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Sample records for galvanic skin response

  1. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  2. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  3. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  4. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  5. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  6. Some relationships between punishment, stuttering, and galvanic skin responses.

    PubMed

    Reed, C G; Lingwall, J B

    1976-06-01

    The simultaneous effects of response-contingent punishment on stuttering behaviors and the frequency of galvanic skin response (GSR) deflections for 10 subjects were investigated. GSR's and stuttering responses were recorded during base rate, treatment, and extinction conditions. The subjects demonstrated a 50% or greater decrease in stuttering frequency during the treatment condition. Combined data for all subjects indicated that the mean frequency of GSR deflections remained stable or declined across conditions of the study. Analysis of individual data revealed that GSR deflections during treatment as compared with base rate increased for four subjects, remained essentially the same in two subjects, and decreased for four subjects. These results suggest that experimental procedures which result in functional punishment effects on stuttering frequency may not be associated with any predictable pattern on concomitant autonomic arousal. PMID:979195

  7. Media Research with a Galvanic Skin Response Biosensor: Some Kids Work Up a Sweat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    This study considers the galvanic skin response (GSR) of sixth-grade students (n=20) using print, video, and microcomputer segments. Subjects received all three media treatments, in randomized order. Data for analysis consisted of standardized test scores and GSR measures; a moderate positive relationship was shown between cumulative GSR and…

  8. Improved electrode paste provides reliable measurement of galvanic skin response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    High-conductivity electrode paste is used in obtaining accurate skin resistance or skin potential measurements. The paste is isotonic to perspiration, is nonirritating and nonsensitizing, and has an extended shelf life.

  9. [Clinical assessment of a monitor "MedStorm" (Norway) of galvanic skin response correlates with preoperative stress].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials were performed by Russian anesthesiologists of pain monitor based on measuring galvanic skin response (skin conductance). 5 pations were studied the monitor showed lower sensitivity to assess the level of analgesia during combined anesthesia which allows to not recommend it for use in clinical practice. PMID:22379919

  10. Highly wearable galvanic skin response sensor using flexible and conductive polymer foam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeehoon; Kwon, Sungjun; Seo, Sangwon; Park, Kwangsuk

    2014-01-01

    Owing to advancements in daily physiological monitoring technology, diverse healthcare applications have emerged recently. The monitoring of skin conductance responses has extensive feasibility to support healthcare applications such as detecting emotion changes. In this study, we proposed a highly wearable and reliable galvanic skin response (GSR) sensor that measures the signals from the back of the user. To enhance its wearability and usability, we employed flexible conductive foam as the sensing material and designed it to be easily attachable to (and detachable from) a wide variety of clothes. We evaluated the sensing reliability of the proposed sensor by comparing its signal with a reference GSR. The average correlation between the two signals was 0.768; this is sufficiently high to validate the feasibility of the proposed sensor for reliable GSR sensing on the back.

  11. Cortisol, biochemical, and galvanic skin responses to music stimuli of different preference values by college students in biology and music.

    PubMed

    VanderArk, S D; Ely, D

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine biochemical and galvanic skin responses to music stimuli. Specifically, 30 university biology and 30 music students' plasma levels of norepinephrine and cortisol and their galvanic skin responses were measured before and after listening to two different musical selections, one of which was preferred (liked) by the music students and not preferred (disliked) by the biology students. The music-listening sessions and the controlled silent sessions were done in an anechoic chamber. 30 biology majors and 30 music majors were in the experimental groups; 14 biology and 17 music majors comprised the control group. Analysis indicated that the cortisol levels and galvanic skin responses were significantly higher for the music majors than the biology majors. The data indicate that music majors listen more critically and analytically to music than biology majors, and cortisol levels are associated with this as increases in music majors and decreases in biology majors after the music. PMID:8367245

  12. Biochemical and galvanic skin responses to music stimuli by college students in biology and music.

    PubMed

    VanderArk, S D; Ely, D

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine biochemical and physiological responses to musical stimuli. Specifically, university music and biology students' plasma levels of norepinephrine, endorphin, and cortisol, and their galvanic skin responses were measured before and after listening to two different musical selections in an anechoic chamber and during controlled silence. The results indicated that biochemical variables changed significantly in both groups during listening to music but were not different during the controlled silence. These data suggest that music majors may listen more analytically to music. GSR responses were significantly higher for music majors than biology majors, and plasma cortisol increased in music students but decreased in biology students. Music which elicits specific emotions induces physiological changes which may be beneficial to relaxation and behavioral therapies. PMID:1501973

  13. Instructions and the Orienting Reflex in "Semantic Conditioning" of the Galvanic Skin Response in an Innocuous Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendery, Mary; Maltzman, Irving

    1977-01-01

    Concerns the effects of instructions on classical conditioning of the GSR (galvanic skin response). It demonstrates that verbal conditioning of the GSR can be obtained using an innocuous unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Discusses implications for theories of human classical conditioning. (Editor/RK)

  14. A Stress Sensor Based on Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) Controlled by ZigBee

    PubMed Central

    Villarejo, María Viqueira; Zapirain, Begoña García; Zorrilla, Amaia Méndez

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes, one needs to control different emotional situations which can lead the person suffering them to dangerous situations, in both the medium and short term. There are studies which indicate that stress increases the risk of cardiac problems. In this study we have designed and built a stress sensor based on Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), and controlled by ZigBee. In order to check the device's performance, we have used 16 adults (eight women and eight men) who completed different tests requiring a certain degree of effort, such as mathematical operations or breathing deeply. On completion, we appreciated that GSR is able to detect the different states of each user with a success rate of 76.56%. In the future, we plan to create an algorithm which is able to differentiate between each state. PMID:22778631

  15. Galvanic zinc-copper microparticles produce electrical stimulation that reduces the inflammatory and immune responses in skin.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simarna; Lyte, Peter; Garay, Michelle; Liebel, Frank; Sun, Ying; Liu, Jue-Chen; Southall, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    The human body has its own innate electrical system that regulates the body's functions via communications among organs through the well-known neural system. While the effect of low-level electrical stimulation on wound repair has been reported, few studies have examined the effect of electric potential on non-wounded, intact skin. A galvanic couple comprised of elemental zinc and copper was used to determine the effects of low-level electrical stimulation on intact skin physiology using a Dermacorder device. Zn-Cu induced the electrical potential recorded on intact skin, enhanced H(2)O(2) production and activated p38 MAPK and Hsp27 in primary keratinocytes. Treatment with Zn-Cu was also found to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IL-2, NO and TNF-α in multiple cell types after stimulation with PHA or Propionibacterium acnes bacteria. The Zn-Cu complex led to a dose-dependent inhibition of TNF-α-induced NF-κB levels in keratinocytes as measured by a dual-luciferase promoter assay, and prevented p65 translocation to the nucleus observed via immunofluorescence. Suppression of NF-κB activity via crosstalk with p38 MAPK might be one of the potential pathways by which Zn-Cu exerted its inflammatory effects. Topical application of Zn-Cu successfully mitigated TPA-induced dermatitis and oxazolone-induced hypersensitivity in mice models of ear edema. Anti-inflammatory activity induced by the Zn-Cu galvanic couple appears to be mediated, at least in part, by production of low level of hydrogen peroxide since this activity is reversed by the addition of Catalase enzyme. Collectively, these results show that a galvanic couple containing Zn-Cu strongly reduces the inflammatory and immune responses in intact skin, providing evidence for the role of electric stimulation in non-wounded skin. PMID:21465312

  16. Galvanic zinc-copper microparticles produce electrical stimulation that reduces the inflammatory and immune responses in skin.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simarna; Lyte, Peter; Garay, Michelle; Liebel, Frank; Sun, Ying; Liu, Jue-Chen; Southall, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    The human body has its own innate electrical system that regulates the body's functions via communications among organs through the well-known neural system. While the effect of low-level electrical stimulation on wound repair has been reported, few studies have examined the effect of electric potential on non-wounded, intact skin. A galvanic couple comprised of elemental zinc and copper was used to determine the effects of low-level electrical stimulation on intact skin physiology using a Dermacorder device. Zn-Cu induced the electrical potential recorded on intact skin, enhanced H(2)O(2) production and activated p38 MAPK and Hsp27 in primary keratinocytes. Treatment with Zn-Cu was also found to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1α, IL-2, NO and TNF-α in multiple cell types after stimulation with PHA or Propionibacterium acnes bacteria. The Zn-Cu complex led to a dose-dependent inhibition of TNF-α-induced NF-κB levels in keratinocytes as measured by a dual-luciferase promoter assay, and prevented p65 translocation to the nucleus observed via immunofluorescence. Suppression of NF-κB activity via crosstalk with p38 MAPK might be one of the potential pathways by which Zn-Cu exerted its inflammatory effects. Topical application of Zn-Cu successfully mitigated TPA-induced dermatitis and oxazolone-induced hypersensitivity in mice models of ear edema. Anti-inflammatory activity induced by the Zn-Cu galvanic couple appears to be mediated, at least in part, by production of low level of hydrogen peroxide since this activity is reversed by the addition of Catalase enzyme. Collectively, these results show that a galvanic couple containing Zn-Cu strongly reduces the inflammatory and immune responses in intact skin, providing evidence for the role of electric stimulation in non-wounded skin.

  17. Non-cardiac autonomic tests in diabetes: use of the galvanic skin response.

    PubMed

    Macleod, A F; Smith, S A; Cowell, T; Richardson, P R; Sonksen, P H

    1991-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects both large myelinated and small unmyelinated nerve fibres. It has been proposed that the small unmyelinated fibres, responsible for pain and temperature sense, and autonomic function, are involved early, particularly in subjects with painful symptoms, and may be important in foot ulceration. The sympathetic skin response has been used to investigate the function of small unmyelinated sympathetic fibres in the limbs of diabetic subjects. Changes in skin resistance at the fingers and toes have been measured simultaneously after a sound stimulus. These procedures were controlled using a microcomputer. Data collected from 55 diabetic subjects, randomly selected from the diabetic clinic, have been compared with results from conventional tests of large motor and sensory fibres and autonomic function. The ratio of the change in skin resistance for toes to fingers correlated with sural and posterior tibial nerve conduction velocity (correlation coefficients 0.54 and 0.42, p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.01, respectively), with the expired to inspired ratio (correlation coefficient 0.51, p less than 0.01), and inversely with vibration perception threshold in the feet (correlation coefficient 0.50, p less than 0.001). Correlation with the dark adapted pupil diameter, however, only just achieved statistical significance (correlation coefficient 0.27, p = 0.043). We propose that this simple test may elucidate the role of the peripheral autonomic system in diabetic neuropathy.

  18. Reduced input from foot sole skin through cooling differentially modulates the short latency and medium latency vestibular reflex responses to galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Muise, Stephanie B; Lam, Chris K; Bent, Leah R

    2012-04-01

    Sensory afferent information from the skin of the foot sole and information from the vestibular system converge within the central nervous system; however, their mode of interaction remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of reduced cutaneous foot sole information on the ability of the vestibular system to evoke short latency (SL) and medium latency (ML) lower limb muscle reflex responses. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS; bipolar; binaural; 25 ms; 2 mA square-wave pulse) was applied to standing human subjects (four women, eight men, average age 21.1 ± 3.0 years) both before and after cooling the foot soles in 1°C ice water (15 min initially, followed by 5 min between blocks of 200 GVS pulses). Changes in soleus reflex amplitude were examined. Following ice water immersion, there was a 35.16% increase in the size of the ML response in the soleus muscle when expressed as a percentage of pre-stimulus electromyographic (EMG) activity (control 26.48 ± 4.91%; ice 36.16 ± 6.52%) with no change in size of the SL response (control 7.42 ± 1.12%; ice 8.72 ± 1.10%). These results support the previously proposed dissociation of the SL and ML responses with respect to their circuitry and functions. The results also suggest a greater role for cutaneous-vestibular interaction in the modulation of the ML than the SL response and at a location prior to the motoneuron pool.

  19. Galvanic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Meffert, J J

    1999-06-01

    A variety of environmental stimuli, such as vibration, ultraviolet radiation, and exposure to water, are recognized as causes of "physical urticaria." A medical student, participating in a demonstration of a galvanic device used in the treatment of hyperhidrosis, demonstrated urticaria in response to this galvanic stimulation. PMID:10388952

  20. Short-duration galvanic vestibular stimulation evokes prolonged balance responses.

    PubMed

    Son, Gregory Martin Lee; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Inglis, John Timothy

    2008-10-01

    The application of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) evokes distinct responses in lower limb muscles involved in the control of balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the balance and lower limb muscle responses to short-duration GVS and to determine whether these responses are modulated by small changes in center of gravity (CoG) and baseline muscle activity occurring during quiet standing. Twelve subjects stood quietly on a force plate with their feet together and were instructed to look straight ahead. One thousand twenty-four GVS stimuli (4 mA, 20-ms pulses) were delivered bilaterally to the mastoid processes in a bipolar, binaural configuration. Bilateral surface electromyography (EMG) from soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA) and ground reaction forces were recorded. EMG and force responses were trigger averaged at the onset of the GVS pulse. Short-duration GVS applied during quiet standing with the head facing forward evoked characteristic balance responses and biphasic modulation of all muscles with the same polarity for ipsilateral Sol and TA. The amplitude of the GVS-evoked muscle responses was modulated by both the estimated position of the subject's CoG and the background activation of the recorded muscle. Muscle-dependent modulations of the GVS-evoked muscle responses were observed: the Sol responses decreased, while the TA responses increased when the CoG position shifted toward the heels. The well-defined balance responses evoked by short-duration GVS are important to acknowledge when studying the vestibulo-motor responses in healthy subjects and patient populations.

  1. Postnatal developmental changes in the responses of mouse primary vestibular neurons to externally applied galvanic currents.

    PubMed

    Desmadryl, G

    1991-12-17

    The ontogenesis of vestibular primary neuron sensitivity to depolarisation produced by galvanic current stimulations was studied in mouse inner ear explants maintained in vitro. Cathodal galvanic stimulations, which elicit an increase of the discharge frequencies, are assumed to act on the spike initiation site by depolarizing the neuron. The responses of neurons to galvanic currents at various developmental stages were recorded. The pattern of responses reflected the sensitivities of the neurons to depolarization. At birth, about 75% of the vestibular neurons responded weakly to high intensity galvanic currents thus indicating that they were able to generate action potentials. However, the very low gain of the response to the stimulation revealed the immaturity of the neurons at the spike generation site. Between the day of birth and the ninth postnatal day, an increase in the gain of the responses was observed, indicating the enhancement of the sensitivity of the vestibular neurons to the galvanic currents. This increase in sensitivity was more pronounced from the fourth postnatal day. The response of the neurons to galvanic stimulation increased gradually during postnatal development without reaching a plateau at postnatal day 9 indicating that a further physiological maturation occurs after this stage. These results are consistent with the morphological maturation of the vestibular primary afferents and with previous studies showing that the physiological maturation parallels myelination of the afferent fibers.

  2. The timing of galvanic vestibular stimulation affects responses to platform translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavacka, F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    We compared the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation applied at 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 s prior to a backward platform translation on postural responses. The effect of the galvanic stimulation was largest on the final equilibrium position of the center of pressure (CoP). The largest effects occurred for the 0.5 and 0-s pre-period, when the dynamic CoP pressure changes in response to both the galvanic stimulus and the platform translation coincided. The shift in the final equilibrium position was also larger than the sum of the shifts for the galvanic stimulus and the platform translation alone for the 0.5 and 0-s pre-periods. The initial rate of change of the CoP response to the platform translation was not significantly affected in any condition. Changes in the peak CoP position could be accounted for by local interaction of CoP velocity changes induced by the galvanic and translation responses alone, but the changes in final equilibrium position could only be accounted for by a change in global body orientation. These findings suggest that the contribution of vestibulospinal information is greatest during the dynamic phase of the postural response, and that the vestibular system contributes most to the later components of the postural response, particularly to the final equilibrium position. These findings suggest that a nonlinear interaction between the vestibular signal induced by the galvanic current and the sensory stimuli produced by the platform translation occurs when the two stimuli are presented within 1 s, during the dynamic phase of the postural response to the galvanic stimulus. When presented at greater separations in time, the stimuli appear to be treated as independent events, such that no interaction occurs. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Responses of primary vestibular neurons to galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in the anaesthetised guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno; Curthoys, Ian S

    2004-09-30

    Previous studies in humans and animals which have shown that DC galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) induces horizontal and torsional eye movements have been interpreted as being due to a preferential activation of primary vestibular afferents innervating the horizontal semicircular canals and otoliths by GVS. The present study sought to determine in guinea pigs whether GVS does indeed selectively activate primary horizontal canal and otolith afferents. Constant-current GVS was passed between electrodes implanted in the tensor-tympani muscle of each middle ear or between electrodes on the skin over the mastoid. During this stimulation, responses from single primary vestibular neurons were recorded extracellularly by glass microelectrodes in Scarpa's ganglion. Afferents from all vestibular sensory regions were activated by both surface and tensor-tympani galvanic stimulation. Tensor tympani GVS was approximately 10 times more effective than surface GVS. At larger current intensities irregularly discharging afferents showed an asymmetrical response: cathodal stimulation resulted in a larger change in firing (increase) than anodal stimulation (decrease), whereas regularly discharging afferents responded symmetrically to the two polarities of GVS. Across all afferents tuned for different types of natural vestibular stimulation, neuronal sensitivity for GVS was found to increase with discharge variability (as indexed by CV*). Anterior canal afferents showed a slightly higher sensitivity than afferents from other vestibular sensory regions. Hence, the present study concluded that GVS activates primary vestibular afferents innervating all sensory regions in a uniform fashion. Therefore, the specific pattern of GVS-induced eye movements reported in previous studies are not due to differential sensitivity between different vestibular sensory regions, but are likely to reflect an involvement of central processing.

  4. Galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibit melanogenesis via multiple pigmentary pathways.

    PubMed

    Won, Yen-Kim; Lin, Connie B; Seiberg, Miri; Chen, Nannan; Hu, Yaping; Rossetti, Dianne; Saliou, Claude; Loy, Chong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous electrical field of human skin plays an important role in many skin functions. However, the biological effects and mechanism of action of externally applied electrical stimulation on skin remain unclear. Recent study showed that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles produce electrical stimulation and reduce inflammatory and immune responses in intact skin, suggesting the important role of electrical stimulation in non-wounded skin. The objective of this study is to investigate the biological effect of galvanic zinc-copper microparticles on skin pigmentation. Our findings showed that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibited melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line (MNT-1), human keratinocytes and melanoma cells co-cultures, and in pigmented epidermal equivalents. Treatment of galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibited melanogenesis by reducing the promoter transactivation of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 in human melanoma cells. In a co-culture Transwell system of keratinocytes and melanoma cells, galvanic zinc-copper microparticles reduced melanin production via downregulation of endothelin-1 secretion from keratinocytes and reduced tyrosinase gene expression in melanoma cells. In addition, exposure of pigmented epidermal equivalents to galvanic zinc-copper microparticles resulted in reduced melanin deposition. In conclusion, our data demonstrated for the first time that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles reduced melanogenesis in melanoma cells and melanin deposition in pigmented epidermal equivalents by affecting multiple pigmentary pathways. PMID:23700242

  5. Galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibit melanogenesis via multiple pigmentary pathways.

    PubMed

    Won, Yen-Kim; Lin, Connie B; Seiberg, Miri; Chen, Nannan; Hu, Yaping; Rossetti, Dianne; Saliou, Claude; Loy, Chong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous electrical field of human skin plays an important role in many skin functions. However, the biological effects and mechanism of action of externally applied electrical stimulation on skin remain unclear. Recent study showed that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles produce electrical stimulation and reduce inflammatory and immune responses in intact skin, suggesting the important role of electrical stimulation in non-wounded skin. The objective of this study is to investigate the biological effect of galvanic zinc-copper microparticles on skin pigmentation. Our findings showed that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibited melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line (MNT-1), human keratinocytes and melanoma cells co-cultures, and in pigmented epidermal equivalents. Treatment of galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibited melanogenesis by reducing the promoter transactivation of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 in human melanoma cells. In a co-culture Transwell system of keratinocytes and melanoma cells, galvanic zinc-copper microparticles reduced melanin production via downregulation of endothelin-1 secretion from keratinocytes and reduced tyrosinase gene expression in melanoma cells. In addition, exposure of pigmented epidermal equivalents to galvanic zinc-copper microparticles resulted in reduced melanin deposition. In conclusion, our data demonstrated for the first time that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles reduced melanogenesis in melanoma cells and melanin deposition in pigmented epidermal equivalents by affecting multiple pigmentary pathways.

  6. Torsional eye movement responses to monaural and binaural galvanic vestibular stimulation: side-to-side asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Klaus; Naessl, Andrea; Strupp, Michael; Schneider, Erich; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2003-10-01

    Vestibular stimulation by head accelerations always involves multisensory activation of the vestibular, somatosensory, and visual systems. Over the past few years, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has become increasingly popular for testing vestibular function for clinical and research purposes. Although GVS provides a nonphysiological stimulation, it is more selective than natural head accelerations and is thus an attractive tool for such tests. Eye movement responses elicited by GVS mainly consist of torsional and horizontal components, as first described by Hitzig in 1871. Animal experiments have shown that GVS increases the vestibular afferent spike frequency at the cathodal site and decreases it at the anodal site of stimulation. As a continuation of a study on age-dependency of eye movement responses to GVS, we analyzed side-to-side asymmetries in healthy subjects. It is necessary to know the normal range of asymmetry between left- and right-sided stimulation to interpret GVS responses in patients with vestibular diseases.

  7. Postural electromyographic responses in the arm and leg following galvanic vestibular stimulation in man.

    PubMed

    Britton, T C; Day, B L; Brown, P; Rothwell, J C; Thompson, P D; Marsden, C D

    1993-01-01

    Application of a small (around 1 mA), constant electric current between the mastoid processes (galvanic stimulation) of a standing subject produces enhanced body sway in the approximate direction of the ear behind which the anode is placed. We examined the electromyographic (EMG) responses evoked by such stimulation in the soleus and in the triceps brachii muscles. For soleus, subjects stood erect, with their eyes closed, leaning slightly forward. The head was turned approximately 90 degrees to the right or left relative to the feet. In averaged records (n = 40), current pulses of 25 ms or longer modulated the EMG in a biphasic manner: a small early component (latency 62 +/- 2.4 ms, mean +/- SEM) was followed by a larger late component (latency 115 +/- 5.2 ms) of opposite sign, which was appropriate to produce the observed body sway. The early component produced no measurable body movement. Lengthening the duration of the stimulus pulse from 25 to 400 ms prolonged the late component of the response but had little effect on the early component. Short- and long-latency EMG responses were also evoked in the triceps brachii muscle if subjects stood on a transversely pivoted platform and had to use the muscle to maintain their balance in the anteroposterior plane by holding a fixed handle placed by the side of their hip. The latency of the early component was 41 +/- 2.6 ms; the latency of the late component was 138 +/- 4.3 ms and was again of appropriate sign for producing the observed body sway. Galvanic stimulation evoked no comparable responses in either triceps brachii or soleus muscles if these muscles were not being used posturally.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Vestibular and pulse-related modulation of skin sympathetic nerve activity during sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation in human subjects.

    PubMed

    James, Cheree; Stathis, Alexandra; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2010-04-01

    We have previously shown that sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS), a means of a selectively modulating vestibular afferent input without affecting other inputs, can cause partial entrainment of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Given that motion sickness causes sweating and pallor, we tested the hypothesis that sGVS also entrains skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), but that the optimal frequencies are closer to those associated with slow postural changes (0.2 Hz). SSNA was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the common peroneal nerve in 11 awake-seated subjects. Bipolar binaural sinusoidal GVS (+/-2 mA, 200 cycles) was applied to the mastoid processes at frequencies of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, 1.4, 1.7 and 2.0 Hz. All subjects reported strong postural illusions of 'rocking in a boat' or 'swaying in a hammock'. Sinusoidal GVS caused a marked entrainment of SSNA at all frequencies. Measured as the modulation index, vestibular modulation ranged from 81.5 +/- 4.0% at 0.2 Hz to 76.6 +/- 3.6% at 1.7 Hz; it was significantly weaker at 2.0 Hz (63.2 +/- 5.4%). Interestingly, pulse-related modulation of SSNA, which is normally weak, increased significantly during sGVS but was stronger at 0.8 Hz (86.2 +/- 2.0%) than at 0.2 Hz (69.3 +/- 8.3%), the opposite of the pattern seen with vestibular modulation of MSNA. We conclude that vestibular inputs can entrain the firing of cutaneous sympathetic neurones and increase their normally weak pulse-related rhythmicity.

  9. Effective piezoelectric response of substrate-integrated ZnO nanowire array devices on galvanized steel.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, By Jesus M; Baskaran, Sivapalan; Gaikwad, Anil V; Ngo-Duc, Tam-Triet; He, Xiangtong; Oye, Michael M; Meyyappan, M; Rout, Tapan K; Fu, John Y; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2013-11-13

    Harvesting waste energy through electromechanical coupling in practical devices requires combining device design with the development of synthetic strategies for large-area controlled fabrication of active piezoelectric materials. Here, we show a facile route to the large-area fabrication of ZnO nanostructured arrays using commodity galvanized steel as the Zn precursor as well as the substrate. The ZnO nanowires are further integrated within a device construct and the effective piezoelectric response is deduced based on a novel experimental approach involving induction of stress in the nanowires through pressure wave propagation along with phase-selective lock-in detection of the induced current. The robust methodology for measurement of the effective piezoelectric coefficient developed here allows for interrogation of piezoelectric functionality for the entire substrate under bending-type deformation of the ZnO nanowires.

  10. Comparison of postural responses to galvanic vestibular stimulation between pilots and the general populace.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Pu, Fang; Lv, Xiaoning; Li, Shuyu; Li, Jing; Li, Deyu; Li, Minggao; Fan, Yubo

    2015-01-01

    Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) can be used to study the body's response to vestibular stimuli. This study aimed to investigate whether postural responses to GVS were different between pilots and the general populace. Bilateral bipolar GVS was applied with a constant-current profile to 12 pilots and 12 control subjects via two electrodes placed over the mastoid processes. Both GVS threshold and the center of pressure's trajectory (COP's trajectory) were measured. Position variability of COP during spontaneous body sway and peak displacement of COP during GVS-induced body sway were calculated in the medial-lateral direction. Spontaneous body sway was slight for all subjects, and there was no significant difference in the value of COP position variability between the pilots and controls. Both the GVS threshold and magnitude of GVS-induced body deviation were similar for different GVS polarities. GVS thresholds were similar between the two groups, but the magnitude of GVS-induced body deviation in the controls was significantly larger than that in the pilots. The pilots showed less GVS-induced body deviation, meaning that pilots may have a stronger ability to suppress vestibular illusions. PMID:25632395

  11. The Effect of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation on Postural Response of Down Syndrome Individuals on the Seesaw

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, R. L.; Almeida, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to better understand the role of the vestibular system in postural adjustments on unstable surfaces, we analyzed the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on the pattern of muscle activity and joint displacements (ankle knee and hip) of eight intellectually normal participants (control group--CG) and eight control group…

  12. Galvanic Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. G.

    1973-01-01

    Many standard physical chemistry textbooks contain ambiguities which lead to confusion about standard electrode potentials, calculating cell voltages, and writing reactions for galvanic cells. This article shows how standard electrode potentials can be used to calculate cell voltages and deduce cell reactions. (Author/RH)

  13. TOXIC RESPONSES OF THE SKIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of fish skin is realized when one considers it is the interface between the external and intrnal environment of the animal. As will be pointed out in this chapter, fish skin has a number of vital functions many of which could be life threatening if perturbed beyond...

  14. Relation between discharge regularity and responses to externally applied galvanic currents in vestibular nerve afferents of the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, J M; Smith, C E; Fernández, C

    1984-06-01

    Most vestibular nerve afferents can be classified as regularly or irregularly discharging. Two factors are theoretically identified as being potentially responsible for differences in discharge regularity. The first, ascribable to synaptic noise, is the variance (sigma v2) characterizing the transmembrane voltage fluctuations of the axon's spike trigger site, i.e., the place where impulses normally arise. The second factor is the slope (dmuv/dt) of the trigger site's postspike recovery function. Were (dmuv/dt) a major determinant of discharge regularity, the theory predicts that the more irregular the discharge of a unit, the greater should be its sensitivity to externally applied galvanic currents and the faster should be the postspike recovery of its electrical excitability. The predictions would not hold if differences in the discharge regularity between units largely reflected variations in sigma v. To test these predictions, the responses of vestibular nerve afferents to externally applied galvanic currents were studied in the barbiturate-anesthetized squirrel monkey. Current steps of 5-s duration and short (50 microsecond) shocks were delivered by way of the perilymphatic space of the vestibule. Results were similar regardless of which end organ an afferent innervated. The regularity of discharge of each unit was expressed by a normalized coefficient of variation (CV*). The galvanic sensitivity (beta p) of a unit, measured from its response to current steps, was linearly related to discharge regularity (CV*), there being approximately 20-fold variations in both variables across the afferent population. Various geometric factors--including fiber diameter, position of individual axons within the various nerve branches, and the configuration of unmyelinated processes within the sensory epithelium--are unlikely to have made a major contribution to the positive relation between beta P and CV*. The postspike recovery of electrical excitability was measured as

  15. The effect of galvanic vestibular stimulation on postural response of Down syndrome individuals on the seesaw.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, R L; Almeida, G L

    2011-01-01

    In order to better understand the role of the vestibular system in postural adjustments on unstable surfaces, we analyzed the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on the pattern of muscle activity and joint displacements (ankle knee and hip) of eight intellectually normal participants (control group--CG) and eight control group individuals with Down syndrome (DS) while balancing on seesaws of different heights. The CG individuals adopted a pattern of muscle activation characterized by alternation between ankle agonist and antagonist muscles. The individuals with DS adopted a pattern of muscle co-contraction. The GVS affected neither the ability of CG individuals to maintain balance nor their pattern of muscle contraction. On the other hand, the individuals with DS showed greater sensitivity to GVS while balancing on a seesaw and were not able to select the appropriate motor strategy to efficiently balance and compensate the effects of GVS. These increased vestibular sensitivities observed in individuals with DS can reflect deficits in the proprioceptive system.

  16. Effects of succinylcholine and related substances administered into the medial preoptic area on the local EEG, body temperature, heart rate, galvanic skin resistance and biogenic amines.

    PubMed

    Rau, M; Desiraju, T

    1985-01-01

    Succinylcholine (Sch) which is a cholinergic neuromuscular blocker has been known to occasionally lead to episodes of malignant hyperthermia in swine and humans. In order to find whether it produces any hyperthermic effects through action on medial preoptic area, experiments were carried on by administering intracerebrally the chemical into the medial preoptic area through an in-dwelling cannula-cum-electrode in the free moving rat. The changes in body temperature and the local EEG were studied. For comparison purpose, the effects of carbachol, atropine and phenylephrine were also studied. Further, in the curarized state of no muscular activity, the effect of SCh on the preoptic area was again tested and also the changes in the other autonomic parameters of heart rate and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) were studied. It was observed that SCh given into preoptic area caused a clear hyperthermic effect. The effect was countered by prior administration of atropine into the site. After SCh the local EEG changed into a high amplitude slow wave format. The heart rate was not altered but the GSR increased by two-fold. Carbachol caused a rise in body temperature, heart rate and also GSR. SCh also caused a reduction in noradrenaline content of the hypothalamus by 23% while no change in dopamine and serotonin occurred. Serotonin increased by 28% in the brainstem with no change in the other amines. Septum showed an increase of noradrenaline and dopamine contents by 40% and 25% respectively. Keeping in view the monoaminergic connections and thermoregulatory role of the preoptic area, one may postulate that SCh could inhibit the warm sensors and the controls of the dual sympathetic mechanism which normally leads to an increase of sudomotor activity and a decrease of vasomotor activity, the inhibition resulting in rise of body temperature.

  17. Galvanic cell separator

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, K.; Osawa, K.; Takeda, Y.; Yabumoto, T.

    1981-07-07

    A galvanic cell separator is disclosed that is composed of polyvinyl alcohol having a crystallinity of 0.4 or more to be used with a galvanic cell containing alkaline electrolyte, and a method of manufacturing the same.

  18. Niacin skin test response in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Cyhlarova, E; Montgomery, P; Ross, M A; Richardson, A J

    2007-08-01

    The niacin skin test reflects a flush and oedema owing to the production of prostaglandin D2 from arachidonic acid. A diminished response may indicate abnormalities in the phospholipid metabolism, which has been shown in schizophrenia. There is evidence that dyslexia might also involve phospholipid abnormalities, therefore we examined the skin response in 51 dyslexics and 45 controls. Four concentrations of aqueous methyl nicotinate were applied topically to the forearm. Flushing was rated using a seven-point scale at 3 min intervals over 21 min. Repeated measures ANOVA for the four concentrations across all seven time-points showed no significant effect of subject group, but when analyses were confined to the first 9 min, flushing was reduced in dyslexics. Significant group differences were also found for the lowest niacin concentration (0.0001M) across six out of seven time-points. The results indicate a slightly reduced and delayed response to niacin in dyslexia.

  19. Immune response associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Strickland, F M; Kripke, M L

    1997-10-01

    It is now clear that UV radiation causes nonmelanoma skin cancer in at least two ways: by causing permanent changes in the genetic code and by preventing immunologic recognition of mutant cells. These are interacting rather than separate mechanisms. Damage to DNA results in disregulation of cellular proliferation and initiates immune suppression by stimulating the production of suppressive cytokines. These cytokines contribute to the loss of immunosurveillance. Ultraviolet radiation has both local and systemic immunosuppressive effects. Locally, it depletes and alters antigen-presenting LC at the site of UV irradiation. Systemic suppression results when Ts cells are induced, by altered LC, by inflammatory macrophages that enter the skin following UV irradiation, or by the action of cytokines. Damage to DNA appears to be one of the triggering events in inducing systemic immunosuppression via the release of immunosuppressive cytokines and mediators. Immunologic approaches to treating skin cancers so far have concentrated on nonspecifically stimulating immune cells that infiltrate these tumors, but induction of specific immune responses against these tumors with antitumor vaccines has received little attention as yet. Preventive measures include sun avoidance and the use of sunscreens to prevent DNA damage by UV light. Future strategies may employ means to reverse UV-induced immunosuppression by using anti-inflammatory agents, biologicals that accelerate DNA repair or prevent the generation of immunosuppressive cytokines, and specific immunotherapy with tumor antigens. New approaches for studying the immunology of human skin cancers are needed to accelerate progress in this field.

  20. Inverse U-shaped curve for age dependency of torsional eye movement responses to galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Klaus; Naessl, Andrea; Schneider, Erich; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2003-07-01

    To investigate age dependent changes we analysed torsional eye movement responses to binaural and monaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in 57 healthy subjects (20-69 years old). GVS (1-3 mA) induced torsional eye movements consisting of static torsion toward the anode (amplitude 1-6 degrees ) and superimposed torsional nystagmus (slow phase velocity 0.5-3 degrees /s, quick phase amplitude 0.5-2 degrees, nystagmus frequency 0.75-1.5 s-1). Static ocular torsion and torsional nystagmus increased from the third to the sixth decade and decreased in older subjects, e.g. slow phase velocity increased from 1.5 degrees /s (20-29 years) to 2.9 degrees /s (50-59 years) and decreased to 2.5 degrees /s for the seventh decade (60-69 years). Thus, an inverse U-shaped curve was found for the dependence of torsional eye movement responses on age. All structures relevant for vestibular function degenerate with age, but at varying times. Since hair cell loss precedes those seen in the vestibular nerve and Scarpa's ganglion, the decrease in hair cell counts could be compensated for by increased sensitivity of afferent nerve fibres or central mechanisms. Increased sensitivity could thus maintain normal function despite reduced peripheral input. As GVS acts at the vestibular nerve (thereby bypassing the hair cells), electrical stimulation should be more efficient in subjects with the beginning of hair cell degeneration, as seen in our data up to the sixth decade. The degeneration of nerve fibres, ganglion cells and central neurons becomes evident at older ages. Thus, the compensatory increase in sensitivity breaks down and GVS-induced eye movements decline-a finding that is reflected by the inverse U-shaped curve for age dependency presented in this study.

  1. Assessment of skin types, skin colours and cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Wee, L K; Chong, T K; Quee, D K

    1997-01-01

    Ninety normal individuals were included in this study on skin types, skin colours and cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiation. Skin types were recorded using Fitzpatrick's classification, skin colours were measured using the Minolta Chromameter CR-300, and cutaneous responses to UV radiation were measured in terms of minimal erythema dose (MED) to UVA, UVB and the immediate pigment darkening dose to UVA (IPDDA). Skin colour measurements were taken from the right cheek to represent facultative skin colours, and from the buttock to represent constitutive skin colours. The colours measured were expressed by the L x a x b colour space. Skin types and some colour parameters (L and b from covered parts of body) correlated fairly well with the minimal erythema doses (MED) to UVA and UVB. Skin colour measurements are more objective than skin type assessment and could be better markers of photosensitivity. However, there is still considerable overlap in MEDs for persons with different skin colours, and further studies of these parameters are warranted. Our MEDs are higher than other reports on similar skin types and skin colours. This could be due to differences in methodology, genetic make-up or acclimatization from chronic sun exposure. This illustrates the importance of local controls for each institution dealing with photosensitive disorders.

  2. DNA repair responses in human skin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hanawalt, P.C.; Liu, S.C.; Parsons, C.S.

    1981-07-01

    Sunlight and some environmental chemical agents produce lesions in the DNA of human skin cells that if unrepaired may interfere with normal functioning of these cells. The most serious outcome of such interactions may be malignancy. It is therefore important to develop an understanding of mechanisms by which the lesions may be repaired or tolerated without deleterious consequences. Our models for the molecular processing of damaged DNA have been derived largely from the study of bacterial systems. Some similarities but significant differences are revealed when human cell responses are tested against these models. It is also of importance to learn DNA repair responses of epidermal keratinocytes for comparison with the more extensive studies that have been carried out with dermal fibroblasts. Our experimental results thus far indicate similarities for the excision-repair of ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Both the monoadducts and the interstrand crosslinks produced in DNA by photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA) can be repaired in normal human fibroblasts but not in those from xeroderma pigmentosum patients. The monoadducts, like pyrimidine dimers, are probably the more mutagenic/carcinogenic lesions while the crosslinks are less easily repaired and probably result in more effective blocking of DNA function. It is suggested that a split-dose protocol that maximizes the production of crosslinks while minimizing the yield of monoadducts may be more effective and potentially less carcinogenic than the single ultraviolet exposure regimen in PUVA therapy for psoriasis.

  3. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants. PMID:15025702

  4. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants.

  5. The framing effect and skin conductance responses

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa. PMID:26300747

  6. The framing effect and skin conductance responses.

    PubMed

    Ring, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Individuals often rely on simple heuristics when they face complex choice situations under uncertainty. Traditionally, it has been proposed that cognitive processes are the main driver to evaluate different choice options and to finally reach a decision. Growing evidence, however, highlights a strong interrelation between judgment and decision-making (JDM) on the one hand, and emotional processes on the other hand. This also seems to apply to judgmental heuristics, i.e., decision processes that are typically considered to be fast and intuitive. In this study, participants are exposed to different probabilities of receiving an unpleasant electric shock. Information about electric shock probabilities is either positively or negatively framed. Integrated skin conductance responses (ISCRs) while waiting for electric shock realization are used as an indicator for participants' emotional arousal. This measure is compared to objective probabilities. I find evidence for a relation between emotional body reactions measured by ISCRs and the framing effect. Under negative frames, participants show significantly higher ISCRs while waiting for an electric shock to be delivered than under positive frames. This result might contribute to a better understanding of the psychological processes underlying JDM. Further studies are necessary to reveal the causality underlying this finding, i.e., whether emotional processes influence JDM or vice versa. PMID:26300747

  7. Galvanic currents and hydrogen permeation currents caused by galvanic coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Armacanquil, M.E. ); Harasyn, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    This paper reports on galvanic coupling and hydrogen permeation experiments performed in a Devanathan-Stachurski cell to measure simultaneously the galvanic currents and the hydrogen permeation currents in an attempt to determine the extent of hydrogen charging into noble metals as a result of galvanic coupling. Large amounts of hydrogen permeated through the more noble element of the couple. The magnitude of the hydrogen permeation flux varied depending on the galvanic coupling conditions. No simple direct relationship between galvanic currents and hydrogen permeation currents was observed, although large hydrogen permeation currents were usually developed whenever large galvanic currents were established.

  8. Superficial Immunity: Antimicrobial Responses Are More Than Skin Deep.

    PubMed

    Mack, Madison R; Kim, Brian S

    2016-07-19

    The skin barrier is essential for host defense, but how the skin provides protection when the barrier is breached is not well understood. In this issue of Immunity, Gallo and colleagues report that keratinocytes integrate signals from antimicrobial peptides via MAVS signaling to amplify their antiviral immune response. PMID:27438760

  9. Dezincing galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Braun, C.

    1998-07-01

    A caustic leach dezincing process is being developed for upgrading galvanized stamping plant scrap into clean scrap with recovery of the zinc. With further development the technology could also process galvanized scrap from obsolete automobiles. This paper will review: (1) the status of recent pilot plant operations in East Chicago, Indiana and plans for a commercial demonstration facility with a dezincing capacity of up to 250,000 tonnes/year, (2) the economics of caustic dezincing, and (3) benefits of decreased cost of environmental compliance, raw material savings, and improved operations with use of dezinced scrap.

  10. Deceased donor skin allograft banking: Response and utilization

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Madhuri A.; De, Anuradha S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the absence of xenograft and biosynthetic skin substitutes, deceased donor skin allografts is a feasible option for saving life of patient with extensive burn injury in our country. Aims: The first deceased donor skin allograft bank in India became functional at Lokmanya Tilak Municipal (LTM) medical college and hospital on 24th April 2000. The response of Indian society to this new concept of skin donation after death and the pattern of utilization of banked allografts from 2000 to 2010 has been presented in this study. Settings and Design: This allograft skin bank was established by the department of surgery. The departments of surgery and microbiology share the responsibility of smooth functioning of the bank. Materials and Methods: The response in terms of number of donations and the profile of donors was analyzed from records. Pattern and outcome of allograft utilization was studied from specially designed forms. Results: During these ten years, 262 deceased donor skin allograft donations were received. The response showed significant improvement after counselling was extended to the community. Majority of the donors were above 70 years of age and procurement was done at home for most. Skin allografts from 249 donors were used for 165 patients in ten years. The outcome was encouraging with seven deaths in 151 recipients with burn injuries. Conclusions: Our experience shows that the Indian society is ready to accept the concept of skin donation after death. Use of skin allografts is life saving for large burns. We need to prepare guidelines for the establishment of more skin banks in the country. PMID:21321645

  11. Relationship between skin response to ultraviolet exposure and skin color type.

    PubMed

    Del Bino, S; Sok, J; Bessac, E; Bernerd, F

    2006-12-01

    Sun exposure is responsible for detrimental damage ranging from sunburn to photoaging and skin cancer. This damage is likely to be influenced by constitutive pigmentation. The relationship between ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity and skin color type was analyzed on 42 ex vivo skin samples objectively classified from light to dark skin, based on their values of individual typology angle (ITA) determined by colorimetric parameters. The biologically efficient dose (BED) was determined for each sample by quantifying sunburn cells after exposure to increasing doses of UV solar-simulated radiation. Typical UV-induced biologic markers, other than erythema, such as DNA damage, apoptosis and p53 accumulation, were analyzed. A statistically significant correlation was found between ITA and BED and, ITA and DNA damage. Interestingly, DNA lesions were distributed throughout the whole epidermal layers and the uppermost dermal cells in light, intermediate and tanned skin while they were restricted to suprabasal epidermal layers in brown or dark skin. Our data support, at the cellular level, the relationship between UV sensitivity and skin color type. They emphasize the impact of DNA damage accumulation in basal layer in relation to the prevalence of skin cancer.

  12. Ozone exposure activates oxidative stress responses in murine skin.

    PubMed

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; van der Vliet, Albert; Schock, Bettina C; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Obermuller-Jevic, Ute; Cross, Carroll E; Packer, Lester

    2002-09-30

    Ozone (O(3)) is among the most reactive environmental oxidant to which skin is exposed. O(3) exposure has previously been shown to induce antioxidant depletion as well as lipid and protein oxidation in the outermost skin layer, the stratum corneum (SC), but little is known regarding the potential effects of O(3) on the skin epidermis and dermis. To evaluate such skin responses to O(3), SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed for 2 h to 8.0 ppm O(3) or to ambient air. O(3) exposure caused a significant increase in skin carbonyls (28%) compared to the skin of air exposed control animals. An evident increase in 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts was detected after O(3) exposure. O(3) exposure caused a rapid up-regulation of HSP27 (20-fold), and more delayed induction of HSP70 (2.8-fold) and heme oxygenase-1 (5-fold). O(3) exposure also led to the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) 6-12 h following O(3) exposure. We conclude that skin exposure to high levels of O(3) not only affects antioxidant levels and oxidation markers in the SC, but also induces stress responses in the active layers of the skin, most likely by indirect mechanisms, since it is unlikely that O(3) itself penetrates the protective SC layers.

  13. Primary galvanic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, P.; Coffey, J.P.; Wilson, J.W.

    1981-03-03

    A primary galvanic cell displaying superior leak-resistant characteristics is described. A molded battery container having one open end is sealed by an end cap having both insulating and conducting properties. An electrode, integrally affixed to the end cap and in electrical registry therewith, is disposed within the cell.

  14. Aberrant immune responses in arsenical skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Hung; Liao, Wei-Ting; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2011-09-01

    Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen. It also impairs immune functions and activation in many aspects. However, only a small portion of arsenic-exposed population develops skin abnormalities, including Bowen's disease and skin cancers. Differential immune activation among the individuals might account for the different susceptibilities. In patients with arsenic-induced Bowen's disease, there is a selective CD4 T-cell apoptosis through tumor necrosis factor-alpha pathway, decrease in macrophage differentiation and phagocytosis, reduced Langerhans cell numbers and dendrites, altered regulatory T-cell distribution, and other immune alterations. Several lines of evidence from mouse and fish studies also confirmed the potent and multifaceted effects of arsenic in the immune system. The molecular bases of immunosuppression by arsenic in lymphocytes may include chromosomal and DNA abnormalities, decreased T-cell receptor activation, and the cellular status of oxidation and methylation. This article also reviews the causative and differential role of selective CD4 cell apoptosis and the carcinogenesis of arsenic-induced Bowen's disease.

  15. Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

  16. Specific Immune Response in Human Skin Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nairn, R. C.; Nind, A. P. P.; Guli, E. P. G.; Muller, H. K.; Rolland, J. M.; Minty, C. C. J.

    1971-01-01

    Eight out of nine patients with squamous cell carcinoma of skin have shown immunological reactivity against their own tumour cells by one or more tests with their sera or peripheral blood lymphocytes. The tests included membrane and cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, and, with cultured tumour, complement-dependent serum cytotoxicity and lymphocyte attack. One case examined in depth had an unusually conspicuous lymphocyte and plasma cell reaction on histological examination, and was positive by all four tests; a time-lapse cinephoto-micrographic record over seven days was obtained of the attack on the carcinoma cells in culture by the patient's lymphocytes. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9 PMID:4943032

  17. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, William A.; Dudek, Frederick J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

  18. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  19. Systemic PPARgamma ligation inhibits allergic immune response in the skin.

    PubMed

    Dahten, Anja; Koch, Christin; Ernst, Dennis; Schnöller, Corinna; Hartmann, Susanne; Worm, Margitta

    2008-09-01

    We have shown previously that specific ligands of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) inhibit the systemic allergic immune response. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of PPARgamma-ligand treatment on the local allergic immune response. We established a murine model exhibiting clinical and histological features of AD-like skin lesions with high reproducibility. In this model, the PPARgamma ligand was applied in an either preventive or therapeutic manner via systemic and local routes. The affected skin areas were assessed by standardized skin score, histological analyses, and immunohistochemical examinations. Our data show that systemic application of PPARgamma ligand by a preventive protocol led to significantly reduced onset of eczematous skin lesions. This was confirmed by histology, showing decreased skin thickness accompanied by significantly reduced infiltrations of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes but also mast cells. Additionally, early allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 responses were reduced (day 21/35), whereas IgG2a levels remained unchanged. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PPARgamma-ligand treatment inhibits not only systemic allergic immune response, but also local allergen-mediated dermatitis. Our findings point to therapeutic strategies, including a PPARgamma-ligand-based treatment. PMID:18401424

  20. Anti-hapten antibodies in response to skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Helen; Popple, Amy; Gellatly, Nichola; Maxwell, Gavin; Williams, Jason; Friedmann, Peter S; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2016-04-01

    Whereas T lymphocyte (T cell) activation is the key event in the acquisition of skin sensitization and subsequent elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, the humoral component of immune responses to organic contact allergens has received little consideration. There is evidence that, in experimental animals, topical exposure to potent contact allergens is associated with B cell activation and proliferation, and hapten-specific antibody production. However, there is very limited evidence available for anti-hapten antibody responses being induced following topical exposure of humans to contact allergens. Nevertheless, it is important to appreciate that there are almost no negative studies in which evidence for antibody production as the result of skin sensitization has been sought and not found. That is, there is absence of evidence rather than evidence of absence. Furthermore, exposure to chemical respiratory allergens, in which the skin has been implicated as a potential route of sensitization, results in anti-hapten antibody responses. It is proposed that skin sensitization to contact allergens will normally be accompanied by antibody production. The phenomenon is worthy of investigation, as anti-hapten antibodies could potentially influence and/or regulate the induction of skin sensitization. Moreover, such antibodies may provide an informative correlate of the extent to which sensitization has been acquired.

  1. Progress in caustic dezincing of galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1997-08-01

    In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, processes are being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. In the process discussed here, zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. Pilot testing has been conducted in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana, now in its second generation, has dezinced in a continuous process mode about 1,800 tonnes of loose clips and shredded stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.05% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews caustic dezincing pilot plant performance and economics.

  2. The skin: its structure and response to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, J W

    1990-04-01

    The response of the skin to ionizing radiation has important implications both for the treatment of malignant disease by radiation and for radiological protection. The structural organization of human skin is described and compared with that of the pig, with which it shows many similarities, in order that the response of the skin to ionizing radiation may be more fully understood. Acute radiation damage to the skin is primarily a consequence of changes in the epidermis; the timing of the peak of the reaction is related to the kinetic organization of this layer. The rate of development of damage is independent of the radiation dose, since this is related to the natural rate of loss of cells from the basal layer of the epidermis. Recovery of the epidermis occurs as a result of the proliferation of surviving clonogenic basal cells from within the irradiated area. The presence of clonogenic cells in the canal of the hair follicle is important, particularly after non-uniform irradiation from intermediate energy beta-emitters. The migration of viable cells from the edges of the irradiated site is also significant when small areas of skin are irradiated. Late damage to the skin is primarily a function of radiation effects on the vasculature; this produces a wave of dermal atrophy after 16-26 weeks. Dermal necrosis develops at this time after high doses. A second phase of dermal thinning is seen to develop after greater than 52 weeks, and this later phase of damage is associated with the appearance of telangiectasia. Highly localized irradiation of the skin, either to a specific layer (as may result from exposure to very low energy beta-emitters) or after exposure to small highly radioactive particles, 'hot particles', produces gross effects that become visibly manifest within 2 weeks of exposure. These changes result from the direct killing of the cells of the skin in interphase after doses greater than 100 Gy. Dose-effect curves have been established for the majority of

  3. Sympathetic skin response: basic mechanisms and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Vetrugno, Robert; Liguori, Rocco; Cortelli, Pietro; Montagna, Pasquale

    2003-08-01

    Sympathetic skin response (SSR), defined as the momentary change of the electrical potential of the skin, may be spontaneous or reflexively evoked by a variety of internal or by externally applied arousal stimuli. Although the suprasegmental structures influencing the SSR in humans are not well known, SSR has been proposed as a non-invasive approach to investigate the function of the sympathetic system. SSR is easy to apply but current procedures are not sufficiently reliable for diagnostic purposes, and show imperfect correlations both with clinical features and other measurements of autonomic, in particular, sudomotor dysfunction. PMID:12955550

  4. Alkaline galvanic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T.; Maeda, Y.; Momose, K.; Wakahata, T.

    1983-10-04

    An alkaline galvanic cell is disclosed including a container serving for a cathode terminal, a sealing plate in the form of a layered clad plate serving for an anode terminal to be fitted into the container, and an insulating packing provided between the sealing plate and container for sealing the cell upon assembly. The cell is provided with a layer of epoxy adduct polyamide amine having amine valence in the range of 50 to 400 and disposed between the innermost copper layer of the sealing plate arranged to be readily amalgamated and the insulating packing so as to serve as a sealing agent or liquid leakage suppression agent.

  5. Inspiration-induced vascular responses in finger dorsum skin.

    PubMed

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Groseclose, Edye E

    2002-03-01

    A rapid and deep inspiration triggers a sympathetically mediated transient vasoconstriction of skin arterioles (inspiratory gasp vascular response, IGVR). Because the IGVR has been most often measured and studied in skin that is rich in arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs), such as the palmar aspect of the distal phalanx or plantar aspect of the toes, there is little information on its features in skin areas not dominated by thermoregulatory AVAs. Thus, the dependence of the magnitude of the IGVR on AVAs is unclear. We reasoned that if responses in a region of low AVA density, such as the finger dorsum distal phalanx, were comparable to those in AVA-rich skin, this would clarify the issue. Further, it might then be possible to use such areas to provide a useful complementary target for future study of sympathetically induced vasoconstriction. To test this, we determined the features of the finger dorsum IGVR in 28 healthy volunteers (age 19-57 years, 14 males) in whom distal phalanx skin blood perfusion (SBF) was monitored by laser-Doppler during 21 sequential IGVRs, each separated by 2 min. IGVR was quantified as the minimum SBF during each IGVR, expressed as a percentage of each immediately preceding 2-min SBF average. Results (mean +/- SD) revealed an overall IGVR of 72.2 +/- 16.7%, which is very near that reported from studies on the AVA-rich palmar finger pad. We therefore conclude that the IGVR does not depend on the presence of AVAs and that the dorsal distal phalanx is a viable alternative for the study of sympathetically related neurovascular responses. PMID:11866546

  6. Intact electrodermal skin conductance responses after bilateral amygdala damage.

    PubMed

    Tranel, D; Damasio, H

    1989-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have suggested that the amygdala is a crucial component of the anatomical network that mediates the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR). In this study, the electrodermal activity of a patient whose entire amygdaloid complex had been destroyed bilaterally, and of 7 age- and gender-matched controls, was recorded under the same experimental conditions. The results indicate unequivocally that the subject could generate normal skin conductance and SCORs, in response to stimuli of different sensory modalities and configurations. This suggests that the amygdala is not a necessary component of the neural network underlying SCORs and that there are alternate neural units and pathways that link sensory cortices to autonomic effectors.

  7. Key Role of CRF in the Skin Stress Response System

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, Michal A.; Zbytek, Blazej; Tobin, Desmond J.; Theoharides, Theoharis C.; Rivier, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or CRH defining the upper regulatory arm of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, along with the identification of the corresponding receptors (CRFRs 1 and 2), represents a milestone in our understanding of central mechanisms regulating body and local homeostasis. We focused on the CRF-led signaling systems in the skin and offer a model for regulation of peripheral homeostasis based on the interaction of CRF and the structurally related urocortins with corresponding receptors and the resulting direct or indirect phenotypic effects that include regulation of epidermal barrier function, skin immune, pigmentary, adnexal, and dermal functions necessary to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. The regulatory modes of action include the classical CRF-led cutaneous equivalent of the central HPA axis, the expression and function of CRF and related peptides, and the stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin peptides or cytokines. The key regulatory role is assigned to the CRFR-1α receptor, with other isoforms having modulatory effects. CRF can be released from sensory nerves and immune cells in response to emotional and environmental stressors. The expression sequence of peptides includes urocortin/CRF→pro-opiomelanocortin→ACTH, MSH, and β-endorphin. Expression of these peptides and of CRFR-1α is environmentally regulated, and their dysfunction can lead to skin and systemic diseases. Environmentally stressed skin can activate both the central and local HPA axis through either sensory nerves or humoral factors to turn on homeostatic responses counteracting cutaneous and systemic environmental damage. CRF and CRFR-1 may constitute novel targets through the use of specific agonists or antagonists, especially for therapy of skin diseases that worsen with stress, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. PMID:23939821

  8. Key role of CRF in the skin stress response system.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Zbytek, Blazej; Tobin, Desmond J; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Rivier, Jean

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or CRH defining the upper regulatory arm of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, along with the identification of the corresponding receptors (CRFRs 1 and 2), represents a milestone in our understanding of central mechanisms regulating body and local homeostasis. We focused on the CRF-led signaling systems in the skin and offer a model for regulation of peripheral homeostasis based on the interaction of CRF and the structurally related urocortins with corresponding receptors and the resulting direct or indirect phenotypic effects that include regulation of epidermal barrier function, skin immune, pigmentary, adnexal, and dermal functions necessary to maintain local and systemic homeostasis. The regulatory modes of action include the classical CRF-led cutaneous equivalent of the central HPA axis, the expression and function of CRF and related peptides, and the stimulation of pro-opiomelanocortin peptides or cytokines. The key regulatory role is assigned to the CRFR-1α receptor, with other isoforms having modulatory effects. CRF can be released from sensory nerves and immune cells in response to emotional and environmental stressors. The expression sequence of peptides includes urocortin/CRF→pro-opiomelanocortin→ACTH, MSH, and β-endorphin. Expression of these peptides and of CRFR-1α is environmentally regulated, and their dysfunction can lead to skin and systemic diseases. Environmentally stressed skin can activate both the central and local HPA axis through either sensory nerves or humoral factors to turn on homeostatic responses counteracting cutaneous and systemic environmental damage. CRF and CRFR-1 may constitute novel targets through the use of specific agonists or antagonists, especially for therapy of skin diseases that worsen with stress, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  9. Fungi responsible for skin mycoses in Turin (Italy).

    PubMed

    Filipello Marchisio, V; Preve, L; Tullio, V

    1996-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in the frequency of skin mycoses, coupled with changes in the epidemiology and distribution of the species responsible. Periodic epidemiological analyses of these disease are thus required to ensure their efficacious control. Hair fragments, skin scrapings, specimens from vesicles and blisters and nail parings were seeded on Petri dishes loaded with Sabouraud or Mycosel agar, supplemented with chloramphenicol and with chloramphenicol plus cycloheximide respectively. Parts of each specimen were also mounted in 10% potassium hydroxide for examination under the microscope. Yeasts prevailed over dermatophytes. Microsporum canis was the most frequent dermatophyte, followed by Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum. Tinea corporis was the most common mycosis, followed by tinea unguis, tinea capitis and tinea pedis. Men were chiefly bearers of tinea cruris and tinea pedis, women of tinea corporis, and children and teenagers of tinea capitis. Some examples of the transmission of infection through interhuman contact, via animals and from the soil are also presented.

