. The risk is greatly increased for diabetic patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  14. Bacteria entombed in the center of cholesterol gallstones induce fewer infectious manifestations than bacteria in the matrix of pigment stones.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lygia; Griffiss, J McLeod; Jarvis, Gary A; Way, Lawrence W

    2007-10-01

    The clinical significance of bacteria in the pigment centers of cholesterol stones is unknown. We compared the infectious manifestations and characteristics of bacteria from pigment stones and predominantly cholesterol stones. Three hundred forty patients were studied. Bile was cultured. Gallstones were cultured and examined with scanning electron microscopy. Level of bacterial immunoglobulin G (bile, serum), complement killing, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production were determined. Twenty-three percent of cholesterol stones and 68% of pigment stones contained bacteria (P < 0.0001). Stone culture correlated with scanning electron microscopy results. Pigment stone bacteria were more often present in bile and blood. Cholesterol stone bacteria caused more severe infections (19%) than sterile stones (0%), but less than pigment stone bacteria (57%) (P < 0.0001). Serum and bile from patients with cholesterol stone bacteria had less bacterial-specific immunoglobulin G. Cholesterol stone bacteria produced more slime. Pigment stone bacteria were more often killed by a patient's serum. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha production of the groups was similar. Bacteria are readily cultured from cholesterol stones with pigment centers, allowing for analysis of their virulence factors. Bacteria sequestered in cholesterol stones cause infectious manifestations, but less than bacteria in pigment stones. Possibly because of their isolation, cholesterol stone bacteria were less often present in bile and blood, induced less immunoglobulin G, were less often killed by a patient's serum, and demonstrated fewer infectious manifestations than pigment stone bacteria. This is the first study to analyze the clinical relevance of bacteria within cholesterol gallstones.

  15. The mechanism of enterohepatic circulation in the formation of gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian-Shan; Chen, Jin-Hong

    2014-11-01

    Bile acids entering into enterohepatic circulating are primary acids synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocyte. They are secreted actively across canalicular membrane and carried in bile to gallbladder, where they are concentrated during digestion. About 95% BAs are actively taken up from the lumen of terminal ileum efficiently, leaving only approximately 5% (or approximately 0.5 g/d) in colon, and a fraction of bile acids are passively reabsorbed after a series of modifications in the human large intestine including deconjugation and oxidation of hydroxy groups. Bile salts hydrolysis and hydroxy group dehydrogenation reactions are performed by a broad spectrum of intestinal anaerobic bacteria. Next, hepatocyte reabsorbs bile acids from sinusoidal blood, which are carried to liver through portal vein via a series of transporters. Bile acids (BAs) transporters are critical for maintenance of the enterohepatic BAs circulation, where BAs exert their multiple physiological functions including stimulation of bile flow, intestinal absorption of lipophilic nutrients, solubilization, and excretion of cholesterol. Tight regulation of BA transporters via nuclear receptors (NRs) is necessary to maintain proper BA homeostasis. In conclusion, disturbances of enterohepatic circulation may account for pathogenesis of gallstones diseases, including BAs transporters and their regulatory NRs and the metabolism of intestinal bacterias, etc.

  16. Composition of gallbladder bile in healthy individuals and patients with gallstone disease from north and South India.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, V; Sarika, S; Varghese, Joy; Vaithiswaran, V; Sharma, Malay; Reddy, Mettu Srinivas; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Reddy, G M M; Rela, Mohamed; Kalkura, S

    2016-09-01

    Gallstones (GS) in south India (SI) are predominantly pure pigment or mixed, while in North India (NI), these are either pure cholesterol or mixed. While cholesterol rich gallbladder (GB) bile predicts cholesterol GS, constituent of bile in primary pigment GS is not known. We compared the composition of GB bile from healthy liver donors and patients with GS from north and south India. Gallbladder bile from healthy liver donors from north (10) and south India (8) served as controls. Cases were patients from north (21) and south India (17) who underwent cholecystectomy for GS disease. Gallbladder bile from both cases and controls was analyzed for cholesterol, lecithin (phospholipid), and bile salts. Gallstones were classified as cholesterol, mixed, and pigment based on morphology and biochemical analysis. The median cholesterol concentration in control bile from north was significantly high compared to south (p<0.001) with no difference in lecithin and bile salts (p NS). Except for one sample each from north and south, the cholesterol solubility of controls was within the critical micellar zone. Mixed GS were most frequent in north India (61.9 %) while pigment GS dominated in south (61.9 %). The median cholesterol concentration in bile samples of cholecystectomy patients from north India was significantly high GS (p < 0.00001) with significant lowering of bile salts and lecithin (p < 0.00001). In south India, patients with mixed GS had high cholesterol content in bile compared to controls and patients with pigment GS; bile in latter had significantly higher concentration of bile salt compared to controls and mixed GS. The ternary plot confirmed the composition of GB bile from north and south India. Gallbladder bile in controls and patients with GS from north India had significantly high cholesterol concentration. In south India, patients with mixed GS had cholesterol rich bile while pigment GS had higher concentrations of bile salts.

  17. Correlation between chemical components of billary calculi and bile & sera and bile of gallstone patients.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Prasheeda; Garg, Pradeep; Pundir, Chandra S

    2005-07-01

    Total cholesterol, total bilirubin, calcium, oxalate, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium and potassium were analyzed quantitatively in gallstones, bile of gall bladder and sera of 200 patients of cholelithiasis (52 cholesterol, 76 mixed and 72 pigment stone patients) and their contents were correlated between calculi and bile and sera and bile in these three type of stone patients. A significant positive correlation was observed between total cholesterol, total bilirubin of calculi and bile, copper of bile and sera of cholesterol stone patients, copper of calculi and bile, total bilirubin, oxalate, magnesium, potassium of sera and bile of pigment stone patients and oxalate and iron of stone and bile, total bilirubin, oxalate, sodium of sera and bile of mixed stone patients. A significant negative correlation was found between magnesium of serum and bile of cholesterol stone patients, oxalate of calculi and bile of pigment stone patients and magnesium of serum and bile of mixed stone patients.

  18. Pressures in the sphincter of Oddi in patients with gallstones, common duct stones, and recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Guelrud, M; Mendoza, S; Vicent, S; Gomez, M; Villalta, B

    1983-02-01

    To determine the significance of manometric pressure, measurements of the sphincter of Oddi in a control group and in patients with cholelithiasis with common duct stones with and without recurrent pancreatitis were studied. Sphincter of Oddi pressure was recorded continuously and by station pull-through by a triple lumen catheter. The basal sphincter of Oddi pressure, the mean pressure gradient between common duct and duodenum, and the sphincter of Oddi wave amplitude were measured. There was no significant difference between control subjects and patients with gallstones and common duct stones. In patients with common duct stones and recurrent pancreatitis the basal sphincter of Oddi pressure, the pressure gradient between common duct and duodenum, and the wave amplitude were significantly increased over control patients. These studies suggest that abnormalities in the sphincter of Oddi motor function are more common in patients with common duct stones with recurrent pancreatitis than in similar patients without pancreatitis.

  19. Role of phospholipase A2 in cholesterol gallstone formation is associated with biliary phospholipid species selection at the site of hepatic excretion: indirect evidence.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Y; Tazuma, S; Yamashita, G; Ochi, H; Sunami, Y; Nishioka, T; Hyogo, H; Yasumiba, S; Kajihara, T; Nakai, K; Tsuboi, K; Asamoto, Y; Sakomoto, M; Kajiyama, G

    2000-07-01

    Phospholipase A2 plays a role in cholesterol gallstone development by hydrolyzing bile phospholipids into lysolecithin and free fatty acids. Lysolecithin and polyunsaturated free fatty acids are known to stimulate the synthesis and/or secretion of gallbladder mucin via a prostanoid pathway, leading to enhancing cholesterol crystal nucleation and growth, and therefore, the action of phospholipase A2 is associated, in part, with bile phospholipid fatty acid. To clarify this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect on bile lipid metastability in vitro of replacing phospholipids with lysolecithin and various free fatty acids. Supersaturated model biles were created with an identical composition (cholesterol saturation index, 1.8; egg yolk lecithin, 34 mM; taurocholate, 120 mM; cholesterol, 25 mM) except for 5%, 10%, or 20% replacement of egg yolk lecithin with a combination of palmitoyl-lysolecithin and a free fatty acid (palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate, or arachidonate), followed by time-sequentially monitoring of vesicles and cholesterol crystals using spectrophotometer and video-enhanced differential contrast microscopy. Replacement with hydrophilic fatty acids (linoleate and arachidonate) reduced vesicle formation and promoted cholesterol crystallization, whereas an enhanced cholesterol-holding capacity was evident after replacement with hydrophobic fatty acids (palmitate and stearate). These results indicate that the effect of phospholipase A2 on bile lithogenecity is modulated by the fatty acid species in bile phospholipids, and therefore, that the role of phospholipase A2 in cholesterol gallstone formation is dependent, in part, on biliary phospholipid species selection at the site of hepatic excretion.

  20. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cholecystectomy compared with observation/conservative management for preventing recurrent symptoms and complications in adults presenting with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones or cholecystitis: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brazzelli, Miriam; Cruickshank, Moira; Kilonzo, Mary; Ahmed, Irfan; Stewart, Fiona; McNamee, Paul; Elders, Andrew; Fraser, Cynthia; Avenell, Alison; Ramsay, Craig

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 10-15% of the adult population suffer from gallstone disease, cholelithiasis, with more women than men being affected. Cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for people who present with biliary pain or acute cholecystitis and evidence of gallstones. However, some people do not experience a recurrence after an initial episode of biliary pain or cholecystitis. As most of the current research focuses on the surgical management of the disease, less attention has been dedicated to the consequences of conservative management. To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cholecystectomy compared with observation/conservative management in people presenting with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones (biliary pain) or cholecystitis. We searched all major electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Bioscience Information Service, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from 1980 to September 2012 and we contacted experts in the field. Evidence was considered from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised comparative studies that enrolled people with symptomatic gallstone disease (pain attacks only and/or acute cholecystitis). Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Standard meta-analysis techniques were used to combine results from included studies. A de novo Markov model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Two Norwegian RCTs involving 201 participants were included. Eighty-eight per cent of people randomised to surgery and 45% of people randomised to observation underwent cholecystectomy during the 14-year follow-up period. Participants randomised to observation were significantly more likely to experience gallstone-related complications [risk ratio = 6.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57 to 28.51; p = 0.01], in particular acute cholecystitis (risk ratio = 9.55; 95% CI 1.25 to 73.27; p = 0

  1. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cholecystectomy compared with observation/conservative management for preventing recurrent symptoms and complications in adults presenting with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones or cholecystitis: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Brazzelli, Miriam; Cruickshank, Moira; Kilonzo, Mary; Ahmed, Irfan; Stewart, Fiona; McNamee, Paul; Elders, Andrew; Fraser, Cynthia; Avenell, Alison; Ramsay, Craig

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Approximately 10-15% of the adult population suffer from gallstone disease, cholelithiasis, with more women than men being affected. Cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for people who present with biliary pain or acute cholecystitis and evidence of gallstones. However, some people do not experience a recurrence after an initial episode of biliary pain or cholecystitis. As most of the current research focuses on the surgical management of the disease, less attention has been dedicated to the consequences of conservative management. OBJECTIVES To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cholecystectomy compared with observation/conservative management in people presenting with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones (biliary pain) or cholecystitis. DATA SOURCES We searched all major electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Bioscience Information Service, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from 1980 to September 2012 and we contacted experts in the field. REVIEW METHODS Evidence was considered from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised comparative studies that enrolled people with symptomatic gallstone disease (pain attacks only and/or acute cholecystitis). Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Standard meta-analysis techniques were used to combine results from included studies. A de novo Markov model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. RESULTS Two Norwegian RCTs involving 201 participants were included. Eighty-eight per cent of people randomised to surgery and 45% of people randomised to observation underwent cholecystectomy during the 14-year follow-up period. Participants randomised to observation were significantly more likely to experience gallstone-related complications [risk ratio = 6.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57 to 28.51; p = 0.01], in particular acute

  2. Admission factors can predict the need for ICU monitoring in gallstone pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Arnell, T D; de Virgilio, C; Chang, L; Bongard, F; Stabile, B E

    1996-10-01

    The purpose was 1) to prospectively determine the prevalence of adverse events necessitating intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring in gallstone pancreatitis (GP) and 2) To identify admission prognostic indicators that predict the need for ICU unit monitoring. Prospective laboratory data, physiologic parameters, and APACHE II scores were gathered on 102 patients with GP over 14 months. Adverse events were defined as cardiac, respiratory, or renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, stroke, sepsis, and necrotizing pancreatitis. Patients were divided into Group 1 (no adverse events, n=95) and Group 2 (adverse events, n=7). There were no deaths and 7 (7%) adverse events, including necrotizing pancreatitis (3), cholangitis (2), and cardiac (2). APACHE 11 > or = 5 (P < 0.005), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) > or = 12 mmol/L (P < 0.005), white blood cell count (WBC) > or = 14.5 x 10(9)/L, (P < 0.001), heart rate > or = 100 bpm (P < 0.001), and glucose > or = 150 mg/dL (P < 0.005) were each independent predictors of adverse events. The sensitivity and specificity of these criteria for predicting severe complications requiring ICU care varied from 71 to 86 per cent and 78 to 87 per cent, respectively. The prevalence of adverse events necessitating ICU care in GP patients is low. Glucose, BUN, WBC, heart rate, and APACHE II scores are independent predictors of adverse events necessitating ICU care. Single criteria predicting the need for ICU care on admission are readily available on admission.

  3. Prevalence of gallstones in 1,229 patients submitted to surgical laparoscopic treatment of GERD and esophageal achalasia: associated cholecystectomy was a safe procedure.

    PubMed

    Sallum, Rubens Antonio Aissar; Padrão, Eduardo Messias Hirano; Szachnowicz, Sergio; Seguro, Francisco C B C; Bianchi, Edno Tales; Cecconello, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Association between esophageal achalasia/ gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and cholelithiasis is not clear. Epidemiological data are controversial due to different methodologies applied, the regional differences and the number of patients involved. Results of concomitant cholecistectomy associated to surgical treatment of both diseases regarding safety is poorly understood. To analyze the prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with esophageal achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux submitted to cardiomyotomy or fundoplication. Also, to evaluate the safety of concomitant cholecistectomy. Retrospective analysis of 1410 patients operated from 2000 to 2013. They were divided into two groups: patients with GERD submitted to laparocopic hiatoplasty plus Nissen fundoplication and patients with esophageal achalasia to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy plus partial fundoplication. It was collected epidemiological data, specific diagnosis and subgroups, the presence or absence of gallstones, surgical procedure, operative and clinical complications and mortality. All groups/subgroups were compared. From 1,229 patients with GERD or esophageal achalasia, submitted to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy or fundoplication, 138 (11.43%) had cholelitiasis, occurring more in females (2.38:1) with mean age of 50,27 years old. In 604 patients with GERD, 79 (13,08%) had cholelitiasis. Lower prevalence occurred in Barrett's esophagus patients 7/105 (6.67%) (p=0.037). In 625 with esophageal achalasia, 59 (9.44%) had cholelitiasis, with no difference between chagasic and idiopathic forms (p=0.677). Complications of patients with or without cholecystectomy were similar in fundoplication and cardiomyotomy (p=0.78 and p=1.00).There was no mortality or complications related to cholecystectomy in this series. Prevalence of cholelithiasis was higher in patients submitted to fundoplication (GERD). Patients with chagasic or idiopatic forms of achalasia had the same prevalence of cholelithiasis. Gallstones

  4. Prevalence of gallstones in 1,229 patients submitted to surgical laparoscopic treatment of GERD and esophageal achalasia: associated cholecystectomy was a safe procedure

    PubMed Central

    SALLUM, Rubens Antonio Aissar; PADRÃO, Eduardo Messias Hirano; SZACHNOWICZ, Sergio; SEGURO, Francisco C. B. C.; BIANCHI, Edno Tales; CECCONELLO, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background Association between esophageal achalasia/ gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and cholelithiasis is not clear. Epidemiological data are controversial due to different methodologies applied, the regional differences and the number of patients involved. Results of concomitant cholecistectomy associated to surgical treatment of both diseases regarding safety is poorly understood. Aim To analyze the prevalence of cholelithiasis in patients with esophageal achalasia and gastroesophageal reflux submitted to cardiomyotomy or fundoplication. Also, to evaluate the safety of concomitant cholecistectomy. Methods Retrospective analysis of 1410 patients operated from 2000 to 2013. They were divided into two groups: patients with GERD submitted to laparocopic hiatoplasty plus Nissen fundoplication and patients with esophageal achalasia to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy plus partial fundoplication. It was collected epidemiological data, specific diagnosis and subgroups, the presence or absence of gallstones, surgical procedure, operative and clinical complications and mortality. All groups/subgroups were compared. Results From 1,229 patients with GERD or esophageal achalasia, submitted to laparoscopic cardiomyotomy or fundoplication, 138 (11.43%) had cholelitiasis, occurring more in females (2.38:1) with mean age of 50,27 years old. In 604 patients with GERD, 79 (13,08%) had cholelitiasis. Lower prevalence occurred in Barrett's esophagus patients 7/105 (6.67%) (p=0.037). In 625 with esophageal achalasia, 59 (9.44%) had cholelitiasis, with no difference between chagasic and idiopathic forms (p=0.677). Complications of patients with or without cholecystectomy were similar in fundoplication and cardiomyotomy (p=0.78 and p=1.00).There was no mortality or complications related to cholecystectomy in this series. Conclusions Prevalence of cholelithiasis was higher in patients submitted to fundoplication (GERD). Patients with chagasic or idiopatic forms of achalasia had the

  5. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chun; Chiou, Chia; Lin, Ming-Nan; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease (GSD) and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians. This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model. The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08) and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22) predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05), BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73) are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians. Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1) age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2) age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  6. Polymorphism and Expression Profile of Cholecystokinin Type A Receptor in Relation to Gallstone Disease Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Hasan Raza; Chandra, Abhijit; Nigam, Jaya; Baghel, Kavita; Srivastava, Meenu; Maurya, Shailendra S; Parmar, Devendra

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated expression pattern of Cholecystokinin type A receptor (CCKAR) in relation to its commonly studied polymorphism (rs1800857, T/C) in gallstone disease (GSD) patients and controls. A total of 502 subjects (272 GSD and 230 controls) were enrolled, and genotyping was performed by evaluating restriction fragments of PstI digested DNA. For analyzing expression pattern of CCKAR in relation to polymorphism, gallbladder tissue samples from 80 subjects (GSD-55; control-25) were studied. Expression of CCKAR mRNA was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-PCR and confirmed using real-time PCR. Protein expression was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We observed significantly (p < 0.0001) lower expression of CCKAR mRNA and protein in GSD tissues as compared with control. Significantly higher frequency of A1/A1 genotype (C/T transition) (p = 0.0005) was observed for GSD as compared with control. Expression of CCKAR protein was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in A1/A1 genotype as compared with other genotypes for GSD patients. Perhaps, this is the first report providing evidence of alteration in CCKAR expression in relation to its polymorphism elucidating the molecular pathway of the disease. Additional investigations with lager sample size are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Sequential changes in biliary lipids and gallbladder ion transport during gallstone formation.

    PubMed Central

    Giurgiu, D I; Saunders-Kirkwood, K D; Roslyn, J J; Abedin, M Z

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to correlate gallbladder (GB) Na+ and Cl-) fluxes with biliary lipid composition during the various stages of gallstone (GS) formation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: GS formation is associated with altered GB ion transport and increased biliary lipid and Ca2+ concentrations. Nonetheless, the longitudinal relationship between ion transport and biliary lipid changes during GS formation has not been defined. METHODS: Prairie dogs were fed standard (n = 18) or 1.2% cholesterol-enriched (n = 30) diets for 4 to 21 days. Hepatic and GB bile were analyzed for lipids and Ca2+. Animals were designated either Pre-Crystal, Crystal, or GS based on absence or presence of crystals or GS, respectively. GBs were mounted in Ussing chambers, electrophysiologic parameters were recorded, and unidirectional Na+ and Cl- fluxes measured. RESULTS: Short-circuit current and potential difference were similar during Pre-Crystal and Crystal stages but significantly reduced during GS stage compared to controls and Pre-Crystals. Transepithelial resistance was similar in all groups. Net Na+ absorption was increased during Pre-Crystal but decreased during GS stage due to increased mucosa-to-serosa and serosa-to-mucosa flux, respectively. Increased serosa-to-mucosa flux of both Na+ and Cl- characterized the Crystal stage. Biliary lipids and Ca2+ increased progressively during various stages of GS formation and correlated positively with unidirectional fluxes of Na+ and Cl-. CONCLUSION: GB epithelial ion transport changes sequentially during GS formation, with the early Pre-Crystal stage characterized by increased Na+ absorption, and the later Crystal stage accompanied by prosecretory stimuli on Na+ and Cl- fluxes, which may be due to elevated GB bile Ca2+ and total bile acids. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9114797

  8. Dietary fenugreek and onion attenuate cholesterol gallstone formation in lithogenic diet–fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Raghunatha R L; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2011-01-01

    An animal study was conducted to evaluate the antilithogenic effect of a combination of dietary fenugreek seeds and onion. Lithogenic conditions were induced in mice by feeding them a high (0.5%) cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 weeks. Fenugreek (12%) and onion (2%) were included individually and in combination in this HCD. Fenugreek, onion and their combination reduced the incidence of cholesterol gallstones by 75%, 27% and 76%, respectively, with attendant reduction in total cholesterol content by 38–42%, 50–72% and 61–80% in serum, liver and bile respectively. Consequently, the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio was reduced significantly in serum, liver and bile. The cholesterol saturation index of bile was reduced from 4.14 to 1.38 by the combination of fenugreek and onion and to 2.33 by onion alone. The phospholipid and bile acid contents of the bile were also increased. Changes in the hepatic enzyme activities (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase, cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and cholesterol-27-hydroxylase) induced by HCD were countered by fenugreek, onion and their combination. Hepatic lipid peroxides were reduced by 19–22% and 39–45% with fenugreek, onion and their combination included in the diet along with the HCD. Increased accumulation of fat in the liver and inflammation of the gallbladder membrane produced by HCD were reduced by fenugreek, onion and their combination. The antilithogenic influence was highest with fenugreek alone, and the presence of onion along with it did not further increase this effect. There was also no additive effect of the two spices in the recovery of antioxidant molecules or in the antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:21756271

  9. Rapid and accurate reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of conjugated bile acids in human bile for routine clinical applications. Therapeutic control during gallstone dissolution therapy.

    PubMed

    Swobodnik, W; Klüppelberg, U; Wechsler, J G; Volz, M; Normandin, G; Ditschuneit, H

    1985-05-03

    This paper introduces a new method to detect the taurine and glycine conjugates of five different bile acids (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid) in human bile. Advantages of this method are sufficient separation of compounds within a short period of time and a high rate of reproducibility. Using a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile and water, modified with tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate (0.0075 mol/l), we were able to maximize the differentiation between ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, which is of primary interest during conservative gallstone dissolution therapy. Use of this gradient reduced analysis time to less than 0.5 h. Recovery rates for this modified method ranged from 94% to 100%, and reproducibility was 98%, sufficient for routine clinical applications.

  10. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control

    PubMed Central

    Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Ferri, Flaminia; Mordenti, Michela; Iuliano, Luigi; Siciliano, Maria; Burza, Maria Antonella; Sordi, Bruno; Caciotti, Barbara; Pacini, Maria; Poli, Edoardo; Santis, Adriano De; Roda, Aldo; Colliva, Carolina; Simoni, Patrizia; Attili, Adolfo Francesco

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n = 20) or tap (n = 20) water controlled drinking. Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound, blood vitamin E, oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol), bile acid (BA), triglycerides, total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Food consumption, stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily. RESULTS: Blood lipids, oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption. Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P < 0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL). Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83 ± 1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol). The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid. The number of pasta (P < 0.001), meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group. Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups. CONCLUSION: Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake. PMID:22408352

  11. Association between different combination of measures for obesity and new-onset gallstone disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Wanchao; Ji, Yannan; Wang, Yiming; Liu, Xining; Cao, Liying; Liu, Siqing

    2018-01-01

    Body mass index(BMI) is a calculation index of general obesity. Waist circumference(WC) is a measure of body-fat distribution and always used to estimate abdominal obesity. An important trait of general obesity and abdominal obesity is their propensity to coexist. Using one single measure of obesity could not estimate persons at risk for GSD precisely. This study aimed to compare the predictive values of various combination of measures for obesity(BMI, WC, waist to hip ratio) for new-onset GSD. We prospectively studied the predictive values of various combination of measures for obesity for new-onset GSD in a cohort of 88,947 participants who were free of prior gallstone disease, demographic characteristics and biochemical parameters were recorded. 4,329 participants were identified to have GSD among 88,947 participants during 713 345 person-years of follow-up. Higher BMI, WC and waist to hip ratio (WHtR) were significantly associated with higher risks of GSD in both genders even after adjustment for potential confounders. In males, the hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest BMI, WC, WHtR were 1.63(1.47~1.79), 1.53(1.40~1.68), 1.44(1.31~1.58), respectively. In females, the hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest BMI, WC, WHtR were 2.11(1.79~2.49), 1.85(1.55~2.22), 1.84(1.55~2.19), respectively. In male group, the combination of BMI+WC improved the predictive ability of the model more clearly than other combinations after adding them to the multivariate model in turn, while for females the best predictive combination was BMI+WHtR. Elevated BMI, WC and WHtR were independent risk factors for new-onset GSD in both sex groups after additional adjustment was made for potential confounders. In males, the combination of BMI+WC seemed to be the most predictable model to evaluate the effect of obesity on new-onset GSD, while the best combination in females was BMI+WHtR.

  12. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Ferri, Flaminia; Mordenti, Michela; Iuliano, Luigi; Siciliano, Maria; Burza, Maria Antonella; Sordi, Bruno; Caciotti, Barbara; Pacini, Maria; Poli, Edoardo; Santis, Adriano De; Roda, Aldo; Colliva, Carolina; Simoni, Patrizia; Attili, Adolfo Francesco

    2012-03-07

    To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n = 20) or tap (n = 20) water controlled drinking. Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound, blood vitamin E, oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol), bile acid (BA), triglycerides, total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Food consumption, stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily. Blood lipids, oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption. Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P < 0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL). Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83 ± 1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol). The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid. The number of pasta (P < 0.001), meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group. Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups. Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake.

  13. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, G.; Rella, R.; Donatello, D.; Falco, G.; Grassi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today's experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical intervention or clinical follow-up. The clinical presentation of this illness is frequently nonspecific: abdominal pain, distension, nausea, fever, rectal bleeding, vomiting, constipation, or a palpable mass, depending on the disease. A proper differential diagnosis is essential in the assessment of treatment and in this case MDCT exam plays a central rule. We wish that this article will familiarize the radiologist in the diagnosis of this kind of incidental MDCT findings for better orientation of the therapy. PMID:28638830

  14. Abdominal Hernias, Giant Colon Diverticulum, GIST, Intestinal Pneumatosis, Colon Ischemia, Cold Intussusception, Gallstone Ileus, and Foreign Bodies: Our Experience and Literature Review of Incidental Gastrointestinal MDCT Findings.

    PubMed

    Di Grezia, G; Gatta, G; Rella, R; Donatello, D; Falco, G; Grassi, R; Grassi, R

    2017-01-01

    Incidental gastrointestinal findings are commonly detected on MDCT exams performed for various medical indications. This review describes the radiological MDCT spectrum of appearances already present in the past literature and in today's experience of several gastrointestinal acute conditions such as abdominal hernia, giant colon diverticulum, GIST, intestinal pneumatosis, colon ischemia, cold intussusception, gallstone ileus, and foreign bodies which can require medical and surgical intervention or clinical follow-up. The clinical presentation of this illness is frequently nonspecific: abdominal pain, distension, nausea, fever, rectal bleeding, vomiting, constipation, or a palpable mass, depending on the disease. A proper differential diagnosis is essential in the assessment of treatment and in this case MDCT exam plays a central rule. We wish that this article will familiarize the radiologist in the diagnosis of this kind of incidental MDCT findings for better orientation of the therapy.

  15. A population-based cohort study of symptomatic gallstone disease in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Ming; Hsu, Chung-Te; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Liu, Meng-Lun; Liu, Jorn-Hon

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD) and to evaluate the risk of symptomatic GSD among diabetic patients. METHODS: The study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) dataset of ambulatory care patients, inpatient claims, and the updated registry of beneficiaries from 2000 to 2008. A total of 615 532 diabetic patients without a prior history of hospital treatment or ambulatory care visits for symptomatic GSD were identified in the year 2000. Age- and gender-matched control individuals free from both GSD and diabetes from 1997 to 1999 were randomly selected from the NHIR database (n = 614 871). The incidence densities of symptomatic GSD were estimated according to the subjects’ diabetic status. The distributions of age, gender, occupation, income, and residential area urbanization were compared between diabetic patients and control subjects using Cox proportion hazards models. Differences between the rates of selected comorbidities were also assessed in the two groups. RESULTS: Overall, 60 734 diabetic patients and 48 116 control patients developed symptomatic GSD and underwent operations, resulting in cumulative operation rates of 9.87% and 7.83%, respectively. The age and gender distributions of both groups were similar, with a mean age of 60 years and a predominance of females. The diabetic group had a significantly higher prevalence of all comorbidities of interest. A higher incidence of symptomatic GSD was observed in females than in males in both groups. In the control group, females under the age of 64 had a significantly higher incidence of GSD than the corresponding males, but this difference was reduced with increasing age. The cumulative incidences of operations for symptomatic GSD in the diabetic and control groups were 13.06 and 9.52 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. Diabetic men exhibited a higher incidence of operations for symptomatic GSD than did their counterparts in the

  16. Hepatic Deletion of SIRT1 Decreases Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1α/Farnesoid X Receptor Signaling and Induces Formation of Cholesterol Gallstones in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Purushotham, Aparna; Xu, Qing; Lu, Jing; Foley, Julie F.; Yan, Xingjian; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2012-01-01

    SIRT1, a highly conserved NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, is a key metabolic sensor that directly links nutrient signals to animal metabolic homeostasis. Although SIRT1 has been implicated in a number of hepatic metabolic processes, the mechanisms by which hepatic SIRT1 modulates bile acid metabolism are still not well understood. Here we report that deletion of hepatic SIRT1 reduces the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor that regulates bile acid homeostasis. We provide evidence that SIRT1 regulates the expression of FXR through hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α). SIRT1 deficiency in hepatocytes leads to decreased binding of HNF1α to the FXR promoter. Furthermore, we show that hepatocyte-specific deletion of SIRT1 leads to derangements in bile acid metabolism, predisposing the mice to development of cholesterol gallstones on a lithogenic diet. Taken together, our findings indicate that SIRT1 plays a vital role in the regulation of hepatic bile acid homeostasis through the HNF1α/FXR signaling pathway. PMID:22290433

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a new strategy to identify uncomplicated gallstone disease patients that will benefit from a cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, Mark P; Özdemir, Cihan; Drenth, Joost P H; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J H M; Westert, Gert P; Kievit, Wietske

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of a new strategy for the preoperative detection of patients that will likely benefit from a cholecystectomy, using simple criteria that can be applied by surgeons. Criteria for a cholecystectomy indication are: (1) having episodic pain; (2) onset of pain 1 year or less before the outpatient clinic visit. The cost-effectiveness of the new strategy was evaluated against current practice using a decision analytic model. The incremental cost-effectiveness of applying criteria for a cholecystectomy for a patient with abdominal pain and gallstones was compared to applying no criteria. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was expressed as extra costs to be invested to gain one more patient with absence of pain. Scenarios were analyzed to assess the influence of applying different criteria. The new strategy of applying one out of two criteria resulted in a 4 % higher mean proportion of patients with absence of pain compared to current practice with similar costs. The 95 % upper limit of the ICER was €4114 ($4633) per extra patient with relief of upper abdominal pain. Application of two out of two criteria resulted in a 3 % lower mean proportion of patients with absence of pain with lower costs. The new strategy of using one out of two strict selection criteria may be an effective but also a cost-effective method to reduce the proportion of patients with pain after cholecystectomy.

  18. Two-stage vs single-stage management for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiong; Cheng, Yao; Xiong, Xian-Ze; Lin, Yi-Xin; Wu, Si-Jia; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two-stage vs single-stage management for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct stones. METHODS: Four databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Science Citation Index up to September 2011, were searched to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data were extracted from the studies by two independent reviewers. The primary outcomes were stone clearance from the common bile duct, postoperative morbidity and mortality. The secondary outcomes were conversion to other procedures, number of procedures per patient, length of hospital stay, total operative time, hospitalization charges, patient acceptance and quality of life scores. RESULTS: Seven eligible RCTs [five trials (n = 621) comparing preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)/endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) + laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with LC + laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE); two trials (n = 166) comparing postoperative ERCP/EST + LC with LC + LCBDE], composed of 787 patients in total, were included in the final analysis. The meta-analysis detected no statistically significant difference between the two groups in stone clearance from the common bile duct [risk ratios (RR) = -0.10, 95% confidence intervals (CI): -0.24 to 0.04, P = 0.17], postoperative morbidity (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.10, P = 0.16), mortality (RR = 2.19, 95% CI: 0.33 to 14.67, P = 0.42), conversion to other procedures (RR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.54 to 2.70, P = 0.39), length of hospital stay (MD = 0.99, 95% CI: -1.59 to 3.57, P = 0.45), total operative time (MD = 12.14, 95% CI: -1.83 to 26.10, P = 0.09). Two-stage (LC + ERCP/EST) management clearly required more procedures per patient than single-stage (LC + LCBDE) management. CONCLUSION: Single-stage management is equivalent to two-stage management but requires fewer procedures. However, patient’s condition, operator

  19. Determination of neuroprotective oxysterols in Calculus bovis, human gallstones, and traditional Chinese medicine preparations by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalong; Jiang, Han; Huang, Huizhi; Xie, Yanqi; Zhao, Yunshi; You, Xiuhua; Tang, Lipeng; Wang, Youqiong; Yin, Wei; Qiu, Pengxin; Yan, Guangmei; Hu, Haiyan

    2015-03-01

    So far, the components responsible for the neuroprotective effects of Calculus bovis are unclear. Cholesterol, one of the major components in Calculus bovis, is easily oxidized into oxysterols, which possess direct or indirect neuroprotective effects proved by our and others' previous studies. Therefore, a liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method coupled with ultrasonic extraction and solid-phase extraction was developed for the determination of neuroprotective oxysterols in Calculus bovis, human gallstones, and traditional Chinese medicine preparations. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column with isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The established method showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.998), sensitivity with low limits of detection (0.06-0.39 μg/g), acceptable precisions (relative standard deviations ≤ 7.4%), stability (relative standard deviations ≤ 5.9%), and satisfactory accuracy (92.4-102.9%) for all analytes identified by different retention times, which could be applied for the determination of oxysterols. Five kinds of oxysterols proved to function as neuroprotectants were detected at different concentrations. Among them, 7β-hydroxycholesterol and cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol were rather abundant in the samples. It could be concluded that the potential neuroprotective components in Calculus bovis may be these oxysterols. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Laser lithotripsy of gallstones: alexandrite and rhodamine-6G versus coumarin dye laser: fragmentation and fiber burn-off in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochberger, Juergen; Bredt, Marion; Mueller, Gudrun; Hahn, Eckhart G.; Ell, Christian

    1993-05-01

    In the following study three different pulsed laser lithotripsy systems were compared for the fine fragmentation of identical sets of natural and synthetic gallstones `in vitro.' Using a pulsed coumarin dye laser (504 nm), a pulsed rhodamine 6G dye laser (595 nm), and a pulsed Alexandrite laser (755 nm) a total of 184 concrements of known chemical composition, size, and weight were disintegrated to a fragment size of

  1. Epidemiology of cholelithiasis in southern Italy. Part II: Risk factors.

    PubMed

    Misciagna, G; Leoci, C; Guerra, V; Chiloiro, M; Elba, S; Petruzzi, J; Mossa, A; Noviello, M R; Coviello, A; Minutolo, M C; Mangini, V; Messa, C; Cavallini, A; De Michele, G; Giorgio, I

    1996-06-01

    To determine behavioural, dietary and other common factors associated with new cases of gallstones, diagnosed by ultrasonography, in a prospective cohort study conducted in southern Italy. Between May 1985 and June 1986, systematic sampling from the electoral register of Castellana, a small town in southern Italy, yielded 2472 subjects who had had their gallbladder checked for gallstones by ultrasonography. Between May 1992 and June 1993, 1962 out of the 2235 (87.7%) subjects without gallstones at baseline agreed to a further ultrasound examination. At the first survey a standardized questionnaire was administered, inquiring about medical history, diet, cigarette smoking and other behavioural characteristics. Height and weight were also measured, and blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were determined by standard methods. The same variables were measured at the second survey. The diagnosis of gallstones was made with the same echograph by echographists working in the same department. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine which factors measured at the first survey were associated with the incident cases of gallstones. One hundred and four subjects had developed gallstones, an incidence of 9.7 per 1000 persons per year. Age, body mass index (BMI), weight change, a history of diabetes, constipation (shown by use of laxatives), cigarette smoking, years of schooling, consumption of fried foods and excessive oil, and pregnancy in females, were positively associated with the incidence of gallstones. Consumption of wine, coffee, fish and wholemeal bread was inversely associated. Sex, family history of cholelithiasis, use of oral contraceptives and serum lipids were not independent risk factors for gallstones. The results of this study confirm many gallstone-associated factors reported in previous cross-sectional and case-control studies, as well as in other cohort studies based on the clinical diagnosis of gallstones, such

  2. Dietary Factors Reduce Risk of Acute Pancreatitis in a Large Multiethnic Cohort.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Pandol, Stephen J; Porcel, Jacqueline; Wei, Pengxiao C; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Pike, Malcolm C; Monroe, Kristine R

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatitis is a source of substantial morbidity and health cost in the United States. Little is known about how diet might contribute to its pathogenesis. To characterize dietary factors that are associated with risk of pancreatitis by disease subtype, we conducted a prospective analysis of 145,886 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites in the Multiethnic Cohort. In the Multiethnic Cohort (age at baseline, 45-75 y), we identified cases of pancreatitis using hospitalization claim files from 1993 through 2012. Patients were categorized as having gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (AP) (n = 1210), AP not related to gallstones (n = 1222), or recurrent AP or suspected chronic pancreatitis (n = 378). Diet information was obtained from a questionnaire administered when the study began. Associations were estimated by hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for confounders. Dietary intakes of saturated fat (P trend = .0011) and cholesterol (P trend = .0008) and their food sources, including red meat (P trend < .0001) and eggs (P trend = .0052), were associated positively with gallstone-related AP. Fiber intake, however, was associated inversely with gallstone-related AP (P trend = .0005) and AP not related to gallstones (P trend = .0035). Vitamin D, mainly from milk, was associated inversely with gallstone-related AP (P trend = .0015), whereas coffee consumption protected against AP not related to gallstones (P trend < .0001). With the exception of red meat, no other dietary factors were associated with recurrent acute or suspected chronic pancreatitis. Associations between dietary factors and pancreatitis were observed mainly for gallstone-related AP. Interestingly, dietary fiber protected against AP related and unrelated to gallstones. Coffee drinking protected against AP not associated with gallstones. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings. Copyright

  3. Laparoscopic management of Bouveret syndrome.

    PubMed

    Newton, Richard Charles; Loizides, Sofronis; Penney, Nicholas; Singh, Krishna Kumar

    2015-04-22

    Bouveret syndrome is a proximal form of gallstone ileus where a large gallstone lodges in the pylorus or proximal duodenum, having passed through a bilioenteric fistula that has formed secondary to previous cholecystitis. We describe the laparoscopic extraction of a giant 'Bouveret' gallstone from the duodenum of an elderly man with morbid obesity. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Natural history of small gallbladder polyps is benign: evidence from a clinical and pathogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Larocca, Anna; Scaioli, Eleonora; Bacchi-Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Azzaroli, Francesco; Gualandi, Roberta; Simoni, Patrizia; Vestito, Amanda; Festi, Davide

    2009-03-01

    Little is known about the natural history and pathogenesis of small gallbladder polyps (<10 mm, usually of the cholesterol type), particularly in Western populations. It is unclear if these polyps and gallstones represent different aspects of the same disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the natural history and pathogenesis of small gallbladder polyps. Fifty-six Caucasian patients with small gallbladder polyps, 30 matched gallstone patients, and 30 controls were enrolled in this 5-year prospective study. Patients underwent a symptomatic questionnaire, abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasonographic evaluation of gallbladder motility at baseline and yearly intervals for 5 years. Cholesterol saturation index, cholesterol crystals in bile, and apolipoprotein E genotype were also determined. Most patients with polyps (mean size: 5.3 mm) were men (61%), asymptomatic, and had multiple polyps (57%). Polyps did not change in 91% of patients during follow-up. No subject experienced biliary pain or underwent cholecystectomy; four developed gallstones. Cholesterol saturation index was higher in patients with polyps or gallstones than in controls (P<0.05). Cholesterol crystals were more frequent in patients with polyps than in controls (P<0.0001) but less common than in gallstone patients (P<0.0001). Polyps and gallstones were associated with nonapolipoprotein E4 phenotypes. The natural history of small gallbladder polyps was benign, as no patient developed specific symptoms and/or morphological changes in polyps. Consequently, a "wait and see" policy is advisable in these patients. Polyps have some pathogenetic mechanisms in common with gallstones, but few patients developed gallstones.

  5. Gallstones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Hemorrhoids Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & ... NASH Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity Related Diagnostic Tests ERCP Your Digestive System and How it Works ...

  6. Gallstones

    MedlinePlus

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 155. Jackson PG, Evans SRT. Biliary system. In: Townsend CM ... 65. Review Date 4/19/2017 Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The ...

  7. Gallstones

    MedlinePlus

    ... common operations performed on adults in the United States. The gallbladder is not an essential organ, which means a person can live normally without a gallbladder. Once the gallbladder is removed, bile flows out of the liver through the hepatic and ...

  8. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and interval cholecystectomy are reasonable alternatives to index cholecystectomy in severe acute gallstone pancreatitis (GSP).

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Yeeting, Sim; Whigham, Carole; Judson, Hannah; Polignano, Francesco M; Tait, Iain S

    2008-08-01

    UK guidelines for gallstone pancreatitis (GSP) advocate definitive treatment during the index admission, or within 2 weeks of discharge. However, this target may not always be achievable. This study reviewed current management of GSP in a university hospital and evaluated the risk associated with interval cholecystectomy. All patients that presented with GSP over a 4-year period (2002-2005) were stratified for disease severity (APACHE II). Patient demographics, time to definitive therapy [index cholecystectomy; endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES); Interval cholecystectomy], and readmission rates were analysed retrospectively. 100 patients admitted with GSP. Disease severity was mild in 54 patients and severe in 46 patients. Twenty-two patients unsuitable for surgery underwent ES as definitive treatment with no readmissions. Seventy-eight patients underwent cholecystectomy, of which 40 (58%) had an index cholecystectomy, and 38 (42%) an interval cholecystectomy. Only 10 patients with severe GSP had an index cholecystectomy, whilst 30 were readmitted for Interval cholecystectomy (p = 0.04). The median APACHE score was 4 [standard deviation (SD) 3.8] for index cholecystectomy and 8 (SD 2.6) for Interval cholecystectomy (p < 0.05). Median time (range) to surgery was 7.5 (2-30) days for index cholecystectomy and 63 (13-210) days for Interval cholecystectomy. Fifty percent (19/38) of patients with GSP had ES prior to discharge for interval cholecystectomy. Two (5%) patients were readmitted: with acute cholecystitis (n = 1) and acute pancreatitis (n = 1) , whilst awaiting interval cholecystectomy. No mortality was noted in the Index or Interval group. This study demonstrates that overall 62% (22 endoscopic sphincterotomy and 40 index cholecystectomy) of patients with GSP have definitive therapy during the Index admission. However, surgery was deferred in the majority (n = 30) of patients with severe GSP, and 19/30 underwent ES prior to discharge. ES and interval

  9. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. A minimally invasive alternative to cholecystectomy and to shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Griffith, D P; Gleeson, M J; Appel, M F; Bentlif, P S; Hochman, F L; Toombs, B D; Skolkin, M D

    1990-09-01

    Recently introduced treatment alternatives for gallstones include peroral pharmacological chemolysis plus shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Herein we report on the treatment preferences of 23 patients with symptomatic gallstones and our initial experience with percutaneous cholecystolithotomy in 6 of these patients. All patients were rendered stone free after one procedure. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy, which is applicable to all types of gallstones, is a safe, practical, low-morbidity alternative to cholecystectomy in selected patients.

  10. Characteristics of gallbladder cancer in South India.

    PubMed

    Sachidananda, Sandeep; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Janani, K; Alexander, P C; Velayutham, Vimalraj; Rajagopal, Surendran; Venkataraman, Jayanthi

    2012-09-01

    Gallbladder cancer is common in north India. It is also a well established fact that gall bladder cancer is frequently associated with gallstone disease in north India, similar to reports from the West. The magnitude of the problem of gallbladder cancer in south India and its link to gallstone disease is not clearly established. The aim of the study was to determine retrospectively, the characteristics of individuals with GBC in south India and to determine its association with gallstone disease. Retrospective data was obtained from records of proven cases of gallbladder cancer and patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstone disease between Jan 2001 and Dec 2010. Data retrieved included age, gender, and clinical presentation, findings on imaging, histology and details of management. The number of proven cases of gallbladder cancer each year ranged from 8 to 17. There were 38 men and 23 women. Male female ratio was 1.6:1. There were more men in the successive decades. Right upper quadrant pain (42 %) followed by jaundice (27 %) and a presence of a palpable mass (12 %) were the common clinical presentation. Pre-operative diagnosis of gall bladder cancer was possible in 80 %. Twelve patients had co-existing gallstones (19.6 %). Forty patients (50 %) had stage IV disease; only 6 patients had Stage I operable disease (9.8 %). During the same time 758 patients had cholecystectomy for gallstone disease. Only one patient had an incidental gall bladder cancer, who had an extended cholecystectomy. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in south India and its association with gallstone is also low.

  11. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula as a primary manifestation of gallbladder adenocarcinoma associated with gallbladder lithiasis - case report.

    PubMed

    Micu, Bogdan Vasile; Andercou, Octavian Aurel; Micu, Carmen Maria; Militaru, Valentin; Jeican, IonuŢ Isaia; Bungărdean, Cătălina Ileana; Mogoantă, Stelian ŞtefăniŢă; Miclăuş, Dan Radu; Pop, Tudor Radu

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula (SCF) is a rare complication of neglected calculous biliary disease and also an extremely rare complication of gallbladder neoplasm. This pathology has become even rarer because of prompt diagnosis and expedient surgical intervention for gallstones. So far, there is one published report of a SCF due to gallbladder adenocarcinoma. We present the case of a woman aged 87 years, admitted to the Vth Department of Surgery, Clinical Municipal Hospital of Cluj-Napoca (Romania) for a tumoral mass located in the epigastrium. In the epigastrium, the patient had three skin orifices of about 1-2 mm each, through which purulent secretion occurred. The abdominal ultrasound highlighted a cholecystocutaneous fistula with the presence of a subcutaneous gallstone. Intraoperatively, we found a cholecystocutaneous fistula, a 1 cm subcutaneous gallstone, gallbladder with thickened walls containing a cylinder-shaped gallstone of 5÷3 cm. Fistulectomy, gallstones extraction and cholecystectomy were performed. The histopathological examination highlighted gallbladder adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, SCF can be the first significant manifestation of gallbladder cancer associated with neglected calculous biliary disease.

  12. Acute pancreatitis: current perspectives on diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Adarsh P; Mourad, Moustafa M; Bramhall, Simon R

    2018-01-01

    The last two decades have seen the emergence of significant evidence that has altered certain aspects of the management of acute pancreatitis. While most cases of acute pancreatitis are mild, the challenge remains in managing the severe cases and the complications associated with acute pancreatitis. Gallstones are still the most common cause with epidemiological trends indicating a rising incidence. The surgical management of acute gallstone pancreatitis has evolved. In this article, we revisit and review the methods in diagnosing acute pancreatitis. We present the evidence for the supportive management of the condition, and then discuss the management of acute gallstone pancreatitis. Based on the evidence, our local institutional pathways, and clinical experience, we have produced an outline to guide clinicians in the management of acute gallstone pancreatitis. PMID:29563826

  13. Role of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Ding, You-Ming; Wang, Chun-Tao; Wang, Wei-Xing

    2015-08-01

    Cholelithiasis is a common medical condition whose incidence rate is increasing yearly, while its pathogenesis has yet to be elucidated. The present study assessed the expression of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in gallbladder smooth muscles and its effect on the contractile function of gallbladder smooth muscles during gallstone formation. Thirty male guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: The control group, the gallstone model group and the fasudil interference group. The fasting volume (FV) and bile capacity of the gallbladder (FB) as well as the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents of the gallbladder bile were determined. In addition, the gallbladder was dissected to identify whether any gallstones had formed. Part of the gallbladder tissue specimens were used for immunohistochemical analysis of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscles. The results showed that four guinea pigs in the model group and eight in the fasudil group displayed gallstone formation, while there was no gallstone formation in the control group. The FV and FB were significantly increased in the model and fasudil groups. Similarly, the TC and TG contents of gallbladder bile were increased in these groups. The positive expression rate of ROCK in gallbladder smooth muscles in the model and fasudil groups was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that the reduction of ROCK expression in guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscles weakened gallbladder contraction and thereby promoted gallstone formation.

  14. Epidemiology of Gallbladder Disease: Cholelithiasis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stinton, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of the gallbladder are common and costly. The best epidemiological screening method to accurately determine point prevalence of gallstone disease is ultrasonography. Many risk factors for cholesterol gallstone formation are not modifiable such as ethnic background, increasing age, female gender and family history or genetics. Conversely, the modifiable risks for cholesterol gallstones are obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The rising epidemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome predicts an escalation of cholesterol gallstone frequency. Risk factors for biliary sludge include pregnancy, drugs like ceftiaxone, octreotide and thiazide diuretics, and total parenteral nutrition or fasting. Diseases like cirrhosis, chronic hemolysis and ileal Crohn's disease are risk factors for black pigment stones. Gallstone disease in childhood, once considered rare, has become increasingly recognized with similar risk factors as those in adults, particularly obesity. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in developed countries. In the U.S., it accounts for only ~ 5,000 cases per year. Elsewhere, high incidence rates occur in North and South American Indians. Other than ethnicity and female gender, additional risk factors for gallbladder cancer include cholelithiasis, advancing age, chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gallbladder, congenital biliary abnormalities, and diagnostic confusion over gallbladder polyps. PMID:22570746

  15. Alpinumisoflavone and abyssinone V 4'-methylether derived from Erythrina lysistemon (Fabaceae) promote HDL-cholesterol synthesis and prevent cholesterol gallstone formation in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Mvondo, Marie A; Njamen, Dieudonné; Kretzschmar, Georg; Imma Bader, Manuela; Tanee Fomum, Stephen; Wandji, Jean; Vollmer, Günter

    2015-07-01

    Erythrina lysistemon was found to improve lipid profile in ovariectomized rats. Alpinumisoflavone (AIF) and abyssinone V 4'-methylether (AME) derived from this plant induced analogous effects on lipid profile and decreased atherogenic risks. To highlight the molecular mechanism of action of these natural products, we evaluated their effects on the expression of some estrogen-sensitive genes associated with cholesterol synthesis (Esr1 and Apoa1) and cholesterol clearance (Ldlr, Scarb1 and Cyp7a1). Ovariectomized rats were subcutaneously treated for three consecutive days with either compound at the daily dose of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight (BW). Animals were sacrificed thereafter and their liver was collected. The mRNA of genes of interest was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Both compounds downregulated the mRNA expression of Esr1, a gene associated with cholesterogenesis and cholesterol gallstone formation. AME leaned the Apoa1/Scarb1 balance in favour of Apoa1, an effect promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol formation. It also upregulated the mRNA expression of Ldlr at 1 mg/kg/BW per day (25%) and 10 mg/kg/BW per day (133.17%), an effect favouring the clearance of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Both compounds may also promote the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids as they upregulated Cyp7a1 mRNA expression. AIF and AME atheroprotective effects may result from their ability to upregulate mechanisms promoting HDL-cholesterol and bile acid formation. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Antilithiasic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on Mice Fed with a Lithogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  17. Ursodeoxycholic acid therapy in gallbladder disease, a story not yet completed

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cocca, Silvia; Altomare, Annamaria; Emerenziani, Sara; Cicala, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Gallstone disease represents an important issue in the healthcare system. The principal non-invasive non-surgical medical treatment for cholesterol gallstones is still represented by oral litholysis with bile acids. The first successful and documented dissolution of cholesterol gallstones was achieved in 1972. Since then a large number of investigators all over the world, have been dedicated in biochemical and clinical studies on ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), demonstrating its extreme versatility. This editorial is aimed to provide a brief review of recent developments in UDCA use, current indications for its use and, the more recent advances in understanding its effects in terms of an anti-inflammatory drug. PMID:23964136

  18. Concept of the pathogenesis and treatment of cholelithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich

    2012-01-01

    Gallstone disease (GD) is a chronic recurrent hepatobiliary disease, the basis for which is the impaired metabolism of cholesterol, bilirubin and bile acids, which is characterized by the formation of gallstones in the hepatic bile duct, common bile duct, or gallbladder. GD is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal diseases with a substantial burden to health care systems. GD can result in serious outcomes, such as acute gallstone pancreatitis and gallbladder cancer. The epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of GD are discussed in this review. The prevalence of GD varies widely by region. The prevalence of gallstone disease has increased in recent years. This is connected with a change in lifestyle: reduction of motor activity, reduction of the physical load and changes to diets. One of the important benefits of early screening for gallstone disease is that ultrasonography can detect asymptomatic cases, which results in early treatment and the prevention of serious outcomes. The pathogenesis of GD is suggested to be multifactorial and probably develops from complex interactions between many genetic and environmental factors. It suggests that corticosteroids and oral contraceptives, which contain hormones related to steroid hormones, may be regarded as a model system of cholelithiasis development in man. The achievement in the study of the physiology of bile formation and the pathogenesis of GD has allowed expanding indications for therapeutic treatment of GD. PMID:22400083

  19. An observational study on the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome with gall stone disease requiring cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Farah; Baloch, Qamaruddin; Memon, Zahid Ali; Ali, Iqra

    2017-05-01

    Recognition of Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome in patients with gallstones undergoing laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy, along with it we will also study the life style of patients with gall stones. Patients with gallstones have associated NAFLD, with concurrent metabolic syndrome and these ailments share similar factors for example obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes mellitus. Factors like body mass index, gender, raised lipid levels, use of contraceptives and alcohol and having diabetes, physical inactiveness, multiparous women, water with excessive iron content, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD are accountable factors for gallstones formation. This was a case series done at Surgical Unit 1 of Civil Hospital Karachi. Selective samples of 88 patients were included. Duration was 3 months. We included both sexes with ultrasound proof of gall stone irrespective of cholecystitis. Excluded patients with history of seropositive viral hepatitis, autoimmune and wilson's disease. As these conditions can act as a confounder to our variables. Nafld was present in 62.5%(n = 55) while 28.4% (n = 25) had metabolic syndrome. 26.94% had BMI less than 18, 32.12 had BMI between 18 and 25 and majority had BMI greater than 25 i.e in 40.93%. Of all 46.6% had a family history of cholelithiasis. Gallstone patients with NAFLD reported about their first degree relative being suffering from cholelithiasis at a significant p-value of 0.034 while this was not significant in cases of metabolic syndrome and the p -value was 0.190. We found association of metabolic syndrome with gallstones and NAFLD. Non alcoholic fatty liver was highly prevalent in our study subjects. Huge percentage of first degree relatives of gall stone patients had gallstones and this relation was more pronounced patients who had associated NAFLD.

  20. Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kajal; Sreenivas, V; Velpandian, T; Kapil, Umesh; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Risk factors for gallbladder cancer (GBC) except gallstones are not well known. The objective was to study the risk factors for GBC. In a case-control study, 200 patients with GBC, 200 healthy controls and 200 gallstones patients as diseased controls were included prospectively. The risk factors studied were related to socioeconomic profile, life style, reproduction, diet and bile acids. On comparing GBC patients (mean age 51.7 years; 130 females) with healthy controls, risk factors were chemical exposure [odd ratios (OR): 7.0 (2.7-18.2); p < 0.001)], family history of gallstones [OR: 5.3 (1.5-18.9); p < 0.01)], tobacco [OR: 4.1 (1.8-9.7); p < 0.001)], fried foods [OR: 3.1 (1.7-5.6); p < 0.001], joint family [OR: 3.2 (1.7-6.2); p < 0.001], long interval between meals [OR: 1.4 (1.2-1.6); p < 0.001] and residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 3.3 (1.8-6.2); p < 0.001]. On comparing GBC cases with gallstone controls, risk factors were female gender [OR: 2.4 (1.3-4.3); p = 0.004], residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 2.3 (1.2-4.4); p = 0.012], fried foods [OR: 2.5 (1.4-4.4); p < 0.001], diabetes [OR: 2.7 (1.2-6.4); p = 0.02)], tobacco [OR 3.8 (1.7-8.1); p < 0.001)] and joint family [OR: 2.1 (1.2-3.4); p = 0.004]. The ratio of secondary to primary bile acids was significantly higher in GBC cases than gallstone controls (20.8 vs. 0.44). Fried foods, tobacco, chemical exposure, family history of gallstones, residence in Gangetic belt and secondary bile acids were significant risk factors for GBC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  1. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  2. Cholecystectomy improves long-term success after endoscopic treatment of CBD stones.

    PubMed

    Hoem, D; Viste, A; Horn, A; Gislason, H; Søndenaa, K

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to study prospectively primary endoscopic treatment of CBD stones and further the long-term need for renewed gallstone disease interventions, defined as short- and long-term outcome. Seven years prospective follow-up of 101 consecutive patients with CBD stones who underwent endoscopic treatment with the intent of primarily achieving duct clearance. Many patients underwent several endoscopy sessions before stone clearance was completed in 83%. Eleven patients were treated surgically, 2 patients received a permanent stent, and the remaining 3 became stone free with other means. Complications occurred in 47 patients. During follow-up, 31 patients were readmitted for gallstone disease and 15 of these had recurrent CBD stones. Ten percent (8/78) of patients with the gallbladder in situ had acute cholecystitis during follow-up and late cholecystectomy was carried out in 22%. Risk factors for new gallstone disease were an in situ gallbladder containing stones and previous episodes of CBD stones. A goal of complete CBD stone clearance with ERC and ES proved to be relatively resource consuming. Subsequent cholecystectomy after duct clearance for CBD should be advised when the gallbladder lodges gallstones, especially in younger patients. Recurrent CBD stones were not influenced by cholecystectomy.

  3. The association between body mass index and severe biliary infections: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lygia; Griffiss, J McLeod; Jarvis, Gary A; Way, Lawrence W

    2012-11-01

    Obesity has been associated with worse infectious disease outcomes. It is a risk factor for cholesterol gallstones, but little is known about associations between body mass index (BMI) and biliary infections. We studied this using factors associated with biliary infections. A total of 427 patients with gallstones were studied. Gallstones, bile, and blood (as applicable) were cultured. Illness severity was classified as follows: none (no infection or inflammation), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (fever, leukocytosis), severe (abscess, cholangitis, empyema), or multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (bacteremia, hypotension, organ failure). Associations between BMI and biliary bacteria, bacteremia, gallstone type, and illness severity were examined using bivariate and multivariate analysis. BMI inversely correlated with pigment stones, biliary bacteria, bacteremia, and increased illness severity on bivariate and multivariate analysis. Obesity correlated with less severe biliary infections. BMI inversely correlated with pigment stones and biliary bacteria; multivariate analysis showed an independent correlation between lower BMI and illness severity. Most patients with severe biliary infections had a normal BMI, suggesting that obesity may be protective in biliary infections. This study examined the correlation between BMI and biliary infection severity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. [Electromagnetic shock wave lithotripsy plus bile acids for the treatment of gallblader stones: results and perspectives from the first 57 patients].

    PubMed

    Uribe, M; Sánchez, J M; Tielve, J M; Dávila, B; Gurza, L; Bosques, F; Kettenhofen, W; Sánchez, C; Castorena, G

    1990-07-01

    Fifty seven patients were selected from 620 cases with gallstones to be treated with an electromagnetic shock wave generator (Lithostar Plus). The machine has an overhead module with an electromagnetic generator able to produce 150-150 bar of pressure in the center of the focal zone (2 x 8 cms.) An in line ultrasound probe permits in vivo view of stone localization and fragmentations. The wide aperture of the device permits to treat patients with little pain in ambulatory basis. The mean age of the patients was 50 +/- 14 years, 57 were female and 20 were male. Stones were single in 35 cases and were multiple (2-4 gallstones) in the rest. The patients received a mean of 2620 +/- 371 shock waves. Intravenous analgesia (Fentanyl 87 +/- 40 ug p/session) was required in 26 cases. In 58.5% of the cases, fragmentation produced gallstone-rests of < 0.5 cm. Larger fragments (> 0.5 cm), were observed after an initial shock wave session in 33%. These patients underwent additional treatments sessions. Hence patients received 1.8 +/- 0.8 sessions. Minor fragmentation or no fragmentation after the first session was observed in the 14.5%. Mild biliary pain appeared in 17 patients and acute biliary colic in 2, one of these underwent emergency cholecystectomy. Overall gallstone disappearance after one year after lithotripsy, plus bile acid therapy (10-12 mg Kg day) was 72%. Patients with single gallstones were free of stones of fragments in 92% of the cases, after the same period of follow up.

  5. Sludge and stone formation in the gallbladder in bedridden elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease: influence of feeding method.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Y; Mizuta, Y; Isomoto, H; Takeshima, F; Murase, K; Miyazaki, M; Ogata, H; Otsuka, K; Murata, I; Kohno, S

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of gallbladder sludge or gallstone formation in bedridden patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains obscure. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, relationship to feeding method, and mechanisms of gallbladder sludge and gallstone formation in elderly patients with CVD. Using ultrasonography, we determined the development of gallbladder sludge and gallstone over a 12-month period, the area of the gallbladder, the gallbladder contractile response to cerulein, and fasting levels of plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) in 40 bedridden elderly patients with CVD. The patients were divided into three groups based on the feeding method: oral ingestion (OI), nasogastric feeding (NF), and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Gallbladder sludge and gallstone were not observed in any of the 14 OI patients, but occurred in 6 and 1 of the 11 NF patients, and in 14 and 3 of the 15 TPN patients, respectively. Fasting gallbladder areas were significantly larger in the TPN group than in the other two groups. The TPN group showed a marked decrease in cerulein-induced gallbladder contractility. Fasting plasma CCK levels were lower in the TPN group than in the OI group. Our results indicate that elderly patients with CVD confined to bed over long periods are not necessarily at risk of gallbladder sludge or gallstone formation, and the development of these features may be associated with the feeding method. The predisposition of CVD patients on TPN to gallbladder disease is probably caused by failure of gallbladder contraction, resulting from insufficient secretion of CCK and impaired sensitivity of the gallbladder to CCK.

  6. Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy in the treatment of Bouveret syndrome.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Michael D; Kim, Anthony W; Richter, Harry M; Myers, Jonathan A

    2009-09-01

    Bouveret syndrome is a rare complication of cholelithiasis occurring when a gallstone passes through a cholecystoduodenal or choledochoduodenal fistula and lodges in the pylorus or proximal duodenum causing a gastric outlet obstruction. The case of a 70-year-old male who developed Bouveret syndrome is presented, and the management of this presentation of gallstone ileus by Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy is discussed in detail.

  7. Lithotripsy of gallstones by means of a quality-switched giant-pulse neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Basic in vitro studies using a highly flexible fiber system.

    PubMed

    Hochberger, J; Gruber, E; Wirtz, P; Dürr, U; Kolb, A; Zanger, U; Hahn, E G; Ell, C

    1991-11-01

    The quality-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser represents a new instrument for athermal fragmentation of gallstones by transformation of optical energy into mechanical energy in the form of shock waves via local plasma formation. A highly flexible 300-micron fiber transmission system was used in basic investigations to determine the influence of varying pulse repetition rates (5-30 Hz) and pulse energies (15 and 20 mJ) on shock wave intensity and stone fragmentation in vitro for 105 biliary calculi of known size and chemical composition. After performance of 1200 shock wave pressure measurements using polyvinylidenefluoride hydrophones, stone fragmentation was analyzed by determination of fragment removal rates (volume of fragments removed per fragmentation time), ablation rates (mean volume removed per laser pulse), and median fragment sizes for each laser setting. With the quality-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser system, all concrements could be reliably disintegrated into small fragments (median diameter, 0.7-1.7 mm). Compared with pure cholesterol stones, a significantly higher fragment removal rate was achieved in cholesterol stones containing 30% calcium phosphate (P = 0.039), in cholesterol stones containing 20% pigment (P = 0.015), and in pure pigment stones (P = 0.007). Fragment removal rates, local shock wave pressures, and median grain sizes were significantly higher at a pulse energy of 20 mJ than with 15 mJ. Shock wave pressures showed a distinct dependence on pulse repetition rates at 20 mJ, yet not at 15 mJ. Because there is no evident hazard of thermal damage to tissue using the quality-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser, it appears to be a promising device for nonsurgical biliary stone therapy.

  8. Gallstones - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Removal Surgery - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section Gall ... Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Gall ...

  9. Medical Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, A. K.; Rai, N. K.; Singh, Ankita; Rai, A. K.; Rai, Pradeep K.; Rai, Pramod K.

    2014-11-01

    Sedentary lifestyle of human beings has resulted in various diseases and in turn we require a potential tool that can be used to address various issues related to human health. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is one such potential optical analytical tool that has become quite popular because of its distinctive features that include applicability to any type/phase of samples with almost no sample preparation. Several reports are available that discusses the capabilities of LIBS, suitable for various applications in different branches of science which cannot be addressed by traditional analytical methods but only few reports are available for the medical applications of LIBS. In the present work, LIBS has been implemented to understand the role of various elements in the formation of gallstones (formed under the empyema and mucocele state of gallbladder) samples along with patient history that were collected from Purvancal region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The occurrence statistics of gallstones under the present study reveal higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. The gallstone occurrence was found more prevalent for those male patients who were having the habit of either tobacco chewing, smoking or drinking alcohols. This work further reports in-situ LIBS study of deciduous tooth and in-vivo LIBS study of human nail.

  10. Changes in gallbladder bile composition and crystal detection time in morbidly obese subjects after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Ulf; Benthin, Lisbet; Granström, Lars; Groen, Albert K; Sahlin, Staffan; Einarsson, Curt

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of development of cholesterol crystals and gallstones during weight reduction in obese subjects. Twenty-five morbidly obese, gallstone-free subjects underwent vertical-banded gastroplasty. Gallbladder bile was collected at the time of the operation via needle aspiration and 1.1-7.3 months after the operation via ultrasound-guided transhepatic puncture of the gallbladder. The mean weight loss was 17 kg. Two patients developed gallstones and 10 patients displayed cholesterol crystals in their bile. In patients with a follow-up time of less than 2 months (n = 13), cholesterol saturation increased from 90% to 114% but tended to decrease in the patients with a follow-up time of more than 2 months. The extraction of the concanavalin-A-binding fraction from gallbladder bile obtained after weight reduction in 7 patients prolonged crystallization detection time from 6 to 10 days. The hexosamine concentration, a marker for mucin, was increased by about 100% in bile obtained in 6 of 7 patients after weight reduction. In conclusion, the results indicate that crystallization-promoting compounds (mucin) are of great importance in the development of cholesterol crystals and gallstones in obese subjects during weight reduction, probably because of defective gallbladder emptying.

  11. Megalin and cubilin expression in gallbladder epithelium and regulation by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Erranz, Benjamín; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Argraves, W Scott; Barth, Jeremy L; Pimentel, Fernando; Marzolo, María-Paz

    2004-12-01

    Cholesterol crystal formation in the gallbladder is a key step in gallstone pathogenesis. Gallbladder epithelial cells might prevent luminal gallstone formation through a poorly understood cholesterol absorption process. Genetic studies in mice have highlighted potential gallstone susceptibility alleles, Lith genes, which include the gene for megalin. Megalin, in conjunction with the large peripheral membrane protein cubilin, mediates the endocytosis of numerous ligands, including HDL/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Although the bile contains apoA-I and several cholesterol-binding megalin ligands, the expression of megalin and cubilin in the gallbladder has not been investigated. Here, we show that both proteins are expressed by human and mouse gallbladder epithelia. In vitro studies using a megalin-expressing cell line showed that lithocholic acid strongly inhibits and cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids increase megalin expression. The effects of bile acids (BAs) were also demonstrated in vivo, analyzing gallbladder levels of megalin and cubilin from mice fed with different BAs. The BA effects could be mediated by the farnesoid X receptor, expressed in the gallbladder. Megalin protein was also strongly increased after feeding a lithogenic diet. These results indicate a physiological role for megalin and cubilin in the gallbladder and provide support for a role for megalin in gallstone pathogenesis.

  12. Spontaneous Cholelithiasis in a Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Mia T.; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Marini, Robert P.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasu; Fox, James G.

    2016-01-01

    A mature female squirrel monkey was noted during routine semiannual examinations to have moderate progressive weight loss. Serum chemistry panels revealed marked increases in hepatic enzyme, bilirubin, and bile salt concentrations and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed echogenic, shadowing debris in the gallbladder, consistent with cholelithiasis. At necropsy, marked thickening and distension of the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct was noted, and more than 50 irregularly shaped, black gallstones were removed from the biliary tract. Gallbladder tissue, bile, and gallstones cultured positive for Escherichia coli and Proteus spp., suggesting a brown-pigment gallstone type secondary to a bacterial nidus. Histopathology revealed severe chronic–active diffuse cholecystitis and severe chronic-active hepatic degeneration and necrosis with severe cholestasis. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of spontaneous choleilthiasis in a squirrel monkey. PMID:26884412

  13. The laser radiation action on the crystal formation processes in the biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malov, Alexander N.; Vaichas, Andrey A.; Novikova, Evgeniya A.

    2016-11-01

    The results of an experimental study of the laser radiation effect on the crystal`s formation in the volume of biological fluids that are complex multi-component solutions have been discussing. Are investigated white and natural bile in vitro. The qualitative changes were observed. Thus, at the bottom of the cell in which bile is not exposed to the laser radiation, the crystals are formed. In the irradiated bile gallstone has a thin layer of a homogeneous viscous colloidal liquid with very small, visible in polarized light crystalline formations was got. Irradiated laser bile's gallstone was covered evenly white deposit without surface defect unlike gallstone in bile without radiation exposure. A possible mechanism to explain the laser radiation action on the mineral formation in biological fluids and also practical application of this effect have been suggesting too.

  14. Can abdominal surgical emergencies be treated in an ambulatory setting?

    PubMed

    Genser, L; Vons, C

    2015-12-01

    The performance of emergency abdominal surgery in an outpatient setting is increasingly the order of the day in France. This review evaluates the feasibility and reliability of ambulatory surgical treatment of the most common abdominal emergencies: appendectomy for acute appendicitis and cholecystectomy for acute complications of gallstone disease (acute cholecystitis and gallstone pancreatitis). This study evaluates surgical procedures performed on an ambulatory basis according to the international definition (admission in the morning, discharge in the evening with a hospital stay of less than 12 hours). Just as for elective surgery, eligibility of patients for an ambulatory approach depends on the capacities of the surgical and anesthesia team: to manage the risks, particularly the risk of deferring surgery until the morning); to prevent or treat post-operative symptoms like pain, nausea, vomiting, re-ambulation in order to permit rapid post-operative discharge. Recent studies have shown that appendectomy for non-complicated acute appendicitis can be deferred for up to 12 hours without any increase in danger. Many other studies have shown that early discharge after appendectomy for acute non-complicated appendicitis is feasible and safe. Nonetheless, there is only one published series of truly ambulatory appendectomies. The results were excellent. Patients who presented in the afternoon were brought back for operation the following morning. The appropriate timing for performance of cholecystectomy in patients with acute calculous cholecystitis or gallstone pancreatitis has not been well defined, but is always somewhat delayed relative to the onset of symptoms. To minimize operative complications, cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis should probably be performed between 24 and 72 hours after diagnosis. Cholecystectomy for gallstone pancreatitis should probably not be delayed longer than a week; the need to keep the patient hospitalized during the

  15. Sequential occurrence of preneoplastic lesions and accumulation of loss of heterozygosity in patients with gallbladder stones suggest causal association with gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kajal; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Das, Prasenjit; Misra, Mahesh Chandra; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Ghosh, Manju; Kabra, Madhulika; Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Kumar, Subodh; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Causal association of gallbladder stones with gallbladder cancer (GBC) is not yet well established. To study the frequency of occurrence of preneoplastic histological lesions and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor suppressor genes in patients with gallstones. All consecutive patients with gallstones undergoing cholecystectomy from 2007-2011 were included prospectively. Histological examination of the gallbladder specimens was done for preneoplastic lesions. LOH at 8 loci, that is 3p12, 3p14.2, 5q21, 9p21, 9q, 13q, 17p13, and 18q for tumor suppressor genes (DUTT1, FHIT, APC, p16, FCMD, RB1, p53, and DCC genes) that are associated with GBC was tested from microdissected preneoplastic lesions using microsatellite markers. These LOH were also tested in 30 GBC specimens. Of the 350 gallbladder specimens from gallstone patients, hyperplasia was found in 32%, metaplasia in 47.8%, dysplasia in 15.7%, and carcinoma in situ in 0.6%. Hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia alone were found in 11.7%, 24.6%, and 1.4% of patients, respectively. A combination of hyperplasia and dysplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia, and hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia was found in 3.4%, 6.3%, and 4.3% of patients, respectively. LOH was present in 2.1% to 47.8% of all the preneoplastic lesions at different loci. Fractional allelic loss was significantly higher in those with dysplasia compared with other preneoplastic lesions (0.31 vs 0.22; P = 0.042). No preneoplastic lesion or LOH was found in normal gallbladders. Patients with gallstones had a high frequency of preneoplastic lesions and accumulation of LOH at various tumor suppressor genes, suggesting a possible causal association of gallstones with GBC.

  16. Transgenic Overexpression of Abcb11 Enhances Biliary Bile Salt Outputs, But Does Not Affect Cholesterol Cholelithogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen H.; Lammert, Frank; Schmitz, Anne; Wang, David Q.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cholesterol gallstone disease is a complex genetic trait and induced by multiple but as yet unknown genes. A major Lith gene, Lith1 was first identified on chromosome 2 in gallstone-susceptible C57L mice compared with resistant AKR mice. Abcb11, encoding the canalicular bile salt export pump in the hepatocyte, co-localizes with the Lith1 QTL region and its hepatic expression is significantly higher in C57L mice than in AKR mice. Material and methods To investigate whether Abcb11 influences cholesterol gallstone formation, we created an Abcb11 transgenic strain on the AKR genetic background and fed these mice with a lithogenic diet for 56 days. Result We excluded functionally relevant polymorphisms of the Abcb11 gene and its promoter region between C57L and AKR mice. Overexpression of Abcb11 significantly promoted biliary bile salt secretion and increased circulating bile salt pool size and bile salt-dependent bile flow rate. However, biliary cholesterol and phospholipid secretion, as well as gallbladder size and contractility were comparable in transgenic and wild-type mice. At 56 days on the lithogenic diet, cholesterol saturation indexes of gallbladder biles and gallstone prevalence rates were essentially similar in these two groups of mice. Conclusion Overexpression of Abcb11 augments biliary bile salt secretion, but does not affect cholelithogenesis in mice. PMID:20456485

  17. Profile of gallbladder diseases diagnosed at Afyon Kocatepe University: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mazlum, Mustafa; Dilek, Fatma Hüsniye; Yener, Arzu Neşe; Tokyol, Ciğdem; Aktepe, Fatma; Dilek, Osman Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Gallbladder is one of the most commonly encountered specimen in a pathology laboratory. A diverse spectrum of diseases affect the biliary system, often presenting with similar clinical signs and symptoms. We aimed to define the profile of gallbladder diseases in our region, and to determine potential correlations between histopathologic features we observed. We reviewed all cholecystectomies processed in Department of Pathology of Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital between January 2000 and March 2008. Gross and histopathologic features of the specimens were reevaluated. Among 1500 patients; 69.9% were women and 30.1% were men. We found out fourteen primary gallbladder carcinomas (0.93%) with adenocarcinomas being the most frequent type (78.57%). The rate of cholelithiasis was found as 89.9%. The most common type of gallstones was mixed cholesterol type gallstones with 67.5% followed by black pigment and brown pigment types as 23.83% and 5.89%, respectively. The association of metaplasia with dysplasia and also gallstones were statistically significant (p < 0.001, p < 0.005). The rate of the gallbladder polyps was 2.6% with the cholesterol polyps being the most common type (56.4%). Gallbladder diseases often present with similar clinical signs and symptoms and a surgical pathologist should be alert especially of precancerous lesions. With our results, we also conclude that elderly women with longstanding gallstone disease should undergo elective surgery even when no symptoms are present.

  18. Determination of chemical composition of gall bladder stones: Basis for treatment strategies in patients from Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    III, Fru F. Angwafo; Takongmo, Samuel; Griffith, Donald

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Gallstone disease is increasing in sub-saharan Africa (SSA). In the west, the majority of stones can be dissolved with bile salts, since the major component is cholesterol. This medical therapy is expensive and not readily accessible to poor populations of SSA. It was therefore necessary to analyze the chemical composition of biliary stones in a group of patients, so as to make the case for introducing bile salt therapy in SSA. METHODS: All patients with symptomatic gallstones were recruited in the study. All stones removed during cholecystectomy were sent to Houston for x-ray diffraction analysis. Data on age, sex, serum cholesterol, and the percentage by weight of cholesterol, calcium carbonate, and amorphous material in each stone was entered into a pre-established proforma. Frequencies of the major components of the stones were determined. RESULTS: Sixteen women and ten men aged between 27 and 73 (mean 44.9) years provided stones for the study. The majority of patients (65.38%) had stones with less than 25% of cholesterol. Amorphous material made up more than 50% and 100% of stones from 16 (61.53%) and 9 (34.61%) patients respectively. CONCLUSION: Cholesterol is present in small amounts in a minority of gallstones in Yaounde. Dissolution of gallstones with bile salts is unlikely to be successful. PMID:14716845

  19. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  20. Variation of calcium, copper and iron levels in serum, bile and stone samples of patients having different types of gallstone: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mustafa; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Sirajuddin; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Sabir; Kadar, Salma

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological data among the human population has shown a significantly increased incidence of gallstone (GS) disease worldwide. It was studied that some essential (calcium) and transition elements (iron and copper) in bile play an important role in the development of GS. The estimation of calcium, copper and iron were carried out in the serum, gall bladder bile and different types of GS (cholesterol, mixed and pigmented) of 172 patients, age ranged 20-55years. For comparative purpose age matched referents not suffering from GS diseases were also selected. Biliary concentrations of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) were correlated with their concentrations in serum and different types of GS samples. The ratio of Ca, Fe and Cu in bile with serum was also calculated. Understudy metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after acid decomposition of matrices of selected samples. The Ca concentrations in serum samples were significantly higher in patients with pigmented GS as compared to controls (p<0.005), whereas for patients having cholesterol and mixed GS the concentrations were on the lower side. Biliary Ca concentrations of patients were found to be higher than controls, but difference was significant for pigmented GS patients (p>0.001). The contents of Cu and Fe in serum and bile of all patients (except female cholesterol GS patient have low serum iron concentration) were found to be higher than control, but difference was significant in those patients who have pigmented GS. The concentration of Ca, Fe and Cu in different types GS were found in the order, Pigmented>mixed>cholesterol. The bile/serum ratio for Ca, Cu and Fe was found to be significantly higher in pigmented GS patients. Gall bladder bile was slightly alkaline in patients as compared to referents. The density of bile was found to be higher in patients as compared to the referents. Various functional groups present in different types of GS samples were confirmed by Fourier

  1. Small Arteriovenous Malformation of the Common Bile Duct Causing Hemobilia in a Patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Sadao, E-mail: hayashi@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Baba, Yasutaka; Ueno, Kazuto

    We report a 54-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. The patient was treated as gallstone pancreatitis at first. Three days after endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) for biliary drainage to subside gallstone pancreatitis, hemobilia was drained from the ENBD tube and the serum hemoglobin level gradually decreased. Cholangioscopy and angiography revealed that hemobilia was due to a small arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated by endovascular intervention.

  2. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K.; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Methods: Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic included individually or together along with HCD. A total of 100 mice were divided into five groups of 20 mice each. Results: Dietary CB, garlic and CB+garlic reduced the formation of cholesterol gallstones by 44, 25 and 56 per cent, respectively, lowered cholesterol by 23-48, 16-24, and 24-58 in bile, serum, and liver, respectively. Cholesterol saturation index in bile and cholesterol: phospholipid ratio in circulation and hepatic tissue were significantly lowered by these dietary interventions, with highest beneficial effect from CB+garlic. Activities of hepatic cholesterol metabolizing enzymes were modulated by CB, garlic and CB+garlic. Elevation in lipid peroxides caused by HCD was also countered by these dietary interventions, the combination producing the highest effect. Interpretation & conclusions: The results showed that the prevention of experimentally induced formation of cholesterol gallstones by dietary CB and garlic was due to decreased biliary cholesterol secretion and increased cholesterol saturation index. In addition of anti-lithogenic effect, dietary CB and garlic in combination had a beneficial antioxidant effect. PMID:26609039

  3. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic included individually or together along with HCD. A total of 100 mice were divided into five groups of 20 mice each. Dietary CB, garlic and CB+garlic reduced the formation of cholesterol gallstones by 44, 25 and 56 per cent, respectively, lowered cholesterol by 23-48, 16-24, and 24-58 in bile, serum, and liver, respectively. Cholesterol saturation index in bile and cholesterol: phospholipid ratio in circulation and hepatic tissue were significantly lowered by these dietary interventions, with highest beneficial effect from CB+garlic. Activities of hepatic cholesterol metabolizing enzymes were modulated by CB, garlic and CB+garlic. Elevation in lipid peroxides caused by HCD was also countered by these dietary interventions, the combination producing the highest effect. The results showed that the prevention of experimentally induced formation of cholesterol gallstones by dietary CB and garlic was due to decreased biliary cholesterol secretion and increased cholesterol saturation index. In addition of anti-lithogenic effect, dietary CB and garlic in combination had a beneficial antioxidant effect.

  4. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Gallbladder Disease: A Hospital-based Case-Control Study in Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Jessri, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gallbladder disease is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders that may result from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with gallstone disease among Iranian women. This case-control study was conducted in general teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Participants were 101 female cases and 204 female controls aged 40-65 years who were admitted for problems other than GBD. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis based on food frequency questionnaire. Compared to the control group, cases were less educated, less physically active, and consumed more total energy (p<0.02). Having ≥3 livebirths increased the risk of gallstone by more than 5 times, followed by having rapid weight loss, being single, having familial history of gallstone, and consuming high total energy. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified in women (healthy and unhealthy). After adjustment for several confounding variables, healthy dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of gallstone disease (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.048-0.4) while unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk (OR=3.77, 95% CI 1.52-9.36). These findings confirm that dietary pattern approach provides potentially useful and relevant information on the relationship between diet and disease. Identifying risk factors will provide an opportunity for prevention of gallbladder disease in developing countries facing an increased risk of obesity. PMID:25995720

  5. Clinical characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Seema; Lopez, Monica E; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Mazziotti, Mark V; Brandt, Mary L; Fishman, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Our center previously reported its experience with pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies from 1980 to 1996. We aimed to determine the current clinical characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies and compare these findings with our historical series. Retrospective, cross-sectional study of children, 0 to 18 years of age, who underwent a cholecystectomy from January 2005 to October 2008. We evaluated 404 patients: 73% girls; 39% Hispanic and 35% white. The mean age was 13.10 ± 0.91 years. The primary indications for surgery in patients 3 years or older were symptomatic cholelithiasis (53%), obstructive disease (28%), and biliary dyskinesia (16%). The median BMI percentile was 89%; 39% were classified as obese. Of the patients with nonhemolytic gallstone disease, 35% were obese and 18% were severely obese; BMI percentile was 99% or higher. Gallstone disease was associated with hemolytic disease in 23% (73/324) of patients and with obesity in 39% (126/324). Logistic regression demonstrated older age (P = .019) and Hispanic ethnicity (P < .0001) as independent risk factors for nonhemolytic gallstone disease. Compared with our historical series, children undergoing cholecystectomy are more likely to be Hispanic (P = .003) and severely obese (P < .0279). Obesity and Hispanic ethnicity are strongly correlated with symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease. In comparison with our historical series, hemolytic disease is no longer the predominant risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease in children.