  10. Leader Style and Anxiety Level: Their Relation to Autonomic Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seemann, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)

  11. Galvanic cell type oxygen sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.; Kudo, H.; Tanigawa, I.

    1985-01-22

    A galvanic cell type oxygen sensor comprising a galvanic cell comprised of a cathode made up of metal effective for the electrolytic reduction of oxygen, an anode made up of lead material and an electrolyte made up of an aqueous mixed solution of organic acid and organic acid salt, which has a long life and a high output voltage, is not at all affected by carbon dioxide and which can prevent the generation of hydrogen from the cathode, is disclosed.

  12. Skin vasodilator response to local heating in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yoshitaka; Asahina, Masato; Mathias, Christopher J; Akaogi, Yuichi; Koyama, Yu; Hattori, Takamichi

    2007-12-01

    Local heating of nonglabrous skin increases skin blood flow (SkBF) in two phases. The initial peak (P1) is mediated by a sensory-axon reflex and the plateau phase (P2) by local production of substances such as nitric oxide. We evaluated the SkBF response to local heating in 15 multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients with autonomic failure and 12 age-matched healthy controls. The mean ratio of SkBF at P1 to that at baseline (SkBF(P1)/SkBF(base) ratio) in MSA was significantly lower than that in controls (P < 0.01). The mean ratio of SkBF at P2 seemed to be slightly reduced in the MSA patients, compared with controls, although there was no significant difference. The P1 phase is thought to be mediated by a sensory-axon reflex modulated by sympathetic nerve activity. These findings are indicative of the skin sympathetic vasomotor dysfunction in MSA.

  13. Sympathetic Skin Response and Vasomotor Symptoms in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Alireza; Roshanzamir, Sharareh; Bemana, Ghahraman; Mohammadi, Azam; Jahani, Navid; Naseri, Mahshid

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calcium and bone protein. A pivotal role of the sympathetic nervous system in bone remodeling has been considered. On the other hand, elevated central sympathetic activation in postmenopausal women is involved in the creation of vasomotor symptoms. Also, sympathetic skin response (SSR) has been performed for evaluation of the peripheral and central autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Therefore, to determine the association of the autonomic nervous system and osteoporosis, we evaluated the correlation between the bone mineral density (BMD) with the frequency of vasomotor symptoms and also sympathetic skin responses. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in which thirty-three postmenopausal osteoporosis women, as the case group, and 31 age-matched postmenopausal women with normal BMD, as the control group, were included in our study. To evaluate the autonomic function, we assessed the frequency of vasomotor symptoms with a questionnaire and performed SSR test for the two groups. According to the parametrical or the nonparametrical distribution of the data, Independent Samples t-test or Mann Whitney test, respectively, were used to compare group differences. Results The onset latencies of SSR recorded from both hands and feet were significantly prolonged in the case group compared with the control group (P<0.001). Amplitudes of SSR in the case group were significantly less than those of the control group (P<0.001). The postmenopausal osteoporotic women reported a significantly higher frequency of hot flashes and night sweats when compared with non-osteoporotic women (P<0.001). Conclusion The higher frequency of vasomotor symptoms and impaired sympathetic skin responses in postmenopausal osteoporotic women suggests a role of autonomic dysfunction in osteoporosis. PMID:26171411

  14. Comparison of skin stripping, in vitro release, and skin blanching response methods to measure dose response and similarity of triamcinolone acetonide cream strengths from two manufactured sources.

    PubMed

    Pershing, Lynn K; Bakhtian, Shahrzad; Poncelet, Craig E; Corlett, Judy L; Shah, Vinod P

    2002-05-01

    The collective studies compare in vitro drug release, in vivo skin stripping, and skin blanching response methods for dose responsiveness and bioequivalence assessment of triamcinolone acetonide cream products, as a function of application duration, drug concentration, and manufacturer source. Commercially available triamcinolone acetonide creams (0.025%, 0.1%, and 0.5%) from two manufacturers were evaluated in vitro for rate and extent of drug release across synthetic membranes and in vivo for rate, extent, and variability of drug uptake into human stratum corneum and skin blanching response in human forearm skin. Data demonstrate that increasing triamcinolone acetonide cream concentration applied increased the rate and extent of drug released in vitro as well as the extent of drug uptake and skin blanching response in human skin in vivo. No difference (p < 0.05) between the two sources of 0.1% or 0.5% creams was measured by the skin stripping or skin blanching response methods. Dermatopharmacokinetic analysis of triamcinonide acetonide in vivo is therefore dose responsive to drug concentration applied and application duration and agrees with in vivo skin blanching results. Data support the use of dermatopharmacokinetic methods for bioequivalence and bioavailability assessment of topical drug products.

  15. A study on the frictional response of reptilian shed skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aal, H. A.; Vargiolu, R.; Zahouani, H.; El Mansori, M.

    2011-08-01

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined tribological response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its tribological behaviour according to the evolution of sliding conditions. In seeking inspirations for such designs, many engineers are turning toward the biological world to study the construction and behaviour of bio-analogues, and to probe the role surface topography assumes in conditioning of frictional response. That is how a bio-analogue can self-adjust its tribological response to adapt to habitat constraints. From a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a snake (Python regius). The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakes. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the backward direction. Diagonal and side winding motion induces a different value of the friction coefficient. We discuss the origin of such a phenomenon in relation to surface texturing and study the energy constraints, implied by anisotropic friction, on the motion of the reptile.

  16. Galvanic cell with tin fluoborate electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Ruben, S.

    1984-12-11

    The invention is the utilization of an aqueous solution of tin fluoborate as the electrolyte in galvanic cells. It is particularly useful in primary galvanic cells employing permanganate depolarizers.

  17. Galvanic charging in air and space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchentrunk, R.; Tuscher, O.

    1981-06-01

    Utilization of galvanic shaping for solving heavy finishing problems in the aerospace industry is discussed. Special galvanic electrolytes like nickel sulfate solutions and acid copper electrolytes are used to produce independent self supporting structural parts. The multiple application possibilities of this galvanic finishing process is described. Examples are given of production problems and how they are solved. It is indicated that galvanic process engineering is used increasingly in the production of complicated structures and for solving problems in industrial development and finishing.

  18. Novel phenotype in beagle dogs characterized by skin response to compound 48/80 focusing on skin mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Fumi; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Shoji, Yoko; Kurosawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Beagle dogs have long been employed in toxicology studies and as skin disease models. Compared with other experimental animal species, they are known to be susceptible to skin responses, such as rashes, from exposure to various chemical compounds. Here, a unique dog phenotype was identified that showed no skin response to compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent. Although the skin responses to intradermal injection of polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative (HCO-60, a nonionic detergent), histamine dihydrochloride, concanavalin A (IgE receptor-mediated stimuli), or calcium ionophore A23187 were comparable in wild-type (WT) dogs and these nonresponder (NR) dogs, only the response to compound 48/80 was entirely absent from NR dogs. The skin mast cell density and histamine content per mast cell were histologically comparable between WT and NR dogs. By checking for skin responses to compound 48/80, NR dogs were found to exist at the proportion of 17-20% among four animal breeders. From retrospective analysis of in-house breeding histories, the NR phenotype appears to conform to the Mendelian pattern of recessive inheritance. The standard skin response in WT dogs developed at 2-4 months of age. In conclusion, this unique phenotype, typified by insensitivity in the compound 48/80-induced degranulation pathway in mast cells, has been widely retained by recessive inheritance in beagle dogs among general experimental animal breeders. The knowledge concerning this phenotype could lead to better utilization of dogs in studies and aid in model development. PMID:26062768

  19. Palmar skin blood flow and temperature responses throughout endoscopic sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Craig G; Meyer, Dan M; Davis, Scott L; Dellaria, Suzanne M

    2005-01-01

    Thoracic surgical sympathectomy is often performed to treat primary palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. An increase in palmar skin temperature is frequently used to identify the success of the procedure. Because changes in palmar skin temperature occur secondary to changes in skin blood flow, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that monitoring palmar skin blood flow would provide greater temporal resolution relative to monitoring palmar skin temperature. In 11 patients with palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis, we measured palmar skin temperature and blood flow (via laser Doppler flowmetry) throughout the sympathectomy procedure. Five minutes after the initial cautery, skin blood flow increased from 48 +/- 7 perfusion units to 121 +/- 17 perfusion units (P <0.001), whereas no significant change in temperature was observed (31.0 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C to 31.3 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C; P >0.05). The time required to reach peak skin blood flow (22 +/- 3 min) was significantly less than the time required to reach peak skin temperature (34 +/- 0.3 min; P <0.001). Finally at 5, 10, and 15 min after the initial cautery, skin blood flow increased to a larger percentage of the total increase in skin blood flow relative skin temperature (all P <0.006). These data suggest that monitoring skin blood flow provides greater temporal resolution when compared with monitoring skin temperature during thoracic sympathectomy. However, the initial cautery of the parietal pleura over the ganglion may result in increases in skin blood flow before physical disruption of the ganglion. This occurrence may limit the utility of skin blood-flow measurements in identifying the success of the procedure. PMID:15616091

  20. Sympathetic skin response in acute sensory ataxic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Arunodaya, G R; Taly, A B; Swamy, H S

    1995-05-01

    Sympathetic skin response (SSR) is a recently described objective method of studying sudomotor sympathetic nerve function and has been studied in a variety of peripheral neuropathies. We report SSR changes in nine patients with acute sensory ataxic neuropathy (ASAN). All had severe sensory and mild motor nerve conduction abnormalities; five had dysautonomia. SSR, elicited by electric shock and cough stimuli, was absent in three patients. Latency was normal in all when SSR was present. Two patients had SSR amplitude of 0.2 mV or less. Absence of SSR did not correlate with dysautonomia, absence of sensory nerve action potential or motor nerve conduction abnormalities. Follow up SSR studies revealed return of absent SSR in one patient over a period of 3 months, despite persistence of ataxia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SSR changes in ASAN.

  1. Hyperhidrosis and sympathetic skin response in chronic alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, V; Eleopra, R; De Grandis, D

    1999-02-01

    Palmoplantar hyperhidrosis is frequently observed in patients with a clinical history of chronic abnormal alcoholic intake. It can be related to peripheral or central mechanisms such as abnormal spontaneous activity in peripheral damaged fibres; receptor hypersensitivity; compensatory incremented activity in segmentary anhidrosis; or impairment of central sweat control. With the aim of quantifying this phenomenon and of identifying its possible origin, sympathetic skin response (SSR) analysis was performed in 20 chronic alcoholic patients with clinical diffuse acral hyperhidrosis, compared with 30 normal subjects and 2 patients affected by primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis (PPH). SSRs were recorded by disc electrodes place on the hands and feet, simultaneously. At the hand level two recording sites were selected: palm-dorsum proximally and ventral-dorsal tip of the third finger distally. Attention was paid to the number of SSR after a single endogenous or exogenous stimulus. The alcoholic patients were divided into two groups, with and without mild polyneuropathy. Both patient groups showed synchronous SSR at recording sites, with the same pattern and the normal delay between upper and lower arms. In the control group one response was generally related to a single stimulus; if more responses were elicited an evident adaptation was shown; in the two groups of patients an increase of the waves was observed in all the recording sites without any adaptation. The SSR profile described in alcoholic patients was observed also in PPH. The pattern of SSR waves in alcoholic patients seems to suggest a possible central origin of this type of hyperhidrosis. PMID:10212744

  2. Impaired sympathetic skin response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Bir, Levent Sinan; Ozkurt, Sibel; Daloğlu, Güner; Kurt, Tülay

    2005-12-01

    The sympathetic skin response (SSR) is considered as one of the indexes of autonomic nervous system functions, especially related with the sudomotor function of unmyelinated sympathetic fibers. SSRs are recorded as the potentials with biphasic or multiphasic waveforms by conventional electromyography. SSRs are evaluated by measuring latency (time from the stimulus to the onset), amplitude, and area (the space under the curve of the waveform). Although dysautonomia is a feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as demonstrated by acetylcholine sweat-spot test, there are no data concerning SSR in COPD patients. In this study, we electrophysiologically investigated the sudomotor function of the sympathetic nervous system in patients with COPD. SSRs were recorded in 30 patients with COPD and 21 healthy volunteers. Normal responses were obtained from all subjects in the control group. No response was observed in three patients with COPD. The mean latency, amplitude and area values of the potentials recorded of the remaining 27 patients were compared to the control. The mean latency was longer (p<0.01) and the mean amplitude and area values were lower (p=0.012, p=0.021, respectively) in the patients compared to the control. We also demonstrated significant correlations between the latency, amplitude, or area values of the SSR and two parameters of pulmonary function tests forced expiratory volume one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and FEV1/FVC %. In conclusion, SSR is impaired in patients with COPD, which indicates the dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, the degree of impairment in SSR may reflect the severity of airway obstruction in patients with COPD. PMID:16272793

  3. Skin thermal response to sapphire contact and cryogen spray cooling: a comparative study based on measurements in a skin phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Jorge H.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Tanenbaum, B. S.; Anvari, Bahman

    2000-05-01

    Non-specific thermal injury to the epidermis may occur as a result of laser treatment of cutaneous hypervascular malformations (e.g. port wine stains) and other dermatoses. Methods to protect the epidermis from thermal injury include sapphire contact cooling (SCC) and cryogen spray cooling (CSC). Evaluation of the skin thermal response to either cooling method and better understanding of the heat transfer process at the skin surface are essential for further optimization of cooling technique during laser therapy. We present internal temperature measurements in an epoxy resin phantom in response to both SCC and CSC, and use the results in conjunction with a mathematical model to predict the temperature distributions within human skin. Based on our results, a conductive heat transfer process at the skin interface appears to be the primary mechanism for both SCC and CSC. In the case of CSC, 'film cooling' rather than 'evaporative cooling' seems to be the dominant mode during the spurt duration. Currently, due to the lower temperature of the cryogen film and its shorter time of application, CSC produces larger temperature reductions at the skin surface and smaller temperature reductions at depths greater than 200 micrometer (i.e., higher spatial selectivity) when compared to SCC. However, SCC can potentially induce temperature reductions comparable to those produced by CSC if a sapphire temperature similar to that for a cryogen could be achieved in practice.

  4. Instrumentation (GSR) and Its Effects on Counselor Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michels, Thomas J.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to make a pilot investigation testing the feasibility of the use of the galvanic skin response (GSR) as a useful instrument to increase the sensitivity of counselors to their clients. The technique could reduce the amount of direct staff assistance needed in the training program. (Author/BY)

  5. Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response.

    PubMed

    Armel, K Carrie; Ramachandran, V S

    2003-07-22

    Subjects perceived touch sensations as arising from a table (or a rubber hand) when both the table (or the rubber hand) and their own real hand were repeatedly tapped and stroked in synchrony with the real hand hidden from view. If the table or rubber hand was then 'injured', subjects displayed a strong skin conductance response (SCR) even though nothing was done to the real hand. Sensations could even be projected to anatomically impossible locations. The illusion was much less vivid, as indicated by subjective reports and SCR, if the real hand was simultaneously visible during stroking, or if the real hand was hidden but touched asynchronously. The fact that the illusion could be significantly diminished when the real hand was simultaneously visible suggests that the illusion and associated SCRs were due to perceptual assimilation of the table (or rubber hand) into one's body image rather than associative conditioning. These experiments demonstrate the malleability of body image and the brain's remarkable capacity for detecting statistical correlations in the sensory input.

  6. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Koros, P.J.; Hellickson, D.A.; Dudek, F.J.

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  7. Human skin pigmentation: melanocytes modulate skin color in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Costin, Gertrude-E; Hearing, Vincent J

    2007-04-01

    All organisms, from simple invertebrates to complex human beings, exist in different colors and patterns, which arise from the unique distribution of pigments throughout the body. Pigmentation is highly heritable, being regulated by genetic, environmental, and endocrine factors that modulate the amount, type, and distribution of melanins in the skin, hair, and eyes. In addition to its roles in camouflage, heat regulation, and cosmetic variation, melanin protects against UV radiation and thus is an important defense system in human skin against harmful factors. Being the largest organ of the body that is always under the influence of internal and external factors, the skin often reacts to those agents by modifying the constitutive pigmentation pattern. The focus of this review is to provide an updated overview of important physiological and biological factors that increase pigmentation and the mechanisms by which they do so. We consider endocrine factors that induce temporary (e.g., during pregnancy) or permanent (e.g., during aging) changes in skin color, environmental factors (e.g., UV), certain drugs, and chemical compounds, etc. Understanding the mechanisms by which different factors and compounds induce melanogenesis is of great interest pharmaceutically (as therapy for pigmentary diseases) and cosmeceutically (e.g., to design tanning products with potential to reduce skin cancer risk). PMID:17242160

  8. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Leal, Esther; Granja, Aitor G; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα), TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ), CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3(+) T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8(+) T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections. PMID:26808410

  9. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Esther; Granja, Aitor G.; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα), TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ), CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections. PMID:26808410

  10. Circular Photo-Galvanic and Spin-Galvanic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivchenko, Eugeniyus L.

    Light propagating through a semiconductor and acting upon mobile carriers can generate a dc electric current, under short-circuit condition, or a voltage, in case of open-circuit samples. In this lecture we consider only the Photo-Galvanic Effects (PGE) which, by definition, appear not due to inhomogeneity of optical excitation of electron-hole pairs, as in the Dember and Photo-Electro-Magnetic Effects, and not due to inhomogeneity of the sample, as in the conventional Photo-Voltaic Effect in p-n junctions. Phenomenologically, they are described by the following equation

  11. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius infection associated with nodular skin lesions and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sa-Hee; Kang, Min-Hee; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-01-01

    A 10-year-old Pekingese dog with atopic dermatitis was referred due to pyrexia, multiple skin nodules, anorexia, and depression. The dog was diagnosed as having systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by bacterial dermatitis. This case presents diagnosis and treatment of SIRS with staphylococcal skin infection in a dog that was immunosuppressed due to long-term use of corticosteroid. PMID:24790236

  12. In vivo ozone exposure induces antioxidant/stress-related responses in murine lung and skin.

    PubMed

    Valacchi, Giuseppe; Pagnin, Elisa; Corbacho, Ana M; Olano, Estibaliz; Davis, Paul A; Packer, Lester; Cross, Carroll E

    2004-03-01

    Lung and skin are the organs directly exposed to environmental pollution. Ozone (O(3)) is a toxic, oxidant air pollutant, and exposure has been shown to induce antioxidant depletion as well as oxidation of lipids and proteins within the outermost skin layer (stratum corneum) and the lung respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLFs). To further define skin and lung responses to O(3) exposure, SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to either 0.8 ppm of O(3) (a level occasionally reached in very polluted areas) or ambient air 6 h/day for 6 consecutive days. O(3) exposure resulted in the depletion of alpha-tocopherol in lung and plasma and induction in both skin and lung of heme oxygenase 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. O(3)-exposed animals showed a similar extent of upregulation of COX-2 and PCNA in lung and skin, whereas HO-1 was more responsive in skin than in lung (7-fold induction vs. 2-fold induction). In addition to these measures of response to oxidative stress, O(3) exposure led to the activation of nuclear factor kappaB measured as IkappaBalpha phosphorylation in both tissues. We conclude that in this model, O(3) at high pollutant levels is able to affect both lung and skin biology, inducing depletion of alpha-tocopherol and inducing stress-related responses in both skin epidermis and respiratory tract epithelium.

  13. Effect of skin wettedness on sweat gland response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the effect of skin wettedness upon sweating rate. Several techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the quantitative nature of this effect. The results include the finding that the evaporative power of the environment has a profound effect on the relationship between body temperature and sweating rate.

  14. Comparative analysis of the acute response of zebrafish Danio rerio skin to two different bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Lü, Aijun; Hu, Xiucai; Wang, Yi; Shen, Xiaojing; Zhu, Aihua; Shen, Lulu; Ming, Qinglei; Feng, Zhaojun

    2013-12-01

    Skin is an important innate immune organ in fish; however, little is known about the skin's immune response to infectious pathogens. We conducted a comparative analysis of the acute immune response of Zebrafish Danio rerio skin against gram-positive (Staphylococcus chromogenes) and gram-negative (Citrobacter freundii) bacterial infections. Gene expression profiles induced from the two different infections were identified by microarray hybridization, with many genes demonstrating an acute immune response in the skin. Differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in response to stress and stimulus, complement activation, acute-phase response, and defense and immune response. Compared with transcription patterns of skin from the two infections, a similar innate immunity (e.g., transferrin, coagulation factor, complements, and lectins) was observed but with different acute-phase genes (e.g., ceruloplasmin, alpha-1-microglobulin, vitellogenin, and heat shock protein). These results suggest that the skin of fish plays an important role in the innate immune responses to bacterial infection. PMID:24341765

  15. Galvanic corrosion of selected dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Karov, J; Hinberg, I

    2001-03-01

    Samples prepared from three different amalgam brands were coupled to two gold alloys and orthodontic brackets. In the resulting galvanic cells, the amalgam coupled to gold were anodic, exhibiting galvanic current densities about one order of magnitude higher than the uncoupled corrosion current densities of 0.2-0.5 microA. Coupling amalgams to orthodontic brackets resulted in galvanic current densities of the same magnitude as the uncoupled samples. Corrosion current densities at the anode were found to be up to six times higher than the measured galvanic current densities. Brushing caused transient increases in galvanic current densities that decayed within 100 s to the previous steady state levels. Brushing of amalgam/bracket couples, caused an anodic peak followed by brief polarization reversal during which the brackets were anodic.

  16. What does galvanic vestibular stimulation stimulate?

    PubMed

    Wardman, Daniel L; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2002-01-01

    The technique of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has been used for a long time. The stimulus produces stereotyped automatic postural and ocular responses. The mechanisms underlying these responses are not understood although they are commonly attributed to altered otolith output. Based on animal studies, it seems reasonable to assume that vestibular afferents from the otoliths and semicircular canals are affected similarly by GVS. With this assumption, and anatomical knowledge of the vestibular apparatus, a model is developed to describe the expected responses of vestibular afferents to percutaneous GVS and the physiological implications of this altered sensory signal. Bilateral bipolar GVS, the most commonly used technique, should produce a canal signal consistent with a strong ear-down roll towards the cathodal side, a smaller nose-to-cathode yaw, but no pitch signal. Bilateral bipolar GVS should also produce an otolith signal consistent with tilt towards the cathodal side or a translational acceleration towards the anodal side. The expected responses for other configurations of GVS are also described. The model appears consistent with published data on the ocular and postural responses to GVS, and suggests other testable hypotheses concerning postural, ocular and perceptual responses to GVS.

  17. Galvanic corrosion of beryllium welds

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-12-01

    Beryllium is difficult to weld because it is highly susceptible to cracking. The most commonly used filler metal in beryllium welds is Al-12 wt.% Si. Beryllium has been successfully welded using Al-Si filler metal with more than 30 wt.% Al. This filler creates an aluminum-rich fusion zone with a low melting point that tends to backfill cracks. Drawbacks to adding a filler metal include a reduction in service temperature, a lowering of the tensile strength of the weld, and the possibility for galvanic corrosion to occur at the weld. To evaluate the degree of interaction between Be and Al-Si in an actual weld, sections from a mock beryllium weldment were exposed to 0.1 M Cl{sup {minus}} solution. Results indicate that the galvanic couple between Be and the Al-Si weld material results in the cathodic protection of the weld and of the anodic dissolution of the bulk Be material. While the cathodic protection of Al is generally inefficient, the high anodic dissolution rate of the bulk Be during pitting corrosion combined with the insulating properties of the Be oxide afford some protection of the Al-Si weld material. Although dissolution of the Be precipitate in the weld material does occur, no corrosion of the Al-Si matrix was observed.

  18. The use of infrared thermography to detect the skin temperature response to physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, G.

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity has a noticeable effect on skin blood flow and temperature. The thermal regulatory and hemodynamic processes during physical activity are controlled by two conflicting mechanisms: the skin vasoconstriction induced by the blood flow demand to active muscles and the skin vasodilation required by thermoregulation to increase warm blood flow and heat conduction to the skin. The time-evolution of skin temperature during exercise can give useful information about the adaptation of the subject as a function of specific type, intensity and duration of exercise. In this paper, infrared thermography is used to investigate the thermal response of skin temperature during running exercise on treadmill for a group of seven healthy and trained runners. Two different treadmill exercises are considered: a graded load exercise and a constant load exercise; for both exercises the duration was 30 minutes. Within the limits due to the relatively small size of the sample group, results typically indicate a fall in skin temperature during the initial stage of running exercise. As the exercise progresses, the dynamics of the skin temperature response depends on the type of exercise (graded versus constant load) and probably on the level of training of the subject.

  19. Differences in thermal optical response between intact diabetic and nondiabetic human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shu-Jen; Hanna, Charles F.; Kantor, Stan; Hohs, Ronald; Khalil, Omar S.

    2003-07-01

    We observed a difference in the thermal response of localized reflectance signal of human skin between type-2 diabetic and non-diabetic volunteers. We investigated the use of this thermo-optical behavior as a basis for a non-invasive method for the determination of the diabetic status of a subject. We used a two-site temperature differential method, which is predicated upon the measurement of localized reflectance from two areas on the surface of the skin, each of these areas is subjected to a different thermal perturbation. The response of skin localized reflectance to temperature was measured and used in a classification algorithm. We used a discriminant function to classify subjects as diabetics or non-diabetics. In a prediction set of 24 non-invasive tests collected from 6 diabetics and 6 non-diabetics, the sensitivity ranged between 73% and 100%, and the specificity ranged between 75% and 100%, depending on the thermal conditions and probe-skin contact time. The difference in thermo-optical response of the skin of the two groups may be explained in terms of difference in response of cutaneous microcirculation to temperature, which is manifested as a difference in the near infrared light absorption and scattering. Another factor is the difference in the temperature response of the scattering coefficient between the two groups, which may be caused by cutaneous structural differences induced by non-enzymatic glycation of skin protein fibers, and/or by the difference in blood cell aggregation.

  20. The use of reflectance confocal microscopy for monitoring response to therapy of skin malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Martina; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Susanne; Gonzalez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Summary Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a new non-invasive imaging technique that enables visualizing cells and structures in living skin in real-time with resolution close to that of histological analysis. RCM has been successfully implemented in the assessment of benign and malignant lesions. Most importantly, it also enables monitoring dynamic changes in the skin over time and in response to different therapies, e.g., imiquimod, photodynamic therapy, and others. Given the often traumatic nature of skin cancer that affects both the physiology and the psychology of the patients, it is crucial to have methods that enable monitoring the response to treatment but that minimize the distress and discomfort associated with such process. This article provides a very brief overview of the fundamentals of RCM and then focuses on its recent employment as a monitoring tool in skin cancer and other pathologies that may require frequent follow-up. PMID:23785598

  1. Skin microbiome imbalance in patients with STAT1/STAT3 defects impairs innate host defense responses

    PubMed Central

    Smeekens, Sanne P.; Huttenhower, Curtis; Riza, Anca; van de Veerdonk, Frank; Zeeuwen, Patrick L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, Joost; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Netea, Mihai G.; Gevers, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) are primary immunodeficiencies mainly caused by mutations in STAT1 and STAT3, respectively. CMC and HIES patients have an increased risk for skin and mucosal infections with fungal pathogens and Staphylococcus aureus. However, it is unknown whether the genetic defects in these patients also affect the skin and mucosal microbiome, which in turn may influence host defense mechanisms. Methods The skin and oral microbiome of CMC and HIES patients was compared to that of healthy controls at five body sites using 16S rRNA sequencing. The influence of skin colonizers on the immune response was investigated using in-vitro experiments. Results The microbiome of CMC and HIES patients contained more Gram-negative bacteria, especially Acinetobacter spp, and less of the normal Corynebacterium spp., compared to healthy controls. Exposure of human primary leukocytes to Acinetobacter suppressed the cytokine response to C. albicans and S. aureus, while the normal Corynebacteria did not suppress cytokine responses. Discussion These results demonstrate that central mediators of immune responses like STAT1 and STAT3 not only directly influence immune responses, but also result in changes of the skin microbiome that in turn can amplify the defective immune response against fungal and microbial pathogens. PMID:23796786

  2. Triclosan Induces Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin in Skin Promoting Th2 Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Nikki B.; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie M.; Kashon, Michael L.; Sharpnack, Douglas D.; Nayak, Ajay P.; Anderson, Katie L.; Meade, B. Jean; Anderson, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical incorporated into many personal, medical and household products. Approximately, 75% of the U.S. population has detectable levels of triclosan in their urine, and although it is not typically considered a contact sensitizer, recent studies have begun to link triclosan exposure with augmented allergic disease. We examined the effects of dermal triclosan exposure on the skin and lymph nodes of mice and in a human skin model to identify mechanisms for augmenting allergic responses. Triclosan (0%–3%) was applied topically at 24-h intervals to the ear pinnae of OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Skin and draining lymph nodes were evaluated for cellular responses and cytokine expression over time. The effects of triclosan (0%–0.75%) on cytokine expression in a human skin tissue model were also examined. Exposure to triclosan increased the expression of TSLP, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the skin with concomitant decreases in IL-25, IL-33, and IL-1α. Similar changes in TSLP, IL1B, and IL33 expression occurred in human skin. Topical application of triclosan also increased draining lymph node cellularity consisting of activated CD86+GL-7+ B cells, CD80+CD86+ dendritic cells, GATA-3+OX-40+IL-4+IL-13+ Th2 cells and IL-17 A+ CD4 T cells. In vivo antibody blockade of TSLP reduced skin irritation, IL-1β expression, lymph node cellularity, and Th2 responses augmented by triclosan. Repeated dermal exposure to triclosan induces TSLP expression in skin tissue as a potential mechanism for augmenting allergic responses. PMID:26048654

  3. Triclosan Induces Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin in Skin Promoting Th2 Allergic Responses.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Nikki B; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie M; Kashon, Michael L; Sharpnack, Douglas D; Nayak, Ajay P; Anderson, Katie L; Jean Meade, B; Anderson, Stacey E

    2015-09-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical incorporated into many personal, medical and household products. Approximately, 75% of the U.S. population has detectable levels of triclosan in their urine, and although it is not typically considered a contact sensitizer, recent studies have begun to link triclosan exposure with augmented allergic disease. We examined the effects of dermal triclosan exposure on the skin and lymph nodes of mice and in a human skin model to identify mechanisms for augmenting allergic responses. Triclosan (0%-3%) was applied topically at 24-h intervals to the ear pinnae of OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice. Skin and draining lymph nodes were evaluated for cellular responses and cytokine expression over time. The effects of triclosan (0%-0.75%) on cytokine expression in a human skin tissue model were also examined. Exposure to triclosan increased the expression of TSLP, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the skin with concomitant decreases in IL-25, IL-33, and IL-1α. Similar changes in TSLP, IL1B, and IL33 expression occurred in human skin. Topical application of triclosan also increased draining lymph node cellularity consisting of activated CD86(+)GL-7(+) B cells, CD80(+)CD86(+) dendritic cells, GATA-3(+)OX-40(+)IL-4(+)IL-13(+) Th2 cells and IL-17 A(+) CD4 T cells. In vivo antibody blockade of TSLP reduced skin irritation, IL-1β expression, lymph node cellularity, and Th2 responses augmented by triclosan. Repeated dermal exposure to triclosan induces TSLP expression in skin tissue as a potential mechanism for augmenting allergic responses.

  4. Stuttered and Fluent Speakers' Heart Rate and Skin Conductance in Response to Fluent and Stuttered Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Hudock, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found simultaneous increases in skin conductance response and decreases in heart rate when normally fluent speakers watched and listened to stuttered speech compared with fluent speech, suggesting that stuttering induces arousal and emotional unpleasantness in listeners. However, physiological responses of persons…

  5. Skin Conductance Responses to Another Person's Gaze in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kylliainen, Anneli; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of another person's gaze on physiological arousal were investigated by measuring skin conductance responses (SCR). Twelve able children with autism and 12 control children were shown face stimuli with straight gaze (eye contact) or averted gaze on a computer monitor. In children with autism, the responses to straight gaze were stronger…

  6. A suction blister model reliably assesses skin barrier restoration and immune response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Wilson, Marques A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2015-02-01

    Skin wound healing models can be used to detect changes in immune function in response to interventions. This study used a test-retest format to assess the reliability of a skin suction blister procedure for quantitatively evaluating human immune function in repeated measures type studies. Up to eight suction blisters (~30 mm(2)) were induced via suction on each participant's left and right forearm (randomized order; blister session 1 and 2), separated by approximately one week. Fluid was sampled from each blister, and the top layer of each blister was removed to reveal up to eight skin wounds. Fluid from each wound was collected 4, 7 and 24h after blisters were induced, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), to assess skin barrier recovery, was measured daily at each wound site until values were within 90% of baseline values (i.e., unbroken skin). Sleep, stress and inflammation (i.e., factors that affect wound healing and immune function), preceding the blister induction, were assessed via activity monitors (Actical, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, Pennsylvania), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and C-reactive protein (CRP), respectively. Area-under-the-curve and TEWL, between blister session 1 and 2, were compared using Pearson correlations and partial correlations (controlling for average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP). The suction blister method was considered reliable for assessing immune response and skin barrier recovery if correlation coefficients reached 0.7. Volunteers (n=16; 12 M; 4F) were 23 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]. Time to skin barrier restoration was 4.9 ± 0.8 and 4.8 ± 0.9 days for sessions 1 and 2, respectively. Correlation coefficients for skin barrier restoration, IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-1α were 0.9 (P<0.0001), 0.7 (P=0.008) and 0.9 (P<0.0001), respectively. When average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP (i.e., percent difference between sessions 1 and 2) were taken into consideration, correlations in

  7. A suction blister model reliably assesses skin barrier restoration and immune response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Wilson, Marques A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2015-02-01

    Skin wound healing models can be used to detect changes in immune function in response to interventions. This study used a test-retest format to assess the reliability of a skin suction blister procedure for quantitatively evaluating human immune function in repeated measures type studies. Up to eight suction blisters (~30 mm(2)) were induced via suction on each participant's left and right forearm (randomized order; blister session 1 and 2), separated by approximately one week. Fluid was sampled from each blister, and the top layer of each blister was removed to reveal up to eight skin wounds. Fluid from each wound was collected 4, 7 and 24h after blisters were induced, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), to assess skin barrier recovery, was measured daily at each wound site until values were within 90% of baseline values (i.e., unbroken skin). Sleep, stress and inflammation (i.e., factors that affect wound healing and immune function), preceding the blister induction, were assessed via activity monitors (Actical, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, Pennsylvania), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and C-reactive protein (CRP), respectively. Area-under-the-curve and TEWL, between blister session 1 and 2, were compared using Pearson correlations and partial correlations (controlling for average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP). The suction blister method was considered reliable for assessing immune response and skin barrier recovery if correlation coefficients reached 0.7. Volunteers (n=16; 12 M; 4F) were 23 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]. Time to skin barrier restoration was 4.9 ± 0.8 and 4.8 ± 0.9 days for sessions 1 and 2, respectively. Correlation coefficients for skin barrier restoration, IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-1α were 0.9 (P<0.0001), 0.7 (P=0.008) and 0.9 (P<0.0001), respectively. When average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP (i.e., percent difference between sessions 1 and 2) were taken into consideration, correlations in

  8. Development of a highly sensitive galvanic cell oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Ogino, H; Asakura, K

    1995-02-01

    A highly sensitive galvanic cell oxygen sensor was successfully developed for determining parts per billion of oxygen in high purity gases such as nitrogen, argon, etc. The response of this improved sensor was proportional in the range of oxygen concentrations from 10.0 ppm to the detection limit. The response speed in this study was improved to within 90 sec for a 90% response. The detection limit was tentatively found to be less than 0.4 ppb corresponding to S N = 2 .

  9. Nicotine increases initial blood flow responses to local heating of human non-glabrous skin.

    PubMed

    Warner, David O; Joyner, Michael J; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2004-09-15

    Nicotine affects the regulation of skin blood flow (SkBF), but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to nicotine inhibits both the initial neurally mediated component and the later sustained component of SkBF responses to local heating of non-glabrous skin in humans. SkBF (measured by laser-Doppler) responses to local heating of forearm skin from 32 to 42 degrees C were measured in 11 chronic smokers. Heating occurred at one site over 15 min (RAMP) and over 90 s (STEP) at another site, and was maintained for an additional 30 min. STEP heating was also applied to a site pretreated with bretylium via iontophoresis to inhibit noradrenergic neurotransmission. Responses were measured before and after acute administration of nicotine via cigarettes or nasal spray in two experimental sessions. Nicotine decreased resting skin blood flow (P < 0.05); this response was inhibited by bretylium. During RAMP, nicotine increased the initial SkBF at 42 degrees C (by approximately 12%, P < 0.05). For STEP, nicotine increased the initial peak response (by approximately 25%, P < 0.05), and decreased the sustained plateau value (by approximately 10%, P < 0.05). In skin pretreated with bretylium, the increase caused by nicotine in the initial peak value persisted, but the plateau value was not different from pre-nicotine. These data suggest that in abstinent cigarette smokers, nicotine augments initial responses to both gradual and rapid non-painful heating of non-glabrous skin by sensitizing the sensory nerves that mediate the axon reflex associated with rapid vasodilatation. In contrast, nicotine decreases SkBF responses to prolonged heating by activating noradrenergic nerves.

  10. Molecular genetic response to varied wavelengths of light in Xiphophorus maculatus skin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jordan; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, William T; Boswell, Mikki; Caballero, Kaela L; Walter, Ronald B

    2015-12-01

    Xiphophorus fishes represent a model often utilized to study UVB induced tumorigenesis. Recently, varied genetic responses to UVB exposure have been documented in the skin of female and male Xiphophorus, as have differences in UVB response in the skin of different parental species and for interspecies hybrids produced from crossing them. Additionally, it has been shown that exposure to "cool white" fluorescent light induces a shift in the genetic profiles of Xiphophorus skin that is nearly as robust as the UVB response, but involves a fundamentally different set of genes. Given these results and the use of Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids as an experimental model for UVB inducible melanoma, it is of interest to characterize genes that may be transcriptionally modulated in a wavelength specific manner. The global molecular genetic response of skin upon exposure of the intact animal to specific wavelengths of light has not been investigated. Herein, we report results of RNA-Seq experiments from the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B following exposure to varied 50nm wavelengths of light ranging from 300-600nm. We identify two specific wavelength regions, 350-400nm (88 genes) and 500-550nm (276 genes), that exhibit transcriptional modulation of a significantly greater number of transcripts than any of the other 50nm regions in the 300-600nm range. Observed functional sets of genes modulated within these two transcriptionally active light regions suggest different mechanisms of gene modulation.

  11. Synchronization of sacral skin blood flow oscillations in response to local heating.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yih-Kuen; Liao, Fuyuan

    2011-01-01

    Local heating causes an increase in skin blood flow by activating sensory axon reflex and metabolic nitric oxide controls. It has been observed that the remote skin area without temperature changes also shows a slightly increase in blood flow. The responsible mechanism of this indirect vasodilation remains unclear. We hypothesized that the remote skin area will have enhanced synchronization of blood flow oscillations (BFO), thus inducing a vasodilatory response. We studied BFO in two sites separated 10 cm of the sacral skin in 12 healthy people. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition method was used to decompose blood flow signals into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), and an IMF was selected to quantify each of myogenic, neurogenic, and metabolic modes of BFO. Then the instantaneous phase of the mode was calculated using the Hilbert transform. From the time series of phase difference between a pair of characteristic modes, we detected the epochs of phase synchronization and estimated the level of statistical significance using surrogate time series. The results showed that phase synchronization between neurogenic BFO was significantly higher in the period of the maximal vasodilation. We also observed a weak synchronization between myogenic BFO of the two skin sites. Our results suggested that synchronization of BFO may be associated with the changes in skin blood flow at the non-heated site.

  12. Time and dose-response effects of honokiol on UVB-induced skin cancer development.

    PubMed

    Guillermo, Ruth F; Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zeman, David; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2012-06-01

    Honokiol has shown chemopreventive effects in chemically-induced and UVB-induced skin cancer in mice. In this investigation, we assessed the time-effects of a topical low dose of honokiol (30 μg), and then the effects of different honokiol doses (30, 45, and 60 μg) on a UVB-induced skin cancer model to find an optimal dose and time for desirable chemopreventive effects. UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm(2), 5 days/week for 25 or 27 weeks) was used to induce skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice. For the time-response experiment 30 μg honokiol in acetone was applied topically to the animals before the UVB exposure (30 min, 1 h, and 2 h) and after the UVB exposure (immediately, 30 min, and 1 h). Control groups were treated with acetone. For the dose-response study, animals were treated topically with acetone or honokiol (30, 45, and 60 μg) one hour before the UVB exposure. In the time-response experiment, honokiol inhibited skin tumor multiplicity by 49-58% while reducing tumor volumes by 70-89%. In the dose-response study, honokiol (30, 45, and 60 μg) significantly decreased skin tumor multiplicity by 36-78% in a dose-dependent manner, while tumor area was reduced by 76-94%. Honokiol (60 μg) significantly reduced tumor incidence by 40% as compared to control group. Honokiol applied in very low doses (30 μg) either before or after UVB radiation shows chemopreventive effects. Honokiol (30, 45, and 60 μg) prevents UVB-induced skin cancer in a dose-dependent manner. Honokiol can be an effective chemopreventive agent against skin cancer.

  13. Sympathetic Responses to Noxious Stimulation of Muscle and Skin.

    PubMed

    Burton, Alexander R; Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2016-01-01

    Acute pain triggers adaptive physiological responses that serve as protective mechanisms that prevent continuing damage to tissues and cause the individual to react to remove or escape the painful stimulus. However, an extension of the pain response beyond signaling tissue damage and healing, such as in chronic pain states, serves no particular biological function; it is maladaptive. The increasing number of chronic pain sufferers is concerning, and the associated disease burden is putting healthcare systems around the world under significant pressure. The incapacitating effects of long-lasting pain are not just psychological - reflexes driven by nociceptors during the establishment of chronic pain may cause serious physiological consequences on regulation of other body systems. The sympathetic nervous system is inherently involved in a host of physiological responses evoked by noxious stimulation. Experimental animal and human models demonstrate a diverse array of heterogeneous reactions to nociception. The purpose of this review is to understand how pain affects the sympathetic nervous system by investigating the reflex cardiovascular and neural responses to acute pain and the long-lasting physiological responses to prolonged (tonic) pain. By observing the sympathetic responses to long-lasting pain, we can begin to understand the physiological consequences of long-term pain on cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27445972

  14. Sympathetic Responses to Noxious Stimulation of Muscle and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Alexander R.; Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute pain triggers adaptive physiological responses that serve as protective mechanisms that prevent continuing damage to tissues and cause the individual to react to remove or escape the painful stimulus. However, an extension of the pain response beyond signaling tissue damage and healing, such as in chronic pain states, serves no particular biological function; it is maladaptive. The increasing number of chronic pain sufferers is concerning, and the associated disease burden is putting healthcare systems around the world under significant pressure. The incapacitating effects of long-lasting pain are not just psychological – reflexes driven by nociceptors during the establishment of chronic pain may cause serious physiological consequences on regulation of other body systems. The sympathetic nervous system is inherently involved in a host of physiological responses evoked by noxious stimulation. Experimental animal and human models demonstrate a diverse array of heterogeneous reactions to nociception. The purpose of this review is to understand how pain affects the sympathetic nervous system by investigating the reflex cardiovascular and neural responses to acute pain and the long-lasting physiological responses to prolonged (tonic) pain. By observing the sympathetic responses to long-lasting pain, we can begin to understand the physiological consequences of long-term pain on cardiovascular regulation. PMID:27445972

  15. Skin blood flow responses to the iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in man: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, S J; Shore, A C

    1996-01-01

    1. The mechanisms involved in the human skin blood flow responses to iontophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACH; delivered using an anodal charge) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP; administered with a cathodal charge) are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate possible contributions of prostaglandin production to the increase in skin blood flow induced following the iontophoresis of ACh and to investigate possible contributions from local sensory nerves to the perfusion responses induced by ACh, SNP and their vehicles. 2. The contribution of prostaglandins to the ACh response was determined in a randomized double-blind study of eight healthy subjects, who were studied on two occasions. Basal responses to ACh were measured before the oral administration of 600 mg soluble aspirin in diluted orange juice (1 occasion or orange juice (1 occasion) and again 30 min after the drink. The contribution of local sensory nerve activation to the responses to ACh and ACh vehicle (8 subjects) and to SNP and SNP vehicle (7 subjects) was assessed. EMLA (5%) (a eutectic mixture of lignocaine and prilocaine) and placebo cream were applied to two separate areas on the forearm in a double-blind randomized manner 2 h before drug responses were measured. In all studies the skin microcirculation responses to iontophoretically applied drug vehicle (1 site) and drug (2 sites) were recorded by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. 3. The increase in forearm skin perfusion (P < 0.001) in response to the iontophoresis of ACh minus the response to ACh vehicle was not significantly different following placebo or aspirin administration. The increase in forearm skin red blood cell flux (P < 0.001) in response to the iontophoresis of ACh minus the response to ACh vehicle was not significantly different at the placebo-compared with the EMLA-treated site. THe small increase in perfusion (P < 0.001) in response to the iontophoresis of ACh vehicle was significantly inhibited at the EMLA

  16. Short-term cadmium exposure induces stress responses in frog (Pelophylax bergeri) skin organ culture.

    PubMed

    Simoncelli, Francesca; Belia, Silvia; Di Rosa, Ines; Paracucchi, Romina; Rossi, Roberta; La Porta, Gianandrea; Lucentini, Livia; Fagotti, Anna

    2015-12-01

    There have been a few studies on the negative effects of pollutants on amphibian skin, the first structural barrier that interacts with the environment and its potential contaminants. In this study an ex vivo skin organ culture from the amphibian Pelophylax bergeri was used to evaluate cell stress responses induced by short-term exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal known to be an environmental hazard to both humans and wildlife. Histopathological studies were carried out on skin explants using light microscopy and changes in the expression of stress proteins, such as Metallothionein (MT) and Heat shock proteins (HSPs), were investigated by Real-time RT-PCR. Results revealed that amphibian skin reacts to Cd-induced stress by activating biological responses such as morphological alterations and dose- and time-dependent induction of Mt and Hsp70 mRNA expression, suggesting their potential role as biomarkers of exposure to Cd. This work provides a basis for a better understanding of the tissue-specific responses of amphibian skin as a target organ to Cd exposure and its in vitro use for testing potentially harmful substances present in the environment.

  17. The interrelationship between air temperature and humidity as applied locally to the skin: The resultant response on skin temperature and blood flow with age differences

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S.; Berk, Lee; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Hamdan, Adel; Yim, Jong Eun; Kodawala, Yusufi; Patel, Dennis; Nevgi, Bhakti; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei Ti; Alshaharani, Mastour; Pathak, Kunal; Neupane, Sushma; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Shenoy, Samruddha; Cho, Sungwan; Dave, Bargav; Desai, Rajavi; Malthane, Swapnil; Al-Nakhli, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Most studies of the skin and how it responds to local heat have been conducted with either water, thermodes, or dry heat packs. Very little has been accomplished to look at the interaction between air humidity and temperature on skin temperature and blood flow. With variable air temperatures and humidity’s around the world, this, in many ways, is a more realistic assessment of environmental impact than previous water bath studies. Material/Methods Eight young and 8 older subjects were examined in an extensive series of experiments where on different days, air temperature was 38, 40, or 42°C. and at each temperature, humidity was either 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% humidity. Over a 20 minute period of exposure, the response of the skin in terms of its temperature and blood flow was assessed. Results For both younger and older subjects, for air temperatures of 38 and 40°C., the humidity of the air had no effect on the blood flow response of the skin, while skin temperature at the highest humidity was elevated slightly. However, for air temperatures of 42°C., at 100% humidity, there was a significant elevation in skin blood flow and skin temperature above the other four air humidity’s (p<0.05). In older subjects, the blood flow response was less and the skin temperature was much higher than younger individuals for air at 42°C. and 100% humidity (p<0.05). Conclusions Thus, in older subjects, warm humid air caused a greater rise in skin temperature with less protective effect of blood flow to protect the skin from overheating than is found in younger subjects. PMID:22460091

  18. Metal fume fever among galvanized welders.

    PubMed

    Wardhana; Datau, E A

    2014-07-01

    The metal fume fever (MFF) is an inhalation fever syndrome in welders of galvanized steel, who join and cut metal parts using flame or electric arc and other sources of heat. Inhalation of certain freshly formed metal oxides produced from welding process can cause MFF as an acute self-limiting flulike illness. The most common cause of MFF is the inhalation of zinc oxide (ZnO). The inhalation of ZnO particles can provoke a number of clinical responses of which accompanied by changes in composition of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, including early increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory marker, and recruitment of inflammatory cells in the lungs. The MFF is characterized by fever, cough, sputing, wheezing, chest tightness, fatique, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis with a left shift, thirst, metallic taste, and salivations. The diagnosis of MFF diagnosis is based on clinical finding and occupational history. The symptoms resolved spontaneously. The treatment of MFF is entirely symptomatic, no specific treatment is indicated for MFF. The mainstay of management of MFF is prevention of sub-sequent exposure to harmful metals. Including public and physician awareness of MFF may help to reduce the occurrence of the disease. PMID:25348190

  19. Investigation of galvanic-coupled intrabody communication using the human body circuit model.

    PubMed

    Kibret, Behailu; Seyedi, MirHojjat; Lai, Daniel T H; Faulkner, Micheal

    2014-07-01

    Intrabody Communication (IBC) is a technique that uses the human body as a transmission medium for electrical signals to connect wearable electronic sensors and devices. Understanding the human body as the transmission medium in IBC paves way for practical implementation of IBC in body sensor networks. In this study, we propose a model for galvanic coupling-type IBC based on a simplified equivalent circuit representation of the human upper arm. We propose a new way to calculate the electrode-skin contact impedance. Based on the model and human experimental results, we discuss important characteristics of galvanic coupling-type IBC, namely, the effect of tissues, anthropometry of subjects, and electrode configuration on signal propagation. We found that the dielectric properties of the muscle primarily characterize the received signal when receiver electrodes are located close to transmitter electrodes. When receiver and transmitter electrodes are far apart, the skin dielectric property affects the received signal.

  20. Circular Photo-Galvanic and Spin-Galvanic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivchenko, Eugeniyus L.

    Light propagating through a semiconductor and acting upon mobile carriers can generate a dc electric current, under short-circuit condition, or a voltage, in case of open-circuit samples. In this lecture we consider only the Photo-Galvanic Effects (PGE) which, by definition, appear not due to inhomogeneity of optical excitation of electron-hole pairs, as in the Dember and Photo-Electro-Magnetic Effects, and not due to inhomogeneity of the sample, as in the conventional Photo-Voltaic Effect in p-n junctions. Phenomenologically, they are described by the following equation which relates the dc current density with the light intensity I, polarization e and wave vector q. In a bulk semiconductor or superlattice the index λ runs over all three Cartesian coordinates x,y,z. In quantum well (QW) structures the free-carrier motion along the growth direction is quantized and the index λ enumerates two interface coordinates. In quantum wires and nanotubes the free movement is allowed only along one axis, the principal axis of the structure, and the coordinate λ is parallel to this axis. On the other hand, the light polarization unit vector e can be arbitrarily oriented in space and, therefore, μ, ν = x,y,z. Note that, for linearly polarized light, the complex conjugate vector e^* is parallel to e and the vector product e × e^* vanishes. For elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave, the vector i (e × e^*) is real and proportional to the degree of circular polarization Pc; for a transverse wave it can be presented as a product Pc hat{o} where hat{o} is a unit vector in the direction of light propagation.

  1. A theoretical investigation of human skin thermal response to near-infrared laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Tianhong; Pikkula, Brian M.; Wang, Lihong V.; Anvari, Bahman

    2004-07-01

    Near-infrared wavelengths are absorbed less by epidermal melanin mainly located at the basal layer of epidermis (dermo-epidermal junction), and penetrate deeper into human skin dermis and blood than visible wavelengths. Therefore, laser irradiation using near-infrared wavelength may improve the therapeutic outcome of cutaneous hyper-vascular malformations in moderately to heavily pigmented skin patients and those with large-sized blood vessels or blood vessels extending deeply into the skin. A mathematical model composed of a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate the distribution of absorbed light followed by numerical solution of a bio-heat diffusion equation was utilized to investigate the thermal response of human skin to near-infrared laser irradiation, and compared it with that to visible laser irradiation. Additionally, the effect of skin surface cooling on epidermal protection was theoretically investigated. Simulation results indicated that 940 nm wavelength is superior to 810 and 1064 nm in terms of the ratio of light absorption by targeted blood vessel to the absorption by the basal layer of epidermis, and is more efficient than 595 nm wavelength for the treatment of patients with large-sized blood vessels and moderately to heavily pigmented skin. Dermal blood content has a considerable effect on the laser-induced peak temperature at the basal layer of epidermis, while the effect of blood vessel size is minimum.

  2. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  3. Stress and immune responses in skin of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under different stocking densities.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Liu, Bao-Liang; Feng, Wen-Rong; Han, Cen; Huang, Bin; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Fish skin and its mucus provide the first line of defense against chemical, physical and biological stressors, but little is known about the role of skin and its mucus in immune response to crowding stress. In the present study, we investigated the stress and immune responses in skin of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under different stocking densities. Turbot (average weight 185.4 g) were reared for 120 days under three densities: low density (LD), medium density (MD), and high density (HD). After 120 days, fish were weighed and sampled to obtain blood, mucus and skin tissues which were used for analyses of biochemical parameters and genes expression. The results showed HD treatment significantly suppressed growth and enhanced plasma cortisol and glucose levels (P < 0.05). In mucus, the activities of lysozyme (LZM), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and esterase in HD treatment were lower than LD and MD treatments (P < 0.05) In skin, HD treatment resulted in up-regulation in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) mRNA level, and down-regulation in activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the transcriptions of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α), insulin-like growth factor- (IGF-) and LZM (P < 0.05). Overall, the data suggested that overly high stocking density was a stressor which caused an immunosuppression in skin of turbot. Moreover, this information would help to understand the skin immunity and their relation with stress and disease in fish. PMID:27235366

  4. Thermal Response of In Vivo Human Skin to Fractional Radiofrequency Microneedle Device

    PubMed Central

    Manuskiatti, Woraphong; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Inthasotti, Siriluk; Sitthinamsuwan, Panitta; Hanamornroongruang, Suchanan; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Chu-ongsakol, Sorawuth

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fractional radiofrequency microneedle system (FRMS) is a novel fractional skin resurfacing system. Data on thermal response to this fractional resurfacing technique is limited. Objectives. To investigate histologic response of in vivo human skin to varying energy settings and pulse stacking of a FRMS in dark-skinned subjects. Methods. Two female volunteers who were scheduled for abdominoplasty received treatment with a FRMS with varying energy settings at 6 time periods including 3 months, 1 month, 1 week, 3 days, 1 day, and the time immediately before abdominoplasty. Biopsy specimens were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Verhoeff-Van Gieson (VVG), colloidal iron, and Fontana-Masson stain. Immunohistochemical study was performed by using Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) antibody and collagen III monoclonal antibody. Results. The average depth of radiofrequency thermal zone (RFTZ) ranged from 100 to 300 μm, correlating with energy levels. Columns of cell necrosis and collagen denaturation followed by inflammatory response were initially demonstrated, with subsequent increasing of mucin at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Immunohistochemical study showed positive stain with HSP70. Conclusion. A single treatment with a FRMS using appropriate energy setting induces neocollagenesis. This wound healing response may serve as a mean to improve the appearance of photodamaged skin and atrophic scars. PMID:27247943

  5. Thermal Response of In Vivo Human Skin to Fractional Radiofrequency Microneedle Device.

    PubMed

    Manuskiatti, Woraphong; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Inthasotti, Siriluk; Sitthinamsuwan, Panitta; Hanamornroongruang, Suchanan; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Chu-Ongsakol, Sorawuth

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fractional radiofrequency microneedle system (FRMS) is a novel fractional skin resurfacing system. Data on thermal response to this fractional resurfacing technique is limited. Objectives. To investigate histologic response of in vivo human skin to varying energy settings and pulse stacking of a FRMS in dark-skinned subjects. Methods. Two female volunteers who were scheduled for abdominoplasty received treatment with a FRMS with varying energy settings at 6 time periods including 3 months, 1 month, 1 week, 3 days, 1 day, and the time immediately before abdominoplasty. Biopsy specimens were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Verhoeff-Van Gieson (VVG), colloidal iron, and Fontana-Masson stain. Immunohistochemical study was performed by using Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) antibody and collagen III monoclonal antibody. Results. The average depth of radiofrequency thermal zone (RFTZ) ranged from 100 to 300 μm, correlating with energy levels. Columns of cell necrosis and collagen denaturation followed by inflammatory response were initially demonstrated, with subsequent increasing of mucin at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Immunohistochemical study showed positive stain with HSP70. Conclusion. A single treatment with a FRMS using appropriate energy setting induces neocollagenesis. This wound healing response may serve as a mean to improve the appearance of photodamaged skin and atrophic scars. PMID:27247943

  6. Age-related regional variations of human skin blood flow response to histamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tur, Ethel; Brenner, Sarah

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess age-related regional variations in skin function, by measuring the cutaneous microvascular response to histamine. Histamine was topically applied to the back and forearm of young and aged volunteers, and the response was quantified utilizing laser Doppler flowmetry. Each group comprised of 14 volunteers. The cutaneous vascular response to histamine was significantly greater on the back than on the forearm of young healthy volunteers, whereas in aged ones the response over these two sites did not significantly differ. These observations indicate anatomical or functional differences between old and young skin as relates to regional variations. They may underlie some of the differences in the manifestations of disease processes in various age groups.