  6. Application of multiplex arrays for cytokine and chemokine profiling of bile.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Troy J; Castro, Felipe A; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hildesheim, Allan; Nogueira, Leticia; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Sun, Lu; Shelton, Gloriana; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hsing, Ann W; Pinto, Ligia A; Koshiol, Jill

    2015-05-01

    Gallbladder disease is highly related to inflammation, but the inflammatory processes are not well understood. Bile provides a direct substrate in assessing the local inflammatory response that develops in the gallbladder. To assess the reproducibility of measuring inflammatory markers in bile, we designed a methods study of 69 multiplexed immune-related markers measured in bile obtained from gallstone patients. To evaluate assay performance, a total of 18 bile samples were tested twice within the same plate for each analyte, and the 18 bile samples were tested on two different days for each analyte. We used the following performance parameters: detectability, coefficient of variation (CV), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and percent agreement (concordance among replicate measures above and below detection limit). Furthermore, we examined the association of analyte levels with gallstone characteristics such as type, numbers, and size. All but 3 analytes (Stem Cell Factor, SCF; Thrombopoietin, TPO; sIL-1RI) were detectable in bile. 52 of 69 (75.4%) analytes had detectable levels for at least 50% of the subjects tested. The within-plate CVs were ⩽25% for 53 of 66 (80.3%) detectable analytes, and across-plate CVs were ⩽25% for 32 of 66 (48.5%) detectable analytes. Moreover, 64 of 66 (97.0%) analytes had ICC values of at least 0.8. Lastly, the percent agreement was high between replicates for all of the analytes (median; within plate, 97.2%; across plate, 97.2%). In exploratory analyses, we assessed analyte levels by gallstone characteristics and found that levels for several analytes decreased with increasing size of the largest gallstone per patient. Our data suggest that multiplex assays can be used to reliably measure cytokines and chemokines in bile. In addition, gallstone size was inversely related to the levels of select analytes, which may aid in identifying critical pathways and mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of gallbladder diseases

  7. Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Cholecystectomy laparoscopic - discharge; Cholelithiasis - laparoscopic discharge; Biliary calculus - laparoscopic discharge; Gallstones - laparoscopic discharge; Cholecystitis - laparoscopic discharge

  8. [The Management of Common Bile Duct Stones].

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Hwan

    2018-05-25

    Common bile duct (CBD) stone is a relatively frequent disorder with a prevalence of 10-20% in patients with gallstones. This is also associated with serious complications, including obstructive jaundice, acute suppurative cholangitis, and acute pancreatitis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is the most important for managing CBD stones. According to a recent meta-analysis, endoscopic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography have high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of CBD stones. Endoscopic ultrasonography, in particular, has been reported to have higher sensitivity between them. A suggested management algorithm for patients with symptomatic gallstones is based on whether they are at low, intermediate, or high probability of CBD stones. Single-stage laparoscopic CBD exploration and cholecystectomy is superior to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) plus laparoscopic cholecystectomy with respect to technical success and shorter hospital stay in high risk patients with gallstones and CBD stones, where expertise, operative time, and instruments are available. ERCP plus laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually performed to treat patients with CBD stones and gallstones in many institutions. Patients at intermediate probability of CBD stones after initial evaluation benefit from additional biliary imaging. Patients with a low probability of CBD stones should undergo cholecystectomy without further evaluation. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and endoscopic papillary balloon dilation in ERCP are the primary methods for dilating the papilla of Vater for endoscopic removal of CBD stones. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation is now increasingly performed due to the usefulness in the management of giant or difficult CBD stones. Scheduled repeated ERCP may be considered in patients with high risk of recurrent CBD stones.

  9. [Natural history of cholelithiasis and incidence of cholecystectomy in an urban and a Mapuche rural area].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ayuso, Rosa María; Hernández, Verónica; González, Berta; Carvacho, Claudia; Navarrete, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; González, Robinson; Marshall, Guillermo; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2002-07-01

    Cholelithiasis is the second cause of hospital admissions in Chile. To study the prevalence of symptomatic gallstone disease and opportunity of cholecystectomy in La Florida, Santiago and among Mapuche Indians in Huapi Island. In the period 2000-2001, we contacted to 71% (1127 subjects) and to 61% (145 subjects) patients of La Florida and Huapi Island, respectively, that had previously participated in an epidemiological study on cholelithiasis in 1993. We defined symptomatic gallstone patients as those with a history of biliary colic. Each patient was subjected to gallbladder ultrasound. In 1993, 30-35% of gallstone patients were symptomatic (approximately 70% women). During the lapse 1993-2001, only 50% of subjects from La Florida and 25% of patients from Huapi Island were cholecystectomized (p < 0.05). Fifty percent of cholecystectomies were emergency operations. In 38 symptomatic Mapuche Indians from Huapi, cholecystectomy was indicated in 2001. After five months of the indication, only one of these subjects had been operated. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represented 40% of all cholecystectomies performed in the National Health Service Hospitals. This study demonstrates an unacceptable high prevalence of symptomatic gallstone patients remaining non-operated in both the urban and rural communities. This reciprocally correlates with the high frequency of emergency cholecystectomies and the high incidence of gallbladder cancer among Chileans. This study contrasts negatively with the situation of Scotland, where 73.5% of cholecystectomies were laparoscopic in 1998-1999. To reach Scotland standards, the Chilean Public Health System should increase the number of cholecystectomies from 27,000 in 2001 to 57,510

  10. Differentiation of various traditional Chinese medicines derived from animal bile and gallstone: simultaneous determination of bile acids by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Ye, Min; Pan, De-lin; Miao, Wen-juan; Xiang, Cheng; Han, Jian; Guo, De-an

    2011-01-07

    Animal biles and gallstones are popularly used in traditional Chinese medicines, and bile acids are their major bioactive constituents. Some of these medicines, like cow-bezoar, are very expensive, and may be adulterated or even replaced by less expensive but similar species. Due to poor ultraviolet absorbance and structural similarity of bile acids, effective technology for species differentiation and quality control of bile-based Chinese medicines is still lacking. In this study, a rapid and reliable method was established for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 18 bile acids, including 6 free steroids (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, and ursodeoxycholic acid) and their corresponding glycine conjugates and taurine conjugates, by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). This method was used to analyze six bile-based Chinese medicines: bear bile, cattle bile, pig bile, snake bile, cow-bezoar, and artificial cow-bezoar. Samples were separated on an Atlantis dC₁₈ column and were eluted with methanol-acetonitrile-water containing ammonium acetate. The mass spectrometer was monitored in the negative electrospray ionization mode. Total ion currents of the samples were compared for species differentiation, and the contents of bile acids were determined by monitoring specific ion pairs in a selected reaction monitoring program. All 18 bile acids showed good linearity (r² > 0.993) in a wide dynamic range of up to 2000-fold, using dehydrocholic acid as the internal standard. Different animal biles could be explicitly distinguished by their major characteristic bile acids: tauroursodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid for bear bile, glycocholic acid, cholic acid and taurocholic acid for cattle bile, glycohyodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid for pig bile, and taurocholic acid for snake bile. Furthermore, cattle bile, cow

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of gallbladder polypoid lesions in Chinese petrochemical employees

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yu-Shan; Mai, Yi-Feng; Li, Fu-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Hu, Ke-Min; Hong, Zhong-Li; Zhu, Zhong-Wei

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLGs) in petrochemical employees in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. METHODS: All active and retired employees aged 20-90 years (n = 11098) of a refinery and chemical plant in eastern China were requested to participate in a health survey. The participants were subjected to interview, physical examination, laboratory assessments and ultrasonography. All the participants were invited to have a physical examination after a face-to-face interview. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein, and the samples were used for the analysis of biochemical values. Abdominal ultrasonography was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 10461 (7331 men and 3130 women) current and former petrochemical employees attended for screening. The overall prevalence of post-cholecystectomy, gallstones and PLGs was 0.9%, 5.2% and 7.4%, respectively. Compared with the increased prevalence of either gallstones or post-cholecystectomy in older persons, PLGs were more common in the middle-aged, peaking in those aged 40-59 years. Excluding the patients with gallstones, gallstones mixed with PLGs, or those who had undergone cholecystectomy, in the remaining 9828 participants, the prevalence of PLGs in men (8.9%) was significantly higher than that in women (5.5%, P < 0.001). The analyzed risk factors with increased OR for the development of PLGs were male gender (OR = 1.799, P < 0.001), age ≥ 30 years (OR = 2.699, P < 0.001) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity (OR = 1.374, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: PLGs are not rare among Chinese petrochemical employees. Male gender, HBsAg positivity, and middle age are risk factors for developing PLGs. PMID:23885152

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of gallbladder polypoid lesions in Chinese petrochemical employees.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yu-Shan; Mai, Yi-Feng; Li, Fu-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Hu, Ke-Min; Hong, Zhong-Li; Zhu, Zhong-Wei

    2013-07-21

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLGs) in petrochemical employees in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. All active and retired employees aged 20-90 years (n = 11098) of a refinery and chemical plant in eastern China were requested to participate in a health survey. The participants were subjected to interview, physical examination, laboratory assessments and ultrasonography. All the participants were invited to have a physical examination after a face-to-face interview. Fasting blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein, and the samples were used for the analysis of biochemical values. Abdominal ultrasonography was conducted. A total of 10461 (7331 men and 3130 women) current and former petrochemical employees attended for screening. The overall prevalence of post-cholecystectomy, gallstones and PLGs was 0.9%, 5.2% and 7.4%, respectively. Compared with the increased prevalence of either gallstones or post-cholecystectomy in older persons, PLGs were more common in the middle-aged, peaking in those aged 40-59 years. Excluding the patients with gallstones, gallstones mixed with PLGs, or those who had undergone cholecystectomy, in the remaining 9828 participants, the prevalence of PLGs in men (8.9%) was significantly higher than that in women (5.5%, P < 0.001). The analyzed risk factors with increased OR for the development of PLGs were male gender (OR = 1.799, P < 0.001), age ≥ 30 years (OR = 2.699, P < 0.001) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity (OR = 1.374, P = 0.006). PLGs are not rare among Chinese petrochemical employees. Male gender, HBsAg positivity, and middle age are risk factors for developing PLGs.

  13. Rapid Determination of Bile Acids in Bile from Various Mammals by Reversed-Phase Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Si, Gu Leng Ri; Yao, Peng; Shi, Luwen

    2015-08-01

    A valid and efficient reversed-phase ultra-fast liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 13 bile acids in the bile of three mammal species, including rat, pig and human gallstone patients. Chromatographic separation was performed with a Shim-pack XR-ODS column, and the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and potassium phosphate buffer (pH 2.6) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min(-1). The linear detection range of most bile acids ranged from 2 to 600 ng µL(-1) with a good correlation coefficient (>0.9995). The precision of each bile acid was <1.8% for intraday and <4.8% for interday. All bile acids were separated in 15 min with satisfactory resolution, and the total analysis time was 18 min, including equilibration. The method was successfully applied in rapid screening of bile samples from the three mammals. Significant metabolic frameworks of bile acids among various species were observed, whereas considerable quantitative variations in both inter- and intraspecies were also observed, especially for gallstone patients. Our results suggest that detecting the change of bile acid profiles could be applied for the diagnosis of gallstone disease. © Crown copyright 2014.

  14. Biofilm Formation Protects Salmonella from the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin In Vitro and In Vivo in the Mouse Model of chronic Carriage.

    PubMed

    González, Juan F; Alberts, Halley; Lee, Joel; Doolittle, Lauren; Gunn, John S

    2018-01-09

    Typhoid fever is caused by the human-restricted pathogen Salmonella enterica sv. Typhi. Approximately 5% of people that resolve the disease become chronic carriers, with the gallbladder as the main reservoir of the bacteria. Of these, about 90% present with gallstones, on which Salmonella form biofilms. Because S. Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen, these carriers are the main source of dissemination of the disease; unfortunately, antibiotic treatment has shown to be an ineffective therapy. This is believed to be caused by the inherent antibiotic resistance conferred by Salmonella biofilms growing on gallstones. The gallstone mouse model with S. Typhimurium has proven to be an excellent surrogate for S. Typhi chronic infection. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the biofilm state confers Salmonella with the increased resistance to antibiotics observed in cases of chronic carriage. We found that, in the biofilm state, Salmonella is significantly more resistant to ciprofloxacin, a common antibiotic used for the treatment of Salmonella, both in vitro (p < 0.001 for both S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium with respect to planktonic cells) and in vivo (p = 0.0035 with respect to control mice).

  15. [Simultaneous determination of eight kinds of conjunct bile acids in human bile by R-HPLC].

    PubMed

    Dai, Z; Tan, G; Qian, K; Chen, X

    1997-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of eight kinds of conjunct bile acids in human bile was developed by HPLC. They were separated on a YWG-C18 (3 microns) column at 30 degrees C, with methanol/water (65/35, V/V, pH3.0) as mobile phase, and detection wavelength at UV 210 nm. The linear ranges were 50-1,000 microns.ml-1, the recoveries were 91.2%-108.6%. The biles of 30 cases with cholelithiasis cholecystolithiasis and 20 cases without gallstone were detected by HPLC. The results showed that the constitution of bile acids was different between patients with cholelithiasis cholecystolithiasis and patients without gallstone.

  16. [Use of antibiotics and nitrofurans in treating acute and chronic cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Venger, I K

    1984-02-01

    Sixty-two patients with acute cholecystitis and 108 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis were examined. High levels of contamination of the bile, gallbladder mucosa and gallstones were shown. E. coli, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were most frequent among 20 species of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Preoperative sanation of the hepatoduodenal area with antibiotics did not result in complete elimination of the bacteria in the bile, gallbladder mucosa and gallstones. The use of nitrofurans and especially furazolidone and furagin in the preoperative period prevented the microbial growth in the specimens collected during the operations. The data of the study allow recommending the use of furazolidone and furagin for preoperative sanation of the biliferous tract.

  17. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    Cholecystectomy - open; Gallbladder - open cholecystectomy; Cholecystitis - open cholecystectomy; Gallstones - open cholecystectomy ... a medical instrument called a laparoscope ( laparoscopic ... Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot ...

  18. Pancreatitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet - clear liquid Diet - full liquid Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems Gallstones - discharge Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus Jejunostomy feeding tube Review Date 12/1/2016 Updated by: Subodh K. Lal, MD, Gastroenterologist ...

  19. Trypsin level in gallbladder bile and ductitis and width of the cystic duct.

    PubMed

    Vracko, J; Wiechel, K L

    2000-01-01

    The change from laparotomy to laparoscopy for cholecystectomy has raised the question of how to manage concomitant bile duct stones. The present-day interest--and controversy--has focused on a transcystic approach reported to be feasible in 66-96% of cases, but without explaining the necessary prerequisite: the widening of the cystic duct. The cystic duct, wide mainly in patients with bile duct stones, has been reported to be highly variable: from strictured to very wide. The present study aims at comparing the trypsin level in the gallbladder bile and the cystic duct morphology and width in patients with and without bile duct stones. A prospective series of 63 gallstone patients, 30 with and 33 without bile duct stones (controls), underwent cholecystectomy and bile duct clearance. The study includes the trypsin level in the gallbladder bile, the width and morphology of the cystic duct, and the size of the gallstones. The patients with bile duct stones had, in contrast to the controls, higher trypsin levels in the gallbladder bile (P < 0.001) and wider cystic ducts (P < 0.001) with more pronounced signs of chronic ductitis. The obtained results strongly suggest that the increased trypsin level, a sign of reflux of pancreatic juice, caused changes in the cystic duct that facilitate gallstone migration, which also ought to render a transcystic stone extraction feasible.

  20. Hereditary spherocytosis. Recent experience and current concepts of pathophysiology.

    PubMed Central

    Croom, R D; McMillan, C W; Orringer, E P; Sheldon, G F

    1986-01-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is a clinically heterogeneous, genetically determined red blood cell membrane disorder resulting in hemolytic anemia. A deficiency of spectrin, the largest and most abundant structural protein of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, results in the formation of spherocytes which lack the strength, durability, and flexibility to withstand the stresses of the circulation. Clinical manifestations of the disease are primarily dependent on the severity of hemolysis, which additionally results in an increased incidence of pigment gallstones. The likelihood of cholelithiasis is directly related to patient age and is uncommon before 10 years of age. Splenectomy is indicated in virtually every patient. When the disease is diagnosed in early childhood, the risk of overwhelming postsplenectomy sepsis makes it advisable to delay splenectomy until after 6 years of age if possible. At the time of splenectomy, it is important to identify and remove any accessory spleens. If gallstones are present, cholecystectomy should be performed. Although spherocytosis persists following splenectomy, hemolysis is alleviated and clinical cure of the anemia is achieved for most patients. Patients with recessively inherited spherocytosis are exceptions. Although they are significantly benefited by splenectomy, their anemia is not completely corrected. Splenectomy reduces hemolysis in all patients and thereby decreases the risk for development of pigment gallstones. Excision of an enlarged spleen removes the danger of traumatic rupture. Images FIG. 1. PMID:3942420

  1. Acute pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that lead to high blood levels of triglycerides. Alternative Names Gallstone pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Patient Instructions Pancreatitis - ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  2. Cholecystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... digestive fluid that's released into your small intestine (bile). In most cases, gallstones blocking the tube leading ... your gallbladder cause cholecystitis. This results in a bile buildup that can cause inflammation. Other causes of ...

  3. Pancreatic Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... enzymes become prematurely active and irritate the pancreas (pancreatitis). Pseudocysts can also result from injury to the ... alcohol use and gallstones are risk factors for pancreatitis, and pancreatitis is a risk factor for pseudocysts. ...

  4. Physical Chemistry of Bile: Detailed Pathogenesis of Cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Itani, Malak; Dubinsky, Theodore J

    2017-09-01

    Despite the overwhelming prevalence of cholelithiasis, many health care professionals are not familiar with the basic pathophysiology of gallstone formation. This article provides an overview of the biochemical pathways related to bile, with a focus on the physical chemistry of bile. We describe the important factors in bile synthesis and secretion that affect the composition of bile and consequently its liquid state. Within this biochemical background lies the foundation for understanding the clinical and sonographic manifestation of cholelithiasis, including the pathophysiology of cholesterol crystallization, gallbladder sludge, and gallstones. There is a brief discussion of the clinical manifestations of inflammatory and obstructive cholestasis and the impact on bile metabolism and subsequently on liver function tests. Despite being the key modality in diagnosing cholelithiasis, ultrasound has a limited role in the characterization of stone composition.

  5. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Efstathios P; Sarigianni, Maria; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Karagiannis, Vasilios

    2011-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis is rare in pregnancy but it is associated with increased incidence of maternal and fetal mortality. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of upper quadrant abdominal pain with or without nausea and vomiting. The commonest identified causes of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are gallstones, alcohol and hypertriglyceridemia. The main laboratory finding is increased amylase activity. Appropriate investigations include ultrasound of the right upper quadrant and measurement of serum triglycerides and ionized calcium. Management of gallstone pancreatitis is controversial, although laparoscopic cholecystectomy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are often used and may be associated with lower complication rates. In hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis ω-3 fatty acids and even therapeutic plasma exchange can be used. We also discuss preventive measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ginger

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects such as abdominal discomfort, heartburn, diarrhea, and gas. Some experts recommend that people with gallstone disease ... and Birth. 2013;26(1):e26-e30. Ginger. Natural Medicines Web site. Accessed at naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com ...

  7. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-21

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  8. Courvoisier's gallbladder: law or sign?

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J Edward F; White, Matthew J; Lobo, Dileep N

    2009-04-01

    Variously described as Courvoisier's law, sign, or even gallbladder, this eponymous "law" has been taught to medical students since the publication of Courvoisier's treatise in 1890. We reviewed Courvoisier's original "law," the modern misconceptions surrounding it, and the contemporary evidence supporting and explaining his observations. Courvoisier never stated a "law" in the context of a jaundiced patient with a palpable gallbladder. He described 187 cases of common bile duct obstruction, observing that gallbladder dilatation seldom occurred with stone obstruction of the bile duct. The classic explanation for Courvoisier's finding is based on the underlying pathologic process. With the presence of gallstones come repeated episodes of infection and subsequent fibrosis of the gallbladder. In the event that a gallstone causes the obstruction, the gallbladder is shrunken owing to fibrosis and is unlikely to be distensible and, hence, palpable. With other causes of obstruction, the gallbladder distends as a result of the back-pressure from obstructed bile flow. However, recent experiments show that gallbladders are equally distensible in vitro, irrespective of the pathology, suggesting that chronicity of the obstruction is the key. Chronically elevated intraductal pressures are more likely to develop with malignant obstruction owing to the progressive nature of the disease. Gallstones cause obstruction in an intermittent fashion, which is generally not consistent enough to produce such a chronic rise in pressure. We hope that reminding clinicians of Courvoisier's actual observations will reestablish the usefulness of this clinical sign in the way he intended.

  9. Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Randi, Giorgia; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2006-04-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a relatively rare neoplasm that shows, however, high incidence rates in certain world populations. The interplay of genetic susceptibility, lifestyle factors and infections in gallbladder carcinogenesis is still poorly understood. Age-adjusted rates were calculated by cancer registry-based data. Epidemiological studies on gallbladder cancer were selected through searches of literature, and relative risks were abstracted for major risk factors. The highest gallbladder cancer incidence rates worldwide were reported for women in Delhi, India (21.5/100,000), South Karachi, Pakistan (13.8/100,000) and Quito, Ecuador (12.9/100,000). High incidence was found in Korea and Japan and some central and eastern European countries. Female-to-male incidence ratios were generally around 3, but ranged from 1 in Far East Asia to over 5 in Spain and Colombia. History of gallstones was the strongest risk factor for gallbladder cancer, with a pooled relative risk (RR) of 4.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-7.4]. Consistent associations were also present with obesity, multiparity and chronic infections like Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi [pooled RR 4.8 (95% CI: 1.4-17.3)] and Helicobacter bilis and H. pylori [pooled RR 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-8.8)]. Differences in incidence ratios point to variations in gallbladder cancer aetiology in different populations. Diagnosis of gallstones and removal of gallbladder currently represent the keystone to gallbladder cancer prevention, but interventions able to prevent obesity, cholecystitis and gallstone formation should be assessed.

  10. Short-term outcome of total clipless laparoscopic cholecystectomy for complicated gallbladder stones in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohamed I; Hassouna, Ehab M

    2018-03-01

    Cirrhotic patients have been known to be more affected with gallstones than their non-cirrhotic counterparts; since laparoscopy was introduced, it has been generally approved as the standard approach for cholecystectomies with the exception of end-stage cirrhosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of clipless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using the harmonic scalpel in complicated cholelithiasis in cirrhotic patients. This prospective study was conducted on 62 cirrhotic patients presenting to the Gastrointestinal Surgery Unit in Alexandria Main University Hospital with complicated gallstones between March 2013 and March 2016. Both intraoperative time and blood loss were calculated in addition to rates of conversion to open cholecystectomy, morbidity and mortality. Most of our cases were females with a ratio of 1.7:1, with a mean age of 45.21 years, ranging from 25 to 65 years. The most common cause of cirrhotic liver was hepatitis C in 45.1% of patients. Among the 62 patients included in the study, 56 patients (90.3%) were presenting with acute cholecystitis and six patients were operated at the onset of acute biliary pancreatitis. The mean operative time was 72.9 min with mean blood loss 45.45 mL. The study concluded safety of total clipless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using a harmonic scalpel in Child A and B type cirrhotic patients, who presented with complicated gallstones. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Pancreatitis in pregnancy: etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mali, Padmavathi

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is a rare and dangerous disease. This study aimed to examine the etiology, treatment, and outcomes of pancreatitis in pregnancy. A total of 25 pregnant patients diagnosed with pancreatitis during the period of 1994 and 2014 was analyzed retrospectively. The pregnant patients were diagnosed with pancreatitis during a period of 21 years. Most (60%) of the patients were diagnosed with pancreatitis in the third trimester. The mean age of the patients at presentation was 25.7 years, with a mean gestational age of 24.4 weeks. Abdominal pain occurred in most patients and vomiting in one patient was associated hyperemesis gravidarum. The common cause of the disease was gallstone-related (56%), followed by alcohol-related (16%), post-ERCP (4%), hereditary (4%) and undetermined conditions (20%). The level of triglycerides was minimally high in three patients. ERCP and wire-guided sphincterotomy were performed in 6 (43%) of 14 patients with gallstone-related pancreatitis and elevated liver enzymes with no complications. Most (84%) of the patients underwent a full-term, vaginal delivery. There was no difference in either maternal or fetal outcomes after ERCP. Acute pancreatitis is rare in pregnancy, occurring most commonly in the third trimester, and gallstones are the most common cause. When laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not feasible and a common bile duct stone is highly suspected on imaging, endoscopic sphincterotomy or stenting may help to prevent recurrence and postpone cholecystectomy until after delivery.

  12. [Adapting the diet due to health reasons: Nursing intervention in patients with renal lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Badanta Romero, Bárbara; de Diego Cordero, Rocío; Fernández García, Elena

    The urolithiasis, with a high incidence nowadays, including formations caused by gallstone of uric acid, has a high correlation to our lifestyles and dietary habits. Through a clinic case, it is intended to review the main nursing actions that may occur with this pathology. To achieve this, the data collected on physical examination and nursing assessment on the model of Virginia Henderson, while the full care plan is developed. The results show the need to establish a standardized healthy education intervention, related to a low-pruine healthy diet for people that suffer this disease. The amount of complications and problems associated with recidivism of hospital accommodation because of the ignorance of gallstone cases increase the risk of reducing the quality of life of the patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Stools - pale or clay-colored

    MedlinePlus

    ... biliary system. The biliary system is the drainage system of the gallbladder, liver, and pancreas. Considerations The liver ... hepatitis Biliary cirrhosis Cancer or noncancerous (benign) tumors of the liver, biliary system, or pancreas Cysts of the bile ducts Gallstones ...

  14. Point of Care 3D Ultrasound for Various Applications: A Pilot Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-30

    Appendicitis; Evidence of Cholecystectomy; Gallstones; Pregnancy, Ectopic; Aortic Aneurysm; Kidney Stones; Intrauterine Pregnancy; Diverticulitis; Abdominal Injuries; Tumors; Pancreatitis; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intraabdominal Infections; Intestinal Diseases; Pregnancy; Vascular Disease; Uterine Fibroids; Ovarian Cysts; Uterine Abnominalies; Bladder Abnominalies; Testicular Abnominalies; Polyps

  15. Abdominal exploration

    MedlinePlus

    ... help diagnose and treat many health conditions, including: Cancer of the ovary, colon, pancreas, liver Endometriosis Gallstones Hole in the intestine (intestinal perforation) Inflammation of the appendix ( acute ... practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed ...

  16. Sclerosing cholangitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gallstones in the bile duct) Infections in the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts Symptoms The first symptoms are usually: Fatigue Itching ... varices (enlarged veins) Biliary cirrhosis (inflammation of the bile ducts) Liver failure Persistent jaundice Some people develop infections of ...

  17. Cognition: the new frontier for nuts and berries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inclusion of nuts in the diet is associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, gallstones, diabetes, cancer, metabolic syndrome and visceral obesity; frequent consumption of berries seems to be associated with improved cardiovascular and cancer outcomes, improved immune fun...

  18. Preoperative ultrasound measurements predict the feasibility of gallbladder extraction during transgastric natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Byron F; Auyang, Edward D; Hungness, Eric S; Desai, Kush R; Chan, Edward S; van Beek, Darren B; Wang, Edward C; Soper, Nathaniel J

    2011-04-01

    Extraction of a gallbladder through an endoscopic overtube during natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) transgastric cholecystectomy avoids potential injury to the esophagus. This study examined the rate of successful gallbladder specimen extraction through an overtube and hypothesized that preoperative ultrasound findings could predict successful specimen passage. Gallbladder specimens from patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were measured, and an attempt was made to pull the specimens through a commercially available overtube with an inner diameter of 16.7-mm. A radiologist blinded to the outcomes reviewed the available preoperative ultrasound measurements from these patients. Ultrasound dimensions including gallbladder length, width, and depth; wall thickness; common bile duct diameter; and size of the largest gallstone (LGS) were recorded. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether ultrasound findings and patient characteristics (age, body mass index [BMI], and sex) could predict the ability of a specimen to pass through the overtube. Of 57 patients, 44 (77%) who had preoperative ultrasounds available for electronic review were included in the final analysis. Gallstones were present in 35 (79%) of these 44 patients. Intraoperative gallbladder perforation occurred in 18 (41%) of the 44 patients, and 16 (36%) of the 44 gallbladders could be extracted through the overtube. Measurement of LGS was possible for 23 patients, and indeterminate gallstone size (IGS) was determined for 12 patients. The rate for passage of perforated versus intact gallbladders was similar (40% vs. 23%; p = 0.054). The LGS (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.33; p = 0.021) and IGS (OR, 22.97; 95% CI, 1.99-265.63; p = 0.025) predicted failed passage on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The passage rate was 80% for LGS smaller than 10 mm or no stones present, 18% for LGS 10 mm or larger, and 8% for

  19. Gallbladder Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Gallbladder cancer is a rare cancer that is usually diagnosed late due a to lack of early signs and symptoms. It is sometimes found when the gallbladder is checked for gallstones or removed. Start here to find information on gallbladder cancer treatment.

  20. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107

  1. Shock waves: a new physical principle in medicine.

    PubMed

    Brendel, W

    1986-01-01

    Shock wave therapy of kidney- and gallstones, i.e. extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), is a new, noninvasive technique to destroy concrements in the kidney, the gallbladder and in the ductus choledochus. This method was developed by the Dornier Company, Friedrichshafen, FRG, and tested in animal experiments at the Institute for Surgical Research of the University of Munich. In the meantime, kidney lithotripsy has gained world-wide acceptance. More than 60,000 patients suffering from urolithiasis have been treated successfully, what made surgical removal of their kidney stones obsolete. Gallstone lithotripsy is, however, still at the very beginning of clinical trial. Lithotripsy of gallbladder stones will have to be applied in combination with urso- or chenodesoxycholic acid in order to obtain complete dissolution of the fragments. Potential hazards to living tissues are briefly mentioned. Since the lung is particularly susceptible, shock waves must enter the body at an angle which ensures that lung tissue is not affected.

  2. Acute Pancreatitis: Etiology, Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Shirin; Golembioski, Adam; Wilson, Stephen L; Thompson, Errington C

    2017-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a fascinating disease. In the United States, the two most common etiologies of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and excessive alcohol consumption. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is made with a combination of history, physical examination, computed tomography scan, and laboratory evaluation. Differentiating patients who will have a benign course of their pancreatitis from patients who will have severe pancreatitis is challenging to the clinician. C-reactive protein, pro-calcitonin, and the Bedside Index for Severity of Acute Pancreatitis appeared to be the best tools for the early and accurate diagnosis of severe pancreatitis. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is indicated for patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis. For patients who are going to have a prolonged hospitalization, enteral nutrition is preferred. Total parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate enteral nutrition. Prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated for patients with pancreatic necrosis. Surgical intervention for infected pancreatic necrosis should be delayed as long as possible to improve patient outcomes.

  3. Severe acute pancreatitis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K W; Stewart, I S; Imrie, C W

    2006-01-01

    For most patients with pregnancy-associated pancreatitis there is little maternal survival threat and only occasionally are there foetal deaths. We describe 4 young women with pregnancy-associated severe acute pancreatitis who each had gallstones. Their ages were 17, 18, 20 and 24 years. Each was a tertiary referral to our unit in Glasgow and each pursued a life-threatening course with hospital stays ranging from 37 to 90 days. One patient required pancreatic necrosectomy for infected necrosis, another had percutaneous management of a pancreatic abscess and 2 had cystogastrostomy as treatment for pancreatic pseudocyst. All underwent early endoscopic sphincterotomy and later cholecystectomy. It is important to be aware that pregnancy-associated acute pancreatitis may be severe, posing a survival threat even in the youngest patients. Gallstones, as we reported almost 20 years ago, are the most common aetiological factor in such patients. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP.

  4. [Management of Acute Cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ok; Yim, Sung Kyun

    2018-05-25

    Acute cholecystitis is a common serious complication of gallstones. The reported mortality of acute cholecystitis is approximately 3%, but the rate increases with age or comorbidity of the patient. If appropriate treatment is delayed, complications can develop as a consequence with a grave prognosis. The current standard of care in acute cholecystitis is an early laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the appropriate administration of fluid, electrolyte, and antibiotics. On the other hand, the severity of the disease and patient's operational risk must be considered. In those with high operational risks, gall bladder drainage can be performed as an alternative. Currently percutaneous and endoscopic drainage are available and show clinical success in most cases. After recovering from acute cholecystitis, the patients who have undergone drainage should be considered for cholecystectomy as a definitive treatment. However, in elderly patients or patients with significant comorbidity, operational risks may still be high, making cholecystectomy inappropriate. In these patients, gallstone removal using the percutaneous tract or endoscopy may be considered.

  5. Indications and complications of splenectomy for children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Salem, Ahmed H

    2006-11-01

    splenectomy for massive splenic infarction because of persistent left upper quadrant abdominal pain, and 1 had splenectomy for splenomegaly with a nonfunctioning spleen. Twenty-eight (21%) of our patients had splenectomy and cholecystectomy. In 4 patients, this was because of symptomatic gallstones, whereas in the other 24, it was because of asymptomatic gallstones discovered on ultrasound. There was no mortality, but 8 (6%) developed postoperative complications. With good perioperative management, splenectomy in children with SCA is not only safe, but also beneficial in treating SA, reducing the patients' transfusion requirements, eliminating the risks of ASSC, and eliminating the discomfort and mechanical pressure of the enlarged spleen. Abdominal ultrasound should be done routinely preoperatively for all children with SCA undergoing splenectomy, and if gallstones are discovered, they should undergo concomitant cholecystectomy. This is even so for asymptomatic gallstones. The addition of cholecystectomy to splenectomy does not increase the morbidity, but eliminates the subsequent complications of gallstones and simplifies their future management in case of abdominal crisis as the possibility of cholecystitis is eliminated.

  6. Interventional Endoscopy Database for Pancreatico-biliary, Gastrointestinal and Esophageal Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-16

    Ampullary Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Bile Duct Disorders; Gallstones; Obstructive Jaundice; Pancreatic Disorders (Noncancerous); Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Barrett's Esophagus; Gastric Malignancies; Pancreatic Cancer; Pediatric Gastroenterology; Cholangiocarcinoma; Pancreatic Pseudocysts; Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis; Recurrent Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Bile Leak; Biliary Strictures; Pancreatic Divisum; Biliary and Pancreatic Stones; Choledocholithiasis

  7. The Impact of Gallbladder Status on Biliary Complications After the Endoscopic Removal of Choledocholithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Hi; Yeo, Seong Jae; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min

    2016-04-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) with stone extraction is the standard management for choledocholithiasis. However, the necessity for subsequent management of gallstone to prevent the biliary complications remained controversial and few data were evaluated for the impact of status of gallbladder on recurrent biliary complications. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between the status of gallbladder and the occurrence of biliary complications after endoscopic removal of choledocholithiasis. Between January 1998 and December 2008, we enrolled 453 patients with intact gallbladder who underwent EST for choledocholithiasis and allocated into two groups: calculous gallbladder (n = 256) and acalculous gallbladder (n = 197). By reviewing patients' medical records, we compared the occurrence of biliary complications according to the presence or absence of gallstone in GB in situ. In total, biliary complications occurred in 83 patients (18.3 %) during the follow-up period. Calculous GB group had higher rate of overall complications (22.7 vs. 12.7 %; p = 0.007) and GB-associated complications (11.3 vs. 2.5 %; p = 0.001) than acalculous GB group. On the multivariate analysis, only the presence of gallstone was shown to be significant risk factor for overall biliary complication (OR 2.029; 95 % CI 1.209-3.405; p = 0.007) and GB-associated complications (OR 5.077; 95 % CI 1.917-13.446; p = 0.001). Mean event-free period was shorter in calculous GB group than acalculous GB group for overall complications (1774 vs. 2159 days; p = 0.012) and GB-associated complication (2153 vs. 2591 days; p = 0.001). Prophylactic cholecystectomy may not be necessary to prevent biliary complication in patients with acalculous gallbladder after endoscopic removal of pigment stones from bile duct.

  8. Medical conditions, family history of cancer, and the risk of biliary tract cancers.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Valentina; Bosetti, Cristina; Dal Maso, Luigino; Montella, Maurizio; Serraino, Diego; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2016-06-02

    Scanty data exist on the role of personal medical conditions, except for gallstones, and family history of cancer on the risk of biliary tract cancers (BTC). We analyzed this issue using data from two Italian case-control studies, including 159 cases of BTC and 795 matched hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of BTC and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Gallstones were associated with a 2-fold excess risk of BTC (95% CI 1.24-3.45). No significant associations were observed with other conditions investigated, including diabetes (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.63-2.11), hypertension (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39-1.11), hyperlipidemia (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.31-1.21), allergy (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.29-1.40), gastroduodenal ulcer (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.24-1.12), hepatitis (OR 2.02, 95% CI 0.35-11.67), benign thyroid diseases (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.56-2.40), hysterectomy (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.53-2.68), unilateral oophorectomy (OR 1.75, 95% CI 0.44-6.93), and bilateral oophorectomy (OR 2.48, 95% CI 0.79-7.82). We found an excess risk of BTC in relation to family history of any cancer (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.24) and family history of gallbladder cancer (OR 3.83, 95% CI 0.59-24.75). The present study confirms a strong association between BTC and history of gallstones, and provides further evidence of a positive association with family history of cancer.

  9. Impact of ursodeoxycholic acid on a CCK1R cholesterol-binding site may contribute to its positive effects in digestive function

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Aditya J.; Dong, Maoqing; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G.

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the type 1 cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor (CCK1R) as a result of increased gallbladder muscularis membrane cholesterol has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. Administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, which is structurally related to cholesterol, has been shown to have beneficial effects on gallstone formation. Our aims were to explore the possible direct effects and mechanism of action of bile acids on CCK receptor function. We studied the effects of structurally related hydrophobic chenodeoxycholic acid and hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid in vitro on CCK receptor function in the setting of normal and elevated membrane cholesterol. We also examined their effects on a cholesterol-insensitive CCK1R mutant (Y140A) disrupting a key site of cholesterol action. The results show that, similar to the impact of cholesterol on CCK receptors, bile acid effects were limited to CCK1R, with no effects on CCK2R. Chenodeoxycholic acid had a negative impact on CCK1R function, while ursodeoxycholic acid had no effect on CCK1R function in normal membranes but was protective against the negative impact of elevated cholesterol on this receptor. The cholesterol-insensitive CCK1R mutant Y140A was resistant to effects of both bile acids. These data suggest that bile acids compete with the action of cholesterol on CCK1R, probably by interacting at the same site, although the conformational impact of each bile acid appears to be different, with ursodeoxycholic acid capable of correcting the abnormal conformation of CCK1R in a high-cholesterol environment. This mechanism may contribute to the beneficial effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in reducing cholesterol gallstone formation. PMID:26138469

  10. Gallbladder Cleanse: A "Natural" Remedy for Gallstones?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

  11. Chyle leak following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a rare complication

    PubMed Central

    Gogalniceanu, Petrut; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Spalding, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    Gallstone disease is a highly prevalent condition which is commonly and safely treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present the third reported case of chyle leakage following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the setting of acute cholecystitis. The report reviews current literature on the prevalence, diagnosis and management of this condition. PMID:20699054

  12. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the scope of the problem of obesity in the United States, noting the health risks associated with being overweight or obese (e.g., gallstones, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and colon cancer); discussing the association of type-II diabetes mellitus with obesity; examining the effects of exercise on metabolic disease; and looking at…

  13. Crystallization from Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  14. Cholecystectomy Reduces Recurrent Pancreatitis and Improves Survival After Endoscopic Sphincterotomy.

    PubMed

    Young, Shih-Hao; Peng, Yen-Ling; Lin, Xi-Hsuan; Chen, Yung-Tai; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Wang, Yen-Po; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lee, Fa-Yauh

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether cholecystectomy can decrease the recurrent pancreatitis in the elderly patients who received endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and successful clearance of bile duct (BD) stones after gallstone-related acute pancreatitis. We analyzed data from National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Elderly patients (age ≧70 years old) who had gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and underwent successful EST with BD stones clearance were eligible for enrollment. This nationwide, population-based, propensity score (PS)-matched cohort study involved two cohorts: (1) patients who underwent cholecystectomy after ERCP with BD stone clearance as study group and (2) those who adopted wait-and-see strategy (without cholecystectomy) after ERCP with BD stone clearance as control group. The primary and secondary endpoints were recurrent acute pancreatitis and all-cause mortality, respectively. During the study period, a total of 670 elderly patients (male 291, female 379) with a mean age of 79.1 was enrolled for analysis after PS matching. The incidence rate of recurrent acute pancreatitis was 12.39 per 1000 person-years in the cholecystectomy cohort and 23.94 per 1000 person-years in the PS-matched control cohort. The risk of recurrent acute pancreatitis was significantly lower in the cholecystectomy cohort (HR, 0.56; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.91; P = 0.021). The HR for all-cause mortality among the cholecystectomy cohort was 0.75 (95 % CI, 0.59-0.95; P = 0.016) compared with the control cohort. Cholecystectomy decreased the subsequent recurrent acute pancreatitis and the all-cause mortality in elderly patients with EST and clearance of BD stones after gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

  15. A prospective analysis for prevalence of complications in Thai nontransfusion-dependent Hb E/β-thalassemia and α-thalassemia (Hb H disease).