  7. Activation of Molecular Signatures for Antimicrobial and Innate Defense Responses in Skin with Transglutaminase 1 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Haneda, Takashi; Imai, Yasutomo; Uchiyama, Ryosuke; Jitsukawa, Orie; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the transglutaminase 1 gene (TGM1) are a major cause of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCIs) that are associated with defects in skin barrier structure and function. However, the molecular processes induced by the transglutaminase 1 deficiency are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to uncover those processes by analysis of cutaneous molecular signatures. Gene expression profiles of wild-type and Tgm1-/-epidermis were assessed using microarrays. Gene ontology analysis of the data showed that genes for innate defense responses were up-regulated in Tgm1-/-epidermis. Based on that result, the induction of Il1b and antimicrobial peptide genes, S100a8, S100a9, Defb14, Camp, Slpi, Lcn2, Ccl20 and Wfdc12, was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. A protein array revealed that levels of IL-1β, G-CSF, GM-CSF, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CCL2 were increased in Tgm1-/-skin. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand genes, Hbegf, Areg and Ereg, were activated in Tgm1-/-epidermis. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of an epidermal extract from Tgm1-/-mice was significantly increased against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In the epidermis of ichthyosiform skins from patients with TGM1 mutations, S100A8/9 was strongly positive. The expression of those antimicrobial and defense response genes was also increased in the lesional skin of an ARCI patient with TGM1 mutations. These results suggest that the up-regulation of molecular signatures for antimicrobial and innate defense responses is characteristic of skin with a transglutaminase 1 deficiency, and this autonomous process might be induced to reinforce the defective barrier function of the skin. PMID:27442430

  8. Activation of Molecular Signatures for Antimicrobial and Innate Defense Responses in Skin with Transglutaminase 1 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Ryosuke; Jitsukawa, Orie; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the transglutaminase 1 gene (TGM1) are a major cause of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCIs) that are associated with defects in skin barrier structure and function. However, the molecular processes induced by the transglutaminase 1 deficiency are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to uncover those processes by analysis of cutaneous molecular signatures. Gene expression profiles of wild-type and Tgm1–/–epidermis were assessed using microarrays. Gene ontology analysis of the data showed that genes for innate defense responses were up-regulated in Tgm1–/–epidermis. Based on that result, the induction of Il1b and antimicrobial peptide genes, S100a8, S100a9, Defb14, Camp, Slpi, Lcn2, Ccl20 and Wfdc12, was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. A protein array revealed that levels of IL-1β, G-CSF, GM-CSF, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9 and CCL2 were increased in Tgm1–/–skin. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand genes, Hbegf, Areg and Ereg, were activated in Tgm1–/–epidermis. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of an epidermal extract from Tgm1–/–mice was significantly increased against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In the epidermis of ichthyosiform skins from patients with TGM1 mutations, S100A8/9 was strongly positive. The expression of those antimicrobial and defense response genes was also increased in the lesional skin of an ARCI patient with TGM1 mutations. These results suggest that the up-regulation of molecular signatures for antimicrobial and innate defense responses is characteristic of skin with a transglutaminase 1 deficiency, and this autonomous process might be induced to reinforce the defective barrier function of the skin. PMID:27442430

  9. Active skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response in the hand following nerve injury and repair in human upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Deng, Aidong; Liu, Dan; Gu, Chen; Gu, Xiaosong; Gu, Jianhui; Hu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous vasoconstriction/vasodilatation occurs in response to whole body and local cooling/heating, and the vasomotor activities play a pivotal role in thermal control of the human body. The mechanisms underlying regulation of skin blood flow involve both neurogenic and humeral/local chemical influence, contributing to the initial response to thermal stimuli and the prolonged phase of response, respectively. Previous studies have suggested the impairment of cutaneous thermal regulation after nerve injury. However, the evidence regarding how the skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response evolve after nerve injury and repair remains limited. Here we observed, by utilizing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging, baseline skin perfusion and perfusion change in response to thermal stimuli after median and ulnar nerve injury, and the results showed that baseline perfusion in autonomous skin area profoundly decreased and active rewarming after clod stress dramatically diminished before sensory recovery of the skin became detectable. In addition, baseline cutaneous perfusion was recovered as the skin regained touch sensation, and exhibited positive correlation to touch sensibility of the skin. These data indicate that both active perfusion and thermoregulatory response of the skin are markedly compromised during skin denervation and can be recovered by re-innervation. This suggests the importance of timely repair of injured nerve, especially in the practice of replantation. PMID:26529641

  10. Active skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response in the hand following nerve injury and repair in human upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Deng, Aidong; Liu, Dan; Gu, Chen; Gu, Xiaosong; Gu, Jianhui; Hu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous vasoconstriction/vasodilatation occurs in response to whole body and local cooling/heating, and the vasomotor activities play a pivotal role in thermal control of the human body. The mechanisms underlying regulation of skin blood flow involve both neurogenic and humeral/local chemical influence, contributing to the initial response to thermal stimuli and the prolonged phase of response, respectively. Previous studies have suggested the impairment of cutaneous thermal regulation after nerve injury. However, the evidence regarding how the skin perfusion and thermoregulatory response evolve after nerve injury and repair remains limited. Here we observed, by utilizing laser-Doppler perfusion imaging, baseline skin perfusion and perfusion change in response to thermal stimuli after median and ulnar nerve injury, and the results showed that baseline perfusion in autonomous skin area profoundly decreased and active rewarming after clod stress dramatically diminished before sensory recovery of the skin became detectable. In addition, baseline cutaneous perfusion was recovered as the skin regained touch sensation, and exhibited positive correlation to touch sensibility of the skin. These data indicate that both active perfusion and thermoregulatory response of the skin are markedly compromised during skin denervation and can be recovered by re-innervation. This suggests the importance of timely repair of injured nerve, especially in the practice of replantation.

  11. A galvanic study of different amalgams.

    PubMed

    Wang Chen, C P; Greener, E H

    1977-01-01

    Due to the difference in open circuit potential (OCP) versus SCE for Aristaloy amalgam (-969 mV) and Dispersalloy amalgam (-549 mV) in Ringer's solution at 25 degrees C, a galvanic cell was created with Dispersalloy amalgam as cathode and Aristaloy amalgam as anode. The galvanic corrosion current was studied as a function of time for the above cell as well as for a cell of type III dental gold (OCP is +0-5 mV) versus Aristaloy amalgam. The initial corrosion current of the latter cell (105 micronA) is about twice that for the cell of Aristaloy amalgam versus Dispersalloy amalgam (54 micronA), however, their passivating behaviour is quite similar. Also, an interrupted galvanic corrosion test simulating the oral 'make and break' situation was performed. A much higher corrosion current than the steady state was found when the two electrodes resumed contact.

  12. Simulation to coating weight control for galvanizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yan, Zhang; Wu, Kunkui; Song, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Zinc coating weight control is one of the most critical issues for continuous galvanizing line. The process has the characteristic of variable-time large time delay, nonlinear, multivariable. It can result in seriously coating weight error and non-uniform coating. We develop a control system, which can automatically control the air knives pressure and its position to give a constant and uniform zinc coating, in accordance with customer-order specification through an auto-adaptive empirical model-based feed forward adaptive controller, and two model-free adaptive feedback controllers . The proposed models with controller were applied to continuous galvanizing line (CGL) at Angang Steel Works. By the production results, the precise and stability of the control model reduces over-coating weight and improves coating uniform. The product for this hot dip galvanizing line does not only satisfy the customers' quality requirement but also save the zinc consumption.

  13. Mechanical response of porcine skin under compression from low to high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Chiara; Butler, Ben; Williams, Alun; Brown, Katherine; Proud, William

    2013-06-01

    Uniaxial compression experiments were performed on fresh porcine skin samples at different strain rates to study the stress-strain response. Low strain rate experiments were performed with an Instron 5566, while high strain rates were achieved using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system. Magnesium bars and semiconductor strain gauges were used respectively to maximize the signal transmission from porcine skin to the output bar and to allow the signal measurement. Skin samples were harvested from different area of the animal to investigate the heterogeneity of such material. The experimental results showed that the mechanical response of skin in compression is strongly dependent on the strain rate of loading and on the location from which the samples were collected. Specimens collected from the rump showed a stiffer response compared to samples harvested from the thigh. Finally, a histological analysis of the samples post compression was carried out to examine the extent of tissue damage as a function of strain rate. This work is supported by the Atomic Weapons Establishment, UK and The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies at Imperial College London, UK.

  14. Galvanic cells including cobalt-chromium alloys.

    PubMed

    Gjerdet, N R

    1980-01-01

    Galvanic cells may be created when dentures made of cobalt-chromium alloys are placed on teeth with metallic restorations. The power of such cells was evaluated in an in vitro galvanic using amalgams, gold alloy, and nickel-chromium alloys. The amalgams and one of the nickel-chromium alloys revealed high corrosion currents when placed in contact with cobalt-chromium alloy, the conventional amalgam showing the highest values. The gold alloy and another nickel-chromium alloy exhibited low corrosion currents and they were noble with respect to cobalt-chromium.

  15. Alterations of mitogenic responses of mononuclear cells by arsenic in arsenical skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Yu, H S; Chang, K L; Wang, C M; Yu, C L

    1992-11-01

    We have studied the endemic occurrence of chronic arsenism in a limited area on the southwest coast of Taiwan. The effects of arsenic on the mitogenic responses of mononuclear cells (MNC) derived from patients with arsenical skin cancers in that area were evaluated. The subjects enrolled in this study included patients with 1) Bowen's disease, 2) arsenical skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma), 3) non-arsenical skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma), 4) nasopharyngeal cancer and 5) healthy controls from endemic and non-endemic areas. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation in MNC in all groups except the arsenical skin cancer group. However, when a low concentration of As2O3 (2.5 x 10(-7) M) was added to PHA-stimulated MNC, a tremendous amplification of the uptake of [3H]thymidine was noticed in patients with arsenical skin cancer. In this study, this phenomenon did not occur in cancers not related to arsenic. This result shows that arsenical carcinomas are hyperreactive to its specific etiology--arsenic. Arsenic seems to play a role as a co-stimulant of PHA similar to interleukin-1.

  16. The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander; Ben Ishai, Paul; Caduff, Andreas; Davidovich, Issak; Sakran, Fadi; Agranat, Aharon J

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies of the minute morphology of the skin by optical coherence tomography revealed that the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. This, together with the fact that the dielectric permittivity of the dermis is higher than that of the epidermis, brings forward the supposition that as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts could be regarded as low Q helical antennas. The implications of this statement were further investigated by electromagnetic simulation and experiment of the in vivo reflectivity of the skin of subjects under varying physiological conditions (Feldman et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 128102). The simulation and experimental results are in a good agreement and both demonstrate that sweat ducts in the skin could indeed behave as low Q antennas. Thus, the skin spectral response in the sub-Terahertz region is governed by the level of activity of the perspiration system and shows the minimum of reflectivity at some frequencies in the frequency band of 75-110 GHz. It is also correlated to physiological stress as manifested by the pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure. As such, it has the potential to become the underlying principle for remote sensing of the physiological parameters and the mental state of the examined subject.

  17. High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu-Tae; Park, Jaehun; Jo, Sung Jin; Jung, Seonghoon; Kwon, Oh Sang; Gallerano, Gian Piero; Park, Woong-Yang; Park, Gun-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology has emerged for biomedical applications such as scanning, molecular spectroscopy, and medical imaging. Although a thorough assessment to predict potential concerns has to precede before practical utilization of THz source, the biological effect of THz radiation is not yet fully understood with scant related investigations. Here, we applied a femtosecond-terahertz (fs-THz) pulse to mouse skin to evaluate non-thermal effects of THz radiation. Analysis of the genome-wide expression profile in fs-THz-irradiated skin indicated that wound responses were predominantly mediated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways. We validated NFκB1- and Smad3/4-mediated transcriptional activation in fs-THz-irradiated skin by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Repeated fs-THz radiation delayed the closure of mouse skin punch wounds due to up-regulation of TGF-β. These findings suggest that fs-THz radiation initiate a wound-like signal in skin with increased expression of TGF-β and activation of its downstream target genes, which perturbs the wound healing process in vivo. PMID:23907528

  18. The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander; Ben Ishai, Paul; Caduff, Andreas; Davidovich, Issak; Sakran, Fadi; Agranat, Aharon J.

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies of the minute morphology of the skin by optical coherence tomography revealed that the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. This, together with the fact that the dielectric permittivity of the dermis is higher than that of the epidermis, brings forward the supposition that as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts could be regarded as low Q helical antennas. The implications of this statement were further investigated by electromagnetic simulation and experiment of the in vivo reflectivity of the skin of subjects under varying physiological conditions (Feldman et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 128102). The simulation and experimental results are in a good agreement and both demonstrate that sweat ducts in the skin could indeed behave as low Q antennas. Thus, the skin spectral response in the sub-Terahertz region is governed by the level of activity of the perspiration system and shows the minimum of reflectivity at some frequencies in the frequency band of 75-110 GHz. It is also correlated to physiological stress as manifested by the pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure. As such, it has the potential to become the underlying principle for remote sensing of the physiological parameters and the mental state of the examined subject.

  19. The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Yuri; Puzenko, Alexander; Ben Ishai, Paul; Caduff, Andreas; Davidovich, Issak; Sakran, Fadi; Agranat, Aharon J

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies of the minute morphology of the skin by optical coherence tomography revealed that the sweat ducts in human skin are helically shaped tubes, filled with a conductive aqueous solution. This, together with the fact that the dielectric permittivity of the dermis is higher than that of the epidermis, brings forward the supposition that as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts could be regarded as low Q helical antennas. The implications of this statement were further investigated by electromagnetic simulation and experiment of the in vivo reflectivity of the skin of subjects under varying physiological conditions (Feldman et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 128102). The simulation and experimental results are in a good agreement and both demonstrate that sweat ducts in the skin could indeed behave as low Q antennas. Thus, the skin spectral response in the sub-Terahertz region is governed by the level of activity of the perspiration system and shows the minimum of reflectivity at some frequencies in the frequency band of 75-110 GHz. It is also correlated to physiological stress as manifested by the pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure. As such, it has the potential to become the underlying principle for remote sensing of the physiological parameters and the mental state of the examined subject. PMID:19430110

  20. High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae; Park, Jaehun; Jo, Sung Jin; Jung, Seonghoon; Kwon, Oh Sang; Gallerano, Gian Piero; Park, Woong-Yang; Park, Gun-Sik

    2013-08-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology has emerged for biomedical applications such as scanning, molecular spectroscopy, and medical imaging. Although a thorough assessment to predict potential concerns has to precede before practical utilization of THz source, the biological effect of THz radiation is not yet fully understood with scant related investigations. Here, we applied a femtosecond-terahertz (fs-THz) pulse to mouse skin to evaluate non-thermal effects of THz radiation. Analysis of the genome-wide expression profile in fs-THz-irradiated skin indicated that wound responses were predominantly mediated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways. We validated NFκB1- and Smad3/4-mediated transcriptional activation in fs-THz-irradiated skin by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Repeated fs-THz radiation delayed the closure of mouse skin punch wounds due to up-regulation of TGF-β. These findings suggest that fs-THz radiation initiate a wound-like signal in skin with increased expression of TGF-β and activation of its downstream target genes, which perturbs the wound healing process in vivo.

  1. Functional role of unmyelinated tactile afferents in human hairy skin: sympathetic response and perceptual localization.

    PubMed

    Olausson, Håkan; Cole, Jonathan; Rylander, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Lamarre, Yves; Wallin, B Gunnar; Krämer, Heidrun; Wessberg, Johan; Elam, Mikael; Bushnell, M Catherine; Vallbo, Ake

    2008-01-01

    In addition to A-beta fibres the human hairy skin has unmyelinated (C) fibres responsive to light touch. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in a subject with a neuronopathy who specifically lacks A-beta afferents indicated that tactile C afferents (CT) activate insular cortex, whereas no response was seen in somatosensory areas 1 and 2. Psychophysical tests suggested that CT afferents give rise to an inconsistent perception of weak and pleasant touch. By examining two neuronopathy subjects as well as control subjects we have now demonstrated that CT stimulation can elicit a sympathetic skin response. Further, the neuronopathy subjects' ability to localize stimuli which activate CT afferents was very poor but above chance level. The findings support the interpretation that the CT system is well suited to underpin affective rather than discriminative functions of tactile sensations.

  2. Galvanic microparticles increase migration of human dermal fibroblasts in a wound-healing model via reactive oxygen species pathway.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Nina; Cimetta, Elisa; Villasante, Aranzazu; Kupferstein, Nicolette; Southall, Michael D; Fassih, Ali; Xie, Junxia; Sun, Ying; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Electrical signals have been implied in many biological mechanisms, including wound healing, which has been associated with transient electrical currents not present in intact skin. One method to generate electrical signals similar to those naturally occurring in wounds is by supplementation of galvanic particles dispersed in a cream or gel. We constructed a three-layered model of skin consisting of human dermal fibroblasts in hydrogel (mimic of dermis), a hydrogel barrier layer (mimic of epidermis) and galvanic microparticles in hydrogel (mimic of a cream containing galvanic particles applied to skin). Using this model, we investigated the effects of the properties and amounts of Cu/Zn galvanic particles on adult human dermal fibroblasts in terms of the speed of wound closing and gene expression. The collected data suggest that the effects on wound closing are due to the ROS-mediated enhancement of fibroblast migration, which is in turn mediated by the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway. These results imply that topical low-grade electric currents via microparticles could enhance wound healing.

  3. The effect of change in skin temperature due to evaporative cooling on sweating response during exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, N.; Nakadome, Manabu; Zhang, Keren; Shiojiri, Tomoyuki; Shibasaki, Manabu; Hirata, Kozo; Iwata, Atsushi

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are any effects of skin temperature changes on sweating response in the first few minutes of mild exercise. Six healthy males performed a bicycle exercise at 100 W (50 rpm) for 30 min under an ambient temperature of 23° C (40% RH). Esophageal temperature (Tes), mean skin temperature (T-sk), local skin temperature at the lower left scapula (Tsl), local sweating rate (M.sw), and cutaneous blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were measured continuously. Although Tsl decreased markedly just after the onset of sweating, T-sk did not change. M.sw did not increase constantly in the early stages of exercise, and there was a temporary interruption in the increase of M.sw. This interruption in sweating was affected by the rate of change in Tsl rather than by the absolute value of Tsl, since there was a positive and significant correlation between the time of the interruption in the increase of M.sw and the rate of decrease in Tsl (y=6.47x+0.04; r=0.86, P<0.05). The results suggest that sweating response in the early stages of exercise may be influenced by changes in local skin temperature due to evaporative cooling.

  4. Three-dimensional model on thermal response of skin subject to laser heating.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wensheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Fuqian

    2005-04-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) multilayer model based on the skin physical structure is developed to investigate the transient thermal response of human skin subject to laser heating. The temperature distribution of the skin is modeled by the bioheat transfer equation, and the influence of laser heating is expressed as a source term where the strength of the source is a product of a Gaussian shaped incident irradiance, an exponentially shaped axial attenuation, and a time function. The water evaporation and diffusion is included in the model by adding two terms regarding the heat loss due to the evaporation and diffusion, where the rate of water evaporation is determined based on the theory of laminar boundary layer. Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) in laser therapy is studied, as well as its effect on the skin thermal response. The time-dependent equation is discretized using the finite difference method with the Crank-Nicholson scheme and the stability of the numerical method is analyzed. The large sparse linear system resulted from discretizing the governing partial differential equation is solved by a GMRES solver and the expected simulation results are obtained.

  5. Functional Specialization of Skin Dendritic Cell Subsets in Regulating T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Björn E.; Stoitzner, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are a heterogeneous family of professional antigen-presenting cells classically recognized as most potent inducers of adaptive immune responses. In this respect, Langerhans cells have long been considered to be prototypic immunogenic DC in the skin. More recently this view has considerably changed. The generation of in vivo cell ablation and lineage tracing models revealed the complexity of the skin DC network and, in particular, established the existence of a number of phenotypically distinct Langerin+ and negative DC populations in the dermis. Moreover, by now we appreciate that DC also exert important regulatory functions and are required for the maintenance of tolerance toward harmless foreign and self-antigens. This review summarizes our current understanding of the skin-resident DC system in the mouse and discusses emerging concepts on the functional specialization of the different skin DC subsets in regulating T cell responses. Special consideration is given to antigen cross-presentation as well as immune reactions toward contact sensitizers, cutaneous pathogens, and tumors. These studies form the basis for the manipulation of the human counterparts of the murine DC subsets to promote immunity or tolerance for the treatment of human disease. PMID:26557117

  6. Facial skin blood flow responses to irritant stimuli in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether capsaicin and menthol stimuli elicit characteristic responses in facial skin blood flow (SkBF), we observed the facial SkBF response to low and high concentrations of capsaicin and menthol stimuli of 1-ml solution applied to the oral cavity for 20s in 17 healthy subjects. High concentration of capsaicin significantly increased the SkBF in all of the facial areas monitored. High concentration of menthol stimulus significantly decreased SkBF in the nose and increased that in the eyelid, and upper and lower lips. These results demonstrated that capsaicin and menthol stimuli in the oral cavity elicit characteristic responses in facial SkBF.

  7. Galvanic Cells: Anodes, Cathodes, Signs and Charges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemistry is a difficult subject for students at school and beyond and even for their teachers. This article explores the difficult "truth" that, when a current flows from a galvanic cell, positive ions within the cell electrolyte move towards the electrode labelled positive. This seems to contravene the basic rule that like charges repel…

  8. Galvanic cell having a coiled electrode assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. Y.

    1985-09-03

    An electrode assembly for use in a galvanic cell has electrodes disposed in superposed of separator material and end surfaces having a uniform apperance. Also provided is a method producing such an electrode assembly which method is readily adaptable to high speed automated processes of manufacture.

  9. Galvanic vestibular stimulation in hemi-spatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, David; Zubko, Olga; Sakel, Mohamed; Coulton, Simon; Higgins, Tracy; Pullicino, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduction persists after stimulation is stopped. To estimate longevity of effect, we therefore conducted a double-blind, randomized, dose-response trial involving a group of stroke patients suffering from left-sided neglect (n = 52, mean age = 66 years). To determine whether repeated sessions of galvanic vestibular stimulation more effectively induce lasting relief than a single session, participants received 1, 5, or 10 sessions, each lasting 25 min, of sub-sensory, left-anodal right-cathodal noisy direct current (mean amplitude = 1 mA). Ninety five percent confidence intervals indicated that all three treatment arms showed a statistically significant improvement between the pre-stimulation baseline and the final day of stimulation on the primary outcome measure, the conventional tests of the Behavioral Inattention Test. More remarkably, this change (mean change = 28%, SD = 18) was still evident 1 month later. Secondary analyses indicated an allied increase of 20% in median Barthel Index (BI) score, a measure of functional capacity, in the absence of any adverse events or instances of participant non-compliance. Together these data suggest that galvanic vestibular stimulation, a simple, cheap technique suitable for home-based administration, may produce lasting reductions in neglect that are clinically important. Further protocol optimization is now needed ahead of a larger effectiveness study. PMID:24523679

  10. Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus Responses Predict Perceived Pleasantness of Skin Stroking

    PubMed Central

    Davidovic, Monika; Jönsson, Emma H.; Olausson, Håkan; Björnsdotter, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) responses predicted healthy participant’s perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment. PMID:27679564

  11. The effect of selenium supplementation on DTH skin responses in healthy North American men.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Wayne Chris; Hwang, Amie; Alkan, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) is essential for immune system development and function in animals. However, the exact functions of Se in the human immune system and the achievable health benefits from Se supplementation remain unclear. To test whether an increased intake of dietary Se affects immune function, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial of Se supplementation in healthy free-living men. Forty-two men were administered 300microg of Se a day as high-Se Baker's yeast, or low-Se yeast for 48 weeks. Serum immunoglobulins, differential complete blood counts and lymphocyte sub-populations were measured every 6 weeks. Tests of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin responses to mumps, candida, trychophyton, tuberculin-purified protein, and tetanus were performed at baseline and at the end of 48 weeks of treatment. Supplementation increased blood Se concentration by 50%. Surprisingly, consumption of the low-Se yeast induced anergy in DTH skin responses and increased counts of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes expressing both subunits of the high affinity interleukin-2 receptor (IL2R). DTH skin responses and IL2R+ cells did not change in the high-Se group, suggesting Se supplementation blocked induction of DTH anergy. There were no differences between groups in quality of life indicators, number of days sick, other leukocyte phenotypes, serum immunoglobulins, or complement factors. These results suggest that Se plays a role in immunotolerization, a cell-mediated process involved in many aspects of immune function.

  12. Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus Responses Predict Perceived Pleasantness of Skin Stroking.

    PubMed

    Davidovic, Monika; Jönsson, Emma H; Olausson, Håkan; Björnsdotter, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) responses predicted healthy participant's perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment. PMID:27679564

  13. Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus Responses Predict Perceived Pleasantness of Skin Stroking

    PubMed Central

    Davidovic, Monika; Jönsson, Emma H.; Olausson, Håkan; Björnsdotter, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) responses predicted healthy participant’s perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment.

  14. Intestinal Microbiota Promotes Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation by Enhancing Th17 Response.

    PubMed

    Zákostelská, Zuzana; Málková, Jana; Klimešová, Klára; Rossmann, Pavel; Hornová, Michaela; Novosádová, Iva; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Kostovčík, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Štepánková, Renata; Jůzlová, Kateřina; Hercogová, Jana; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Kverka, Miloslav

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which Th17 cells play a crucial role. Since indigenous gut microbiota influences the development and reactivity of immune cells, we analyzed the link among microbiota, T cells and the formation of psoriatic lesions in the imiquimod-induced murine model of psoriasis. To explore the role of microbiota, we induced skin inflammation in germ-free (GF), broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB)-treated or conventional (CV) BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We found that both mice reared in GF conditions for several generations and CV mice treated with ATB were more resistant to imiquimod-induced skin inflammation than CV mice. The ATB treatment dramatically changed the diversity of gut bacteria, which remained stable after subsequent imiquimod application; ATB treatment resulted in a substantial increase in the order Lactobacillales and a significant decrease in Coriobacteriales and Clostridiales. Moreover, as compared to CV mice, imiquimod induced a lower degree of local and systemic Th17 activation in both GF and ATB-treated mice. These findings suggest that gut microbiota control imiquimod-induced skin inflammation by altering the T cell response. PMID:27434104

  15. Intestinal Microbiota Promotes Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation by Enhancing Th17 Response

    PubMed Central

    Zákostelská, Zuzana; Málková, Jana; Klimešová, Klára; Rossmann, Pavel; Hornová, Michaela; Novosádová, Iva; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Kostovčík, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Štepánková, Renata; Jůzlová, Kateřina; Hercogová, Jana; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which Th17 cells play a crucial role. Since indigenous gut microbiota influences the development and reactivity of immune cells, we analyzed the link among microbiota, T cells and the formation of psoriatic lesions in the imiquimod-induced murine model of psoriasis. To explore the role of microbiota, we induced skin inflammation in germ-free (GF), broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB)-treated or conventional (CV) BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We found that both mice reared in GF conditions for several generations and CV mice treated with ATB were more resistant to imiquimod-induced skin inflammation than CV mice. The ATB treatment dramatically changed the diversity of gut bacteria, which remained stable after subsequent imiquimod application; ATB treatment resulted in a substantial increase in the order Lactobacillales and a significant decrease in Coriobacteriales and Clostridiales. Moreover, as compared to CV mice, imiquimod induced a lower degree of local and systemic Th17 activation in both GF and ATB-treated mice. These findings suggest that gut microbiota control imiquimod-induced skin inflammation by altering the T cell response. PMID:27434104

  16. Skin conductance orienting response in unmedicated RDC schizophrenic, schizoaffective, depressed, and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Levinson, D F

    1991-10-01

    In an evaluation of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) as a marker for schizophrenia, skin conductance (SC) activity was studied in 36 Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) schizophrenic (SCZ), 17 schizoaffective--mainly schizophrenic (SA), 24 depressed (DEP), and 25 psychiatrically well control (CONT) subjects. All subjects were unmedicated. Data are presented from four paradigms: a series of 1 s 70 dB tones in a no-task habituation paradigm; a similar series of 103 dB tones; a series of tones with a button-press (reaction time) task; and a loud white noise stimulus (without task). The proportion of SCOR nonresponse to the first 70 dB tone was 39% for SCZ, 82% for SA, 46% for DEP, and 36% for CONT subjects; the response rate for SA subjects was significantly lower than for all other groups. The CONT group was less responsive than in most previous studies. SCZ subjects did not show increased responsivity to more intense and to task-relevant stimuli, although SA subjects did show such increases. DEP subjects showed some evidence of autonomic hyperarousal (higher tonic SC level, trend toward more spontaneous SC responses). The overall pattern of results does not support SCOR to neutral, moderate-intensity tones as a specific marker for schizophrenia, although there was some evidence for a generalized decrease in autonomic responsivity to stimuli.

  17. Skin biopsy and quantitative sensory testing do not predict response to lidocaine patch in painful neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, David N; Pannoni, Valerie; Barbano, Richard L; Pennella-Vaughan, Janet; Dworkin, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Predictors of response to neuropathic pain treatment in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies are lacking. The 5% lidocaine patch is believed to exert its effects on neuropathic pain via a local stabilizing effect on cutaneous sensory afferents. As such, it provides a model to assess whether the status of epidermal innervation as determined by skin biopsy or quantitative sensory testing (QST) of small- and large-diameter sensory afferents might serve as predictors of response to topical, locally active treatment. In this study we assessed associations between epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) densities, sensory nerve conduction studies (NCS), QST, and response to a 5% lidocaine patch in patients with painful distal sensory neuropathies. We observed no association between distal leg epidermal and subepidermal innervation and response to the lidocaine patch. Several patients with complete loss of distal leg ENF showed a response to the lidocaine patch. Similarly we observed no consistent association between treatment response and QST for vibration, cooling, warm, heat-pain, and cold-pain thresholds, or distal sensory NCS. Thus, distal-leg skin biopsy, QST, and sensory NCS cannot be used to identify patients with painful polyneuropathy likely to respond to a lidocaine patch in clinical practice. Further studies are required to clarify precisely the mechanism and site of action of the lidocaine patch in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

  18. Skin inflammation arising from cutaneous regulatory T cell deficiency leads to impaired viral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Freyschmidt, Eva-Jasmin; Mathias, Clinton B; Diaz, Natalia; MacArthur, Daniel H; Laouar, Amale; Manjunath, Narasimhaswamy; Hofer, Matthias D; Wurbel, Marc-Andre; Campbell, James J; Chatila, Talal A; Oettgen, Hans C

    2010-07-15

    Individuals with atopic dermatitis immunized with the small pox vaccine, vaccinia virus (VV), are susceptible to eczema vaccinatum (EV), a potentially fatal disseminated infection. Dysfunction of Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Treg) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. To test whether Treg deficiency predisposes to EV, we percutaneously VV infected FoxP3-deficient (FoxP3(KO)) mice, which completely lack FoxP3(+) Treg. These animals generated both fewer VV-specific CD8(+) effector T cells and IFN-gamma-producing CD8(+) T cells than controls, had higher viral loads, and exhibited abnormal Th2-polarized responses to the virus. To focus on the consequences of Treg deficiency confined to the skin, we generated mixed CCR4(KO) FoxP3(KO) bone marrow (CCR4/FoxP3) chimeras in which skin, but not other tissues or central lymphoid organs, lack Treg. Like FoxP3(KO) mice, the chimeras had impaired VV-specific effector T cell responses and higher viral loads. Skin cytokine expression was significantly altered in infected chimeras compared with controls. Levels of the antiviral cytokines, type I and II IFNs and IL-12, were reduced, whereas expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-beta, and IL-23, was increased. Importantly, infection of CCR4/FoxP3 chimeras by a noncutaneous route (i.p.) induced immune responses comparable to controls. Our findings implicate allergic skin inflammation resulting from local Treg deficiency in the pathogenesis of EV.

  19. Sympathetic skin response following painful electrical stimulation is increased in major depression.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Greiner, Wolf; Rachow, Tobias; Brühl, Christiane; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-04-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder have repeatedly been described to exhibit increased thresholds upon experimentally applied pain stimuli to the skin as compared to respective controls. Since the sensory-discriminative component of stimulus perception, e.g. for warmth, cold and vibration, appears to be unaltered in depression, higher central nervous centres have been assumed to cause this phenomenon. To date, hardly any attention has been paid to the efferent components of the noxious reflex loop. Here, we aimed to assess the autonomic reaction upon a painful stimulus and to examine whether this is likewise reduced in major depression. For this purpose, sympathetic skin response was obtained from 22 patients with major depression and 20 matched controls. To induce sympathetic skin responses, we applied either noxious electrical stimuli (12 and 18 mA) or innocuous acoustic stimuli (85 dB SPL). Pain intensity was rated using a numeric analogue scale. In contrast to our a priori hypothesis patients showed shorter latencies and higher amplitudes of skin potentials upon noxious stimulation, i.e. a stronger sympathetic response. Intriguingly, the noxious stimuli were still perceived less painful in the patient group. Pain perception weakly correlated with disease severity. From these data, we conclude that despite the diminished pain perception, the autonomic reflex loop following noxious stimulation is not affected in patients with major depressive disorder, and that the increase in sympathetic outflow is not directly related to the perceived pain as in controls, but might rather be attributed to the autonomic dysfunction known for the disease.

  20. Effects of titanium-dental restorative alloy galvanic couples on cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Bumgardner, J D; Johansson, B I

    1998-01-01

    The potential exists for titanium and amalgams to become galvanically coupled in the oral cavity. While low galvanic corrosion rates have been measured in vivo for titanium-amalgam or mercury-free alloy couples, concerns exist over released corrosion products and adverse tissue responses. It was hypothesized in this study that coupling titanium to amalgams or gallium alloys increased the release of metallic corrosion products and decreased cellular activity and function. The effects of titanium coupled and uncoupled to a conventional amalgam, palladium-enriched spherical high copper amalgam, a dispersed type high copper amalgam, and a mercury-free gallium alloy were evaluated in 24-h cell culture tests. Viability, proliferation, and collagen synthesis were evaluated by the uptake of neutral red, 3H-thymidine, and immunoassay of procollagen, respectively, and compared to cells not exposed to any test material. The gallium alloy-titanium couple resulted in significant decreases in cellular viability, proliferation, and collagen synthesis as compared to the other coupled and uncoupled samples. Few differences in the cellular responses of the other coupled and uncoupled samples were observed. Atomic absorption analyses indicated increased release of metal ions from the amalgam and gallium alloy samples coupled to titanium as compared to their uncoupled condition, although the differences were not always significant. Galvanic corrosion of amalgam-titanium couples in the long term may become significant, and further research is needed. Coupling the gallium alloy to titanium may result in increased galvanic corrosion and cytotoxic responses.

  1. The Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on Inflammatory Response Proteins in a 3D Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue Model

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Springer, David L.; Chaffee, Mary E.; Lien, Katie A.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2012-12-01

    Skin responses to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation include the induction of DNA repair, apoptosis, and stress response pathways. Additionally, numerous studies indicate that radiation exposure leads to inflammatory responses in skin cells and tissue. However, the inflammatory response of skin tissue to low dose radiation (<10 cGy) is poorly understood. In order to address this, we have utilized a reconstituted human skin tissue model (MatTek EpiDerm FT) and assessed changes in 23 cytokines twenty-four and forty eight hours following treatment of skin with either 3 or 10 cGy low-dose of radiation. Three cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-2, MIP-1α, were significantly altered in response to low dose radiation. In contrast, seven cytokines were significantly altered in response to a high radiation dose of 200 cGy (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, TNF α, and VEGF) or the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES). Additionally, radiation induced inflammation appears to have a distinct cytokine response relative to the non-radiation induced stressor, TPA. Overall, these results indicate that there are subtle changes in the inflammatory protein levels following exposure to low dose radiation and this response is a sub-set of what is seen following a high dose in a human skin tissue model.

  2. Measuring the Photopic Negative Response: Viability of Skin Electrodes and Variability Across Disease Severities in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhichao; Hadoux, Xavier; Fan Gaskin, Jennifer C.; Sarossy, Marc G.; Crowston, Jonathan G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of measuring the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the full-field electroretinogram (ERG) using skin electrodes compared to conjunctival electrodes and its test–retest variability over a range of disease severities in open-angle glaucoma. Methods Recordings were performed twice (100 sweeps each) within the same session in 43 eyes of 23 participants with glaucoma to determine its intrinsic variability. The ratio between the PhNR and B-wave amplitude (PhNR/B ratio) was determined for each trace and computed across 5 to 100 sweeps of each recording. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was used to measure the average peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Results The PhNR/B ratio and its magnitude of variability were not significantly different between skin and conjunctival electrodes (P ≤ 0.197), and the degree of variability decreased substantially with increasing number of sweeps. For skin electrodes, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.89 and 0.91 for right and left eyes, respectively. The variability of the PhNR/B ratio decreased with lower RNFL thickness values and larger B-wave amplitudes (P ≤ 0.002). Conclusions Skin electrodes are a viable alternative to conjunctival electrodes when measuring the PhNR in open angle glaucoma, and increasing the number of sweeps substantially reduced its intrinsic variability; the extent of variability was also lower with worsening disease severity. Translational Relevance The feasibility of performing ERG recordings widely across a range of disease severities in glaucoma can be achieved through using skin electrodes and increasing the number of sweeps performed to improve measurement repeatability. PMID:26998406

  3. Mechanisms of DNA damage response to targeted irradiation in organotypic 3D skin cultures.

    PubMed

    Acheva, Anna; Ghita, Mihaela; Patel, Gaurang; Prise, Kevin M; Schettino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage (caused by direct cellular exposure and bystander signaling) and the complex pathways involved in its repair are critical events underpinning cellular and tissue response following radiation exposures. There are limited data addressing the dynamics of DNA damage induction and repair in the skin particularly in areas not directly exposed. Here we investigate the mechanisms regulating DNA damage, repair, intracellular signalling and their impact on premature differentiation and development of inflammatory-like response in the irradiated and surrounding areas of a 3D organotypic skin model. Following localized low-LET irradiation (225 kVp X-rays), low levels of 53BP1 foci were observed in the 3D model (3.8±0.28 foci/Gy/cell) with foci persisting and increasing in size up to 48 h post irradiation. In contrast, in cell monolayers 14.2±0.6 foci/Gy/cell and biphasic repair kinetics with repair completed before 24 h was observed. These differences are linked to differences in cellular status with variable level of p21 driving apoptotic signalling in 2D and accelerated differentiation in both the directly irradiated and bystander areas of the 3D model. The signalling pathways utilized by irradiated keratinocytes to induce DNA damage in non-exposed areas of the skin involved the NF-κB transcription factor and its downstream target COX-2. PMID:24505255

  4. Skin conductance and the stress response from heel stick in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Storm, H

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate whether spontaneous skin conductance activity is an objective method for measuring the stress response to painful stimuli in premature infants. The number and amplitude of the waves and the baseline increase with the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.
METHODS—In 20 preterm infants of gestational age ⩾ 29 weeks, behavioural state and spontaneous skin conductance activity variables were measured for three minutes before, during, and for three minutes after heel stick.
RESULTS—The number of waves (p < 0.001), the amplitude of the waves (p = 0.001), and the level of the behavioural state (p < 0.001) increased during heel stick, and then decreased to levels found before the procedure. The baseline increased both during (p < 0.001) and after heel stick (p < 0.001), compared with levels before.
CONCLUSION—Spontaneous skin conductance activity reflects the stress response to heel stick in premature infants from at least 29 weeks of gestational age.
 PMID:10952711

  5. Responsiveness of the Spanish Version of the “Skin Cancer Index”

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Ruiz, F.; Blázquez-Sánchez, N.; Fernández-Canedo, I.; Aguilar-Bernier, M.; Repiso-Jiménez, J. B.; Toribio-Montero, J. C.; Jones-Caballero, M.; Rhee, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skin Cancer Index (SCI) is a specific questionnaire measuring health related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with cervicofacial non-melanoma skin cancer (CFNMSC). The original scale has recently been adapted and validated into Spanish. Objectives. Evaluate the responsiveness of the Spanish version of SCI. Methods. Patients with CFNMSC candidate for surgical treatment were administered the questionnaire at time of diagnostic (t0), 7 days after surgery (t1), and 5 months after surgery (t2). The scale and subscales scores (C1: social/appearance, C2: emotional) were then evaluated. Differences between t0-t1, t1-t2, and t0-t2 were determined and a gender-and-age segmented analysis was performed. Results. 88 patients, 54.8% male, mean age 62.5 years, completed the study. Differences between t0-t1 and t1-t2 scores were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The lowest values were found at time of diagnosis and postsurgery. Women and patients under 65 years showed the lowest values at the three times. Limitations. Concrete geographic and cultural area. Clinical and histological variables are not analysed. Conclusions. Our results confirm responsiveness of the Spanish version of the SCI. Further development of the instrument in Spanish-speaking countries and populations will make it possible to extend worldwide research and knowledge horizons on skin cancer. PMID:27800183

  6. Galvanic corrosion behavior of dissimilar metals in tropical marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, G.; Palraj, S.; Sundaram, M.; Balakrishnan, K.

    1995-11-01

    The galvanic corrosion behavior of aluminium 3004-70/30 brass and aluminium 3004-copper have been studied in the tropical marine environment of Mandapam, over a period of 436 days, under different area ratios. The area ratios, viz. A{sub Al} : A{sub brass} and A{sub Al} : A{sub copper}, studied are 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 an 8. The galvanic corrosion behavior of the metals are studied in terms of the relative increase in the corrosion rate of Al due to galvanic coupling with brass and copper, the relative decrease in the corrosion rates of brass and copper due to galvanic coupling with aluminium, and the susceptibility of aluminium to pitting owing to galvanic coupling with brass and copper. The galvanic potential and galvanic current of the systems are monitored. Pits of different dimensions ranging from mild etchings to perforations are experienced on the borders and the surfaces of the interface of aluminium in contact with copper and brass. The weathering parameters and the environmental pollutants have a major role in influencing the galvanic corrosion of metals are also been monitored. The corrosion products resulting from galvanic corrosion are analyzed with XRD and the pitting on aluminium resulting from galvanic corrosion is highlighted in terms of pit depth, size and density of pit, using a high resolution microscope.

  7. Galvanic corrosion-effect of environmental and experimental variables

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, D L; Lum, B Y; Roy, A K

    1998-11-01

    Galvanic corrosion behavior of A 516 steel coupled to alloy C-22 and Ti Gr-12, respectively was evaluated in an acidic brine (pH {approx} 2.75) at 30 C, 60 C and 80 C using zero resistance ammeter method. A limited number of experiments were also performed in a neutral brine involving A 516 steel/alloy C-22 couple. The steady-state galvanic current and galvanic potential were measured as functions of anode-to-cathode (A/C) area ratio and electrode distance. Results indicate that the galvanic current was gradually reduced as the A/C area ratio was increased. No systematic trend on the effect of A/C area ratio on the galvanic potential was observed. Also, no significant effect of electrode distance on the galvanic current and galvanic potential was evident. In general, increased galvanic current was noticed with increasing temperature. The limited data obtained in the neutral brine indicate that the galvanic current was reduced in this environment, compared to that in the acidic brine. Optical microscopic examination was performed on all tested specimens to evaluate the extent of surface damage resulting from galvanic interaction. A 516 steel suffered from general corrosion and crevice corrosion in all environments tested. Very light crevice corrosion mark was observed with alloy C-22 and Ti Gr-12 in the acidic brine at 60 C and 80 C. However, this mark appears to be a surface discoloration and no actual crevice was detected.

  8. Non-Invasive Measurement of Skin Microvascular Response during Pharmacological and Physiological Provocations

    PubMed Central

    Iredahl, Fredrik; Löfberg, Andreas; Sjöberg, Folke; Farnebo, Simon; Tesselaar, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Microvascular changes in the skin due to pharmacological and physiological provocations can be used as a marker for vascular function. While laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been used extensively for measurement of skin microvascular responses, Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) and Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) are novel imaging techniques. TiVi measures red blood cell concentration, while LDF and LSCI measure perfusion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare responses to provocations in the skin using these different techniques. Method Changes in skin microcirculation were measured in healthy subjects during (1) iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and noradrenaline (NA), (2) local heating and (3) post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) using LDF, LSCI and TiVi. Results Iontophoresis of SNP increased perfusion (LSCI: baseline 40.9±6.2 PU; 10-min 100±25 PU; p<0.001) and RBC concentration (TiVi: baseline 119±18; 10-min 150±41 AU; p = 0.011). No change in perfusion (LSCI) was observed after iontophoresis of NA (baseline 38.0±4.4 PU; 10-min 38.9±5.0 PU; p = 0.64), while RBC concentration decreased (TiVi: baseline 59.6±11.8 AU; 10-min 54.4±13.3 AU; p = 0.021). Local heating increased perfusion (LDF: baseline 8.8±3.6 PU; max 112±55 PU; p<0.001, LSCI: baseline 50.8±8.0 PU; max 151±22 PU; p<0.001) and RBC concentration (TiVi: baseline 49.2±32.9 AU; max 99.3±28.3 AU; p<0.001). After 5 minutes of forearm occlusion with prior exsanguination, a decrease was seen in perfusion (LDF: p = 0.027; LSCI: p<0.001) and in RBC concentration (p = 0.045). Only LSCI showed a significant decrease in perfusion after 5 minutes of occlusion without prior exsanguination (p<0.001). Coefficients of variation were lower for LSCI and TiVi compared to LDF for most responses. Conclusion LSCI is more sensitive than TiVi for measuring microvascular changes during SNP-induced vasodilatation and forearm occlusion. TiVi is more sensitive to noradrenaline

  9. Skin-conductance orienting response in chronic schizophrenics: the role of neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Spohn, H E; Coyne, L; Wilson, J K; Hayes, K

    1989-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between neuroleptic treatment and skin-conductance orienting response (SCOR) nonresponding in chronic schizophrenics. In a design adapted to this purpose, we were unable to demonstrate a relationship between neuroleptics and nonresponding. Although inability to prove the null hypothesis precludes a claim that neuroleptic treatment and SCOR nonresponding are unrelated, internal evidence and prior studies strongly suggest that such a dissociation exists in most chronic schizophrenic nonresponders. We also found stable nonspecific and toxic skin conductance activity differences between SCOR "responders" and "nonresponders" on three occasions of testing. We interpret our results as bearing on state and trait issues in chronic schizophrenics.

  10. The response of skin to applied stress: investigation of bitemark distortion in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Bush, Mary A; Thorsrud, Kyle; Miller, Raymond G; Dorion, Robert B J; Bush, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of distortional properties of skin is important in bitemark analysis. Thus, the response of skin to stress from bites was investigated. Four sets of models were created from the dentition of one individual. Anterior teeth were systematically removed to vary contact surface area. A biting apparatus was constructed with an integrated load cell. Forty-six bites were created perpendicular to Langer lines on six cadavers. Rate of force application and bite pressure were controlled. Metric/angular measurement and hollow volume overlays were employed. Distortion produced by each dentition was calculated and assessed. Results showed that as teeth impressed loose tissue, mesial/distal distance increased, angles of rotation flattened, and inter-canine distance lengthened. An opposite effect was seen in tight tissue. When the surface area of the dentition was reduced, a mixture of these effects was observed. Conclusions indicated that stiffness of the tissue was the most important variable in bitemark distortion. PMID:20002269

  11. When Beauty Is Skin Deep: Regulation of the Wound Response by Caspase-8, RIPK3, and the Inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Vince, James E

    2015-08-01

    Caspase-8 downregulation is observed in the epidermis of wounded skin, whereas permanent epidermal caspase-8 deletion causes chronic skin inflammation, suggesting that caspase-8 is a critical regulator of skin homeostasis and, possibly, the wound response. In this issue, Lee et al. document how epidermal caspase-8 deletion, or cutaneous wounding, results in increased NF-κB activation to drive keratinocyte caspase-1 expression and subsequent secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-1α. Consequently, loss of NF-κB activity, caspase-1, or the IL-1 receptor delays wound healing. Previous studies have documented how chronic skin inflammation in caspase-8-deficient mice is rescued by RIPK3 co-deletion. Therefore, targeting caspase-1, IL-1, or RIPK3 itself may benefit treatment of chronic inflammatory skin diseases, or where an inappropriate inflammatory response proves detrimental to wound healing, such as in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26174535

  12. Vertical soil profiling using a galvanic contact resistivity scanning approach.

    PubMed

    Pan, Luan; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I; Prasher, Shiv; Gebbers, Robin; Taylor, Richard S; Dabas, Michel

    2014-07-23

    Proximal sensing of soil electromagnetic properties is widely used to map spatial land heterogeneity. The mapping instruments use galvanic contact, capacitive coupling or electromagnetic induction. Regardless of the type of instrument, the geometrical configuration between signal transmitting and receiving elements typically defines the shape of the depth response function. To assess vertical soil profiles, many modern instruments use multiple transmitter-receiver pairs. Alternatively, vertical electrical sounding can be used to measure changes in apparent soil electrical conductivity with depth at a specific location. This paper examines the possibility for the assessment of soil profiles using a dynamic surface galvanic contact resistivity scanning approach, with transmitting and receiving electrodes configured in an equatorial dipole-dipole array. An automated scanner system was developed and tested in agricultural fields with different soil profiles. While operating in the field, the distance between current injecting and measuring pairs of rolling electrodes was varied continuously from 40 to 190 cm. The preliminary evaluation included a comparison of scan results from 20 locations to shallow (less than 1.2 m deep) soil profiles and to a two-layer soil profile model defined using an electromagnetic induction instrument.

  13. Vertical soil profiling using a galvanic contact resistivity scanning approach.

    PubMed

    Pan, Luan; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I; Prasher, Shiv; Gebbers, Robin; Taylor, Richard S; Dabas, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Proximal sensing of soil electromagnetic properties is widely used to map spatial land heterogeneity. The mapping instruments use galvanic contact, capacitive coupling or electromagnetic induction. Regardless of the type of instrument, the geometrical configuration between signal transmitting and receiving elements typically defines the shape of the depth response function. To assess vertical soil profiles, many modern instruments use multiple transmitter-receiver pairs. Alternatively, vertical electrical sounding can be used to measure changes in apparent soil electrical conductivity with depth at a specific location. This paper examines the possibility for the assessment of soil profiles using a dynamic surface galvanic contact resistivity scanning approach, with transmitting and receiving electrodes configured in an equatorial dipole-dipole array. An automated scanner system was developed and tested in agricultural fields with different soil profiles. While operating in the field, the distance between current injecting and measuring pairs of rolling electrodes was varied continuously from 40 to 190 cm. The preliminary evaluation included a comparison of scan results from 20 locations to shallow (less than 1.2 m deep) soil profiles and to a two-layer soil profile model defined using an electromagnetic induction instrument. PMID:25057135

  14. Vertical Soil Profiling Using a Galvanic Contact Resistivity Scanning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Luan; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I.; Prasher, Shiv; Gebbers, Robin; Taylor, Richard S.; Dabas, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Proximal sensing of soil electromagnetic properties is widely used to map spatial land heterogeneity. The mapping instruments use galvanic contact, capacitive coupling or electromagnetic induction. Regardless of the type of instrument, the geometrical configuration between signal transmitting and receiving elements typically defines the shape of the depth response function. To assess vertical soil profiles, many modern instruments use multiple transmitter-receiver pairs. Alternatively, vertical electrical sounding can be used to measure changes in apparent soil electrical conductivity with depth at a specific location. This paper examines the possibility for the assessment of soil profiles using a dynamic surface galvanic contact resistivity scanning approach, with transmitting and receiving electrodes configured in an equatorial dipole-dipole array. An automated scanner system was developed and tested in agricultural fields with different soil profiles. While operating in the field, the distance between current injecting and measuring pairs of rolling electrodes was varied continuously from 40 to 190 cm. The preliminary evaluation included a comparison of scan results from 20 locations to shallow (less than 1.2 m deep) soil profiles and to a two-layer soil profile model defined using an electromagnetic induction instrument. PMID:25057135

  15. Galvanic vestibular stimulation alters the onset of motor unit discharge.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Paul M; Cresswell, Andrew G; Chua, Romeo; Inglis, J Timothy

    2004-08-01

    We have previously shown that galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) can modulate the amplitude of the passive soleus H-reflex. This study examined whether the response resulted from a general change in excitability of the motoneuron pool or a specific modulation of individual motor units (MUs). Subjects performed slow isometric plantarflexor actions in a prone lying and kneeling position until the discharge of a single gastrocnemius MU was detected. During randomly selected trials, a 1-mA bipolar, binaural galvanic stimulus was triggered just prior to the start of plantarflexor activity. With the knee extended and the medial gastrocnemius (MG) at a long muscle length, GVS did not have an effect on MU activity. However, when the knee was flexed and the MG muscle was shortened, GVS significantly modified the onset of activation and the initial firing frequency of MUs. This may reflect a change in the gain of the presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms that act on the motoneuron pool once a muscle reaches a shortened, nonoptimal force-producing length. Thus, GVS may provide an important research tool for activating descending vestibulospinal pathways that act on lower-limb motoneurons and may be applied to test the integrity of the spinal cord.

  16. The niacin skin flush abnormality in schizophrenia: a quantitative dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Messamore, Erik; Hoffman, William F; Janowsky, Aaron

    2003-08-01

    Niacin dilates cutaneous blood vessels, resulting in a pronounced skin flush in most people. The flush response to niacin is attenuated in schizophrenia, but the quantification and physiological mechanism of this abnormality have not been described in detail. It is not clear whether the mechanism involves changes in the pharmacological sensitivity to niacin, or whether there is a reduced ability of the vasculature to dilate adequately in subjects with schizophrenia. We address this question in the present study by characterizing the dose-response relationship between topically applied alpha-methylnicotinate (AMN) and cutaneous blood flow changes, which were quantified by laser Doppler flowmetry. The dose-response curve was shifted to the right in subjects with schizophrenia. The EC(50) value of AMN was significantly increased in the schizophrenia group (mean: 1.66 mM; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.65 mM) as compared to the control group (mean: 0.38 mM; 95% confidence interval: 0.263-0.547 mM). The blood flow responses to higher AMN doses were lower in the schizophrenics; however, there was no statistically significant difference in the extrapolated maximal blood flow response value (F(max)) between the two groups. The results suggest that the skin flush abnormality in schizophrenia primarily reflects reduced pharmacological sensitivity to niacin rather than an inadequate cutaneous vasodilatory response to the stimulus. Since vasodilatation in response to niacin requires the release of prostaglandins, the data from this study suggest that schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in enzymes, receptors, or signal transduction mechanisms that affect the synthesis, release, or response to vasodilatory prostaglandins.

  17. Early skin toxicity predicts better outcomes, and early tumor shrinkage predicts better response after cetuximab treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, T; Doi, A; Shimokawa, M; Fouad, T M; Osuga, T; Tamura, F; Mizushima, T; Kimura, T; Abe, S; Ihara, H; Kukitsu, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yoshizaki, N; Hirayama, M; Sasaki, T; Kawarada, Y; Kitashiro, S; Okushiba, S; Kondo, H; Tsuji, Y

    2015-03-01

    Cetuximab-containing treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer have been shown to have higher overall response rates and longer progression-free and overall survival than other systemic therapies. Cetuximab-related manifestations, including severe skin toxicity and early tumor shrinkage, have been shown to be predictors of response to cetuximab. We hypothesized that early skin toxicity is a predictor of response and better outcomes in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 62 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had unresectable tumors and were treated with cetuximab in our institution. Skin toxicity grade was evaluated on each treatment day. Tumor size was evaluated using computed tomography prior to treatment and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with cetuximab.Patients with early tumor shrinkage after starting treatment with cetuximab had a significantly higher overall response rate (P = 0.0001). Patients with early skin toxicity showed significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.0305), and patients with higher skin toxicity grades had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0168).We have shown that early tumor shrinkage, early onset of skin toxicity, and high skin toxicity grade are predictors of treatment efficacy and/or outcome in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with cetuximab.

  18. Seal closure for a galvanic dry cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schumm, B. Jr.

    1984-09-04

    A galvanic dry cell includes a cylindrical container having an open end provided with a closure having a centrally disposed aperture adapted to be slid over and secured to the carbon rod of the cell and a peripherally disposed depending flange having an undercoating of a soft sealant into which the upper rim of the container is embedded, thereby providing a seal closure for the container.

  19. Classical skin conductance response conditioning: effects of intermittent reinforcement and information about schedule contingencies.

    PubMed

    Williams, W C

    1975-07-01

    Skin conductance responses were differentially conditioned using reinforcement schedules of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%, manipulated between subjects. Half of the subjects were informed about schedule contingencies, and half were uninformed. The interstimulus interval was 6 sec. Discrimination of first-interval responses (1.0-3.5 sec after conditioned stimulus [CS] onset) by informed subjects did not vary with the ratio variable, but that by uninformed subjects improved with increasing reinforcement ratio because of diminished response levels to the nonreinforced CS (CS-). Discrimination of second-interval responses (3.6-7.0 sec after CS onset) improved as a function of increasing reinforcement ratio because of elevated response levels to the reinforced CS (CS+), but the effect was not persistent across trials in informed subjects. Performance in the first and second intervals did not reflect sequential increments and decrements as a function of reinforced and nonreinforced trials. Third-interval responses (7.1-9.9 sec after CS on nonreinforced trials) were not affected by schedule manipulations, but unconditioned responses diminished with increasing reinforcement ratio. Information about schedule contingencies led to superior discrimination of first-, second-, and third-interval responses and to suppression of unconditioned responses.

  20. Raman spectroscopy: in vivo quick response code of skin physiological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Le Guillou, Maud; Guichard, Nathalie; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists need to combine different clinically relevant characteristics for a better understanding of skin health. These characteristics are usually measured by different techniques, and some of them are highly time consuming. Therefore, a predicting model based on Raman spectroscopy and partial least square (PLS) regression was developed as a rapid multiparametric method. The Raman spectra collected from the five uppermost micrometers of 11 healthy volunteers were fitted to different skin characteristics measured by independent appropriate methods (transepidermal water loss, hydration, pH, relative amount of ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol). For each parameter, the obtained PLS model presented correlation coefficients higher than R2=0.9. This model enables us to obtain all the aforementioned parameters directly from the unique Raman signature. In addition to that, in-depth Raman analyses down to 20 μm showed different balances between partially bound water and unbound water with depth. In parallel, the increase of depth was followed by an unfolding process of the proteins. The combinations of all these information led to a multiparametric investigation, which better characterizes the skin status. Raman signal can thus be used as a quick response code (QR code). This could help dermatologic diagnosis of physiological variations and presents a possible extension to pathological characterization.

  1. Phenotypic responses to mechanical stress in fibroblasts from tendon, cornea and skin

    PubMed Central

    Mackley, Jennifer R.; Ando, Joji; Herzyk, Pawel; Winder, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Primary fibroblasts isolated from foetal mouse cornea, skin and tendon were subjected to linear shear stress and analysed for morphological parameters and by microarray, as compared with unstimulated controls. Approx. 350 genes were either up- or down-regulated by a significant amount, with 51 of these being common to all three cell types. Approx. 50% of altered genes in tendon and cornea fibroblasts were changed in common with one of the other cell types, with the remaining approx. 50% being specific to tendon or cornea. In skin fibroblasts, however, less than 25% of genes whose transcription was altered were specific only to skin. The functional spectrum of genes that were up- or down-regulated was diverse, with apparent house-keeping genes forming the major category of up-regulated genes. However, a significant number of genes associated with cell adhesion, extracellular matrix and matrix remodelling, as well as cytokines and other signalling factors, were also affected. Somewhat surprisingly, in these latter categories the trend was towards a reduction in mRNA levels. Verification of the mRNA quantity of a subset of these genes was performed by reverse transcriptase PCR and was found to be in agreement with the microarray analysis. These findings provide the first in-depth analysis of phenotypic differences between fibroblast cells from different tissue sources and reveal the responses of these cells to mechanical stress. PMID:16492137

  2. Low-dose radiation modifies skin response to acute gamma-rays and protons.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao Wen; Pecaut, Michael J; Cao, Jeffrey D; Moldovan, Maria; Gridley, Daila S

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to obtain pilot data on the effects of protracted low-dose/low-dose-rate (LDR) γ-rays on the skin, both with and without acute gamma or proton irradiation (IR). Six groups of C57BL/6 mice were examined: a) 0 Gy control, b) LDR, c) Gamma, d) LDR+Gamma, e) Proton, and f) LDR+Proton. LDR radiation was delivered to a total dose of 0.01 Gy (0.03 cGy/h), whereas the Gamma and Proton groups received 2 Gy (0.9 Gy/min and 1.0 Gy/min, respectively). Assays were performed 56 days after exposure. Skin samples from all irradiated groups had activated caspase-3, indicative of apoptosis. The significant (p<0.05) increases in immunoreactivity in the Gamma and Proton groups were not present when LDR pre-exposure was included. However, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay for DNA fragmentation and histological examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections revealed no significant differences among groups, regardless of radiation regimen. The data demonstrate that caspase-3 activation initially triggered by both forms of acute radiation was greatly elevated in the skin nearly two months after whole-body exposure. In addition, LDR γ-ray priming ameliorated this response.

  3. RasGRP1 Transgenic Mice Develop Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Response to Skin Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Federico R.; Garrido, Ann A.; Sharma, Amrish; Luke, Courtney T.; Stone, James C.; Dower, Nancy A.; Cline, J. Mark; Lorenzo, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Models of epidermal carcinogenesis have demonstrated that Ras is a critical molecule involved in tumor initiation and progression. Previously, we have shown that RasGRP1 increases the susceptibility of mice to skin tumorigenesis when overexpressed in the epidermis by a transgenic approach, related to its ability to activate Ras. Moreover, RasGRP1 transgenic mice develop spontaneous papillomas and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, some of which appear to originate in sites of injury, suggesting that RasGRP1 may be responding to signals generated during the wound-healing process. In this study, we examined the response of the RasGRP1 transgenic animals to full-thickness incision wounding of the skin, and demonstrated that they respond by developing tumors along the wounded site. The tumors did not present mutations in the H-ras gene, but Rasgrp1 transgene dosage correlated with tumor susceptibility and size. Analysis of serum cytokines showed increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in transgenic animals after wounding. Furthermore, in vitro experiments with primary keratinocytes showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulated Ras activation, although RasGRP1 was dispensable for this effect. Since granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has been recently associated with proliferation of skin cancer cells, our results may help in the elucidation of pathways that activate Ras in the epidermis during tumorigenesis in the absence of oncogenic ras mutations. PMID:19497993

  4. Biological and metabolic response in STS-135 space-flown mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mao, X W; Pecaut, M J; Stodieck, L S; Ferguson, V L; Bateman, T A; Bouxsein, M L; Gridley, D S

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that space flight condition-induced biological damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To explore possible mechanisms, changes in gene expression profiles implicated in oxidative stress and in ECM remodeling in mouse skin were examined after space flight. The metabolic effects of space flight in skin tissues were also characterized. Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) was launched at the Kennedy Space Center on a 13-day mission. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown in the STS-135 using animal enclosure modules (AEMs). Within 3-5 h after landing, the mice were euthanized and skin samples were harvested for gene array analysis and metabolic biochemical assays. Many genes responsible for regulating production and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly (p < 0.05) altered in the flight group, with fold changes >1.5 compared to AEM control. For ECM profile, several genes encoding matrix and metalloproteinases involved in ECM remodeling were significantly up-/down-regulated following space flight. To characterize the metabolic effects of space flight, global biochemical profiles were evaluated. Of 332 named biochemicals, 19 differed significantly (p < 0.05) between space flight skin samples and AEM ground controls, with 12 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated including altered amino acid, carbohydrate metabolism, cell signaling, and transmethylation pathways. Collectively, the data demonstrated that space flight condition leads to a shift in biological and metabolic homeostasis as the consequence of increased regulation in cellular antioxidants, ROS production, and tissue remodeling. This indicates that astronauts may be at increased risk for pathophysiologic damage or carcinogenesis in cutaneous tissue.

  5. Effects and dose--response relationships of skin cancer and blackfoot disease with arsenic.

    PubMed

    Tseng, W P

    1977-08-01

    In a limited area on the southwest coast of Taiwan, where artesian well water with a high concentration of arsenic has been used for more than 60 years, a high prevalence of chronic arsenicism has been observed in recent years. The total population of this "endemic" area is approximately 100,000. A general survey of 40,421 inhabitants and follow-up of 1,108 patients with blackfoot disease were made. Blackfoot disease, so-termed locally, is a peripheral vascular disorder resulting in gangrene of the extremities, especially the feet. The overall prevalence rates for skin cancer was 10.6 per 1000, and for blackfoot disease 8.9 per 1000. Generally speaking, the prevalence increased steadily with age in both diseases. The prevalence rates for skin cancer and blackfoot disease increased with the arsenic content of well water, i.e., the higher the arsenic content, the more patients with skin cancer and blackfoot disease. A dose-response relationship between blackfoot disease and the duration of water intake was also noted. Furthermore, the degree of permanent impairment of function in the patient was directly related to duration of intake of arsenical water and to duration of such intake at the time of onset. The most common cause of death in the patients with skin cancer and blackfoot disease was carcinoma of various sites. The 5-year survival rate after the onset of blackfoot disease was 76.3%; the 10-year survival rate was 63.3% and 15-year survival rate, 52.2%. The 50% survival point was 16 years after onset of the disease.

  6. Biological and metabolic response in STS-135 space-flown mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mao, X W; Pecaut, M J; Stodieck, L S; Ferguson, V L; Bateman, T A; Bouxsein, M L; Gridley, D S

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that space flight condition-induced biological damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To explore possible mechanisms, changes in gene expression profiles implicated in oxidative stress and in ECM remodeling in mouse skin were examined after space flight. The metabolic effects of space flight in skin tissues were also characterized. Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) was launched at the Kennedy Space Center on a 13-day mission. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown in the STS-135 using animal enclosure modules (AEMs). Within 3-5 h after landing, the mice were euthanized and skin samples were harvested for gene array analysis and metabolic biochemical assays. Many genes responsible for regulating production and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly (p < 0.05) altered in the flight group, with fold changes >1.5 compared to AEM control. For ECM profile, several genes encoding matrix and metalloproteinases involved in ECM remodeling were significantly up-/down-regulated following space flight. To characterize the metabolic effects of space flight, global biochemical profiles were evaluated. Of 332 named biochemicals, 19 differed significantly (p < 0.05) between space flight skin samples and AEM ground controls, with 12 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated including altered amino acid, carbohydrate metabolism, cell signaling, and transmethylation pathways. Collectively, the data demonstrated that space flight condition leads to a shift in biological and metabolic homeostasis as the consequence of increased regulation in cellular antioxidants, ROS production, and tissue remodeling. This indicates that astronauts may be at increased risk for pathophysiologic damage or carcinogenesis in cutaneous tissue. PMID:24796731

  7. Impact of skin temperature and hydration on plasma volume responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Sollanek, Kurt J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-08-15

    Heat stress and hydration may both alter plasma volume (PV) responses during acute exercise; potential interactions have not been fully studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded elevations in skin temperature (Tsk) on PV changes during steady-state exercise under conditions of euhydration (EU) and hypohydration (HYPO, -4% of body mass). Thirty-two men (22 ± 4 yr) were divided into four cohorts (n = 8 each) and completed EU and HYPO trials in one environment [ambient temperature (Ta) 10, 20, 30, and 40°C]. Thirty minutes of cycle ergometry (50% V̇o2peak) was performed. Core (Tre) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured; changes in PV, total circulating protein (TCP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated; and skin blood flow (SkBF) was estimated. Hypohydration decreased (P < 0.05) PV by 200 ml (-5.7%) but did not alter TCP. Plasma loss was not different between EU and HYPO during exercise at any Ta. Plasma losses were greater (P < 0.05) with elevated Ta with an average -130, -174, -294, and -445 ml losses during the 10, 20, 30, and 40°C trials, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations (r = 0.50 to 0.84) were found between ΔTCP and ΔPV during exercise when Tsk was cool/warm (<33°C; Ta 10, 20, and 30°C), but not at 40°C (high Tsk). We conclude that 1) graded skin warming proportionally accentuated plasma loss; 2) plasma loss was associated with plasma protein efflux at lower Tsk and SkBF; 3) at high Tsk, additional plasma loss likely results from increased net filtration at the capillaries; and 4) HYPO did not alter vascular fluid loss during exercise in any environment. PMID:24994888

  8. Impact of skin temperature and hydration on plasma volume responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Sollanek, Kurt J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-08-15

    Heat stress and hydration may both alter plasma volume (PV) responses during acute exercise; potential interactions have not been fully studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded elevations in skin temperature (Tsk) on PV changes during steady-state exercise under conditions of euhydration (EU) and hypohydration (HYPO, -4% of body mass). Thirty-two men (22 ± 4 yr) were divided into four cohorts (n = 8 each) and completed EU and HYPO trials in one environment [ambient temperature (Ta) 10, 20, 30, and 40°C]. Thirty minutes of cycle ergometry (50% V̇o2peak) was performed. Core (Tre) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured; changes in PV, total circulating protein (TCP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated; and skin blood flow (SkBF) was estimated. Hypohydration decreased (P < 0.05) PV by 200 ml (-5.7%) but did not alter TCP. Plasma loss was not different between EU and HYPO during exercise at any Ta. Plasma losses were greater (P < 0.05) with elevated Ta with an average -130, -174, -294, and -445 ml losses during the 10, 20, 30, and 40°C trials, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations (r = 0.50 to 0.84) were found between ΔTCP and ΔPV during exercise when Tsk was cool/warm (<33°C; Ta 10, 20, and 30°C), but not at 40°C (high Tsk). We conclude that 1) graded skin warming proportionally accentuated plasma loss; 2) plasma loss was associated with plasma protein efflux at lower Tsk and SkBF; 3) at high Tsk, additional plasma loss likely results from increased net filtration at the capillaries; and 4) HYPO did not alter vascular fluid loss during exercise in any environment.

  9. Regulating inflammation using acid-responsive electrospun fibrous scaffolds for skin scarless healing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Jingwen; Chen, Yigang; Yang, Zhili; Cui, Wenguo; Zheng, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Skin injury in adult mammals brings about a series of events and inflammation in the wounded area is initiated first and provides lots of inflammatory factors, which is critical for the final scar formation. While the postinjured skin of fetus and nude mice heals scarlessly owing to the absence of inflammation or immunodeficient, we designed a feasible acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibrous scaffolds via doping sodium bicarbonate to prevent excessive inflammation and achieve scarless healing finally. The morphological results of in vivo experiments revealed that animals treated with acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited alleviative inflammation, accelerated healing process, and regulated collagen deposition via interference in the collagen distribution, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. The lower ratios of collagen I/collagen III and TGF-β1/TGF-β3 and higher ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds group were confirmed by real-time qPCR as well. These results suggest that inhibiting the excessive inflammation will result in regular collagen distribution and appropriate ratio between the factors, which promote or suppress the scar formation, then decrease the scar area, and finally achieve the scarless healing. PMID:24795507

  10. Regulating inflammation using acid-responsive electrospun fibrous scaffolds for skin scarless healing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Jingwen; Chen, Yigang; Yang, Zhili; Cui, Wenguo; Zheng, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Skin injury in adult mammals brings about a series of events and inflammation in the wounded area is initiated first and provides lots of inflammatory factors, which is critical for the final scar formation. While the postinjured skin of fetus and nude mice heals scarlessly owing to the absence of inflammation or immunodeficient, we designed a feasible acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibrous scaffolds via doping sodium bicarbonate to prevent excessive inflammation and achieve scarless healing finally. The morphological results of in vivo experiments revealed that animals treated with acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited alleviative inflammation, accelerated healing process, and regulated collagen deposition via interference in the collagen distribution, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. The lower ratios of collagen I/collagen III and TGF-β1/TGF-β3 and higher ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds group were confirmed by real-time qPCR as well. These results suggest that inhibiting the excessive inflammation will result in regular collagen distribution and appropriate ratio between the factors, which promote or suppress the scar formation, then decrease the scar area, and finally achieve the scarless healing.

  11. Regulating Inflammation Using Acid-Responsive Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds for Skin Scarless Healing

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ziming; Zhao, Jingwen; Chen, Yigang; Yang, Zhili; Zheng, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Skin injury in adult mammals brings about a series of events and inflammation in the wounded area is initiated first and provides lots of inflammatory factors, which is critical for the final scar formation. While the postinjured skin of fetus and nude mice heals scarlessly owing to the absence of inflammation or immunodeficient, we designed a feasible acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibrous scaffolds via doping sodium bicarbonate to prevent excessive inflammation and achieve scarless healing finally. The morphological results of in vivo experiments revealed that animals treated with acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds exhibited alleviative inflammation, accelerated healing process, and regulated collagen deposition via interference in the collagen distribution, the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. The lower ratios of collagen I/collagen III and TGF-β1/TGF-β3 and higher ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in acid-responsive ibuprofen-loaded PLLA fibrous scaffolds group were confirmed by real-time qPCR as well. These results suggest that inhibiting the excessive inflammation will result in regular collagen distribution and appropriate ratio between the factors, which promote or suppress the scar formation, then decrease the scar area, and finally achieve the scarless healing. PMID:24795507

  12. Immediate skin responses to laser and light treatments: Warning endpoints: How to avoid side effects.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew M; Anderson, R Rox

    2016-05-01

    Lasers are versatile, commonly used treatment tools in dermatology. While it is tempting to follow manufacturer's guidelines or other "recipes" for laser treatment, this approach alone can be a recipe for disaster. Specific and immediate skin responses or endpoints exist and are clinically useful because they correlate with underlying mechanisms that are either desirable (ie, therapeutic), undesirable (ie, warning signs of injury or side effects), or incidental. The observation of clinical endpoints is a safe and reliable guide for appropriate treatment. This article presents the warning endpoints during specific dermatologic laser treatments, and the accompanying article presents the therapeutic endpoints, their underlying mechanisms, and the utility of these endpoints. PMID:27085227

  13. FETAL RESPONSE TO ANTIGENIC STIMULUS. IV. REJECTION OF SKIN HOMOGRAFTS BY THE FETAL LAMB.

    PubMed

    SILVERSTEIN, A M; PRENDERGAST, R A; KRANER, K L

    1964-01-01

    The fetal lamb was found to reject orthotopic skin homografts applied at any time after the 77th day of gestation. Prior to this, grafts remained in place without stimulating any detectable immunologic response. Once the fetus achieves the ability to reject the graft, the process occurs with the same competence and rapidity as in the adult. Graft rejection in the fetal lamb is unaccompanied by formation of plasma cells or by the production of typical immunoglobulins, thus supporting the suggestion that circulating antibody does not play an obligatory role in the process.

  14. Histone H3 Phosphorylation in Human Skin Histoculture as a Tool to Evaluate Patient’s Response to Antiproliferative Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte, Fernando; Porth, Katherine; Sadekova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of patient’s response to chemotherapeutic drugs is often difficult and time consuming. Skin punch biopsies are easily accessible material that can be used for the evaluation of surrogate biomarkers of a patient’s response to a drug. In this study, we hypothesized that assessment of phosphorylated histone H3 in human skin punch biopsies could be used as a pharmacodynamics biomarker of patient’s response to the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor SCH2047069. To test this hypothesis, we used a human skin histoculture technique that allows culturing intact human skin in the presence of the drug. Human melanoma and skin histocultures were treated with SCH2047069, and the effect of the drug was assessed by increasing histone H3 phosphorylation using immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that SCH2047069 has a significant effect on cell proliferation in human melanoma and skin histoculture and justify using human skin punch biopsies for evaluation of the pharmacodynamic changes induced by SCH2047069. ACRONYMS Histone subunit H3 (H3), Kinesin spindle protein (KSP), 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EDU), Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE). PMID:26917945

  15. Oxygen analyzers: failure rates and life spans of galvanic cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R M

    1990-07-01

    Competing technologies exist for measuring oxygen concentrations in breathing circuits. Over a 4-year period, two types of oxygen analyzers were studied prospectively in routine clinical use to determine the incidence and nature of malfunctions. Newer AC-powered galvanic analyzers (North American Dräger O2med) were compared with older, battery-powered polarographic analyzers (Ohmeda 201) by recording all failures and necessary repairs. The AC-powered galvanic analyzer had a significantly lower incidence of failures (0.12 +/- 0.04 failures per machine-month) than the battery-powered polarographic analyzer (4.0 +/- 0.3 failures per machine-month). Disposable capsules containing the active galvanic cells lasted 12 +/- 7 months. Although the galvanic analyzers tended to remain out of service longer, awaiting the arrival of costly parts, the polarographic analyzers were more expensive to keep operating when calculations included the cost of time spent on repairs. Stocking galvanic capsules would have decreased the amount of time the galvanic analyzers were out of service, while increasing costs. In conclusion, galvanic oxygen analyzers appear capable of delivering more reliable service at a lower overall cost. By keeping the galvanic capsules exposed to room air during periods of storage, it should be possible to prolong their life span, further decreasing the cost of using them. In addition, recognizing the aberrations in their performance that warn of the exhaustion of the galvanic cells should permit timely recording and minimize downtime.

  16. Similar nociceptive afferents mediate psychophysical and electrophysiological responses to heat stimulation of glabrous and hairy skin in humans

    PubMed Central

    Iannetti, G D; Zambreanu, L; Tracey, I

    2006-01-01

    The ability to perceive and withdraw rapidly from noxious environmental stimuli is crucial for survival. When heat stimuli are applied to primate hairy skin, first pain sensation is mediated by type-II A-fibre nociceptors (II-AMHs). In contrast, the reported absence of first pain and II-AMH microneurographical responses when heat stimuli are applied to the hand palm has led to the notion that II-AMHs are lacking in this primate glabrous skin. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hairy and glabrous skin stimulation on neural transmission of nociceptive inputs elicited by different kinds of thermal heating. We recorded psychophysical and EEG brain responses to radiant (laser-evoked potentials, LEPs) and contact heat stimuli (contact heat-evoked potentials, CHEPs) delivered to the dorsum and the palm of the hand in normal volunteers. Brain responses were analysed at a single-trial level, using an automated approach based on multiple linear regression. Laser stimulation of hairy and glabrous skin at the same energy elicited remarkably similar psychophysical ratings and LEPs. This finding provides strong evidence that first pain to heat does exist in glabrous skin, and suggests that similar nociceptive afferents, with the physiological properties of II-AMHs, mediate first pain to heat stimulation of glabrous and hairy skin in humans. In contrast, when contact heat stimuli were employed, a significantly higher nominal temperature had to be applied to glabrous skin in order to achieve psychophysical ratings similar to those obtained following hairy skin stimulation, and CHEPs following glabrous skin stimulation had significantly longer latencies (N2 wave, +25%; P2 wave, +24%) and smaller amplitudes (N2 wave, −40%; P2 wave, −44%) than CHEPs following hairy skin stimulation. Irrespective of the stimulated territory, CHEPs always had significantly longer latencies (hairy skin N2 wave, +75%; P2 wave, +56%) and smaller amplitudes (hairy skin N2 wave, −42%; P

  17. Protein oxidative damage and heme oxygenase in sunlight-exposed human skin: roles of MAPK responses to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Emiko; Takekoshi, Susumu; Horikoshi, Yosuke; Toriumi, Kentarou; Ikoma, Norihiro; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Tamiya, Shiho; Matsuyama, Takashi; Ozawa, Akira

    2010-12-20

    Oxidative stress derived from ultraviolet (UV) light in sunlight induces different hazardous effects in the skin, including sunburn, photo-aging and DNA mutagenesis. In this study, the protein-bound lipid peroxidation products 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) were investigated in chronically sun-exposed and sun-protected human skins using immunohistochemistry. The levels of antioxidative enzymes, such as heme oxygenase 1 and 2, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase, were also examined. Oxidative stress is also implicated in the activation of signal transduction pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Therefore, the expression and distribution of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were observed. Skin specimens were obtained from the surgical margins. Chronically sunlight-exposed skin samples were taken from the ante-auricular (n = 10) and sunlight-protected skin samples were taken from the post-auricular (n = 10). HNE was increased in the chronically sunlight-exposed skin but not in the sunlight-protected skin. The expression of heme oxygenase-2 was markedly increased in the sunlight-exposed skin compared with the sun-protected skin. In contrast, the intensity of immunostaining of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and catalase was not different between the two areas. Phosphorylated p38 MAPK and phosphorylated JNK accumulated in the ante-auricular dermis and epidermis, respectively. These data show that particular anti-oxidative enzymes function as protective factors in chronically sunlight-exposed human skin. Taken together, our results suggest (1) antioxidative effects of heme oxygenase-2 in chronically sunlight-exposed human skin, and that (2) activation of p38 MAPK may be responsible for oxidative stress.

  18. Asymmetric response properties of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptive fibers in the rat glabrous skin.

    PubMed

    Devecıoğlu, Ismaıl; Güçlü, Burak

    2013-01-01

    Previous histological and neurophysiological studies have shown that the innervation density of rapidly adapting (RA) mechanoreceptive fibers increases towards the fingertip. Since the psychophysical detection threshold depends on the contribution of several RA fibers, a high innervation density would imply lower thresholds. However, our previous human study showed that psychophysical detection thresholds for the Non-Pacinian I channel mediated by RA fibers do not improve towards the fingertip. By recording single-unit spike activity from rat RA fibers, here we tested the hypothesis that the responsiveness of RA fibers is asymmetric in the proximo-distal axis which may counterbalance the effects of innervation density. RA fibers (n = 32) innervating the digital glabrous skin of rat hind paw were stimulated with 40-Hz sinusoidal mechanical bursts at five different stimulus locations relative to the receptive field (RF) center (two distal, one RF center, two proximal). Different contactor sizes (area: 0.39, 1.63, 2.96 mm²) were used. Rate-intensity functions were constructed based on average firing rates, and the absolute spike threshold and the entrainment threshold were obtained for each RA fiber. Thresholds for proximal stimulus locations were found to be significantly higher than those for distal stimulus locations, which suggests that the mechanical stimulus is transmitted better towards the proximal direction. The effect of contactor size was not significant. Mechanical impedance of the rat digital glabrous skin was further measured and a lumped-parameter model was proposed to interpret the relationship between the asymmetric response properties of RA fibers and the mechanical properties of the skin.

  19. In Vivo Assessment of Acute UVB Responses in Normal and Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP-C) Skin-Humanized Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    García, Marta; Llames, Sara; García, Eva; Meana, Alvaro; Cuadrado, Natividad; Recasens, Mar; Puig, Susana; Nagore, Eduardo; Illera, Nuria; Jorcano, José Luis; Del Rio, Marcela; Larcher, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In vivo studies of UVB effects on human skin are precluded by ethical and technical arguments on volunteers and inconceivable in cancer-prone patients such as those affected with Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP). Establishing reliable models to address mechanistic and therapeutic matters thus remains a challenge. Here we have used the skin-humanized mouse system that circumvents most current model constraints. We assessed the UVB radiation effects including the sequential changes after acute exposure with respect to timing, dosage, and the relationship between dose and degree-sort of epidermal alteration. On Caucasian-derived regenerated skins, UVB irradiation (800 J/m2) induced DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and p53 expression in exposed keratinocytes. Epidermal disorganization was observed at higher doses. In contrast, in African descent–derived regenerated skins, physiological hyperpigmentation prevented tissue alterations and DNA photolesions. The acute UVB effects seen in Caucasian-derived engrafted skins were also blocked by a physical sunscreen, demonstrating the suitability of the system for photoprotection studies. We also report the establishment of a photosensitive model through the transplantation of XP-C patient cells as part of a bioengineered skin. The inability of XP-C engrafted skin to remove DNA damaged cells was confirmed in vivo. Both the normal and XP-C versions of the skin-humanized mice proved proficient models to assess UVB-mediated DNA repair responses and provide a strong platform to test novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:20558577

  20. 40 CFR 465.20 - Applicability; description of the galvanized basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Galvanized... into publicly owned treatment works from coil coating of galvanized basis material coils....

  1. 40 CFR 465.20 - Applicability; description of the galvanized basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COIL COATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Galvanized... into publicly owned treatment works from coil coating of galvanized basis material coils....

  2. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ogami, M; Kulkarni, R; Wang, H; Reif, R; Wang, R K

    2014-08-31

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  3. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogami, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Wang, H.; Reif, R.; Wang, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing.

  4. Syk/Src Pathway-Targeted Inhibition of Skin Inflammatory Responses by Carnosic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jueun; Yu, Tao; Choi, Soo Jeong; Yang, Yanyan; Baek, Heung Soo; An, Soon Ae; Kwon, Lee Kyoung; Kim, Jinsol; Rho, Ho Sik; Shin, Song Seok; Choi, Wahn Soo; Hong, Sungyoul; Cho, Jae Youl

    2012-01-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a diterpene compound exhibiting antioxidative, anticancer, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-metabolic disorder, and hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activities. In this study, the effect of CA on various skin inflammatory responses and its inhibitory mechanism were examined. CA strongly suppressed the production of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 from keratinocyte HaCaT cells stimulated with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and retinoic acid (RA). In addition, CA blocked the release of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from RAW264.7 cells activated by the toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 ligands, Gram-positive bacterium-derived peptidoglycan (PGN) and pam3CSK, and the TLR4 ligand, Gram-negative bacterium-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CA arrested the growth of dermatitis-inducing Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms such Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. CA also blocked the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and its upstream signaling including Syk/Src, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) kinase (IKK), and IκBα for NF-κB activation. Kinase assays revealed that Syk could be direct enzymatic target of CA in its anti-inflammatory action. Therefore, our data strongly suggest the potential of CA as an anti-inflammatory drug against skin inflammatory responses with Src/NF-κB inhibitory properties. PMID:22577255

  5. Heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes is capable of inducing inflammatory responses in skin.

    PubMed

    Lyte, Peter; Sur, Runa; Nigam, Anu; Southall, Michael D

    2009-12-01

    The etiology of acne is a complex process, and acne is one of the most common skin disorders affecting millions of people. The pathogenesis of acne is closely associated with the bacterium, Propionibacterium acnes which was previously known as Corynebacterium parvum. Both viable and non-viable P. acnes/C. parvum have been shown to induce an immunostimulatory effect in vivo, suggesting that even dead bacteria continue to activate an inflammatory response. Acne treatments with lasers or devices, induce a bactericidal effect through heat generation which may not address the immunogenic activity of P. acnes and the resulting acne inflammation. Therefore, we sought to determine whether killed P. acnes is capable of inducing an inflammatory response and therefore could be a contributing factor in acne. Direct heat treatment of P. acnes cultures with temperatures ranging from 50 degrees C to 80 degrees C reduced P. acnes viability. Both viable and heat-killed P. acnes activated the p38 MAP kinase and its downstream substrate Hsp27. Stimulating keratinocytes with normal and heat-inactivated P. acnes resulted in an induction of proinflammatory nitric oxide and IL-8 production. Thus killed P. acnes is capable of inducing inflammation in skin suggesting that therapies that have both bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects may result in a more effective treatment of patients with acne than treatments that are bactericidal alone. PMID:19624731

  6. The influence of galvanic currents and voltage on the proliferation activity of lymphocytes and expression of cell surface molecules.

    PubMed

    Podzimek, S; Hána, K; Miksovský, M; Pousek, L; Matucha, P; Meloun, M; Procházková, J

    2008-01-01

    Release of metal ions from dental metal fillings supported by galvanism can cause local or general pathological problems in sensitive and genetically susceptible individuals. We aimed to investigate in vitro lymphocyte responses and expression of surface molecules influenced by galvanic currents and voltage. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were influenced by galvanic currents and voltages and lymphocyte proliferation was measured. Control samples were not exposed to the influence of galvanism. We also studied the expression of surface molecules by the FACS analysis. A 15-h and shorter influence of almost all tested currents and voltages caused a significant decrease in lymphocyte proliferation and the 15-h influence of 20 microA currents significantly increased expression of surface molecules CD 19, 11a/18, 19/69 and 19/95. An influence of 10 and 3 microA currents led to a significant decrease in the expression of surface molecules CD 3, 11a/18, 3/69 and 3/95 and to a significant increase in CD 19 expression. An 80 mV voltage influence led to a significant decrease in the expression of surface molecules CD 3, 11a/18, 3/69, 3/95, 19/69 and 19/95, and 200 and 300 mV voltages significantly decreased the expression of surface molecules CD 3, 19, 11a/18, 3/95 and 19/95 and significantly increased CD 19/69 expression. A long-lasting influence of galvanism can, in sensitive and genetically susceptible individuals, influence lymphocyte proliferation and surface molecule expression. The threshold for pathological values of 5 microA for galvanic currents and 100 mV for galvanic voltage was confirmed.

  7. Molecular genetic response of Xiphophorus maculatus-X. couchianus interspecies hybrid skin to UVB exposure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan; Bowswell, Mikki; Bowswell, William; Yang, Kuan; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B

    2015-12-01

    The phenotypic and genetic similarities between Xiphophorus and human melanoma render Xiphophorus a useful animal model for studying the genetic basis of melanoma etiology. In the Xiphophorus model, melanoma has been shown to be inducible by ultraviolet light (UVB) exposure among interspecies hybrids, but not in parental line fish similarly treated. This leads to questions of what genes are responsive to UVB exposure in the skin of the interspecies hybrids, as well as how parental alleles in hybrids may be differentially regulated and the potential roles they may play in induced melanomagenesis. To address these questions, we produced X. maculatus Jp 163 B×X. couchianus (Sp-Couch) F1 hybrid fish, exposed both hybrid and parental fish to UVB, and performed gene expression profiling of the skin using RNA-Seq methodology. We characterized a group of unique UVB-responsive genes in Sp-Couch hybrid including dct, pmela, tyr, tyrp1a, slc2a11b, rab38a, rab27, tspan10, slc45a2, oca2, slc24a5, ptn and mitfa. These genes are associated with melanin production and melanocyte proliferation. They were also up-regulated in Sp-Couch hybrid, indicating that their UVB response is hybridization initiated. In the hybrid, several melanin production and pigmentation related genes, including slc45a2, tspan10, dct, slc2a11b and ptn showed either X. couchianus or X. maculatus allele specific expression. The finding that these genes exhibit allele specific expression regulatory mechanisms in Sp-Couch hybrids, but do not exhibit a corresponding UVB response in either one of the parental fishes, may suggest UVB targets and imply mechanisms regarding the susceptibility of Sp-Couch to induced melanomagenesis.

  8. The skin conductance orienting response in neuroleptic-free schizophrenics: replication of the scoring criteria effect.

    PubMed

    Levinson, D F; Edelberg, R; Maricq, H R

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested that the use of invalid scoring criteria might be responsible for the finding of excessive nonhabituation of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in schizophrenia. Certain criteria may confuse SCOR and spontaneous SC activity in subjects with high rates of the latter (Levinson et al. 1984). To replicate this finding, data were reanalyzed from a study of 25 neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients and 23 normal male subjects. Analysis of response latency and amplitude during a habituation paradigm of 11 78.5-dB tones confirmed the predictions. Broad scoring criteria (SCOR onset 1-5 sec poststimulus, and a three-no-response-trials habituation criterion) produced significantly different habituation scores than more restrictive criteria (1.6-3.0 sec latency window and a two-trials habituation criterion). Nonhabituation was scored in five patients and six normals by the former criteria, but in no patient and one normal by the latter. Nonhabituators, defined by using the broad criteria, had higher rates of spontaneous activity. The narrow latency window contained significantly more responses than could be explained by the spontaneous activity rate, but this was not true for the added time permitted by the broad window. It is concluded that the use of more restrictive scoring criteria may help to clarify the validity of SCOR nonresponse or hyporesponse as a marker for a type of schizophrenic illness.

  9. Skin-colour changes i the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, in response to localized electrical stimulation and lesions in the diencephalon.

    PubMed

    Hemer, J H; Salas, M A; LaPointe, J L

    1981-05-01

    A study was made of changes in skin colour in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, in response to deep electrical stimulation at 0.2 mm intervals throughout the periventricular region of the diencephalon and the anterior brain stem. Double-barrelled glass microelectrodes with tip diameters of 3 microns were used. A 20 microA pulse-train consisting of a 500 Hz signal lasting for 1 s yielded localized responses. Skin darkening occurred only in response to stimulation delivered in the anterior and dorsal region of the diencephalon and skin lightening only in response to stimulation in a small area in the posterior and ventral region of the hypothalamus. Electrical lesions in the latter region resulted in permanent skin darkening. Surgical interruption of the hypothalamo-hypophysial neurosecretory tract did not block skin-colour change in response to dark or light backgrounds. It was concluded that MSH release is under tonic inhibitory control by hypothalamic neurones in Anolis. Both inhibitory and stimulatory neurones can be localized stereotaxically in the diencephalon and neither type corresponds with the neurosecretory neurones of the hypothalamo-hypophysial tract. The functional relationship between the stimulatory neurones and the inhibitory neurones and pars intermedia remains unclear.

  10. Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

  11. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... notice in the Federal Register on November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72721). The hearing was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from China of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings...

  12. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... notice in the Federal Register of April 7, 2011 (76 FR 19382). The conference was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in...

  13. Connector aperture seal for a galvanic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Simonton, R. D.

    1985-06-25

    A flat galvanic cell having a plastic envelope surrounding and sealing its active elements is disclosed with a connector extending from a metal plate and piercing the envelope wall. A seal against electrolyte leakage is provided as a subassembly comprising the connector secured to the metal plate which is coated with a resin, a graphite dispersion in polyvinyl chloride, and bonded to the interior face of an envelope wall by an adhesive, a butadiene based elasomeric hot melt adhesive. The subassembly is sealed to the other elements of the envelope at the wall portion margins extending beyond the metal plate.

  14. Demonstration of a 'septide-sensitive' inflammatory response in rat skin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, A.; Giuliani, S.; Maggi, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Measurement of plasma protein extravasation induced by the natural tachykinins following intradermal administration in rat skin indicated equipotency between substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB). The selective NK1 receptor agonist, [Sar9]SP sulphone was 10-100 times more potent than SP. The synthetic hexapeptide, septide, [pGlu6, Pro9]SP-(6-11), which has been proposed to act on a distinct NK1 receptor subtype/binding site was equipotent with [Sar9]SP sulphone. 2. The selective NK2 receptor agonist [beta Ala8]NKA(4-10) (0.1-1 nmol) and the selective NK3 receptor agonist, senktide (0.1-1 nmol) were both ineffective in producing oedema. The selective NK2 receptor antagonist, SR 48, 968 (0.3 mumol kg-1) had no significant inhibitory effects upon oedema induced by approximately equiactive doses of SP (0.2 nmol), septide (0.002 nmol), [Sar9]SP sulphone (0.002 nmol), or NKB (0.3 nmol). These results together suggest that neither NK2 nor NK3 receptors are involved in oedema formation in rat skin. 3. The non-peptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, RP 67,580 (1-3 mumol kg-1), inhibited plasma protein extravasation induced by septide (0.002 nmol) to a greater extent than that to SP (0.2 nmol). RP 67,580 (1 mumol kg-1) produced a significant inhibition of approximately 66% of the response to septide (0.002 nmol) only. Increasing the dose of RP 67,580 3 fold resulted in inhibition of the response to SP (0.2 nmol) and [Sar9]SP sulphone (0.002 nmol) by approximately 66% and 64% respectively with the response to septide being inhibited by approximately 70%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564245

  15. Fibroblast radiosensitivity versus acute and late normal skin responses in patients treated for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, W.A.; Wike, J.; Tucker, S.L.

    1995-07-30

    To determine if the radiosensitivity of normal human skin fibroblasts, measured in early passage cultures, is significantly correlated with the degree of acute or late normal skin damage in patients treated for breast cancer with radiotherapy. To test assay reproducibility, SF2 values derived from paired biopsies of the same patient (12 cases) were compared. A reasonably good correlation (p = 0.075) was obtained for SF2s determined by high dose-rate irradiations with immediated plating, but not for delayed plating or low dose-rate treatments. The median coefficient of variation in the replicate SF2s after high dose-rate treatment and immediate plating was 13%, suggesting that the poor correlation in paired SF2 values is due to the magnitude of the uncertainty in SF2 relative to the overall spread in SF2 values between patients (CV = 28%). Individual SF2 values and averaged values from patients with data from two biopsies were compared with the acute and late clinical reactions. A significant negative correlation was found between SF2 and relative clinical response, but only when averaged high dose-rate SF2 values and telangiectasia scores were compared. There was no significant correlation between average SF2 values and acute responses or between individual SF2 measurements and either the acute or late clinical response. The results of this study suggest that the degree of late telangiectasia is at least partially dependent upon the intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity of normal fibroblasts, but the relationship is not clear cut. Multiple replicate assays are necessary to obtain reliable estimates of fibroblast SF2 values using current techniques. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Assessing the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses to increasing anemia severity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Dey, Ankita; Chen, Tenn F.

    2015-09-01

    Anemia is a prevalent medical condition that seriously affects millions of people all over the world. In many regions, not only its initial detection but also its monitoring are hindered by limited access to laboratory facilities. This situation has motivated the development of a wide range of optical devices and procedures to assist physicians in these tasks. Although noticeable progress has been achieved in this area, the search for reliable, low-cost, and risk-free solutions still continues, and the strengthening of the knowledge base about this disorder and its effects is essential for the success of these initiatives. We contribute to these efforts by closely examining the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses (within and outside the visible region of the light spectrum) to reduced hemoglobin concentrations associated with increasing anemia severity levels. This investigation, which involves skin specimens with distinct biophysical and morphological characteristics, is supported by controlled in silico experiments performed using a predictive light transport model and measured data reported in the biomedical literature. We also propose a noninvasive procedure to be employed in the monitoring of this condition at the point-of-care.

  17. Imaging immune response of skin mast cells in vivo with two-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunqiang; Pastila, Riikka K.; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton microscopy has provided insightful information of the dynamic process of immune cells in vivo. However, the use of exogenous labeling agents limits its applications. There is no method to perform functional imaging of mast cells, a population of innate tissue-resident immune cells. Mast cells are widely recognized as the effector cells in allergy. Recently their roles as immunoregulatory cells in certain innate and adaptive immune responses are being actively investigated. Here we report in vivo mouse skin mast cells imaging with two-photon microscopy using endogenous tryptophan as the fluorophore. We studied the following processes. 1) Mast cells degranulation, the first step in the mast cell activation process in which the granules are released into peripheral tissue to trigger downstream reactions. 2) Mast cell reconstitution, a procedure commonly used to study mast cells functioning by comparing the data from wild type mice, mast cell-deficient mice, and mast-cell deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Imaging the BMMCs engraftment in tissue reveals the mast cells development and the efficiency of BMMCs reconstitution. We observed the reconstitution process for 6 weeks in the ear skin of mast cell-deficient Kit wsh/ w-sh mice by two-photon imaging. Our finding is the first instance of imaging mast cells in vivo with endogenous contrast.

  18. Response of human skin to ultraviolet radiation: dissociation of erythema and metabolic changes following sunscreen protection

    SciTech Connect

    Pearse, A.D.; Marks, R.

    1983-03-01

    After UV irradiation of human skin there is an increase in epidermal and stratum corneum thickness and an increase in the thymidine autoradiographic labeling index. Previously we have demonstrated that persistent exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) alters the distribution and activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) within the epidermis; G-6-PDH activity is increased over the whole epidermis and SDH activity is diminished in the granular cell area but increased in the basal layer. When skin is protected by an efficient sunscreen and irradiated with UVB, there is almost complete inhibition of the erythema normally seen following UVR exposure. In this study we have investigated the cytochemical, cell kinetic, and histometric changes that take place in the epidermis after UVB irradiation, with and without two different types of sunscreen. Some of the histometric and metabolic changes associated with UVB exposure were still evident despite sunscreen protection and the successful blocking of the erythema response. The implications of these findings are discussed together with the use of sunscreens to prevent development of solar damage.

  19. Inhibitory effect of chitosan-containing lotion on scratching response of hairless mice with atopic dermatitis-like dry skin.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masanori; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Takeshi; Endo, Fumiko; Kohno, Shigekatsu; Nabe, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, using a special diet-induced mouse model of atopic dermatitis, we tested the effect of chitosan-containing lotion (CL) on itch-related scratching associated with barrier-disrupted dry skin. HR-1 hairless mice fed a special diet exhibited apparent dry skin symptoms characterized by decreased skin hydration and increased transepidermal water loss. In the special diet-fed mice, scratching behavior was markedly enhanced for 60 min after oral administration of ethanol. When CL was applied once immediately after ethanol administration, the enhanced scratching response was significantly suppressed, but this effect was abolished within 30-40 min; when applied twice immediately and at 30 min, CL almost completely blocked scratching throughout 60 min. Comparison of CL and the chitosan-free vehicle showed that CL inhibited scratching more strongly and persistently than the vehicle, which transiently suppressed scratching only for 10 min after application. Although the decreased skin hydration was improved even by the vehicle, the increased transepidermal water loss was resolved only by CL. Skin surface temperature was much more reduced in CL-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. Collectively, CL has an antipruritic effect, which could be partly explained by recovery of skin barrier function and cooling of the skin.

  20. Are We Afraid of Different Categories of Stimuli in Identical Ways? Evidence from Skin Conductance Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiongjiong

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that emotional pictures attract more attention than neutral pictures, and pictures of living stimuli have similar advantage in driving attention (vs. nonliving). However, factors of emotion, category and picture context are usually mixed so that whether living and nonliving categories elicit different skin conductance (SC) responses, in both conscious and unconscious conditions, remains to be clarified. In this study, participants were presented with negative and neutral pictures denoting different living and nonliving concepts in conscious (Experiments 1 and 2) and unconscious conditions (40ms, Experiment 3) when their SC responses were measured. The picture context was manipulated in Experiments 2 and 3 as half including human-related information. In three experiments, the emotional levels of different categories were matched in different and identical cohorts of participants. The results showed that living pictures in a negative, high-arousing dimension elicited stronger SC responses than nonliving pictures. When nonhuman animals and inanimate objects were compared, the increased SC responses to animals was obtained only for negative pictures without human contexts in the conscious condition, but regardless of human context in the unconscious condition. These results suggested that contextual information and level of conscious awareness are important to modulate the animate advantage in emotional processing. PMID:24039879

  1. Are we afraid of different categories of stimuli in identical ways? Evidence from skin conductance responses.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tengteng; Li, Han; Wang, Yingying; Yang, Jiongjiong

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that emotional pictures attract more attention than neutral pictures, and pictures of living stimuli have similar advantage in driving attention (vs. nonliving). However, factors of emotion, category and picture context are usually mixed so that whether living and nonliving categories elicit different skin conductance (SC) responses, in both conscious and unconscious conditions, remains to be clarified. In this study, participants were presented with negative and neutral pictures denoting different living and nonliving concepts in conscious (Experiments 1 and 2) and unconscious conditions (40ms, Experiment 3) when their SC responses were measured. The picture context was manipulated in Experiments 2 and 3 as half including human-related information. In three experiments, the emotional levels of different categories were matched in different and identical cohorts of participants. The results showed that living pictures in a negative, high-arousing dimension elicited stronger SC responses than nonliving pictures. When nonhuman animals and inanimate objects were compared, the increased SC responses to animals was obtained only for negative pictures without human contexts in the conscious condition, but regardless of human context in the unconscious condition. These results suggested that contextual information and level of conscious awareness are important to modulate the animate advantage in emotional processing. PMID:24039879

  2. A rare subset of skin-tropic regulatory T cells expressing Il10/Gzmb inhibits the cutaneous immune response

    PubMed Central

    Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Vandenbon, Alexis; Honda, Tetsuya; Shand, Francis H. W.; Nakanishi, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Takeshi; Tomura, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) migrating from the skin to the draining lymph node (dLN) have a strong immunosuppressive effect on the cutaneous immune response. However, the subpopulations responsible for their inhibitory function remain unclear. We investigated single-cell gene expression heterogeneity in Tregs from the dLN of inflamed skin in a contact hypersensitivity model. The immunosuppressive genes Ctla4 and Tgfb1 were expressed in the majority of Tregs. Although Il10-expressing Tregs were rare, unexpectedly, the majority of Il10-expressing Tregs co-expressed Gzmb and displayed Th1-skewing. Single-cell profiling revealed that CD43+ CCR5+ Tregs represented the main subset within the Il10/Gzmb-expressing cell population in the dLN. Moreover, CD43+ CCR5+ CXCR3− Tregs expressed skin-tropic chemokine receptors, were preferentially retained in inflamed skin and downregulated the cutaneous immune response. The identification of a rare Treg subset co-expressing multiple immunosuppressive molecules and having tissue-remaining capacity offers a novel strategy for the control of skin inflammatory responses. PMID:27756896

  3. Gua Sha, a press-stroke treatment of the skin, boosts the immune response to intradermal vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxuan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Huang, Zhen; Zang, Yuhui; Chen, Jiangning; Dong, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The skin is an important immunological barrier of the body as well as an optimal route for vaccine administration. Gua Sha, which involves press-stroke treatment of the skin, is an effective folk therapy, widely accepted in East Asia, for various symptoms; however, the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects have not been clarified. We investigated the influence of Gua Sha on the immunological features of the skin. Methods Gua Sha was performed on BALB/c mice and the effects were evaluated using anatomical, histological, and cytometric methods as well as cytokine determination locally and systemically. The effect on intradermal vaccination was assessed with antigen-specific subtype antibody responses. Results Blood vessel expansion, erythrocyte extravasation, and increased ratios of immune active cells were observed in the skin tissue following the treatment. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated, and immunosuppressive cytokines, down-regulated, in the treated and untreated skin and systemic circulation; no obvious variations were detected in case of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, intradermal delivery of a model vaccine following Gua Sha induced about three-fold higher IgG titers with a more Th1-biased antibody subtype profile. Conclusion Gua Sha treatment can up-regulate the innate and adaptive immune functions of the skin and boost the response against intradermal antigens. Thus, Gua Sha may serve as a safe, inexpensive, and independent physical adjuvant for intradermal vaccination. PMID:27672506

  4. Gua Sha, a press-stroke treatment of the skin, boosts the immune response to intradermal vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxuan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Huang, Zhen; Zang, Yuhui; Chen, Jiangning; Dong, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The skin is an important immunological barrier of the body as well as an optimal route for vaccine administration. Gua Sha, which involves press-stroke treatment of the skin, is an effective folk therapy, widely accepted in East Asia, for various symptoms; however, the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects have not been clarified. We investigated the influence of Gua Sha on the immunological features of the skin. Methods Gua Sha was performed on BALB/c mice and the effects were evaluated using anatomical, histological, and cytometric methods as well as cytokine determination locally and systemically. The effect on intradermal vaccination was assessed with antigen-specific subtype antibody responses. Results Blood vessel expansion, erythrocyte extravasation, and increased ratios of immune active cells were observed in the skin tissue following the treatment. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated, and immunosuppressive cytokines, down-regulated, in the treated and untreated skin and systemic circulation; no obvious variations were detected in case of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, intradermal delivery of a model vaccine following Gua Sha induced about three-fold higher IgG titers with a more Th1-biased antibody subtype profile. Conclusion Gua Sha treatment can up-regulate the innate and adaptive immune functions of the skin and boost the response against intradermal antigens. Thus, Gua Sha may serve as a safe, inexpensive, and independent physical adjuvant for intradermal vaccination.

  5. Histamine response and local cooling in the human skin: involvement of H1- and H2-receptors

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, M; Jamieson, M J; Kirch, W

    1999-01-01

    Aims Histamine may contribute locally to cutaneous blood flow control under normal and pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to observe the influence of skin temperature on histamine vasodilation, and the roles of H1-and H2-receptors using novel noninvasive methods. Methods Eleven healthy subjects received, double-blind, single doses of the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine (10 mg), cetirizine (10 mg) plus the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (400 mg), or placebo on separate occasions. Histamine was dosed cumulatively by iontophoresis to the forearm skin at 34° C and 14° C. Laser-Doppler flux (LDF) was measured at the same sites using customised probeholder/iontophoretic chambers with Peltier cooling elements. Finger mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured and cutaneous vascular conductance calculated as LDF/MAP. Results Histamine vasodilation was reduced in cold skin. Cetirizine shifted the histamine dose-response at both temperatures: statistically significantly at 14° C only. Combined H1- and H2-receptor antagonism shifted the response significantly at both temperatures. Conclusions H1- and H2-receptors mediate histamine-induced skin vasodilation. The sensitivity of these receptors, particularly the H1- receptor, is attenuated at low skin temperature. Whether the reduced effect in cold skin represents specific receptor or postreceptor desensitization, or nonspecific attenuation of cutaneous vasodilation remains to be elucidated. PMID:10417499

  6. Analysis of skin conductance response during evaluation of preferences for cosmetic products

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Hideki; Hirao, Naoyasu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed skin conductance response (SCR) as a psychophysiological index to evaluate affective aspects of consumer preferences for cosmetic products. To examine the test-retest reliability of association between preferences and SCR, we asked 33 female volunteers to complete two experimental sessions approximately 1 year apart. The participants indicated their preferences in a typical paired comparison task by choosing the better option from a combination of two products among four products. We measured anticipatory SCR prior to expressions of the preferences. We found that the mean amplitude of the SCR elicited by the preferred products was significantly larger than that elicited by the non-preferred products. The participants' preferences and corresponding SCR patterns were well preserved at the second session 1 year later. Our results supported cumulating findings that SCR is a useful index of consumer preferences that has future potential, both in laboratory and marketing settings. PMID:25709593

  7. Characterisation of the sympathetic skin response evoked by own-face recognition in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Prestandrea, Caterina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The ability to recognise one's own face is crucial for self-identity formation and it plays a key role in the development of social interactions. Our starting hypothesis was that own-face recognition may be a psychophysiological phenomenon capable of activating the vegetative system in a peculiar manner, via sympathetic pathways. To test this hypothesis we studied the sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) evoked in 18 healthy subjects by the image of their own faces and by six other different visual stimuli. The SSRs were enhanced when participants were shown their own faces. Both SSR area and SSR amplitude contributed to this phenomenon. This work may offer new insights into the psycho- physiological processes involved in own-face recognition; moreover, the SSR could be a useful tool for future studies of patients affected by neuropsychiatric disorders presenting impairment of own-face recognition or representation of self-identity.

  8. Thin-skinned salt tectonics as a response to crustal movements in a recent convergent setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendeville, Bruno; Gaullier, Virginie; Deverchere, Jacques; Sage, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    Published data from the seismic survey "MARADJA 1" conducted in August and September 2003 offshore the Algerian coast have imaged the Messinian salt response to tectonic activity within the basement. This helps to understand how the vertical movements of basement blocks have been recorded by thin-skinned salt tectonics. The area is undergoing crustal convergence, as attested by the Boumerdes earthquake (magnitude 6.8), which happened in 2003. The seismic data have revealed the presence of an elevated plateau, forming a 3D promontory restricted to the area offshore Algiers and is absent west and east of that area. The promontory is likely related to the contractional reactivation of the margin, as was recorded by subsalt thrusts mapped by Domzig et al. (2006). The data provided additional information on the deformation of the Messinian mobile evaporite unit and its Plio-Quaternary overburden. Margin-perpendicular profiles show mostly compressional features (anticlines and synclines) that had little or no activity during Messinian times. By contrast, margin-parallel profiles clearly show that extensional, reactive salt diapiric ridges formed early, as early as the time of deposition of the Messinian Upper Unit, as recorded by fan-shaped strata. These ridges have recorded E-W, thin-skinned gravity gliding above the Messinian salt, as a response to the rise of the basement plateau. We tested this hypothesis using analogue models. Indeed, the rise of the plateau generated preferential E-W extension above the salt, rather than N-S, which was prevented by the compressional regional tectonic stresses related to the convergence of the African and European plates.

  9. Local Antiglycan Antibody Responses to Skin Stage and Migratory Schistosomula of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Smit, Cornelis H; Kies, Christiaan L; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Meeusen, Els N T; Hokke, Cornelis H; van Diepen, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Although effective drug treatment is available, reinfections are common, and development of immunity is slow. Most antibodies raised during schistosome infection are directed against glycans, some of which are thought to be protective. Developing schistosomula are considered most vulnerable to immune attack, and better understanding of local antibody responses raised against glycans expressed by this life stage might reveal possible glycan vaccine candidates for future vaccine research. We used antibody-secreting cell (ASC) probes to characterize local antiglycan antibody responses against migrating Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula in different tissues of rats. Analysis by shotgun Schistosoma glycan microarray resulted in the identification of antiglycan antibody response patterns that reflected the migratory pathway of schistosomula. Antibodies raised by skin lymph node (LN) ASC probes mainly targeted N-glycans with terminal mannose residues, Galβ1-4GlcNAc (LacNAc) and Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LeX). Also, responses to antigenic and schistosome-specific glycosphingolipid (GSL) glycans containing highly fucosylated GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcβ1)n stretches that are believed to be present at the parasite's surface constitutively upon transformation were found. Antibody targets recognized by lung LN ASC probes were mainly N-glycans presenting GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN) and GlcNAc motifs. Surprisingly, antibodies against highly antigenic multifucosylated motifs of GSL glycans were not observed in lung LN ASC probes, indicating that these antigens are not expressed in lung stage schistosomula or are not appropriately exposed to induce immune responses locally. The local antiglycan responses observed in this study highlight the stage- and tissue-specific expression of antigenic parasite glycans and provide insights into glycan targets possibly involved in resistance to S. japonicum infection

  10. Local Antiglycan Antibody Responses to Skin Stage and Migratory Schistosomula of Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Cornelis H.; Kies, Christiaan L.; McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; Hokke, Cornelis H.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Although effective drug treatment is available, reinfections are common, and development of immunity is slow. Most antibodies raised during schistosome infection are directed against glycans, some of which are thought to be protective. Developing schistosomula are considered most vulnerable to immune attack, and better understanding of local antibody responses raised against glycans expressed by this life stage might reveal possible glycan vaccine candidates for future vaccine research. We used antibody-secreting cell (ASC) probes to characterize local antiglycan antibody responses against migrating Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula in different tissues of rats. Analysis by shotgun Schistosoma glycan microarray resulted in the identification of antiglycan antibody response patterns that reflected the migratory pathway of schistosomula. Antibodies raised by skin lymph node (LN) ASC probes mainly targeted N-glycans with terminal mannose residues, Galβ1-4GlcNAc (LacNAc) and Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LeX). Also, responses to antigenic and schistosome-specific glycosphingolipid (GSL) glycans containing highly fucosylated GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcβ1)n stretches that are believed to be present at the parasite's surface constitutively upon transformation were found. Antibody targets recognized by lung LN ASC probes were mainly N-glycans presenting GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN) and GlcNAc motifs. Surprisingly, antibodies against highly antigenic multifucosylated motifs of GSL glycans were not observed in lung LN ASC probes, indicating that these antigens are not expressed in lung stage schistosomula or are not appropriately exposed to induce immune responses locally. The local antiglycan responses observed in this study highlight the stage- and tissue-specific expression of antigenic parasite glycans and provide insights into glycan targets possibly involved in resistance to S. japonicum infection

  11. The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' response to the Still Face Task from newborn to three months of age.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Ann E; Power, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' developing social expectations for maternal behavior was investigated longitudinally over infants' first 3 months. Infants with and without skin-to-skin contact engaged with their mothers in the Still Face Task at ages 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Infants with skin-to-skin contact began responding to changes in their mothers' behavior with their affect at 1 month; infants without skin-to-skin contact did so at 2 months. At 3 months, infants with skin-to-skin contact increased their non-distress vocalizations during the still face phase, suggesting social bidding to their mothers. Skin-to-skin contact accelerated infants' social expectations for their mothers' behavior and enhanced infants' awareness of themselves as active agents in social interactions.

  12. Protective responses against skin-dwelling microfilariae of Onchocerca lienalis in severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Folkard, S G; Taylor, M J; Butcher, G A; Bianco, A E

    1997-01-01

    Inoculation of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with microfilariae of Onchocerca lienalis results in a sustained infection of the skin, extending for months beyond the point at which the parasites are eliminated from immunocompetent BALB/c controls. Reconstitution of SCID mice with spleen cells, thymocytes, or CD4+-cell-enriched splenocytes from naive BALB/c donors confers the ability to mount a protective immune response, leading to the rapid elimination of microfilariae. High levels of interleukin-5 and low levels of gamma interferon in the sera of reconstituted SCID mice during the destruction of microfilariae suggest that this protective immune response is directed by Th2 lymphocytes, mirroring that observed in immunocompetent controls. Unexpectedly, abbreviation of primary infections of unreconstituted SCID mice with the drug ivermectin induces resistance to reinfection with microfilariae at a level equivalent to that induced in secondarily infected, immunocompetent controls. In contrast to protection mediated by adoptive reconstitution, resistance induced by ivermectin-abbreviated infection occurs in the absence of T cells and in association with negligible levels of serum interleukin-5 and gamma interferon. This points to the activation of some alternative host defense mechanism that operates after the clearance of therapeutic levels of drug. Such a response could have important implications for the treatment of human onchocerciasis and may go some way in explaining the long-term suppression of microfilariae observed in patients after treatment with ivermectin. PMID:9199458

  13. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites.

    PubMed

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian; Chau, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human-machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human-machine interface applications.

  14. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites

    PubMed Central

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human–machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human–machine interface applications. PMID:21849720

  15. Topical anaesthesia does not affect cutaneous vasomotor or sudomotor responses in human skin.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Wilson, K; Wilson, T E

    2013-10-01

    (1) The effects of local sensory blockade (topical anaesthesia) on eccrine sweat glands and cutaneous circulation are not well understood. This study aimed to determine whether topical lidocaine/prilocaine alters eccrine sweat gland and cutaneous blood vessel responses. (2) Sweating (capacitance hygrometry) was induced via forearm intradermal microdialysis of five acetylcholine (ACh) doses (1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(0) m, 10-fold increments) in control and treated forearm sites in six healthy subjects. Nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatory (sodium nitroprusside) and adrenergic vasoconstrictor (noradrenaline) agonists were iontophoresed in lidocaine/prilocaine-treated and control forearm skin in nine healthy subjects during blood flow assessment (laser Doppler flowmetry, expressed as% from baseline cutaneous vascular conductance; CVC; flux/mean arterial pressure). (3) Non-linear regression curve fitting identified no change in the ED50 of ACh-induced sweating after sensory blockade (-1.42 ± 0.23 logM) compared to control (-1.27 ± 0.23 logM; P > .05) or in Emax (0.43 ± 0.08 with, 0.53 ± 0.16 mg cm(-2) min(-1) without lidocaine/prilocaine; P > .05). Sensory blockade did not alter the vasodilator response to sodium nitroprusside (1280 ± 548% change from baseline CVC with, 1204 ± 247% without lidocaine/prilocaine) or vasoconstrictor response to noradrenaline (-14 ± 4% change from baseline CVC with, -22 ± 14% without lidocaine/prilocaine; P > 0.05). (4) Cutaneous sensory blockade does not appear to alter nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation, adrenergic vasoconstriction, or cholinergic eccrine sweating dose-response sensitivity or responsiveness to maximal dose. Thus, lidocaine/prilocaine treatment should not affect sweat gland function or have blood flow implications for subsequent research protocols or clinical procedures.

  16. Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System for Protection of Embedded Steel Surfaces from Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Joseph; MacDowell, Louis; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is an insidious problem for the Kennedy Space Center, government agencies, and the general public. Existing corrosion protection systems on the market are costly, complex, and time-consuming to install, require continuous maintenance and monitoring, and require specialized skills for installation. NASA's galvanic liquid-applied coating offers companies the ability to conveniently protect embedded steel rebar surfaces from corrosion. Liquid-applied inorganic galvanic coating contains one ore more of the following metallic particles: magnesium, zinc, or indium and may contain moisture attracting compounds that facilitate the protection process. The coating is applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete so that electrical current is established between metallic particles and surfaces of embedded steel rebar; and electric (ionic) current is responsible for providing the necessary cathodic protection for embedded rebar surfaces.

  17. Skin surface lipids of the domestic chicken, and neutral lipid standards as stimuli for the penetration response of Austrobilharzia variglandis cercariae.