    PubMed

    Ekwattanakit, Supachai; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Viprakasit, Vip

    2018-05-01

    Recently, complications in patients with nontransfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT), in particular those with β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI), were found to be significantly different from those in patients with transfusion dependent thalassemia (TDT), mainly β-thalassemia major (β-TM). However, this information is rather limited in other forms of NTDT. In this prospective study, adult Thai NTDT patients were interviewed and clinically evaluated for thalassemia related complications. Fifty-seven NTDT patients (age 18-74 years), 59.6% Hb E/β-thalassemia and 40.4% Hb H disease, were recruited; 26.4% were splenectomized. The most common complications were gallstones (68.4%), osteoporosis (26.3%), and pulmonary hypertension (15.8%). Splenectomy was associated with higher rate of gallstones and serious infection (P = .001 and .052, respectively), consistent with a multivariate analysis (RR = 9.5, P = .044, and RR = 15.1, P = .043, respectively). In addition, a higher hemoglobin level was inversely associated with gallstones in both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .01 and .022, respectively). Serum ferritin was associated with abnormal liver function (P = .002). In contrast to the previous study, the prevalence of thrombosis was less common in our population (1.7%), probably due to differences in transfusion therapy, ethnicity, and underlying genotypes. For the first time, this prospective study provided the current prevalence of NTDT related complications in a Southeast Asian population with a different underlying genetic basis compared with previous studies. Although individual prevalence of each complication might differ from other studies, several important clinical factors such as splenectomy, degree of anemia, and iron overload seem to be determining risks of developing these complications consistently across different ethnicities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Impact of ursodeoxycholic acid on a CCK1R cholesterol-binding site may contribute to its positive effects in digestive function.

    PubMed

    Desai, Aditya J; Dong, Maoqing; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Miller, Laurence J

    2015-09-01

    Dysfunction of the type 1 cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor (CCK1R) as a result of increased gallbladder muscularis membrane cholesterol has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. Administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, which is structurally related to cholesterol, has been shown to have beneficial effects on gallstone formation. Our aims were to explore the possible direct effects and mechanism of action of bile acids on CCK receptor function. We studied the effects of structurally related hydrophobic chenodeoxycholic acid and hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid in vitro on CCK receptor function in the setting of normal and elevated membrane cholesterol. We also examined their effects on a cholesterol-insensitive CCK1R mutant (Y140A) disrupting a key site of cholesterol action. The results show that, similar to the impact of cholesterol on CCK receptors, bile acid effects were limited to CCK1R, with no effects on CCK2R. Chenodeoxycholic acid had a negative impact on CCK1R function, while ursodeoxycholic acid had no effect on CCK1R function in normal membranes but was protective against the negative impact of elevated cholesterol on this receptor. The cholesterol-insensitive CCK1R mutant Y140A was resistant to effects of both bile acids. These data suggest that bile acids compete with the action of cholesterol on CCK1R, probably by interacting at the same site, although the conformational impact of each bile acid appears to be different, with ursodeoxycholic acid capable of correcting the abnormal conformation of CCK1R in a high-cholesterol environment. This mechanism may contribute to the beneficial effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in reducing cholesterol gallstone formation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Successful pregnancy outcome after fertility-sparing surgery and chemotherapy for dysgerminoma.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2010-09-01

    Ovarian dysgerminoma is a rare malignancy of the ovary. This is a case report of a 30-year-old female, presenting with a huge ovarian mass along with multiple gallstones; she was treated by fertility-sparing excision of the mass and cholecystectomy, followed by chemotherapy. She later had an uneventful pregnancy and delivered a healthy baby.

  18. Bowel obstruction: Differential diagnosis and clinical management

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a practical guide to the diagnosis and management of obstruction, both mechanical and organic, of the large and small bowel. Obstruction is a common problem for surgeons, and this text emphasizes differential diagnosis and the use of all radiologic modalities. It presents the surgical and medical considerations involved with gallstones, bezoars, parasites, tumors, inflammation, trauma, intussusception, more.

  19. Spontaneous asymptomatic gallbladder perforation

    PubMed Central

    Seçil, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease is common. However, a proportion of patients are asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed until the occurrence of complications. Common complications include acute cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, acute pancreatitis and cholangitis. Severe complications include gallbladder perforation, Mirizzi syndrome and fistula formation are usually associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of asymptomatic spotaneous gallbladder perforation due to acute cholecystitis. PMID:24914424

  20. Biliary Tract Disorders, Gallbladder Disorders, and Gallstone Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... biliary disorders? What is the biliary tract? Enfermedades de la Vesicula y de la Via Biliar, Pancreatitis Biliar - Ricardo Morgenstern, MD and Ruben Acosta, MD Enfermedades de la Vesicula y de la Via Biliar, Pancreatitis ...

  1. Original single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute inflammation of the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kazunari; Watanabe, Goro; Matsuda, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and feasibility of our original single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) for acute inflamed gallbladder (AIG). METHODS: One hundred and ten consecutive patients underwent original SILC for gallbladder disease without any selection criteria and 15 and 11 of these were diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and acute gallstone cholangitis, respectively. A retrospective review was performed not only between SILC for AIG and non-AIG, but also between SILC for AIG and traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TLC) for AIG in the same period. RESULTS: Comparison between SILC for AIG and non-AIG revealed that the operative time was longer in SILC for AIG (97.5 min vs 85.0 min, P = 0.03). The open conversion rate (2/26 vs 2/84, P = 0.24) and complication rate (1/26 vs 3/84, P = 1.00) showed no differences, but a need for additional trocars was more frequent in SILC for AIG (5/24 vs 3/82, P = 0.01). Comparison between SILC for AIG and TLC for AIG revealed no differences based on statistical analysis. CONCLUSION: Our original SILC technique was adequately safe and feasible for the treatment of acute cholecystitis and acute gallstone cholangitis. PMID:22408354

  2. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-07-01

    To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips.

  3. Expression and subcellular localization of NHE3 in the human gallbladder epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongsheng; Kong, Jing; Wu, Shuodong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Enhanced gallbladder concentrating function is an important factor for the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD), but the mechanism is unknown. Potential candidates for regulation of gallbladder ion absorption are suggested to be Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3). In this study, we investigated the expression and subcellular localization of NHE3 in both acalculous and calculous human gallbladders. Methods: Adult human gallbladder tissue was obtained from 23 patients (7 men, 16 women) who had undergone cholecystectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A (acalculous group) and Group B (calculous group). Gene expression of NHE3 was quantitatively estimated by real-time PCR. Protein expression was studied by Western blotting assays. Furthermore, expression of immunoreactive NHE3 was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results: There was no significant difference in the NHE3 mRNA expression between calculous and acalculous human gallbladders. NHE3 protein expression in gallbladders from patients with cholelithiasis is increased compared to those without gallstones. Immunohistochemistry studies prove that NHE3 is located both on the apical plasma membrane and in the intracellular pool in human GBECs. Conclusions: NHE3 may play a role in the pathogenesis of human CGD. Additional studies are required to further delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25674247

  4. Anti-cholelithogenic potential of dietary spices and their bioactives.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2017-05-24

    Dietary hypocholesterolemic spices-curcumin (active compound of turmeric (Curcuma longa)) and capsaicin (active compound of red pepper (Capsicum annuum)), the active principles of spices-turmeric (Curcuma longa) and red pepper (Capsicum annuum), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, garlic (Allium sativum), and onion (Allium cepa) are documented to have anti-cholelithogenic property in animal model. These spices prevent the induction of cholesterol gallstones by lithogenic high cholesterol diet and also regress the pre-established cholesterol gallstones, by virtue of their hypolipidemic potential. The antilithogenic influence of these spices is primarily attributable to their hypocholesterolemic effect. Increased cholesterol saturation index, cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and cholesterol:bile acid ratio in the bile caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by these spices. The antilithogenicity of these hypocholesterolemic spices was considered to be due also to their influence on biliary proteins that have pro-nucleating activity and anti-nucleating activity. Investigations on the involvement of biliary proteins in cholesterol crystal nucleation revealed that in an in vitro bile model, low molecular weight biliary proteins of the lithogenic diet fed animals have a pro-nucleating activity. On the contrary, low molecular weight biliary proteins of the animals fed hypocholesterolemic spices along with lithogenic diet showed a potent anti-nucleating activity.

  5. Biliary lithotripsy can be enhanced with proper ultrasound probe position.

    PubMed

    Affronti, J; Flournoy, T; Akers, S; Baillie, J

    1992-04-01

    We have demonstrated in our in vitro system that an extracorporeal lithotripter utilizing a movable ultrasound probe can fragment gallstones more effectively when the ultrasound probe is not partially blocking shock waves. Using a pressure transducer we measured the pressures in the focal volume of a Wolf Piezolith 2300 lithotripter with the ultrasound probe fully extended and fully retracted. We also chose 12 pairs of twin gallstones, each taken from the same gallbladder. One stone from each pair was subjected to shock waves while the ultrasound probe was fully extended and the other treated while the probe was fully retracted. Shock wave pressures (which are converted to a measurable voltage output by our transducer) were clearly lower when the ultrasound probe was extended (5.45 volts; SEM = 0.10 volts) as compared to when the ultrasound scanner was retracted (6.7 volts: SEM = 0.08 volts). Significantly more shock waves were required to completely fragment stones when the ultrasound scanner was extended than when it was retracted (p = 0.01 using the nonparametric Wilcoxon's signed rank test). These results show that, in the lithotripter tested, an extended in-line ultrasound scanner can partially block shock waves. Retraction of an extendible ultrasound probe may enhance stone fragmentation when operating at the highest shock wave intensity.

  6. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: disease spectrum with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Menias, Christine O; Sandrasegaran, Kumar; Hara, Amy K; Kielar, Ania Z; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Doyle, Maria B Majella; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Elsayes, Khaled M

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder polyps are seen on as many as 7% of gallbladder ultrasonographic images. The differential diagnosis for a polypoid gallbladder mass is wide and includes pseudotumors, as well as benign and malignant tumors. Tumefactive sludge may be mistaken for a gallbladder polyp. Pseudotumors include cholesterol polyps, adenomyomatosis, and inflammatory polyps, and they occur in that order of frequency. The most common benign and malignant tumors are adenomas and primary adenocarcinoma, respectively. Polyp size, shape, and other ancillary imaging findings, such as a wide base, wall thickening, and coexistent gallstones, are pertinent items to report when gallbladder polyps are discovered. These findings, as well as patient age and risk factors for gallbladder cancer, guide clinical decision making. Symptomatic polyps without other cause for symptoms, an age over 50 years, and the presence of gallstones are generally considered indications for cholecystectomy. Incidentally noted pedunculated polyps smaller than 5 mm generally do not require follow-up. Polyps that are 6-10 mm require follow-up, although neither the frequency nor the length of follow-up has been established. Polyps that are larger than 10 mm are typically excised, although lower size thresholds for cholecystectomy may be considered for patients with increased risk for gallbladder carcinoma, such as patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  7. Interaction of bovine gallbladder mucin and calcium-binding protein: effects on calcium phosphate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Afdhal, N H; Ostrow, J D; Koehler, R; Niu, N; Groen, A K; Veis, A; Nunes, D P; Offner, G D

    1995-11-01

    Gallstones consist of calcium salts and cholesterol crystals, arrayed on a matrix of gallbladder mucin (GBM), and regulatory proteins like calcium-binding protein (CBP). To determine if interactions between CBP and GBM follow a biomineralization scheme, their mutual binding and effects on CaHPO4 precipitation were studied. Binding of CBP to GBM was assessed by inhibition of the fluorescence of the complex of GBM with bis-1,8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonic acid (bis-ANS). The effects of the proteins on precipitation of CaHPO4 were assessed by nephelometry and gravimetry. Precipitates were analyzed for calcium, phosphate, and protein. CBP and bis-ANS competitively displaced each other from 30 binding sites on mucin, with a 1:1 stoichiometry and similar affinity. The rate of precipitation of CaHPO4 was retarded by mucin and CBP. Precipitate mass was unaffected by GBM alone but decreased with the addition of CBP. Complexing CBP with GBM abolished or moderated this latter effect, altered precipitate morphology, and changed the stoichiometric ratios of Ca to PO4 in the precipitates from 1:1 to 3:2. Mucin and CBP were incorporated into the precipitates. These studies suggest that the formation of calcium-containing gallstones is a biomineralization process regulated by both GBM and CBP.

  8. [Does carbonate originate from carbonate-calcium crystal component of the human urinary calculus?].

    PubMed

    Yuzawa, Masayuki; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Kumamaru, Takatoshi; Nukui, Akinori; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Minoru; Sugaya, Yasuhiro; Morita, Tatsuo

    2008-09-01

    It gives important information in selecting the appropriate treatment for urolithiasis to confirm the component of urinary calculus. Presently component analysis of the urinary calculus is generally performed by infrared spectroscopy which is employed by companies providing laboratory testing services in Japan. The infrared spectroscopy determines the molecular components from the absorption spectra in consequence of atomic vibrations. It has the drawback that an accurate crystal structure cannot be analyzed compared with the X-ray diffraction method which analyzes the crystal constituent based on the diffraction of X-rays on crystal lattice. The components of the urinary calculus including carbonate are carbonate apatite and calcium carbonate such as calcite. Although the latter is reported to be very rare component in human urinary calculus, the results by infrared spectroscopy often show that calcium carbonate is included in calculus. The infrared spectroscopy can confirm the existence of carbonate but cannot determine whether carbonate is originated from carbonate apatite or calcium carbonate. Thus, it is not clear whether calcium carbonate is included in human urinary calculus component in Japan. In this study, we examined human urinary calculus including carbonate by use of X-ray structural analysis in order to elucidate the origin of carbonate in human urinary calculus. We examined 17 human calculi which were reported to contain calcium carbonate by infrared spectroscopy performed in the clinical laboratory. Fifteen calculi were obtained from urinary tract, and two were from gall bladder. The stones were analyzed by X-ray powder method after crushed finely. The reports from the clinical laboratory showed that all urinary culculi consisted of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate, while the gallstones consisted of calcium carbonate. But the components of all urinary calculi were revealed to be carbonate apatite by X-ray diffraction. The components of

  9. Identification of Helicobacter spp. in bile and gallbladder tissue of patients with symptomatic gallbladder disease

    PubMed Central

    Sabbaghian, M Shirin; Ranaudo, Jeffrey; Zeng, Lin; Alongi, Alexandra P; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Shamamian, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was designed to determine if Helicobacter spp. contribute to benign gallbladder disease using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Methods: Patients with benign gallbladder disease scheduled for elective cholecystectomy at New York University Langone Medical Center were recruited from February to May 2008. Bile, gallbladder tissue and gallstones were collected. DNA was isolated from these specimens and amplified via PCR using C97F and C98R primers specific for Helicobacter spp. Appropriate positive and negative controls were used. Products were analysed with agarose gel electrophoresis, sequenced and results aligned using sequencher. Plasma was collected for detection of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Of 36 patients, 12 patients' bile and/or tissue were positive for Helicobacter spp. by PCR. Species were most homologous with H. pylori, although other Helicobacter spp. were suggested. Six of 12 patients demonstrated anti-Helicobacter antibodies in plasma, suggesting that the remaining six might have demonstrated other species besides H. pylori. Four of six plasma samples with anti-Helicobacter antibodies were anti-CagA (cytotoxin associated gene) negative. Discussion: Helicobacter spp. can be detected in bile and gallbladder tissue of patients with benign gallbladder disease. The contribution of these bacteria to the pathophysiology of gallbladder disease and gallstone formation requires further study. PMID:20495657

  10. Long-term follow-up of patients with Bartter syndrome type I and II.

    PubMed

    Puricelli, Elena; Bettinelli, Alberto; Borsa, Nicolò; Sironi, Francesca; Mattiello, Camilla; Tammaro, Fabiana; Tedeschi, Silvana; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2010-09-01

    Little information is available on a long-term follow-up in Bartter syndrome type I and II. Clinical presentation, treatment and long-term follow-up (5.0-21, median 11 years) were evaluated in 15 Italian patients with homozygous (n = 7) or compound heterozygous (n = 8) mutations in the SLC12A1 (n = 10) or KCNJ1 (n = 5) genes. Thirteen new mutations were identified. The 15 children were born pre-term with a normal for gestational age body weight. Medical treatment at the last follow-up control included supplementation with potassium in 13, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in 12 and gastroprotective drugs in five patients. At last follow-up, body weight and height were within normal ranges in the patients. Glomerular filtration rate was <90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in four patients (one of them with a pathologically increased urinary protein excretion). In three patients, abdominal ultrasound detected gallstones. The group of patients with antenatal Bartter syndrome had a lower renin ratio (P < 0.05) and a higher standard deviation score (SDS) for height (P < 0.05) than a previously studied group of patients with classical Bartter syndrome. Patients with Bartter syndrome type I and II tend to present a satisfactory prognosis after a median follow-up of more than 10 years. Gallstones might represent a new complication of antenatal Bartter syndrome.

  11. Inpatient magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: does it increase the efficiency in emergency hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery services?

    PubMed

    Milburn, J A; Bailey, J A; Dunn, Wk; Cameron, I C; Gomez, D S

    2017-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly used to evaluate the biliary tree, although indications for patients who require inpatient imaging are not fully defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate inpatient MRCP performed on surgical patients and to devise a treatment pathway for these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS All adult inpatient MRCP examinations between January 2012 and December 2013 were reviewed. Demographic, clinical and radiological data were collated. RESULTS During the study period, 271 inpatient MRCP were requested, of which 234 examinations were included. The majority of patients were female (n=140) and the median age was 63 years (range 16-93 years). Surgical admissions accounted for 171 (73%) of cases. Indications for inpatient MRCP include gallstone-related complications (n=173; 74%), malignant process (n=17; 7%) and other indications (n=44; 19%). Overall, inpatient MRCP led to further inpatient interventions in 22% (gallstone group, n=32, 18%; patients with malignancy, n=8, 47%; other indications, n=12, 27%). The median duration of inpatient MRCP from request to examination was 2 days (range 0-15 days) and median reporting after examination was 1 day (range 0-14 days). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Improved access and timely reporting of iMRCP may reduce length of hospital stay. Inpatient MRCP also led to further inpatient interventions, in particular, in patients with malignancy.

  12. The case for aflatoxins in the causal chain of gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Claudia; Koshiol, Jill; Guerrero, Ariel R; Kogan, Marcelo J; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2016-01-01

    Chronic aflatoxin exposure has long been related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, its association with gallbladder cancer (GBC) was postulated. Here we present the data supporting this hypothesis in Chile, the country with the highest GBC mortality worldwide with age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) of 10.3 in women and 5.04 in men. The highest GBC rates occur in Southern Chile (ASMR=18), characterized by: high Amerindian ancestry, associated with high bile acid synthesis and gallstones; high poverty and high cereal agriculture, both associated with aflatoxin exposure. Aflatoxins have been detected in imported and locally grown foods items. We estimated population dietary exposure ranging from 0.25 to 35.0 ng/kg-body weight/day. The only report on human exposure in Chile found significantly more aflatoxin biomarkers in GBC than in controls (Odds Ratio=13.0). The hypothesis of aflatoxin-GBC causal link in the Chilean population is supported by: genetically-determined rapid cholesterol excretion and high gallstones prevalence (49.4%); low prevalence of HCC (ASMR=4.9) and low HBV infection (0.15%) the main co-factor of aflatoxins in HCC risk. If the association between aflatoxins and GBC were confirmed, public health interventions based on food regulation could have a substantial public health impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Progesterone alters biliary flow dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tierney, S; Nakeeb, A; Wong, O; Lipsett, P A; Sostre, S; Pitt, H A; Lillemoe, K D

    1999-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that progesterone alters sphincter of Oddi and gallbladder function and, therefore, bile flow dynamics. Although the effects of progesterone on the biliary tract have been implicated in the increased incidence of gallstones among women, the specific effects of prolonged elevation of progesterone levels, such as occurs with contraceptive progesterone implants and during pregnancy, on the sphincter of Oddi and biliary flow dynamics are still incompletely understood. Adult female prairie dogs were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous implants containing either progesterone or inactive pellet matrix only. Hepatic bile partitioning and gallbladder emptying were determined 14 days later using 99mTc-Mebrofenin cholescintigraphy. Significantly less hepatic bile partitioned into the gallbladder in progesterone-treated than in control animals. The gallbladder ejection fraction was significantly reduced from 73+/-6% in controls to 59+/-3% in the progesterone-treated animals. The rate of gallbladder emptying was significantly reduced from 3.6+/-0.3%/minute to 2.9+/-0.1%/minute. Progesterone administered as subcutaneous implants alters partitioning of hepatic bile between gallbladder and small intestine and, therefore, gallbladder filling. Progesterone also significantly impairs gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin. The effects of progesterone on the sphincter of Oddi and the gallbladder may contribute to the greater prevalence of gallstones and biliary motility disorders among women.

  14. Plasma shield lasertripsy: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, K M; Rosen, D I; Dretler, S P

    1989-10-01

    A technique for safer and more effective pulsed laser lithotripsy of urinary and biliary calculi was investigated in vitro. The technique involves enclosing the distal end of the laser delivery fiber in a "plasma shield." The plasma shield is a specially designed metal cap that serves to transfer the laser-induced mechanical impulse to the calculus while shielding surrounding tissue from direct laser exposure and thermal radiation. The metal cap also offers the advantage of effectively blunting the sharp fiber tip and improving its visualization under fluoroscopy. Plasma shield lithotripsy using a 200 micron quartz fiber inserted into a section of a modified 0.034 in. diameter stainless steel guide wire was tested in vitro on a variety of calculi and compared with results obtained using a 200 micron laser fiber applied directly. Calculi tested included cystine, struvite and calcium oxalate dihydrate urinary stones and pigmented cholesterol gallstones. The laser source was a flashlamp-pumped dye laser producing pulses of 1.2 microsecond duration and operated at a wavelength of 504 nm and pulse repetition frequency of 5 Hz. The results show that plasma shield lasertripsy is as effective as direct lasertripsy for fragmenting gallstones, struvite and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi, is potentially safer, and can fragment cystine calculi which the pulsed dye laser applied directly cannot.

  15. [Disorder of bone mineral density in patients with the digestive system diseases].

    PubMed

    Embutnieks, Iu V; Drozdov, V N; Chernyshova, I V; Topcheeva, O N; Koricheva, E S; Albulova, E A

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the clinical features of the flow of the gastrointestinal tract and liver in the formation of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Were shown the incidence of disorders of bone mineral density in patients with chronic pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, gallstone disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diseases accompanied by syndrome of malabsorption (gluten enteropathy, a syndrome of short small intestine). Were established population (age, sex, lower body mass index, menopause), clinical and laboratory factors indicating high risk of lower bone mineral density in these patients.

  16. Concanavalin A-binding cholesterol crystallization inhibiting and promoting activity in bile from patients with Crohn's disease compared to patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Keulemans, Y C; Mok, K S; Slors, J F; Brink, M A; Gouma, D J; Tytgat, G N; Groen, A K

    1999-10-01

    Crohn's disease is a risk factor for gallstone formation. In contrast, patients with ulcerative colitis have an incidence of gallstone formation comparable to the general population. The reason for this difference is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors controlling cholesterol crystallization in gallbladder bile of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Gallbladder bile was obtained by aspiration during bowel resections (26 Crohn's disease patients, 20 ulcerative colitis patients). Biliary lipid composition, crystal detection time and the effect of extraction of the concanavalin A-binding fraction on crystal formation were determined. Cholesterol crystals were present in seven of the 26 bile samples of Crohn's disease-patients and one of the 20 ulcerative colitis patients. Four of the bile samples of Crohn's disease patients were fast nucleating. None of the 20 ulcerative colitis patients had fast nucleating bile. Lipid composition, total lipid concentration and CSI were not significantly different between the two groups. In Crohn's disease patients extraction of concanavalin A-binding fraction decreased crystallization in 10 bile samples but accelerated crystallization in one bile sample. In eight bile samples from ulcerative colitis patients crystallization increased after concanavalin A-binding fraction extraction. Compared to ulcerative colitis patients, gallbladder bile of Crohn's disease patients showed increased cholesterol crystallization despite comparable lipid composition and cholesterol saturation index. This difference is caused by increased cholesterol crystallization-promoting activity. Bile from ulcerative colitis patients contains a Con A-binding factor which inhibits cholesterol crystallization.

  17. Comparison of clinical outcomes of incidental and non- incidental gallbladder cancers: a single-center cross- sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cha, Byung Hyo; Bae, Jong-Myun

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare malignancy characterized by high invasiveness and poor survival. In a nation-wide cancer survey, the age-standardized incidence rate of GBC was the highest in Jeju Island compared to 15 other provinces in Korea. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of GBC according to the nature of diagnosis, that is, incidental versus non-incidental. Consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with GBC at the Digestive Disease Center and Department of Internal Medicine, Cheju Halla General Hospital, between November 2008 and November 2011, were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: incidental gallbladder cancer (IGBC) and non-incidental gallbladder cancer (NIGBC). Clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared between the two groups. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled and analyzed in our study. Thirty-three (41.8%) and 46 (58.2%) were identified as IGBC and NIGBC, respectively. The proportions of patients with gallstone disease, gallbladder polyp, and cholecystectomy were significantly different between the two groups. Additionally, the median survival rate was significantly higher for patients with IGBC than for those with NIGBC (11.4, 95% confidence interval, 5.6-13.7 vs 4.0, 95% confidence interval 3.03-5.96 months; p=0.01) during a median follow-up period of 5.7 months. Patients with IGBC showed better clinical prognosis than those with NIGBC. Therefore, patients with gallstone disease or gallbladder polyps, major predictive risk factors for IGBC, should undergo advanced work-up for chelecystectomy.

  18. Dynamics of hepatic and intestinal cholesterol and bile acid pathways: The impact of the animal model of estrogen deficiency and exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol level is determined by a complex dynamics that involves transport lipoproteins which levels are tightly dependent on how the liver and the intestine regulate cholesterol and biliary acid metabolism. Regulation of cholesterol and biliary acids by the liver and the intestine is in turn coupled to a large array of enzymes and transporters that largely influence the inflow and the outflow of cholesterol and biliary acids through these organs. The activity of the key regulators of cholesterol and biliary acids may be influenced by several external factors such as pharmacological drugs and the nutritional status. In recent years, more information has been gathered about the impact of estrogens on regulation of cholesterol in the body. Exposure to high levels of estrogens has been reported to promote cholesterol gallstone formation and women are twice as likely as men to develop cholesterol gallstones. The impact of estrogen withdrawal, such as experienced by menopausal women, is therefore of importance and more information on how the absence of estrogens influence cholesterol regulation is started to come out, especially through the use of animal models. An interesting alternative to metabolic deterioration due to estrogen deficiency is exercise training. The present review is intended to summarize the present information that links key regulators of cholesterol and biliary acid pathways in liver and intestine to the absence of estrogens in an animal model and to discuss the potential role of exercise training as an alternative. PMID:27621762

  19. Profile and predictors of bile infection in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Mahafzah, Azmi M; Daradkeh, Salam S

    2009-08-01

    To study the bacteriological profile, and to determine predictors of bile infection and septic complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This cross-sectional study reviewed 1248 laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases performed between January 1994 and December 2007 by one surgical team at the Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Bile cultures were performed for all patients and statistical analysis was performed on culture results and postoperative complications as well as, on the possible predictors of bile infection including age, gender, associated diseases, preoperative retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and indications for surgery. Uncomplicated gallstone disease was diagnosed in 993 patients (79.6%), 221 patients (17.7%) had acute cholecystitis, and 34 patients (2.7%) had jaundice. Associated morbidities were present in 513 patients (41.1%), preoperative ERCP was performed for 132 patients (10.6%), and postoperative septic complications developed in 25 patients (2%). Bile culture was positive in 250 patients (20%), 134 (53.6%) of whom had gram negative bacteria, 73 (29.2%) had gram positive bacteria, and 43 (17.2%) had mixed cultures. The chi-square test has shown that positive bile culture is significantly associated with age, gender, preoperative ERCP, associated morbidities, and complicated gallbladder disease, whereas multinomial regression analysis has shown that age and preoperative ERCP were the only significant predictors of bile infection. Bile infection commonly complicates gallstone disease, and it can be influenced by age and preoperative endoscopic interventions, but it does not influence the occurrence of postoperative septic complications.

  20. [Perioperative management of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in children with homozygous sickle cell disease].

    PubMed

    Ndoye, M Diop; Bah, M Diao; Pape, I Ndiaye; Diouf, E; Kane, O; Bèye, M; Fall, B; Ka-Sall, B

    2008-09-01

    Sickle cell disease is a public health problem in Africa. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate per and post-operative complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in sickle cell children in Senegal. from January 1999 to December 2006, an anesthetic protocol was applied to 39 sickle cell children undergoing a cholecystectomy. Among them, 20 experienced laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All these 20 patients had previously suffered from sickle cell visceral complications and were classified as ASA II (11 cases) and as ASA III (9 cases). Blood transfusion program aimed at sustaining haemoglobin level between 10 and 12 g/dl was implemented. The preoperative monitoring and anesthesia management were the same for these patients. During perioperative period, the prevention of pain, hypovolemia, hypothermia and acidosis was achieved. The mean insufflation duration of laparoscopy was 23 min (17-60 min), the mean surgery duration was 55 min (40-110 min), and the mean anesthesia duration was 78 min (88-135 min). Postoperative complications occurred in 9 patients: acute chest syndrome (n=2), postoperative hemolysis (n=5), vaso-occlusive crisis (n=2). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be carried out in sickle cell children affected with gallstones, provided that general anaesthetic rules were respected. An appropriate pre-, per- and postoperative anaesthesia is mandatory to reduce postoperative complications in children with sickle cell disease. Searching for early diagnosis of gallstones before occurrence of visceral complications should allow further optimal laparoscopic surgery.

  1. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an analysis of 777 cases.

    PubMed

    Perissat, J; Collet, D; Edye, M; Magne, E; Belliard, R; Desplantez, J

    1992-11-01

    Born in secret in 1987 and developed in an atmosphere of scepticism throughout 1988, laparoscopic cholecystectomy triumphed in 1989 and 1990, causing a veritable revolution in the world of general surgery. The 777 consecutive cases that are reported in this chapter reflect the spirit of these various periods. From conservatively restrictive, our indications widened to include 90% of gallstone cases. For us the sclero-atrophic gallbladder still constitutes the greatest endoscopic challenge and should be reserved for the most experienced operators. The rates for mortality (0.1%) and complications (3.3%), which include three common bile duct injuries (0.4%), are comparable to, if not better than, those for traditional cholecystectomy. The quality of recovery is markedly better: near absence of pain, short hospitalization, return to normal physical activity within 10 days, rapid return to work and preservation of the abdominal musculature in sportspeople. These advantages are unavailable to the 5.5% of patients for whom an intraoperative conversion to an open procedure is necessary. Their recovery is that of traditional cholecystectomy, which itself is far from being poor. The large multicentre studies, such as those carried out in France and Belgium recently, reporting 3708 cases, have reached identical conclusions. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is set to become the gold standard for treatment of gallstones and is the first step towards surgical techniques of the 21st century which will be performed within the musculocutaneous envelope of the intact human body.

  2. Sporadic incidence of Fascioliasis detected during hepatobiliary procedures: a study of 18 patients from Sulaimaniyah governorate.

    PubMed

    Hawramy, Tahir Abdullah Hussein; Saeed, Kamal Ahmed; Qaradaghy, Seerwan Hama Sharif; Karboli, Taha Ahmed; Nore, Beston Faiek; Bayati, Noora Hisham Abood

    2012-12-21

    Fascioliasis is an often-neglected zoonotic disease and currently is an emerging infection in Iraq. Fascioliasis has two distinct phases, an acute phase, exhibiting the hepatic migratory stage of the fluke's life cycle, and a chronic biliary phase manifested with the presence of the parasite in the bile ducts through hepatic tissue. The incidence of Fascioliasis in Sulaimaniyah governorate was unexpected observation. We believe that shedding light on this disease in our locality will increase our physician awareness and experience in early detection, treatment in order to avoid unnecessary surgeries. We retrospectively evaluated this disease in terms of the demographic features, clinical presentations, and managements by reviewing the medical records of 18 patients, who were admitted to the Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Kurdistan Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Patients were complained from hepatobiliary and/or upper gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosed accidentally with Fascioliasis during hepatobiliary surgeries and ERCP by direct visualization of the flukes and stone analysis. Elevated liver enzymes, white blood cells count and eosinophilia were notable laboratory indices. The dilated CBD, gallstones, liver cysts and abscess were found common in radiological images. Fascioliasis diagnosed during conventional surgical CBD exploration and choledochodoudenostomy, open cholecystectomy, surgical drainage of liver abscess, ERCP and during gallstone analysis. Fascioliasis is indeed an emerging disease in our locality, but it is often underestimated and ignored. We recommend the differential diagnosis of patients suffering from Rt. Hypochondrial pain, fever and eosinophilia. The watercress ingestion was a common factor in patient's history.

  3. Progesterone alters biliary flow dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, S; Nakeeb, A; Wong, O; Lipsett, P A; Sostre, S; Pitt, H A; Lillemoe, K D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that progesterone alters sphincter of Oddi and gallbladder function and, therefore, bile flow dynamics. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although the effects of progesterone on the biliary tract have been implicated in the increased incidence of gallstones among women, the specific effects of prolonged elevation of progesterone levels, such as occurs with contraceptive progesterone implants and during pregnancy, on the sphincter of Oddi and biliary flow dynamics are still incompletely understood. METHODS: Adult female prairie dogs were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous implants containing either progesterone or inactive pellet matrix only. Hepatic bile partitioning and gallbladder emptying were determined 14 days later using 99mTc-Mebrofenin cholescintigraphy. RESULTS: Significantly less hepatic bile partitioned into the gallbladder in progesterone-treated than in control animals. The gallbladder ejection fraction was significantly reduced from 73+/-6% in controls to 59+/-3% in the progesterone-treated animals. The rate of gallbladder emptying was significantly reduced from 3.6+/-0.3%/minute to 2.9+/-0.1%/minute. CONCLUSIONS: Progesterone administered as subcutaneous implants alters partitioning of hepatic bile between gallbladder and small intestine and, therefore, gallbladder filling. Progesterone also significantly impairs gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin. The effects of progesterone on the sphincter of Oddi and the gallbladder may contribute to the greater prevalence of gallstones and biliary motility disorders among women. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:10024101

  4. [Extrinsic compression of the hepatocholedocus caused by cavernomatosis of the portal vein. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Carpani, M; Guma, C I; Casal, M A

    1982-01-01

    The extrinsic compression of the hepatocholedochus by a cavernomatosis of the portal vein, is an unusual pathology. The present case begun clinically as an obstructive jaundice, assuming that the vascular origin of the compression increased the litiasic biliary disease. The percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography was the diagnostic method that suggested a double illness of the biliary system. The surgery and the pathology certificated the diagnosis. The correct treatment once confirmed the obstructive trial, must be: the extraction of the biliary gallstones and the bile-digestive derivation (preferently the hepatic-jejunum anastomosis in Y of Roux).

  5. A Mimicker of Gallbladder Carcinoma: Cystic Gastric Heterotopia with Intestinal Metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Özgün, Gonca; Adim, Şaduman Balaban; Uğraş, Nesrin; Kiliçturgay, Sadık

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder is an unusual entity and is usually clinically silent. We report a 75-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent upper abdomial pain radiating to the back. Abdominal imaging studies showed a sessile polypoid lesion and a gallstone in the gallbladder. Gallbladder carcinoma was suspected and cholecystectomy performed. Intraoperative frozen section examination suggested mucinous tumor, suspicious for malignancy. However, the permanent sections revealed aberrant gastric tissue consisted of gastric pyloric and fundic glands of heterotopic gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder.

  6. Biliary pain--work-up and management in general practice.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Pain arising from the gallbladder and biliary tree is a common clinical presentation. Differentiation from other causes of abdominal pain can sometimes be difficult. This article discusses the work-up, management and after care of patients with biliary pain. The role for surgery for gallstones and gallbladder polyps is described. Difficulties in the diagnosis and management of gallbladder pain are discussed. Intra- and post-operative complications are described, along with their management. The issue of post-operative pain in particular is examined, focusing on the timing of the pain and the relevant investigations.

  7. Pancreatitis in the Setting of Vaso-occlusive Sickle Cell Crisis: A Rare Encounter.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Badar; Asif, Talal; Braun, Cody; Bahaj, Waled; Dosokey, Eslam; Pauly, Rebecca R

    2017-04-25

    Acute pancreatitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain. Gallstones and alcohol abuse account for the majority of the cases. Pancreatic ischemia is an uncommon but established cause of pancreatitis associated with connective tissue diseases, vasculitis, and shock. Our case highlights a rare case of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) in a patient with sickle cell (SC) disease leading to pancreatitis. Treatment remains largely conservative but exchange transfusion may be the therapy of choice in severely hypoxic patients or in patients with high pre-treatment hemoglobin S levels.

  8. Imaging By Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kidney, Maria R.

    1986-01-01

    Imaging by ultrasound has dramatically changed the investigation and management of many clinical problems. It is useful in many different parts of the body. In this brief discussion, the following topics are considered: hepatic lesions, bleeding in early pregnancy, gynecological pathology (adnexal lesions), aortic aneurysms, thyroid nodules and scrotal masses. The usefulness of duplex carotid sonography, which combines ultrasonic imaging and Doppler studies, is also discussed. Other topics (gallstones, biliary obstruction, renal calculi, hydronephrosis) are discussed in the appropriate sections. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21267202

  9. Executive Summary of the Health Care Productivity Report.

    PubMed

    2001-04-01

    Governments and health care organizations are increasingly interested in ways to rethink and reform their health care systems. To help provide a foundation for future reform, the authors examined the health care systems in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The authors assessed productivity in the treatment of four diseases during the late 1980s: diabetes, cholelithiasis (gallstones), breast cancer, and lung cancer. The authors looked at the different day-to-day actions of doctors and hospitals and tried to connect these actions to differences in longevity and the quality of life.

  10. All that glitters: fool's gold in the early-modern era.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2008-12-01

    Natural philosophers of the early-modern period perceived fool's gold or iron pyrites as a substance required for the formation of metals, and chemists such as Johann Glauber speculated the vitriol produced from pyrites was the source of the legendary philosopher's stone. The sulphurous exhalations of fool's gold were also thought by members of the early Royal Society to be the basis of a variety of meteorological, geological and medical effects, including the production of thunder, lightning, earthquakes and volcanoes, fossilisation and petrifaction, as well as the principal cause of bladder and gallstones.

  11. Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration in Patients With Gallstones and Choledocholithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Omaira; Bellorín, Omar; Sánchez, Renata; Benítez, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Methods: This is a descriptive, comparative study. Patients with an indication of common bile duct exploration between February 2005 and October 2008 were included. We studied 2 groups: Group A: patients with failed ERCP who underwent LCBDE plus LC. Group B: patients with common bile duct stones managed with the 1-step approach (LCBDE + LC) with no prior ERCP. Results: Twenty-five patients were included. Group A: 9 patients, group B: 16 patients. Success rate, operative time, and hospital stay were as follows: group A 66% vs group B 87.5%; group A 187 minutes vs 106 minutes; group A 4.5 days vs 2.3 days; respectively. Conclusion: Patients with failed ERCP should be considered as high-complex cases in which the laparoscopic procedure success rate decreases, and the conversion rate increases considerably. PMID:20932377

  12. Expression of CCK Receptors in Carcinoma Gallbladder and Cholelithiasis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Faridi, Mohammad Shazib; Jaiswal, Mahabir Saran Das; Goel, Sudhir K

    2015-07-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are trophic for various gastrointestinal malignancies. Their role in gallbladder cancer has not been widely studied. To identify expression of CCK-A and CCK-B receptors in the tissue and blood of patients suffering from carcinoma (CA) gallbladder and gallstone disease and to compare expression of CCK A and B receptors in the gall bladder tissue and blood of healthy individuals and patients of CA gallbladder, and gallstone diseases. Forty nine subjects of both genders were recruited, comprising of 22 patients of CA gall bladder, 19 cases of cholelithiasis and, 8 normal gallbladders obtained from patients operated for trauma of the biliary system or Whipple's procedure. RNA extraction and cDNA formation for CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were carried out. Real Time PCR was performed on cDNA and threshold cycle (Ct) value of each sample was obtained and ΔCt was calculated. Chi-square test for comparing two groups and ANOVA test for comparing multiple groups were applied and if p<0.05 then Dunnett-C test was performed. Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were expressed irrespective of its origin in all tissues and blood samples studied; be it normal, Cholelithiasis or CA gallbladder and there was no difference among them (p>0.05). This preliminary study showed higher expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of cholelithiasis and decreased expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of CA gallbladder as compared to normal gallbladder although it did not rise to statistical significance.

  13. Is ketogenic diet treatment hepatotoxic for children with intractable epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Arslan, Nur; Guzel, Orkide; Kose, Engin; Yılmaz, Unsal; Kuyum, Pınar; Aksoy, Betül; Çalık, Tansel

    2016-12-01

    Long-term ketogenic diet (KD) treatment has been shown to induce liver steatosis and gallstone formation in some in vivo and clinical studies. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the hepatic side effects of KD in epileptic children. A total of 141 patients (mean age: 7.1±4.1years [2-18 years], 45.4% girls), receiving KD at least one year for intractable epilepsy due to different diagnoses (congenital brain defects, GLUT-1 deficiency, West syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, hypoxic brain injury, etc.) were included in the study. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, aminotransferase, bilirubin, protein and albumin levels and abdominal ultrasonography were recorded before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following after diet initiation. The mean duration of KD was 15.9±4.3months. At one month of therapy, three patients had elevated alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels. These patients were receiving ketogenic diet for Doose syndrome, idiopathic epilepsy and GLUT-1 deficiency. Hepatosteatosis was detected in three patients at 6 months of treatment. Two of these patients were treated with KD for the primary diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and one for Landau Kleffner syndrome. Cholelithiasis was detected in two patients at 12 months of treatment. They were receiving treatment for West syndrome and hypoxic brain injury sequelae. Long-term ketogenic diet treatment stimulates liver parenchymal injury, hepatic steatosis and gallstone formation. Patients should be monitored by screening liver enzymes and abdominal ultrasonography in order to detect these side effects. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Megalin and cubilin in the human gallbladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Tsaroucha, Alexandra K; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Lambropoulou, Maria; Despoudi, Kaliopi; Laftsidis, Prodromos; Charsou, Chara; Polychronidis, Alexandros; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Simopoulos, Constantinos E

    2008-09-01

    Although the role of cholesterol absorption by the gallbladder epithelium in gallstone formation is well established, the exact process is poorly understood. Potential candidates for regulation of transepithelial cholesterol transport are suggested to be two large membrane multiple ligand receptors, megalin and cubilin. We studied the expression of these two proteins in both acalculous and calculous human gallbladder epithelia. Adult human gallbladder tissues were received from 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) who had undergone cholecystectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (calculous gallbladder group; 5 men, 6 women; mean age 64.4 +/- 11.1 years) with cholelithiasis, and group B (acalculous gallbladder group; 4 men, 6 women; mean age 55.3 +/- 16.1 years). In the gallbladder tissues megalin and cubilin expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and conventional RT-PCR, and gene expression levels were estimated by real-time RT-PCR. Both megalin and cubilin gene transcripts were found in total RNA preparations from acalculous gallbladder. In contrast, in preparations from calculous gallbladder, none or only one of the proteins was detected. Immunoreactive proteins were detected in the simple columnar acalculous gallbladder epithelium but not in the calculous gallbladder epithelium. Our results show different expression patterns of the two proteins in calculous gallbladders and acalculous gallbladders. In the latter both proteins are expressed, suggesting an association with gallstone formation and implying a putative role of the two proteins in cholesterol endocytosis. In other words, the presence of both proteins may be essential for the prevention of stone formation.