    PubMed

    Zibulewsky, J; Fried, B; Bacha, W J

    1982-10-01

    Lipids were extracted from the skin of 2-wk-old domestic chickens using sterile cotton gauze dampened with chloroform:methanol (2:1). Preparative thin-layer chromatography separated the skin lipids into six major fractions: phospholipids, free sterols, free fatty acids, triglycerides, methyl esters, sterol esters. The penetration response of the marine avian schistosome cercaria, Austrobilharzia variglandis, to chicken skin lipid fractions, and to neutral lipid standards, was tested by coating lipids on agar in a Petri dish containing a seawater overlay. All neutral lipids tested produced significantly greater penetration responses than the chloroform control. The phospholipid skin fraction killed cercariae. Lipid from whole chicken skin produced the greatest penetration response, followed by free fatty acids and free sterol skin fractions. Of the standards tested, the whole neutral lipid standard, containing cholesterol, oleic acid, triolein, methyl oleate, and cholesteryl oleate, produced the greatest response, followed by the cholesterol standard and the oleic acid standard. PMID:7131196

  18. Body visual discontinuity affects feeling of ownership and skin conductance responses

    PubMed Central

    Tieri, Gaetano; Tidoni, Emmanuele; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    When we look at our hands we are immediately aware that they belong to us and we rarely doubt about the integrity, continuity and sense of ownership of our bodies. Here we explored whether the mere manipulation of the visual appearance of a virtual limb could influence the subjective feeling of ownership and the physiological responses (Skin Conductance Responses, SCRs) associated to a threatening stimulus approaching the virtual hand. Participants observed in first person perspective a virtual body having the right hand-forearm (i) connected by a normal wrist (Full-Limb) or a thin rigid wire connection (Wire) or (ii) disconnected because of a missing wrist (m-Wrist) or a missing wrist plus a plexiglass panel positioned between the hand and the forearm (Plexiglass). While the analysis of subjective ratings revealed that only the observation of natural full connected virtual limb elicited high levels of ownership, high amplitudes of SCRs were found also during observation of the non-natural, rigid wire connection condition. This result suggests that the conscious embodiment of an artificial limb requires a natural looking visual body appearance while implicit reactivity to threat may require physical body continuity, even non-naturally looking, that allows the implementation of protective reactions to threat. PMID:26602036

  19. The heritability of the skin conductance orienting response: a longitudinal twin study.

    PubMed

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Gao, Yu; Isen, Joshua; Botwick, Theodore; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    The orienting response is a widely used experimental paradigm that reflects the association between electrodermal activity and psychological processes. The present study examined the genetic and environmental etiology of skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) magnitude in a sample of twins assessed at ages 9-10, 11-13 and 14-16 years. Structural equation modeling at each visit showed that genetic influences explained 56%, 83%, and 48% of the total variance in SCOR at visits 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with the remaining variance explained by non-shared environmental factors. SCOR was moderately stable across ages, with phenotypic correlations between time points ranging from .35 to .45. A common genetic factor explained 36%, 45% and 49% of the variance in SCOR magnitude across development. Additional age-specific genetic effects were found at ages 9-10 and 11-13 years, explaining 18% and 35% of the variance, respectively. The genetic correlations among the three time points were high, ranging from .55 to .73, indicating a substantial continuity in genetic influences from ages 9 to 16. These findings suggest that genetic factors are important influences in SCOR magnitude during late childhood and adolescence.

  20. One night of partial sleep deprivation affects habituation of hypothalamus and skin conductance responses.

    PubMed

    Peters, Anja C; Blechert, Jens; Sämann, Philipp G; Eidner, Ines; Czisch, Michael; Spoormaker, Victor I

    2014-09-15

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent in clinical anxiety, but it remains unclear whether they are cause and/or consequence of this condition. Fear conditioning constitutes a valid laboratory model for the acquisition of normal and pathological anxiety. To explore the relationship between disturbed sleep and anxiety in more detail, the present study evaluated the effect of partial sleep deprivation (SD) on fear conditioning in healthy individuals. The neural correlates of 1) nonassociative learning and physiological processing and 2) associative learning (differential fear conditioning) were addressed. Measurements entailed simultaneous functional MRI, EEG, skin conductance response (SCR), and pulse recordings. Regarding nonassociative learning, partial SD resulted in a generalized failure to habituate during fear conditioning, as evidenced by reduced habituation of SCR and hypothalamus responses to all stimuli. Furthermore, SCR and hypothalamus activity were correlated, supporting their functional relationship. Regarding associative learning, effects of partial SD on the acquisition of conditioned fear were weaker and did not reach statistical significance. The hypothalamus plays an integral role in the regulation of sleep and autonomic arousal. Thus sleep disturbances may play a causal role in the development of normal and possibly pathological fear by increasing the susceptibility of the sympathetic nervous system to stressful experiences.

  1. Quantification of sympathetic vascular responses in skin by laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Khan, F; Spence, V A; Wilson, S B; Abbot, N C

    1991-05-01

    An improved physiological test of focal sympathetic nervous function using a laser Doppler flowmeter is presented. The test evaluates rapid reflex changes in skin blood flow at the finger tip where there are abundant arteriovenous anastomoses with dense sympathetic innervation. Indirect body heating was employed in all subjects to induce central vasodilation and to obtain stable comparable finger tip blood flows prior to stimulus. The reflex vasoconstriction which occurs following inspiratory gasp and contralateral hand cold challenge was quantified and its reproducibility investigated on three separate occasions in 20 young subjects. The variability in responses both within and between young subjects was small. The test was applied to 10 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy and to 10 age-matched control subjects. Vasoconstrictor reflexes were significantly lower in the diabetic group (p less than 0.005) with responses lower than 2 SD from the mean for age-matched controls. In conclusion, the test provides an assessment of focal autonomic damage which can be applied to other regions of the body rich in arteriovenous anastomoses and may have application in clinical studies investigating autonomic activity. PMID:2060997

  2. Divergent metabolic responses of Apostichopus japonicus suffered from skin ulceration syndrome and pathogen challenge.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yina; Li, Chenghua; Ou, Changrong; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Yali; Su, Xiurong; Li, Ye; Li, Taiwu

    2013-11-13

    Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is the main limitation in the development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries, in which Vibrio splendidus has been well documented as one of the major pathogens. However, the intrinsic mechanisms toward pathogen challenge and disease outbreak remain largely unknown at the metabolic level. In this work, the metabolic responses were investigated in muscles of sea cucumber among natural SUS-diseased and V. splendidus-challenged samples. The pathogen did not induce obvious biological effects in A. japonicus samples after infection for the first 24 h. An enhanced energy storage (or reduced energy demand) and immune responses were observed in V. splendidus-challenged A. japonicus samples at 48 h, as marked by increased glucose and branched chain amino acids, respectively. Afterward, infection of V. splendidus induced significant increases in energy demand in A. japonicus samples at both 72 and 96 h, confirmed by decreased glucose and glycogen, and increased ATP. Surprisingly, high levels of glycogen and glucose and low levels of threonine, alanine, arginine, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and ATP were founded in natural SUS-diseased sea cucumber. Our present results provided essential metabolic information about host-pathogen interaction for sea cucumber, and informed that the metabolic biomarkers induced by V. splendidus were not usable for the prediction of SUS disease in practice. PMID:24127639

  3. Body visual discontinuity affects feeling of ownership and skin conductance responses.

    PubMed

    Tieri, Gaetano; Tidoni, Emmanuele; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-01-01

    When we look at our hands we are immediately aware that they belong to us and we rarely doubt about the integrity, continuity and sense of ownership of our bodies. Here we explored whether the mere manipulation of the visual appearance of a virtual limb could influence the subjective feeling of ownership and the physiological responses (Skin Conductance Responses, SCRs) associated to a threatening stimulus approaching the virtual hand. Participants observed in first person perspective a virtual body having the right hand-forearm (i) connected by a normal wrist (Full-Limb) or a thin rigid wire connection (Wire) or (ii) disconnected because of a missing wrist (m-Wrist) or a missing wrist plus a plexiglass panel positioned between the hand and the forearm (Plexiglass). While the analysis of subjective ratings revealed that only the observation of natural full connected virtual limb elicited high levels of ownership, high amplitudes of SCRs were found also during observation of the non-natural, rigid wire connection condition. This result suggests that the conscious embodiment of an artificial limb requires a natural looking visual body appearance while implicit reactivity to threat may require physical body continuity, even non-naturally looking, that allows the implementation of protective reactions to threat.

  4. Associations between Language Development and Skin Conductance Responses to Faces and Eye Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg, Steven D.; Davis, Robert; Heaton, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Attention to social stimuli is associated with language development, and arousal is associated with the increased viewing of stimuli. We investigated whether skin conductance responses (SCRs) are associated with language development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a population that shows abnormalities in both attention to others and language…

  5. Power source effects of soft plasma jet and the differential response of skin cancer and normal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nathaniel; Dobrynin, Danil; Fridman, Alexander; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-10-01

    The effects of pulsed power direct current energy sources were compared using an indirect discharge plasma jet applied to treat cancerous and normal skin cells. Two power supplies with different voltage and current profiles were compared and optimized through the measurement of physical parameters and evaluated through the treatment of skin cells using an atmospheric pressure nitrogen gas plasma jet. Plasma density and temperature, power output, gas output temperature, and reactive species production were measured. Cell morphology, viability, and ROS generation were investigated using staining. A differential response has been shown between the normal and cancerous cell lines. The cancer cells viability reduced while normal cells did not over the same treatment time.

  6. Severe systemic reaction to diphosphonate bone imaging agents: skin testing to predict allergic response and a safe alternative agent

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Gabatin, A.; Orzel, J.A.; Maloney, T.R.; Murnane, J.E.; Borchert, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    We describe a severe systemic reaction which occurred in a patient on two occasions after i.v. injection of chemically related diphosphonate bone imaging agents. Skin testing showed reactivity to multiple commercially available diphosphonate compounds but no significant response to pyrophosphates. A subsequent pyrophosphate bone scan resulted in no adverse reaction. Severe systemic reactions to diphosphonates can occur, skin testing may prove useful in evaluating allergic reactions, and pyrophosphates appear to be a safe alternative agent in patients proven or suspected allergic to diphosphonates.

  7. The Lancet Weight Determines Wheal Diameter in Response to Skin Prick Testing with Histamine

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Hjalte H.; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin prick test (SPT) is a common test for diagnosing immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies. In clinical routine, technicalities, human errors or patient-related biases, occasionally results in suboptimal diagnosis of sensitization. Objective Although not previously assessed qualitatively, lancet weight is hypothesized to be important when performing SPT to minimize the frequency of false positives, false negatives, and unwanted discomfort. Methods Accurate weight-controlled SPT was performed on the volar forearms and backs of 20 healthy subjects. Four predetermined lancet weights were applied (25 g, 85 g, 135 g and 265 g) using two positive control histamine solutions (1 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL) and one negative control (saline). A total of 400 SPTs were conducted. The outcome parameters were: wheal size, neurogenic inflammation (measured by superficial blood perfusion), frequency of bleeding, and the lancet provoked pain response. Results The mean wheal diameter increased significantly as higher weights were applied to the SPT lancet, e.g. from 3.2 ± 0.28 mm at 25 g to 5.4 ± 1.7 mm at 265 g (p<0.01). Similarly, the frequency of bleeding, the provoked pain, and the neurogenic inflammatory response increased significantly. At 265 g saline evoked two wheal responses (/160 pricks) below 3 mm. Conclusion and clinical relevance The applied weight of the lancet during the SPT-procedure is an important factor. Higher lancet weights precipitate significantly larger wheal reactions with potential diagnostic implications. This warrants additional research of the optimal lancet weight in relation to SPT-guidelines to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the procedure. PMID:27213613

  8. DOSE-RESPONSE FOR UV-INDUCED IMMUNE SUPPRESSION IN PEOPLE OF COLOR: DIFFERENCES BASED ON ERYTHEMAL REACTIVITY RATHER THAN SKIN PIGMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to suppress immune responses in human subjects. The purpose of this study was to develop dose responses across a broad range of skin pigmentation in order to facilitate risk assessment. UVR was administered using FS 20 bulbs. Skin pigmentation...

  9. Galvanic corrosion study of container materials using zero resistance ammeter

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A. K., LLNL

    1997-11-01

    Galvanic corrosion behavior of A 516 steel separately coupled to six different corrosion-resistant alloys was investigated in an acidic brine (pHa2.70) at 30{degree}C 60{degree}C and 80{degree}C using zero resistance ammeter technique. The corrosion-resistant alloys include Alloys 825, G-3, G-30, C-4 and C-22; and Ti Grade-12, which were coupled to A 516 steel at an anode-to- cathode area ratio of one. The galvanic current and galvanic potential were measured as a function of time at all three temperatures. Optical microscopic examination was also performed on all tested specimens to evaluate the extent of surface degradation due to galvanic coupling. The overall results are presented in this paper.

  10. 1. Elkmont vehicle bridge at Elkmont Campground, galvanized corrugated arch. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Elkmont vehicle bridge at Elkmont Campground, galvanized corrugated arch. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. Iron serves as diffusion barrier in thermally regenerative galvanic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouthamel, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Pure iron or iron-coated diaphragm provides a hydrogen diffusion electrode for a thermally regenerative galvanic cell. It allows the gas to diffuse through its interatomic spaces and resists the corrosive action of the cell environment.

  12. Technical report on galvanic cells with fused-salt electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, E. J.; Crouthamel, C. E.; Fischer, A. K.; Foster, M. S.; Hesson, J. C.; Johnson, C. E.; Shimotake, H.; Tevebaugh, A. D.

    1969-01-01

    Technical report is presented on sodium and lithium cells using fused salt electrolytes. It includes a discussion of the thermally regenerative galvanic cell and the secondary bimetallic cell for storage of electricity.

  13. ATP in human skin elicits a dose-related pain response which is potentiated under conditions of hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, S G; Warburton, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Ward, J; McMahon, S B

    2000-06-01

    minimal erythymic dose) resulted in double the pain rating of normal skin, increasing from 15.3 +/- 4.1 to 32.7 +/- 4.1. The pain response to saline was not significantly altered after UV irradiation at any time-point studied. We conclude that ATP produces pain by activating capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive afferents when applied to skin. The possibility that ATP activates nociceptors indirectly via its degradation products cannot be ruled out. The effects of ATP are dose-dependent and responses desensitize only slowly. In inflammatory conditions, ATP may be a potent activator of nociceptors and an endogenous mediator of pain.

  14. DOSE-RESPONSE STUDIES OF SODIUM ARSENITE IN THE SKIN OF K6/ODC TRANSGENIC MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has previously been observed that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic and/or its metabolites increase(s) tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, gene expression profiles w...

  15. An analysis of the skin conductance orienting response in samples of American, British, and German schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A S; Frith, C D; Gruzelier, J H; Patterson, T; Straube, E; Venables, P H; Zahn, T P

    1982-01-01

    The existing literature dealing with the phasic orienting response (OR) in schizophrenia, examining, for the most part, the skin conductance component (SCOR), reports conflicting results with divergent implications for the nature of the attentional dysfunction in these patients. The present authors have contributed to that literature and to its divergencies. The present report addresses this issue by applying a common set of response definitions and uniform statistical-analytic procedures to the previously gathered electrodermal data obtained independently in each author's laboratory. A total of 14 studies is involved, drawn from six laboratories in the U.S.A., the U.K., and West Germany. Collectively, these studies examine chronic and acute schizophrenics, males and females, those receiving neuroleptic drugs and those not receiving them, recording SCOR from either (or both) hands using a variety of instruments and somewhat differing instructions and conditions, to both auditory and visual stimuli of different intensities and rise-time properties. The authors' purpose is two-fold. First, to determine whether some 'universal' dysfunction can be demonstrated across laboratories, conditions, and samples. Given the heterogeneous origins of these data such a finding would offer fairly strong evidence of 'real' dysfunction in schizophrenia. Second, where disagreement exists, to describe the scope and nature of the disagreement, and to articulate more clearly the findings on each side of a disputed area. One such 'universal' dysfunction emerged. Consistently, schizophrenics displayed an abnormally high incidence of nonresponsiveness, involving nearly 50% of the schizophrenic sample on average. The next most common finding is that many of the schizophrenics who display an SCOR often habituate faster than do nonschizophrenic responders. This was seen in a majority of the studies and laboratories, but conflicting evidence was presented by a minority. Evidence for a

  16. Optical spectroscopy of radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy responses in normal rat skin shows vascular breakdown products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles de Andrade, Cintia; Nogueira, Marcelo S.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Marra, Kayla; Gunn, Jason; Andreozzi, Jacqueline; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radiotherapy are non-systemic cancer treatment options with different mechanisms of damage. So combining these techniques has been shown to have some synergy, and can mitigate their limitations such as low PDT light penetration or radiotherapy side effects. The present study monitored the induced tissue changes after PDT, radiotherapy, and a combination protocol in normal rat skin, using an optical spectroscopy system to track the observed biophysical changes. The Wistar rats were treated with one of the protocols: PDT followed by radiotherapy, PDT, radiotherapy and radiotherapy followed by PDT. Reflectance spectra were collected in order to observe the effects of these combined therapies, especially targeting vascular response. From the reflectance, information about oxygen saturation, met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentration, blood volume fraction (BVF) and vessel radius were extracted from model fitting of the spectra. The rats were monitored for 24 hours after treatment. Results showed that there was no significant variation in the vessel size or BVF after the treatments. However, the PDT caused a significant increase in the met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentrations, indicating an important blood breakdown. These results may provide an important clue on how the damage establishment takes place, helping to understand the effect of the combination of those techniques in order to verify the existence of a known synergistic effect.

  17. Skin microvascular and metabolic response to pressure relief maneuvers in people with spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Le, Du V. N.; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Nguyen, Thu A.; Lichy, Alison; Groah, Suzanne

    2013-02-01

    Clinician's recommendations on wheelchair pressure reliefs in the context of the high prevalence of pressure ulcers that occur in people with spinal cord injury is not supported by strong experimental evidence. Some data indicates that altered tissue perfusion and oxygenation occurring under pressure loads, such as during sitting, induce various pathophysiologic changes that may lead to pressure ulcers. Pressure causes a cascade of responses, including initial tissue hypoxia, which leads to ischemia, vascular leakage, tissue acidification, compensatory angiogenesis, thrombosis, and hyperemia, all of which may lead to tissue damage. We have developed an advanced skin sensor that allows measurement of oxygenation in addition to perfusion, and can be safely used during sitting. The sensor consists of a set of fiber optics probes, spectroscopic and Laser Doppler techniques that are used to obtain parameters of interest. The overriding goal of this project is to develop the evidence base for clinical recommendations on pressure reliefs. In this paper we will illustrate the experimental apparatus as well as some preliminary results of a small clinical trial conducted at the National Rehabilitation Hospital.

  18. Galvanic Corrosion of Coated Al Alloy Panels with More Noble Fasteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhicao

    A test sample incorporating a painted Al alloy panel, uncoated through-hole fasteners, and scribes has been shown to provide accelerated response during atmospheric corrosion testing in the field and in laboratory chambers. Several different aspects of this test sample and the behavior of different coating systems are investigated in this dissertation. The galvanic current between SS316 or Ti-6Al-4V fasteners and painted and scribed AA7075-T6 panels was examined during exposure in a salt fog chamber using a zero-resistance ammeter. The anodic current of the AA7075-T6 panel and the cathodic current of each of the four fasteners were monitored using different connection schemes. The anodic current of the panel depended on the number of fasteners connected. The total cathodic current of fasteners was approximately equal to the anodic current of the AA7075-T6 panel, which validates the accuracy of the current measurement. Furthermore, galvanic interaction between the fasteners was observed such that the cathodic current of other fasteners was decreased when a new fastener was added to the measurement. Scribes on a panel can interact with distant fasteners, not just the closest ones. The amount of corrosion as determined by charge and optical profilometry were close and indicated SS316 fasteners caused more corrosion attack than Ti-6Al-4V fasteners. The galvanic current of an AA7075-T6 panel coupled with mixed SS316 and Ti-6Al-4V fasteners was monitored using a zero-resistance ammeter during 3 weeks exposure in an ASTM B117 chamber or immersed in 5 wt% NaCl solution. SS316 fasteners provided more cathodic current than Ti in both environments and the current in ASTM B117 was higher than in 5 wt% NaCl solution due to greater oxygen availability. The integral of the anodic current with time and optical profilometery (OP) analysis were used to assess the corrosion attack quantitatively for two different coating systems. An acceleration factor was defined to represent the

  19. Differences in the Pulsatile Component of the Skin Hemodynamic Response to Verbal Fluency Tasks in the Forehead and the Fingertip

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshimitsu; Takikawa, Yoriko; Kawagoe, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have claimed that hemodynamic signals measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the forehead exhibit different patterns during a verbal fluency task (VFT) in various psychiatric disorders, whereas many studies have noted that NIRS signals can reflect task-related changes in skin blood flow. If such a task-related skin hemodynamic response is also observed in the fingertip, a simpler biomarker may be developed. Furthermore, determining the difference in the response pattern may provide physiological insights into the condition. We found that the magnitude of the pulsatile component in skin hemodynamic signals increased on the forehead (p < 0.001 for N = 50, p = 0.073 for N = 8) but decreased on the fingertip (p < 0.001, N = 8) during the VFT, whereas the rate in both areas increased (p < 0.02, N = 8). We also did not find a repetition effect in both the rate and the magnitude on the fingertip, whereas the effect was present in the magnitude (p < 0.02, N = 8) but not in the rate on the forehead. These results suggest that the skin vasomotor system in the forehead could have a different vessel mechanism to psychological tasks compared to the fingertip. PMID:26905432

  20. Response-surface models for deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {beta}/{gamma} -emitting sources

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Individuals who work at nuclear reactor facilities can be at risk for deterministic effects in the skin from exposure to discrete {Beta}- and {gamma}-emitting ({Beta}{gamma}E) sources (e.g., {Beta}{gamma}E hot particles) on the skin or clothing. Deterministic effects are non-cancer effects that have a threshold and increase in severity as dose increases (e.g., ulcer in skin). Hot {Beta}{gamma}E particles are {sup 60}Co- or nuclear fuel-derived particles with diameters > 10 {mu}m and < 3 mm and contain at least 3.7 kBq (0.1 {mu}Ci) of radioactivity. For such {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin, it is the beta component of the dose that is most important. To develop exposure limitation systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for evaluating the risk of deterministic effects of localized {Beta} irradiation of the skin. The purpose of this study was to develop dose-rate and irradiated-area dependent, response-surface models for evaluating risks of significant deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources and to use modeling results to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure to such sources. The significance of the research results as follows: (1) response-surface models are now available for evaluating the risk of specific deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin; (2) modeling results have been used to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure of workers to {Beta} radiation from {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin or on clothing; and (3) the generic irradiated-volume, weighting-factor approach to limiting exposure can be applied to other organs including the eye, the ear, and organs of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and can be used for both deterministic and stochastic effects.

  1. Different Oxidative Stress Response in Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts of Reconstructed Skin Exposed to Non Extreme Daily-Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Marionnet, Claire; Pierrard, Cécile; Lejeune, François; Sok, Juliette; Thomas, Marie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    Experiments characterizing the biological effects of sun exposure have usually involved solar simulators. However, they addressed the worst case scenario i.e. zenithal sun, rarely found in common outdoor activities. A non-extreme ultraviolet radiation (UV) spectrum referred as “daily UV radiation” (DUVR) with a higher UVA (320–400 nm) to UVB (280–320 nm) irradiance ratio has therefore been defined. In this study, the biological impact of an acute exposure to low physiological doses of DUVR (corresponding to 10 and 20% of the dose received per day in Paris mid-April) on a 3 dimensional reconstructed skin model, was analysed. In such conditions, epidermal and dermal morphological alterations could only be detected after the highest dose of DUVR. We then focused on oxidative stress response induced by DUVR, by analyzing the modulation of mRNA level of 24 markers in parallel in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. DUVR significantly modulated mRNA levels of these markers in both cell types. A cell type differential response was noticed: it was faster in fibroblasts, with a majority of inductions and high levels of modulation in contrast to keratinocyte response. Our results thus revealed a higher sensitivity in response to oxidative stress of dermal fibroblasts although located deeper in the skin, giving new insights into the skin biological events occurring in everyday UV exposure. PMID:20706594

  2. Different oxidative stress response in keratinocytes and fibroblasts of reconstructed skin exposed to non extreme daily-ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Marionnet, Claire; Pierrard, Cécile; Lejeune, François; Sok, Juliette; Thomas, Marie; Bernerd, Françoise

    2010-08-10

    Experiments characterizing the biological effects of sun exposure have usually involved solar simulators. However, they addressed the worst case scenario i.e. zenithal sun, rarely found in common outdoor activities. A non-extreme ultraviolet radiation (UV) spectrum referred as "daily UV radiation" (DUVR) with a higher UVA (320-400 nm) to UVB (280-320 nm) irradiance ratio has therefore been defined. In this study, the biological impact of an acute exposure to low physiological doses of DUVR (corresponding to 10 and 20% of the dose received per day in Paris mid-April) on a 3 dimensional reconstructed skin model, was analysed. In such conditions, epidermal and dermal morphological alterations could only be detected after the highest dose of DUVR. We then focused on oxidative stress response induced by DUVR, by analyzing the modulation of mRNA level of 24 markers in parallel in fibroblasts and keratinocytes. DUVR significantly modulated mRNA levels of these markers in both cell types. A cell type differential response was noticed: it was faster in fibroblasts, with a majority of inductions and high levels of modulation in contrast to keratinocyte response. Our results thus revealed a higher sensitivity in response to oxidative stress of dermal fibroblasts although located deeper in the skin, giving new insights into the skin biological events occurring in everyday UV exposure.

  3. The remote sensing of mental stress from the electromagnetic reflection coefficient of human skin in the sub-THz range.

    PubMed

    Safrai, Eli; Ishai, Paul Ben; Caduff, Andreas; Puzenko, Alexander; Polsman, Alexander; Agranat, Aharon J; Feldman, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the reflection coefficient of human skin in the frequency range from 95 to 110 GHz (W band) mirrors the temporal relaxation of stress induced by physical exercise. In this work, we extend these findings to show that in the event of a subtle trigger to stress, such as mental activity, a similar picture of response emerges. Furthermore, the findings are extended to cover not only the W band (75-110 GHz), but also the frequency band from 110 to 170 GHz (D band). We demonstrate that mental stress, induced by the Stroop effect and recorded by the galvanic skin response (GSR), can be correlated to the reflection coefficient in the aforementioned frequency bands. Intriguingly, a light physical stress caused by repeated hand gripping clearly showed an elevated stress level in the GSR signal, but was largely unnoted in the reflection coefficient in the D band. The implication of this observation requires further validation. PMID:22170380

  4. The remote sensing of mental stress from the electromagnetic reflection coefficient of human skin in the sub-THz range.

    PubMed

    Safrai, Eli; Ishai, Paul Ben; Caduff, Andreas; Puzenko, Alexander; Polsman, Alexander; Agranat, Aharon J; Feldman, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the reflection coefficient of human skin in the frequency range from 95 to 110 GHz (W band) mirrors the temporal relaxation of stress induced by physical exercise. In this work, we extend these findings to show that in the event of a subtle trigger to stress, such as mental activity, a similar picture of response emerges. Furthermore, the findings are extended to cover not only the W band (75-110 GHz), but also the frequency band from 110 to 170 GHz (D band). We demonstrate that mental stress, induced by the Stroop effect and recorded by the galvanic skin response (GSR), can be correlated to the reflection coefficient in the aforementioned frequency bands. Intriguingly, a light physical stress caused by repeated hand gripping clearly showed an elevated stress level in the GSR signal, but was largely unnoted in the reflection coefficient in the D band. The implication of this observation requires further validation.

  5. Comparison of human skin opto-thermal response to near-infrared and visible laser irradiations: a theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Tianhong; Pikkula, Brian M.; Wang, Lihong V.; Anvari, Bahman

    2004-11-01

    Near-infrared wavelengths are absorbed less by epidermal melanin, and penetrate deeper into human skin dermis and blood than visible wavelengths. Therefore, laser irradiation using near-infrared wavelengths may improve the therapeutic outcome of cutaneous hyper-vascular malformations in moderately to heavily pigmented skin patients and those with large-sized blood vessels or blood vessels extending deeply into the skin. A mathematical model composed of a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate the distribution of absorbed light, numerical solution of a bio-heat diffusion equation to calculate the transient temperature distribution, and a damage integral based on an empirical Arrhenius relationship to quantify the tissue damage was utilized to investigate the opto-thermal response of human skin to near-infrared and visible laser irradiations in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling. In addition, the thermal effects of a single continuous laser pulse and micropulse-composed laser pulse profiles were compared. Simulation results indicated that a 940 nm wavelength induces improved therapeutic outcome compared with a 585 and 595 nm wavelengths for the treatment of patients with large-sized blood vessels and moderately to heavily pigmented skin. On the other hand, a 585 nm wavelength shows the best efficacy in treating small-sized blood vessels, as characterized by the largest laser-induced blood vessel damage depth compared with 595 and 940 nm wavelengths. Dermal blood content has a considerable effect on the threshold incident dosage for epidermal damage, while the effect of blood vessel size is minimal. For the same macropulse duration and incident dosage, a micropulse-composed pulse profile results in higher peak temperature at the basal layer of skin epidermis than an ideal single continuous pulse profile.

  6. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  7. Galvanic gold plating for fixed dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ozcelik, Tuncer Burak; Yilmaz, Burak

    2013-01-01

    Metal ceramic partial fixed dental prostheses have been commonly used for the replacement of missing teeth for many years. Because of an increase in the price of gold, base metal alloys have been the choice of alloy for the fabrication of metal ceramic restorations in many dental clinics. Some major disadvantages of base metals are their corrosion and the dark coloration they may cause at the crown margins. This article describes a galvanic gold-plating technique, which is used to minimize corrosion and improve the esthetics of metal ceramic restorations fabricated with Cr-Co base metal alloys. This technique involves the deposition of a 6 μm to 8 μm 24 K gold layer directly onto the Cr-Co cast prosthesis framework. The technique improves metal surface properties, making them more biocompatible and usable, however, requires additional equipment and experienced laboratory technicians. Clinical studies should be performed to corroborate the long term success of this technique. PMID:24926220

  8. Galvanic gold plating for fixed dental prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Tuncer Burak; Yilmaz, Burak

    2013-07-01

    Metal ceramic partial fixed dental prostheses have been commonly used for the replacement of missing teeth for many years. Because of an increase in the price of gold, base metal alloys have been the choice of alloy for the fabrication of metal ceramic restorations in many dental clinics. Some major disadvantages of base metals are their corrosion and the dark coloration they may cause at the crown margins. This article describes a galvanic gold-plating technique, which is used to minimize corrosion and improve the esthetics of metal ceramic restorations fabricated with Cr-Co base metal alloys. This technique involves the deposition of a 6 μm to 8 μm 24 K gold layer directly onto the Cr-Co cast prosthesis framework. The technique improves metal surface properties, making them more biocompatible and usable, however, requires additional equipment and experienced laboratory technicians. Clinical studies should be performed to corroborate the long term success of this technique. PMID:24926220

  9. Passive Resonant Bidirectional Converter with Galvanic Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblad, Nathan S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A passive resonant bidirectional converter system that transports energy across a galvanic barrier includes a converter using at least first and second converter sections, each section including a pair of transfer terminals, a center tapped winding; a chopper circuit interconnected between the center tapped winding and one of the transfer terminals; an inductance feed winding interconnected between the other of the transfer terminals and the center tap and a resonant tank circuit including at least the inductance of the center tap winding and the parasitic capacitance of the chopper circuit for operating the converter section at resonance; the center tapped windings of the first and second converter sections being disposed on a first common winding core and the inductance feed windings of the first and second converter sections being disposed on a second common winding core for automatically synchronizing the resonant oscillation of the first and second converter sections and transferring energy between the converter sections until the voltage across the pairs of transfer terminals achieves the turns ratio of the center tapped windings.

  10. Visible Light Induces Melanogenesis in Human Skin through a Photoadaptive Response.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Seo, InSeok; Liebel, Frank; Southall, Michael D; Kollias, Nikiforos; Ruvolo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Visible light (400-700 nm) lies outside of the spectral range of what photobiologists define as deleterious radiation and as a result few studies have studied the effects of visible light range of wavelengths on skin. This oversight is important considering that during outdoors activities skin is exposed to the full solar spectrum, including visible light, and to multiple exposures at different times and doses. Although the contribution of the UV component of sunlight to skin damage has been established, few studies have examined the effects of non-UV solar radiation on skin physiology in terms of inflammation, and limited information is available regarding the role of visible light on pigmentation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visible light on the pro-pigmentation pathways and melanin formation in skin. Exposure to visible light in ex-vivo and clinical studies demonstrated an induction of pigmentation in skin by visible light. Results showed that a single exposure to visible light induced very little pigmentation whereas multiple exposures with visible light resulted in darker and sustained pigmentation. These findings have potential implications on the management of photo-aggravated pigmentary disorders, the proper use of sunscreens, and the treatment of depigmented lesions.

  11. IL-23 induced in keratinocytes by endogenous TLR4 ligands polarizes dendritic cells to drive IL-22 responses to skin immunization.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Juhan; Leyva-Castillo, Juan Manuel; Wang, Guoxing; Galand, Claire; Oyoshi, Michiko K; Kumar, Lalit; Hoff, Sabine; He, Rui; Chervonsky, Alexander; Oppenheim, Joost J; Kuchroo, Vijay K; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Malefyt, Rene De Waal; Tessier, Philippe A; Fuhlbrigge, Robert; Rosenstiel, Philip; Terhorst, Cox; Murphy, George; Geha, Raif S

    2016-09-19

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a Th2-dominated inflammatory skin disease characterized by epidermal thickening. Serum levels of IL-22, a cytokine known to induce keratinocyte proliferation, are elevated in AD, and Th22 cells infiltrate AD skin lesions. We show that application of antigen to mouse skin subjected to tape stripping, a surrogate for scratching, induces an IL-22 response that drives epidermal hyperplasia and keratinocyte proliferation in a mouse model of skin inflammation that shares many features of AD. DC-derived IL-23 is known to act on CD4(+) T cells to induce IL-22 production. However, the mechanisms that drive IL-23 production by skin DCs in response to cutaneous sensitization are not well understood. We demonstrate that IL-23 released by keratinocytes in response to endogenous TLR4 ligands causes skin DCs, which selectively express IL-23R, to up-regulate their endogenous IL-23 production and drive an IL-22 response in naive CD4(+) T cells that mediates epidermal thickening. We also show that IL-23 is released in human skin after scratching and polarizes human skin DCs to drive an IL-22 response, supporting the utility of IL-23 and IL-22 blockade in AD. PMID:27551155

  12. The impact of paclitaxel or cisplatin-based chemotherapy on sympathetic skin response: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Argyriou, A A; Koutras, A; Polychronopoulos, P; Papapetropoulos, S; Iconomou, G; Katsoulas, G; Makatsoris, T; Kalofonos, H P; Chroni, E

    2005-11-01

    The current study aimed to assess the viability of sympathetic sudomotor fibers in cancer patients treated with cisplatin or paclitaxel-based chemotherapy and to ascertain whether this method could contribute to the diagnostic sensitivity of conventional techniques. Sympathetic skin response (SSR) from the hand and sole of 23 cancer patients (nine females and 14 males, mean age 62.4 +/- 10.5 years) was recorded unilaterally before and after chemotherapy with six courses of cumulative cisplatin or paclitaxel containing regimens. Clinical and electrophysiological data were also collected and correlated with the SSR results. Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. SSR abnormalities were only present in patients with evidence of peripheral neuropathy assessed by conventional nerve conduction techniques. Three patients had absent SSR in the upper limb whilst six patients had absent SSR both in the upper and lower limbs. In the upper limb, the mean SSR latency was not significantly altered through time (P = 0.086). In the lower limb the mean delay from baseline to follow-up was significantly changed (P = 0.029). In patients, the mean SSR latency was significantly prolonged compared with controls in both upper limb (P = 0.001) and lower limb (P = 0.000). SSR abnormalities were strongly related to sensory conduction abnormalities as detected by conventional techniques (r = 0.39, P = 0.004). Our results showed that SSR does not seem to add to the diagnostic sensitivity of conventional techniques in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. However, its role in the disclosure of small fibers neuropathy abnormalities is worth considering. Further studies are warranted to address this important issue.

  13. Skin conductance responses are elicited by the airway sensory effects of puffs from cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Bechara, Antoine

    2006-07-01

    The airway sensations stimulated by smoking are an important source of hedonic impact (pleasure) for dependent smokers. The learning process by which these sensations become pleasurable is not well understood. The classical conditioning model predicts that airway sensory stimulation will elicit sympathetic arousal that is positively correlated with the hedonic impact that is elicited by airway sensory stimulation. To test this prediction, we measured skin conductance responses (SCRs) and subjective hedonic impact elicited by a series of individual puffs from nicotinized, denicotinized and unlit cigarettes. Nicotinized puffs elicited more subjective hedonic impact than denicotinized and unlit puffs partly as a result of the fact that they provided a greater level of airway sensory stimulation. We found that SCRs were not larger for nicotinized puffs than for denicotinized puffs, but that they were larger for both nicotinized and denicotinized puffs than for unlit puffs. We also found that the average SCR of a subject to denicotinized puffs was positively correlated with the average hedonic impact that a subject obtained from denicotinized puffs. Together, this suggests that SCR magnitude does not reflect within-subject variations in hedonic impact that are due to variations in the level of airway sensory stimulation, but that it does reflect individual differences in the amount of hedonic impact that is derived from a given level of airway sensory stimulation. The results of a post hoc correlation analysis suggest that these individual differences may have been due to variations in the prevailing urge to smoke. The implications of these findings for the classical conditioning model, as well as for other learning models, are discussed.

  14. Noninvasive in vivo imaging to evaluate immune responses and antimicrobial therapy against Staphylococcus aureus and USA300 MRSA skin infections.

    PubMed

    Cho, John S; Zussman, Jamie; Donegan, Niles P; Ramos, Romela Irene; Garcia, Nairy C; Uslan, Daniel Z; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Simon, Scott I; Cheung, Ambrose L; Modlin, Robert L; Kim, Jenny; Miller, Lloyd S

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus skin infections represent a significant public health threat because of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). As greater understanding of protective immune responses and more effective antimicrobial therapies are needed, a S. aureus skin wound infection model was developed in which full-thickness scalpel cuts on the backs of mice were infected with a bioluminescent S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) or USA300 community-acquired MRSA strain and in vivo imaging was used to noninvasively monitor the bacterial burden. In addition, the infection-induced inflammatory response was quantified using in vivo fluorescence imaging of LysEGFP mice. Using this model, we found that both IL-1α and IL-1β contributed to host defense during a wound infection, whereas IL-1β was more critical during an intradermal S. aureus infection. Furthermore, treatment of a USA300 MRSA skin infection with retapamulin ointment resulted in up to 85-fold reduction in bacterial burden and a 53% decrease in infection-induced inflammation. In contrast, mupirocin ointment had minimal clinical activity against this USA300 strain, resulting in only a 2-fold reduction in bacterial burden. Taken together, this S. aureus wound infection model provides a valuable preclinical screening method to investigate cutaneous immune responses and the efficacy of topical antimicrobial therapies.

  15. Different responses of the skin temperature to physical exercise: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Neves, Eduardo B; Vilaca-Alves, Jose; Antunes, Natacha; Felisberto, Ivo M V; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor M

    2015-08-01

    Studies suggest that skin temperature behavior varies according to the type of exercise, intensity, duration, muscle mass and subcutaneous fat layer. In this sense, the aim of this study was to investigate the skin temperature behavior in the active muscles and other body segments, during and after exercise, according to the type and intensity of the exercise. A systematic literature review was conducted between November 2014 and March 2015 in the Web of Science database, using the terms "thermography" and "exercise" and "muscle" to achieve the objective of this study. During the research were found 55 scientific articles which were subjected to a selection process. Inclusion criteria were: Studies in human beings and original research. The exclusion criterion was the presence of subjects with some kind of disease. The seven papers that make up the present review are dated between 2008 and 2015. From all analyzed studies, it was possible to understand the general behavior of the active muscle skin temperature during the exercise, immediately after and in the 48h after exercise, according to the type and intensity of the exercise performed, which are illustrated in two figures. It can be concluded that the skin temperature over active muscles increases during high intensity anaerobic exercise, decreases slowly after exercise and increases again in the days after the exercise. On the other hand, during low intensity aerobic exercise, skin temperature over active muscles decreases, returning to normal values a few minutes after it and present a small rise in the following days. With regard to the skin temperature over non-active muscles, it can be seen that it decreases during exercise, returning to normal values a few minutes after it and rise similarly to the skin temperature over active muscles in the following days, in all types of exercises studied.

  16. Application of Concanavalin A during immune responsiveness skin-swelling tests facilitates measurement interpretation in mammalian ecology.

    PubMed

    Bílková, Barbora; Albrecht, Tomáš; Chudíčková, Milada; Holáň, Vladimír; Piálek, Jaroslav; Vinkler, Michal

    2016-07-01

    The skin-swelling test is a simple and widespread method used in field ecological research to estimate cellular immune responsiveness in animals. This immunoecological test is based on measuring the magnitude of tissue swelling response at specific times following subcutaneous application of an experimental pro-inflammatory stimulant. In the vast majority of studies across vertebrate taxa, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) is used as a universal stimulant. Given the complexity of immune response activation pathways of PHA, however, interpretation of test results can be ambiguous. Goal of this study was to improve methodology of the skin-swelling test to decrease this ambiguity. Here, we present an alternative protocol aimed at facilitating interpretation of skin-swelling data for mammals. Based on previous evidence suggesting that mammalian T cells are readily activated by Concanavalin A (ConA) in vitro, we compared cellular immune responses in vivo to PHA and ConA as an alternative pro-inflammatory stimulant in mice. We measured magnitude of tissue swelling and compared it with intensity of blood cell infiltration into tissue over a 72-hour interval. Our results corroborate that PHA and ConA show important differences in both dynamics and response amplitude in rodents. ConA induces stronger swelling with a distinct leukocyte activity pattern and higher pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 6 [IL-6] and interferon gamma[IFN-γ]) expression than PHA during peak response (24-h post-treatment). Furthermore, unlike PHA, magnitude of swelling was positively associated with cellular activity (number of neutrophils infiltrating tissue) following ConA injection. We conclude that ConA is the more suitable stimulant for skin-swelling tests in mammals. This is because of the molecular binding specificity in the two lectins, that is, ConA specifically activates T cells while PHA also triggers erythroagglutination. We propose that ConA be used in all future ecological testing in

  17. A study of IgE sensitization and skin response to histamine in Asian-Pacific American adults.

    PubMed

    Lee-Wong, Mary; Chou, Vivian; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2012-01-01

    Allergic disorders and skin response to histamine have been noted to vary in different ethnicities. We investigated IgE-mediated allergic sensitization and skin response to histamine in Asian Pacific Americans (APAs), black and Hispanic Americans, and white adults. A retrospective questionnaire-based study was performed of 2222 adults presenting at a New York City allergy referral center from 1994 to 2003. Questionnaire data included sex, age, and ethnicity and personal and family history of atopic disorders. Skin-prick test (SPT) data included saline and histamine controls and response to a standardized panel of 10 aeroallergens. APA patients had a lower odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.89; p = 0.005) and/or animal allergies (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.82; p = 0.0003). Histamine response was not significantly different in APA (aOR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73-1.12; p = 0.36) or Hispanic Americans (aOR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.85-1.24; p = 0.76), but was higher in black Americans (aOR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.67-3.21; p < 0.0001). APA had higher odds of a positive SPT to trees (aOR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.91; p = 0.002), grasses (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43; p = 0.02), feathers (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.31-2.09; p < 0.0001), and cockroaches (aOR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62; p = 0.005). Moreover, APA had a higher total number of positive SPTs when compared with white patients (5.5 ± 3.2 versus 4.9 ± 3.3; aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62 p = 0.004). APA adults in our patient population had more IgE sensitizations but not an increased skin response to histamine. In contrast, black Americans had increased skin response to histamine.

  18. Response of rat skin to boron neutron capture therapy with p-boronophenylalanine or borocaptate sodium.

    PubMed

    Morris, G M; Coderre, J A; Hopewell, J W; Micca, P L; Rezvani, M

    1994-08-01

    The effects of boron neutron capture irradiation employing either BPA or BSH as neutron capture agents has been assessed using the dorsal skin of Fischer 344 rats. Pharmacokinetic studies, using prompt gamma spectrometry, revealed comparable levels of boron-10 (10B) in blood and skin after the intravenous infusion of BSH (100 mg/kg body wt.). The 10B content of blood (12.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms/g) was slightly higher than that of skin (10.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms/g) after oral dosing with BPA. Biphasic skin reactions were observed after irradiation with the thermal neutron beam alone or in combination with BPA or BSH. The time of onset of the first phase of the skin reaction, moist desquamation, was approximately 2 weeks. The time at which the second-wave skin reaction, dermal necrosis, became evident was dose-related and occurred after a latent interval of > or = 24 weeks, well after the acute epithelial reaction had healed. The incidence of both phases of skin damage was also dose-related. The radiation doses required to produce skin damage in 50% of skin sites (ED50 values) were calculated from dose-effect curves and these values were used to determine relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factors for both moist desquamation and dermal necrosis. It was concluded on the basis of these calculations that the microdistribution of the two neutron capture agents had a critical bearing on the overall biological effect after thermal neutron activation. BSH, which was possibly excluded from the cytoplasm of epidermal cells, had a low CBE factor value (0.56 +/- 0.06) while BPA, which may be selectively accumulated in epidermal cells had a very high CBE factor (3.74 +/- 0.7). For the dermal reaction, where vascular endothelial cells represent the likely target cell population, the CBE factor values were comparable, at 0.73 +/- 0.42 and 0.86 +/- 0.08 for BPA ad BSH, respectively.

  19. Effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on event related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Woo; Park, Woong-Sik; Yoon, Se-Won

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on event-related potentials. [Subjects and Methods] Forty normal female adult subjects were randomly distributed to a galvanic vestibular stimulation application group (20 subjects) and sham group (20 subjects). For galvanic vestibular stimulation application, a positive electrode was applied to the right mastoid process, and a negative electrode was applied to the left mastoid process; simulation was applied for 10 minutes. A test was conducted on the N100 and P300 components of the event-related potentials before and after galvanic vestibular stimulation. [Results] The N100 latency showed statistically significant differences in interaction effects between time and group in the F3, F4, Fz, and Pz areas. The P300 latency showed the same results in the Fp1 and Fp2 areas, the N100 amplitude showed the same results in the Fp2, Fz, and Pz areas; and the P300 amplitude showed the same results in the Pz area. [Conclusion] These results suggest that galvanic vestibular stimulation may play a positive role in the N100 and P300 components of the event-related potentials of the cerebral cortex related to decision-making in matching words with images. PMID:27799703

  20. Simulation of the effect of photoprotective titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on the thermal response and optical characteristics of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, I. V.; Seteikin, A. Yu.; Popov, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal response of skin covered with a mixture of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles of optimal sizes and irradiated by sunlight has been calculated. The nanoparticles were rubbed into the skin for maximum protection against the incident radiation. The dependences of the temperature dynamics in different skin layers (corneal layer, epidermis, dermis) have been obtained and analyzed upon skin irradiation with light at a wavelength of 310-800 nm. It has been found that increasing light scattering and absorption due to the nanoparticles introduced into the corneal layer resulted in a decrease in the thermal load and penetration depth of the incident radiation.

  1. Skin CD4+ T cells produce interferon-gamma in vitro in response to streptococcal antigens in chronic plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Brown, D W; Baker, B S; Ovigne, J M; Hardman, C; Powles, A V; Fry, L

    2000-03-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that group A streptococcal antigen reactive T cells are present in the skin lesions of chronic plaque psoriasis. To determine the cytokine profile (interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 and interleukin-10) of these T cells in response to streptococcal antigens, T cell lines were cultured from untreated lesional skin of 13 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 12 patients with other inflammatory skin diseases. T cell lines were incubated with or without a sonicated heat-killed mixture of group A streptococcal isolates for 18 h in the presence of a transport inhibitor, stained for surface CD4 or CD8 and intracellular cytokine expression, and analyzed by flow cytometry. Psoriatic T cell lines were grown from 10 of 13 patients and were predominately CD4+ (64%-85%) with 10%-32% CD8+ T cells. Variable numbers of CD4+ T cells produced interferon-gamma (0.8%-35%, median 13.9) in eight of 10 T cell lines (p < 0.02). In contrast, CD4+ T cells in five of 12 T cell lines obtained from disease controls did not produce or produced minimal interferon-gamma in response to group A streptococcal isolates; this was significantly different from the psoriatic T cell lines (p < 0.05). Small numbers of interleukin-10 positive (0.8%-1.3%) and interleukin-4 positive (2.1%-2.5%) CD4+ T cells induced by group A streptococcal isolates were also present in two out of five and three out of five psoriatic T cell lines, respectively. This was significantly less in each case than the numbers of CD4+/interferon-gamma+ T cells (p < 0.05). Cytokine-positive CD8+ T cells were rarely observed. These findings demonstrate that a subpopulation of CD4+ T cells in chronic plaque psoriasis skin lesions produces interferon-gamma in response to streptococcal antigens and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  2. 40 CFR 465.20 - Applicability; description of the galvanized basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from coil coating of galvanized basis material... galvanized basis material subcategory. 465.20 Section 465.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COIL COATING POINT...

  3. 40 CFR 465.20 - Applicability; description of the galvanized basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from coil coating of galvanized basis material... galvanized basis material subcategory. 465.20 Section 465.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COIL COATING POINT...

  4. 40 CFR 465.20 - Applicability; description of the galvanized basis material subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works from coil coating of galvanized basis material... galvanized basis material subcategory. 465.20 Section 465.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COIL COATING POINT...

  5. Modeling slug tests in unconfined aquifers with both oscillatory and overdamped responses, and with low-K and high-K skin effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, M. J.; Malama, B.; Barrash, W.; Bohling, G.; Butler, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    We extend the models for slug tests developed by Hyder et al. (1994) and Butler and Zhan (2004) to obtain a single general model for slug tests in unconfined aquifers in partially penetrating wells with a near-well disturbed zone (skin). The full range of responses, oscillatory to overdamped, is considered since both types of responses are common in wells in unconsolidated coarse fluvial aquifers, and others. The general semi-analytical solution allows for skin and formation storage as well as anisotropy in skin and formation hydraulic conductivity (K). The water table is treated as a fixed head boundary so the solution is applicable for wells screened below the water table. The model is validated by comparison with other models and by matching field data from unconfined fluvial aquifers at sites in Nebraska (MSEA) and Idaho (BHRS). We examine the effects of varying skin K and skin thickness to simulate the impact of a near-well disturbed zone that is lower (damage) or higher (filter pack) K than the formation. Results indicate that, for a given set of measured behavior at an example test zone, minor progressive decreases in estimated formation K occur with increases in assumed skin K, and moderate increases in estimated formation K occur with decreases in assumed skin K. Major increases (orders of magnitude) in estimated formation K occur with increased thickness of low-K skin. The importance of incorporating a finite-thickness representation of the skin, rather than the conventional infinitely thin representation, is also addressed.

  6. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Amrine, Katherine C H; Collins, Thomas S; Rivero, Rosa M; Vicente, Ariel R; Morales-Cruz, Abraham; Doyle, Carolyn L; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Cantu, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines.

  7. Dose response evaluation of gene expression profiles in the skin of K6/ODC mice exposed to sodium arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlborn, Gene J.; Nelson, Gail M.; Ward, William O.; Knapp, Geremy; Allen, James W.; Ouyang Ming; Roop, Barbara C.; Chen Yan; O'Brien, Thomas; Kitchin, Kirk T.; Delker, Don A.

    2008-03-15

    Chronic drinking water exposure to inorganic arsenic and its metabolites increases tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, we characterized gene expression profiles from analysis of K6/ODC mice administered 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1.0 and 10 ppm sodium arsenite in their drinking water for 4 weeks. Following exposure, total RNA was isolated from mouse skin and processed to biotin-labeled cRNA for microarray analyses. Skin gene expression was analyzed with Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 GeneChips (registered) , and pathway analysis was conducted with DAVID (NIH), Ingenuity (registered) Systems and MetaCore's GeneGo. Differential expression of several key genes was verified through qPCR. Only the highest dose (10 ppm) resulted in significantly altered KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways, including MAPK, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Wnt, Jak-Stat, Tight junction, Toll-like, phosphatidylinositol and insulin signaling pathways. Approximately 20 genes exhibited a dose response, including several genes known to be associated with carcinogenesis or tumor progression including cyclin D1, CLIC4, Ephrin A1, STAT3 and DNA methyltransferase 3a. Although transcription changes in all identified genes have not previously been linked to arsenic carcinogenesis, their association with carcinogenesis in other systems suggests that these genes may play a role in the early stages of arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis and can be considered potential biomarkers.

  8. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  9. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Amrine, Katherine C H; Collins, Thomas S; Rivero, Rosa M; Vicente, Ariel R; Morales-Cruz, Abraham; Doyle, Carolyn L; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Cantu, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  10. A microfluidic galvanic cell on a single layer of paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Krutarth H.; Emrani, Saina; Rodriguez, Sandra; Liaw, Shi-Shen; Pham, Linda; Galvan, Vicente; Domalaon, Kryls; Gomez, Frank A.; Haan, John L.

    2016-06-01

    Paper microfluidics is used to produce single layer galvanic and hybrid cells to produce energy that could power paper-based analytical sensors. When two aqueous streams are absorbed onto paper to establish co-laminar flow, the streams stay in contact with each other with limited mixing. The interface at which mixing occurs acts as a charge-transfer region, eliminating the need for a salt bridge. We designed a Cusbnd Zn galvanic cell that powers an LED when two are placed in series. We also used more powerful redox couples (formate and silver, formate and permanganate) to produce higher power density (18 and 3.1 mW mg-1 Pd). These power densities are greater than previously reported paper microfluidic fuel cells using formate or methanol. The single layer design is much more simplified than previous reports of multi-layer galvanic cells on paper.

  11. Performance of Inductors Attached to a Galvanizing Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinping; Yuan, Shuo; Liu, Chi; Yang, Peng; Qian, Chaoqun; Song, Bao

    2013-12-01

    By taking a galvanizing bath with inductors from an Iron and Steel Co., Ltd as an example, the distributions of Lorentz force and generated heat in the inductor are simulated. As a result, the zinc flow and the temperature distribution driven by the Lorentz force and the generated heat in the inductor of a galvanizing bath are simulated numerically, and their characteristics are analyzed. The relationship of the surface-weighted average velocity at the outlet and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet and the effective power for the inductor is studied. Results show that with an increase in effective power for the inductor, the surface-weighted average velocity at the outlet and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet increase gradually. We envisage this work to lay a foundation for the study of the performance of the galvanizing bath in future.

  12. Bovine Tuberculosis: Effect of the Tuberculin Skin Test on In vitro Interferon gamma Responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a disease of zoonotic and economic importance. In many countries, control is based on test and slaughter policies and/or abattoir surveillance. For testing, cell mediated immune- (CMI-) based assays (i.e., Tuberculin skin test (TST) supplemented by the interferon gamma (...

  13. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  14. The Feasibility of Using a Galvanic Cell Array for Corrosion Detection and Solution Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolody, Mark; Calle, Luz-Marina; Zeitlin, Nancy P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An initial investigation into the response of the individual galvanic couples was conducted using potentiodynamic polarization measurements of solutions under conditions of varying corrosivity. It is hypothesized that the differing electrodes may provide a means to further investigate the corrosive nature of the analyte through genetic algorithms and pattern recognition techniques. The robust design of the electrochemical sensor makes its utilization in space exploration particularly attractive. Since the electrodes are fired on a ceramic substrate at 900 C, they may be one of the most rugged sensors available for the anticipated usage.

  15. Tuning in caudal fastigial nucleus units during natural and galvanic labyrinth stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, H G; Guldin, W O; Grüsser, O J

    2001-05-25

    Neurons of the caudal fastigial nucleus were investigated by means of single unit recordings. Natural vestibular stimuli were applied as well as galvanic labyrinth polarization. One-third of the neurons showed a convergence of vertical and horizontal canals. More than 80% of the neurons responded to polarization of both the ipsilateral and contralateral canals (binaural responders). Most neurons had a limited response range. Two classes of neurons could be distinguished: up to 1 Hz responders and up to 10 Hz responders. In addition a group of fastigial cells showed a tuning within a small range of frequencies (sharp-tuning responders).

  16. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  17. Dextran hydrogel scaffolds enhance angiogenic responses and promote complete skin regeneration during burn wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guoming; Zhang, Xianjie; Shen, Yu-I; Sebastian, Raul; Dickinson, Laura E.; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Reinblatt, Maura; Steenbergen, Charles; Harmon, John W.; Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Neovascularization is a critical determinant of wound-healing outcomes for deep burn injuries. We hypothesize that dextran-based hydrogels can serve as instructive scaffolds to promote neovascularization and skin regeneration in third-degree burn wounds. Dextran hydrogels are soft and pliable, offering opportunities to improve the management of burn wound treatment. We first developed a procedure to treat burn wounds on mice with dextran hydrogels. In this procedure, we followed clinical practice of wound excision to remove full-thickness burned skin, and then covered the wound with the dextran hydrogel and a dressing layer. Our procedure allows the hydrogel to remain intact and securely in place during the entire healing period, thus offering opportunities to simplify the management of burn wound treatment. A 3-week comparative study indicated that dextran hydrogel promoted dermal regeneration with complete skin appendages. The hydrogel scaffold facilitated early inflammatory cell infiltration that led to its rapid degradation, promoting the infiltration of angiogenic cells into the healing wounds. Endothelial cells homed into the hydrogel scaffolds to enable neovascularization by day 7, resulting in an increased blood flow significantly greater than treated and untreated controls. By day 21, burn wounds treated with hydrogel developed a mature epithelial structure with hair follicles and sebaceous glands. After 5 weeks of treatment, the hydrogel scaffolds promoted new hair growth and epidermal morphology and thickness similar to normal mouse skin. Collectively, our evidence shows that customized dextran-based hydrogel alone, with no additional growth factors, cytokines, or cells, promoted remarkable neovascularization and skin regeneration and may lead to novel treatments for dermal wounds. PMID:22171002

  18. Dextran hydrogel scaffolds enhance angiogenic responses and promote complete skin regeneration during burn wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoming; Zhang, Xianjie; Shen, Yu-I; Sebastian, Raul; Dickinson, Laura E; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Reinblatt, Maura; Steenbergen, Charles; Harmon, John W; Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-12-27

    Neovascularization is a critical determinant of wound-healing outcomes for deep burn injuries. We hypothesize that dextran-based hydrogels can serve as instructive scaffolds to promote neovascularization and skin regeneration in third-degree burn wounds. Dextran hydrogels are soft and pliable, offering opportunities to improve the management of burn wound treatment. We first developed a procedure to treat burn wounds on mice with dextran hydrogels. In this procedure, we followed clinical practice of wound excision to remove full-thickness burned skin, and then covered the wound with the dextran hydrogel and a dressing layer. Our procedure allows the hydrogel to remain intact and securely in place during the entire healing period, thus offering opportunities to simplify the management of burn wound treatment. A 3-week comparative study indicated that dextran hydrogel promoted dermal regeneration with complete skin appendages. The hydrogel scaffold facilitated early inflammatory cell infiltration that led to its rapid degradation, promoting the infiltration of angiogenic cells into the healing wounds. Endothelial cells homed into the hydrogel scaffolds to enable neovascularization by day 7, resulting in an increased blood flow significantly greater than treated and untreated controls. By day 21, burn wounds treated with hydrogel developed a mature epithelial structure with hair follicles and sebaceous glands. After 5 weeks of treatment, the hydrogel scaffolds promoted new hair growth and epidermal morphology and thickness similar to normal mouse skin. Collectively, our evidence shows that customized dextran-based hydrogel alone, with no additional growth factors, cytokines, or cells, promoted remarkable neovascularization and skin regeneration and may lead to novel treatments for dermal wounds. PMID:22171002

  19. The thermal treatment of galvanic sludges for environmental compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, Andre M.; Bohlinger, Isrun; Wuth, Wolfgang

    1996-03-01

    Eleven galvanic sludges were investigated on a laboratory scale at the Institute of Metallurgy, Technical University of Berlin. Rotary, flash, and arc-furnace techniques were used to pyrometallurgically treat and melt the sludges. The waste material was leached before and after thermal treatment. Concentrations of metals in the eluates were compared with drinking water as well as land filling (dumping) standards. The results show that the slag, obtained after melting the galvanic sludge, is the only environmentally agreeable product. Drying, glowing, or roasting the sludge deteriorated the environmental compatibility. Alloys were produced by flash smelting (Cu-Ni) and arcfurnace processing (Fe-Si-Cr), but they do not satisfy quality standards.