  15. The incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis across Europe.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Stephen E; Morrison-Rees, Sian; John, Ann; Williams, John G; Brown, Tim H; Samuel, David G

    Acute pancreatitis is increasingly one of the most important acute gastrointestinal conditions throughout much of the world, although incidence and aetiology varies across countries and regions. This study investigated regional and national patterns in the incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis, demographic patterns in incidence and trends over time in incidence across Europe. A structured review of acute pancreatitis incidence and aetiology from studies of hospitalised patient case series, cohort studies or other population based studies from 1989 to 2015 and a review of trends in incidence from 1970 to 2015 across all 51 European states. The incidence of acute pancreatitis was reported from 17 countries across Europe and ranged from 4.6 to 100 per 100 000 population. Incidence was usually highest in eastern or northern Europe, although reported rates often varied according to case ascertainment criteria. Of 20 studies that reported on trends in incidence, all but three show percentage increases over time (overall median increase = 3.4% per annum; range = -0.4%-73%). The highest ratios of gallstone to alcohol aetiologies were identified in southern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Italy and Croatia) with lowest ratios mainly in eastern Europe (Latvia, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Lithuania). The incidence of acute pancreatitis varies across Europe. Gallstone is the dominant aetiology in southern Europe and alcohol in eastern Europe with intermediate ratios in northern and western Europe. Acute pancreatitis continues to increase throughout most of Europe. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Sporadic incidence of Fascioliasis detected during Hepatobiliary procedures: A study of 18 patients from Sulaimaniyah governorate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is an often-neglected zoonotic disease and currently is an emerging infection in Iraq. Fascioliasis has two distinct phases, an acute phase, exhibiting the hepatic migratory stage of the fluke’s life cycle, and a chronic biliary phase manifested with the presence of the parasite in the bile ducts through hepatic tissue. The incidence of Fascioliasis in Sulaimaniyah governorate was unexpected observation. We believe that shedding light on this disease in our locality will increase our physician awareness and experience in early detection, treatment in order to avoid unnecessary surgeries. Findings We retrospectively evaluated this disease in terms of the demographic features, clinical presentations, and managements by reviewing the medical records of 18 patients, who were admitted to the Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Kurdistan Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Patients were complained from hepatobiliary and/or upper gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosed accidentally with Fascioliasis during hepatobiliary surgeries and ERCP by direct visualization of the flukes and stone analysis. Elevated liver enzymes, white blood cells count and eosinophilia were notable laboratory indices. The dilated CBD, gallstones, liver cysts and abscess were found common in radiological images. Fascioliasis diagnosed during conventional surgical CBD exploration and choledochodoudenostomy, open cholecystectomy, surgical drainage of liver abscess, ERCP and during gallstone analysis. Conclusion Fascioliasis is indeed an emerging disease in our locality, but it is often underestimated and ignored. We recommend the differential diagnosis of patients suffering from Rt. Hypochondrial pain, fever and eosinophilia. The watercress ingestion was a common factor in patient’s history. PMID:23259859

  17. Augmented cholesterol absorption and sarcolemmal sterol enrichment slow small intestinal transit in mice, contributing to cholesterol cholelithogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Meimin; Kotecha, Vijay R; Andrade, Jon David P; Fox, James G; Carey, Martin C

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol gallstones are associated with slow intestinal transit in humans as well as in animal models, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We investigated in C57L/J mice whether the components of a lithogenic diet (LD; 1.0% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid and 17% triglycerides), as well as distal intestinal infection with Helicobacter hepaticus, influence small intestinal transit time. By quantifying the distribution of 3H-sitostanol along the length of the small intestine following intraduodenal instillation, we observed that, in both sexes, the geometric centre (dimensionless) was retarded significantly (P < 0.05) by LD but not slowed further by helicobacter infection (males, 9.4 ± 0.5 (uninfected), 9.6 ± 0.5 (infected) on LD compared with 12.5 ± 0.4 and 11.4 ± 0.5 on chow). The effect of the LD was reproduced only by the binary combination of cholesterol and cholic acid. We inferred that the LD-induced cholesterol enrichment of the sarcolemmae of intestinal smooth muscle cells produced hypomotility from signal-transduction decoupling of cholecystokinin (CCK), a physiological agonist for small intestinal propulsion in mice. Treatment with ezetimibe in an amount sufficient to block intestinal cholesterol absorption caused small intestinal transit time to return to normal. In most cholesterol gallstone-prone humans, lithogenic bile carries large quantities of hepatic cholesterol into the upper small intestine continuously, thereby reproducing this dietary effect in mice. Intestinal hypomotility promotes cholelithogenesis by augmenting formation of deoxycholate, a pro-lithogenic secondary bile salt, and increasing the fraction of intestinal cholesterol absorbed. PMID:22331417

  18. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography for choledocholithiasis after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marialessia; Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Leuratti, Luca; McCall, James; Bonanomi, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gallstones are a common condition in bariatric patients after a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). The management of ductal stones is challenging due to the altered gastrointestinal anatomy. Various techniques have been reported to manage bile duct stones. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the successful percutaneous trans hepatic management of common bile duct stones after LRYGB. One year after a LRYGB for morbid obesity, a 59-year-old female presented with acute cholecystitis. One month after laparoscopic cholecystectomy a 1 cm calculus was found within the distal CBD and patient underwent a percutaneous trans hepatic cholangiography under local anesthetic. This involved a right sided anterior segmental duct puncture. With the sphincter dilated to 10 mm, a balloon catheter was used to push the stone into the duodenum leaving an internal- external drain. Patient recovered completely at follow up. DISCUSSION Patients with morbid obesity have a higher incidence of gallstones. After LRYGB, the altered anatomy does not allow the conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for choledocholithiasis. Various techniques have been reported as means of managing bile duct stones in LRYGB patients. These include a double balloon enteroscope-assisted ERCP, laparoscopic transgastric ERCP, laparoscopic or open biliary surgery and interventional radiology. We report a non-surgical approach using percutaneous transhepatic technique under local anesthetic that resulted effective and could be applied more extensively. CONCLUSION Due to the increase of global obesity, bariatric centers need to strategically plan resources such as interventional radiology in order to manage post LRYGB choledocholithiasis safely, efficiently and in a cost effective manner. PMID:24705194

  19. Influence of periampullary diverticulum on the occurrence of pancreaticobiliary diseases and outcomes of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Xia, Lu; Lu, Yi; Bie, Like; Gong, Biao

    2017-01-01

    Periampullary diverticulum (PAD) is frequently encountered in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PAD with pancreaticobiliary diseases as well as the impact of PAD on the technical success of ERCP and different methods of bile duct stone extraction. A total of 1489 cases of patients with PAD were identified from 6390 patients who underwent ERCP. These patients were compared with 1500 controls without PAD in terms of biliary stone formation, technical success, and complications of ERCP. Patients with PAD had increased prevalence of bile duct stones, gallstones, and cholangitis (P<0.01). Successful cannulation rates were similar in the PAD and the control group (98.59 vs. 99.07%, P=0.225). The incidence of complications did not differ between the PAD and the control group. Successful stone removal rate of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) was lower in the PAD group than in the control group (83.53 vs. 94.31%, P=0.005). In patients with PAD, the rate of successful stone removal was lower in the EST group than in the endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) and EPBD combined with limited EST (ESBD) group. The rates of complications were similar among different treatments (EST, EPBD, or ESBD) in patients with PAD. PAD is associated with bile duct stones, gallstones, and cholangitis. In addition, PAD should not be considered a barrier to a successful cannulation. Moreover, EST is less effective than EPBD and ESBD in patients with PAD, whereas EST, EPBD, and ESBD are equally safe in patients with PAD.

  20. Updated Etiology and Significance of Elevated Bilirubin During Pregnancy: Changes Parallel Shift in Demographics and Vaccination Status.

    PubMed

    Duraiswamy, Sangeethapriya; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Mcintire, Donald; Leveno, Kenneth; Mayo, Marlyn J

    2017-02-01

    The most common cause of jaundice during pregnancy in the United States (US) is still attributed to viral hepatitis, despite the dramatic drop in incidence of viral hepatitis in the US. We hypothesized that viral hepatitis is no longer a frequent etiology of jaundice among the pregnant population in the US and sought to identify the contemporary causes of elevated bilirubin during pregnancy as well as to quantify the associated risk to the mother and fetus. Clinical data from all pregnant women who delivered an infant between 2005 and 2011 at a single hospital in Dallas, Texas, were ascertained using prospectively collected computerized databases. Women with elevated total bilirubin (>1.2 mg/dl) were analyzed to determine the cause of hyperbilirubinemia and maternal and fetal outcomes. Out of a total of 80,857 consecutive deliveries, there were 397 (0.5 %) pregnancies with hyperbilirubinemia. The most common etiology was gallstones (98/397 = 25 %), followed by preeclampsia/eclampsia/HELLP (94/397 = 24 %) and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (53/397 = 13 %). Adverse infant outcomes, including stillbirths, fetal malformations, neonatal deaths, and small for gestational age births, were more common in the women with hyperbilirubinemia during pregnancy, but there were no maternal deaths. Acute viral hepatitis is no longer a common cause of jaundice in pregnant women in the US. In the current era, gallstones and preeclampsia-related disorders are the most common causes of jaundice in pregnant women. Disorders that cause elevated maternal bilirubin during pregnancy are associated with increased risk for the fetus.

  1. [[Development of Surgical Gastroenterology in Prikamye].

    PubMed

    Palatova, L F; Nechaev, O I

    2016-01-01

    To present the history of surgical gastroenterology in Perm krai. Narrative, historical, genetic, comparative and structural. In the early 20th century the main method of surgical treatment of peptic ulcer was gastroenteroanastomosis. A significant number of recurrences resulted to distal gastrectomy implementation in the 30s in the Clinic of hospital surgery of Perm medical institute, led by professor M.V. Shats. It was also performed in major cities of the region: Lysva, Kungur, Berezniki, Kizel, Osa. Treatment of ulcer perforation and bleeding was accomplished at the department of surgical diseases of pediatric faculty, led by Professor V. N. Repin. He also developed vagotomy and methods of diagnostics and treatment of diseases of operated stomach. Comorbidity was also researched. The combination of liver and biliary tract diseases was re- searched in the Hospital surgical clinic of Perm, initially led by Professor S. Yu. Minkin and then by academician E. A. Wagner (L. F. Palatova). The results of surgical treatment of cholelithiasis, depending on morphological and biochemical abnormali- ties in liver and chemical composition of gallstones were studied (L. P. Kotelnikova). Indications for surgery in cholelithiasis in conjunction with pathology of stomach, duodenum and liver were defined (A.V. Popov). The results of surgical treatment of biliary pancreatitis and cholangitis (L. B. Guschensky), and diseases of stomach, duodenum and pancreas with cholelithiasis were obtained (D.V. Shvarev). The priority trends of research of Perm scientists were treatment of post-resection syndrome, arteriomesen- terial obstruction, pathogenesis of gallstone disease and its combination with other disorders of the digestive system.

  2. Thin-layer chromatographic separation of conjugates of ursodeoxycholic acid from those of litho-, chenodeoxy-, deoxy-, and cholic acids.

    PubMed

    Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

    1981-05-01

    Separation of the glycine and taurine conjugates of ursodeoxycholic acid from those of lithocholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cholic acid by thin-layer chromatography is described. Thus, on running a silica gel G plate first in a solvent system of n-butanol-water 20:3 and then in a second solvent system of chloroform-isopropanol-acetic acid-water 30:20:4:1, all the above-mentioned conjugated bile acids are separated from one another. The application of this method to study the change in the biliary bile acid conjugation pattern in ursodeoxycholic acid-fed gallstone patients is described.

  3. Obesity in Women: The Clinical Impact on Gastrointestinal and Reproductive Health and Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Pickett-Blakely, Octavia; Uwakwe, Laura; Rashid, Farzana

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 36% of adult women in the United States are obese. Although obesity affects women similarly to men in terms of prevalence, there seem to be gender-specific differences in the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of obesity. Obesity is linked to comorbid diseases involving multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, like gastroesophageal reflux disease, fatty liver disease, and gallstones. This article focuses on obesity in women, specifically the impact of obesity on gastrointestinal diseases and reproductive health, as well as the treatment of obesity in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute pancreatitis at the beginning of the 21st century: The state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Tonsi, Alfredo F; Bacchion, Matilde; Crippa, Stefano; Malleo, Giuseppe; Bassi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas which can lead to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality in 20% of patients. Gallstones and alcohol consumption are the most frequent causes of pancreatitis in adults. The treatment of mild acute pancreatitis is conservative and supportive; however severe episodes characterized by necrosis of the pancreatic tissue may require surgical intervention. Advanced understanding of the pathology, and increased interest in assessment of disease severity are the cornerstones of future management strategies of this complex and heterogeneous disease in the 21st century. PMID:19554647

  5. [Diet peculiarities. Vegetarianism, veganism, crudivorism, macrobiotism].

    PubMed

    Debry, G

    1991-04-11

    People who refuse to eat meat animal products mostly adhere to vegetarianism, veganism, crudivorism or macrobiotism, But these food habits are only one part of life-style chosen for spiritual, ethic or hygienic and healthy motivations. Except vitamin B12 deficiencies these regimens do not produce other deficiencies if they are correctly followed and if the energy intake is in agreement with the RDA'S. They reduce the risks of metabolic diseases, coronaropathies, arterial hypertension, colon cancer, diverticular disease of the colon, kidney and gallstones. Nevertheless crudivorism and macrobiotism are associated with high risks of deficiencies especially in children and pregnant women.

  6. [National project for the clinical management of healthcare processes. The surgical treatment of cholelithiasis. Development of a clinical pathway].

    PubMed

    Villeta Plaza, R; Landa García, J I; Rodríguez Cuéllar, Elías; Alcalde Escribano, J; Ruiz López, Pedro

    2006-11-01

    Because surgical treatment of gallstones is highly prevalent, this topic is particularly suitable for a national study aimed at determining the most important indicators and developing a clinical pathway. To analyze the results obtained during the hospital phase of the process. To define the key indicators of the process. To design a clinical pathway for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed of patients who consecutively underwent surgery for gallstones in 2002. The sample size calculated with data provided by the National Institute of Statistics was 304 patients, which was increased by 45% to compensate for possible losses. Inclusion criteria consisted of elective cholecystectomy for gallstones, without preoperative findings suggestive of common duct stones. A database was designed (Microsoft Access 2000) with 76 variables analyzed in each patient. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 37 hospitals with 426 patients. The mean age was 55.69 years, with a predominance of women (68.3%). The most frequent symptom was biliary colic (23%). A total of 20.3% of the patient had prior episodes of cholecystitis and 18% had a history of mild pancreatitis. Diagnosis was given by ultrasonography in 93.2% of the patients. Informed consent was provided by 93.2%. The intervention was performed on an inpatient basis in 96.1% and in the ambulatory setting in the remainder. Antibiotic and antithrombotic prophylaxis was administered in 78.9% and 75.1% of the patients respectively. The laparoscopic approach was used in 84.6%, with a conversion rate of 4.9%. Intraoperative cholangiography was performed in 17.8% of the patients and common duct stones were found in 7 patients. The most frequent complication was surgical wound infection (1.1%). Possible accidental lesion of the biliary tract occurred in 0.7% of the patients and was described as biliary fistula. There were four reinterventions: biliary fistula (1

  7. Cholelithiasis and its complications in sickle cell disease in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Martins, Raquel Alves; Soares, Renato Santos; Vito, Fernanda Bernadelli De; Barbosa, Valdirene de Fátima; Silva, Sheila Soares; Moraes-Souza, Helio; Martins, Paulo Roberto Juliano

    The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease are related to the polymerization of hemoglobin S. The chronic hemolysis caused by this condition often causes the formation of gallstones that can migrate and block the common bile duct leading to acute abdomen. This study aimed to evaluate the profile of patients with sickle cell disease and cholelithiasis. Patients with sickle cell disease were separated into groups according to the presence or absence of cholelithiasis. Socioepidemiological and clinical characteristics, such as gender, age, use of hydroxyurea and the presence of other hemoglobinopathies were researched in the medical records of patients. A hundred and seven patients with sickle cell anemia were treated at the institution. Of these, 27 (25.2%) had cholelithiasis. The presence of cholelithiasis was higher in the 11-29 age group than in younger than 11 years and over 29 years. No association was found for the presence of cholelithiasis with gender, use of hydroxyurea or type of hemoglobinopathy (hemoglobin SS, hemoglobin SC or sickle beta-thalassemia). Sixteen of the patients had to be submitted to cholecystectomy with 14 of the surgeries being performed by laparoscopy. Complications were observed in three patients and one patient died for reasons unrelated to the surgery. A quarter of patients with sickle cell disease had gallstones, more commonly in the 11- to 29-year age range. Patients should be monitored from childhood to prevent cholelithiasis with preoperative, intra-operative and postoperative care being crucial to reduce the risk of complications in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of CCK Receptors in Carcinoma Gallbladder and Cholelithiasis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Mahabir Saran Das; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are trophic for various gastrointestinal malignancies. Their role in gallbladder cancer has not been widely studied. Objectives: To identify expression of CCK-A and CCK-B receptors in the tissue and blood of patients suffering from carcinoma (CA) gallbladder and gallstone disease and to compare expression of CCK A and B receptors in the gall bladder tissue and blood of healthy individuals and patients of CA gallbladder, and gallstone diseases. Materials and Methods: Forty nine subjects of both genders were recruited, comprising of 22 patients of CA gall bladder, 19 cases of cholelithiasis and, 8 normal gallbladders obtained from patients operated for trauma of the biliary system or Whipple’s procedure. RNA extraction and cDNA formation for CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were carried out. Real Time PCR was performed on cDNA and threshold cycle (Ct) value of each sample was obtained and ΔCt was calculated. Chi-square test for comparing two groups and ANOVA test for comparing multiple groups were applied and if p<0.05 then Dunnett-C test was performed. Observation and Results: Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were expressed irrespective of its origin in all tissues and blood samples studied; be it normal, Cholelithiasis or CA gallbladder and there was no difference among them (p>0.05). Conclusion: This preliminary study showed higher expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of cholelithiasis and decreased expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of CA gallbladder as compared to normal gallbladder although it did not rise to statistical significance. PMID:26393162

  9. Ethnic variations in upper gastrointestinal hospitalizations and deaths: the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Cezard, Genevieve I; Bhopal, Raj S; Ward, Hester J T; Bansal, Narinder; Bhala, Neeraj

    2016-04-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are common, but there is a paucity of data describing variations by ethnic group and so a lack of understanding of potential health inequalities. We studied the incidence of specific upper GI hospitalization and death by ethnicity in Scotland. Using the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study, linking NHS hospitalizations and mortality to the Scottish Census 2001, we explored ethnic differences in incidence (2001-10) of oesophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, gallstone disease and pancreatitis. Relative Risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression, multiplied by 100, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, country of birth (COB) and socio-economic position. The White Scottish population (100) was the reference population. Ethnic variations varied by outcome and sex, e.g. adjusted RRs (95% confidence intervals) for oesophagitis were comparatively higher in Bangladeshi women (209; 124-352) and lower in Chinese men (65; 51-84) and women (69; 55-88). For peptic ulcer disease, RRs were higher in Chinese men (171; 131-223). Pakistani women had higher RRs for gallstone disease (129; 112-148) and pancreatitis (147; 109-199). The risks of upper GI diseases were lower in Other White British and Other White [e.g. for peptic ulcer disease in men, respectively (74; 64-85) and (81; 69-94)]. Risks of common upper GI diseases were comparatively lower in most White ethnic groups in Scotland. In non-White groups, however, risk varied by disease and ethnic group. These results require consideration in health policy, service planning and future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk stratification of gallbladder polyps (1-2 cm) for surgical intervention with 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Yun, Mijin; Kim, Kyoung-Sik; Lee, Jong-Doo; Kim, Chun K

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the value of (18)F-FDG uptake in the gallbladder polyp (GP) in risk stratification for surgical intervention and the optimal cutoff level of the parameters derived from GP (18)F-FDG uptake for differentiating malignant from benign etiologies in a select, homogeneous group of patients with 1- to 2-cm GPs. Fifty patients with 1- to 2-cm GPs incidentally found on the CT portion of PET/CT were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had histologic diagnoses. GP (18)F-FDG activity was visually scored positive (≥liver) or negative (gallstone, polyp size, and three (18)F-FDG-related parameters in risk stratification. Twenty GPs were classified as malignant and 30 as benign. Multivariate analyses showed that the age and all parameters (visual criteria, SUVgp, and GP/L) related to (18)F-FDG uptake were significant risk factors, with the GP/L being the most significant. The sex, size of GPs, and presence of concurrent gallstones were found to be insignificant. (18)F-FDG uptake in a GP is a strong risk factor that can be used to determine the necessity of surgical intervention more effectively than other known risk factors. However, all criteria derived from (18)F-FDG uptake presented in this series may be applicable to the assessment of 1- to 2-cm GPs.

  11. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography for choledocholithiasis after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Milella, Marialessia; Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Leuratti, Luca; McCall, James; Bonanomi, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Gallstones are a common condition in bariatric patients after a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). The management of ductal stones is challenging due to the altered gastrointestinal anatomy. Various techniques have been reported to manage bile duct stones. We present the successful percutaneous trans hepatic management of common bile duct stones after LRYGB. One year after a LRYGB for morbid obesity, a 59-year-old female presented with acute cholecystitis. One month after laparoscopic cholecystectomy a 1cm calculus was found within the distal CBD and patient underwent a percutaneous trans hepatic cholangiography under local anesthetic. This involved a right sided anterior segmental duct puncture. With the sphincter dilated to 10mm, a balloon catheter was used to push the stone into the duodenum leaving an internal- external drain. Patient recovered completely at follow up. Patients with morbid obesity have a higher incidence of gallstones. After LRYGB, the altered anatomy does not allow the conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for choledocholithiasis. Various techniques have been reported as means of managing bile duct stones in LRYGB patients. These include a double balloon enteroscope-assisted ERCP, laparoscopic transgastric ERCP, laparoscopic or open biliary surgery and interventional radiology. We report a non-surgical approach using percutaneous transhepatic technique under local anesthetic that resulted effective and could be applied more extensively. Due to the increase of global obesity, bariatric centers need to strategically plan resources such as interventional radiology in order to manage post LRYGB choledocholithiasis safely, efficiently and in a cost effective manner. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. A powder-free surgical glove bag for retraction of the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Holme, Jørgen Bendix; Mortensen, Frank Viborg

    2005-08-01

    To test the use of a simple and cheap powder-free glove bag to extract the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The medical records of 142 consecutive patients who had their gallbladder removed using a powder-free glove bag were reviewed. No complications in the form of bile or stone spillage during extraction were observed. The absence of complications and the low cost make routine use of the glove bag a wise option for extracting the gallbladder during LC. The use of the glove bag seems to reduce the risk of contamination with bacteria, bile, and gallstones and may reduce contamination by malignant cells in case of unexpected gallbladder carcinoma.

  13. Mesenteric Torsion as a Cause of Late Abdominal Pain after Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Sven G; Ekelund, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Gastric bypass (GBP) has been the most common surgical way to treat obesity and its comorbidities. Late abdominal pain may occur by gastro-jejunal ulcers, gallstones, internal herniation or, rarely, intussusception. In an area with more than 1000 GBPs performed yearly, three patients with primary small bowel volvulus causing abdominal pain and requiring emergency or semi-urgent surgery were identified. Patients' histories, radiology, and surgery performed are presented. Weight loss followed by mesenteric narrowing of the root and thus relative elongation may make rotation of the small bowel mesentery possible. Such a torsion might be an overlooked differential diagnosis in obscure abdominal pain after GBP.

  14. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus hepatic abscess in a patient with sickle-cell disease.

    PubMed

    Mancao, M; Estrada, B; Wilson, F; Figarola, M; Wesenberg, R

    2007-12-01

    We report a case of a 16-year-old female patient with sickle-cell disease with a liver abscess secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). She had initially presented with jaundice and abdominal pain and subsequently underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreaticography followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy for removal of gallstones. However, post-cholecystectomy she presented with generalized abdominal pain and computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a liver abscess. A pigtail catheter was inserted into the abscess and culture of the aspirate yielded MRSA (susceptibility pattern of the organism was compatible with community-acquired MRSA). She was treated with intravenous clindamycin for 6 weeks with complete resolution of the abscess.

  15. The digestive system: part 1.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the digestive system, explores the structure and function of the digestive system. It is important that nurses understand how the digestive system works and its role in maintaining health. The article describes the gross structure of the gastrointestinal tract along with relevant physiology. It also outlines several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and their treatment and nursing management. The second article will explain the liver, pancreas and gall bladder and their digestive functions, and provides a brief overview of the disorders of chronic liver disease, pancreatitis and gallstones.

  16. Functional characterization of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers in primary cultures of prairie dog gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Narins, S C; Park, E H; Ramakrishnan, R; Garcia, F U; Diven, J N; Balin, B J; Hammond, C J; Sodam, B R; Smith, P R; Abedin, M Z

    2004-01-15

    Gallbladder Na(+) absorption is linked to gallstone formation in prairie dogs. We previously reported Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1-3) expression in native gallbladder tissues. Here we report the functional characterization of NHE1, NHE2 and NHE3 in primary cultures of prairie dog gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs). Immunohistochemical studies showed that GBECs grown to confluency are homogeneous epithelial cells of gastrointestinal origin. Electron microscopic analysis of GBECs demonstrated that the cells form polarized monolayers characterized by tight junctions and apical microvilli. GBECs grown on Snapwells exhibited polarity and developed transepithelial short-circuit current, I(sc), (11.6 +/- 0.5 microA. cm(-2)), potential differences, V(t) (2.1 +/- 0.2 mV), and resistance, R(t) (169 +/- 12 omega. cm(2)). NHE activity in GBECs assessed by measuring dimethylamiloride-inhibitable (22)Na(+) uptake under a H(+) gradient was the same whether grown on permeable Snapwells or plastic wells. The basal rate of (22)Na(+) uptake was 21.4 +/- 1.3 nmol x mg prot(-1) x min(-1), of which 9.5 +/- 0.7 (approximately 45%) was mediated through apically-restricted NHE. Selective inhibition with HOE-694 revealed that NHE1, NHE2 and NHE3 accounted for approximately 6%, approximately 66% and approximately 28% of GBECs' total NHE activity, respectively. GBECs exhibited saturable NHE kinetics ( V(max) 9.2 +/- 0.3 nmol x mg prot(-1) x min(-1); K(m) 11.4 +/- 1.4 m M Na(+)). Expression of NHE1, NHE2 and NHE3 mRNAs was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. These results demonstrate that the primary cultures of GBECs exhibit Na(+) transport characteristics similar to native gallbladder tissues, suggesting that these cells can be used as a tool for studying the mechanisms of gallbladder ion transport both under physiologic conditions and during gallstone formation.

  17. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and Incidental Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Biliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Raparelli, Luigi; Jover Navalon, Jose' Maria; Gomez, Ana Serantes; Azcoita, Mariano Moreno; Materia, Alberto; Basso, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Gallbladder carcinoma is found in 0.2 % to 5% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy, and gallstones are found in 70% to 98% of patients with gallbladder carcinoma. Early diagnosis of carcinoma is difficult because of the absence of specific symptoms and the frequent association with chronic cholecystitis and gallstones. At present, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for the surgical treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis and other benign gallbladder diseases. The aims of this study were to evaluate retrospectively the incidence of occasional and occult gallbladder carcinomas to ascertain the effect of laparoscopy on diagnosis and treatment of unexpected extrahepatic biliary tree carcinomas and to assess possible guidelines that can be taken into consideration when the problem is encountered. Methods: Clinical records of 3900 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were reviewed. Patients with occasional (intraoperative = Group A) or occult (postoperative = Group B) diagnosis of gallbladder or common bile duct carcinoma entered the study group. Follow-up data were obtained in June 2000. Results: A total of 14 patients (0.35%), 3 men and 11 women, mean age 60.8 years (range 37 to 73) with extra-hepatic biliary tree carcinoma were found. Occasional carcinomas occurred in 8 patients, occult carcinomas in 6. No deaths occurred in either group. The overall survival at mean follow-up of 30.5 months is 50%. Five patients are disease free, and 2 are alive with evidence of recurrence. Discussion: In 2 large series of unselected consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomy, only 14 unsuspected malignant tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree were found (0.35%). The limits of the preoperative workup and the difficult diagnosis of biliary tract carcinoma during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, has led to the present retrospective study and several significant recommendations. PMID:12500833

  18. Interventional Radiology-Operated Cholecystoscopy for the Management of Symptomatic Cholelithiasis: Approach, Technical Success, Safety, and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nishant; Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham; Gemmete, Joseph J; Castle, Jordan C; Dasika, Narasimham; Saad, Wael E; Srinivasa, Ravi N

    2018-05-01

    The objective of our study was to report the technique, complications, and clinical outcomes of interventional radiology-operated cholecystoscopy with stone removal for the management of symptomatic cholelithiasis. Ten (77%) men and three (23%) women (mean age, 65 years) with symptomatic cholelithiasis underwent cholecystostomy followed by interventional radiology-operated cholecystoscopy with stone removal. Major comorbidities precluding cholecystectomy included prior cardiac, pulmonary, or abdominal surgery; cirrhosis; sepsis with hyponatremia; seizure disorder; developmental delay; and cholecystoduodenal fistula. Cholecystostomy access, time between cholecystostomy and cholecystoscopy, endoscopic and fragmentation devices used, technical success, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, complications, length of hospital stay, time between cholecystoscopy and cholecystostomy removal, follow-up, and acute cholecystitis recurrence were recorded. Eleven (85%) patients underwent transhepatic cholecystostomy, and two (15%) patients underwent transperitoneal cholecystostomy. The mean time from cholecystostomy to cholecystoscopy was 151 days. Flexible endoscopy was used in eight (62%) patients, rigid endoscopy in three (23%), and both flexible and rigid in two (15%). Electrohydraulic lithotripsy was used in eight procedures, nitinol baskets in seven, ultrasonic lithotripsy in two, and percutaneous thrombectomy devices in one. Primary technical success was achieved in 11 (85%) patients, and secondary technical success was achieved in 13 (100%) patients. The mean procedure time was 164 minutes, and the mean number of procedures required to clear all gallstones was 1. One (8%) patient developed acute pancreatitis, and one (8%) patient died of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The median hospital length of stay after cholecystoscopy was 1 day for postoperative monitoring. The mean time between cholecystoscopy and cholecystostomy removal was 39 days. One (8%) patient developed recurrent

  19. Inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of cholecystectomy in women but not in men.

    PubMed

    Nordenvall, Caroline; Oskarsson, Viktor; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-06-01

    There is conflicting epidemiologic evidence on whether coffee consumption reduces the risk of gallstone disease. We examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of cholecystectomy (as a proxy for symptomatic gallstone disease) in a prospective cohort study. We collected data from 30,989 women (born 1914-1948) and 40,936 men (born 1918-1952) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men. Baseline information on coffee consumption was collected by using a food-frequency questionnaire; subjects were followed up for procedures of cholecystectomy from 1998 through 2011 by linkage to the Swedish Patient Register. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by using Cox proportional hazard models. During a total follow-up period of 905,933 person-years, we identified 1057 women and 962 men who had undergone a cholecystectomy. After adjustment for potential confounders, the HR of cholecystectomy was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.78) for women who drank ≥6 cups of coffee/day compared with women who drank <2 cups/day. In contrast, there was no association in men (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.75-1.24). Because of this sex difference, we examined and found evidence of effect modification by menopausal status and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (Pinteraction = .026). An inverse association was observed only in women who were premenopausal (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.05-0.55) or used HRT (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28-0.70). We observed an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of cholecystectomy in women who were premenopausal or used HRT but not in other women or in men. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute Cholecystitis Caused by Ceftriaxone Stones in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christian D.; Fischer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a major health problem. There are multiple etiologies to be considered and early recognition of the condition is important to optimize management and outcome. We report the first case in the medical literature of symptomatic acute cholecystitis triggered by ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge formation and, importantly, solid ceftriaxone gallstone formation in an adult patient with underlying mineral and pigment cholecystolithiasis, necessitating cholecystectomy. This case serves as a reminder for physicians to keep this uncommon cause of cholecystolithiasis and cholecystitis in mind in patients who receive prolonged ceftriaxone therapy. These patients should be cautioned to promptly report to their physicians any signs or symptoms of cholecystitis in order to ensure timely and appropriate evaluation. PMID:19707473

  1. Acute pancreatitis caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: an unusual etiology.

    PubMed

    Valdés Lacasa, Teresa; Duarte Borges, María Alejandra; García Marín, Alicia; Gómez Cuervo, Covadonga

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that the most important etiologies of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and alcohol consumption. Once these causes have been ruled out, especially in young adults, it is important to consider less frequent etiologic factors such as drugs, trauma, malformations, autoimmunity or systemic diseases. Other rare and less well studied causes of this pathology are infections, among which Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been reported to cause acute pancreatitis as an unusual extrapulmonary manifestation. Here, we report the case of a 21-year-old patient who had acute idiopathic pancreatitis associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. After an in-depth study, all other causes of pancreatitis were ruled out and Mycoplasma was established as the clinical etiology.

  2. Hospital morbidity in the Fiji islands with special reference to the saccharine disease.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, M

    1975-08-23

    The concept of the excessive consumption of carbohydrates as a cause of many diseases of civilisation has previously been proposed under the name of the 'saccharine disease'. A review of the hospital morbidity figures for these diseases in a divisional hospital in the Fiji Islands is presented. The hospital serves a population comprised of Indians and Fijians, suggesting comparison with the province of Natal, South Africa. Indians have a higher incidence of diabetes melitus, myocardial infarction, duodenal ulcer, acute appendicitis, gallstones, renal stones and eclampsia. Their diets differ mainly in the higher consumption of refined fibre-depleted carbohydrates, and it is suggested that the association is compatible with the concept of the "saccharine disease".

  3. Infrared Microtransmission And Microreflectance Of Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Steve L.; Krishnan, K.; Powell, Jay R.

    1989-12-01

    The infrared microsampling technique has been successfully applied to a variety of biological systems. A microtomed tissue section may be prepared to permit both visual and infrared discrimination. Infrared structural information may be obtained for a single cell, and computer-enhanced images of tissue specimens may be calculated from spectral map data sets. An analysis of a tissue section anomaly may gg suest eitherprotein compositional differences or a localized concentration of foreign matterp. Opaque biological materials such as teeth, gallstones, and kidney stones may be analyzed by microreflectance spectroscop. Absorption anomalies due to specular dispersion are corrected with the Kraymers-Kronig transformation. Corrected microreflectance spectra may contribute to compositional analysis and correlate diseased-related spectral differences to visual specimen anomalies.

  4. Percutaneous treatment of complex biliary stone disease using endourological technique and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Korkes, Fernando; Carneiro, Ariê; Nasser, Felipe; Affonso, Breno Boueri; Galastri, Francisco Leonardo; de Oliveira, Marcos Belotto; Macedo, Antônio Luiz de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    Most biliary stone diseases need to be treated surgically. However, in special cases that traditional biliary tract endoscopic access is not allowed, a multidisciplinary approach using hybrid technique with urologic instrumental constitute a treatment option. We report a case of a patient with complex intrahepatic stones who previously underwent unsuccessful conventional approaches, and who symptoms resolved after treatment with hybrid technique using an endourologic technology. We conducted an extensive literature review until October 2012 of manuscripts indexed in PubMed on the treatment of complex gallstones with hybrid technique. The multidisciplinary approach with hybrid technique using endourologic instrumental represents a safe and effective treatment option for patients with complex biliary stone who cannot conduct treatment with conventional methods. PMID:26061073

  5. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis: understanding the factors associated with the development of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Sato, Ai; Fujisawa, Mariko; Arakawa, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Igarashi, Ryo; Maki, Takumi; Yamamoto, Shogo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prognosis of advanced chronic pancreatitis (CP) is poor with the mortality rate approximately two-fold higher than the general population according to a survey of the prognosis of CP. From this standpoint, the concept of early CP was propagated in Japan in 2009 to encourage the medical treatment for the earlier stages of CP. That is, picking up the patients suspicious for early CP and then providing medical treatment for them are very important not only for patients, but also for health care economics. In this review, we described some potential factors associated with the development of CP (alcohol, smoking, past history of acute pancreatitis, aging, gallstone, and gender) that are extremely important to discover patients with early-stage CP. PMID:28450665

  6. Early diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis: understanding the factors associated with the development of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Akane; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Sato, Ai; Fujisawa, Mariko; Arakawa, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Igarashi, Ryo; Maki, Takumi; Yamamoto, Shogo

    2017-04-28

    The prognosis of advanced chronic pancreatitis (CP) is poor with the mortality rate approximately two-fold higher than the general population according to a survey of the prognosis of CP. From this standpoint, the concept of early CP was propagated in Japan in 2009 to encourage the medical treatment for the earlier stages of CP. That is, picking up the patients suspicious for early CP and then providing medical treatment for them are very important not only for patients, but also for health care economics. In this review, we described some potential factors associated with the development of CP (alcohol, smoking, past history of acute pancreatitis, aging, gallstone, and gender) that are extremely important to discover patients with early-stage CP.

  7. Right Upper Quadrant Pain: Ultrasound First!

    PubMed

    Revzin, Margarita V; Scoutt, Leslie M; Garner, Joseph G; Moore, Christopher L

    2017-10-01

    Acute right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain is a common presenting symptom in emergency departments and outpatient medical practices, and is most commonly attributable to biliary and hepatic pathology. Ultrasound should be used as a first-line imaging modality for the diagnosis of gallstones and cholecystitis, as it allows the differentiation of medical and surgical causes of upper abdominal pathology, and in many circumstances is sufficient to guide patient management. Knowledge of strengths and limitations of ultrasound in the evaluation of RUQ is paramount in correct diagnosis. A spectrum of RUQ pathology for which a RUQ ultrasound examination should reasonably be considered as the initial imaging modality of choice will be reviewed. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. A case of concomitant Gilbert's syndrome and hereditary spherocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Jung; Moon, Hee Seok; Lee, Eaum Seok; Kim, Seok Hyun; Sung, Jae Kyu; Lee, Byung Seok; Jeong, Hyun Yong; Eu, Young Jae

    2010-01-01

    We describe moderate hyperbilirubinemia in a 28-year-old man who suffered from gallstones and splenomegaly, with combined disorders of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and Gilbert's syndrome (GS). Since it is difficult to diagnose HS in the absence of signs of anemia, we evaluated both the genetic mutation in the UGT1A1 gene and abnormalities in the erythrocyte membrane protein; the former was heterozygous for a UGT1A1 allele with three mutations and the latter was partially deficient in ankyrin expression. This is the first report of the concomitance of HS and GS with three heterozygous mutations [T-3279G, A (TA)7TAA, and G211A] in the UGT1A1 gene. PMID:20924216

  9. Multicenter trial evaluating the use of covered self-expanding metal stents in benign biliary strictures: time to revisit our therapeutic options?

    PubMed

    Kahaleh, Michel; Brijbassie, Alan; Sethi, Amrita; Degaetani, Marisa; Poneros, John M; Loren, David E; Kowalski, Thomas E; Sejpal, Divyesh V; Patel, Sandeep; Rosenkranz, Laura; McNamara, Kevin N; Raijman, Isaac; Talreja, Jayant P; Gaidhane, Monica; Sauer, Bryan G; Stevens, Peter D

    2013-09-01

    Covered self-expanding metal stents are being used more frequently in benign biliary strictures (BBS). We report the results of a multicenter study with fully covered self-expanding metal stent (FCSEMS) placement for the management of BBS. : To prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of FCSEMS in the management of BBS. Patients with BBS from 6 tertiary care centers who received FCSEMS with flared ends between April 2009 and October 2010 were included in this retrospective study.Efficacy was measured after removal of FCSEMS by evaluating stricture resolution on the basis of symptom resolution, imaging, laboratory studies, and/or choledochoscopy at removal. Safety profile was evaluated by assessing postprocedural complications. A total of 133 patients (78, 58.6% males) with a mean age of 59.2±14.8 years with BBS received stents. Of the 133 stents placed, 97 (72.9%) were removed after a mean stent duration of 95.5±48.7 days. Stricture resolution after FCSEMS removal was as follows: postsurgical, 11/12 (91.6%); gallstone-related disease, 16/19 (84.2%); chronic pancreatitis, 26/31 (80.7%); other etiology, 4/5 (80.0%); and anastomotic strictures, 19/31(61.2%). Ninety-four patients were included in the logistic regression analyses. Patients who had indwelling stents for >90 days were 4.3 times more likely to have resolved strictures [odds ratio, 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.24-15.09)] and patients with nonmigrated stents were 5.4 times more likely to have resolved strictures [odds ratio, 5.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.001-29.29)]. FCSEMS for BBS had an acceptable rate of stricture resolution for postsurgical strictures, gallstone-related strictures, and those due to chronic pancreatitis. Predictors for stricture resolution include longer indwell time and absence of migration. Further study is warranted to assess long-term efficacy in a prospective manner with longer than 3-month time of stent indwelling time.