  20. Galvanic corrosion of an aluminum O-ring

    SciTech Connect

    Truhan, J.J.; Chen, C.

    1984-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the extent of galvanic corrosion occurring between the components of a metal O-ring. The O-ring consists of a split toroid composed of 1050 Al and the internal component, which is a 750X Inconel spring that provides the elasticity. The galvanic measurements were made in deionized water to simulate humid conditions and in a 1% NaCl aqueous solution to simulate the acceleration in corrosion that may occur if surface contamination due to handling or inadequate cleaning is present on the surface.

  1. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on the adaptive response of human skin fibroblasts to UV-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jones, S A; McArdle, F; Jack, C I; Jackson, M J

    1999-01-01

    The effect of supplementation with substances having antioxidant properties on the adaptive responses of human skin fibroblasts to UV-induced oxidative stress was studied in vitro. UVR was found to induce a substantial oxidative stress in fibroblasts, resulting in an increased release of superoxide anions and an increase in lipid peroxidation (shown by an elevated malonaldehyde content). Sub-lethal doses of UVR were also found to induce adaptive responses in the fibroblast antioxidant defences, with a transient rise in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities followed by a slower, large increase in cellular glutathione content. Supplementation of the fibroblasts with the antioxidants, Trolox (a water soluble analogue of alpha-tocopherol), ascorbic acid or beta-carotene, had differential effects on these responses. Trolox supplementation reduced the UVR-induced cellular oxidative stress and adaptive response in a predictable concentration-dependent manner. This was in contrast to ascorbic acid which increased superoxide release from fibroblasts. At low doses, ascorbate supplements also reduced the magnitude of the adaptive increases in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and increase in glutathione content. Beta-carotene had a similar effect to ascorbic acid, reducing the extent of the adaptations to UVR at lower doses while simultaneously increasing superoxide release and malonaldehyde content. These in vitro data indicate that only the vitamin E analogue suppressed UVR-induced oxidative stress in a predictable manner and suggest that common dietary antioxidants may not be equally effective in reducing the potential deleterious effects of UVR-induced oxidative stress in skin.

  2. The Response of Human Skin Commensal Bacteria as a Reflection of UV Radiation: UV-B Decreases Porphyrin Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhan; Zhu, Wenhong; Shu, Muya; Jiang, Yong; Gallo, Richard L.; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Recent global radiation fears reflect the urgent need for a new modality that can simply determine if people are in a radiation risk of developing cancer and other illnesses. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been thought to be the major risk factor for most skin cancers. Although various biomarkers derived from the responses of human cells have been revealed, detection of these biomarkers is cumbersome, probably requires taking live human tissues, and varies significantly depending on human immune status. Here we hypothesize that the reaction of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a human resident skin commensal, to UV radiation can serve as early surrogate markers for radiation risk because the bacteria are immediately responsive to radiation. In addition, the bacteria can be readily accessible and exposed to the same field of radiation as human body. To test our hypothesis, P. acnes was exposed to UV-B radiation. The production of porphyrins in P. acnes was significantly reduced with increasing doses of UV-B. The porphyrin reduction can be detected in both P. acnes and human skin bacterial isolates. Exposure of UV-B to P. acnes- inoculated mice led to a significant decrease in porphyrin production in a single colony of P. acnes and simultaneously induced the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the epidermal layers of mouse skin. Mass spectrometric analysis via a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ)-Orbitrap XL showed that five peptides including an internal peptide (THLPTGIVVSCQNER) of a peptide chain release factor 2 (RF2) were oxidized by UV-B. Seven peptides including three internal peptides of 60 kDa chaperonin 1 were de-oxidized by UV-B. When compared to UV-B, gamma radiation also decreased the porphyrin production of P. acnes in a dose-dependent manner, but induced a different signature of protein oxidation/de-oxidation. We highlight that uncovering response of skin microbiome to radiation will facilitate the development of pre-symptomatic diagnosis

  3. Exogenous melatonin administration modifies cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to whole body skin cooling in humans.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Ken; Zhao, Kun; Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko; Alvarez, Guy E; Kosiba, Wojciech A; Johnson, John M

    2008-03-01

    Humans and other diurnal species experience a fall in internal temperature (T(int)) at night, accompanied by increased melatonin and altered thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow (SkBF). Also, exogenous melatonin induces a fall in T(int), an increase in distal skin temperatures and altered control of the cutaneous active vasodilator system, suggesting an effect of melatonin on the control of SkBF. To test whether exogenous melatonin also affects the more tonically active vasoconstrictor system in glabrous and nonglabrous skin during cooling, healthy males (n = 9) underwent afternoon sessions of whole body skin temperature (T(sk)) cooling (water-perfused suits) after oral melatonin (Mel; 3 mg) or placebo (Cont). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated from SkBF (laser Doppler flowmetry) and non-invasive blood pressure. Baseline T(int) was lower in Mel than in Cont (P < 0.01). During progressive reduction of T(sk) from 35 degrees C to 32 degrees C, forearm CVC was first significantly reduced at T(sk) of 34.33 +/- 0.01 degrees C (P < 0.05) in Cont. In contrast, CVC in Mel was not significantly reduced until T(sk) reached 33.33 +/- 0.01 degrees C (P < 0.01). The decrease in forearm CVC in Mel was significantly less than in Cont at T(sk) of 32.66 +/- 0.01 degrees C and lower (P < 0.05). In Mel, palmar CVC was significantly higher than in Cont above T(sk) of 33.33 +/- 0.01 degrees C, but not below. Thus exogenous melatonin blunts reflex vasoconstriction in nonglabrous skin and shifts vasoconstrictor system control to lower T(int). It provokes vasodilation in glabrous skin but does not suppress the sensitivity to falling T(sk). These findings suggest that by affecting the vasoconstrictor system, melatonin has a causal role in the nocturnal changes in body temperature and its control.

  4. On texture, corrosion resistance and morphology of hot-dip galvanized zinc coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari, H.; Toroghinejad, M. R.; Golozar, M. A.

    2007-06-01

    Texture is an important factor which affects the coating properties. Chemical composition of the zinc bath can strongly influence the texture of hot-dip galvanized coatings. In this study, lead content of the zinc bath was changed from 0.01 wt.% to 0.11 wt.%. Specimens were prepared from zinc baths of different lead content and its texture was evaluated using X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behaviour was analyzed by Tafel extrapolation and linear polarization tests. To study the corrosion products of the specimens, salt spray test was employed. Also, the spangle size of the specimens was determined using line intercept method. From the experimental results it was found that (00.2) basal plane texture component would be weakened by increasing the lead content of the zinc and conversely, (20.1) high angle pyramidal texture components strengthened. Besides, coatings with strong (00.2) texture component and weaker (20.1) component have better corrosion resistance than the coatings with weak (00.2) and strong (20.1) texture components. In addition, surface morphology would be changed and presence of basal planes decreases at the coating surface due to the increase of lead in the zinc bath. Furthermore, spangle size would be increased by increasing the lead content of the zinc bath. Investigation on the effects of skin pass rolling showed that in this case, (00.2) basal texture component and corrosion resistance of the skin passed specimens, in comparison with non-skin passed specimens, have been decreased.

  5. Preslaughter diet management in sheep and goats: effects on physiological responses and microbial loads on skin and carcass.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Govind; Gutta, Venkat R; Lee, Jung Hoon; Kouakou, Brou; Getz, Will R; McCommon, George W

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen crossbred buck goats (Kiko x Spanish; BW = 32.8 kg) and wether sheep (Dorset x Suffolk; BW = 39.9 kg) were used to determine the effect of preslaughter diet and feed deprivation time (FDT) on physiological responses and microbial loads on skin and carcasses. Experimental animals were fed either a concentrate (CD) or a hay diet (HD) for 4 d and then deprived of feed for either 12-h or 24-h before slaughter. Blood samples were collected for plasma cortisol and blood metabolite analyses. Longisimus muscle (LM) pH was measured. Skin and carcass swabs were obtained to assess microbial loads. Plasma creatine kinase activity (863.9 and 571.7 ± 95.21 IU) and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (1,056.1 and 589.8 ± 105.01 mEq/L) were different (P < 0.05) between sheep and goats. Species and diet treatments had significant effects on the ultimate pH of LM. Pre-holding total coliform (TCC) and aerobic plate counts (APC) of skin were significantly different between species. Goats had lower (P < 0.05) TCC (2.1 vs. 3.0 log10 CFU/cm(2)) and APC (8.2 vs. 8.5 log10 CFU/cm(2)) counts in the skin compared to sheep. Preslaughter skin E. coli counts and TCC were different (P < 0.05) between species. Goats had lower (P < 0.05) counts of E. coli (2.2 vs. 2.9 log10 CFU/cm(2)) and TCC (2.3 vs. 3.0 log10 CFU/cm(2)) in the skin compared with those in sheep. Diet, species, and FDT had no effect (P > 0.05) on E. coli and TCC in carcass swab samples. The APC of carcass swab samples were only affected (P < 0.05) by the FDT. The results indicated that preslaughter dietary management had no significant changes on hormone and blood metabolite concentrations and sheep might be more prone for fecal contamination than goats in the holding pens at abattoir.

  6. Fluoxetine Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice through Reducing Psychological Stress and Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxi; Chen, Long; Du, Yehong; Huang, Daochao; Han, Huili; Dong, Zhifang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p.) significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic. PMID:27679577

  7. Mucous cell responses in gill and skin of brown trout Salmo trutta fario in acidic, aluminium-containing stream water.

    PubMed

    Ledy, K; Giambérini, L; Pihan, J C

    2003-10-24

    Morphometric examination was carried out on the gills and skin of wild and caged hatchery brown trout Salmo trutta fario in an acidic (pH 4.9 to 5.4; Al 203 to 250 microg l(-1)) and in a non-acidic (pH 6.7 to 7.0; Al 27 to 67 microg l(-1)) stream in the Vosges Mountains (NE France) to assess the sublethal effects of acidic water on the mucous cell response. The caged fish were randomly collected after 2, 4, 7 and 11 d and the wild fish were obtained by electrofishing. After 2 d, a reduction of both mucous cell (MC) number and size was observed in the gills of fish held in the acidic stream, suggesting a massive mucus discharge. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cells immediately followed this mucus secretion. In the same fish population, skin examination showed a slight and delayed decrease of MC number but a significant increase of cell size. The number of mucous cells of gills and skin was similar in both wild trout populations, whereas a significant MC hypertrophy was observed in the wild fish of the acidic stream. The present field experiment indicates that caged fish could be useful as early indicators of acidification. In addition, the examination of wild populations suggested the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms, information that might be of importance in the context of river recovery programs.

  8. Molecular responses to photogenotoxic stress induced by the antibiotic lomefloxacin in human skin cells: from DNA damage to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Marrot, Laurent; Belaïdi, Jean Phillipe; Jones, Christophe; Perez, Phillipe; Riou, Lydia; Sarasin, Alain; Meunier, Jean Roch

    2003-09-01

    Photo-unstable chemicals sometimes behave as phototoxins in skin, inducing untoward clinical side-effects when exposed to sunlight. Some drugs, such as psoralens or fluoroquinolones, can damage genomic DNA, thus increasing the risk of photocarcinogenesis. Here, lomefloxacin, an antibiotic from the fluoroquinolone family known to be involved in skin tumor development in photoexposed mice, was studied using normal human skin cells in culture: fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and Caucasian melanocytes. When treated cells were exposed to simulated solar ultraviolet A (320-400 nm), lomefloxacin induced damage such as strand breaks and pyrimidine dimers in genomic DNA. Lomefloxacin also triggered various stress responses: heme-oxygenase-1 expression in fibroblasts, changes in p53 status as shown by the accumulation of p53 and p21 proteins or the induction of MDM2 and GADD45 genes, and stimulation of melanogenesis by increasing the tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. Lomefloxacin could also lead to apoptosis in keratinocytes exposed to ultraviolet A: caspase-3 was activated and FAS-L gene was induced. Moreover, keratinocytes were shown to be the most sensitive cell type to lomefloxacin phototoxic effects, in spite of the well-established effectiveness of their antioxidant equipment. These data show that the phototoxicity of a given drug can be driven by different mechanisms and that its biologic impact varies according to cell type.

  9. Fluoxetine Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice through Reducing Psychological Stress and Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanxi; Chen, Long; Du, Yehong; Huang, Daochao; Han, Huili; Dong, Zhifang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p.) significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic. PMID:27679577

  10. Fluoxetine Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in BALB/c Mice through Reducing Psychological Stress and Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanxi; Chen, Long; Du, Yehong; Huang, Daochao; Han, Huili; Dong, Zhifang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and patients with AD suffer from severe psychological stress, which markedly increases the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety disorders in later life. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, it is unclear whether fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of AD through reducing psychological stress and inflammatory reaction. Here, we reported that a BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) onto hairless dorsal skin. Chronic fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg per day, i.p.) significantly attenuated AD-like symptoms, as reflected by a dramatic decrease in scratching bouts, as well as a decrease in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in epidermal thickness, the number of mast cells in skin tissue, mRNA levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in the spleen, as well as serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the DNCB-treated mice by treatment with fluoxetine. Taken together, these results indicate that fluoxetine may suppress psychological stress and inflammatory response during AD development, and subsequently ameliorate AD symptoms, suggesting that fluoxetine may be a potential therapeutic agent against AD in clinic.

  11. Lipocalin-2 exacerbates psoriasiform skin inflammation by augmenting T-helper 17 response.

    PubMed

    Hau, Carren S; Kanda, Naoko; Tada, Yayoi; Shibata, Sayaka; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio; Sato, Shinichi; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is an antimicrobial protein and adipokine associated with insulin resistance, obesity and atherosclerotic disease. Psoriasis is a T-helper (Th)1/Th17-mediated, chronic inflammatory dermatosis related to metabolic syndromes and serum LCN2 levels are elevated in psoriatic patients. We examined the in vivo effects of LCN2 on topical imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasiform skin in BALB/c mice and in vitro on human keratinocytes (KC). Clinically, i.p. injected LCN2 exacerbated erythema and scaling in IMQ-treated murine skin compared with phosphate-buffered saline injection alone, and it augmented interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-23p19, IL-12p40, CCL20, tumor necrosis factor-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL2, DEFB4, DEFB14, LCN2 and S100A7 mRNA levels of IMQ-treated murine skin while it did not increase the mRNA levels of interferon-γ, IL-12p35 or CXCL10. LCN2 in synergy with IL-17 increased mRNA levels of CCL20, LCN2 and DEFB4A but not of CXCL10 in human KC in vitro. These results suggest that LCN2 enhances the expression of Th17 cytokines/chemokines and antimicrobial peptides in murine IMQ-treated psoriatic skin and KC. LCN2 may potentiate the development of psoriasis via the enhancement of Th17- and antimicrobial peptide-mediated inflammation. PMID:26702876

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Responsive Changes in Collagen and Elastin Networks in Skin.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Jazli; Shezali, Hafiz; Radzi, Zamri; Yahya, Noor Azlin; Abu Kassim, Noor Hayaty; Czernuszka, Jan; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2016-01-01

    Collagen and elastin networks make up the majority of the extracellular matrix in many organs, such as the skin. The mechanisms which are involved in the maintenance of homeostatic equilibrium of these networks are numerous, involving the regulation of genetic expression, growth factor secretion, signalling pathways, secondary messaging systems, and ion channel activity. However, many factors are capable of disrupting these pathways, which leads to an imbalance of homeostatic equilibrium. Ultimately, this leads to changes in the physical nature of skin, both functionally and cosmetically. Although various factors have been identified, including carcinogenesis, ultraviolet exposure, and mechanical stretching of skin, it was discovered that many of them affect similar components of regulatory pathways, such as fibroblasts, lysyl oxidase, and fibronectin. Additionally, it was discovered that the various regulatory pathways intersect with each other at various stages instead of working independently of each other. This review paper proposes a model which elucidates how these molecular pathways intersect with one another, and how various internal and external factors can disrupt these pathways, ultimately leading to a disruption in collagen and elastin networks. PMID:27434176

  13. Dynamics of thermographic skin temperature response during squat exercise at two different speeds.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Damiano; Ludwig, Nicola; Trecroci, Athos; Gargano, Marco; Michielon, Giovanni; Caumo, Andrea; Alberti, Giampietro

    2016-07-01

    Low intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation has been shown to create blood flow restriction within muscles that may affect thermoregulation through the skin. We aimed to investigate the influence of two speeds of exercise execution on skin temperature dynamics using infrared thermography. Thirteen active males performed randomly two sessions of squat exercise (normal speed, 1s eccentric/1s concentric phase, 1s; slow speed, 5s eccentric/5s concentric phase, 5s), using ~50% of 1 maximal repetition. Thermal images of ST above muscles quadriceps were recorded at a rate of 0.05Hz before the exercise (to determine basal ST) and for 480s following the initiation of the exercise (to determine the nonsteady-state time course of ST). Results showed that ST changed more slowly during the 5s exercise (p=0.002), whereas the delta (with respect to basal) excursions were similar for the two exercises (p>0.05). In summary, our data provided a detailed nonsteady-state portrait of ST changes following squat exercises executed at two different speeds. These results lay the basis for further investigations entailing the joint use of infrared thermography and Doppler flowmetry to study the events taking place both at the skin and the muscle level during exercises executed at slow speed. PMID:27264889

  14. Staphylococcal LTA-Induced miR-143 Inhibits Propionibacterium acnes-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Skin.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhiheng; Liu, Kewei; Wu, Yelin; Jiang, Deming; Lai, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) plays a critical role in modulating cutaneous inflammatory responses in skin. Although S. epidermidis has been shown to co-colonize with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in acne lesions, it is unclear whether S. epidermidis is involved in the regulation of P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses. In this study, we demonstrated that S. epidermidis inhibited P. acnes-induced inflammation in skin. P. acnes induced the expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α via the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 in both keratinocytes and mouse ears. Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid activated TLR2 to induce miR-143 in keratinocytes, and miR-143, in turn, directly targeted 3' UTR of TLR2 to decrease the stability of TLR2 mRNA and then decreased TLR2 protein, thus inhibiting P. acnes-induced proinflammatory cytokines. The inhibitory effect of miR-143 was further confirmed in vivo as the administration of miR-143 antagomir into mouse ears abrogated the inhibitory effect of lipoteichoic acid on P. acnes-induced inflammation in skin. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid inhibits P. acnes-induced inflammation via the induction of miR-143, and suggest that local modulation of inflammatory responses by S. epidermidis at the site of acne vulgaris might be a beneficial therapeutic strategy for management of P. acnes-induced inflammation.

  15. Staphylococcal LTA-Induced miR-143 Inhibits Propionibacterium acnes-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Skin.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhiheng; Liu, Kewei; Wu, Yelin; Jiang, Deming; Lai, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) plays a critical role in modulating cutaneous inflammatory responses in skin. Although S. epidermidis has been shown to co-colonize with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in acne lesions, it is unclear whether S. epidermidis is involved in the regulation of P. acnes-induced inflammatory responses. In this study, we demonstrated that S. epidermidis inhibited P. acnes-induced inflammation in skin. P. acnes induced the expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α via the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 in both keratinocytes and mouse ears. Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid activated TLR2 to induce miR-143 in keratinocytes, and miR-143, in turn, directly targeted 3' UTR of TLR2 to decrease the stability of TLR2 mRNA and then decreased TLR2 protein, thus inhibiting P. acnes-induced proinflammatory cytokines. The inhibitory effect of miR-143 was further confirmed in vivo as the administration of miR-143 antagomir into mouse ears abrogated the inhibitory effect of lipoteichoic acid on P. acnes-induced inflammation in skin. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid inhibits P. acnes-induced inflammation via the induction of miR-143, and suggest that local modulation of inflammatory responses by S. epidermidis at the site of acne vulgaris might be a beneficial therapeutic strategy for management of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:26739093

  16. Sympathetic skin response following thermal, electrical, acoustic, and inspiratory gasp stimulation in familial dysautonomia patients and healthy persons.

    PubMed

    Hilz, M J; Azelrod, F B; Schweibold, G; Kolodny, E H

    1999-08-01

    To determine whether sympathetic skin response (SSR) testing evaluates afferent small or efferent sympathetic nerve fiber dysfunction, we studied SSR in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD) in whom both afferent small and efferent sympathetic fibers are largely reduced. We analyzed whether the response pattern to a combination of stimuli specific for large or small fiber activation allows differentiation between afferent and efferent small fiber dysfunction. In 52 volunteers and 13 FD patients, SSR was studied at palms and soles after warm, cold and heat as well as electrical, acoustic, and inspiratory gasp stimulation. In addition, thermal thresholds were assessed at four body sites using a Thermotest device (Somedic; Stockholm, Sweden). In volunteers, any stimulus induced reproducible SSRs. Only cold failed to evoke SSR in two volunteers. In all FD patients, electrical SSR was present, but amplitudes were reduced. Five patients had no acoustic SSR, four had no inspiratory SSR. Thermal SSR was absent in 10 patients with abnormal thermal perception and present in one patient with preserved thermal sensation. In two patients, thermal SSR was present only when skin areas with preserved temperature perception were stimulated. In patients with FD, preserved electrical SSR demonstrated the overall integrity of the SSR reflex but amplitude reduction suggested impaired sudomotor activation. SSR responses were dependent on the perception of the stimulus. In the presence of preserved electrical SSR, absent thermal SSR reflects afferent small fiber dysfunction. A combination of SSR stimulus types allows differentiation between afferent small or efferent sympathetic nerve fiber dysfunction. PMID:10574280

  17. Galvanic Corrosion In (Graphite/Epoxy)/Alloy Couples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, Merlin D.; Higgins, Ralph H.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of galvanic coupling between graphite/epoxy composite material, G/E, and D6AC steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, and Inconel(R) 718 nickel alloy in salt water described in report. Introductory section summarizes previous corrosion studies of G/E with other alloys. Details of sample preparation presented along with photographs of samples before and after immersion.

  18. An Easy-to-Assemble Three-Part Galvanic Cell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Skaugrud, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The galvanic cell presented in this article is made of only three parts, is easy to assemble, and can light a red light emitting diode (LED). The three cell components consist of a piece of paper with copper sulfate, a piece of paper with sodium sulfate, and a piece of magnesium ribbon. Within less than 1 h, students have time to discuss the…

  19. Galvanic corrosion of nitinol under deaerated and aerated conditions.

    PubMed

    Pound, Bruce G

    2016-10-01

    Various studies have examined the corrosion rate of nitinol generally under deaerated conditions. Likewise, galvanic corrosion studies have typically involved deaerated solutions. This work addressed the effect of galvanic coupling on the corrosion current of electropolished nitinol in phosphate buffered saline and 0.9% sodium chloride under dearated and aerated conditions for times up to 24 h. Tests were performed on nitinol alone and coupled with MP35N in both the mechanically polished and passivated conditions. Aeration and galvanic coupling were found to have relatively little effect, indicating that the corrosion current is controlled by the anodic reaction. The current can be attributed entirely to Ni(2+) dissolution, which appears to be governed by solid-state mass transport of Ni(2+) through the passive oxide film. Because corrosion of EP nitinol is controlled by the anodic reaction, contact between EP nitinol and MP35N or other biomedical Co-Cr alloys is unlikely to result in significant galvanic effects in vivo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1322-1327, 2016.

  20. Galvanic Cells and the Determination of Equilibrium Constants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosmer, Jonathan L.; Peters, Dennis G.

    2012-01-01

    Readily assembled mini-galvanic cells can be employed to compare their observed voltages with those predicted from the Nernst equation and to determine solubility products for silver halides and overall formation constants for metal-ammonia complexes. Results obtained by students in both an honors-level first-year course in general chemistry and…

  1. Sensors based on galvanic cell generated electrochemiluminescence and its application.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lirong; Zhang, Zhujun

    2006-10-27

    In this paper, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging sensor array was developed for determination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which was based on Cu/Zn alloy galvanic cell generated ECL. In alkaline solution, Cu/Zn galvanic cell was formed because of corrosion effect, the galvanic cell could supply stable potential for ECL generation of luminol, and the weak ECL emission could be enhanced by H(2)O(2). The galvanic cell sensor array was designed by putting Cu/Zn alloy in 96-well microtiter plates separately. The relative ECL intensity was proportional with the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the range of 1.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) and the detection limit was 3.0 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) (3sigma), the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for 11 parallel measurements of 1.0 x 10(-5)mol l(-1) H2O2 was 4.0%.

  2. Leak resistant galvanic cell and process for the production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    vanLier, J. A.; Yasuda, H.

    1985-03-05

    Galvanic cells having at least a portion of their sealing surfaces and/or corrodible members coated with a sputtered or plasma polymerization deposited layer of polymeric material no more than 2000 angstroms thick demonstrate increased resistance to electrolyte leakage and/or increased resistance to corrosion.

  3. Miniature galvanic cell construction providing gas channels between electrode compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Urry, L. F.

    1985-03-26

    An improved miniature galvanic cell construction having a sealing gasket with channels defined through the base of the gasket. The channels provide means for the exchange of gaseous products around the cell separator and between the electrode compartments so as to reduce the overall internal pressure of the cell.

  4. Hermetically sealed galvanic cell having safety vent construction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, E.J. Jr.

    1984-12-04

    An hermetically sealed galvanic cell having a safety vent assembly comprising a housing having a portion which is inwardly depressed and flexible, which portion surrounds an aperture. The aperture is filled with a layer of glass or ceramic material thus producing an hermetically sealed cell which exhibits increased mechanical strength coupled with reliable venting.

  5. Two-piece cover-seal construction for galvanic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wesner, J.A.

    1984-10-09

    A two-piece cover for galvanic cells wherein the inner cover has at least one aperture therein through which electrolyte may be quickly dispensed and absorbed into a container having cell components therein in a manner which effectively prevents the sealing surfaces of the cell from being wetted by electrolyte.

  6. Note: Galvanic isolated voltage source using a single photodiode.

    PubMed

    Stoican, O S

    2010-04-01

    A galvanic isolated voltage source able to provide several volts by using a single photodiode is described. A pulse-modulated laser beam is sent to a photodiode. By using a step-up transformer the amplitude of the variable voltage generated by the photodiode is increased. Adding a rectifier cell the variable voltage is converted back into a dc voltage.

  7. 76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ....8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic...(C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  8. 76 FR 21914 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... schedule for the conduct of these investigations (75 FR 877, April 7, 2011). Due to scheduling conflicts... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  9. Common Student Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Galvanic, Electrolytic, and Concentration Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…

  10. [Dermatology and skin color].

    PubMed

    Petit, Antoine

    2010-09-01

    Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for skin, hair and eye colours. Genetics and sun exposure are the two key factors that determine skin pigmentation. In dermatology, skin colours is significant, not only for semiology and diagnosis, but also for epidemiology and wounds healing.

  11. Estrogens and aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

  12. Skin-Specific Unsaturated Fatty Acids Boost the Staphylococcus aureus Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Thu; Hanzelmann, Dennis; Härtner, Thomas; Peschel, Andreas; Götz, Friedrich

    2015-10-26

    Antimicrobial fatty acids (AFAs) protect the human epidermis against invasion by pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we questioned whether human skin fatty acids (FAs) can be incorporated into the lipid moiety of lipoproteins and whether such incorporation would have an impact on innate immune stimulation in the model organism Staphylococcus aureus USA300 JE2. This organism synthesized only saturated FAs. However, when feeding USA300 with unsaturated FAs present on human skin (C16:1, C18:1, or C18:2), those were taken up, elongated stepwise by two carbon units, and finally found in the bacterial (phospho)lipid fraction. They were also observed in the lipid moiety of lipoproteins. When USA300 JE2 was fed with the unsaturated FAs, the cells and cell lysates showed an increased innate immune activation with various immune cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Immune activation was highest with linoleic acid (C18:2). There are several pieces of evidence that the enhanced immune stimulating effect was due to the incorporation of unsaturated FAs in lipoproteins. First, the enhanced stimulation was dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Second, an lgt mutant, unable to carry out lipidation of prolipoproteins, was unable to carry out immune stimulation when fed with unsaturated FAs. Third, the supplied FAs did not significantly affect growth, protein release, or expression of the model lipoprotein Lpl1. Although S. aureus is unable to synthesize unsaturated FAs, it incorporates long-chain unsaturated FAs into its lipoproteins, with the effect that the cells are better recognized by the innate immune system. This is an additional mechanism how our skin controls bacterial colonization and infection.

  13. Regional Skin Temperature Response to Moderate Aerobic Exercise Measured by Infrared Thermography

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; Brito, Ciro José; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel; Bouzas Marins, João Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infrared thermography (IRT) does not require contact with the skin, and it is a convenient, reliable and non-invasive technique that can be used for monitoring the skin temperature (TSK). Objectives: The aim of this study was to monitor the variations in the regional TSK during exercise on 28 regions of interest (ROIs) (forehead, face, chest, abdomen, back, lumbar, anterior and posterior neck, and posterior and anterior views of the right and left hands, forearms, upper arms, thighs, and legs) with IRT. Patients and Methods: 12 physically active young males were monitored with IRT during the following three phases: a) 30 minutes before exercise b) while performing one hour of moderate intensity exercise on a treadmill at 60% of the VO2max, and c) 60 minutes after exercise. Results: During pre-exercise, all TSK reached a steady-state (P ≤ 0.05), which ensured adequate thermal stabilisation. At the beginning of exercise, there was a significant reduction in the TSK in most ROIs after 10 minutes of activity, except for the lower limbs (legs and thighs). After one hour of recovery, in the anterior view of the hands and thighs and in the posterior view of the legs, there were significant increases in the TSK compared to pre-exercise. Conclusions: There were significant distinctions in the skin temperature distribution during exercise according to the activity of the area under consideration during exercise, which may be important in the development of physiological models and heat flux analyses for different purposes. PMID:27217931

  14. Augmented supraorbital skin sympathetic nerve activity responses to symptom trigger events in rosacea patients.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Wilson, Kristen; Toma, Kumika; Sammons, Dawn L; Mann, Sarah; Jurovcik, Andrew J; Demidova, Olga; Wilson, Thad E

    2015-09-01

    Facial flushing in rosacea is often induced by trigger events. However, trigger causation mechanisms are currently unclear. This study tested the central hypothesis that rosacea causes sympathetic and axon reflex-mediated alterations resulting in trigger-induced symptomatology. Twenty rosacea patients and age/sex-matched controls participated in one or a combination of symptom triggering stressors. In protocol 1, forehead skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA; supraorbital microneurography) was measured during sympathoexcitatory mental (2-min serial subtraction of novel numbers) and physical (2-min isometric handgrip) stress. In protocol 2, forehead skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and transepithelial water loss/sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured during sympathoexcitatory heat stress (whole body heating by perfusing 50°C water through a tube-lined suit). In protocol 3, cheek, forehead, forearm, and palm skin blood flow were measured during nonpainful local heating to induce axon reflex vasodilation. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded via finger photoplethysmography to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; flux·100/MAP). Higher patient transepithelial water loss was observed (rosacea 0.20 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.10 ± 0.01 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), P < 0.05). HR and MAP changes were not different between groups during sympathoexcitatory stressors or local heating. SSNA during early mental (32 ± 9 and 9 ± 4% increase) and physical (25 ± 4 and 5 ± 1% increase, rosacea and controls, respectively) stress was augmented in rosacea (both P < 0.05). Heat stress induced more rapid sweating and cutaneous vasodilation onset in rosacea compared with controls. No axon reflex vasodilation differences were observed between groups. These data indicate that rosacea affects SSNA and that hyperresponsiveness to trigger events appears to have a sympathetic component.

  15. Augmented supraorbital skin sympathetic nerve activity responses to symptom trigger events in rosacea patients.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Wilson, Kristen; Toma, Kumika; Sammons, Dawn L; Mann, Sarah; Jurovcik, Andrew J; Demidova, Olga; Wilson, Thad E

    2015-09-01

    Facial flushing in rosacea is often induced by trigger events. However, trigger causation mechanisms are currently unclear. This study tested the central hypothesis that rosacea causes sympathetic and axon reflex-mediated alterations resulting in trigger-induced symptomatology. Twenty rosacea patients and age/sex-matched controls participated in one or a combination of symptom triggering stressors. In protocol 1, forehead skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA; supraorbital microneurography) was measured during sympathoexcitatory mental (2-min serial subtraction of novel numbers) and physical (2-min isometric handgrip) stress. In protocol 2, forehead skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and transepithelial water loss/sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured during sympathoexcitatory heat stress (whole body heating by perfusing 50°C water through a tube-lined suit). In protocol 3, cheek, forehead, forearm, and palm skin blood flow were measured during nonpainful local heating to induce axon reflex vasodilation. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded via finger photoplethysmography to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; flux·100/MAP). Higher patient transepithelial water loss was observed (rosacea 0.20 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.10 ± 0.01 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), P < 0.05). HR and MAP changes were not different between groups during sympathoexcitatory stressors or local heating. SSNA during early mental (32 ± 9 and 9 ± 4% increase) and physical (25 ± 4 and 5 ± 1% increase, rosacea and controls, respectively) stress was augmented in rosacea (both P < 0.05). Heat stress induced more rapid sweating and cutaneous vasodilation onset in rosacea compared with controls. No axon reflex vasodilation differences were observed between groups. These data indicate that rosacea affects SSNA and that hyperresponsiveness to trigger events appears to have a sympathetic component. PMID:26133800

  16. Augmented supraorbital skin sympathetic nerve activity responses to symptom trigger events in rosacea patients

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Wilson, Kristen; Toma, Kumika; Sammons, Dawn L.; Mann, Sarah; Jurovcik, Andrew J.; Demidova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Facial flushing in rosacea is often induced by trigger events. However, trigger causation mechanisms are currently unclear. This study tested the central hypothesis that rosacea causes sympathetic and axon reflex-mediated alterations resulting in trigger-induced symptomatology. Twenty rosacea patients and age/sex-matched controls participated in one or a combination of symptom triggering stressors. In protocol 1, forehead skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA; supraorbital microneurography) was measured during sympathoexcitatory mental (2-min serial subtraction of novel numbers) and physical (2-min isometric handgrip) stress. In protocol 2, forehead skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and transepithelial water loss/sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured during sympathoexcitatory heat stress (whole body heating by perfusing 50°C water through a tube-lined suit). In protocol 3, cheek, forehead, forearm, and palm skin blood flow were measured during nonpainful local heating to induce axon reflex vasodilation. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded via finger photoplethysmography to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; flux·100/MAP). Higher patient transepithelial water loss was observed (rosacea 0.20 ± 0.02 vs. control 0.10 ± 0.01 mg·cm−2·min−1, P < 0.05). HR and MAP changes were not different between groups during sympathoexcitatory stressors or local heating. SSNA during early mental (32 ± 9 and 9 ± 4% increase) and physical (25 ± 4 and 5 ± 1% increase, rosacea and controls, respectively) stress was augmented in rosacea (both P < 0.05). Heat stress induced more rapid sweating and cutaneous vasodilation onset in rosacea compared with controls. No axon reflex vasodilation differences were observed between groups. These data indicate that rosacea affects SSNA and that hyperresponsiveness to trigger events appears to have a sympathetic component. PMID:26133800

  17. Skin-Specific Unsaturated Fatty Acids Boost the Staphylococcus aureus Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Thu; Hanzelmann, Dennis; Härtner, Thomas; Peschel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial fatty acids (AFAs) protect the human epidermis against invasion by pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we questioned whether human skin fatty acids (FAs) can be incorporated into the lipid moiety of lipoproteins and whether such incorporation would have an impact on innate immune stimulation in the model organism Staphylococcus aureus USA300 JE2. This organism synthesized only saturated FAs. However, when feeding USA300 with unsaturated FAs present on human skin (C16:1, C18:1, or C18:2), those were taken up, elongated stepwise by two carbon units, and finally found in the bacterial (phospho)lipid fraction. They were also observed in the lipid moiety of lipoproteins. When USA300 JE2 was fed with the unsaturated FAs, the cells and cell lysates showed an increased innate immune activation with various immune cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Immune activation was highest with linoleic acid (C18:2). There are several pieces of evidence that the enhanced immune stimulating effect was due to the incorporation of unsaturated FAs in lipoproteins. First, the enhanced stimulation was dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Second, an lgt mutant, unable to carry out lipidation of prolipoproteins, was unable to carry out immune stimulation when fed with unsaturated FAs. Third, the supplied FAs did not significantly affect growth, protein release, or expression of the model lipoprotein Lpl1. Although S. aureus is unable to synthesize unsaturated FAs, it incorporates long-chain unsaturated FAs into its lipoproteins, with the effect that the cells are better recognized by the innate immune system. This is an additional mechanism how our skin controls bacterial colonization and infection. PMID:26502910

  18. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Aedes albopictus to certain acids and alcohols present in human skin emanations.

    PubMed

    Guha, Lopamudra; Seenivasagan, T; Iqbal, S Thanvir; Agrawal, O P; Parashar, B D

    2014-10-01

    Human skin emanations attract hungry female mosquitoes toward their host for blood feeding. In this study, we report the flight orientation and electroantennogram response of Aedes albopictus females to certain unsaturated acids and alcohols found in human skin. In the Y-tube olfactometer, odors of lactic acid and 2-methyl-3-pentanol attracted 54-65% of Ae. albopictus females at all doses in a dose-dependent manner. However, at the highest dose (10(-2) g), the acids repelled 40-45% females. Attractancy (ca. 62-68%) at lower doses and repellency (ca. 30-45%) at higher doses were recorded for 3-methyl-3-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol, while 5-hexen-1-ol, cis-2-hexen-1-ol, and trans 2-hexen-1-ol odor repelled ca. 55-65% of Ae. albopictus females at all doses. Antenna of female Ae. albopictus exhibited a dose-dependent EAG response up to 10(-3) g of L-lactic acid, trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoic acid, 2-octenoic acid, trans-2-hexen-1-ol and 1-octen-3-ol stimulations; however, the highest dose (10(-2) g) caused a little decline in the EAG response. EAG response of 9-10-fold was elicited by lactic acid, 2-octenoic acid, trans-2-hexenoic acid, and 3-methyl-3-pentanol, while cis-2-hexen-1-ol and trans-2-methyl pentenoic acid elicited 1-5-fold responses compared to solvent control. A blend of attractive compounds could be utilized in odor-baited trap for surveillance and repellent molecules with suitable formulation could be used to reduce the biting menace of mosquitoes.

  19. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Aedes albopictus to certain acids and alcohols present in human skin emanations.

    PubMed

    Guha, Lopamudra; Seenivasagan, T; Iqbal, S Thanvir; Agrawal, O P; Parashar, B D

    2014-10-01

    Human skin emanations attract hungry female mosquitoes toward their host for blood feeding. In this study, we report the flight orientation and electroantennogram response of Aedes albopictus females to certain unsaturated acids and alcohols found in human skin. In the Y-tube olfactometer, odors of lactic acid and 2-methyl-3-pentanol attracted 54-65% of Ae. albopictus females at all doses in a dose-dependent manner. However, at the highest dose (10(-2) g), the acids repelled 40-45% females. Attractancy (ca. 62-68%) at lower doses and repellency (ca. 30-45%) at higher doses were recorded for 3-methyl-3-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol, while 5-hexen-1-ol, cis-2-hexen-1-ol, and trans 2-hexen-1-ol odor repelled ca. 55-65% of Ae. albopictus females at all doses. Antenna of female Ae. albopictus exhibited a dose-dependent EAG response up to 10(-3) g of L-lactic acid, trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoic acid, 2-octenoic acid, trans-2-hexen-1-ol and 1-octen-3-ol stimulations; however, the highest dose (10(-2) g) caused a little decline in the EAG response. EAG response of 9-10-fold was elicited by lactic acid, 2-octenoic acid, trans-2-hexenoic acid, and 3-methyl-3-pentanol, while cis-2-hexen-1-ol and trans-2-methyl pentenoic acid elicited 1-5-fold responses compared to solvent control. A blend of attractive compounds could be utilized in odor-baited trap for surveillance and repellent molecules with suitable formulation could be used to reduce the biting menace of mosquitoes. PMID:25049052

  20. Polyphenolic antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea reduces UVB-induced inflammatory responses and infiltration of leukocytes in human skin.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, S K; Matsui, M S; Elmets, C A; Mukhtar, H

    1999-02-01

    Identification of natural products capable of affording protection against UVB radiation-induced inflammatory responses and generation of oxidative stress may have important human health implications. The UVB exposure-induced skin injury and oxidative stress has been associated with a variety of skin disease conditions including photoaging, inflammation and cancer. Tea is a popular beverage consumed worldwide. In several mouse skin models, topical application as well as oral consumption of green tea has been shown to afford protection against chemical and UVB-induced carcinogenesis and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated in human skin, whether topical application of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic constituent in green tea, inhibits UVB-induced infiltration of leukocytes (macrophage/neutrophils), a potential source of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and generation of prostaglandin (PG) metabolites. Human subjects were UVB irradiated on sun-protected skin to four times their minimal erythema dosage (MED) and skin biopsies or keratomes were obtained either 24 h or 48 h later. We found that topical application of EGCG (3 mg/2.5 cm2) before UVB (4 MED) exposure to human skin significantly blocked UVB-induced infiltration of leukocytes and reduced myeloperoxidase activity. These infiltrating leukocytes are considered to be the major source of generation of ROS. In the same set of experiments we found that topical application of EGCG before UVB exposure decreased UVB-induced erythema. In additional experiments, we found that microsomes from EGCG pretreated human skin and exposed to UVB, compared to UVB exposure alone, produced significantly reduced PG metabolites, particularly PGE2. The PG metabolites play a critical role in free radical generation and skin tumor promotion in multistage skin carcinogenesis. Careful microscopic examination of skin sections, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, under higher

  1. Electric and magnetic galvanic distortion decomposition of tensor CSAMT data. Application to data from the Buchans Mine (Newfoundland, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Xavier; Boerner, David; Pedersen, Laust B.

    2003-09-01

    We have developed a Marquardt-Levenberg inversion algorithm incorporating the effects of near-surface galvanic distortion into the electromagnetic (EM) response of a layered earth model. Different tests on synthetic model responses suggest that for the grounded source method, the magnetic distortion does not vanish for low frequencies. Including this effect is important, although to date it has been neglected. We have inverted 10 stations of controlled-source audio-magnetotellurics (CSAMT) data recorded near the Buchans Mine, Newfoundland, Canada. The Buchans Mine was one of the richest massive sulphide deposits in the world, and is situated in a highly resistive volcanogenic environment, substantially modified by thrust faulting. Preliminary work in the area demonstrated that the EM fields observed at adjacent stations show large differences due to the existence of mineralized fracture zones and variable overburden thickness. Our inversion results suggest a three-layered model that is appropriate for the Buchans Mine. The resistivity model correlates with the seismic reflection interpretation that documents the existence of two thrust packages. The distortion parameters obtained from the inversion concur with the synthetic studies that galvanic magnetic distortion is required to interpret the Buchans data since the magnetic component of the galvanic distortion does not vanish at low frequency.

  2. CCR4 in human allergen-induced late responses in the skin and lung.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T; Wilson, Duncan; Francis, James N; Jopling, Louise A; Jacobson, Mikila R; Hodge, Martin R; Andrew, David P; Till, Stephen J; Varga, Eva-Maria; Williams, Timothy J; Pease, James E; Lloyd, Clare M; Sabroe, Ian; Durham, Stephen R

    2002-07-01

    We studied the regulation of CCR4 expression in peripheral blood and in human models of cutaneous and pulmonary allergen challenge. CCR4 expression was detectable on freshly isolated CD4+ lymphocytes and in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines derived from blood of atopic donors. Numbers of CCR4+ cells were up-regulated in T cell lines expanded in the presence of IL-4. CCR4 mRNA was absent at baseline in normal subjects in lung and skin, but present at baseline in the lung of some atopics. Baseline expression of CCR4 mRNA and protein was higher in lung vs. skin, but allergen-induced increases in CCR4 mRNA+ cells were observed in both organs. CCR4 protein+ cells were present at higher levels after allergen challenge in atopics compared to normal subjects. CCR4 may be important in the recruitment of T lymphocytes at sites of allergic inflammation, in a non-organ-specific manner.

  3. Riverine skin temperature response to subsurface processes in low wind speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumer, Sophia E.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Anderson, Steven P.; Dugan, John P.

    2016-03-01

    Both surface and subsurface processes modulate the surface thermal skin and as such the skin temperature may serve as an indicator for coastal, estuarine, and alluvial processes. Infrared (IR) imagery offers the unique tool to survey such systems, allowing not only to assess temperature variability of the thermal boundary layer, but also to derive surface flow fields through digital particle image velocimetry, optical flow techniques, or spectral methods. In this study, IR time-series imagery taken from a boat moored in the Hudson River estuary is used to determine surface flow, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, and characteristic temperature and velocity length scales. These are linked to subsurface measurements provided by in situ instruments. Under the low wind conditions and weak stratification, surface currents and dissipation rate are found to reflect subsurface mean flow (r2 = 0.89) and turbulence (r2 = 0.75). For relatively low dissipation rates, better correlations are obtained by computing dissipation rates directly from wavenumber spectra rather than when having to assume the validity of the Taylor hypothesis. Furthermore, the subsurface dissipation rate scales with the surface length scales (L) and mean flow (U) using ɛ ∝ U3/L (r2 = 0.9). The surface length scale derived from the thermal fields is found to have a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.88) to water depth (D) with (D/L) ˜ 13. Such a relation may prove useful for remote bathymetric surveys when no waves are present.

  4. Use of reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate the effects of daily moisturizer application on skin optical response and barrier function.

    PubMed

    Qassem, Meha; Kyriacou, Panayiotis

    2014-08-01

    A number of noninvasive techniques and instruments have emerged over the years allowing much progress toward clarifying the structure and function of human skin and studying the effects of various applied substances. All of this research has provided great insight into the interactions between skin and various products through quantitative and qualitative measurements. Such methods include near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a technique which has gained popularity over the years and has often been employed to accurately determine the moisture levels and water content of skin based on its sensitivity to hydrogen bonding. NIRS has also been applied in many studies to report the efficacy of moisturizing products and assess their benefits to the skin. However, many of these studies have reported an increase in skin water content following moisturizer application while some have challenged the benefits of long-term moisturizer use, particularly on normal skin, and even suggested that it can increase the skin's susceptibility to irritants. This paper reports the results of a pilot in vivo study carried out on the skin of 20 healthy volunteers, categorized into groups depending on their skin type and frequency of moisturizer use, in order to investigate the optical response of human skin after direct short-term contact with water followed by application of a moisturizer. The measurements were obtained using a highly advanced spectrophotometer in the region of 900 to 2100 nm equipped with a customized reflectance fiber optic handheld probe. Scatter graphs of group results and second derivative spectra have shown an interesting pattern between frequent users of moisturizers and individuals who do not use moisturizers, suggesting that long-term daily moisturization may have an effect on skin barrier function. The results also raise some questions regarding the optical characteristics of different skin types, as well as the varying response between different water bands in the

  5. Functional stochastic resonance in human baroreflex induced by 1/f-type noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, Rika; Kwak, Shin; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2003-05-01

    We hypothesized that 1/f noise is more beneficial than the conventional white noise in optimizing the brain's response to a weak input signal, and showed that externally added 1/f noise outperforms white noise in sensitizing human baroreflex centers in the brain. We examined the compensatory heart rate response to weak periodic signal introduced at the venous blood pressure receptor, while adding either 1/f or white noise with the same variance to the brain stem by electrically stimulating the bilateral vestibular afferents cutaneously. This stochastic galvanic vestibular stimulation, activating the vestibulo-sympathetic pathway in the brain stem, optimized covariance between weak input signals and the heart rate responses both with 1/f and white noise. Further, the optimal noise level with 1/f noise was significantly lower than that with white noise, suggesting the functional benefit of 1/f noise for the neuronal information transfer in the brain.

  6. Developments of chromium-free conversion coatings on galvanized steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yon-Kyun

    Two kinds of cerium-based conversion coating processes and a moly-phos-silane-silicate coating process were developed for electroplated Zn, electroplated Zn-Ni, hot dip Zn and hot dip Zn-Fe in this project. A reaction type cerium-based conversion coating process for electroplated Zn was optimized using factorial design experiments with the addition of colloidal silica and hydrogen peroxide to a 10mM Ce(NO3)3 solution. In addition an evaporation type cerium-based conversion coating process was evaluated with the addition of silane and a drying treatment. The corrosion loss Q (Cb/cm 2) and protection efficiency P(%) were obtained using a polarization technique and analysis of EIS data. The coating structer was observed using SEM,SAM and XPS. The reaction type cerium-based conversion coating layer was composed of outer Ce3+-OH- complex and the inner Ce 4+-O2--Zn. The corrosion protection provided by the coating layer depends on the chemical states of Ce and O with higher contents of Ce4+ and O2- providing the better corrosion protection. The corrosion resistance and chemical composition of cerium-based conversion coatings on the galvanized steels strongly depends on the chemical state of galvanized steels. A thin Ce-O-Si-Zn and a relatively thick C-Ce-O-Si-Zn complex coating layer was formed on the four different galvanized steels by the reaction and the evaporation type process, respectively. The evaporation type process provided better corrosion protection than the reaction type process. The corrosion ranking of bare(#0) and galvanized steels treated in the reaction type(S1) and evaporation type(S3) was S3>S1>#0 based on the electrochemical data, which agreed with the salt spry testing results. All four galvanized steels treated in the reaction type and evaporation type process passed 24 hrs and 100 hrs, respectively without white rust. The evaporation process for galvanized steels has a high potential to replace the conventional chromate process due to its short

  7. Adaptive technique for matching the spectral response in skin lesions' images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, P.; Borisova, E.; Pavlova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2015-03-01

    The suggested technique is a subsequent stage for data obtaining from diffuse reflectance spectra and images of diseased tissue with a final aim of skin cancer diagnostics. Our previous work allows us to extract patterns for some types of skin cancer, as a ratio between spectra, obtained from healthy and diseased tissue in the range of 380 - 780 nm region. The authenticity of the patterns depends on the tested point into the area of lesion, and the resulting diagnose could also be fixed with some probability. In this work, two adaptations are implemented to localize pixels of the image lesion, where the reflectance spectrum corresponds to pattern. First adapts the standard to the personal patient and second - translates the spectrum white point basis to the relative white point of the image. Since the reflectance spectra and the image pixels are regarding to different white points, a correction of the compared colours is needed. The latest is done using a standard method for chromatic adaptation. The technique follows the steps below: -Calculation the colorimetric XYZ parameters for the initial white point, fixed by reflectance spectrum from healthy tissue; -Calculation the XYZ parameters for the distant white point on the base of image of nondiseased tissue; -Transformation the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum by obtained matrix; -Finding the RGB values of the XYZ parameters for the test-spectrum according sRGB; Finally, the pixels of the lesion's image, corresponding to colour from the test-spectrum and particular diagnostic pattern are marked with a specific colour.

  8. Effects of repeated administration of intradermal skin test by Mantoux method on delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in healthy young and elderly subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-test CMI to test immune response is no longer commercially available. DTH response is a highly suitable marker of immune function. Because delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test can predict morbidity and mortality, it may be clinically meaningful test to evaluate the effect of nutrition...

  9. Leishmanin skin test lymphoproliferative responses and cytokine production after symptomatic or asymptomatic Leishmania major infection in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    SASSI, A; LOUZIR, H; BEN SALAH, A; MOKNI, M; BEN OSMAN, A; DELLAGI, K

    1999-01-01

    Resistance to Leishmania parasite infection requires the development of a cellular immune response that activates macrophage leishmanicidal activity. In this study we have investigated the lymphoproliferative responses and in vitro cytokine production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals living in an endemic area for L. major infection in Tunisia. The results were compared with the DTH reaction of the leishmanin skin test (LST). Sixty-seven individuals were included in the study: 22 persons (age range 9–60 years) who developed, 2 years before the present study, a parasitologically confirmed localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) that healed spontaneously, and 45 individuals (age range 18–20 years) born and living in the same area, with no previous history of LCL. LST was positive (skin induration ≥ 5 mm) in 20/22 cured cases of LCL and in 75% of healthy individuals without history of LCL. LST+ individuals expressed vigorous Leishmania-specific lymphoproliferative responses associated with in vitro production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) but not IL-4. Interestingly, IL-10 was detected in parallel with the highest levels of IFN-γ in PBMC supernatants from 3/20 cured LCL and 8/25 individuals without history of LCL. Our results showed a 98% concordance between the DTH reaction assessed by LST and the in vitro proliferative assay induced by soluble leishmanial antigens. Moreover, proliferative assays as well as cytokine analysis did not show any significant difference of the immune memory to parasite antigens developed by patients who had overt cutaneous leishmaniasis and those who had apparently asymptomatic infection. PMID:10209516

  10. Acute Activation of Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway as First-Line Response to Oxidative Stress in Human Skin Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Andreas; Emmert, Hila; Soehle, Joern; Winnefeld, Marc; Fischer, Frank; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Terstegen, Lara; Lucius, Ralph; Hildebrand, Janosch; Zamboni, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Integrity of human skin is endangered by exposure to UV irradiation and chemical stressors, which can provoke a toxic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage. Since oxidation of proteins and metabolites occurs virtually instantaneously, immediate cellular countermeasures are pivotal to mitigate the negative implications of acute oxidative stress. We investigated the short-term metabolic response in human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes to H2O2 and UV exposure. In time-resolved metabolomics experiments, we observed that within seconds after stress induction, glucose catabolism is routed to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and nucleotide synthesis independent of previously postulated blocks in glycolysis (i.e., of GAPDH or PKM2). Through ultra-short (13)C labeling experiments, we provide evidence for multiple cycling of carbon backbones in the oxidative PPP, potentially maximizing NADPH reduction. The identified metabolic rerouting in oxidative and non-oxidative PPP has important physiological roles in stabilization of the redox balance and ROS clearance. PMID:26190262

  11. Acute Activation of Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway as First-Line Response to Oxidative Stress in Human Skin Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Andreas; Emmert, Hila; Soehle, Joern; Winnefeld, Marc; Fischer, Frank; Wenck, Horst; Gallinat, Stefan; Terstegen, Lara; Lucius, Ralph; Hildebrand, Janosch; Zamboni, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Integrity of human skin is endangered by exposure to UV irradiation and chemical stressors, which can provoke a toxic production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage. Since oxidation of proteins and metabolites occurs virtually instantaneously, immediate cellular countermeasures are pivotal to mitigate the negative implications of acute oxidative stress. We investigated the short-term metabolic response in human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes to H2O2 and UV exposure. In time-resolved metabolomics experiments, we observed that within seconds after stress induction, glucose catabolism is routed to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and nucleotide synthesis independent of previously postulated blocks in glycolysis (i.e., of GAPDH or PKM2). Through ultra-short (13)C labeling experiments, we provide evidence for multiple cycling of carbon backbones in the oxidative PPP, potentially maximizing NADPH reduction. The identified metabolic rerouting in oxidative and non-oxidative PPP has important physiological roles in stabilization of the redox balance and ROS clearance.

  12. A Study on the Effects of Sympathetic Skin Response Parameters in Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Ozhan; Yildiz, Murat; Arslan, Evren; Yildiz, Sedat; Bilgin, Suleyman; Akkus, Selami; Koyuncuoglu, Hasan R; Koklukaya, Etem

    2016-03-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), usually observed commonly in females over age 30, is a rheumatic disease accompanied by extensive chronic pain. In the diagnosis of the disease non-objective psychological tests and physiological tests and laboratory test results are evaluated and clinical experiences stand out. However, these tests are insufficient in differentiating FMS with similar diseases that demonstrate symptoms of extensive pain. Thus, objective tests that would help the diagnosis are needed. This study analyzes the effect of sympathetic skin response (SSR) parameters on the auxiliary tests used in FMS diagnosis, the laboratory tests and physiological tests. The study was conducted in Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Medicine, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic in Turkey with 60 patients diagnosed with FMS for the first time and a control group of 30 healthy individuals. In the study all participants underwent laboratory tests (blood tests), certain physiological tests (pulsation, skin temperature, respiration) and SSR measurements. The test data and SSR parameters obtained were classified using artificial neural network (ANN). Finally, in the ANN framework, where only laboratory and physiological test results were used as input, a simulation result of 96.51 % was obtained, which demonstrated diagnostic accuracy. This data, with the addition of SSR parameter values obtained increased to 97.67 %. This result including SSR parameters - meaning a higher diagnostic accuracy - demonstrated that SSR could be a new auxillary diagnostic method that could be used in the diagnosis of FMS.

  13. Clinical utility of clocortolone pivalate for the treatment of corticosteroid-responsive skin disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjay; Mann, Baldeep Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Clocortolone pivalate 0.1% cream is a class IV mid-strength topical glucocorticoid. After topical application the glucocorticoid achieves higher concentration in inflamed skin compared with normal skin. Furthermore, pharmacologic studies have shown that there is little systemic absorption of clocortolone pivalate and hence no adrenal suppression. Systematic review was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the glucocorticoid. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and individual websites of the top 20 dermatology journals were searched using a defined strategy. Following the selection criteria, eight clinical trials were selected, of which five were randomized controlled trials. The trials mainly included patients with atopic dermatitis and eczemas. Quality appraisal of randomized controlled trials was done using the Delphi list, which showed that the trials had weaknesses in several items. The results of the systematic review tend to show that clocortolone pivalate cream is generally effective with early onset of action and has a good safety profile in the treatment of these conditions. Further studies comparing this glucocorticoid with other glucocorticoids and treatments in steroid-responsive dermatoses are desirable. PMID:22791998

  14. Galvanic cell without liquid junction for potentiometric determination of copper.

    PubMed

    Migdalski, Jan; Błaz, Teresa; Zrałka, Barbara; Lewenstam, Andrzej

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes potentiometric measurements in an integrated galvanic cell with both indicator and reference electrodes. Both electrodes are conducting polymer-based. The copper-sensitive indicator electrode is made by using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with 2-(o-arsenophenylazo)-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulphonic sodium salt (Arsenazo-I) as the electroactive substance in the film, while the reference electrode is based on PEDOT doped by 2-morpholineoethanesulfonic acid (MES). It is shown that the galvanic cell can be used for determination of copper both in non-aqueous media (where all PVC-based membranes failed) and in the presence of chloride ions, which disturb the signal of conventional copper ion-selective electrodes with solid-state membranes. It is further shown that the titration of copper ions can be successfully monitored using the described electrochemical cell.

  15. Galvanic apparent internal impedance: an intrinsic tissue property.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alex; Rabinowitch, Haim D; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-11-01

    Using basic galvanic cell principles, the ability of tissues to generate electrical current through electrolysis was characterized. Studying Zn/Cu electrolysis in animal organs revealed a fundamental and measurable tissue-specific property - the galvanic apparent internal impedance (GAII), that is most likely related to the salt bridge function of tissues delineated by electrodes. Further to the fundamental knowledge acquired, GAII enables a new diagnostic method to distinguish between tissue types and to determine their health status without a need for expensive calibration, as often required when external power source is used. We demonstrated the GAII sensitivity in detecting tissue ablation with microwave heating or irreversible electroporation. The results open the way for a novel, inexpensive self-powered tissue diagnostic system for a wide range of applications such as minimally invasive tissue health status, ischemia, hydration, real time intra-operative control of minimally invasive surgery, medical imaging, virtual biopsy and many others.

  16. The status of chemical sensors for hot-dip galvanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    1996-09-01

    Alloying elements are added to the zinc used in the hot-dip galvanization of sheet steel to control the properties and appearance of the resulting coating. For example, aluminum is added to improve the corrosion resistance and adherence of the coating. Other additions, such as antimony, are added to control the grain size and, thus, the appearance of the coating. The concentrations of these alloying elements may change during the process, either deliberately according to product specifications or due to factors such as preferential oxidation. These changes may require replenishment of a depleted alloying element or adjustments in other processing parameters to maintain optimal efficiency. Intelligent adjustments require knowledge of the alloy composition, which requires inline measurement of the concentrations of alloying elements. This article presents recent developments in chemical sensors for use in hot-dip galvanization. In particular, electrochemical sensors for measuring the concentrations of aluminum and antimony in molten zinc are reviewed.

  17. Skin sensitization in chemical risk assessment: report of a WHO/IPCS international workshop focusing on dose-response assessment.

    PubMed

    van Loveren, Henk; Cockshott, Amanda; Gebel, Tom; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; de Jong, Wim H; Matheson, Joanna; McGarry, Helen; Musset, Laurence; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Vickers, Carolyn

    2008-03-01

    An international workshop was held in 2006 to evaluate experimental techniques for hazard identification and hazard characterization of sensitizing agents in terms of their ability to produce data, including dose-response information, to inform risk assessment. Human testing to identify skin sensitizers is discouraged for ethical reasons. Animal-free alternatives, such as quantitative structure-activity relationships and in vitro testing approaches, have not been sufficiently developed for such application. Guinea pig tests do not generally include dose-response assessment and are therefore not designed for the assessment of potency, defined as the relative ability of a chemical to induce sensitization in a previously naive individual. In contrast, the mouse local lymph node assay does include dose-response assessment and is appropriate for this purpose. Epidemiological evidence can be used only under certain circumstances for the evaluation of the sensitizing potency of chemicals, as it reflects degree of exposure as well as intrinsic potency. Nevertheless, human diagnostic patch test data and quantitative elicitation data have provided very important information in reducing allergic contact dermatitis risk and sensitization in the general population. It is therefore recommended that clinical data, particularly dose-response data derived from sensitized patients, be included in risk assessment.

  18. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Host Response to Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infection in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Rebecca A.; Bruno, Vincent M.; Burns, Drusilla L.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), which are primarily self-limiting. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the host transcriptome during a S. aureus SSTI to provide insight on the protective mechanisms that thwart these infections. We utilized a murine SSTI model in which one ear is epicutaneously challenged while the other is not. We then harvested these infected and uninfected ears, as well as ears from naïve mice, at one, four, and seven days post-challenge, and performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) using the Illumina platform. RNA-seq data demonstrated a robust response at the site of infection. Comparison of gene expression profiles between infected ears and the non-infected ears of challenged mice defined the local response to infection, while comparisons of expression profiles of non-infected ears from challenged mice to ears of naïve mice revealed changes in gene expression levels away from the site indicative of a systemic response. Over 1000 genes exhibited increased expression locally at all tested time points. The local response was more robust than the systemic response. Through evaluation of the RNA-seq data using the Upstream Regulator Analytic as part of the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software package, we found that changes in the activation and inhibition of regulatory pathways happen first locally, and lag behind systemically. The activated pathways are highly similar at all three time points during SSTI, suggesting a stable global response over time. Transcript increases and pathway activation involve pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, chemotaxis, cell signaling, keratins, and TH1/TH17 cytokines. Transcript decreases and pathway inhibition demonstrate that metabolic genes and anti-inflammatory pathways are repressed. These data provide insight on the host responses that may aid in resolution of this self-limited S. aureus infection, and may shed light on potential immune correlates of

  19. System for the galvanic deposition of metals such as aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Doetzer, R.; Gehring, J.; Hini, P.; Stoeger, K.

    1984-04-24

    A system for the galvanic deposition of aluminum incorporating a tubular cell through which goods to be treated can be moved in the axial direction. An electrolyte is pumped through the tubular cell preferably with the aid of an electrolyte circulating system which is self-contained. The electrolyte is gated out by means of T-shaped connecting components which are adjoined by airlock arrangements associated with the tubular cell.

  20. Galvanic corrosion testing using electrochemical and immersion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Ajit

    1996-07-09

    This activity plan is prepared in accordance with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Yucca Mountain Project procedure 033.YMP-QP 3.0, "Scientific Investigation Control." This plan is written for activity E-20-46, entitled "Galvanic Corrosion Testing," which is a part of the Scientific Investigation Plan (SIP) "Metal Barrier Selection and Testing" (SIP-CM-01, Rev 2, CN SIP-CM-01-2-l).

  1. A continuous flow evaluation of the galvanic stripping process

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera-Godinez, J.A.; O`Keefe, T.J.

    1999-09-01

    The concept of galvanically stripping cations such as Fe{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Au{sup 3+} from organic solvents using solid metal reductants has been demonstrated on a batch test basis in a number of previous studies. In this research the first evaluation of a continuous flow system for the process was made, with Fe{sup 3+} removal from D2EHPA being the primary objective. The effect of operation type (separate or simultaneous stripping), the iron concentration in the organic feed, the organic flow rate, the aqueous-to-organic volume ratio (A/O), the metal reductant (pure zinc vs lead-zinc alloy), the reductant surface area and acidity of the stripping phase on the iron and zinc removal percentages, and the process rate and stoichiometry were evaluated by using continuous flow mixed reactors. The steady-state condition was reached in all the tests after about 40 minutes. In particular, the rate of iron removal was found to be greater for simultaneous than for separate galvanic stripping. A longer organic residence time produced a slightly lower rate, but increasing the aqueous-to-organic ratio augmented the overall rate. The pH of the aqueous phase controlled the iron and zinc stripping percentages, and increasing the reductant surface area increased the iron removal percent. In general, the results agreed with previous batch-type studies on galvanic stripping, and the data indicated that the galvanic stripping process rate and reactor behavior can be assessed by using mechanically agitated continuous flow mixed reactors.

  2. Studies of skin toxicity in vitro: dose-response studies on JB6 cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, P T; Fitzpatrick, M J; Phelps, P C; Berezesky, I K; Trump, B F

    1992-01-01

    There are many reasons for developing in vitro tests of toxicity including cost, speed, studies of mechanisms, and studies utilizing human cells and tissues. The present study focuses on the development of in vitro tests to predict in vivo toxicity by comparing them to data from the literature. A broad spectrum of model toxic compounds was evaluated for toxicity on mouse skin JB6 cells in culture. These included mercuric chloride, sodium lauryl sulfate, formaldehyde, dimethyl sulfoxide, benzoyl peroxide, and ionomycin, all of which have been proven to be positive in the Draize test or in cutaneous toxicity studies. Cell viability was evaluated every 15 min for up to 1 hr, and then after 24 hr of treatment using the Trypan Blue exclusion method; morphological changes were evaluated using phase-contrast and transmission electron microscopy. Dose- and time-dependent cell death and morphological changes were observed at concentrations ranging from 10(-14) to 10(-2) M. Arbitrary rankings were assigned based on 1) IC50 value estimated from the present data, and 2) in vivo toxicity reported in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. Good correlation between in vitro and in vivo toxicity based on arbitrary rankings was observed. Thus, these findings suggest that the JB6 cell culture model can be used for predicting in vivo toxicity. In the future, it may be possible to utilize this system for the study of intracellular ionized calcium ([Ca2+]i), and the expression of oncogenes as early indicators of toxicity.

  3. Collagen birefringence in skin repair in response to red polarized-laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Daniela d. F. T.; Vidal, Benedicto d. C.; Zezell, Denise M.; Zorn, Telma M. T.; Núñez, Silvia C.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2006-03-01

    We use the optical path difference (OPD) technique to quantify the organization of collagen fibers during skin repair of full-thickness burns following low-intensity polarized laser therapy with two different polarization incidence vectors. Three burns are cryogenerated on the back of rats. Lesion L|| is irradiated using the electric field vector of the polarized laser radiation aligned in parallel with the rat's occipital-caudal direction. Lesion L⊥ is irradiated using the electric field vector of the polarized laser radiation aligned perpendicularly to the aforementioned orientation. Lesion C is untreated. A healthy area labeled H is also evaluated. The tissue samples are collected and processed for polarized light microscopy. The overall finding is that the OPD for collagen fibers depends on the electric field vector of the incident polarized laser radiation. No significant differences in OPDs are observed between L|| and H in the center, sides, and edges of the lesion. Lesions irradiated using the electric field vector of the polarized laser radiation aligned in parallel with the rat's occipital-caudal direction show higher birefringence, indicating that collagen bundles in these lesions are more organized.

  4. Effect of trimebutine on contractile responses in skinned ileal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, M; Itagaki, M; Komori, S; Ohashi, H

    1994-07-01

    The effects of trimebutine on Ca2+ release and modulation of Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile elements induced by carbachol (CCh) were investigated using a tension measuring method in beta-escin-treated skinned smooth muscle of the longitudinal muscle layer of guinea pig ileum. Trimebutine (10-100 microM) concentration-dependently inhibited tension development brought about by Ca2+ release from intracellular stores induced by CCh (10 microM), but did not affect those induced by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3, 25 microM) or caffeine (5 mM). The inhibitory effect was reversible. Trimebutine (100 microM) neither altered the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile elements nor affected the effects of GTP gamma S (50 microM) and CCh (100 microM) in potentiating Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile elements after the Ca2+ storage function had been eliminated by A23187. These results suggest that trimebutine inhibits CCh-induced Ca2+ release by acting at some point during the coupling of muscarinic receptors through a G-protein to phospholipase C and thus reducing the accumulation of IP3. PMID:7799525

  5. Torsional Eye Movements Evoked by Unilateral Labyrinthine Galvanic Polarizations in the Squirrel Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Lloyd B.; Tomko, David L.; Paige, Gary D.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of vestibular-nerve afferents innervating the semicircular canals has been used to identify the extraocular muscles receiving activation or inhibition by individual ampullary nerves. This technique was originally developed by Szentagothai (1950) and led to the description of three neuron reflex arcs that connect each semicircular canal through an interneuron traversing in the region of the medial longitudinal fasciculus to one ipsilateral and one contralateral eye muscle. Selective ampullary nerve stimulation was subsequently used by Cohen and colleagues (Cohen and Suzuki, 1963; Cohen et al., 1964; Suzuki et al., 1964; Cohen et al., 1966) to study movements of the eyes and activation of individual extraocular muscles in response to stimulation of combinations of ampullary nerves. This work led to a description of the now familiar relationships between activation of a semicircular canal ampullary nerves and the anticipated movement in each eye. Disconjugacy of eye movements induced by individual vertical canal stimulation and dependence of the pulling direction of vertical recti and oblique muscles on eye position were also defined in these experiments. Subsequent studies have defined the mechanisms by which externally applied galvanic currents result in a change in vestibular-nerve afferent discharge. The currents appear to act at the spike trigger site. Perilymphatic cathodal currents depolarize the trigger site and lead to excitation whereas anodal currents hyperpolarize and result in inhibition. Afferents innervating all five vestibular endorgans appear to be affected equally by the currents (Goldberg et al., 1984). Irregularly discharging afferents are about 5-10 times more sensitive than regularly discharging ones because of the steeper slope of the former's faster postspike recovery of excitability in encoder sensitivity (Smith and Goldberg, 1986). Response adaptation similar to that noted during acceleration steps is apparent for

  6. Galvanic manufacturing in the cities of Russia: potential source of ambient nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Golokhvast, Kirill S; Shvedova, Anna A

    2014-01-01

    Galvanic manufacturing is widely employed and can be found in nearly every average city in Russia. The release and accumulation of different metals (Me), depending on the technology used can be found in the vicinities of galvanic plants. Under the environmental protection act in Russia, the regulations for galvanic manufacturing do not include the regulations and safety standards for ambient ultrafine and nanosized particulate matter (PM). To assess whether Me nanoparticles (NP) are among environmental pollutants caused by galvanic manufacturing, the level of Me NP were tested in urban snow samples collected around galvanic enterprises in two cities. Employing transmission electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, we found that the size distribution of tested Me NP was within 10-120 nm range. This is the first study to report that Me NP of Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Ni, Cu, and Zn were detected around galvanic shop settings.

  7. Galvanic Manufacturing in the Cities of Russia: Potential Source of Ambient Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2014-01-01

    Galvanic manufacturing is widely employed and can be found in nearly every average city in Russia. The release and accumulation of different metals (Me), depending on the technology used can be found in the vicinities of galvanic plants. Under the environmental protection act in Russia, the regulations for galvanic manufacturing do not include the regulations and safety standards for ambient ultrafine and nanosized particulate matter (PM). To assess whether Me nanoparticles (NP) are among environmental pollutants caused by galvanic manufacturing, the level of Me NP were tested in urban snow samples collected around galvanic enterprises in two cities. Employing transmission electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and a laser diffraction particle size analyzer, we found that the size distribution of tested Me NP was within 10–120 nm range. This is the first study to report that Me NP of Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Ni, Cu, and Zn were detected around galvanic shop settings. PMID:25329582

  8. Estimation of blood perfusion using phase shift in temperature response to sinusoidal heating at the skin surface.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Xu, L X

    1999-09-01

    A closed form analytical solution of the Pennes' bio-heat equation was obtained for temperature distributions in the skin tissue subject to the sinusoidal heat flux. Phase shifts in the surface temperature response were revealed to be related to local blood perfusion rate and heating frequency. The influence of the thermal contact resistance on the perfusion estimation was investigated. It has been proved that this influence is relatively small because of the phase shift based estimation and can be effectively eliminated by application of highly conductive grease. This analysis provides the theoretical foundation for a new noninvasive modality of blood perfusion estimation based on the surface temperature measurement which can have significant applications in future clinical practices.

  9. [Behaviors in response to the tuberculin skin test conversion in medical students from a university in Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Calixto-Aguilar, Lesly; Manrique-Zegarra, Martiel; Gotuzzo-Herencia, Eduardo; Samalvides-Cuba, Frine

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the behaviors in response to tuberculin skin test (PPD) conversion and the reasons for starting or not starting treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (TILT) among medical students at a university in Lima, Peru. A total of 548 participants completed a questionnaire; of them, 6.7% tested positive on university admission and 11.1% were recent converters. A total of 55.7% did not start TILT and had no explanation. Of the recent converters, most students who did start TILT were >22 years old (p = 0.01) and correctly answered general knowledge questions (p = 0.04). It is important to note that the PPD conversion rate was higher than that reported in the literature and that most students did not follow the treatment prophylaxis because of a lack of information. PMID:27656929

  10. Corrosion behaviour and biocorrosion of galvanized steel water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, F; Tosar, F; Vitry, V

    2014-06-01

    Galvanized steel tubes are a popular mean for water distribution systems but suffer from corrosion despite their zinc or zinc alloy coatings. First, the quality of hot-dip galvanized (HDG) coatings was studied. Their microstructure, defects, and common types of corrosion were observed. It was shown that many manufactured tubes do not reach European standard (NBN EN 10240), which is the cause of several corrosion problems. The average thickness of zinc layer was found at 41μm against 55μm prescribed by the European standard. However, lack of quality, together with the usual corrosion types known for HDG steel tubes was not sufficient to explain the high corrosion rate (reaching 20μm per year versus 10μm/y for common corrosion types). Electrochemical tests were also performed to understand the corrosion behaviours occurring in galvanized steel tubes. Results have shown that the limiting step was oxygen diffusion, favouring the growth of anaerobic bacteria in steel tubes. EDS analysis was carried out on corroded coatings and has shown the presence of sulphur inside deposits, suggesting the likely bacterial activity. Therefore biocorrosion effects have been investigated. Actually sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) can reduce sulphate contained in water to hydrogen sulphide (H2S), causing the formation of metal sulphides. Although microbial corrosion is well-known in sea water, it is less investigated in supply water. Thus, an experimental water main was kept in operation for 6months. SRB were detected by BART tests in the test water main.

  11. Deformation and fatigue behavior of hot dip galvanized coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Camurri, Carlos P. . E-mail: ccamurri@udec.cl; Benavente, Raul G.; Roa, Isidoro S.; Carrasco, Claudia C.

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports on the results of a study of the effect of static and dynamic stresses on hot dip galvanized coatings on SAE 1020 steel substrates. Galvanizing was performed using baths maintained at 450 deg. C, the zinc containing 0.16% Ti and 0.02% Fe and with Al and Ni in the ranges 0-0.20% and 0-0.30%, respectively. Static three-point bend tests were conducted with applied stresses in the range 428-790 MPa. Dynamic bend-fatigue tests involved stresses in the range 228-578 MPa at a cyclic frequency of 0.25 Hz for up to 700 cycles. The total crack density in the coatings was measured before and after the tests using light optical and electron microscopy. The results showed that the crack density increased as the applied stress increased and crack propagation was promoted perpendicular to the substrate. The number of cycles had no effect on the crack density and propagation at stresses lower than 386 MPa. At higher stresses the number of applied cycles contributed only to crack propagation. It was concluded that the best bath composition for preventing fatigue crack propagation is one that minimized the formation of thinner brittle layers in the galvanized coatings.

  12. Differential gene expression profiling of mouse skin after sulfur mustard exposure: Extended time response and inhibitor effect

    SciTech Connect

    Gerecke, Donald R. Chen Minjun; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Gordon, Marion K.; Chang, Y.-C.; Tong Weida; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2009-01-15

    Sulfur mustard (HD, SM), is a chemical warfare agent that within hours causes extensive blistering at the dermal-epidermal junction of skin. To better understand the progression of SM-induced blistering, gene expression profiling for mouse skin was performed after a single high dose of SM exposure. Punch biopsies of mouse ears were collected at both early and late time periods following SM exposure (previous studies only considered early time periods). The biopsies were examined for pathological disturbances and the samples further assayed for gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix microarray analysis system. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the differently expressed genes, performed with ArrayTrack showed clear separation of the various groups. Pathway analysis employing the KEGG library and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and hematopoietic cell lineage are common pathways affected at different time points. Gene ontology analysis identified the most significantly altered biological processes as the immune response, inflammatory response, and chemotaxis; these findings are consistent with other reported results for shorter time periods. Selected genes were chosen for RT-PCR verification and showed correlations in the general trends for the microarrays. Interleukin 1 beta was checked for biological analysis to confirm the presence of protein correlated to the corresponding microarray data. The impact of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor I, against SM exposure was assessed. These results can help in understanding the molecular mechanism of SM-induced blistering, as well as to test the efficacy of different inhibitors.

  13. Bilateral skin conductance, finger pulse volume, and EEG orienting response to tones of differing intensities in chronic schizophrenics and controls.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A S; Taylor, K W; Starkey, P; Juni, S; Lubowsky, J; Paley, H

    1981-08-01

    Skin conductance (SCOR), finger pulse volume (FPV-OR), and EEG orienting responses were examined to repeated tones of either 60- or 90-dB intensity in chronic schizophrenics, nonschizophrenic psychiatric patients, and normals. SCOR reaffirmed previous findings with schizophrenics displaying significantly more frequent nonresponsiveness to 60-dB tones, and faster habituation among patients who did respond. Increased stimulus intensity decreased the incidence of nonresponsiveness to the level of controls, but did not alter the rapid habituation of schizophrenics. These results generalized fully to the FPV-OR, despite the independence demonstrated between SCOR and FPV-OR, but did not generalize to EEG response. There were no significant differences between schizophrenics and controls in EEG reactivity-only in background activity, particularly in a slowing of dominant alpha frequency in schizophrenics. Schizophrenics displayed the same degree of bilateral asymmetry as controls in both SCOR and EEG; there was no evidence of a specifically schizophrenic asymmetry. Schizophrenics nonresponsive in either SCOR or FPV-OR showed significantly greater Conceptual Disorganization and Emotional Withdrawal, and significantly less Excitement than responders in blind clinical ratings on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. None of the findings could be attributed to the effect of neuroleptics. Comparisons between medicated and nonmedicated patients showed no drug-associated effect on any OR variable under study. Drug effects were apparent only in skin conductance level (SCL). Neuroleptics were associated with a significant reduction in SCL in both schizophrenics and nonschizophrenics, together with a flattening of an otherwise incrementing SCL among schizophrenics.

  14. Differential gene expression profiling of mouse skin after sulfur mustard exposure: Extended time response and inhibitor effect

    PubMed Central

    Gerecke, Donald R.; Chen, Minjun; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Gordon, Marion K.; Chang, Yoke-Chen; Tong, Weida; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD, SM), is a chemical warfare agent that within hours causes extensive blistering at the dermal–epidermal junction of skin. To better understand the progression of SM-induced blistering, gene expression profiling for mouse skin was performed after a single high dose of SM exposure. Punch biopsies of mouse ears were collected at both early and late time periods following SM exposure (previous studies only considered early time periods). The biopsies were examined for pathological disturbances and the samples further assayed for gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix microarray analysis system. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the differently expressed genes, performed with ArrayTrack showed clear separation of the various groups. Pathway analysis employing the KEGG library and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and hematopoietic cell lineage are common pathways affected at different time points. Gene ontology analysis identified the most significantly altered biological processes as the immune response, inflammatory response, and chemotaxis; these findings are consistent with other reported results for shorter time periods. Selected genes were chosen for RT-PCR verification and showed correlations in the general trends for the microarrays. Interleukin 1 beta was checked for biological analysis to confirm the presence of protein correlated to the corresponding microarray data. The impact of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor I, against SM exposure was assessed. These results can help in understanding the molecular mechanism of SM-induced blistering, as well as to test the efficacy of different inhibitors. PMID:18955075

  15. Systemic morphine treatment induces changes in firing patterns and responses of nociceptive afferent fibers in mouse glabrous skin.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Dale; Baker, Alyssa L; Morón, Jose A; Carlton, Susan M

    2013-11-01

    Patients receiving opioids for pain may experience decreased effectiveness of the drug and even abnormal pain sensitivity-hyperalgesia and/or allodynia. We hypothesized that peripheral nociceptor hyperexcitability contributes to opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tested this using an in vitro mouse glabrous skin-nerve preparation. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of morphine (5, 8, 10, 15 mg/kg) or saline every 12 hours for 48 hours and killed approximately 12 hours after the last injection. Receptive fields of nociceptors were tested for mechanical, heat, and cold sensitivity. Activity was also measured during an initial 2-minute period and during 5-minute periods between stimuli. Aberrant activity was common in fibers from morphine-treated mice but rare in saline-treated mice. Resting background activity was elevated in C-fibers from morphine-treated mice. Both C- and Aδ-fibers had afterdischarge in response to mechanical, heat, and/or cold stimulation of the skin as well as spontaneous, unevoked activity. Compared to saline, morphine treatment increased the proportion of fibers displaying polymodal rather than mechanical-only responses. A significant increase in Aδ-mechanoreceptive fibers responding to cold accounted for most of this change. In agreement with this, morphine-treated mice showed increased sensitivity in the cold tail flick test. In morphine-treated mice, aberrant activity and hyperexcitability of nociceptors could contribute to increased pain sensitivity. Importantly, this activity is likely driving central sensitization, a phenomenon contributing to abnormal sensory processing and chronic pain. If similar changes occur in human patients, aberrant nociceptor activity is likely to be interpreted as pain and could contribute to opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

  16. Selective CD28 Antagonist Blunts Memory Immune Responses and Promotes Long-Term Control of Skin Inflammation in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Nicolas; Chevalier, Melanie; Mary, Caroline; Hervouet, Jeremy; Minault, David; Baker, Paul; Ville, Simon; Le Bas-Bernardet, Stephanie; Dilek, Nahzli; Belarif, Lyssia; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Scobie, Linda; Blancho, Gilles; Vanhove, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapies that specifically target activation and expansion of pathogenic immune cell subsets responsible for autoimmune attacks are needed to confer long-term remission. Pathogenic cells in autoimmunity include memory T lymphocytes that are long-lived and present rapid recall effector functions with reduced activation requirements. Whereas the CD28 costimulation pathway predominantly controls priming of naive T cells and hence generation of adaptive memory cells, the roles of CD28 costimulation on established memory T lymphocytes and the recall of memory responses remain controversial. In contrast to CD80/86 antagonists (CTLA4-Ig), selective CD28 antagonists blunt T cell costimulation while sparing CTLA-4 and PD-L1-dependent coinhibitory signals. Using a new selective CD28 antagonist, we showed that Ag-specific reactivation of human memory T lymphocytes was prevented. Selective CD28 blockade controlled both cellular and humoral memory recall in nonhuman primates and induced long-term Ag-specific unresponsiveness in a memory T cell-mediated inflammatory skin model. No modification of memory T lymphocytes subsets or numbers was observed in the periphery, and importantly no significant reactivation of quiescent viruses was noticed. These findings indicate that pathogenic memory T cell responses are controlled by both CD28 and CTLA-4/PD-L1 cosignals in vivo and that selectively targeting CD28 would help to promote remission of autoimmune diseases and control chronic inflammation.

  17. Selective CD28 Antagonist Blunts Memory Immune Responses and Promotes Long-Term Control of Skin Inflammation in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Nicolas; Chevalier, Melanie; Mary, Caroline; Hervouet, Jeremy; Minault, David; Baker, Paul; Ville, Simon; Le Bas-Bernardet, Stephanie; Dilek, Nahzli; Belarif, Lyssia; Cassagnau, Elisabeth; Scobie, Linda; Blancho, Gilles; Vanhove, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapies that specifically target activation and expansion of pathogenic immune cell subsets responsible for autoimmune attacks are needed to confer long-term remission. Pathogenic cells in autoimmunity include memory T lymphocytes that are long-lived and present rapid recall effector functions with reduced activation requirements. Whereas the CD28 costimulation pathway predominantly controls priming of naive T cells and hence generation of adaptive memory cells, the roles of CD28 costimulation on established memory T lymphocytes and the recall of memory responses remain controversial. In contrast to CD80/86 antagonists (CTLA4-Ig), selective CD28 antagonists blunt T cell costimulation while sparing CTLA-4 and PD-L1-dependent coinhibitory signals. Using a new selective CD28 antagonist, we showed that Ag-specific reactivation of human memory T lymphocytes was prevented. Selective CD28 blockade controlled both cellular and humoral memory recall in nonhuman primates and induced long-term Ag-specific unresponsiveness in a memory T cell-mediated inflammatory skin model. No modification of memory T lymphocytes subsets or numbers was observed in the periphery, and importantly no significant reactivation of quiescent viruses was noticed. These findings indicate that pathogenic memory T cell responses are controlled by both CD28 and CTLA-4/PD-L1 cosignals in vivo and that selectively targeting CD28 would help to promote remission of autoimmune diseases and control chronic inflammation. PMID:26597009

  18. Ca2+ responses to interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Possible implications for Reye syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Corkey, B E; Geschwind, J F; Deeney, J T; Hale, D E; Douglas, S D; Kilpatrick, L

    1991-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of cytokines were found in the plasma of patients acutely ill with Reye syndrome (RS) but not in control subjects or recovered RS patients. To determine whether this disorder involves a genetically determined abnormal response to cytokines, the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1 on intracellular free Ca2+ were compared in cultured skin fibroblasts from control subjects and patients with RS. IL-1 and TNF caused rapid, transient, and concentration-dependent increases in cytosolic free Ca2+. The peak cytosolic free Ca2+ was greater and occurred at higher concentrations of IL-1 and TNF in patient cells than in cells from age-matched controls. In control cells, the Ca2+ transient diminished sharply with increasing amounts of IL-1 or TNF above the maximum stimulatory concentration. In contrast, in patient fibroblast this bell-shaped curve of concentration dependency was much less apparent. Bradykinin-stimulated Ca2+ transients were similar in the two groups and did not exhibit the bell-shaped concentration dependency. Thus, plasma cytokine levels are elevated in RS patients and the Ca2+ response to cytokines is increased in cells derived from these patients. We propose that the increased response reflects a genetic defect in cytokine receptor-modulated signal transduction. PMID:1847937

  19. Problem gamblers are hyposensitive to wins: an analysis of skin conductance responses during actual gambling on electronic gaming machines.

    PubMed

    Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Barry, Robert J; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Physiological arousal is purportedly a key determinant in the development and maintenance of gambling behaviors, with problem gambling conceptualized in terms of abnormal autonomic responses. Theoretical conceptualizations of problem gambling are discordant regarding the nature of deficit in this disorder; some accounts posit that problem gamblers are hypersensitive to reward, and others that they are hyposensitive to reward and/or punishment. Previous research examining phasic electrodermal responses in gamblers has been limited to laboratory settings, and reactions to real gaming situations need to be examined. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to losses, wins, and losses disguised as wins (LDWs) were recorded from 15 problem gamblers (PGs) and 15 nonproblem gamblers (NPGs) while they wagered their own money during electronic gaming machine play. PGs demonstrated significantly reduced SCRs to reward. SCRs to losses and LDWs did not differ for either PGs or NPGs. This hyposensitivity to wins may reflect abnormalities in incentive processing, and may represent a potential biological marker for problem gambling. PMID:24588340

  20. Inter-subject, inter-ocular and inter-session repeatability of the photopic negative response of the electroretinogram recorded using DTL and skin electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mortlock, Katharine E; Binns, Alison M; Aldebasi, Yousef H; North, Rachel V

    2010-10-01

    The photopic negative response (PhNR) has attracted interest as a flash ERG component reflecting inner retinal activity, with investigators adopting various approaches to analysing the response. This study has two principal aims: first to determine the most reliable technique for assessing the PhNR amplitude; secondly to compare the repeatability characteristics of the PhNR recorded using DTL and skin active electrodes. Electroretinograms were recorded in 31 subjects, using both electrode types, in response to a Ganzfeld red stimulus (Lee filter "bright red"; 1.76 log phot td.s; 4 Hz) presented over a steady blue background (Schott glass filter BG28; 3.9 log scot td). Sixteen subjects returned to assess repeatability. PhNR amplitude was measured from b-wave peak-to-PhNR trough, pre-stimulus baseline to trough, and from peak and baseline to a fixed time-point; a ratio of b-wave/PhNR amplitude was also calculated. Coefficients of variation (CoV), and inter-ocular and inter-session limits of agreement (LoA) were calculated for all measures. The ratio of b-wave/PhNR amplitude showed the lowest CoV (14.3% DTL; 23.2% skin), inter-ocular LoA (22.2% DTL; 25.0% skin), and inter-session LoA (22.8% DTL; 20.3% skin). The peak-to-trough and peak-to-fixed-time measurements were also consistently reliable. Least reliable measures were those measured from baseline. While skin electrode responses were significantly smaller than DTL responses (P < 0.0001), the variability was only slightly increased. This study suggests that peak-to-trough measurements are the most reliable means of measuring the PhNR and ratio calculation further improves repeatability. Skin electrodes provided a viable alternative to DTL electrodes for recording the PhNR.

  1. Atmospheric corrosion of hot-dip galvanized bolts for fastening weathering steel guiderail

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, H.E.; Gorman, C.D. ) Fischer, R.J. )

    1999-03-01

    The life of galvanized fastener coatings is only slightly reduced by coupling to weathering steel, provided the initial coating is thick enough to endure an initial period of galvanic attack prior to the development of a protective rust layer on the weathering steel. Typical thicknesses of hot-dip galvanized coatings (3 to 5 mil [76 to 127 [micro]m]) are adequate. Discoloration on the surface of weathering steel exposed to drainage from galvanized fasteners is superficial, and decreases with time of exposure.

  2. Longitudinal shift in diabetic wound microbiota correlates with prolonged skin defense response.

    PubMed

    Grice, Elizabeth A; Snitkin, Evan S; Yockey, Laura J; Bermudez, Dustin M; Liechty, Kenneth W; Segre, Julia A

    2010-08-17

    Diabetics frequently suffer from chronic, nonhealing wounds. Although bacterial colonization and/or infection are generally acknowledged to negatively impact wound healing, the precise relationship between the microbial community and impaired wound healing remains unclear. Because the host cutaneous defense response is proposed to play a key role in modulating microbial colonization, we longitudinally examined the diabetic wound microbiome in tandem with host tissue gene expression. By sequencing 16S ribosomal RNA genes, we show that a longitudinal selective shift in wound microbiota coincides with impaired healing in diabetic mice (Lepr(db/db); db/db). We demonstrate a parallel shift in longitudinal gene expression that occurs in a cluster of genes related to the immune response. Further, we establish a correlation between relative abundance of Staphylococcus spp. and the expression of cutaneous defense response genes. Our data demonstrate that integrating two types of global datasets lends a better understanding to the dynamics governing host-microbe interactions. PMID:20668241

  3. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 1: formative years, naturphilosophie, and galvanism.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    During the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who showed an early interest in many facets of natural philosophy and natural history, delved into the controversial subject of galvanism and animal electricity, hoping to shed light on the basic nature of the nerve force. He was motivated by his broad worldview, the experiments of Luigi Galvani, who favored animal electricity in more than a few specialized fishes, and the thinking of Alessandro Volta, who accepted specialized fish electricity but was not willing to generalize to other animals, thinking Galvani's frog experiments flawed by his use of metals. Differing from many German Naturphilosophen, who shunned "violent" experiments, the newest instruments, and detailed measurement, Humboldt conducted thousands of galvanic experiments on animals and animal parts, as well as many on his own body, some of which caused him great pain. He interpreted his results as supporting some but not all of the claims made by both Galvani and Volta. Notably, because of certain negative findings and phenomenological differences, he remained skeptical about the intrinsic animal force being qualitatively identical to true electricity. Hence, he referred to a "galvanic force," not animal electricity, in his letters and publications, a theoretical position he would abandon with Volta's help early in the new century.

  4. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 1: formative years, naturphilosophie, and galvanism.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    During the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who showed an early interest in many facets of natural philosophy and natural history, delved into the controversial subject of galvanism and animal electricity, hoping to shed light on the basic nature of the nerve force. He was motivated by his broad worldview, the experiments of Luigi Galvani, who favored animal electricity in more than a few specialized fishes, and the thinking of Alessandro Volta, who accepted specialized fish electricity but was not willing to generalize to other animals, thinking Galvani's frog experiments flawed by his use of metals. Differing from many German Naturphilosophen, who shunned "violent" experiments, the newest instruments, and detailed measurement, Humboldt conducted thousands of galvanic experiments on animals and animal parts, as well as many on his own body, some of which caused him great pain. He interpreted his results as supporting some but not all of the claims made by both Galvani and Volta. Notably, because of certain negative findings and phenomenological differences, he remained skeptical about the intrinsic animal force being qualitatively identical to true electricity. Hence, he referred to a "galvanic force," not animal electricity, in his letters and publications, a theoretical position he would abandon with Volta's help early in the new century. PMID:23581538

  5. Acute allergic skin response as a new tool to evaluate the allergenicity of whey hydrolysates in a mouse model of orally induced cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    van Esch, Betty C A M; Schouten, Bastiaan; Hofman, Gerard A; van Baalen, Ton; Nijkamp, Frans P; Knippels, Léon M J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Garssen, Johan

    2010-06-01

    Hypoallergenic milk formulae are used for cow's milk allergic infants and may be a good option for infants at risk. Clinical studies have shown that the protein source or the hydrolysis methodology used may influence the effectiveness in infants stressing the importance of adequate pre-clinical testing of hypoallergenic formulae in an in vivo model of orally induced cow's milk allergy. This study was undertaken to introduce a new read-out system to measure the residual allergenicity of whey hydrolysates on both the sensitization and challenge phase of orally induced cow's milk allergy in mice. Mice were sensitized orally to whey or a partial whey hydrolysate (pWH) to measure the residual sensitizing capacity. To predict the residual allergenicity of hydrolysates, whey allergic mice were challenged in the ear with pWH, extensive whey hydrolysate or an amino acid-based formula. An acute allergic skin response (ear swelling at 1 h), whey-specific serum antibodies, and local MCP-1 concentrations were measured. In contrast to whey, oral sensitization with pWH did not result in the induction of whey-specific antibodies, although a minor residual skin response to whey was observed after challenge. Skin exposure to whey hydrolysates showed a hydrolysation dependent reduction of the acute allergic skin response in whey allergic mice. In contrast to whey, skin exposure to pWH did not enhance tissue MCP-1 levels. The acute allergic skin response in mice orally sensitized to cow's milk proteins reveals a new pre-clinical tool which might provide information about the residual sensitizing capacity of hydrolysates supporting the discussion on the use of hypoallergenic formulae in high risk children. This mouse model might be a relevant model for the screening of new hypoallergenic formulae aimed to prevent or treat cow's milk allergy.

  6. Response of mouse skin to tattooing: use of SKH-1 mice as a surrogate model for human tattooing

    SciTech Connect

    Gopee, Neera V.; Cui, Yanyan; Olson, Greg; Warbritton, Alan R.; Miller, Barbara J.; Couch, Letha H.; Wamer, Wayne G.; Howard, Paul C. . E-mail: PHoward@nctr.fda.gov

    2005-12-01

    Tattooing is a popular cosmetic practice involving more than 45 million US citizens. Since the toxicology of tattoo inks and pigments used to formulate tattoo inks has not been reported, we studied the immunological impact of tattooing and determined recovery time from this trauma. SKH-1 hairless mice were tattooed using commercial tattoo inks or suspensions of titanium dioxide, cadmium sulfide, or iron oxide, and sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days post-tattooing. Histological evaluation revealed dermal hemorrhage at 0.5 and 1 day. Acute inflammation and epidermal necrosis were initiated at 0.5 day decreasing in incidence by day 14. Dermal necrosis and epidermal hyperplasia were prominent by day 3, reducing in severity by day 14. Chronic active inflammation persisted in all tattooed mice from day 3 to 14 post-tattooing. Inguinal and axillary lymph nodes were pigmented, the inguinal being most reactive as evidenced by lymphoid hyperplasia and polymorphonuclear infiltration. Cutaneous nuclear protein concentrations of nuclear factor-kappa B were elevated between 0.5 and 4 days. Inflammatory and proliferative biomarkers, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and ornithine decarboxylase protein levels were elevated between 0.5 and 4 days in the skin and decreased to control levels by day 14. Interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 were elevated in the lymph nodes but suppressed in the tattooed skin, with maximal suppression occurring between days 0.5 and 4. These data demonstrate that mice substantially recover from the tattooing insult by 14 days, leaving behind pigment in the dermis and the regional lymph nodes. The response seen in mice is similar to acute injury seen in humans, suggesting that the murine model might be a suitable surrogate for investigating the toxicological and phototoxicological properties of ingredients used in tattooing.

  7. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  8. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  9. Latency and initiation of the human vestibuloocular reflex to pulsed galvanic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aw, Swee T; Todd, Michael J; Halmagyi, G Michael

    2006-08-01

    Cathodal galvanic currents activate primary vestibular afferents, whereas anodal currents inhibit them. Pulsed galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was used to determine the latency and initiation of the human vestibuloocular reflex. Three-dimensional galvanic vestibuloocular reflex (g-VOR) was recorded with binocular dual-search coils in response to a bilateral bipolar 100-ms rectangular pulse of current at 0.9 (near-threshold), 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mA in 11 normal subjects. The g-VOR consisted of three components: conjugate torsional eye rotation away from cathode toward anode; vertical divergence (skew deviation) with hypertropia of the eye on the cathodal and hypotropia of the eye on the anodal sides; and conjugate horizontal eye rotation away from cathode toward anode. The g-VOR was repeatable across all subjects, its magnitude a linear function of the current intensity, its latency about 9.0 ms with GVS of >or=2.5 mA, and was not suppressed by visual fixation. At 10-mA stimulation, the g-VOR [x, y, z] on the cathodal side was [0.77 +/- 0.10, -0.05 +/- 0.05, -0.18 +/- 0.06 degrees ] (mean +/- 95% confidence intervals) and on the anodal side was [0.79 +/- 0.10, 0.16 +/- 0.05, -0.19 +/- 0.06 degrees ], with a vertical divergence of 0.20 degrees . Although the horizontal g-VOR could have arisen from activation of the horizontal semicircular canal afferents, the vertical-torsional g-VOR resembled the vestibuloocular reflex in response to roll-plane head rotation about an Earth-horizontal axis and might be a result of both vertical semicircular canal and otolith afferent activations. Pulsed GVS is a promising technique to investigate latency and initiation of the human vestibuloocular reflex because it does not require a large mechanical apparatus nor does it pose problems of head inertia or slippage.

  10. Th17 and regulatory T cells contribute to the in situ immune response in skin lesions of Jorge Lobo's disease.

    PubMed

    Kanashiro-Galo, Luciane; Pagliari, Carla; Barboza, Tania Cristina; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Xavier, Marilia Brasil; de Oliveira, Clivia Maria Moraes; Unger, Deborah Aben Athar; Sotto, Mirian Nacagami; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas

    2016-01-01

    Jorge Lobo's disease (JLD) is a chronic granulomatous mycosis described in various Latin American countries. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the possible role of Th17 and Foxp3+ Treg cells in the pathogenesis of Jorge Lobo's disease. Human skin biopsies were submitted to an immunohistochemistry protocol to detect Foxp3, interleukin (IL)-1beta, CD25, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23. The epidermis presented acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and frequent presence of fungi. The dermis presented inflammatory infiltrate comprising macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelioid and multinucleated cells, and an intense number of fungi. Foxp3+ Treg cells and IL-17+ cells were visualized in lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate. IL-1, IL-2R (CD25), IL-6, and IL-23 were visualized in the dermis, intermingled with fungal cells, permeating or participating of the granuloma. Following IL-17, the most prominent cytokine was IL-6. IL-23 and cells expressing CD25 were present in fewer number. The comparative analysis between IL-17 and Foxp3 demonstrated a statistically significant increased number of IL-17+ cells. Th17 cells play a role in the immune response of JLD. IL-1beta and IL-6 added to the previously described increased number of TGF-beta would stimulate such pattern of response. Th17 cells could be present as an effort to modulate the local immune response; however, high levels of a Th17 profile could overcome the role of Treg cells. The unbalance between Treg/Th17 cells seems to corroborate with the less effective immune response against the fungus.

  11. Arsenic transformation predisposes human skin keratinocytes to UV-induced DNA damage yet enhances their survival apparently by diminishing oxidant response

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yang; Kojima, Chikara; Chignell, Colin; Mason, Ronald; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2011-09-15

    Inorganic arsenic and UV, both human skin carcinogens, may act together as skin co-carcinogens. We find human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) are malignantly transformed by low-level arsenite (100 nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) and with transformation concurrently undergo full adaptation to arsenic toxicity involving reduced apoptosis and oxidative stress response to high arsenite concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage (ODD) is a possible mechanism in arsenic carcinogenesis and a hallmark of UV-induced skin cancer. In the current work, inorganic arsenite exposure (100 nM) did not induce ODD during the 30 weeks required for malignant transformation. Although acute UV-treatment (UVA, 25 J/cm{sup 2}) increased ODD in passage-matched control cells, once transformed by arsenic to As-TM cells, acute UV actually further increased ODD (> 50%). Despite enhanced ODD, As-TM cells were resistant to UV-induced apoptosis. The response of apoptotic factors and oxidative stress genes was strongly mitigated in As-TM cells after UV exposure including increased Bcl2/Bax ratio and reduced Caspase-3, Nrf2, and Keap1 expression. Several Nrf2-related genes (HO-1, GCLs, SOD) showed diminished responses in As-TM cells after UV exposure consistent with reduced oxidant stress response. UV-exposed As-TM cells showed increased expression of cyclin D1 (proliferation gene) and decreased p16 (tumor suppressor). UV exposure enhanced the malignant phenotype of As-TM cells. Thus, the co-carcinogenicity between UV and arsenic in skin cancer might involve adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure generally mitigating the oxidative stress response, allowing apoptotic by-pass after UV and enhanced cell survival even in the face of increased UV-induced oxidative stress and increased ODD. - Highlights: > Arsenic transformation adapted to UV-induced apoptosis. > Arsenic transformation diminished oxidant response. > Arsenic transformation enhanced UV-induced DNA damage.

  12. A psychophysiological inquiry into the nature of the Sokolovian orienting response comparator model: skin conductance and EEG data.

    PubMed

    Barceló, F; Hall, M; Gale, A

    1995-10-01

    The mechanisms which trigger the orienting response (OR) are still the subject of lively debate. Sokolov (1990) proposes the development of a multidimensional model of the physical parameters of stimulation. Recent OR research has shown that the skin conductance OR (SCOR) is related to task demands and controlled processing, although this is not so clear for central physiological indexes of orienting. Seventy-three subjects performed visual discriminations of stimuli within a warning-stimulus paradigm. The physical complexity of stimuli and their task relevance were manipulated within subjects, while the nonspecific effects of workload were controlled with a group factor. SCORs were measured concurrently with 1-s epochs of EEG alpha and theta power from Fz, Cz, Pz, and Oz. Neither index was reliably affected by the physical complexity of stimulation alone. However, both higher task relevance and higher workload significantly increased the magnitude of EEGORs and SCORs. Task averages of central and autonomic activity showed an overall pattern of covariation, but a second-by-second breakdown of EEG spectra suggests that the SCOR may be an aggregate of the activation of diverse brain mechanisms responsible for physiological orienting. The results are consistent with a model of orienting as a continuous dimension of resource allocation to anticipated and current task demands, rather than with the abrupt dichotomy between voluntary and involuntary orienting. Implications for the classical OR Sokolovian model are discussed.

  13. Histological Lesions and Cellular Response in the Skin of Alpine Chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) Spontaneously Affected by Sarcoptic Mange

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Claudia; Lazzarotti, Camilla; Trogu, Tiziana; Lanfranchi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Population dynamics of chamois (genus Rupicapra, subfamily Caprinae) can be influenced by infectious diseases epizootics, of which sarcoptic mange is probably the most severe in the Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra). In this study, skin lesions and cellular inflammatory infiltrates were characterized in 44 Alpine chamois affected by sarcoptic mange. Dermal cellular responses were evaluated in comparison with chamois affected by trombiculosis and controls. In both sarcoptic mange and trombiculosis, a significantly increase of eosinophils, mast cells, T and B lymphocytes, and macrophages was detected. Moreover, in sarcoptic mange significant higher numbers of T lymphocytes and macrophages compared to trombiculosis were observed. Lesions in sarcoptic mange were classified in three grades, according to crusts thickness, correlated with mite counts. Grade 3 represented the most severe form with crust thickness more than 3.5 mm, high number of mites, and severe parakeratosis with diffuse bacteria. Evidence of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity was detected in all three forms associated with diffuse severe epidermal hyperplasia. In grade 3, a significant increase of B lymphocytes was evident compared to grades 1 and 2, while eosinophil counts were significantly higher than in grade 1, but lower than in grade 2 lesions. An involvement of nonprotective Th2 immune response could in part account for severe lesions of grade 3. PMID:27403422

  14. Potent response of QS-21 as a vaccine adjuvant in the skin when delivered with the Nanopatch, resulted in adjuvant dose sparing

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Hwee-Ing; Fernando, Germain J. P.; Depelsenaire, Alexandra C. I.; Kendall, Mark A. F.

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants play a key role in boosting immunogenicity of vaccines, particularly for subunit protein vaccines. In this study we investigated the induction of antibody response against trivalent influenza subunit protein antigen and a saponin adjuvant, QS-21. Clinical trials of QS-21 have demonstrated the safety but, also a need of high dose for optimal immunity, which could possibly reduce patient acceptability. Here, we proposed the use of a skin delivery technology – the Nanopatch – to reduce both adjuvant and antigen dose but also retain its immune stimulating effects when compared to the conventional needle and syringe intramuscular (IM) delivery. We have demonstrated that Nanopatch delivery to skin requires only 1/100th of the IM antigen dose to induce equivalent humoral response. QS-21 enhanced humoral response in both skin and muscle route. Additionally, Nanopatch has demonstrated 30-fold adjuvant QS-21 dose sparing while retaining immune stimulating effects compared to IM. QS-21 induced localised, controlled cell death in the skin, suggesting that the danger signals released from dead cells contributed to the enhanced immunogenicity. Taken together, these findings demonstrated the suitability of reduced dose of QS-21 and the antigen using the Nanopatch to enhance humoral responses, and the potential to increase patient acceptability of QS-21 adjuvant. PMID:27404789

  15. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid from Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Mitigates 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of Tumor Promotion Cascade in Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shakilur; Ansari, Rizwan Ahmed; Rehman, Hasibur; Parvez, Suhel; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2011-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Coville (creosote bush). It has a long history of traditional medicinal use by the Native Americans and Mexicans. The modulatory effects of topically applied NDGA was studied on acute inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in mouse skin induced by stage I tumor promoting agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Double TPA treatment adversely altered many of the marker responses of stage I skin tumor promotion cascade. Pretreatment of NDGA in TPA-treated mice mitigated cutaneous lipid peroxidation and inhibited production of hydrogen peroxide. NDGA treatment also restored reduced glutathione level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Elevated activities of myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase and skin edema formation in TPA-treated mice were also lowered by NDGA indicating a restrained inflammatory response. Furthermore, results of histological study demonstrated inhibitory effect of NDGA on cellular inflammatory responses. This study provides a direct evidence of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of NDGA against TPA-induced cutaneous inflammation and oxidative stress corroborating its chemopreventive potential against skin cancer. PMID:19861506

  16. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli. PMID:25140103

  17. Relationship between Sympathetic Skin Responses and Auditory Hypersensitivity to Different Auditory Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kato, Fumi; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Chono, Mami; Fujihara, Saori; Tokunaga, Akiko; Murata, Jun; Tanaka, Koji; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] Auditory hypersensitivity has been widely reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders. However, the neurological background of auditory hypersensitivity is currently not clear. The present study examined the relationship between sympathetic nervous system responses and auditory hypersensitivity induced by different types of auditory stimuli. [Methods] We exposed 20 healthy young adults to six different types of auditory stimuli. The amounts of palmar sweating resulting from the auditory stimuli were compared between groups with (hypersensitive) and without (non-hypersensitive) auditory hypersensitivity. [Results] Although no group × type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was observed for the extent of reaction, significant type of stimulus × first stimulus interaction was noted for the extent of reaction. For an 80 dB-6,000 Hz stimulus, the trends for palmar sweating differed between the groups. For the first stimulus, the variance became larger in the hypersensitive group than in the non-hypersensitive group. [Conclusion] Subjects who regularly felt excessive reactions to auditory stimuli tended to have excessive sympathetic responses to repeated loud noises compared with subjects who did not feel excessive reactions. People with auditory hypersensitivity may be classified into several subtypes depending on their reaction patterns to auditory stimuli.

  18. Design and fabrication of a sensor integrated MEMS/NANO-skin system for human physiological response measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Hongjie; Lin, Yingzi

    2010-04-01

    Human state in human-machine systems highly affects the system performance, and should be monitored. Physiological cues are more suitable for monitoring the human state in human-machine system. This study was focused on developing a new sensing system, i.e. NANO-Skin, to non-intrusively measure physiological cues from human-machine contact surfaces for human state recognition. The first part was to analyze the relation between human state and physiological cues. Generally, heart rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, operating force, blood alcohol concentration, sweat rate, and electromyography have close relation with human state, and can be measured from human skin. The second part was to compare common sensors, MEMS sensors, and NANO sensors. It was found that MEMS sensors and NANO sensors can offer unique contributions to the development of NANO-Skin. The third part was to discuss the design and manufacture of NANO-Skin. The NANO-Skin involves five components, the flexible substrate, sensors, special integrated circuit, interconnection between sensors and special integrated circuit, and protection layer. Experiments were performed to verify the measurement accuracy of NANO-Skin. It is feasible to use NANO-Skins to non-intrusively measure physiological cues from human-machine contact surfaces for human state recognition.

  19. Tuberculin Skin Test Reversion following Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Reflects Diversity of Immune Response to Primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Denise F.; Malone, LaShaunda L.; Zalwango, Sarah; Mukisa Oketcho, Joy; Chervenak, Keith A.; Thiel, Bonnie; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Stein, Catherine M.; Boom, W. Henry; Lancioni, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Healthy household contacts (HHC) of individuals with Tuberculosis (TB) with Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) conversions are considered to harbor latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and at risk for TB. The immunologic, clinical, and public health implications of TST reversions that occur following Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) remain controversial. Objectives To measure frequency of TST reversion following IPT, and variation in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses to Mtb, in healthy Ugandan TB HHC with primary Mtb infection evidenced by TST conversion. Methods Prospective cohort study of healthy, HIV-uninfected, TST-negative TB HHC with TST conversions. Repeat TST was performed 12 months following conversion (3 months following completion of 9 month IPT course) to assess for stable conversion vs. reversion. Whole blood IFN-γ responses to Mtb antigen 85B (MtbA85B) and whole Mtb bacilli (wMtb) were measured in a subset (n = 27 and n = 42, respectively) at enrollment and TST conversion, prior to initiation of IPT. Results Of 122 subjects, TST reversion was noted in 25 (20.5%). There were no significant differences in demographic, clinical, or exposure variables between reverters and stable converters. At conversion, reverters had significantly smaller TST compared to stable converters (13.7 mm vs 16.4 mm, respectively; p = 0.003). At enrollment, there were no significant differences in IFN-γ responses to MtbA85B or wMTB between groups. At conversion, stable converters demonstrated significant increases in IFN-γ responses to Ag85B and wMtb compared to enrollment (p = 0.001, p<0.001, respectively), while there were no significant changes among reverters. Conclusions TST reversion following IPT is common following primary Mtb infection and associated with unique patterns of Mtb-induced IFN-γ production. We have demonstrated that immune responses to primary Mtb infection are heterogeneous, and submit that prospective longitudinal studies

  20. Effects of Head-Down Bed Rest on the Executive Functions and Emotional Response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Zhou, Renlai; Chen, Shanguang; Tan, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged bed rest may cause changes in the autonomic nervous system that are related to cognition and emotion. This study adopted an emotional flanker task to evaluate the effect of 45 days -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR) on executive functioning in 16 healthy young men at each of six time points: the second-to-last day before the bed rest period, the eleventh, twentieth, thirty-second and fortieth day during the bed rest period, and the eighth day after the bed rest period. In addition, self-report inventories (Beck Anxiety Inventory, BAI; Beck Depression Inventory, BDI; Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, PANAS) were conducted to record emotional changes, and the participants’ galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed as measures of physiological activity. The results showed that the participants’ reaction time on the flanker task increased significantly relative to their responses on the second-to-last day before the period of bed rest, their galvanic skin response weakened and their degrees of positive affect declined during the bed rest period. Our results provide some evidence for a detrimental effect of prolonged bed rest on executive functioning and positive affect. Whether this stems from a lack of aerobic physical activity and/or the effect of HDBR itself remains to be determined. PMID:23284916

  1. 76 FR 23564 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of... concerning imports of galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China (PRC) filed in proper form by... Standard, LLC, and Oklahoma Steel & Wire Company, Inc. (Petitioners), domestic producers of...

  2. Finishes for Metals. Paintability of Galvanized Steel, Corrosion Resistance of Metallized Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    Two papers are presented. The first, "Report of the AISI Research Project on the Paintability of Galvanized Steel," was a project aimed at determining optimum procedures for painting bright-spangled galvanized sheet steel products using three classes of trade sales paints--metallic zinc-dust, portland cement-in-oil, and water base emulsion paints.…

  3. Inverse spin galvanic effect in topological-insulator based heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Vega, Martin; Schwiete, Georg; Sinova, Jairo; Rossi, Enrico

    2015-03-01

    We study the inverse spin galvanic effect in heterostructures formed by a layer of a three dimensional strong topological insulator (TI) and a magnetic material. We consider different configurations for the heterostructure and for the contacts. We carefully treat the effect on the TI bands of the proximity of a magnetic material and take into account both intra-band and inter-band contributions to the current-induced spin polarization of the TI surface states. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our results for recent experiments. Work supported by ONR-N00014-13-1-0321, ACS-PRF # 53581-DNI5, and the Jeffress Memorial Trust.

  4. Effect of pellicle on galvanic corrosion of amalgam.

    PubMed

    Holland, R I

    1984-02-01

    Galvanic corrosion of amalgam, induced by contact with a type IV dental casting gold alloy, was determined under simulated oral conditions in an electrochemical cell. The effect of a pellicle layer formed by 1 h exposure to saliva in the oral cavity was determined. Pellicle on the amalgam had no effect on the maximum corrosion rate or the 2 h corrosion charge, whereas pellicle on the gold alloy substantially reduced both these parameters of the conventional low-copper amalgam; the corrosion of the high-copper amalgam was less and was not influenced by pellicle formation.

  5. Asymmetric hollow nanorod formation through a partial galvanic replacement reaction.

    PubMed

    Seo, Daeha; Song, Hyunjoon

    2009-12-30

    An asymmetric single hollow structure was generated from Ag-Au-Ag heterometal nanorods by a partial galvanic replacement reaction for the first time. The C(2)-symmetry breaking took place because of the random generation of a single pit on only one end of the silver domain at an early stage of the reaction. Careful control of the reaction kinetics could also yield a double-hollow structure on both ends of the silver domain. The resulting single- and double-hollow nanorods exhibited characteristic extinctions in the near-IR range.

  6. Performance of non-aqueous galvanic cells using porous membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Purser, G.H.; Nimmo, M.R.

    1995-12-01

    A solution concentration difference can be exploited to do useful electrical work. If the solutions at the two electrodes of an electrochemical cell differ only in solute concentration, then useful work can be done without a net consumption of raw materials. Such systems may have applications where availability of raw materials is limited. An evaluation of the performance of galvanic cells under a variety of conditions will be presented. In all cases, the cells use a non-aqueous solvent and a porous membrane. A discussion of the cell performances with respect to electrolyte mobility is presented.

  7. Electrode Architecture in Galvanic and Electrolytic Energy Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Beomgyun; Ocon, Joey D; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-04-11

    Electrodes in galvanic and electrolytic energy cells are complicated structures comprising redox-active materials, ionic/electronic conductors, and porous pathways for mass transfer of reactants. In contrast to breakthroughs in component development, methods of optimizing whole-system architectural design to draw maximum output have not been well explored. In this Minireview, we introduce generalized types of electrode architecture, discuss fabrication strategies, and characterize already built structures. Systematic efforts to discover optimal electrode configurations will resolve long-standing discrepancies that arise between whole systems and the sums of their parts for a number of electrochemical reactions and technologies.