  10. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Can Be Safely Performed in a Resource-Limited Setting: the First 49 Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Hind K.; Dulku, Kiren

    2008-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard for gallstone disease. Many studies have confirmed the safety and feasibility of LC and have shown that it is comparable regarding complications to open cholecystectomy (OC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of LC including safety, feasibility in a resource-poor setting like Yemen, and also to compare the outcomes of LC with those of OC. Methods: This was a prospective, nonrandomized, comparative study of 112 patients who were admitted to Alburaihy Hospital with a diagnosis of gallstone disease and underwent cholecystectomy from July 1998 to March 2004. Hospital stay, duration of operation, postoperative analgesia, and morbidity due to wound infection, bile leak, common bile duct (CBD) injury, missed CBD stone, bleeding, subphrenic abscess, and hernia were evaluated. Patients were followed up on an outpatient basis. Results: Forty-nine patients underwent LC and 63 patients underwent OC. The mean age of LC patients was 43.96 years and of OC patients was 44.63 years. The 2 groups were similar in terms of age (p=0.740) and sex (p=0.535). No significant difference was found in the incidence of acute cholecystitis between the 2 groups (p=0.000). The mean operative duration for LC was 39.88 minutes versus 56.76 minutes for OC (p=0.000), and the mean hospital stay was 1.63 and 5.38 days for LC and OC, respectively (p=0.000). A drain was used frequently in OC (p=0.000). LC patients needed less analgesia (p=0.000). The morbidity rate in LC was 12.2% versus 6.3% for OC, which was not statistically significant (p=0.394), (p>0.05). Wound infection and bile leak were more common with LC. No mortalities were reported in either group. Conclusion: An experienced surgeon can perform LC safely and successfully in a resource-limited setting. As in other studies, LC outcomes were better than OC outcomes. PMID:18402743

  11. The Safety and Efficacy of Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration Combined with Cholecystectomy for the Management of Cholecysto-choledocholithiasis: An Up-to-date Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Long; Chen, Mingyu; Ji, Lin; Zheng, Longbo; Yan, Peijian; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Bin; Cai, Xiujun

    2018-03-12

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of the laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (pre-EST) and LC for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct (CBD) stones. It remains controversial whether LCBDE+LC is better than pre-EST+LC for gallstones and CBD stones. A specific search of online databases was performed from January 2006 to October 2017. Relative outcomes of perioperative safety and postoperative efficacy were synthesized. Single-arm meta-analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were also conducted. A total of 13 studies involving 1757 (872 vs 885) patients were included for analysis in our study. The CBD stones clearance rate [94.1% vs 90.1%; odds ratio (OR) 1.56, P = 0.012] was significantly higher in patients who underwent LCBDE+LC than pre-EST+LC, while perioperative complications (7.6% vs 12.0%; OR 0.67, P = 0.015), conversion to other procedure (4.1% vs 7.1%; OR 0.64, P = 0.025), retained stones rate (1.2% vs 7.9%; OR 0.34, P = 0.004), lithiasis recurrence rate (1.8% vs 5.6%, OR 0.32, P = 0.005), operative time [112.28 vs 132.03 minutes; weighted mean difference (WMD) -18.08, P = 0.002], length of hospital stay (4.94 vs 6.62 days; WMD -1.63, P = 0.023), and total charges [standardized mean difference (SMD) -2.76, P = 0.002] were significantly lower in LCBDE+LC. The mortality (0.6% vs 1.1%; OR 0.32, P = 0.117) was similar between the 2 groups. The cumulative meta-analyses indicated the effect sizes of CBD stones clearance rate, perioperative complications, and conversion to other procedure have already stabilized between 2 groups. The updated meta-analysis first confirms that LCBDE+LC is superior to pre-EST+LC both in perioperative safety and short- and long-term postoperative efficacy, which should be considered as optimal treatment choice for cholecysto-choledocholithiasis.

  12. Role of ursodeoxycholic acid in the prevention of gallstone formation after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Emad; Emile, Sameh Hany; Elfeki, Hossam; Fikry, Mohamed; Abdelshafy, Mahmoud; Elshobaky, Ayman; Elgendy, Hesham; Thabet, Waleed; Youssef, Mohamed; Elghadban, Hosam; Lotfy, Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative cholelithiasis (CL) is a latent complication of bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in the prevention of CL after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). This was a retrospective analysis of the prospectively collected data of patients with morbid obesity who underwent LSG. Patients were subdivided into two groups: Group I, which did not receive prophylactic treatment with UCDA after LSG; and Group II, which received UCDA therapy for 6 months after LSG. Patients' characteristics, operation duration, weight loss data, and incidence of CL at 6 and 12 months postoperatively were collected. A total of 406 patients (124 males, 282 females) with a mean age of 32.1 ± 9.4 years were included. The mean baseline body mass index (BMI) was 50.1 ± 8.3 kg/m 2 . Group I comprised 159 patients, and Group II comprised 247 patients. The two groups showed comparable demographics, % excess weight loss (EWL), and decrease in BMI at 6 and 12 months after LSG. Eight patients (5%) developed CL in Group I, whereas no patients in Group II did (P = 0.0005). Preoperative dyslipidemia and rapid loss of excess weight within the first 3 months after LSG were the risk factors that significantly predicted CL postoperatively. The use of UCDA effectively reduced the incidence of CL after LSG in patients with morbid obesity. Dyslipidemia and rapid EWL in the first 3 months after LSG significantly predisposed patients to postoperative CL.

  13. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: When should you look further?

    PubMed Central

    Hardikar, Winita; Kansal, Shivani; Elferink, Ronald P J Oude; Angus, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Pruritis with abnormal liver function tests is the classical presentation of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), a condition associated with significant fetal complications. Although the etiology of ICP is unclear in many cases, certain features of the clinical presentation should alert the practitioner to the possibility of an underlying metabolic defect, which may not only affect subsequent pregnancies, but may be an indicator of more serious subsequent liver disease. We report a kindred of Anglo-Celtic descent, among whom many members present with ICP, gallstones or cholestasis related to use of oral contraception. Genetic studies revealed a novel mutation in the ABCB4 gene, which codes for a phospholipid transport protein. The clinical significance of this mutation and the importance of identifying such patients are discussed. PMID:19266607

  14. [Aircraft crashes in sky sports. Report of two autopsy cases and review of the accidents during 1981 to 1997 in Japan].

    PubMed

    Hamada, K; Kibayashi, K; Ng'walali, P M; Honjyo, K; Tsunenari, S

    2000-08-01

    The authors report two forensic autopsy cases of pilots who died in glider and ultra-light plane crashes in Aso, Kumamoto and review sky sports accidents in Japan (1981-1997). In the glider crash, sharp abdominal pain due to gallstones in a 78-year-old pilot was a possible cause of the accident. In the ultra-light plane crash, unskillful control of the plane by a 38-year-old pilot was the cause of the accident. The incidence of sky sports accidents increased from 12 cases in 1981 to 62 cases in 1997. The mortality rate of the victims of the accidents is very high. Investigation of natural diseases in pilots as a cause of accidents and the mechanisms of fatal injuries will help to assess preventive measures against sky sports accidents.

  15. Pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis: a comprehensive update and a look into the future.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Roland; Tingstedt, Bobby; Xia, Jinglin

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a relatively frequent condition usually caused by alcoholic abuse but also due to recurrent gallstone disease, metabolic endocrine disorders and haemochromatosis, among others. Specific types such as hereditary and autoimmune pancreatitis should be particularly kept in mind and emphasized, as they require specific treatment and attention. The possibility to identify gene mutations has also increased and this is likely to decrease the overall total number of "idiopathic" chronic pancreatitis cases. Pancreatic stellate cells have been identified as potential key players in the progression of chronic pancreatitis and the development of fibrogenesis, which are activated either during repeated attacks of necro-inflammation or directly by toxic factors. The inhibition or modulation of pancreatic stellate cells could represent a way of potential intervention in patients with chronic pancreatitis in the future.

  16. Cholecystectomy: from Langenbuch to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Soper, Nathaniel J

    2011-07-01

    Gallstones have led to pain and complications in humankind for millennia. Beginning in the 1880s, cholecystectomy, performed through a sizable abdominal incision, was the treatment of choice for symptomatic cholelithiasis. During the late 1980s pioneering surgeons first used laparoscopic techniques to remove the gallbladder. Although initially associated with a significantly increased rate of bile duct injury, the clinical advantages of laparoscopy compared to open operation became readily apparent, ushering in the "laparoscopic revolution." More recently, attempts at rendering cholecystectomy even less invasive--smaller or fewer incisions or eliminating abdominal incisions altogether--have been described, with limited clinical series reported. At the current time, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for gallbladder removal, and any newer techniques must be demonstrated to result in superior outcomes for widespread adoption.

  17. Lipid deposits and lipo-mucosomes in human cholecystitis and epithelial metaplasia in chronic cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Tomasello, Lisa M; Elgison, Deborah A

    2003-01-01

    Among the inflammatory changes seen in cholecystitis, the ultrastructural alterations of the human gallbladder epithelium include lipid and lipofuscin deposits, fusions of lipid deposits and mucus-containing vesicles forming complex substructural formations called lipo-mucosomes, and microvillar changes of sparse microvilli and basal bodies. Small, lipid-laden structures, such as VLDL-like vesicles, also are fused with the mucus vesicles. Epithelial cell sloughing could liberate and add lipo-mucosomes to the biliary sludge and participate in gallstone formation. With chronic cholelithiasis, fatty degeneration of scattered epithelial cells appears to alter the epithelial lining and favors metaplastic change that could lead to other pathologic changes, including carcinoma in situ-like lesions. In addition to lipid deposition in macrophages, lipid is also incorporated in other cells and tissues of the gallbladder wall (endothelium of capillaries, smooth muscles and fibrocytes).

  18. Parietal seeding of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Marmorale, C; Scibé, R; Siquini, W; Massa, M; Brunelli, A; Landi, E

    1998-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (VALC) represents the treatment of choice for the symptomatic gallstones. However the occurrence of an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder results a controindication for this surgical technique. We present a case of a 52 years old woman who underwent a VALC; histology revealed a gallbladder adenocarcinoma. For this reason the patient underwent a second operation that is right hepatic trisegmentectomy. Six months later the patient presented with a parietal recurrence at the extraction site of the gallbladder. We discuss the possible mechanism responsible for carcinomatous dissemination during laparoscopic surgery and we raccommend the use of some procedures in order to limit the risk and eventually to treat a neoplastic parietal seeding. These complications suggest the problem about the utility and the future played by video assisted laparoscopic surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of intraabdominal malignancies.

  19. A rare case of Mirizzi syndrome due to pure calcium carbonate stones (Limy Bile).

    PubMed

    Gilani, Nooman; Hanif, Muhammad Farooq; Karasek, Veronika

    2016-06-01

    We report the first case of Mirizzi syndrome in a patient who presented with biliary obstruction caused by pure calcium carbonate stones. A 61 years old male with history of portal vein thrombosis presented with rash, nausea and jaundice. An ultrasound of biliary tree showed gallstones with dilatation of hepatic duct and intrahepatic biliary tree. There was suspicion of a stone in proximal CBD. CT scan showed an opaque gallbladder with dense radio-opaque material in its lumen. An ERCP was then performed revealing external common hepatic duct obstruction at the neck of the gallbladder. A plastic biliary stent was placed across the obstruction, followed by a cholecystectomy. Resected gallbladder specimen revealed thick whitish paste like material, and formed stones filling the gallbladder lumen. Laboratory testing showed this material to be composed of 100% calcium carbonate crystals.

  20. Clinical and pharmacokinetic study of cefotetan in biliary tract infections: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Cristiano, P; Lobello, R; Iovene, M R; De Ascentis, G; Altucci, P; Paradisi, F; Manguso, L

    1988-08-01

    Twelve hospitalised patients, affected by biliary tract infections, were treated with cefotetan at dosages ranging between 4 and 6 g daily i.v. In only 11 patients was the aetiological agent identified. Eleven patients (91.67%) completely recovered from their infections and the pathogens were eradicated; the treatment failed in only 1 patient (8.33%). Furthermore, determinations were made of cefotetan concentrations in serum, gallbladder bile, gallbladder wall and gallstones of 14 patients undergoing cholecystectomy: in 7 patients after only 1 injection i.v. of 2 g and in 7 patients after 7 injections i.v. of 2 g at intervals of 12 h. The levels recorded were several times higher than the minimum inhibitory concentrations against bacteria that are most often responsible for biliary infections. Cefotetan is a promising and effective antimicrobial agent in the therapy of biliary tract infections.

  1. Determination of NMR chemical shifts for cholesterol crystals from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucukbenli, Emine; de Gironcoli, Stefano

    2011-03-01

    Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful tool in crystallography when combined with theoretical predictions. So far, empirical calculations of spectra have been employed for an unambiguous identification. However, many complex systems are outside the scope of these methods. Our implementation of ultrasoft and projector augmented wave pseudopotentials within ab initio gauge including projector augmented plane wave (GIPAW) method in Quantum Espresso simulation package allows affordable calculations of NMR spectra for systems of thousands of electrons. We report here the first ab initio determination of NMR spectra for several crystal structures of cholesterol. Cholesterol crystals, the main component of human gallstones, are of interest to medical research as their structural properties can shed light on the pathologies of gallbladder. With our application we show that ab initio calculations can be employed to aid NMR crystallography.

  2. Is it necessary to perform prophylactic cholecystectomy for asymptomatic subjects with gallbladder polyps and gallstones?

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Youn; Kim, Tae Sun; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the clinical characteristics of subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis compared with those with gallbladder polyps only. Between August 1999 and December 2005, 176 subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis (study group) by transabdominal ultrasonography performed during a medical check-up at our institution were recruited and compared with a control group of 185 subjects who had gallbladder polyps only. No significant difference in the mean interval change (delta) of polyp size during the follow-up period between the study and control groups (0.85 +/- 1.39 mm vs 0.84 +/- 1.58 mm, respectively, P = 0.927) was noted. A significantly higher proportion (9/176 [5.1%]) of examinees in the study group had attacks of acute cholecystitis compared with the control group (1/185 [0.5%], P < 0.01). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, gallbladder wall thickening on initial ultrasonography (odds ratio, 13.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-178.0; P = 0.046) and the interval increase in the size of the gallbladder polyps (odds ratio, 14.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-126.9; P = 0.014) were independent risk factors for cholecystectomy. No gallbladder cancer occurred during the follow-up period. There was no significant difference in delta polyp size between the examinees with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis and those with gallbladder polyps only. Hence, a small proportion of subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis, such as those with thickened gallbladder walls and an interval increase in the size of the gallbladder polyps are candidates for prophylactic cholecytectomy.

  3. An overview of translational (radio)pharmaceutical research related to certain oncological and non-oncological applications

    PubMed Central

    Cona, Marlein Miranda; de Witte, Peter; Verbruggen, Alfons; Ni, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Translational medicine pursues the conversion of scientific discovery into human health improvement. It aims to establish strategies for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Cancer treatment is difficult. Radio-pharmaceutical research has played an important role in multiple disciplines, particularly in translational oncology. Based on the natural phenomenon of necrosis avidity, OncoCiDia has emerged as a novel generic approach for treating solid malignancies. Under this systemic dual targeting strategy, a vascular disrupting agent first selectively causes massive tumor necrosis that is followed by iodine-131 labeled-hypericin (123I-Hyp), a necrosis-avid compound that kills the residual cancer cells by crossfire effect of beta radiation. In this review, by emphasizing the potential clinical applicability of OncoCiDia, we summarize our research activities including optimization of radioiodinated hypericin Hyp preparations and recent studies on the biodistribution, dosimetry, pharmacokinetic and, chemical and radiochemical toxicities of the preparations. Myocardial infarction is a global health problem. Although cardiac scintigraphy using radioactive perfusion tracers is used in the assessment of myocardial viability, searching for diagnostic imaging agents with authentic necrosis avidity is pursued. Therefore, a comparative study on the biological profiles of the necrosis avid 123I-Hyp and the commercially available 99mTc-Sestamibi was conducted and the results are demonstrated. Cholelithiasis or gallstone disease may cause gallbladder inflammation, infection and other severe complications. While studying the mechanisms underlying the necrosis avidity of Hyp and derivatives, their naturally occurring fluorophore property was exploited for targeting cholesterol as a main component of gallstones. The usefulness of Hyp as an optical imaging agent for cholelithiasis was studied and the results are presented. Multiple uses of automatic contrast injectors may reduce costs

  4. Effect of emodin on mobility signal transduction system of gallbladder smooth muscle in Guinea pig with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bang-Jiang; Shen, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Shuang; Lyu, Chuan-Zhu; Xie, Yi-Qiang

    2016-10-01

    To study the effect of emodin on protein and gene expressions of the massagers in mobility signal transduction system of cholecyst smooth muscle cells in guinea pig with cholesterol calculus. The guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups, such as control group, gall-stone (GS) group, emodin group and ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) group. Cholesterol calculus models were induced in guinea pigs of GS, emodin and UA groups by lithogenic diet, while emodin or UA were given to the corresponding group for 7 weeks. The histomorphological and ultrastructure change of gallbladder were detected by microscope and electron microscope, the content of plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) and [Ca 2+ ] i were analyzed successively by radioimmunoassay and flow cytometry. The protein and mRNA of Gsα, Giα and Cap in cholecyst cells were determined by western blotting and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Emodin or UA can relieve pathogenic changes in epithelial cells and muscle cells in gallbladder of guinea pig with cholesterol calculus by microscope and transmission electron microscope. In the cholecyst cells of GS group, CCK levels in plasma and [Ca 2+ ] i decreased, the protein and mRNA of GS were down-regulated, the protein and mRNA of Gi and Cap were up-regulated. Emodin significantly decreased the formative rate of gallstone, improved the pathogenic change in epithelial cells and muscle cells, increased CCK levels in plasma and [Ca 2+ ] i in cholecyst cells, enhanced the protein and mRNA of Gs in cholecyst cells, reduced the protein and mRNA of Gi and Cap in cholecyst cells in guinea pig with cholesterol calculus. The dysfunction of gallbladder contraction gives rise to the disorders of mobility signal transduction system in cholecyst smooth muscle cells, including low content of plasma CCK and [Ca 2+ ] i in cholecyst cells, abnormal protein and mRNA of Gs, Gi and Cap. Emodin can enhance the contractibility of gallbladder and alleviate cholestasis by regulating plasma

  5. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with transgastric gallbladder extraction].

    PubMed

    Jurczak, Florent

    2011-11-01

    To describe and evaluate a new cholecystectomy technique combining classical dissection with currently available mini-instrumentation (3 and 5 mm) and gallbladder removal through a short gastrotomy. After a feasibility study, we set up a protocol for this procedure using instrumentation currently available on the market. We performed 106 procedures, including 99 in a prospective study between January 2008 and July 2010. Cholecystectomy was performed with the described technique in 99 of 106 eligible patients (22 males and 77 females, mean age 45.8 years (range 18-77); median BMI 26.4 kg/m2 (range 22-36)). Forty-eight patients had at least one gallstone larger than 10 mm. There were no postoperative gastric complications and recovery was always rapid. This procedure is technically feasible, safe and reproducible. The results are good, with minimal abdominal wall trauma. Normal physical activity can be resumed rapidly with no risk of incisional hernia.

  6. Management of paediatric liver trauma.

    PubMed

    van As, A B; Millar, Alastair J W

    2017-04-01

    Of all the intra-abdominal solid organs, the liver is the most vulnerable to blunt abdominal trauma. The majority of liver ruptures present in combination with other abdominal or extra-abdominal injuries. Over the last three decades, the management of blunt liver trauma has evolved from obligatory operative to non-operative management in over 90% of cases. Penetrating liver injuries more often require operative intervention and are managed according to adult protocols. The greatest clinical challenge remains the timely identification of the severely damaged liver with immediate and aggressive resuscitation and expedition to laparotomy. The operative management can be taxing and should ideally be performed in a dedicated paediatric surgical centre with experience in dealing with such trauma. Complications can occur early or late and include haemobilia, intrahepatic duct rupture with persistent biliary fistula, bilaemia, intrahepatic haematoma, post-traumatic cysts, vascular outflow obstruction, and gallstones. The prognosis is generally excellent.

  7. A case of recurrent cholangitis after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: value of scintigraphy with Tc-99m GSA and hepatobiliary scintigraphy for indication of lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, S; Shiomi, S; Sasaki, N; Iwata, Y; Tanaka, H; Kubo, S; Hirohashi, K; Ochi, H

    2000-10-01

    A 39-year-old woman with acute cholecystitis and gallstones underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She suffered from recurrent episodes of cholangitis due to injury of the major bile ducts during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with Tc-99m Sn-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan was performed. Although normal bile excretion was found from the left hepatic duct to the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube, excretion from the right hepatic lobe was prolonged. Scintigraphy with Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin demonstrated atrophy of the right hepatic lobe and enlargement of the left hepatic lobe. Cholangiography via the PTBD tube revealed complete obstruction of the left hepatico-jejunal anastomosis and could not enhance the right intrahepatic bile duct. A right hepatic lobectomy was performed because of the atrophy, glissonitis and the absence of an appropriate bile duct for reconstruction. Postoperatively she was active and exhibited no evidence of recurrent cholangitis.

  8. Bile duct injury during cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, V K

    2015-08-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the treatment of choice for gallstones, but is associated with increased risk of bile duct injury (BDI bile duct injury). If the BDI is detected during LC can be addressed immediately, if available hepatobiliary surgeon, but the easiest and safest procedure for the general surgeon is placing drains into subhepatic region and the transfer of acute BDI to controlled external biliary fistula (external Biliary fistula EBF). Most BDI is diagnosed when the postoperative period, when there is biliary leak. Therapy is a percutaneous catheter drainage and endoscopic stenting in the bile duct; early repair is not recommended. Repair in the form hepatico-jejunostomy (HJ) should be performed hepatobiliary surgeon at intervals of 46 weeks after it closes EBF. BDI is a frequent cause medico-legal actions and a substantial burden on health care costs. Most BDI can be avoided by adherence to the principles of safe cholecystectomy.

  9. A case of Mirizzi syndrome that was successfully treated by laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch.

    PubMed

    Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ueda, Junji; Kono, Hiroshi; Egawa, Noriyuki; Saeki, Kiyoshi; Tsuru, Yasuhiro; Ide, Takao; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2017-11-01

    The use of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of Mirizzi syndrome is considered controversial due to the degree of technical difficulty. We herein describe the case of a 36-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital due to appetite loss, nausea and back pain. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed a round-shaped filling defect at the confluence of the bile duct. The patient was diagnosed with Mirizzi syndrome Type II according to the Csendes classification. Before surgery, an endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube was placed for intraoperative cholangiography. Based on the intraoperative findings, the anterior wall of Hartmann's pouch was excised to remove the impacted gallstone. The neck portion of the gallbladder wall was then used to make a gallbladder patch, which was sutured to cover the anterior wall of the common hepatic bile duct. Laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch was a technically feasible treatment for Mirizzi syndrome Type II.

  10. Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic disease in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibin; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; D'Arcy, Carl; Shi, Jieping; Wu, Yanhua; Liu, Jianwei; Zhu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin

    2015-05-01

    Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases in the adult population of northeast China are examined. The Jilin Provincial Chronic Disease Survey used personal interviews and physical measures to research the presence of a range of chronic diseases among a large sample of rural and urban provincial residents aged 18 to 79 years (N = 21 435). Logistic regression analyses were used. After adjusting for age and gender, rural residents had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic low back pain, arthritis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis/gallstones, and chronic lower respiratory disease. Low education, low income, and smoking increased the risk of chronic diseases in rural areas. Reducing rural-urban differences in chronic disease presents a formidable public health challenge for China. The solution requires focusing attention on issues endemic to rural areas such as poverty, lack of chronic disease knowledge, and the inequality in access to primary care. © 2014 APJPH.

  11. Percutaneous Removal of Retained Calculi from the Abdomen

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, S.J.; Martin, D.F.

    With rising pressure placed on health service resources minimally invasive techniques requiring only short hospital admissions are increasing in importance. We describe the techniques used to remove calculi from the peritoneal cavity which had been retained after surgery and continued to cause clinical problems. In both cases described the calculi lay within abscess cavities associated with fistulous tracks to the skin. The fistulae were dilated to allow passage of therapeutic radiologic and endoscopic equipment enabling manipulation and subsequent extraction of the stones. In both cases removal of the calculi allowed complete resolution of the fistulae and the patients made amore » full clinical recovery. Removal of gallstones which have escaped into the peritoneum at laparoscopic cholecystectomy leading to sepsis has been described; we describe the novel management of a patient in whom extraction had already been attempted, at another hospital, without success. Removal of an appendicolith, described herein another patient, does not appear to have been reported previously.« less

  12. “Adenomatous Polyps Of The Gallbladder” Adenomas oF the Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Antonio; Cetta, Francesco; Sianesi, Mario

    1991-01-01

    The finding of adenomatous polyps of the gallbladder is a rare occurrence and an unusual clinical problem. Among 2,145 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for gallbladder disease only 9 (0.4 per cent) presented with adenomatous polyps. There were 6 women and 3 men, aged 17 to 70 years. Preoperative ultrasonographic diagnosis was made in only 1 of 7 patients with gallstones, in contrast polypoid lesions within a gallbladder without stones were easily confirmed by both ultrasonography and oral cholecystography in the remaining 2 patients. All polyps were 1.0 cm or less in size and without histologic evidence of malignant change. The clinical significance of this rare condition is discussed, with particular reference to a possible role in development of gallbladder carcinoma. Surgical treatment should be advocated regardless of clinical manifestation when the polyp exceeds 1.0 cm in diameter or rapid growth of the lesion is seen on ultrasonographic follow-up examinations. PMID:1859800

  13. Mitochondrial function and malfunction in the pathophysiology of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gerasimenko, Oleg V; Gerasimenko, Julia V

    2012-07-01

    As a primary energy producer, mitochondria play a fundamental role in pancreatic exocrine physiology and pathology. The most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis is either gallstones or heavy alcohol consumption. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can result in the development of chronic pancreatitis and increase the lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer 100-fold. Pancreatic cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality with only about 3-4 % of patients surviving beyond 5 years. It has been shown that acute pancreatitis involves Ca²⁺ overload and overproduction of reactive oxygen species in pancreatic acinar cells. Both factors significantly affect mitochondria and lead to cell death. The pathogenesis of inflammation in acute and chronic pancreatitis is tightly linked to the induction of necrosis and apoptosis. There is currently no specific therapy for pancreatitis, but recent findings of an endogenous protective mechanism against Ca²⁺ overload--and particularly the potential to boost this protection--bring hope of new therapeutic approaches.

  14. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Justin L, Regner, E-mail: Justin.Regner@BSWHealth.org; Angela, Lomas

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics andmore » scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet.« less

  15. Use of a simplified consent form to facilitate patient understanding of informed consent for laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borello, Alessandro; Passera, Roberto; Surace, Alessandra; Marola, Silvia; Buccelli, Claudio; Niola, Massimo; Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Amato, Maurizio; Di Domenico, Lorenza; Solej, Mario; Martino, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Surgical informed consent forms can be complicated for patients to read and understand. We created a consent form with key information presented in bulleted texts and diagrams combined in a graphical format to facilitate the understanding of information during the verbal consent discussion. Methods This prospective, randomized study involved 70 adult patients awaiting cholecystectomy for gallstones. Consent was obtained after standard verbal explanation using either a graphically formatted (study group, n=33) or a standard text document (control group, n=37). Comprehension was evaluated with a 9-item multiple-choice questionnaire administered before surgery and factors affecting comprehension were analyzed. Results Comparison of questionnaire scores showed no effect of age, sex, time between consent and surgery, or document format on understanding of informed consent. Educational level was the only predictor of comprehension. Conclusions Simplified surgical consent documents meet the goals of health literacy and informed consent. Educational level appears to be a strong predictor of understanding. PMID:28352847

  16. Use of a simplified consent form to facilitate patient understanding of informed consent for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Borello, Alessandro; Ferrarese, Alessia; Passera, Roberto; Surace, Alessandra; Marola, Silvia; Buccelli, Claudio; Niola, Massimo; Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Amato, Maurizio; Di Domenico, Lorenza; Solej, Mario; Martino, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Surgical informed consent forms can be complicated for patients to read and understand. We created a consent form with key information presented in bulleted texts and diagrams combined in a graphical format to facilitate the understanding of information during the verbal consent discussion. This prospective, randomized study involved 70 adult patients awaiting cholecystectomy for gallstones. Consent was obtained after standard verbal explanation using either a graphically formatted (study group, n=33) or a standard text document (control group, n=37). Comprehension was evaluated with a 9-item multiple-choice questionnaire administered before surgery and factors affecting comprehension were analyzed. Comparison of questionnaire scores showed no effect of age, sex, time between consent and surgery, or document format on understanding of informed consent. Educational level was the only predictor of comprehension. Simplified surgical consent documents meet the goals of health literacy and informed consent. Educational level appears to be a strong predictor of understanding.

  17. Simulation of Interaction of Strong Shocks with Gas Bubbles using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puranik, Bhalchandra; Watvisave, Deepak; Bhandarkar, Upendra

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of a shock with a density interface is observed in several technological applications such as supersonic combustion, inertial confinement fusion, and shock-induced fragmentation of kidney and gall-stones. The central physical process in this interaction is the mechanism of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI). The specific situation where the density interface is initially an isolated spherical or cylindrical gas bubble presents a relatively simple geometry that exhibits all the essential RMI processes such as reflected and refracted shocks, secondary instabilities, turbulence and mixing of the species. If the incident shocks are strong, the calorically imperfect nature needs to be modelled. In the present work, we have carried out simulations of the shock-bubble interaction using the DSMC method for such situations. Specifically, an investigation of the shock-bubble interaction with diatomic gases involving rotational and vibrational excitations at high temperatures is performed, and the effects of such high temperature phenomena will be presented.

  18. The Use of a Hemostasis Introducer for Percutaneous Extraction of Bile Duct Stones

    PubMed Central

    Feisthammel, Juergen; Moche, Micheal; Mossner, Joachim; Hoffmeister, Albrecht

    2012-01-01

    Background Choledocholithiasis is defined as presence of at least one gallstone in the bile duct. Those bile duct stones (BDS) usually are extracted by ERCP. In case the bile duct is not accessible endoscopically (e.g. after major abdominal surgery), PTCD has to be performed. Extraction of the stones via PTCD has several risks as are hemorrhage, pancreatitis and injuries of the liver tissue. Methods We here report about our experience with a significant modification of this technique by use of a 13-french hemostasis introducer as a sheath to track the transhepatic access to the bile ducts in order to reduce time and risk. Results Three patients were treated by use of the reported modification. In all cases, the stones were successfully removable without complications. Conclusion We demonstrate that the use of a hemostasis introducer for percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones seems to be promising in terms of shortening hospital stay and increasing patient safety. PMID:27785172

  19. The Use of a Hemostasis Introducer for Percutaneous Extraction of Bile Duct Stones.

    PubMed

    Feisthammel, Juergen; Moche, Micheal; Mossner, Joachim; Hoffmeister, Albrecht

    2012-02-01

    Choledocholithiasis is defined as presence of at least one gallstone in the bile duct. Those bile duct stones (BDS) usually are extracted by ERCP. In case the bile duct is not accessible endoscopically (e.g. after major abdominal surgery), PTCD has to be performed. Extraction of the stones via PTCD has several risks as are hemorrhage, pancreatitis and injuries of the liver tissue. We here report about our experience with a significant modification of this technique by use of a 13-french hemostasis introducer as a sheath to track the transhepatic access to the bile ducts in order to reduce time and risk. Three patients were treated by use of the reported modification. In all cases, the stones were successfully removable without complications. We demonstrate that the use of a hemostasis introducer for percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones seems to be promising in terms of shortening hospital stay and increasing patient safety.

  20. Energetic etiologies of acute pancreatitis: A report of five cases

    PubMed Central

    Shmelev, Artem; Abdo, Alain; Sachdev, Sarina; Shah, Urvi; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    There are several common causes of acute pancreatitis, principally excessive alcohol intake and gallstones, and there are many rare causes. However, cases of pancreatitis still occur in the absence of any recognizable factors, and these cases of idiopathic pancreatitis suggest the presence of unrecognized etiologies. Five cases of acute pancreatitis in four patients came to attention due to a strong temporal association with exposure to nerve stimulators and energy drinks. Given that these cases of pancreatitis were otherwise unexplained, and given that these exposures were not clearly known to be associated with pancreatitis, we performed a search for precedent cases and for mechanistic bases. No clear precedent cases were found in PubMed and only scant, weak precedent cases were found in public-health databases. However, there was a coherent body of intriguing literature in support of a mechanistic basis for these exposures playing a role in the etiology of pancreatitis. PMID:26600983

  1. [Epidemic situation and prevention and control strategy of clonorchiasis in Guangdong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhuo-Hui, Deng; Yue-Yi, Fang

    2016-05-24

    Clonorchiasis is one of the food-borne parasitic diseases. Adult parasites live in the human liver and gallbladder tube system, causing serious complications, such as gallstones, cholecystitis and cholangitis, and even bile duct cancer. The disease is very popular in our country, and the population infection rate is high. It is an important public health problem. Guangdong Province is the earliest province being found of clonorchiasis and with serious epidemic. In the second national human parasitic diseases distribution survey, the results showed that the average infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis in the epidemic areas in Guangdong was 16.42%. It is estimated that the population of C. sinensis infection is over 6 million. The prevention and control of clonorchiasis in China is still in the initial stage currently and we face many challenges such as unclear epidemic characteristics and transmission mode, and lack of long-term prevention and control mechanism. This article introduces the epidemic situation of clonorchiasis and prevention and control strategies and measures in Guangdong.

  2. A case of Mirizzi syndrome that was successfully treated by laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch

    PubMed Central

    Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ueda, Junji; Kono, Hiroshi; Egawa, Noriyuki; Saeki, Kiyoshi; Tsuru, Yasuhiro; Ide, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of Mirizzi syndrome is considered controversial due to the degree of technical difficulty. We herein describe the case of a 36-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital due to appetite loss, nausea and back pain. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed a round-shaped filling defect at the confluence of the bile duct. The patient was diagnosed with Mirizzi syndrome Type II according to the Csendes classification. Before surgery, an endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube was placed for intraoperative cholangiography. Based on the intraoperative findings, the anterior wall of Hartmann’s pouch was excised to remove the impacted gallstone. The neck portion of the gallbladder wall was then used to make a gallbladder patch, which was sutured to cover the anterior wall of the common hepatic bile duct. Laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch was a technically feasible treatment for Mirizzi syndrome Type II. PMID:29230280

  3. Wait-and-see policy versus cholecystectomy after endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile-duct stones in high-risk patients with co-existing gallbladder stones: a prospective randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Showkat A; Mushtaq, Mosin; Beg, Mashkoor A; Javaid, Gul; Khan, Bashir A; Hassan, Rayhana; Kasana, Reyaz A; Tabassum, Sameena

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is one of the most important advances in the treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, the use of ES to remove CBD stones in high-risk patients without cholecystectomy is still debatable. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a wait-and-see policy versus cholecystectomy after ES for CBD stones in high-risk patients with co-existing cholelithiasis. A total of 162 patients after undergoing ES with the clearance of CBD stones were randomised after informed consent to cholecystectomy or conservative management of their gallbladder stones. The results indicated that cholecystectomy after ES for CBD stones significantly reduced the biliary complications in high-risk patients. Every patient who has both CBD stones and gallstones with significant co-morbid illnesses, after clearance of CBD stones by ES, should undergo early cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2014 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with transgastric gallbladder extraction: a new therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Jurczak, F; Pousset, J-P; Raffaitin, P

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate a newly developed cholecystectomy technique which combines classical dissection with currently available mini-instrumentation (3 and 5 mm) and removal of the gallbladder through a short gastrotomy. After a feasibility study, we set up a protocol for this procedure using instrumentation currently available on the market. The resected gallbladder was removed through a short gastrotomy on the anterior gastric wall, thereby minimizing abdominal wall trauma and permitting the patient to resume physical activity more quickly with no risk of trocar herniation. Cholecystectomy was performed by the described technique in 18 of 23 eligible patients between April 2008 and August 2008. There were seven males and 11 females with a mean age of 48 (range: 28-77); median BMI was 30 kg/m2 (range: 22-36). Eleven patients had a gallstone larger than 12 mm. There were no postoperative complications and recovery was rapid for all patients in our study. This procedure is technically feasible, safe and reproducible; results are good with minimal trauma to the abdominal wall. Normal physical activity can be rapidly resumed with no risk of incisional hernia.

  5. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cruz, L; Navarro, S; Valderrama, R; Sáenz, A; Guarner, L; Aparisi, L; Espi, A; Jaurietta, E; Marruecos, L; Gener, J

    1994-04-01

    A multicenter study of acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) classified in accordance with the Balthazar criteria (grades D and E), has been performed in 12 teaching hospitals. A total of 233 patients were reviewed, and the mortality rate was 26.6%. The most common etiology was biliary pancreatitis (45.5%). Among the complications, shock, renal insufficiency, pulmonary insufficiency and hemorrhagic gastritis were associated with a mortality rate of 51-66%. Diffuse fluid collections were associated with a higher mortality rate (26.8%) than localized fluid collections (14.5%). In 106 patients with gallstone pancreatitis, early surgery was performed in 17, and 5 patients (29.4%) died. No mortality was observed in 32 patients with delayed surgery. Sphincterotomy was performed in 13 patients, and 4 (30.7%) died. Early surgery (necrosectomy and closed peritoneal lavage) was undertaken in 75 patients, with a mortality rate of 39%. In conclusion, the morbidity and mortality rates of ANP can be improved with proper monitoring, adequate supportive care and the judicious use of surgery based on clinical and morphological findings.

  6. Five novel ALMS1 gene mutations in six patients with Alström syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Suna; Yücel-Yılmaz, Didem; Ardagil, Aylin; Apaydın, Süheyla; Valverde, Diana; Özgül, Rıza Köksal; Güven, Ayla

    2018-05-01

    Alström syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene. We describe the clinical and five novel mutational screening findings in six patients with Alström syndrome from five families in a single center with distinct clinical presentations of this condition. Five novel mutations in ALMS1 in exon 8 and intron 17 were identified, one of them was a compound heterozygous: c.2259_2260insT, p.Glu754*; c.2035C>T p.Arg679*; c.2259_2260insT, p.Glu754*; c.5969C>G, p.Ser1990*; c.6541C>T, p. Gln2181*/c.11666-2A>G, splicing. One patient had gallstones, this association, to our knowledge, has not been reported in Alström syndrome previously. Early diagnosis of Alström syndrome is often difficult in children and adolescents, because many of the clinical features develop over time. Early diagnosis can initiate an effective managemen of this condition, and it will help to reduce future damage.

  7. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  8. Ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge. Identification of calcium-ceftriaxone salt as a major component of gallbladder precipitate

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.Z.; Lee, S.P.; Schy, A.L.

    1991-06-01

    Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, is partially excreted into bile. With its clinical use, the formation of gallbladder sludge detected by ultrasonography has been reported. Four surgical specimens were examined and no gallstones were found. Instead, fine precipitates of 20-250 microns were present. Microscopically, there was a small number of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and bilirubin granules among an abundant amount of granular-crystalline material that was not morphologically cholesterol monohydrate crystals. The chemical composition of the precipitates (n = 4) was determined. There was a small amount of cholesterol (1.7% +/- 0.8%) and bilirubin (13.9% +/- 0.74%). The major component of themore » precipitate was a residue. On further analysis using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron microprobe analysis, the residue was identified as a calcium salt of ceftriaxone. The residue also had identical crystal morphology and chromatographic elution profile as authentic calcium-ceftriaxone standards. It is concluded that ceftriaxone, after excretion and being concentrated in the gallbladder bile, can form a precipitate. The major constituent has been identified as a ceftriaxone-calcium salt.« less

  9. Ursodeoxycholic acid after bile duct stone removal and risk factors for recurrence: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ryuichi; Tazuma, Susumu; Kanno, Keishi; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Inui, Kazuo; Ohara, Hirotaka; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Ryozawa, Shomei

    2016-02-01

    Currently, no established pharmacologic treatment exists for the prevention of recurrent common bile duct (CBD) stones. Here, we present a multi-center randomized trial that compared the CBD recurrence rate after bile duct stone removal between patients given ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and the untreated group. A total of 36 patients were randomly assigned to either the UDCA (n = 15) or the untreated group (n = 21). The primary end-point was the recurrence rate of CBD stones. The recurrence rate of CBD stones was 6.6% in the UDCA group and 18.6% in the untreated group (P = 0.171). A multivariate analysis found that not receiving UDCA was an independent risk factor for stone recurrence. The recurrence rates of CBD stones did not differ by sex, past history of cholecystectomy, or the presence of gallstones. Our findings indicate that UDCA may be a novel treatment strategy to prevent the recurrence of CBD stones. However, further evaluation of UDCA in a larger number of subjects will be required to confirm the applicability of these results. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  10. In vitro study comparing the ability of mono-octanoin and mono-octanoin plus methyl tert-butyl ether to dissolve biliary stones.

    PubMed

    Tritapepe, R; Cesana, B

    1996-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the gallstone dissolution rates of mono-octanoin, mono-octanoin plus 10% distilled water, and mono-octanoin plus methyl tert-butyl ether 2:1. Sixteen stones were treated with each solvent at a slow perfusion rate of 3-4 ml/h and a rapid perfusion rate of 2.5 ml/30 min with 20-sec instillation/aspiration cycles, both with and without bile. The stones were weighed before, and 3, 6, 12 and 24 hrs after the start of treatment: the solvent was changed every 30 min. After 24 hrs of instillation/aspiration without bile, the mono-octanoin/methyl tert-butyl ether mixture reduced the weight of the stones by 93%, mono-octanoin plus water by 63%, and mono-octanoin alone by 52%; with bile, the figures were, respectively, 86%, 42% and 40%. The mono-octanoin/methyl tert-butyl ether mixture thus took approximately half the time needed by the other two preparations to dissolve the stones to the same extent, a finding which may be relevant for the clinical dissolution of bile duct stones.

  11. Surveillance of Populations at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma Development in Rural Communities of Thailand Using the Korat-CCA Verbal Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Loyd, Ryan A; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kompor, Porntip; Norkaew, Jun; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Phatisena, Tanida; Eaksunti, Thawatchai; Polsripradist, Poowadol; Joosiri, Apinya; Sukkasam, Inchat; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. Active surveillance in rural communities with an appropriat low-cost screening tool is required to facilitate early detection. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the population at risk of CCA in Bua Yai district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeastern Thailand using the Korat-CCA verbal screening test (KCVST) during June to October 2015. Reliability of KCVST demonstrated a Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.75 Stepwise-multiple regression showed that alcohol consumption was important for CCA screened, followed by agriculture and pesticide use, under-cooked cyprinoid fish consumption, praziquantel use, naïve northeastern people, opisthorchiasis, family relatives with CCA, and cholangitis or cholecystitis or gallstones, respectively. Population at risk for CCA was classified to low risk (63.4%), moderate risk (33.7%), and high risk (1.32%) for CCA. When CCA was screened using ultrasonography, 4 of 32 high risk participants had an abnormal biliary tract with dilated bile ducts. This study indicates that KCVST is a potential useful too which decrease the cost of large scale CCA screening.

  12. Cholecystectomy in patients with sickle cell disease: experience at a regional hospital in southeast Georgia.

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, R.; Williams, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of patients with sickle cell disease and cholelithiasis is controversial. This retrospective study assesses the outcome of preoperative transfusion and timely cholecystectomy in symptomatic sickle cell disease patients. Fourteen patients who had undergone cholecystectomy were determined to have sickle cell disease. The patients' mean age was 17.9 years. Eleven patients were female. Thirteen patients had complained of abdominal pain. Ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of cholelithiasis in 12 of 13 patients tested. Hemoglobin before treatment averaged 7.7 g/dL. Transfusion or exchange transfusion was given to 12 patients, raising the average hemoglobin to 10.3 g/dL. Postoperative morbidity was 14%: one patient had a urinary tract infection and another a left-lower-lobe pneumonia. No sickle cell crises or deaths occurred. Postoperative hospital stay averaged 4.4 days. With judicious use of preoperative transfusion, early cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones was well tolerated by sickle cell disease patients and is advisable to avoid the morbid sequelae of acute cholecystitis and peroperative sickle cell crisis. PMID:1507260

  13. Liver enzyme elevation induced by hyperemesis gravidarum: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Conchillo, J M; Pijnenborg, J M A; Peeters, P; Stockbrügger, R W; Fevery, J; Koek, G H

    2002-10-01

    Three primigravidae were admitted during the first trimester of pregnancy with nausea, vomiting, ketonuria and liver enzyme elevation of varying severity. A 29-year-old woman had elevated aminotransferase values, at levels described in the literature (ASAT 112 U/l, ALAT 214 U/l). The second patient, a woman aged 26 years, had undergone in vitro fertilisation and showed higher liver enzyme elevation, including the total bilirubin level (ASAT 250 U/l, ALAT 474 U/l, total bilirubin 59.8 micromol/l). A 30-year-old woman had extremely high aminotransferase values (ASAT 705 U/l, ALAT 1674 U/l) and she is the first reported patient with ALAT values exceeding 1,000 U/l in connection with hyperemesis gravidarum. Gallstone disease, viral and drug-induced hepatitis were excluded in all of these patients. Treatment was symptomatic and the abnormal liver tests returned to normal promptly when the vomiting resolved, independent of the severity of liver enzyme elevation. The pregnancies proceeded normally and all three patients delivered healthy babies.

  14. Safety and tolerability of new-generation anti-obesity medications: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhiren K; Stanford, Fatima Cody

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity and associated comorbidities is rising. Despite their weight-loss efficacy, new generation anti-obesity medications are only prescribed to a minority of adults with obesity, possibly, which in part may be due to safety concerns. This review presents detailed safety profiles for orlistat, phentermine/topiramate, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion and liraglutide 3.0 mg, and discusses the associated risk-benefit profiles. Two anti-obesity medications presented safety issues that warranted further discussion; phentermine/topiramate (fetal toxicity) and liraglutide 3.0 mg (risk of gallstone disease and mild, acute pancreatitis), whereas the adverse events associated with orlistat, lorcaserin, and naltrexone/bupropion were mostly transient tolerability issues. The difficulties surrounding the objective determination of risk-benefit for anti-obesity medications is discussed. The need for more long-term data, thorough patient assessment, individualization of pharmacological interventions and adherence to stopping rules to maximize risk-benefit are highlighted. Overall, the majority of new generation anti-obesity medications present encouraging tolerability profiles; however, in some cases a lack of long-term clinical trials confounds the accurate determination of risk-benefit.

  15. The Epidemiology of Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dhiraj; Lowenfels, Albert B.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal causes for hospital admission in the US. Chronic pancreatitis, although lower in incidence, significantly reduces patients’ quality of life. Pancreatic cancer has high mortality and is 1 of the top 5 causes of death from cancer. The burden of pancreatic disorders is expected to increase over time. The risk and etiology of pancreatitis differ with age and sex, and all pancreatic disorders affect Blacks more than any other race. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, and early cholecystectomy eliminates the risk of future attacks. Alcohol continues to be the single most important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Smoking is an independent risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis, and its effects could synergize with those of alcohol. Significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking and non-O blood groups. Alcohol abstinence and smoking cessation can alter progression of pancreatitis and reduce recurrence; smoking cessation is the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23622135

  16. Sequential robot-assisted radical right nephrectomy and cholecystectomy: a safe combined procedure.

    PubMed

    Spinoit, Anne-Françoise; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Ploumidis, Antonios; Lumen, Nicolaas; Ploumidis, Achilles

    2015-06-01

    Kidney tumours are often found incidentally in the work-up of abdominal pain. We are reporting, to the best of our knowledge, the first series of robot-assisted radical nephrectomy (RARN) combined with cholecystectomy (RACH) in patients with organ-confined right kidney tumour and gallbladder stones. A solid organ-confined tumour of the right kidney, along with gallbladder stones, was demonstrated on CT in three patients following evaluation of colic-like abdominal pain. The tumours were deemed unsuitable for nephron-sparing surgery. A combined RARN with RACH in a single session was proposed for all the patients. Mean console time was 187 min. Estimated blood loss was minimal and all three patients had an uneventful recovery. The pathology reports confirmed complete excision of renal cell carcinoma with negative surgical margins and the gallbladders showed no signs of malignancy. Concomitant RARN-RACH for tumour in the right kidney and gallstones is a safe and effective procedure with excellent oncological and functional results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Therapeutic use of somatostatin analogues in endocrinology].

    PubMed

    Faglia, G; Arosio, M

    1992-11-01

    The recent availability of the long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, has allowed its therapeutical use in a wide variety of human diseases, including some digestive, neoplastic and autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on the treatment of some endocrine disorders with octreotide. Evidence is accumulating that octreotide treatment is effective in improving the cure rate of pituitary surgery in acromegaly by shrinking the tumour size, and in lowering GH and IGF-I levels in the vaste majority of patients. Octreotide is also effective in ameliorating TSH-induced hyperthyroidism in patients with TSH-secreting adenomas. Moreover, octreotide has proved useful in the management of endocrine tumours of the gastroenteropancreatic tract (vipomas, glucagonomas, gastrinomas, insulinomas, and carcinoids) by reducing hormone levels and in some instances the size of the primary and/or metastatic lesions. Besides the above well-established indications there are some other potential indications (non-secreting pituitary tumours, medullary thyroid carcinoma, ectopic Cushing's syndrome, diabete mellitus, Graves' ophthalmopathy, tall children and polycystic ovary syndrome) that still await further investigation. Side-effects of octreotide, particularly the formation of gallstones, should be carefully monitored.

  18. [Severe hypertriglyceridemia--an important cause of pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Graesdal, Asgeir

    2008-05-01

    Moderate hypertriglyceridaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and serious hypertriglyceridaemia, with triglyceride values above 10 mmol/L, increases the risk of pancreatitis. Gallstones and alcohol abuse are regarded as the two most important causes of acute pancreatitis, but the considerable risk posed by hypertriglyceridaemia has probably been underrated. It is therefore crucial to acquire updated knowledge and awareness of the fact that high levels of triglycerides can cause pancreatitis. This article is based on current literature retrieved though a search on the topic and clinical experience. Serious hypertriglyceridaemia is a relatively rare condition and its usual cause is genetic predisposition combined with obesity, diabetes or alcohol abuse. Certain types of medication, as well as pregnancy, are also well known causes. Current literature suggests that hypertriglyceridaemia is the cause of pancreatitis in 1-38% of the cases--a substantial variation. The condition is often accompanied by low amylase values and may therefore be underrated as a cause. Our case reports illustrate that the etiology is complex. Plasmapheresis or LDL-apheresis may be indicated when conservative treatment proves insufficient.

  19. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Evidence of Prostatic Stones at Al Khiday Cemetery, Central Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Usai, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    The recovery of three stone-like ovoid objects within the burial of a pre-Mesolithic (Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene) individual at Al Khiday cemetery (Central Sudan) raises the question of the nature and origin of these objects. The position in which the objects were found in relation to the human skeleton suggested a pathological condition affecting the individual, possibly urinary bladder, kidney stones or gallstones. To solve this issue, a multi-analytical approach, consisting of tomographic, microstructural and compositional analyses, was therefore performed. Based on their microstructure and mineralogical composition, consisting of hydroxylapatite and whitlockite, the investigated stones were identified as primary (endogenous) prostatic calculi. In addition, the occurrence of bacterial imprints also indicates on-going infectious processes in the individual. This discovery of the earliest known case of lithiasis extends the appearance of prostatic stones into the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene, a disease which therefore can no longer be considered exclusive to the modern era, but which also affected prehistoric individuals, whose lifestyle and diet were significantly different to our own. PMID:28122013

  20. Degree of fatty acyl chain unsaturation in biliary lecithin dictates cholesterol nucleation and crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Tazuma, S; Ochi, H; Teramen, K; Yamashita, Y; Horikawa, K; Miura, H; Hirano, N; Sasaki, M; Aihara, N; Hatsushika, S

    1994-11-17

    To clarify factors involved in the formation of cholesterol gallstones, we studied the relationship between the degree of fatty acyl chain unsaturation of biliary lecithin and bile metastability. We used supersaturated model bile solutions (molar taurocholate/lecithin/cholesterol ratio (73:19.5:7.5), total lipid concentration 9 g/dl) that contained equimolar egg yolk or soybean lecithins or a sn-1 palmitoyl, sn-2 linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine. Gel permeation chromatographic studies showed that the vesicular cholesterol distribution and dimension were inversely related to the degree of unsaturation of the lecithin species, estimated by reverse phase, high-performance liquid chromatography. Differential interference contrast microscopy and assay of cholesterol crystal growth showed that a higher degree of fatty acyl chain unsaturation of the lecithin species was associated with a faster nucleation time and rate of crystal growth. Our results suggest that vesicular lecithins containing more unsaturated fatty acyl chains bind less tightly to cholesterol than lecithins containing predominantly saturated fatty acids, and that the biliary lecithin species dictates, in part, the nucleation and growth of cholesterol crystals in bile.

  1. Gender influences sphincter of Oddi response to cholecystokinin in the prairie dog.

    PubMed

    Tierney, S; Qian, Z; Yung, B; Lipsett, P A; Pitt, H A; Sostre, S; Lillemoe, K D

    1995-10-01

    Although gallstones and disorders of biliary tract motility are both more common in women than men, sphincter of Oddi motility has not previously been compared between the sexes. In this study, cholescintigraphy (under ketamine and diazepam anesthesia) was used to determine gallbladder emptying rate and ejection fraction in response to cholecystokinin (CCK) in eight male and six female prairie dogs fed a nonlithogenic diet. Ten days later, under alpha-chloralose anesthesia, sphincter of Oddi phasic wave activity was monitored for 10-min intervals before (control), during 20 min of CCK infusion, and for 20 min after infusion. Gallbladder emptying rate and ejection fraction and baseline sphincter of Oddi frequency, amplitude, and motility index (= frequency x amplitude) did not differ significantly between the sexes. Sphincter of Oddi phasic wave frequency was increased during CCK infusion in both males and females, but the change in amplitude was significantly greater in females, than males. We conclude that the increased incidence of biliary tract disease in women may be due to altered sphincter of Oddi hormonal response.

  2. Preparation and Optimization of Amorphous Ursodeoxycholic Acid Nano-suspensions by Nanoprecipitation based on Acid-base Neutralization for Enhanced Dissolution.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yike; Chen, Zhongjian; Su, Rui; Li, Ye; Qi, Jianping; Wu, Wei; Lu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid, usually used to dissolve cholesterol gallstones in clinic, is a typical hydrophobic drug with poor oral bioavailability due to dissolution rate-limited performance. The objective of this study was to increase the dissolution of ursodeoxycholic acid by amorphous nanosuspensions. Nanoprecipitation based on acid-base neutralization was used to prepare the nanosuspensions with central composite design to optimize the formula. The nanosuspensions were characterized by particle size, morphology, crystallology and dissolution. The ursodeoxycholic acid nanosuspensions showed mean particle size around 380 nm with polydispersion index value about 0.25. Scanning electron microscope observed high coverage of HPMC-E50 onto the surface of the nanosuspensions. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry revealed amorphous structure of the ursodeoxycholic acid nanosuspensions. A significant increase of dissolution in acidic media was achieved by the amorphous nanosuspensions compared with the physical mixture. It can be predicted that the amorphous nanosuspensions show great potential in improving the oral bioavailability of ursodeoxycholic acid. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Robert J; Fisher, William E; Salameh, Jihad R; Jeyapalan, Manjula; Sweeney, John F; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy for operative drainage of symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy between June 1997 and July 2001 was performed. Data regarding etiology of pancreatitis, size of pseudocyst, operative time, complications, and pseudocyst recurrence were collected and reported as median values with ranges. Laparoscopic pancreatic cystogastrostomy was attempted in 6 patients. Pseudocyst etiology included gallstone pancreatitis (3), alcohol-induced pancreatitis (2), and post-ERCP pancreatitis (1). The cystogastrostomy was successfully performed laparoscopically in 5 of 6 patients. However, the procedure was converted to open after creation of the cystgastrostomy in 1 of these patients. There were no complications in the cases completed laparoscopically and no deaths in the entire group. No pseudocyst recurrences were observed with a median followup of 44 months (range 4-59 months). Laparoscopic pancreatic cystgastrostomy is a feasible surgical treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts with a resultant low pseudocyst recurrence rate, length of stay, and low morbidity and mortality.

  4. A clinical hepatologist's predictions about non-absorbed carbohydrates for the early twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Conn, H O

    1997-01-01

    To put these predictions into perspective, the primary indication for lactulose therapy in the treatment of HE and SHE is presented and discussed. Six secondary indications for lactulose therapy are also listed and briefly commented upon. A dozen predictions about the status of lactulose are presented and briefly discussed. A. Lactulose will be the treatment of choice for HE.B. TIPS will be the most common cause of HE.C. Lactulose will not be approved in Mexico. D. Lactulose plus anti-diarrheal drugs will be agents for treatment of HE. E. Lactulose will not be the treatment of choice for constipation. F. Lactulose will not be used for Salmonella or Shigella carrier states. G. Lactulose will be routinely administered prophylactically after TIPS. H. Lactulose will be administered prophylactically to cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension. I. Lactulose plus anti-diarrheal drugs will be used for a variety of diverse purposes: (i) Suppression of bacterial growth; (ii) prevention of bacteriuria; (iii) diminution of cholesterol saturation of bile; (iv) adjunct treatment of gallstones with ursodeoxycholic acid; (v) Prevention of colon carcinoma.

  5. Expression of phospho-ERK1/2 and PI3-K in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions and its clinical and pathological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglong; Yang, Zhulin

    2009-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies have shown that ERK and PI3-K/AKT signaling pathways are involved in various human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. However, few studies have examined gallbladder cancer specimens, and little is known about the clinical and pathological significance of ERK1/2 and PI3-K/AKT signaling changes in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. In this study, we examined phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and PI3K expression and analyzed its clinicopathological impact in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect and compare the frequency of p-ERK1/2 and PI3-K expression in gallbladder adenocarcinoma, peri-tumor tissues, adenomatous polyps, and chronic cholecystitis specimens. Results The positive staining for p-EKR1/2 and PI3-K were 63/108 (58.3%) and 55/108 (50.9%) in gallbladder adenocarcinoma; 14/46 (30.4%) and 5/46 (10.1%) in peri-tumor tissues; 3/15 (20%) and 3/15 (20%) in adenomatous polyps; and 4/35 (11.4%) and 3/35 (8.6%) in chronic cholecystitis. The positive rate of p-ERK1/2 or PI3-K in gallbladder adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in peri-tumor tissue (both, P < 0.01), adenomatous polyps (p-ERK1/2, P < 0.01; PI3-K, P < 0.05), and chronic cholecystitis (both, P < 0.01). The positive staining for p-ERK1/2 or PI3-K was significantly lower in well/highly-differentiated adenocancinomas with maximal diameter < 2.0 cm, no metastasis to lymph node, and no infiltration of regional tissues or organs compared to poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas which are characterized by a maximal diameter ≥ 2.0 cm, with metastasis to lymph node and infiltration of regional tissues or organs (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Moreover, the frequency of p-ERK1/2 expression in gallbladder adenocarcinomas without gallstone was significantly lower than those with gallstones. Increased expression of p-ERK1/2 (P < 0.05) and PI3K (P = 0.062) was associated with decreased overall survival

  6. Laparoendoscopic management of concomitant gallbladder stones and common bile duct stones: what is the best technique?

    PubMed

    El-Geidie, Ahmed Abdel-Raouf

    2011-08-01

    The intraoperative use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a safe, single-stage option for the management of concomitant gallstones (GS) and common bile duct stones (CBDS). This study aims to compare between 2 techniques of combined laparoendoscopic management, which are laparoendoscopic Rendez-vous (LC/LERV) technique and standard ERCP after the completion of LC intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (IOES). Patients with GS and suspected CBDS were included. They were divided into 2 groups; LC/LERV and LC/IOES. Both groups were compared for failure of endoscopic sphincterotomy/stone extraction, operative time, conversion rate, mortality/morbidity, and length of hospital stay. Between October 2007 and February 2010, 98 patients with GS and CBDS were eligible for inclusion in the study. They were prospectively randomized into 2 groups; LC/LERV (N=45) and LC/IOES (N=53). There were no differences in preoperative parameters between both groups. There was a significant difference in operative time (shorter for LC/IOES). No difference was noted in success/failure rate, post-ERCP pancreatitis. Both Standard ERCP after the completion of LC and LC/LERV are valid single-session management for CBD stones, but LC-ERCP may be preferred.

  7. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in an octogenarian.

    PubMed

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2012-09-01

    Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is a common dysrhythmia that occurs at all ages. Its management is determined by presenting symptoms and previous history of the patient. Patients present with a continuum of symptoms ranging from palpitations to syncope. The incidence of supraventricular tachycardia increases with age. To discuss the etiology, precipitating factors, and acute management of supraventricular tachycardia; and to discuss nodal reentry circuits and representative electrocardiographic findings. We present the case of an 84-year-old man with gallstone pancreatitis, choledolcholithiasis, and cholecystitis complicated by paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. We review this dysrhythmia, emphasizing its significance in elderly patients. Supraventricular tachycardia is a common dysrhythmia that can result in syncope or myocardial infarction. We present a case of an elderly man with new-onset atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentry tachycardia, possibly precipitated by overdrive of his autonomic nervous system due to pain and infection. As the percentage of the elderly in our population is growing rapidly and the incidence of AV nodal reentry tachycardia increases with age, emergency physicians should be familiar with this dysrhythmia-its etiology, precipitating factors, presentations, and treatment. It will present more frequently in the future. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Long-term follow up of gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Youp; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Hong Jeoung; Kim, Hee Man; Cho, Jae Hee; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bock; Bang, Seungmin

    2009-02-01

    The management of gallbladder polyps (GBP) is directly linked to the early diagnosis of gallbladder cancer (GBC). This study aimed to evaluate the malignant risk of GBP. In total, 1558 patients diagnosed with GBP were followed. Neoplastic polyps were defined as GBC and its premalignant lesions. The risk for malignancy was estimated with the cumulative detection rate of neoplastic polyps. Thirty-three cases (2.1%) were diagnosed with neoplastic polyps. The cumulative detection rates of neoplastic polyps were 1.7% at 1 year, 2.8% at 5 years, and 4% at 8 years after diagnosis. The size of GBP and the presence of gallstones were risk factors for neoplastic polyps. Polyps > or = 10 mm had a 24.2 times greater risk of malignancy than polyps < 10 mm. However, 15 of 33 neoplastic polyps (45.5%) were < 10 mm at the time of diagnosis of GBP. During follow up in 36 (3.5%) of 1027 cases, an increase in size was detected; of these, nine (25%) had neoplastic polyps. Even small polyps have a risk of malignancy, and careful long-term follow up of GBP will help detect and treat early GBC.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of ursodeoxycholic acid after solid phase extraction of blood serum and detection-oriented derivatization.

    PubMed

    Nobilis, M; Pour, M; Kunes, J; Kopecký, J; Kvĕtina, J; Svoboda, Z; Sládková, K; Vortel, J

    2001-03-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (3 alpha,7 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholanoic acid, UDCA) is a therapeutically applicable bile acid widely used for the dissolution of cholesterol-rich gallstones and in the treatment of chronic liver diseases associated with cholestasis. UDCA is more hydrophilic and less toxic than another therapeutically valuable bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), the 7 alpha-epimer of UDCA. Procedures for sample preparation and HPLC determination of UDCA in blood serum were developed and validated. A higher homologue of UDCA containing an additional methylene group in the side chain was synthetized and used as an internal standard (IS). Serum samples with IS were diluted with a buffer (pH=7). The bile acids and IS were captured using solid phase extraction (C18 cartridges). The carboxylic group of the analytes was derivatized using 2-bromo-2'-acetonaphthone (a detection-oriented derivatization), and reaction mixtures were analyzed (HPLC with UV 245 nm detection; a 125--4 mm column containing Lichrospher 100 C18, 5 microm; mobile phase: acetonitrile--water, 6:4 (v/v)). Following validation, this method was used for pharmacokinetic studies of UDCA in humans.

  10. Admission medical records made at night time have the same quality as day and evening time records.

    PubMed

    Amirian, Ilda; Mortensen, Jacob F; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-07-01

    A thorough and accurate admission medical record is an important tool in ensuring patient safety during the hospital stay. Surgeons' performance might be affected during night shifts due to sleep deprivation. The aim of the study was to assess the quality of admission medical records during day, evening and night time. A total of 1,000 admission medical records were collected from 2009 to 2013 based equally on four diagnoses: mechanical bowel obstruction, appendicitis, gallstone disease and gastrointestinal bleeding. The records were reviewed for errors by a pre-defined checklist based on Danish standards for admission medical records. The time of dictation for the medical record was registered. A total of 1,183 errors were found in 778 admission medical records made during day- and evening time, and 322 errors in 222 admission medical records from night time shifts. No significant overall difference in error was found in the admission medical records when day and evening values were compared to night values. Subgroup analyses made for all four diagnoses showed no difference in day and evening values compared with night time values. Night time deterioration was not seen in the quality of the medical records.

  11. Clonorchis sinensis ova in bile juice cytology from a patient with severe hyperbilirubinemia and portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fujiya, Keiichi; Ganno, Hideaki; Ando, Masayuki; Chong, Ja-Mun

    2016-03-01

    Infection with the trematode Clonorchis sinensis is the most common human fluke infection in East Asian populations. Although this infection is associated with obstructive jaundice or choledocholithiasis, portal vein thrombosis has not been reported. Here, we report the first case of a 60-year-old man who had both C. sinensis infection and portal vein thrombosis with severe hyperbilirubinemia (75.4 mg/dl). He initially presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. Computed tomography revealed gallstones, common bile duct calculus, and thrombus in the left main branch of the portal vein. A nasobiliary tube was inserted under endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cytology of the bile juice revealed many C. sinensis eggs. The abdominal pain and jaundice improved following choledocholithotomy and combination treatment with a chemotherapeutic agent and anti-coagulant. This case suggests that inflammation around the portal vein as a result of C. sinensis infection has the potential to evoke portal vein thrombosis. Such cases should be treated with both a chemotherapeutic agent and anti-coagulant therapy. In conclusion, the possibility of infection with C. sinensis should be considered in patients presenting with hyperbilirubinemia and portal vein thrombosis, particularly in East Asian populations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The epidemiology of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dhiraj; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2013-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal causes of hospital admission in the United States. Chronic pancreatitis, although lower in incidence, significantly reduces patients' quality of life. Pancreatic cancer is associated with a high mortality rate and is one of the top 5 causes of death from cancer. The burden of pancreatic disorders is expected to increase over time. The risk and etiology of pancreatitis differ with age and sex, and all pancreatic disorders affect the black population more than any other race. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, and early cholecystectomy eliminates the risk of future attacks. Alcohol continues to be the single most important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Smoking is an independent risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis, and its effects could synergize with those of alcohol. Significant risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking and non-O blood groups. Alcohol abstinence and smoking cessation can alter the progression of pancreatitis and reduce recurrence; smoking cessation is the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MicroRNA modulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan F; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Rotllan, Noemi; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    The regulation of the metabolism of cholesterol has been one of the most studied biological processes since its first isolation from gallstones in 1784. High levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and reduced levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are widely recognized as major risk factors of cardiovascular disease. An imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species can oxidize LDL particles, increasing the levels of the highly proatherogenic oxidized LDL. Furthermore, under pathological scenarios, numerous molecules can function as pro-oxidants, such as iron or (high levels of) glucose. In addition to the classical mechanisms regulating lipid homeostasis, recent studies have demonstrated the important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as regulators of lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative derivatives of lipoprotein, and redox balance. Here, we summarize recent findings in the field, highlighting the contributions of some miRNAs to lipid- and oxidative-associated pathologies. We also discuss how therapeutic intervention of miRNAs may be a promising strategy to decrease LDL, increase HDL, and ameliorate lipid- and oxidative-related disorders, including atherosclerosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and metabolic syndrome. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Contemporary review of drug-induced pancreatitis: A different perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Whitney Y; Abreu Lanfranco, Odaliz

    2014-01-01

    Although gallstone and alcohol use have been considered the most common causes of acute pancreatitis, hundreds of frequently prescribed medications are associated with this disease state. The true incidence is unknown since there are few population based studies available. The knowledge of drug induced acute pancreatitis is limited by the availability and the quality of the evidence as the majority of data is extrapolated from case reports. Establishing a definitive causal relationship between a drug and acute pancreatitis poses a challenge to clinicians. Several causative agent classification systems are often used to identify the suspected agents. They require regular updates since new drug induced acute pancreatitis cases are reported continuously. In addition, infrequently prescribed medications and herbal medications are often omitted. Furthermore, identification of drug induced acute pancreatitis with new medications often requires accumulation of post market case reports. The unrealistic expectation for a comprehensive list of medications and the multifactorial nature of acute pancreatitis call for a different approach. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms of drug induced acute pancreatitis and provide the perspective of deductive reasoning in order to allow clinicians to identify potential drug induced acute pancreatitis with limited data. PMID:25400984

  15. Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy, 7-year experience of a tertiary referral center.

    PubMed

    Vilallonga, Ramón; Calero-Lillo, Aránzazu; Charco, Ramón; Balsells, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common cause of acute abdomen in pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency at our institution and its management and outcomes. A retrospective analysis of a database of cases presented in 7 consecutive years at a tertiary center was performed. Between December 2002 and August 2009, there were 19 cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnant women, 85% with a biliary etiology. The highest frequency was in the third trimester of pregnancy (62.5% cases). In cases of gallstone pancreatitis, 43.6% of pregnant women had had previous episodes before pregnancy. A total of 52.6% of the patients were readmitted for a recurrent episode of pancreatitis during their pregnancy. Overall, 26.3% of the patients received antibiotic treatment and 26.3% parenteral nutrition. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed during the 2nd trimester in two patients (10.5%). There was no significant maternal morbidity. Acute pancreatitis in pregnant women usually has a benign course with proper treatment. In cases of biliary origin, it appears that a surgical approach is suitable during the second trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Bile acids: regulation of apoptosis by ursodeoxycholic acid

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Joana D.; Viana, Ricardo J. S.; Ramalho, Rita M.; Steer, Clifford J.; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.

    2009-01-01

    Bile acids are a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with peculiar physical-chemical and biological characteristics. At high concentrations they become toxic to mammalian cells, and their presence is pertinent in the pathogenesis of several liver diseases and colon cancer. Bile acid cytoxicity has been related to membrane damage, but also to nondetergent effects, such as oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strikingly, hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and its taurine-conjugated form (TUDCA), show profound cytoprotective properties. Indeed, these molecules have been described as potent inhibitors of classic pathways of apoptosis, although their precise mode of action remains to be clarified. UDCA, originally used for cholesterol gallstone dissolution, is currently considered the first choice therapy for several forms of cholestatic syndromes. However, the beneficial effects of both UDCA and TUDCA have been tested in other experimental pathological conditions with deregulated levels of apoptosis, including neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here, we review the role of bile acids in modulating the apoptosis process, emphasizing the anti-apoptotic effects of UDCA and TUDCA, as well as their potential use as novel and alternate therapeutic agents for the treatment of apoptosis-related diseases. PMID:19417220

  17. Bile acids: regulation of apoptosis by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Joana D; Viana, Ricardo J S; Ramalho, Rita M; Steer, Clifford J; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2009-09-01

    Bile acids are a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with peculiar physical-chemical and biological characteristics. At high concentrations they become toxic to mammalian cells, and their presence is pertinent in the pathogenesis of several liver diseases and colon cancer. Bile acid cytoxicity has been related to membrane damage, but also to nondetergent effects, such as oxidative stress and apoptosis. Strikingly, hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and its taurine-conjugated form (TUDCA), show profound cytoprotective properties. Indeed, these molecules have been described as potent inhibitors of classic pathways of apoptosis, although their precise mode of action remains to be clarified. UDCA, originally used for cholesterol gallstone dissolution, is currently considered the first choice therapy for several forms of cholestatic syndromes. However, the beneficial effects of both UDCA and TUDCA have been tested in other experimental pathological conditions with deregulated levels of apoptosis, including neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here, we review the role of bile acids in modulating the apoptosis process, emphasizing the anti-apoptotic effects of UDCA and TUDCA, as well as their potential use as novel and alternate therapeutic agents for the treatment of apoptosis-related diseases.

  18. Exome-Wide Association Study Identifies New Low-Frequency and Rare UGT1A1 Coding Variants and UGT1A6 Coding Variants Influencing Serum Bilirubin in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Bosco, Paolo; Anello, Guido; Spada, Rosario; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Chery, Céline; Rouyer, Pierre; Josse, Thomas; Romano, Antonino; Elia, Maurizzio; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified loci contributing to total serum bilirubin level. However, no exome-wide approaches have been performed to address this question. Using exome-wide approach, we assessed the influence of protein-coding variants on unconjugated, conjugated, and total serum bilirubin levels in a well-characterized cohort of 773 ambulatory elderly subjects from Italy. Coding variants were replicated in 227 elderly subjects from the same area. We identified 4 missense rare (minor allele frequency, MAF < 0.5%) and low-frequency (MAF, 0.5%–5%) coding variants located in the first exon of the UGT1A1 gene, which encodes for the substrate-binding domain (rs4148323 [MAF = 0.06%; p.Gly71Arg], rs144398951 [MAF = 0.06%; p.Ile215Val], rs35003977 [MAF = 0.78%; p.Val225Gly], and rs57307513 [MAF = 0.06%; p.Ser250Pro]). These variants were in strong linkage disequilibrium with 3 intronic UGT1A1 variants (rs887829, rs4148325, rs6742078), which were significantly associated with total bilirubin level (P = 2.34 × 10−34, P = 7.02 × 10−34, and P = 8.27 × 10−34), as well as unconjugated, and conjugated bilirubin levels. We also identified UGT1A6 variants in association with total (rs6759892, p.Ser7Ala, P = 1.98 × 10−26; rs2070959, p.Thr181Ala, P = 2.87 × 10−27; and rs1105879, p.Arg184Ser, P = 3.27 × 10−29), unconjugated, and conjugated bilirubin levels. All UGT1A1 intronic variants (rs887829, rs6742078, and rs4148325) and UGT1A6 coding variants (rs6759892, rs2070959, and rs1105879) were significantly associated with gallstone-related cholecystectomy risk. The UGT1A6 variant rs2070959 (p.Thr181Ala) was associated with the highest risk of gallstone–related cholecystectomy (OR, 4.58; 95% CI, 1.58–13.28; P = 3.21 × 10−3). Using an exome-wide approach we identified coding variants on UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 genes in association with serum bilirubin

  19. [Correlation of retinol binding protein 4 with 
metabolic indexes of glucose and 
lipid, bile cholesterol saturation index].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Li, Nianfeng

    2015-06-01

    To measure retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels in serum and bile and to analyze their relationship with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia or cholesterol saturation index (CSI).
 A total of 60 patients with gallstone were divided into a diabetes group (n=30) and a control group (n=30). The concentrations of RBP4 in serum and bile were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Enzyme colorimetric method was used to measure the concentration of biliary cholesterol, bile acid and phospholipid. Biliary CSI was calculated by Carey table. Partial correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the correlation between the RBP4 levels in serum or bile and the above indexes.
 The RBP4 concentrations in serum and bile in the diabetes group were significantly elevated compared with those in the control group (both P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the serum total bile acid (TBA), serum triglyceride (TG), serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL), bile TBA, bile total cholesterol (TC) , bile phospholipids and bile CSI between the 2 groups (all P>0.05); but the serum TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the diabetes group were significantly increased compared to those in the control group (all P<0.05). The partial correlation analysis, which was adjusted by age, showed that the bile RBP4 was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), FINS, FBG, TC, LDL and HOMA-IR (r=0.283, 0.405, 0.685, 0.667, 0.553, 0.424 and 0.735, respectively), and the serum RBP4 was also positively correlated with the WC, FINS, FBG, TC, LDL and HOMA-IR (r=0.317, 0.734, 0.609, 0.528, 0.386 and 0.751, respectively). Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis suggested that the HOMA-IR, BMI and WC were independently correlated with the level of bile RBP4 (multiple regression equation: Ybile RBP4

  20. Clinical models are inaccurate in predicting bile duct stones in situ for patients with gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Topal, B; Fieuws, S; Tomczyk, K; Aerts, R; Van Steenbergen, W; Verslype, C; Penninckx, F

    2009-01-01

    The probability that a patient has common bile duct stones (CBDS) is a key factor in determining diagnostic and treatment strategies. This prospective cohort study evaluated the accuracy of clinical models in predicting CBDS for patients who will undergo cholecystectomy for lithiasis. From October 2005 until September 2006, 335 consecutive patients with symptoms of gallstone disease underwent cholecystectomy. Statistical analysis was performed on prospective patient data obtained at the time of first presentation to the hospital. Demonstrable CBDS at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was considered the gold standard for the presence of CBDS. Common bile duct stones were demonstrated in 53 patients. For 35 patients, ERCP was performed, with successful stone clearance in 24 of 30 patients who had proven CBDS. In 29 patients, IOC showed CBDS, which were managed successfully via laparoscopic common bile duct exploration, with stone extraction at the time of cholecystectomy. Prospective validation of the existing model for CBDS resulted in a predictive accuracy rate of 73%. The new model showed a predictive accuracy rate of 79%. Clinical models are inaccurate in predicting CBDS in patients with cholelithiasis. Management strategies should be based on the local availability of therapeutic expertise.

  1. Role of bile acids in carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancer: An old topic with new perspective

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hui-Yi; Chen, Yang-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The role of bile acids in colorectal cancer has been well documented, but their role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In this review, we examined the risk factors of pancreatic cancer. We found that bile acids are associated with most of these factors. Alcohol intake, smoking, and a high-fat diet all lead to high secretion of bile acids, and bile acid metabolic dysfunction is a causal factor of gallstones. An increase in secretion of bile acids, in addition to a long common channel, may result in bile acid reflux into the pancreatic duct and to the epithelial cells or acinar cells, from which pancreatic adenocarcinoma is derived. The final pathophysiological process is pancreatitis, which promotes dedifferentiation of acinar cells into progenitor duct-like cells. Interestingly, bile acids act as regulatory molecules in metabolism, affecting adipose tissue distribution, insulin sensitivity and triglyceride metabolism. As a result, bile acids are associated with three risk factors of pancreatic cancer: obesity, diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. In the second part of this review, we summarize several studies showing that bile acids act as cancer promoters in gastrointestinal cancer. However, more question are raised than have been solved, and further oncological and physiological experiments are needed to confirm the role of bile acids in pancreatic cancer carcinogenesis. PMID:27672269

  2. Improvement of the complex medical treatment for the patients wіth chronic biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Babinets, L S; Kytsai, K Yu; Kotsaba, Yu Ya; Halabitska, I M; Melnyk, N A; Semenova, I V; Zemlyak, O S

    The most common reason of chronic pancreatitis is liver and bile ducts disease: functional disorders, chronic cholecystitis, cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy in medical history. All these changes are associated with the colloidal structure of bile, increased lithogenicity, gallstones formation, Oddi's sphincter dysfunction, dysmotility and inflammation in the bile ducts. to study the effectiveness of using medicine Liveria IC (metadoxine) in standard therapy as well as effect on spectrum of blood serum lipids and structural condition of liver (stiffness) and pancreas in patients with chronic biliary pancreatitis combined with obesity. 115 patients suffering from chronic biliary pancreatitis and obesity were the subjects of the study. They were compared to etiological factor socioeconomic conditions and nutrition (regular food 5 times a day without aggressive food (fatty, spicy, sour, fried products)). Also the effect of the alcohol factor was excluded. The obtained decrease in stiffness of the liver and pancreas indicates an improvement of their structural state. Using medication LiveriaIC (metadoxine) as the part of the complex therapy for the patients who are suffering from CBP combined with obesity gives some improvement of the lipid profile indices and the structural condition of liver and pancreas (according to the data of SWE) (р<0.05).

  3. Surgical Innovation and the Multiple Meanings of Randomized Controlled Trials: The First RCT on Minimally Invasive Cholecystectomy (1980–2000)

    PubMed Central

    Schlich, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article uses the case of the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating laparoscopic cholecystectomy to investigate the introduction of minimally invasive surgery in the 1990s and explore the meaning of RCTs within the context of the introduction of a new surgical technology. It thus brings together the history of the use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to remove the gallbladder, and the history of the RCT, shedding light on particular aspects of both. We first situate the RCT in the context of the history of the various treatment options for gallstones, or cholelithiasis, then characterize the specific situation of the rapid, patient-driven spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and in a next step describe how the local context of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a new technology made it possible and desirable to conduct an RCT, despite numerous obstacles. This article then shows that in order to capture and understand the rationale of an RCT it is worth it to explore the various levels and dimensions of its context, demonstrating how even the RCT as an ostensibly universal tool draws its meaning from its contexts and that this meaning goes beyond the simple determination of efficiency and safety, including, maybe most importantly, the control and management of new technologies. PMID:27667536

  4. Key discoveries in bile acid chemistry and biology and their clinical applications: history of the last eight decades.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Alan F; Hagey, Lee R

    2014-08-01

    During the last 80 years there have been extraordinary advances in our knowledge of the chemistry and biology of bile acids. We present here a brief history of the major achievements as we perceive them. Bernal, a physicist, determined the X-ray structure of cholesterol crystals, and his data together with the vast chemical studies of Wieland and Windaus enabled the correct structure of the steroid nucleus to be deduced. Today, C24 and C27 bile acids together with C27 bile alcohols constitute most of the bile acid "family". Patterns of bile acid hydroxylation and conjugation are summarized. Bile acid measurement encompasses the techniques of GC, HPLC, and MS, as well as enzymatic, bioluminescent, and competitive binding methods. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids results from vectorial transport of bile acids by the ileal enterocyte and hepatocyte; the key transporters have been cloned. Bile acids are amphipathic, self-associate in solution, and form mixed micelles with polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine in bile, and fatty acids in intestinal content during triglyceride digestion. The rise and decline of dissolution of cholesterol gallstones by the ingestion of 3,7-dihydroxy bile acids is chronicled. Scientists from throughout the world have contributed to these achievements. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Incidental gall bladder carcinoma in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a report of 6 cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sujata, Jetley; S, Rana; Sabina, Khan; Mj, Hassan; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim

    2013-01-01

    Gall bladder carcinoma accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and it is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. The incidence of incidental gall bladder carcinoma which is diagnosed during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is reported to be around 0.19-3.3% in the literature. This study was aimed at detecting the incidence of gall bladder carcinomas which were diagnosed incidentally during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomies which were done for gall stone disease and cholecystitis. We analyzed the medical records of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and acute or chronic cholecystitis, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2012. A total of 622 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our institute during the study period of five and a half years. In 6 (0.96%) cases, incidental carcinomas of the gallbladder were discovered. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is performed for benign gall bladder disease rarely results in a diagnosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer. The microscopic examination of the specimens, with special attention to the depth of invasion, range of the mucosal spread and the lymphovascular involvement, is critical in diagnosing the incidental malignancies as well as for the subsequent management of the cases.

  6. Health Benefits of Nut Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Nuts (tree nuts and peanuts) are nutrient dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds: high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease and gallstones in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension, cancer, and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets, and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Thus it is clear that nuts have a beneficial impact on many cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to expectations, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is unlikely to contribute to obesity and may even help in weight loss. Safety concerns are limited to the infrequent occurrence of nut allergy in children. In conclusion, nuts are nutrient rich foods with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated into healthy diets. PMID:22254047

  7. Effects of Silymarin on Diabetes Mellitus Complications: A Review.

    PubMed

    Stolf, Aline Maria; Cardoso, Cibele Campos; Acco, Alexandra

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that is caused by a deficit in the production of (type 1) or response to (type 2) insulin. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a state of chronic hyperglycemia and such symptoms as weight loss, thirst, polyuria, and blurred vision. These disturbances represent one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality nowadays, despite available treatments, such as insulin, insulin secretagogues, insulin sensitizers, and oral hypoglycemic agents. However, many efforts have been made to discover new drugs for diabetes treatment, including medicinal plant extracts. Silymarin is a powder extract of the seeds from Silybum marianum, a plant from the Asteraceae family. The major active ingredients include four isomers: silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, and silydianin. Silymarin is indicated for the treatment of hepatic disorders, such as cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, and gallstones. Moreover, several studies of other pathologies, including diabetes, sepsis, osteoporosis, arthritis, hypercholesterolemia, cancer, viral infections, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, have tested the effects of silymarin and reported promising results. This article reviews data from clinical, in vivo, and in vitro studies on the use of silymarin, with a focus on the complications of diabetes, including nephropathy, neuropathy, healing delays, oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, and cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. RNA sequencing-based analysis of gallbladder cancer reveals the importance of the liver X receptor and lipid metabolism in gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Mingxin; Rashid, Asif; Wang, Ying; Jain, Apurva; Li, Donghui; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Koay, Eugene J.; Chang, Ping; Vauthey, Jean Nicholas; Li, Yanan; Espinoza, Jaime A.; Roa, Juan Carlos; Javle, Milind

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive malignancy. Although surgical resection may be curable, most patients are diagnosed at an advanced unresectable disease stage. Cholelithiasis is the major risk factor; however the pathogenesis of the disease, from gallstone cholecystitis to cancer, is still not understood. To understand the molecular genetic underpinnings of this cancer and explore novel therapeutic targets for GBC, we examined the key genes and pathways involved in GBC using RNA sequencing. We performed gene expression analysis of 32 cases of surgically-resected GBC along with normal gallbladder tissue controls. We observed that 519 genes were differentially expressed between GBC and normal GB mucosal controls. The liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) /RXR pathways were the top canonical pathways involved in GBC. Key genes in these pathways, including SERPINB3 and KLK1, were overexpressed in GBC, especially in female GBC patients. Additionally, ApoA1 gene expression suppressed in GBC as compared with normal control tissues. LXR and FXR genes, known to be important in lipid metabolism also function as tumor suppressors and their down regulation appears to be critical for GBC pathogenesis. LXR agonists may have therapeutic value and as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27167107

  9. Cognition: the new frontier for nuts and berries.

    PubMed

    Pribis, Peter; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    The inclusion of nuts in the diet is associated with a decreased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, gallstones, diabetes, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and visceral obesity. Frequent consumption of berries seems to be associated with improved cardiovascular and cancer outcomes, improved immune function, and decreased recurrence of urinary tract infections; the consumption of nuts and berries is associated with reduction in oxidative damage, inflammation, vascular reactivity, and platelet aggregation, and improvement in immune functions. However, only recently have the effects of nut and berry consumption on the brain, different neural systems, and cognition been studied. There is growing evidence that the synergy and interaction of all of the nutrients and other bioactive components in nuts and berries can have a beneficial effect on the brain and cognition. Regular nut consumption, berry consumption, or both could possibly be used as an adjunctive therapeutic strategy in the treatment and prevention of several neurodegenerative diseases and age-related brain dysfunction. A number of animal and a growing number of human studies show that moderate-duration dietary supplementation with nuts, berry fruit, or both is capable of altering cognitive performance in humans, perhaps forestalling or reversing the effects of neurodegeneration in aging. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Bayesian Analysis for Risk Assessment of Selected Medical Events in Support of the Integrated Medical Model Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilkey, Kelly M.; Myers, Jerry G.; McRae, Michael P.; Griffin, Elise A.; Kallrui, Aditya S.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability project is creating a catalog of risk assessments using the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is a software-based system intended to assist mission planners in preparing for spaceflight missions by helping them to make informed decisions about medical preparations and supplies needed for combating and treating various medical events using Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The objective is to use statistical analyses to inform the IMM decision tool with estimated probabilities of medical events occurring during an exploration mission. Because data regarding astronaut health are limited, Bayesian statistical analysis is used. Bayesian inference combines prior knowledge, such as data from the general U.S. population, the U.S. Submarine Force, or the analog astronaut population located at the NASA Johnson Space Center, with observed data for the medical condition of interest. The posterior results reflect the best evidence for specific medical events occurring in flight. Bayes theorem provides a formal mechanism for combining available observed data with data from similar studies to support the quantification process. The IMM team performed Bayesian updates on the following medical events: angina, appendicitis, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, dental abscess, dental caries, dental periodontal disease, gallstone disease, herpes zoster, renal stones, seizure, and stroke.

  11. Environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Barone, Elisa; Corrado, Alda; Gemignani, Federica; Landi, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive diseases. Only 10 % of all PC cases are thought to be due to genetic factors. Here, we analyzed the most recently published case-control association studies, meta-analyses, and cohort studies with the aim to summarize the main environmental factors that could have a role in PC. Among the most dangerous agents involved in the initiation phase, there are the inhalation of cigarette smoke, and the exposure to mutagenic nitrosamines, organ-chlorinated compounds, heavy metals, and ionizing radiations. Moreover, pancreatitis, high doses of alcohol drinking, the body microbial infections, obesity, diabetes, gallstones and/or cholecystectomy, and the accumulation of asbestos fibers seem to play a crucial role in the progression of the disease. However, some of these agents act both as initiators and promoters in pancreatic acinar cells. Protective agents include dietary flavonoids, marine omega-3, vitamin D, fruit, vegetables, and the habit of regular physical activity. The identification of the factors involved in PC initiation and progression could be of help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches by targeting the molecular signaling pathways responsive to these stimuli. Moreover, the identification of these factors could facilitate the development of strategies for an early diagnosis or measures of risk reduction for high-risk people.

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Daycare and Overnight Stay Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Salleh, A A M; Affirul, C A; Hairol, O; Zamri, Z; Azlanudin, A; Hilmi, M A; Razman, J

    2015-01-01

    This present study sought to review the feasibility and patients' satisfaction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to be perform as daycare procedure. Sixty-two patients with symptomatic gallstones were recruited within a year. They were randomized into overnight stay and daycare groups. The outcomes and post-operative complications were analyzed. Fifty-eight patients were eligible for analysis and four patients were excluded because of conversion to open cholecystectomy. All patients in daycare group reported no fever but two patients in the overnight stay group complaint of post-operative fever (p=0.150). The mean pain score using Visual Analogue Score (VAS) in daycare group was 2.93 but in the overnight stay was recorded as 3.59 (p=0.98). Five patients had post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in daycare group compared to 2 patients in the overnight stay group (p=0.227). Patient's satisfaction were higher in the daycare group (p=0.160). All patients in daycare group were back at work within a week but in overnight stay, 11 patients had to stay off work for more than one week (p=0.01). Daycare laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and feasible. The satisfaction of daycare surgery is higher than overnight stay group. Patients' selection is an important aspect of its success.

  13. Some current advances in biophysical applications of ionizing radiation for health preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, D. E.

    1987-03-01

    Radiation Physics is a subject of major importance in application to health preservation through investigative, diagnostic, analytical and therapeutic procedures for clinical purposes. Its benefits are enormous and well-established. However there are also hazards and so it is important for health preservation purposes to establish quantitatively the degree of risk undergone by persons exposed to radiation in the natural environment, in their occupations and in medical treatment. In this paper a brief indication is given of the extensive utilisation of the unique properties of radiation in biomedical application. This is followed by fuller discussion on new developments in our understanding of radiation damage mechanisms in radiotherapy and radiological protection. An example is given in biomedical research into the role of trace elements in gallstone formation using neutron activation anaysis, proton induced X-ray emission and X-ray fluorescence analysis as complementary techniques for maximising sensitivity in multielemental analysis by induced radiation. Procedures are described for measuring radiation effect, at bone/ tissue and lung/air interfaces, due to the uptake of radioactive material from the natural environment. Finally a topical subject in nuclear medicine viz. the possible advantages and hazards of Auger electron cascades resulting from inner shell vacancies in electron capture nuclides, is examined in the light of new evidence.

  14. Sickle Cell Disease in Saudi Arabia: The Phenotype in Adults with the Arab-Indian Haplotype is not Benign

    PubMed Central

    Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Alabdulaali, Mohammed K.; Griffin, Paula J.; AlSuliman, Ahmed M.; Ghabbour, Hazem A.; Sebastiani, Paola; Albuali, Waleed H.; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Chui, David H.K.; Steinberg, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sickle cell disease (SCD) in Saudi patients from the Eastern Province is associated with the Arab-Indian (AI) HBB (β-globin gene) haplotype. The phenotype of AI SCD in children was described as benign and was attributed to their high fetal haemoglobin (HbF). We conducted a hospital-based study to assess the pattern of SCD complications in adults. A total of 104 patients with average age of 27 years were enrolled. Ninety-six percent of these patients reported history of painful crisis; 47% had at least one episode of acute chest syndrome, however, only 15% had two or more episodes; symptomatic osteonecrosis was reported in 18%; priapism in 17%; overt stroke in 6%; none had leg ulcers. The majority of patients had persistent splenomegaly and 66% had gallstones. Half of the patients co-inherited α-thalassaemia and about one third had glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Higher HbF correlated with higher rate of splenic sequestration but not with other phenotypes. The phenotype of adult patients with AI SCD is not benign despite their relatively high HbF level. This is probably due to the continued decline in HbF level in adults and the heterocellular and variable distribution of HbF amongst F-cells. PMID:24224700

  15. Delphi consensus on bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an evolutionary cul-de-sac or the birth pangs of a new technical framework?

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Ohyama, Tetsuji; Umezawa, Akiko; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M; Asbun, Horacio J; Pitt, Henry A; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Suzuki, Kenji; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Yoshida, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Go; Miura, Fumihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Endo, Itaru; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Windsor, John A; Garden, O James; Gouma, Dirk J; Cherqui, Daniel; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Deziel, Daniel J; Jonas, Eduard; Jagannath, Palepu; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Singh, Harjit; Liau, Kui-Hin; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Chan, Angus C W; Lau, Wan Yee; Fan, Sheung Tat; Chen, Miin-Fu; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; Asai, Koji; Wada, Keita; Mori, Yasuhisa; Higuchi, Ryota; Misawa, Takeyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Matsumura, Naoki; Rikiyama, Toshiki; Sata, Naohiro; Kano, Nobuyasu; Tokumura, Hiromi; Kimura, Taizo; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Hirata, Koichi; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2017-11-01

    Bile duct injury (BDI) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains a serious iatrogenic surgical complication. BDI most often occurs as a result of misidentification of the anatomy; however, clinical evidence on its precise mechanism and surgeons' perceptions is scarce. Surgeons from Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the USA, etc. (n = 614) participated in a questionnaire regarding their BDI experience and near-misses; and perceptions on landmarks, intraoperative findings, and surgical techniques. Respondents voted for a Delphi process and graded each item on a five-point scale. The consensus was built when ≥80% of overall responses were 4 or 5. Response rates for the first- and second-round Delphi were 60.6% and 74.9%, respectively. Misidentification of local anatomy accounted for 76.2% of BDI. Final consensus was reached on: (1) Effective retraction of the gallbladder, (2) Always obtaining critical view of safety, and (3) Avoiding excessive use of electrocautery/clipping as vital procedures; and (4) Calot's triangle area and (5) Critical view of safety as important landmarks. For (6) Impacted gallstone and (7) Severe fibrosis/scarring in Calot's triangle, bail-out procedures may be indicated. A consensus was reached among expert surgeons on relevant landmarks and intraoperative findings and appropriate surgical techniques to avoid BDI. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  16. Diffusion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy among general surgeons in the United States.

    PubMed

    Escarce, J J; Bloom, B S; Hillman, A L; Shea, J A; Schwartz, J S

    1995-03-01

    Introduced in 1989, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has rapidly become the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones. This study describes the diffusion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy among general surgeons; assesses the importance of various reasons for surgeons adopting the procedure; and examine the influence of surgeon, practice, and health care market characteristics on the timing of adoption. The data were obtained from a survey of a national sample of surgeons. Most surgeons (81%) adopted laparoscopic cholecystectomy by early 1992. More than three fourths of adopters identified the desire to keep up with the state-of-the-art and improved patient outcomes as very or extremely important reasons for adoption. Results of proportional hazards regression analysis indicate that individual surgeons' adoption behavior generally was consistent with expected utility maximization in an uncertain new technological environment. Of particular interest, fee-for-service payment and more competitive practice settings and markets were associated with earlier adoption. These findings suggest that the "technological imperative" and surgeons' perception of the relative clinical and financial advantages of laparoscopic cholecystectomy were important reasons for the rapid diffusion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Policies that accelerate current trends toward payment of physicians based on salary or capitation and promote the growth of multispecialty group practice could slow the diffusion of new physician-based product innovations in health care.

  17. Heavy Smoking Is Associated With Lower Age at First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis and a Higher Risk of Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Munigala, Satish; Conwell, Darwin L; Gelrud, Andres; Agarwal, Banke

    2015-08-01

    There is limited data on cigarette smoking and the risk of acute pancreatitis (AP). We evaluated the influence of cigarette smoking on AP risk and clinical presentation in a large cohort of Veteran's Administration (VA) patients. Retrospective study of VA patients from 1998 to 2007. Exclusion criteria included (1) history of chronic pancreatitis (n = 3222) or gallstones (n = 14,574) and (2) age younger than 15 years (n = 270). A 2-year washout period was used to exclude patients with pre-existing recurrent AP. The study included 484,624 patients. From 2001 to 2007, a total of 6799 (1.4%) patients had AP. Alcohol (risk ratio, 4.20) and smoking (risk ratio, 1.78) were independent significant risk factors of AP on multiple regression analysis. Smoking increased the risk of AP in both nonalcoholics (0.57% vs 1.1%) and alcoholics (2.6% vs 4.1%). Smoking was associated with younger mean age at first episode of AP and higher likelihood of recurrent AP (≥4 episodes) in both nonalcoholics and alcoholics. The interval between recurrent episodes was not altered by alcohol or smoking. In a large cohort of VA patients, smoking is an independent risk factor for AP and augmented the effect of alcohol on the risk, age of onset, and recurrence of AP.

  18. Results of Medium Seventeen Years' Follow-Up after Laparoscopic Choledochotomy for Ductal Stones.

    PubMed

    Quaresima, Silvia; Balla, Andrea; Guerrieri, Mario; Lezoche, Giovanni; Campagnacci, Roberto; D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Lezoche, Emanuele; Paganini, Alessandro M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In a previously published article the authors reported the long-term follow-up results in 138 consecutive patients with gallstones and common bile duct (CBD) stones who underwent laparoscopic transverse choledochotomy (TC) with T-tube biliary drainage and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Aim of this study is to evaluate the results at up to 23 years of follow-up in the same series. Methods. One hundred twenty-one patients are the object of the present study. Patients were evaluated by clinical visit, blood assay, and abdominal ultrasound. Symptomatic patients underwent cholangio-MRI, followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) as required. Results. Out of 121 patients, 61 elderly patients died from unrelated causes. Fourteen patients were lost to follow-up. In the 46 remaining patients, ductal stone recurrence occurred in one case (2,1%) successfully managed by ERCP with endoscopic sphincterotomy. At a mean follow-up of 17.1 years no other patients showed signs of bile stasis and no patient showed any imaging evidence of CBD stricture at the site of choledochotomy. Conclusions. Laparoscopic transverse choledochotomy with routine T-tube biliary drainage during LC has proven to be safe and effective at up to 23 years of follow-up, with no evidence of CBD stricture when the procedure is performed with a correct technique.

  19. Risk of development of acute pancreatitis with pre-existing diabetes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuzheng; Sheng, Yingyue; Dai, Hong; Cao, Haiyan; Liu, Zongliang; Li, Zhaoshen

    2012-09-01

    It is well established that acute pancreatitis (AP) often causes diabetes mellitus. However, whether pre-existing diabetes is associated with the development of AP remains unknown. To clarify the association of pre-existing diabetes and the development of AP, we carried out a meta-analysis of observational studies. A computerized literature search was performed in MEDLINE (from 1 January 1966) and EMBASE (from 1 January 1974), through 31 January 2012. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Summary relative risks with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q statistic and the I 2. A total of seven articles (10 523 incident cases of AP) were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis of seven studies indicated that, compared with nondiabetic individuals, diabetic individuals had a 92% increased risk of development of AP (95% CI 1.50-2.47). There was significant evidence of heterogeneity among these studies (P heterogeneity<0.001, I 2=93.0%). These increased risks were independent of alcohol use, gallstones, and hyperlipidemia. Although the current evidence supports a positive link between pre-existing diabetes and an increased risk of development of AP, additional studies, with a perfect design, are required before definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  20. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary dyskinesia in children provides durable symptom relief.

    PubMed

    Haricharan, Ramanath N; Proklova, Lyudmila V; Aprahamian, Charles J; Morgan, Traci L; Harmon, Carroll M; Barnhart, Douglas C; Saeed, Shehzad A

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in children with biliary dyskinesia. Reports of children with an abnormal cholecystokinin (CCK)-stimulated HIDA scan between January 2001 and July 2006 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were reviewed. Postoperatively, a 23-item Likert scale, symptom questionnaire was administered to parents. Sixty-four children with chronic abdominal pain and no gallstones on ultrasound had an abnormal CCK-HIDA scan. Twenty-three children (median age, 14 years; 16 girls), with mean (SD) ejection fraction of 17% (8), underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and were further analyzed. Preoperatively, these children had right upper quadrant/epigastric pain (78%), nausea (52%), vomiting (43%), and generalized abdominal pain (22%) lasting for a median of 3 months (range, 1 month to 2.5 years). Median postoperative follow-up was 2.7 years. Sixteen (70%) parents completed the questionnaire. Of those who responded, 63% indicated that their children had no abdominal pain, 87% had no vomiting, and 69% had no nausea in the month preceding the questionnaire. Overall, 67% of parents indicated that their children's symptoms were completely relieved after cholecystectomy, whereas 7% indicated that the symptoms were not relieved. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is effective in providing both short-term and long-term improvement of symptoms in children with biliary dyskinesia.

  1. Minimally invasive treatment of cholecysto-choledocal lithiasis: The point of view of the surgical endoscopist.

    PubMed

    De Palma, Giovanni D

    2013-06-27

    The rate of choledocholithiasis in patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis is estimated to be approximately 10%-33%, depending on the patient's age. Development of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Laparoscopic Surgery and improvement of diagnostic procedures have influenced new approaches to the management of common bile duct stones in association with gallstones. At present available minimally-invasive treatments of cholecysto-choledocal lithiasis include: single-stage laparoscopic treatment, perioperative endoscopic treatment and endoscopic treatment alone. Published data evidence that, associated endoscopic-laparoscopic approach necessitates increased number of procedures per patient while single-stage laparoscopic treatment is associated with a shorter hospital stay. However, current data does not suggest clear superiority of any one approach with regard to success, mortality, morbidity and cost-effectiveness. Considering the variety of therapeutic options available for management, a critical appraisal and decision-making is required. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography/EST should be adopted on a selective basis, i.e., in patients with acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis, severe biliary pancreatitis, ampullary stone impaction or severe comorbidity. In a setting where all facilities are available, decision in the selection of the therapeutic option depends on the patients, the number and size of choledocholithiasis stones, the anatomy of the cystic duct and common bile duct, the surgical history of patients and local expertise.

  2. Value of initial radiological investigations in patients admitted to hospital with appendicitis, acute gallbladder disease or acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhangu, Aneel; Richardson, Charlotte; Winter, Hannah; Bleetman, Anthony

    2010-10-01

    To determine the value of abdominal radiography (AXR) for investigating patients attending hospital with a first episode of appendicitis (requiring appendicectomy), acute gallbladder disease or acute pancreatitis, and to identify if early (within 18 h) ultrasound or CT scanning reduces the use of AXR. Setting Two acute teaching hospitals during August-September 2008 and February-March 2009. Audit of 355 patients (179 patients (50%) who underwent appendicectomy, 128 (36%) admitted with acute gallbladder disease and 48 (14%) with acute pancreatitis). AXR was performed in 53 patients (30%) who underwent appendicectomy, 73 (57%) with acute gallstone disease and 38 (78%) with acute pancreatitis. The useful abnormality pick-up rate was low; 9% (n=5), 5% (n=4) and 0% (n=0), respectively. When used, ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis in 84% (140/166) and CT scanning (either after AXR or as first line) in 97% (34/35). 42 patients underwent early ultrasound (n=27) or CT scanning (n=15), which together reduced the rate of AXR usage by 34% (14/42 early vs 107/159 delayed, p<0.001). AXR does not aid diagnosis of these conditions but is still performed. Early ultrasound or CT scanning reduces the use of AXR and are more sensitive; methods of providing these should be explored.

  3. Key discoveries in bile acid chemistry and biology and their clinical applications: history of the last eight decades

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Alan F.; Hagey, Lee R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last 80 years there have been extraordinary advances in our knowledge of the chemistry and biology of bile acids. We present here a brief history of the major achievements as we perceive them. Bernal, a physicist, determined the X-ray structure of cholesterol crystals, and his data together with the vast chemical studies of Wieland and Windaus enabled the correct structure of the steroid nucleus to be deduced. Today, C24 and C27 bile acids together with C27 bile alcohols constitute most of the bile acid “family”. Patterns of bile acid hydroxylation and conjugation are summarized. Bile acid measurement encompasses the techniques of GC, HPLC, and MS, as well as enzymatic, bioluminescent, and competitive binding methods. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids results from vectorial transport of bile acids by the ileal enterocyte and hepatocyte; the key transporters have been cloned. Bile acids are amphipathic, self-associate in solution, and form mixed micelles with polar lipids, phosphatidylcholine in bile, and fatty acids in intestinal content during triglyceride digestion. The rise and decline of dissolution of cholesterol gallstones by the ingestion of 3,7-dihydroxy bile acids is chronicled. Scientists from throughout the world have contributed to these achievements. PMID:24838141

  4. Long-term administration of a Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 inhibitor, ezetimibe, does not worsen bile lithogenicity in dyslipidemic patients with hepatobiliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Nobusuke; Kanno, Keishi; Sugiyama, Akiko; Yokobayashi, Kenichi; Mizooka, Masafumi; Tazuma, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Certain lipid-lowering drugs increase bile lithogenicity. Here we investigated whether long-term administration of ezetimibe, a new class of hypocholesterolemic agents designed to inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, alters bile lithogenicity in patients with hepatobiliary diseases. Eleven dyslipidemic patients with gallstones and/or fatty liver diseases were treated with ezetimibe (10 mg/day) for 12 months. Bile samples were collected by nasal endoscopy before and after 3 and 12 months of treatment. Serum and bile lipids and serum metabolic parameters were analyzed. Serum levels of campesterol, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased after 3 and 12 months of treatment. In contrast, serum lathosterol levels increased gradually. The lithogenic index of bile was unsaturated and unchanged in patients who were previously and concomitantly receiving ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). In patients who were not receiving UDCA, bile was initially supersaturated, but eventually was unsaturated. However, ezetimibe tended to elevate bile lithogenicity in cholecystectomy patients. Long-term treatment with ezetimibe improves lipid metabolism without significantly altering the bile lithogenicity. Therefore, inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption in dyslipidemic patients with hepatobiliary diseases is a safe therapeutic strategy without worsening biliary physiology. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  5. Prevalence and features of fatty liver detected by physical examination in Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xian-Hua; Cao, Xu; Liu, Jie; Xie, Xiao-Hua; Sun, Yan-Hong; Zhong, Bi-Hui

    2013-08-28

    To investigate the prevalence of fatty liver discovered upon physical examination of Chinese patients and determine the associated clinical characteristics. A total of 3433 consecutive patients who received physical examinations at the Huangpu Division of the First Affiliated Hospital at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China from June 2010 to December 2010 were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Results of biochemical tests, abdominal ultrasound, electrocardiography, and chest X-ray were collected. The diagnosis of fatty liver was made if a patient met any two of the three following ultrasonic criteria: (1) liver and kidney echo discrepancy and presence of an increased liver echogenicity (bright); (2) unclear intrahepatic duct structure; and (3) liver far field echo decay. The study population consisted of 2201 males and 1232 females, with a mean age of 37.4 ± 12.8 years. When all 3433 patients were considered, the overall prevalence of hyperlipidemia was 38.1%, of fatty liver was 26.0%, of increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels was 11.9%, of gallstone was 11.4%, of hyperglycemia was 7.3%, of hypertension was 7.1%, and of hyperuricemia was 6.2%. Of the 2605 patients who completed the abdominal ultrasonography exam, 677 (26.0%) were diagnosed with fatty liver and the prevalence was higher in males (32.5% vs females: 15.3%, P < 0.001). The overall prevalence of fatty liver increased with age, with the peak prevalence (39.5%) found in the 60 to 70-year-old age group. Among patients between the ages of 18 to 50-year-old, the prevalence of fatty liver was significantly higher in males (20.2% vs females: 8.7%, P < 0.001); the difference in prevalence between the two sexes in patients > 50-year-old did not reach statistical significance. Only 430 of the patients diagnosed with fatty liver had complete information; among those, increased ALT and/or AST levels were detected in only 30%, with all disturbances being

  6. [Contraindications to weight reduction].

    PubMed

    Heini, A

    2000-08-01

    It is relatively well accepted that weight gain, even within the range of normal weight, is detrimental for health. The claimed long-term benefit of intentional weight loss is mainly based on a few observational trials, confounding intentional and non-intentional weight loss. The few data on obesity-related diseases prevented by intentional weight reduction have not been replicated. Thus, for lack of level-one evidence it is to date doubtful whether voluntary weight loss should be intensively recommended to obese individuals rather than other lifestyle-interventions, e.g. exercise training. The aim of this overview is to discuss some of the contraindications to intentional weight loss often ignored in recent debates. There is no intention to question the increased risk of overweight on morbidity and the need for preventing weight gain in our population. Besides well-known consequences secondary to rapid weight loss, e.g. gallstones and electrolyte disorders, some new aspects or more debated issues are discussed. Recent compelling data indicate a significant bone density loss after weight loss of a few kilograms. Knowledge on the impact of weight cycling mainly relies on cross-sectional data. So far there is no concluding evidence of adverse pathophysiological effects from weight cycling. Repeated dieting has been associated with eating disorders, although the cause-effect relationship has not been well established. At least on an empirical basis there seems to be a tolerance effect after repeated weight losing efforts. Pharmacotherapy tends more and more to be part of weight loss interventions. Although the currently available drugs are designed for long-term treatment, in practice they are rarely used longer than a few months, and therefore their use can be entirely questioned. Nonetheless, if employed properly for weight loss and weight maintenance, i.e. "for life", additional data on long-term effects on health are needed. Such risks can then be weighed against

  7. Laparoscopic completion cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration for retained gallbladder after single-incision cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kroh, Matthew; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Chand, Bipan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Recent enthusiasm in the surgical community for less invasive surgical approaches has resulted in widespread application of single-incision techniques. This has been most commonly applied in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in general surgery. Cosmesis appears to be improved, but other advantages remain to be seen. Feasibility has been demonstrated, but there is little description in the current literature regarding complications. We report the case of a patient who previously underwent single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. After a brief symptom-free interval, she developed acute pancreatitis. At evaluation, imaging results of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated a retained gallbladder with cholelithiasis. The patient was subsequently referred to our hospital, where she underwent further evaluation and surgical intervention. Our patient underwent 4-port laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy with transcystic common bile duct exploration. Operative exploration demonstrated a large remnant gallbladder and a partially obstructed cystic duct with many stones. Transcystic exploration with balloon extraction resulted in duct clearance. The procedure took 75 minutes, with minimal blood loss. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Final pathology results demonstrated a remnant gallbladder with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. This report is the first in the literature to describe successful laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy and transcystic common bile duct exploration after previous single-port cholecystectomy. Although inadvertent partial cholecystectomy is not unique to this technique, single-port laparoscopic procedures may result in different and significant complications.

  8. Dietary spices as beneficial modulators of lipid profile in conditions of metabolic disorders and diseases.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2013-04-25

    Spices are valued for their medicinal properties besides their use as food adjuncts to enhance the sensory quality of food. Dietary garlic, onion, fenugreek, red pepper, turmeric, and ginger have been proven to be effective hypocholesterolemics in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia. The hypolipidemic potential of fenugreek in diabetic subjects and of garlic and onion in humans with induced lipemia has been demonstrated. Capsaicin and curcumin - the bioactive compounds of red pepper and turmeric - are documented to be efficacious at doses comparable to usual human intake. Capsaicin and curcumin have been shown to be hypotriglyceridemic, thus preventing accumulation of fat in the liver under adverse situations by enhancing triglyceride transport out of the liver. Capsaicin, curcumin, fenugreek, ginger, and onion enhance secretion of bile acids into bile. These hypocholesterolemic spices/spice principles reduce blood and liver cholesterol by enhancing cholesterol conversion to bile acids through activation of hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. Many human trials have been carried out with garlic, onion, and fenugreek. The mechanism underlying the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic influence of spices is fairly well understood. Health implications of the hypocholesterolemic effect of spices experimentally documented are cardio-protection, protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes by restoration of membrane cholesterol/phospholipid profile and prevention of cholesterol gallstones by modulation of the cholesterol saturation index in bile.

  9. Ultrafast dynamics of hard tissue ablation using fs-lasers.

    PubMed

    Domke, Matthias; Wick, Sebastian; Laible, Maike; Rapp, Stephan; Huber, Heinz P; Sroka, Ronald

    2018-05-29

    Several studies on hard tissue laser ablation demonstrated that ultrafast lasers enable precise material removal without thermal side effects. Although the principle ablation mechanisms have been thoroughly investigated, there are still open questions regarding the influence of material properties on transient dynamics. In this investigation, we applied pump-probe microscopy to record ablation dynamics of biomaterials with different tensile strengths (dentin, chicken bone, gallstone, kidney stones) at delay times between 1 ps and 10 μs. Transient reflectivity changes, pressure and shock wave velocities, and elastic constants were determined. The result revealed that absorption and excitation show the typical well-known transient behaviour of dielectric materials. We observed for all samples a photomechanical laser ablation process, where ultrafast expansion of the excited volume generates pressure waves leading to fragmentation around the excited region. Additionally, we identified tensile-strength-related differences in the size of ablated craters and ejected particles. The elastic constants derived were in agreement with literature values. In conclusion, pressure-wave-assisted material removal seems to be a general mechanism for hard tissue ablation with ultrafast lasers. This photomechanical process increases ablation efficiency and removes heated material, thus ultrafast laser ablation is of interest for clinical application where heating of the tissue must be avoided. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. The CHOLEGAS study: multicentric randomized, blinded, controlled trial of gastrectomy plus prophylactic cholecystectomy versus gastrectomy only, in adults submitted to gastric cancer surgery with curative intent.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Marco; Bernini, Marco; Bencini, Lapo; Miranda, Egidio; Manetti, Roberto; de Manzoni, Giovanni; Verlato, Giuseppe; Marrelli, Daniele; Pedrazzani, Corrado; Roviello, Francesco; Marchet, Alberto; Cristadoro, Luigi; Gerard, Leonardo; Moretti, Renato

    2009-05-15

    The incidence of gallstones and gallbladder sludge is known to be higher in patients after gastrectomy than in general population. This higher incidence is probably related to surgical dissection of the vagus nerve branches and the anatomical gastrointestinal reconstruction. Therefore, some surgeons perform routine concomitant cholecystectomy during standard surgery for gastric malignancies. However, not all the patients who are diagnosed to have cholelithiasis after gastric cancer surgery will develop symptoms or require additional surgical treatments and a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible even in those patients who underwent previous gastric surgery. At the present, no randomized study has been published and the decision of gallbladder management is left to each surgeon preference. The study is a randomized controlled investigation. The study will be performed in the General and Oncologic Surgery, Department of Oncology-Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi-Florence-Italy, a large teaching institution, with the participation of all surgeons who accept to be involved in, together with other Italian Surgical Centers, on behalf of the GIRCG (Italian Research Group for Gastric Cancer).The patients will be randomized into two groups: in the first group the patient will be submitted to prophylactic cholecystectomy during standard surgery for curable gastric cancer (subtotal or total gastrectomy), while in the second group he/she will be submitted to standard gastric surgery only. ClinicalTrials.gov ID. NCT00757640.

  11. Incidental Gall Bladder Carcinoma in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Report of 6 Cases and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sujata, Jetley; S, Rana; Sabina, Khan; MJ, Hassan; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gall bladder carcinoma accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and it is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. The incidence of incidental gall bladder carcinoma which is diagnosed during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is reported to be around 0.19-3.3% in the literature. Aim: This study was aimed at detecting the incidence of gall bladder carcinomas which were diagnosed incidentally during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomies which were done for gall stone disease and cholecystitis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the medical records of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and acute or chronic cholecystitis, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2012. Results: A total of 622 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our institute during the study period of five and a half years. In 6 (0.96%) cases, incidental carcinomas of the gallbladder were discovered. Conclusion: A laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is performed for benign gall bladder disease rarely results in a diagnosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer. The microscopic examination of the specimens, with special attention to the depth of invasion, range of the mucosal spread and the lymphovascular involvement, is critical in diagnosing the incidental malignancies as well as for the subsequent management of the cases. PMID:23449518

  12. Curcumin attenuates sepsis-induced acute organ dysfunction by preventing inflammation and enhancing the suppressive function of Tregs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Longwang; Lu, Yang; Zhao, Linjun; Hu, Lili; Qiu, Qiaomeng; Zhang, Zhuoling; Li, Mengfang; Hong, Guangliang; Wu, Bing; Zhao, Guangju; Lu, Zhongqiu

    2018-05-17

    Sepsis is characterized by the extensive release of cytokines and other mediators. It results in a dysregulated immune response and can lead to organ damage and death. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory properties and immunoregulation functions in various disorders such as sepsis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, lung fibrosis, gallstone formation, and diabetes. This paper investigates the effects of curcumin on immune status and inflammatory response in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Inflammatory tissue injury was evaluated by histological observation. Magnetic microbeads were used to isolate splenic CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (Tregs), and phenotypes were then analyzed by flow cytometry. The levels of Foxp3 were detected by Western blot and real-time PCR and cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that the administration of curcumin significantly alleviated inflammatory injury of the lung and kidney in septic mice. The suppressive function of Treg cells was enhanced and the plasma levels of IL-10 increased after treatment with curcumin. Furthermore, the secretion of plasma TNF-α and IL-6 was notably inhibited in septic mice treated with curcumin and administration with curcumin could improve survival after CLP. These data suggest that curcumin could be used as a potential therapeutic agent for sepsis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The risk of malignancy in ultrasound detected gallbladder polyps: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elmasry, Mohamed; Lindop, Don; Dunne, Declan F J; Malik, Hassan; Poston, Graeme J; Fenwick, Stephen W

    2016-09-01

    Gallbladder polyps (GBPs) are a common incidental finding on ultrasound (US) examination. The malignant potential of GBPs is debated, and there is limited guidance on surveillance. This systematic review sought to assess the natural history of ultrasonographically diagnosed GBPs and their malignant potential. The keywords: "Gallbladder" AND ("polyp" OR "polypoid lesion") were used to conduct a search in four reference libraries to identify studies which examined the natural history of GBPs diagnosed by US. Twelve studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. Of the 5482 GBPs reported, malignant GBPs had an incidence of just 0.57%. True GBPs had an incidence of 0.60%. Sixty four patients of adenomatous and malignant polyps were reported. Only in one patient was a malignant GBP reported to be <6mm. Risk factors associated with increased risk of malignancy were GBP >6mm, single GBPs, symptomatic GBPs, age >60 years, Indian ethnicity, gallstones and cholecystitis. With the reported incidence of GBP malignancy at just 0.57%, a management approach based on risk assessment, clear surveillance planning, and multi disciplinary team (MDT) discussion should be adopted. The utilization of endoscopic ultrasound(EUS) should be Only considered on the grounds of its greater sensitivity and specificity when compared to US scans. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidental non-benign gallbladder histopathology after cholecystectomy in an United Kingdom population: Need for routine histological analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krashna; Dajani, Khaled; Iype, Satheesh; Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Vickramarajah, Saranya; Singh, Prateush; Davies, Susan; Brais, Rebecca; Liau, Siong S; Harper, Simon; Jah, Asif; Praseedom, Raaj K; Huguet, Emmanuel L

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyse the range of histopathology detected in the largest published United Kingdom series of cholecystectomy specimens and to evaluate the rational for selective histopathological analysis. METHODS Incidental gallbladder malignancy is rare in the United Kingdom with recent literature supporting selective histological assessment of gallbladders after routine cholecystectomy. All cholecystectomy gallbladder specimens examined by the histopathology department at our hospital during a five year period between March 2008 and March 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Further data was collected on all specimens demonstrating carcinoma, dysplasia and polypoid growths. RESULTS The study included 4027 patients. The majority (97%) of specimens exhibited gallstone or cholecystitis related disease. Polyps were demonstrated in 44 (1.09%), the majority of which were cholesterol based (41/44). Dysplasia, ranging from low to multifocal high-grade was demonstrated in 55 (1.37%). Incidental primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma was detected in 6 specimens (0.15%, 5 female and 1 male), and a single gallbladder revealed carcinoma in situ (0.02%). This large single centre study demonstrated a full range of gallbladder disease from cholecystectomy specimens, including more than 1% neoplastic histology and two cases of macroscopically occult gallbladder malignancies. CONCLUSION Routine histological evaluation of all elective and emergency cholecystectomies is justified in a United Kingdom population as selective analysis has potential to miss potentially curable life threatening pathology. PMID:27830040

  15. The risk of gallbladder cancer from polyps in a large multiethnic series.

    PubMed

    Aldouri, A Q; Malik, H Z; Waytt, J; Khan, S; Ranganathan, K; Kummaraganti, S; Hamilton, W; Dexter, S; Menon, K; Lodge, J P; Prasad, K R; Toogood, G J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is assess whether patients with Indian ethnic background are at an increased risk of developing gallbladder cancer (GBC) if they have been diagnosed with ultrasonic abnormalities of the gallbladder. Between January 1998 and July 2006, 137,655 abdominal ultrasound examinations were performed in Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. After the exclusion of repeat scans and those performed for renal or pelvic disease, 71,431 reports were included in this analysis. Patients in whom the diagnosis of GBC has been made without histology have been identified from the database of Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry and the presence of GBC was correlated with ultrasonic gallbladder abnormalities. Gallbladder polyps (GBP) were detected in 3.3% of patients and these were larger than 10 mm in 0.1% of the cases. Age above 60 years, Indian ethnic background, single GBP larger than 10mm, the presence of gallstones, severe gallbladder wall thickening and irregular thickening were independently associated with the higher odds of developing GBC. The prevalence of malignancy in those with GBP was significantly higher among patients with Indian ethnic background compared to Caucasian patients, 5.5% versus 0.08%, p<0.001. The presence of GBP, irrelevant of size, amongst patients of Indian ethnic decent, is an indication for further investigation and/or cholecystectomy.

  16. Association of Blood Fatty Acid Composition and Dietary Pattern with the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients Who Underwent Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Shim, Poyoung; Choi, Dongho; Park, Yongsoon

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with gallstone disease and in those who have a high risk for NAFLD has not been investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the risk of NAFLD and dietary pattern in patients who underwent cholecystectomy. Additionally, we assessed the association between erythrocyte fatty acid composition, a marker for diet, and the risk of NAFLD. Patients (n = 139) underwent liver ultrasonography to determine the presence of NAFLD before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, reported dietary intake using food frequency questionnaire, and were assessed for blood fatty acid composition. Fifty-eight patients were diagnosed with NAFLD. The risk of NAFLD was negatively associated with 2 dietary patterns: consuming whole grain and legumes and consuming fish, vegetables, and fruit. NAFLD was positively associated with the consumption of refined grain, meat, processed meat, and fried foods. Additionally, the risk of NAFLD was positively associated with erythrocyte levels of 16:0 and 18:2t, while it was negatively associated with 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and Omega-3 Index. The risk of NAFLD was negatively associated with a healthy dietary pattern of consuming whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fish, and fruit and with an erythrocyte level of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich in fish. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Efficacy of enteral nutrition for the treatment of pancreatitis using standard enteral formula.

    PubMed

    Makola, Diklar; Krenitsky, Joe; Parrish, Carol; Dunston, Emily; Shaffer, Hubert A; Yeaton, Paul; Kahaleh, Michel

    2006-10-01

    Elemental formula delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz has demonstrated efficacy in patients with pancreatitis, presumably by decreasing pancreatic stimulation. Few data exist on the use of standard enteral formula in such patients. This study describes the outcomes of pancreatitis patients managed with long-term standard enteral nutrition (EN). One hundred twenty-six patients managed at the University of Virginia Health System with pancreatitis requiring nutritional support between August 2000 and June 2004 received a standard formula delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz and were followed prospectively to resolution of their disease process. Predictors of improvement in CT Severity Index, duration of EN, and length of hospital stay were identified. Changes in body weight and serum albumin were determined. Mean age was 50.8 +/- 15.2 yr (male, 83). Etiology included alcohol (46), gallstones (49), idiopathic (15), post-ERCP (7), drug (5), hyperlipidemia (3), and pancreas divisum (1). EN lasted a median of 18.9 (2.4 to 111.7) wk. Median CT Severity Index decreased from 4 to 2 (p < 0.001). Underweight patients gained 9.8 lbs; overweight and obese patients lost 7.2 and 28.8 lbs, respectively. Albumin concentration increased from 3 to 3.8 g/dL (p < 0.001). Standard enteral formula is effective in the management of patients with complicated pancreatitis.

  18. Biofilm Producing Salmonella Typhi: Chronic Colonization and Development of Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Ilaria; Pontone, Martina; Toma, Luigi; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi is the aetiological agent of typhoid or enteric fever. In a subset of individuals, S. Typhi colonizes the gallbladder causing an asymptomatic chronic infection. Nonetheless, these asymptomatic carriers provide a reservoir for further spreading of the disease. Epidemiological studies performed in regions where S. Typhi is endemic, revealed that the majority of chronically infected carriers also harbour gallstones, which in turn, have been indicated as a primary predisposing factor for the onset of gallbladder cancer (GC). It is now well recognised, that S. Typhi produces a typhoid toxin with a carcinogenic potential, that induces DNA damage and cell cycle alterations in intoxicated cells. In addition, biofilm production by S. Typhi may represent a key factor for the promotion of a persistent infection in the gallbladder, thus sustaining a chronic local inflammatory response and exposing the epithelium to repeated damage caused by carcinogenic toxins. This review aims to highlight the putative connection between the chronic colonization by highly pathogenic strains of S. Typhi capable of combining biofilm and toxin production and the onset of GC. Considering the high risk of GC associated with the asymptomatic carrier status, the rapid identification and profiling of biofilm production by S. Typhi strains would be key for effective therapeutic management and cancer prevention. PMID:28858232

  19. Decrease in the Prevalence of Pancreatitis Associated with Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Experience at a Tertiary Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Janka-Zires, Marcela; Hernández-Calleros, Jorge; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco Javier; Uscanga-Domínguez, Luis Federico;