  8. Subcutaneous L-tyrosine elicits cutaneous analgesia in response to local skin pinprick in rats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Wen; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the ability of L-tyrosine to induce cutaneous analgesia and to investigate the interaction between L-tyrosine and the local anesthetic lidocaine. After subcutaneously injecting the rats with L-tyrosine and lidocaine in a dose-dependent manner, cutaneous analgesia (by blocking the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex-CTMR) was evaluated in response to the local pinprick. The drug-drug interaction was analyzed by using an isobolographic method. We showed that both L-tyrosine and lidocaine produced dose-dependent cutaneous analgesia. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the rank of drug potency was lidocaine (5.09 [4.88-5.38] μmol)>L-tyrosine (39.1 [36.5-41.8] μmol) (P<0.05). At the equipotent doses (ED25, ED50, and ED75), the duration of cutaneous analgesia caused by L-tyrosine lasted longer than that caused by lidocaine (P<0.01). Lidocaine co-administered with L-tyrosine exhibited an additive effect on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. Our pre-clinical study demonstrated that L-tyrosine elicits the local/cutaneous analgesia, and the interaction between L-tyrosine and lidocaine is additive. L-tyrosine has a lower potency but much greater duration of cutaneous analgesia than lidocaine. Adding L-tyrosine to lidocaine preparations showed greater duration of cutaneous analgesia compared with lidocaine alone. PMID:26376025

  9. Infants' somatotopic neural responses to seeing human actions: I've got you under my skin.

    PubMed

    Saby, Joni N; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Marshall, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Human infants rapidly learn new skills and customs via imitation, but the neural linkages between action perception and production are not well understood. Neuroscience studies in adults suggest that a key component of imitation-identifying the corresponding body part used in the acts of self and other-has an organized neural signature. In adults, perceiving someone using a specific body part (e.g., hand vs. foot) is associated with activation of the corresponding area of the sensory and/or motor strip in the observer's brain-a phenomenon called neural somatotopy. Here we examine whether preverbal infants also exhibit somatotopic neural responses during the observation of others' actions. 14-month-old infants were randomly assigned to watch an adult reach towards and touch an object using either her hand or her foot. The scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded and event-related changes in the sensorimotor mu rhythm were analyzed. Mu rhythm desynchronization was greater over hand areas of sensorimotor cortex during observation of hand actions and was greater over the foot area for observation of foot actions. This provides the first evidence that infants' observation of someone else using a particular body part activates the corresponding areas of sensorimotor cortex. We hypothesize that this somatotopic organization in the developing brain supports imitation and cultural learning. The findings connect developmental cognitive neuroscience, adult neuroscience, action representation, and behavioral imitation.

  10. Skin Cancer Protective Behaviors among the Elderly: Explaining Their Response to a Health Education Program Using the Health Belief Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In 4 kibbutzim, 43 adults over 60 completed a questionnaire on sun-exposure protective behaviors before and 2 weeks and 4 months after a skin cancer intervention. Beliefs about skin cancer did not change, but beliefs about the value of health and internal health locus of control changed significantly. (SK)

  11. DOES RESPONSE EVALUATION OF GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN THE SKIN OF K6/ODC MICE EXPOSED TO SODIUM ARSENITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Chronic drinking water exposure to inorganic arsenic and its metabolites increases tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, gene expression profiles were characterized fro...

  12. Experimental research and observation of the skin response of mice with a second-degree scald during irradiation by a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunxia; Wu, Shulian; Li, Zhifang; Xu, Xiaohui; Li, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Second-degree scalding is a common dermatological injury. Inappropriate treatment methods in clinical practice always produce scarring, and can lead to skin cancer and other complications in the longer term. In this study optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with a skin detector was used to monitor the response of second-degree scalded skin tissue irradiated by a CO2 laser. The process of treatment of second-degree scalding was systematically studied from the perspective of tissue optics. The OCT signal intensity was stronger within the whole recovery period in the experimental group undergoing CO2 laser treatment, and the attenuation coefficient (μt) returned to its original value in a shorter time. The results help us to understand tissue injury in a second-degree scald and may help improve the standard treatment.

  13. 76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty... Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of... the subject merchandise as galvanized steel wire which is a cold- drawn carbon quality steel...

  14. Corrosive microenvironments at lead solder surfaces arising from galvanic corrosion with copper pipe.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Caroline K; Stone, Kendall R; Dudi, Abhijeet; Edwards, Marc A

    2010-09-15

    As stagnant water contacts copper pipe and lead solder (simulated soldered joints), a corrosion cell is formed between the metals in solder (Pb, Sn) and the copper. If the resulting galvanic current exceeds about 2 μA/cm(2), a highly corrosive microenvironment can form at the solder surface, with pH < 2.5 and chloride concentrations at least 11 times higher than bulk water levels. Waters with relatively high chloride tend to sustain high galvanic currents, preventing passivation of the solder surface, and contributing to lead contamination of potable water supplies. The total mass of lead corroded was consistent with predictions based on the galvanic current, and lead leaching to water was correlated with galvanic current. If the concentration of sulfate in the water increased relative to chloride, galvanic currents and associated lead contamination could be greatly reduced, and solder surfaces were readily passivated.

  15. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  16. Olfaction in Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: flight orientation response to certain saturated carboxylic acids in human skin emanations.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, T; Guha, Lopamudra; Parashar, B D; Agrawal, O P; Sukumaran, D

    2014-05-01

    The flight orientation response of nonblood-fed and hungry Aedes albopictus females was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer at 10(-6) to 10(-2) g odor plumes of saturated carboxylic acids (C1-C20), in which C2-C18 were the main constituents of human skin emanations. Thirteen acids viz C1, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8 C9, C10, C12, C14, C16, C18, and C20 showed attractance at odor plumes ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-3) g doses, while five acids viz C4, C7, C11, C15, and C19 showed repellence at 10(-4) to 10(-2) g to test mosquitoes. Tridecanoic acid (C13) showed attractance only at 10(-4) g dose while higher doses caused repellence. Dose-dependent reversal of orientation behavior from attractance to repellence was observed at 10(-2) g plumes of C5, C9, C10, C13, C17, C19, and C20 acids. The outcome of the study will help in the identification of odoriferous acids as potential attractants, repellents, or attraction inhibitors, which may find their application in the repellent formulations and odor-baited traps for surveillance and control of mosquitoes.

  17. Investigation of dose-related effects of carnosine on anxiety with sympathetic skin response and T-maze.

    PubMed

    Dolu, Nazan; Acer, Hale; Kara, Ali Yucel

    2014-01-01

    Carnosine is a dipeptide formed of the amino acids β-alanine and histidine. Only a limited number of studies have examined the effects of carnosine on sympathetic nerve activation and anxiety. The present study was undertaken to determine the dose-related effects of carnosine on anxiety in the elevated T-maze test (ETM) with electrodermal activity (EDA). Carnosine was injected in three groups of rats with doses of 10 (low dose), 100 (medium dose) and 1000 (high dose) mg/kg i.p. Physiological saline was injected in the sham group. The anxiety scores of the rats were measured with ETM 20 minutes after injection. Then, SCL was measured. The decreased number of entries into the open arm (NEOA), the percentage of time spent in the open arm (% TSOA) and higher EDA [shown by skin conductance level (SCL)] indicate higher anxiety. The NEOA and % TSOA were lower in the high-dose group than in the other groups. SCL was lower in the medium-dose carnosine group than in the high-dose carnosine and sham groups. SCL was higher in the high-dose group than in the medium-dose and sham groups. Our results suggest that high-dose carnosine produced anxiety-like effects as assessed in the SCL and ETM. Medium-dose carnosine acted as an anxiolytic. The anxiety-related responses of carnosine depend on its dose-related effect. PMID:25649366

  18. Genetic covariance between psychopathic traits and anticipatory skin conductance responses to threat: Evidence for a potential endophenotype

    PubMed Central

    WANG, PAN; GAO, YU; ISEN, JOSHUA; TUVBLAD, CATHERINE; RAINE, ADRIAN; BAKER, LAURA A.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic architecture of the association between psychopathic traits and reduced skin conductance responses (SCRs) is poorly understood. By using 752 twins aged 9–10 years, this study investigated the heritability of two SCR measures (anticipatory SCRs to impending aversive stimuli and unconditioned SCRs to the aversive stimuli themselves) in a countdown task. The study also investigated the genetic and environmental sources of the covariance between these SCR measures and two psychopathic personality traits: impulsive/disinhibited (reflecting impulsive–antisocial tendencies) and manipulative/deceitful (reflecting the affective–interpersonal features). For anticipatory SCRs, 27%, 14%, and 59% of the variation was due to genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects, respectively, while the percentages for unconditioned SCRs were 44%, 2%, and 54%. The manipulative/deceitful (not impulsive/disinhibited) traits were negatively associated with both anticipatory SCRs (r = −.14, p < .05) and unconditioned SCRs (r = −.17, p < .05) in males only, with the former association significantly accounted for by genetic influences (rg = −.72). Reduced anticipatory SCRs represent a candidate endophenotype for the affective–interpersonal facets of psychopathic traits in males. PMID:26439076

  19. Preparation of reactive oxygen scavenging peptides from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin gelatin: optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping

    2011-04-01

    Gelatin extracted from tilapia skin was hydrolyzed with Properase E. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the hydrolysis condition (temperature [T], enzyme-to-substrate ratio [E/S], pH and reaction time [t]), to obtain the hydrolysate with the highest hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging activity. The optimum conditions obtained were T of 44.2 °C, E/S of 2.2%, pH of 9.2, and t of 3.4 h. The predicted •OH scavenging activity of the hydrolysate under the optimum conditions was 60.7%, and the actually experimental scavenging activity was 60.8%. The hydrolysate was fractionated by ultrafiltration, and 4 fractions were collected. The fraction TSGH4 (MW<2000 Da) showed the strongest •OH scavenging activity with the highest yield. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities of TSGH4 with different concentrations were investigated in 5 model systems, including superoxide anion radical (•O2), •OH, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), and nitric oxide (NO•), compared with reduced glutathione (GSH). The results showed that TSGH4 significantly scavenged these ROS, and could be used as a functional ingredient in medicine and food industries.

  20. Optically-tracked handheld fluorescence imaging platform for monitoring skin response in the management of soft tissue sarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamma, Emilie; Qiu, Jimmy; Lindvere-Teene, Liis; Blackmore, Kristina M.; Majeed, Safa; Weersink, Robert; Dickie, Colleen I.; Griffin, Anthony M.; Wunder, Jay S.; Ferguson, Peter C.; DaCosta, Ralph S.

    2015-07-01

    Standard clinical management of extremity soft tissue sarcomas includes surgery with radiation therapy. Wound complications (WCs) arising from treatment may occur due to bacterial infection and tissue breakdown. The ability to detect changes in these parameters during treatment may lead to earlier interventions that mitigate WCs. We describe the use of a new system composed of an autofluorescence imaging device and an optical three-dimensional tracking system to detect and coregister the presence of bacteria with radiation doses. The imaging device visualized erythema using white light and detected bacterial autofluorescence using 405-nm excitation light. Its position was tracked relative to the patient using IR reflective spheres and registration to the computed tomography coordinates. Image coregistration software was developed to spatially overlay radiation treatment plans and dose distributions on the white light and autofluorescence images of the surgical site. We describe the technology, its use in the operating room, and standard operating procedures, as well as demonstrate technical feasibility and safety intraoperatively. This new clinical tool may help identify patients at greater risk of developing WCs and investigate correlations between radiation dose, skin response, and changes in bacterial load as biomarkers associated with WCs.

  1. Estradiol levels in women predict skin conductance response but not valence and expectancy ratings in conditioned fear extinction.

    PubMed

    White, Emily C; Graham, Bronwyn M

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than men. One contributing factor may be the sex hormone estradiol, which is known to impact the long term recall of conditioned fear extinction, a laboratory procedure that forms the basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. To date, the literature examining estradiol and fear extinction in humans has focused primarily on physiological measures of fear, such as skin conductance response (SCR) and fear potentiated startle. This is surprising, given that models of anxiety identify at least three important components: physiological symptoms, cognitive beliefs, and avoidance behavior. To help address this gap, we exposed women with naturally high (n=20) or low estradiol (n=19), women using hormonal contraceptives (n=16), and a male control group (n=18) to a fear extinction task, and measured SCR, US expectancy and CS valence ratings. During extinction recall, low estradiol was associated with greater recovery of SCR, but was not related to US expectancy or CS evaluation. Importantly, women using hormonal contraceptives showed a dissociation between SCR and cognitive beliefs: they exhibited a greater recovery of SCR during extinction recall, yet reported similar US expectancy and CS valence ratings to the other female groups. This divergence underscores the importance of assessing multiple measures of fear when examining the role of estradiol in human fear extinction, especially when considering the potential of estradiol as an enhancement for psychological treatments for anxiety disorders. PMID:27544848

  2. Evaluation of the Sympathetic Skin Response to the Dry Needling Treatment in Female Myofascial Pain Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Ali Veysel; Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Esmaeilzadeh, Sina; Cihan, Cem; Aki, Semih; Aksoy, Cihan; Oncu, Julide

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity following dry needling (DN) treatment, by using the sympathetic skin response (SSR) method in female patients diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Methods Twenty-nine MPS patients with trapezius muscle pain and 31 healthy subjects were included in this study. During a single treatment session, DN treatment was applied into trigger points, for a duration of 10 minutes. Healthy patients were subjected to SSR in weeks 1 and 4; whereas the patient group was subjected to SSR 1 week prior to their treatment and in the first, second, third and fourth weeks following the completion of their treatment. Results We found diminished latency on both sides. A significantly high algometer measurement (P < 0.05) was observed in the control group. DN treatment was effective in diminishing the visual analog scale (VAS) (P < 0.001), pressure pain threshold (PPT) (P < 0.01), and SSR (P < 0.001). No SSR change was detected in the healthy group after the follow-up period (P > 0.05). Conclusion DN is an effective treatment in MPS and trigger point (TP). This original study is the first to deal with the SSR in MPS and weekly SSR trailing, requiring further investigation to solidy findings. PMID:27298659

  3. Estradiol levels in women predict skin conductance response but not valence and expectancy ratings in conditioned fear extinction.

    PubMed

    White, Emily C; Graham, Bronwyn M

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than men. One contributing factor may be the sex hormone estradiol, which is known to impact the long term recall of conditioned fear extinction, a laboratory procedure that forms the basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. To date, the literature examining estradiol and fear extinction in humans has focused primarily on physiological measures of fear, such as skin conductance response (SCR) and fear potentiated startle. This is surprising, given that models of anxiety identify at least three important components: physiological symptoms, cognitive beliefs, and avoidance behavior. To help address this gap, we exposed women with naturally high (n=20) or low estradiol (n=19), women using hormonal contraceptives (n=16), and a male control group (n=18) to a fear extinction task, and measured SCR, US expectancy and CS valence ratings. During extinction recall, low estradiol was associated with greater recovery of SCR, but was not related to US expectancy or CS evaluation. Importantly, women using hormonal contraceptives showed a dissociation between SCR and cognitive beliefs: they exhibited a greater recovery of SCR during extinction recall, yet reported similar US expectancy and CS valence ratings to the other female groups. This divergence underscores the importance of assessing multiple measures of fear when examining the role of estradiol in human fear extinction, especially when considering the potential of estradiol as an enhancement for psychological treatments for anxiety disorders.

  4. Predictive Value of Sympathetic Skin Response in Diagnosing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Hea Eun; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of the sympathetic skin response (SSR) in diagnosing complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) by comparing three diagnostic modalities-SSR, three-phasic bone scans (TPBS), and thermography. Methods Thirteen patients with severe limb pain were recruited. Among them, 6 were diagnosed with CRPS according to the proposed revised CRPS clinical diagnostic criteria described by the International Association for the Study of Pain. SSR was measured in either the hands or feet bilaterally and was considered abnormal when the latency was prolonged. A positive TPBS finding was defined as diffuse increased tracer uptake on the delayed image. Thermographic findings were considered positive if a temperature asymmetry greater than 1.00℃ was detected between the extremities. Results Five of 6 CRPS patients showed prolonged latency on SSR (83% sensitivity). TPBS was positive in the 5 CRPS patients who underwent TPBS (100% sensitivity). Thermography was positive in 4 of 5 CRPS patients who underwent the procedure (80% sensitivity). The remaining 7 non-CRPS patients differed on examination. SSR latencies within normal limit were noted in 4 of 7 non-CRPS patients (57% specificity). Results were negative in 4 of 5 non-CRPS patients who underwent TPBS (80% specificity), and negative in 3 of 5 non-CRPS patients who underwent thermography (60% specificity). Conclusion SSR may be helpful in detecting CRPS. PMID:25750880

  5. A mixture of peptides and sugars derived from plant cell walls increases plant defense responses to stress and attenuates ageing-associated molecular changes in cultured skin cells.

    PubMed

    Apone, Fabio; Tito, Annalisa; Carola, Antonietta; Arciello, Stefania; Tortora, Assunta; Filippini, Lucio; Monoli, Irene; Cucchiara, Mirna; Gibertoni, Simone; Chrispeels, Maarten J; Colucci, Gabriella

    2010-02-15

    Small peptides and aminoacid derivatives have been extensively studied for their effect of inducing plant defense responses, and thus increasing plant tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses. Similarly to plants, these compounds can activate different signaling pathways in mammalian skin cells as well, leading to the up-regulation of anti-aging specific genes. This suggests the existence of analogous defense response mechanisms, well conserved both in plants and animal cells. In this article, we describe the preparation of a new mixture of peptides and sugars derived from the chemical and enzymatic digestion of plant cell wall glycoproteins. We investigate the multiple roles of this product as potential "biostimulator" to protect plants from abiotic stresses, and also as potential cosmeceutical. In particular, the molecular effects of the peptide/sugar mixture of inducing plant defense responsive genes and protecting cultured skin cells from oxidative burst damages were deeply evaluated.

  6. Arsenic exposure and human papillomavirus response in non-melanoma skin cancer Mexican patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Castillo, J Alberto; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Torres, Rosantina; Ochoa-Fierro, Jesús; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo G; Gurrola, Georgina B; Cebrian, Mariano E; Calderón-Aranda, Emma S

    2004-08-01

    We assessed the relationships between chronic arsenic (As) exposure, human papilloma virus (HPV) contact and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) by means of a dermatology clinic-based case-control study (42 cases and 48 controls) in Region Lagunera, Mexico, where chronic As poisoning is endemic. Exposure was determined through detailed history of residence in the As-contaminated area and measurement of As levels in drinking water and urine. We used a consensus epitope from the central region of L1 protein of the HPV family to determine antibodies against HPV. A history of As exposure and HPV seropositivity were associated with increased NMSC risks. A history of exposure to high levels of As increased the risk for NMSC (OR = 4.53; P = 0.11) in the group of seronegative HPV patients. A positive response to HPV significantly increased the OR for NMSC to 9.04 (P = 0.01) when history showed exposure to low levels of As. Interestingly, the OR was significantly increased to 16.5 (P = 0.001) when both exposure to high levels of As and HPV seropositivity were present. In addition, the presence of NMSC increased the OR (5.45; P = 0.03) for a positive response to HPV when history showed exposure to low levels of As, but the OR was increased to 8.0 (P = 0.005) in the cases with high exposure levels. Thus, HPV infection could constitute an additional risk factor for NMSC development in humans chronically exposed to As. However, further studies with additional populations are needed to determine the interaction between HPV and As exposure in NMSC.

  7. The effect of local corticosteroid injection on F-wave conduction velocity and sympathetic skin response in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Orhan; Aygül, Recep; Kotan, Dilcan; Ozdemir, Gökhan; Odabaş, Faruk Omer; Kaya, M Dursun; Ulvi, Hızır

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of steroid injection for the treatment of the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), with F-wave parameters and sympathetic skin response (SSR). Seventeen hands of 10 women patients were treated with local steroid injection with 2-month follow-up. All patients underwent single injection into the carpal tunnel. Response to injection was measured nerve conduction studies (NCSs), median nerve F waves, and SSR before and after treatment. To determine the normal values, 42 hands of 21 healthy women were also studied. There was a significant improvement of sensory and motor nerve conduction values when compared to baseline values (P < 0.01). At the end of follow-up period, the median sensory distal latency and the sensory latency differences between the median and the ulnar nerve were improved 35 and 65%, respectively. The maximum, mean F-wave amplitudes and chronodispersion showed a slight improvement with respect to baseline values and controls, but statistical significance was not achieved after treatment. Although no statistically significant improvements were observed in SSR parameters, slightly decreased amplitudes and increased habituation of SSR were noted at the end of the treatment. The present study shows that the local steroid injection results in improvement in NCSs values, but the F-wave parameters were not effectual in short-term outcome of CTS treatment. These findings suggest that the sensory latency differences between the median and the ulnar wrist-to-digit 4 are better parameters in the median nerve recovery after treatment than the median sensory distal latency. Furthermore, the SSR does not seem to be a sensitive method in follow-up of CTS treatment.

  8. Oxidative stress response in the skin mucus layer of Goodea gracilis (Hubbs and Turner, 1939) exposed to crude oil: A non-invasive approach.

    PubMed

    Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo; Salazar-Coria, Lucia; Olivares-Rubio, Hugo F; Rocha-Gómez, Maria Alejandra; Girón-Pérez, Manuel Iván; Vega-López, Armando

    2016-10-01

    The skin of the fish is the foremost target of oxidative stress due to the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) originated in the environment and in the skin itself. In this study, a non-destructive assay was developed to evaluate the effects of crude oil (0.0001-0.1mg/L, 96h) on oxidative stress response in the Skin Mucus Layer (SML) of the dusky splitfin goodeid (Goodea gracilis). The response in the SML was compared with recognized target organs through the Integrated Biomarker Response (IBRv2) and a slight addition to the method was proposed. Crude oil was extremely toxic and elicited a clear induction of ROS in the SML, as in the brain, liver and muscle. By the exposure to crude, a significant change in the activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) as well as on lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and carbonyl protein (RCO) levels was detected. Also, increases in the activity of EROD were found. The general IBRv2 proposed in this study (gIBRv2) showed that oil causes the higher oxidative response in the SML (60.049) under different concentrations of petroleum, which was greater in the brain (56.749), muscle (56.561) and liver (55.775). The results of the study revealed an organ-specific antioxidant defense response that was dependent on the load of petroleum. These results contributed to the understanding of the complexity of oxidative stress response in fish exposed to crude oil using the Skin Mucus Layer as a target for environmental monitoring studies. PMID:27164488

  9. Oxidative stress response in the skin mucus layer of Goodea gracilis (Hubbs and Turner, 1939) exposed to crude oil: A non-invasive approach.

    PubMed

    Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo; Salazar-Coria, Lucia; Olivares-Rubio, Hugo F; Rocha-Gómez, Maria Alejandra; Girón-Pérez, Manuel Iván; Vega-López, Armando

    2016-10-01

    The skin of the fish is the foremost target of oxidative stress due to the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) originated in the environment and in the skin itself. In this study, a non-destructive assay was developed to evaluate the effects of crude oil (0.0001-0.1mg/L, 96h) on oxidative stress response in the Skin Mucus Layer (SML) of the dusky splitfin goodeid (Goodea gracilis). The response in the SML was compared with recognized target organs through the Integrated Biomarker Response (IBRv2) and a slight addition to the method was proposed. Crude oil was extremely toxic and elicited a clear induction of ROS in the SML, as in the brain, liver and muscle. By the exposure to crude, a significant change in the activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) as well as on lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and carbonyl protein (RCO) levels was detected. Also, increases in the activity of EROD were found. The general IBRv2 proposed in this study (gIBRv2) showed that oil causes the higher oxidative response in the SML (60.049) under different concentrations of petroleum, which was greater in the brain (56.749), muscle (56.561) and liver (55.775). The results of the study revealed an organ-specific antioxidant defense response that was dependent on the load of petroleum. These results contributed to the understanding of the complexity of oxidative stress response in fish exposed to crude oil using the Skin Mucus Layer as a target for environmental monitoring studies.

  10. Galvanic microcells as control agent of indoor microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Spisak, Wojciech; Chlebicki, Andrzej; Kaszczyszyn, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Today, fungicides are part of the basic tool kit for indoor surface maintenance. However, fungi develop resistance to fungicides, which consequently accelerates the evolution of virulence. Fungicides also carry the risk of adverse effects in humans. Galvanic microcells are a new tool for fungal control on indoor surfaces. We used two types of electrodes, Zn and Cu, with two potential anti-fungal mechanisms: the oligodynamic action of the metal ions themselves and the electricidal effect of the current between the electrodes. The size of the inhibition zone is related to the distance between the electrodes. We hypothesized that the unique geometric properties of the observed inhibition zone could be modelled using multi foci curve Cassini ovals. Moreover, the size of the inhibition zone possessed two maximum values, while the shape of the observed inhibition zones correlated with the shape of the electric field strength. The control activity of the galvanic microcells correlated with decreasing water content in building materials. Thus, this acute antifungal system works the best in damp building environments where the risk of fungal contamination is highest. PMID:27786247

  11. Setup of Galvanic Sensors for the Monitoring of Gilded Bronzes

    PubMed Central

    Goidanich, Sara; Gulotta, Davide; Brambilla, Laura; Beltrami, Ruben; Fermo, Paola; Toniolo, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Traditional electrochemical techniques, such as linear polarization resistance (Rp), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cannot be applied to gilded bronzes, as it may not be possible to interpret the results obtained due to the bimetallic nature of the studied material. The measurement of the macrocouple current generated by the gold/bronze galvanic couple can be used as an indicator of degradation processes. Nevertheless, this measurement cannot be performed directly on the original artifacts due to the systematic presence of short-circuits between the two metals. In the present work the use of galvanic sensors is proposed as a possible solution for the monitoring of gilded bronze artefacts. The sensors have been designed to simulate real gilded bronze surfaces in terms of composition and stratigraphy and have proved to be a reliable diagnostic tool for the in situ monitoring of the rates of deterioration of gilded bronze surfaces and to test new conservation treatments. Their set-up and application is reported and their performances discussed. PMID:24759110

  12. Temperature Controlled Laser Joining of Aluminum to Galvanized Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Daniel; Simon, Jörg; Stritt, Peter; Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Bezençon, Cyrille; Bassi, Corrado

    Reliable joining of 6000 series aluminum alloy to galvanized steel is a challenge for current manufacturing technologies. To control and limit the formation of brittle intermetallic phases, mixing of both metals in liquid state has to be avoided. It has been shown that laser weld-brazing is a possible process. Thereby the aluminum and zinc layer of the galvanized steel are molten and the steel remains solid during the process. In addition, to avoid zinc degassing, the aluminum melt bath temperature has to be below zinc boiling temperature of 907°C. To meet these requirements a temperature controlled laser process was developed, allowing to join the two materials without flux and filler material. The thickness of the intermetallic layer shows a dependency on the set temperature used to control the process. At optimum set temperature the thickness of intermetallic phases can be limited to about 5 μm. Tensile strengths of the joints of up to 75% of the aluminum base material were achieved.

  13. Galvanic vestibular stimulation improves the results of vestibular rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Sergio; Ferrero, Antonela; Pianetti, Guillermina; Escolá, Natalia; Arteaga, María Victoria; Frankel, Lilian

    2011-09-01

    Here, we present findings from a three-step investigation of the effect of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in normal subjects and in subjects undergoing vestibular rehabilitation (VR). In an initial study, we examined the body sway of 10 normal subjects after one minute of 2 mA GVS. The effect of the stimulation lasted for at least 20 minutes in all subjects and up to two hours in 70% of the subjects. We then compared a group of patients who received conventional VR (40 patients) with a group that received a combination of VR and GVS. Results suggest a significant improvement in the second group. Finally, we attempted to establish the optimal number of GVS sessions and to rule out a placebo effect. Fifteen patients received "systematic" GVS: five sessions, once a week. Five patients received "nonsystematic" galvanic stimulation in a sham protocol, which included two stimulations of the clavicle. These data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test and indicated that the best results were obtained after three sessions of GVS and no placebo effect was observed. PMID:22360772

  14. Gold recovery from organic solvents using galvanic stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, C.; O`Keefe, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    A novel process using solid metals for the direct reduction of more noble metal ions from solvent extraction organics has been developed. Base metals recovery has been the principal focus of investigations to date but feasibility tests have now also been made on galvanically stripping selected precious metals. In this study gold (III) was loaded from an aqueous HAuCl{sub 4}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O solution into a mixed organic 40 vol.% TBP, 10 vol.% D2EHPA in kerosene. The direct precipitation of metallic gold from the loaded organic phase using zinc powder and iron, aluminum and copper slabs at 70 C was successfully demonstrated. The gold reduction rates were relatively fast even though the conductivity of the organic solutions is very low. The reaction rates were studied as a function of the variables zinc particulate size, oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere, water content in the organic phase, organic ratios and temperature. The gold morphology was usually powdery or dendritic in nature but continuous films were obtained in some instances. Activation energies were calculated and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. In general, the results obtained were very promising and showed that gold can be successfully cemented from selected organic solvents by galvanic stripping using less noble solid metal reductants.

  15. Skin T cell proliferative response to M protein and other cell wall and membrane proteins of group A streptococci in chronic plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Baker, B S; Brown, D W; Fischetti, V A; Ovigne, J M; Porter, W; Powles, A; Fry, L

    2001-06-01

    To determine and compare the T cell response to M protein and other group A streptococcal (GAS) antigens, T cell lines (TCL) were cultured from the lesional skin of 33 psoriatic patients and 17 disease controls. GAS-reactive skin TCL were tested in proliferation assays with recombinant M6 protein, and extracts of cell wall and membrane from type M6 GAS and its corresponding M gene deletion mutant. Initially, GAS-reactive skin TCL were obtained from 16 of 25 (64%) psoriasis, and from seven of 17 (41%) control patients. Eleven psoriatic and four control GAS-reactive TCL proliferated to M6 cell wall extract, whereas all the TCL from both groups responded to the extract of M6 membrane proteins. This difference in response to the two extracts was significant for both groups of patients (psoriasis, P = 0.0335, controls, P = 0.0156). GAS-reactive TCL from a further eight psoriasis patients showed no difference in response to cell wall extract from M6 GAS (containing the M protein minus its C-terminus) compared to that of its corresponding M gene deletion mutant. Furthermore, GAS-reactive TCL did not proliferate to recombinant M6 protein. However, a small, but significant reduction in proliferation by the eight psoriatic GAS-reactive TCL to the M-negative (lacking the M protein C-terminus) compared to M6-positive membrane extract was observed (P = 0.01). These findings suggest that GAS-reactive T cells in skin lesions of chronic plaque psoriasis proliferate to streptococcal membrane and, to a lesser extent, cell wall proteins. However, psoriatic skin T cells do not recognize cell wall M protein.

  16. Nitric oxide and noradrenaline contribute to the temperature threshold of the axon reflex response to gradual local heating in human skin.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Belinda L; Meendering, Jessica R; Wong, Brett J; Minson, Christopher T

    2006-05-01

    The initial skin blood flow response to rapid local heating is an axon reflex, which may be mediated by calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P released from C-fibres. We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) and noradrenaline on the temperature threshold for the axon reflex during gradual local heating. 36 subjects participated in two studies. Using microdialysis, we examined the following interventions: NO synthase inhibition (10 mM N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME); low-dose NO infusion (1.0 microM sodium nitroprusside, SNP); adrenergic blockade (10 mM bretylium tosylate); and low-dose (0.1 microM) noradrenaline infusion. Laser-Doppler flowmetry was used to measure red blood cell flux. Skin was heated at a rate of 0.1 degrees C min(-1) from 33 degrees C to 40 degrees C. Compared to control skin sites, the axon reflex response was shifted to a higher temperature in 4 subjects in the L-NAME sites (control, 37.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C, n = 16; L-NAME, 39.8 +/- 0.1 degrees C, n = 4; P < 0.001) and absent in 12 subjects. The response was also absent in L-NAME plus low-dose SNP sites and not altered by low-dose SNP infusion alone. Adrenergic blockade, with and without low-dose noradrenaline infusion, also abolished the axon reflex response in all subjects. Low-dose noradrenaline infusion alone shifted the axon reflex to a significantly lower temperature threshold compared to control sites (control, 38.2 +/- 0.5 degrees C; noradrenaline, 37.7 +/- 0.4 degrees C, P < 0.05, n = 5). These results suggest that endogenous NO and noradrenaline contribute to the temperature threshold of the axon reflex response during gradual local heating of the skin.

  17. Deficiency of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids is mainly responsible for atopic dermatitis-like pruritic skin inflammation in special diet-fed hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masanori; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Tomozawa, Junko; Shimazaki, Yuki; Ohyanagi, Chie; Kawaguchi, Naomi; Ohya, Susumu; Kohno, Shigekatsu; Nabe, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    Hairless mice fed a special diet, HR-AD, develop atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin inflammation with skin barrier defects and itch-related scratching; however, the ingredient(s) causing the dermatitis remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether deficiency of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is involved in HR-AD-induced AD. High-purity PUFAs were given to HR-AD-fed mice by dietary supplementation or gavage. Fatty acid levels in the serum and skin were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In serum from HR-AD-fed mice, linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), as well as their metabolites, were markedly decreased. When mice were fed HR-AD supplemented with LA or ALA in an amount equal to that contained in a normal diet, the development of AD-like symptoms was completely prevented by supplementation with LA but not with ALA. Relatively high dose of ALA slightly alleviated skin barrier defects, but did neither itch-related scratching nor skin inflammation. On the other hand, gavage administration of LA metabolites, such as γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid (AA), significantly ameliorated established dermatitis without increasing LA in the serum and skin. Moreover, AA-induced amelioration of dermatitis was not affected by pharmacological blockade of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX), suggesting no involvement of 5-LOX- or COX-mediated AA metabolites in the amelioration. In conclusion, our results indicate that deficiency of n-6 PUFAs is mainly responsible for AD-like symptoms by HR-AD feeding. Thus, this model could be useful for studying the pathomechanisms associated with deficiency of n-6 PUFAs in AD.

  18. Skin reaction and antibody responses in guinea-pigs sensitized to human leukaemia cells or their nuclei in combination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R M; Lewis, C M; Pegrum, G D; Prince, G H

    1976-12-01

    Guinea-pigs sensitized by subcutaneous injection of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) cells combined with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) displayed good skin reacitons 24 and 48 h after challenge with CLL cells. Equally good responses were also demonstrated using nuclei from the leukaemic cells in combination with BCG. These reactions were significantly greater than those produced in the same manner but without BCG. Sera form the animals were examined for the presence of antibodies against CLL cells by cytotoxicity and immunofluorescence techniques. Only samples from guinea-pigs innoculated with CLL cells were found to contain significant antibodies. Histological examination showed that whereas leukaemic cells persisted at the sensitizing injection site leukaemic cell nuclei could not be visualized. It is suggested that because leukaemic cell nuclei in combination with BCG are able to induce good skin reactivity without provoking a vigorous humoral antibody response they may have possible advantages over leukaemic cells when used for immunotherapy.

  19. Dose-response of chronic ultraviolet exposure on epidermal forward scattering-absorption in SK-1 hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Menter, J M; Agin, P P; Sayre, R M; Willis, I

    1992-05-01

    This work provides a dose-response model of UV-induced epidermal-stratum corneum thickening induced by irradiation at wavelength lambda. This model assumes that photobiochemical reaction(s) can give rise to hyperplasia in a manner which is predictable from a simple photochemical kinetic scheme. In this work, we derive an equation which predicts an approximately linear relationship between the logarithm of the increase in optical skin thickening measured at 320 nm (delta OD320) and total cumulative dose (DT) seen by the target cells in or near the basal layer. For each excitation wavelength lambda, the slope R(lambda) of the log delta OD320 vs DT plot is proportional to epsilon(lambda) phi rx, where epsilon(lambda) is the extinction coefficient for the target chromophore at excitation wavelength, and phi rx is the quantum yield for the photochemical reaction(s) leading to hyperplasia. Our data previously obtained from irradiation of SK-1 hairless mice with "monochromatic" UV wavebands at 280, 290, 300, 307 and 313 nm (Menter et al., 1988, Photochem. Photobiol. 47, 225-260.) and data from Sterenborg and van der Leun at 254 and 313 nm (1988, Photodermatology 5, 71-82) are in good agreement with this model, except for 254 and 280 nm excitation, which are greatly attenuated by epidermis-stratum corneum. For excitation at the latter wavelengths, "dark" regressive processes successfully compete with the "light" reaction(s) which lead to (pre)cancerous lesion. This difficulty notwithstanding, the "intrinsic" action spectrum for hyperplasia derived from these measurements indicates that the target chromophore preferentially absorbs in the UV-C region.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Comparative Exoproteomics and Host Inflammatory Response in Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections, Bacteremia, and Subclinical Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Yun Khoon; Awang Hamat, Rukman; van Belkum, Alex; Chong, Pei Pei

    2015-01-01

    The exoproteome of Staphylococcus aureus contains enzymes and virulence factors that are important for host adaptation. We investigated the exoprotein profiles and cytokine/chemokine responses obtained in three different S. aureus-host interaction scenarios by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and two-dimensional immunoblotting (2D-IB) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and cytometric bead array techniques. The scenarios included S. aureus bacteremia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and healthy carriage. By the 2-DGE approach, 12 exoproteins (the chaperone protein DnaK, a phosphoglycerate kinase [Pgk], the chaperone GroEL, a multisensor hybrid histidine kinase, a 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase [PanB], cysteine synthase A, an N-acetyltransferase, four isoforms of elongation factor Tu [EF-Tu], and one signature protein spot that could not be reliably identified by MS/MS) were found to be consistently present in more than 50% of the bacteremia isolates, while none of the SSTI or healthy-carrier isolates showed any of these proteins. By the 2D-IB approach, we also identified five antigens (methionine aminopeptidase [MetAPs], exotoxin 15 [Set15], a peptidoglycan hydrolase [LytM], an alkyl hydroperoxide reductase [AhpC], and a haptoglobin-binding heme uptake protein [HarA]) specific for SSTI cases. Cytokine and chemokine production varied during the course of different infection types and carriage. Monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was more highly stimulated in bacteremia patients than in SSTI patients and healthy carriers, especially during the acute phase of infection. MIG could therefore be further explored as a potential biomarker of bacteremia. In conclusion, 12 exoproteins from bacteremia isolates, MIG production, and five antigenic proteins identified during SSTIs should be further investigated for potential use as diagnostic markers. PMID:25809633

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm aggravates skin inflammatory response in BALB/c mice in a novel chronic wound model.

    PubMed

    Trøstrup, Hannah; Thomsen, Kim; Christophersen, Lars J; Hougen, Hans P; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Ø; Kirkby, Nikolai; Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wounds are presumed to persist in the inflammatory state, preventing healing. Emerging evidence indicates a clinical impact of bacterial biofilms in soft tissues, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) biofilms. To further investigate this, we developed a chronic PA biofilm wound infection model in C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice. The chronic wound was established by an injection of seaweed alginate-embedded P. aeruginosa PAO1 beneath a third-degree thermal lesion providing full thickness skin necrosis, as in human chronic wounds. Cultures revealed growth of PA, and both alginate with or without PAO1 generated a polymorphonuclear-dominated inflammation early after infection. However, both at days 4 and 7, there were a more acute polymorphonuclear-dominated and higher degree of inflammation in the PAO1 containing group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, PNA-FISH and supplemented DAPI staining showed bacteria organized in clusters, resembling biofilms, and inflammation located adjacent to the PA. The chronic wound infection showed a higher number of PAO1 in the BALB/c mice at day 4 after infection as compared to C3H/HeN mice (p < 0.006). In addition, a higher concentration of interleukin-1beta in the chronic wounds of BALB/c mice was observed at day 7 (p < 0.02), despite a similar number of bacteria in the two mouse strains. The present study succeeded in establishing a chronic PA biofilm infection in mice. The results showed an aggravating impact of local inflammation induced by PA biofilms. In conclusion, our findings indicate that improved infection control of chronic wounds reduces the inflammatory response and may improve healing.

  2. Suppression of tumor promoter-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in mouse skin by a superoxide generation inhibitor 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Murakami, A; Ohto, Y; Torikai, K; Tanaka, T; Ohigashi, H

    1998-11-01

    Double applications of phorbol esters trigger excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mouse skin. Previously reported data suggest that the two applications induce distinguishable biochemical events, namely, priming and activation. The former is characterized as a recruitment of inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils, by chemotactic factors to inflammatory regions and edema formation. The latter is responsible for ROS generation. Thus, inhibitory effects of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), previously reported to be a superoxide generation inhibitor in vitro, on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in mouse skin model were examined using a double application of ACA. We demonstrated that two pretreatments and pretreatment with ACA (810 nmol) in the activation phase suppressed double TPA application-induced H2O2 formation in mouse skin. ACA exhibited no inhibitory effects on edema formation and the enhancement of myeloperoxidase activity during the first TPA treatment, whereas the anti-inflammatory agent genistein administered at the same dose inhibited both biomarkers. No inhibitory potential of ACA for TPA-induced H2O2 formation in the priming phase was confirmed. On the other hand, in the in vitro study, ACA inhibited ROS generation in differentiated HL-60 cells more strongly than did 1'-hydroxychavicol, which showed no inhibition by pretreatment in the activation phase. In addition, allopurinol did not inhibit double TPA application-induced H2O2 formation in mouse skin. These findings suggest that the NADPH oxidase system of neutrophils rather than the epithelial xanthine oxidase system is dominant for the O2--generating potential in double TPA-treated mouse skin. ACA significantly inhibited mouse epidermis thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance formation, known as an overall oxidative damage biomarker. Moreover, histological studies demonstrated that ACA inhibited double TPA treatment

  3. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  4. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  5. Skin tears.

    PubMed

    Baranoski, S

    2001-08-01

    Skin tears are a serious, painful problem for older patients. Find out how your staff can recognize patients at risk, what they can do to prevent skin tears, and how to manage them effectively if they occur.

  6. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  7. Pattern of inflammatory response to Loxosceles intermedia venom in distinct mouse strains: a key element to understand skin lesions and dermonecrosis by poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M F; Oliveira, F L; Monteiro-Machado, M; Cardoso, P F; Guilarducci-Ferraz, V V C; Melo, P A; Souza, C M V; Calil-Elias, S

    2015-03-01

    Envenomation caused by spiders Loxosceles induce intense dermonecrosis at the bite site and systemic disease. In this work we described the hyaluronidase and collagenase activities in vitro of the Loxosceles intermedia venom, but no phospholipase A2 activity. In vivo, we evaluated the effect of L. intermedia venom used different strain of mice, C57BL/6, BALB/c and Swiss. All mice developed paw edema after venom injection, persistent for 24 h in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Histopathological analysis of the skin after venom injection revealed vascular congestion in Swiss mice and an inflammatory reaction in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The mobilization of inflammatory cells from bone marrow, spleen and blood was investigated. Typical innate immune response with mobilization of myeloid cells and cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes was observed in C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, typical acquired/humoral immune response was observed in BALB/c mice, with preferential involvement of conventional B lymphocytes and CD4 T helper cells. The skin inflammation associated to mobilization of inflammatory cells indicated that mice models are strongly recommended to investigate specific cell types involved with immune response to the envenomation and mechanisms to inhibit skin lesions.

  8. Data on galvanic-evoked head movements in healthy and unilaterally labyrinthectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Shaabani, Moslem; Lotfi, Yones; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Hooshmandi, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    In this dataset, we analyzed galvanic-evoked head movements (GEHMs) in the spatial planes of yaw, and roll in normal and unilaterally labyrinthectomized (UL) Wistar rats. The rats were assigned in 4 groups of 10: control, sham, right-UL and left-UL. Bilateral galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was presented by our "ring-shaped electrode" design (see "Short-term galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis in unilaterally labyrinthectomized rats" (M. Shaabani et al., 2016) [1]). Required data were collected through video recording of GEHMs followed by image processing and statistical analysis. PMID:27672673

  9. Dose-response on the chemopreventive effects of sarcophine-diol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Guillermo, Ruth F; Zhang, Xiaoying; Kaushik, Radhey S; Zeman, David; Ahmed, Safwat A; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2012-09-01

    Sarcophine-diol (SD) is a lactone ring-opened analogue of sarcophine. It has shown chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin tumor development in female CD-1 mice, as well as in a UVB-induced skin tumor development model in hairless SKH-1 mice at a dose of 30 μg SD applied topically and 180 mJ/cm(2) UVB. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response on the chemopreventive effects of SD on SKH-1 hairless mice when exposed to a UVB radiation dose of 30 mJ/cm(2). This UVB dose better represents chronic human skin exposure to sunlight leading to skin cancer than previous studies applying much higher UVB doses. Carcinogenesis was initiated and promoted by UVB radiation. Female hairless SKH-1 mice were divided into five groups. The control group was topically treated with 200 μL of acetone (vehicle), and the SD treatment groups were topically treated with SD (30 μg, 45 μg, and 60 μg dissolved in 200 μL of acetone) 1 h before UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm(2)). The last group of animals received 60 μg SD/200 μL acetone without UVB exposure. These treatments were continued for 27 weeks. Tumor multiplicity and tumor volumes were recorded on a weekly basis for 27 weeks. Weight gain and any signs of toxicity were also closely monitored. Histological characteristics and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated in the mice skin collected at the end of the experiment. The dose-response study proved a modest increase in chemopreventive effects with the increase in SD dose. SD reduced the number of cells positively stained with PCNA proliferation marker in mice skin. The study also showed that SD application without UVB exposure has no effect on the structure of skin. The results from this study suggest that broader range doses of SD are necessary to improve the chemopreventive effects.

  10. Dose-Response on the Chemopreventive Effects of Sarcophine-Diol on UVB-Induced Skin Tumor Development in SKH-1 Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guillermo, Ruth F.; Zhang, Xiaoying; Kaushik, Radhey S.; Zeman, David; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2012-01-01

    Sarcophine-diol (SD) is a lactone ring-opened analogue of sarcophine. It has shown chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin tumor development in female CD-1 mice, as well as in a UVB-induced skin tumor development model in hairless SKH-1 mice at a dose of 30 μg SD applied topically and 180 mJ/cm2 UVB. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response on the chemopreventive effects of SD on SKH-1 hairless mice when exposed to a UVB radiation dose of 30 mJ/cm2. This UVB dose better represents chronic human skin exposure to sunlight leading to skin cancer than previous studies applying much higher UVB doses. Carcinogenesis was initiated and promoted by UVB radiation. Female hairless SKH-1 mice were divided into five groups. The control group was topically treated with 200 μL of acetone (vehicle), and the SD treatment groups were topically treated with SD (30 μg, 45 μg, and 60 μg dissolved in 200 μL of acetone) 1 h before UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm2). The last group of animals received 60 μg SD/200 μL acetone without UVB exposure. These treatments were continued for 27 weeks. Tumor multiplicity and tumor volumes were recorded on a weekly basis for 27 weeks. Weight gain and any signs of toxicity were also closely monitored. Histological characteristics and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated in the mice skin collected at the end of the experiment. The dose-response study proved a modest increase in chemopreventive effects with the increase in SD dose. SD reduced the number of cells positively stained with PCNA proliferation marker in mice skin. The study also showed that SD application without UVB exposure has no effect on the structure of skin. The results from this study suggest that broader range doses of SD are necessary to improve the chemopreventive effects. PMID:23118725

  11. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna; Serour, Francis; Chaouat, Malka; Gonen, Pinhas; Tommasino, Massimo; Sherman, Levana

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling.

  12. Characterization of Joints Between Aluminum and Galvanized Steel Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabadi, Rajashekhara; Suery, Michel; Deschamps, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    Sound joints between an AA6016 aluminum sheet of 1.2-mm thickness and a low-carbon galvanized steel sheet of 0.77-mm thickness are obtained using the laser pseudo-brazing method. A zinc-based aluminum alloy is used as a filler wire with optimized process parameters for laser pseudo-brazing. Metallurgical investigation of the joint is carried out using a scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Joints produced using Al-Zn filler wire showed a moderate strength and quality with a layer containing principally Fe2Al5Zn x type intermetallics of ~10- μm thickness. Failure in the heat-affected zone of aluminum is found to be dominative, while in some cases, fracture along the interface between the intermetallic layer and the steel sheet is observed.

  13. Charging system with galvanic isolation and multiple operating modes

    DOEpatents

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M.

    2013-01-08

    Systems and methods are provided for operating a charging system with galvanic isolation adapted for multiple operating modes. A vehicle charging system comprises a DC interface, an AC interface, a first conversion module coupled to the DC interface, and a second conversion module coupled to the AC interface. An isolation module is coupled between the first conversion module and the second conversion module. The isolation module comprises a transformer and a switching element coupled between the transformer and the second conversion module. The transformer and the switching element are cooperatively configured for a plurality of operating modes, wherein each operating mode of the plurality of operating modes corresponds to a respective turns ratio of the transformer.

  14. Liquid Galvanic Coatings for Protection of Imbedded Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor); Curran, Joseph J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Coating compositions and methods of their use are described herein for the reduction of corrosion in imbedded metal structures. The coatings are applied as liquids to an external surface of a substrate in which the metal structures are imbedded. The coatings are subsequently allowed to dry. The liquid applied coatings provide galvanic protection to the imbedded metal structures. Continued protection can be maintained with periodic reapplication of the coating compositions, as necessary, to maintain electrical continuity. Because the coatings may be applied using methods similar to standard paints, and because the coatings are applied to external surfaces of the substrates in which the metal structures are imbedded, the corresponding corrosion protection may be easily maintained. The coating compositions are particularly useful in the protection of metal-reinforced concrete.

  15. Growth and galvanic replacement of silver nanocubes in organic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2013-05-01

    Although metal nanoparticles with various shapes can be prepared in polar organic solvents, little has been advanced toward the shape-controlled synthesis in non-polar solvents. We report a simple method for the synthesis of nearly monodisperse single crystalline silver nanocubes in a non-polar solvent (1,2-dichlorobenzene) by using oleylamine as both a reducing and capping agent. Mechanistic studies based on the time evolution of Ag nanoparticles revealed that multiply twinned nanocrystals form at the beginning of the reaction, which are gradually transformed into single crystalline Ag nanocubes by oxidative etching. Control experiments showed that the solvent plays an important role in the formation of such single crystalline Ag nanocubes. The effects of reaction temperature, oleylamine concentration, solvent, and the nature of the silver ion precursor on the morphology and monodispersity of the nanoparticles were systematically investigated. Additionally, the galvanic replacement reaction with HAuCl4 in an organic medium was implemented to prepare hydrophobic hollow Au-Ag nanocages with tunable localized surface plasmon resonances.Although metal nanoparticles with various shapes can be prepared in polar organic solvents, little has been advanced toward the shape-controlled synthesis in non-polar solvents. We report a simple method for the synthesis of nearly monodisperse single crystalline silver nanocubes in a non-polar solvent (1,2-dichlorobenzene) by using oleylamine as both a reducing and capping agent. Mechanistic studies based on the time evolution of Ag nanoparticles revealed that multiply twinned nanocrystals form at the beginning of the reaction, which are gradually transformed into single crystalline Ag nanocubes by oxidative etching. Control experiments showed that the solvent plays an important role in the formation of such single crystalline Ag nanocubes. The effects of reaction temperature, oleylamine concentration, solvent, and the nature of the

  16. Characteristics of dose-response relationships for late radiation effects: an analysis of skin telangiectasia and of head and neck morbidity.

    PubMed

    Turesson, I

    1991-03-01

    The dose-response characteristics were analysed for late skin telangiectasia in patients for 1, 2 and 5 fractions per week and 3 to 4 dose levels per schedule. Altogether 286 fields were used. Skin telangiectasia was scored on an arbitrary scale and dose-response analysis was performed at 10 year's follow-up for various degrees of telangiectasia, score greater than or equal to 1 to greater than or equal to 4. The following parameters were determined for each schedule and the equivalent single dose-response curves for each endpoint using probit analysis: the ED50, the absolute steepness, measured as the probit width, K, the relative steepness, K/ED50, and the normalised effect gradient, gamma 50. The inverse radiosensitivity, Doeff or Do, was estimated using the Poisson and LQ-models for tissue response. The alpha/beta value was found to be independent of the degree of telangiectasia used as endpoint. The absolute steepness of the dose-incidence curve increased with increasing dose per fraction and was correlated to the degree of damage. The relative steepness was independent of the dose per fraction when the dose-response curve was generated by a fixed dose per fraction, and was less than if generated by a fixed number of fractions. The relative steepness increased with higher degree of damage. Doeff decreased with increasing dose per fraction, and also with higher degree of telangiectasia. The highest steepness determined for telangiectasia score greater than or equal to 4 (partially confluent or more) at 10 years corresponded to K = 0.8 Gy, K/ED50 = 5%, gamma 50 = 7 and Do = 0.7 Gy. The dose-response characteristics found for late skin telangiectasia score greater than or equal to 2 to greater than or equal to 4 were consistent with those determined for necrosis and fatal complications 5 years after radiotherapy to head and neck tumours in our department.

  17. Effects of stress upon psychophysiological responses and performance following sleep deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roessler, R.; Lester, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The usefulness of psychological and physiological variables in predicting performance under stress of 48 hours of sleep deprivation was investigated. Performance tests, with subjects of different ego strength personalities, in concept acquisition, reading comprehension, word association, word memory, and anagrams were conducted, and physiological measurements of (1) the phasic and tonic electrodermal, (2) galvanic skin response, (3) thermal skin resistance, (4) heart rate, (5) respiration, and (6) plethysmographic finger pulse volumn were recorded. It was found that the changes in the pattern of performance were the result of testing subjects at times when they would normally be sleeping, and that sleep deprivation longer than 48 hours must be maintained to produce changes in simple or well learned tasks.

  18. Simulated solar light-induced p53 mutagenesis in SKH-1 mouse skin: a dose-response assessment.

    PubMed

    Verkler, Tracie L; Delongchamp, Robert R; Miller, Barbara J; Webb, Peggy J; Howard, Paul C; Parsons, Barbara L

    2008-08-01

    Sunlight and ultraviolet-induced mutation of the p53 gene is a frequent, possibly obligate step in skin cancer development, making quantitative measurement of p53 mutation an ideal biomarker for sunlight-induced skin carcinogenesis. To understand how the appearance of p53 mutation relates to skin tumor development, SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed 5 d per week to one of four different doses of simulated solar light (SSL; 0, 6.85, 13.70, 20.55 mJ x CIE/cm(2)) previously characterized for their tumorigenic potential. Allele-specific competitive blocker-PCR (ACB-PCR) was used to measure levels of p53 codon 270 CGT to TGT mutation within DNA isolated from dorsal skin of exposed mice. For each dose, p53 mutant fraction (MF) was measured after 4, 16, and 28 wk of exposure. Significant dose- and time-dependent increases in p53 MF were identified. All p53 MF measurements were integrated by relating the observed p53 MF to the cumulative dose of SSL. The increase in the logarithm of p53 MF was described by the linear function: log(10) MF = alpha + 0.0016 x d, where alpha is the spontaneous log(10) MF after a particular time point and d is the dose of SSL in mJ x CIE/cm(2). The p53 MF induced in nontumor bearing skin by 28 wk of exposure at the high dose of SSL was significantly lower than that found in skin tumors induced by approximately 32 wk of exposure to the same dose of SSL. p53 MF showed a strong negative correlation with tumor latency, suggesting this quantitative biomarker has the potential to predict tumorigenicity. PMID:18314877

  19. Ring discharge on the backsurface of a composite skin with ohmic anisotropy in response to frontal high current injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. S.; Robb, J. D.

    The ring discharge hazard to a carbon-reinforced-composites fuel tank skin under lightning strike conditions is investigated. A model of anisotropy in electric conductivity is adopted whereby longitudinal conductivity and transverse conductivity are considered separately. It is concluded that the current flow pattern contains a stagnation-dominated near-field region and a geometry-dominated far-field decaying region. While this pattern is unaltered by anisotropy in conductivity, the accompanying nonliner electrical field pattern is greatly distorted. It is noted that conclusions applicable to the ignition hazard which were derived from the model of a uniform scalar conductivity for the skin still remain intact.

  20. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  1. Anti-inflammation activities of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in response to UV radiation suggest potential anti-skin aging activity.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Hwang, Jinik; Park, Mirye; Seo, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Shik; Lee, Jeong Hun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-10-14

    Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells.

  2. Galvanic cell having a saturated fluorocarbon plasma-treated sealing gasket

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, H.; van Lier, J. A.

    1985-02-26

    Galvanic cells employing compressible gaskets having at least a portion of the sealing areas of such gaskets coated with plasma deposited fluorine atoms demonstrate increased resistance to electrolyte leakage.

  3. Biothermomechanics of skin tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Lu, T. J.; Seffen, K. A.

    Biothermomechanics of skin is highly interdisciplinary involving bioheat transfer, burn damage, biomechanics and neurophysiology. During heating, thermally induced mechanical stress arises due to the thermal denaturation of collagen, resulting in macroscale shrinkage. Thus, the strain, stress, temperature and thermal pain/damage are highly correlated; in other words, the problem is fully coupled. The aim of this study is to develop a computational approach to examine the heat transfer process and the heat-induced mechanical response, so that the differences among the clinically applied heating modalities can be quantified. Exact solutions for temperature, thermal damage and thermal stress for a single-layer skin model were first derived for different boundary conditions. For multilayer models, numerical simulations using the finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM) were used to analyze the temperature, burn damage and thermal stress distributions in the skin tissue. The results showed that the thermomechanical behavior of skin tissue is very complex: blood perfusion has little effect on thermal damage but large influence on skin temperature distribution, which, in turn, influences significantly the resulting thermal stress field; the stratum corneum layer, although very thin, has a large effect on the thermomechanical behavior of skin, suggesting that it should be properly accounted for in the modeling of skin thermal stresses; the stress caused by non-uniform temperature distribution in the skin may also contribute to the thermal pain sensation.

  4. GABA distribution in the central vestibular system after retroauricular galvanic stimulation. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Okami, K; Sekitani, T; Ogata, M; Matsuda, Y; Ogata, Y; Kanaya, K; Tahara, T

    1991-01-01

    The changes of the neurotransmitter (GABA) distribution in the brain stem of rats by retroauricular galvanic stimulation were investigated using the immunohistochemical method. In the lateral vestibular nucleus GABA-like immunoreactivity was more intensive on the side ipsilateral to the anodal stimulation than on the other side. It is concluded that retroauricular galvanic stimulation causes some changes in the inhibitory activity of the lateral vestibulo-spinal tract and of the spinal motor neuron.

  5. Environment and the skin

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Raymond R.

    1977-01-01

    The skin is an important interface between man and his environment; it is an important portal of entry for hazardous agents and a vulnerable target tissue as well. It is a uniquely accessible model system for detecting hazards and for studying mechanisms of a wide variety of biologic funcitons. Environmental causes of skin reactions comprise a vast array of physical, chemical and biological agents. To appreciate the role of the skin as an interface with man's environment, it is necessary to understand the multiple adaptive mechanisms, and the defenses of the skin against the environmental stresses. The skin is endowed with a versatile group of defenses against penetration, fluid loss from the body, thermal stress, solar radiation, physical trauma and microbial agents. Patterns of adverse response range in quality and intensity from uncomplicated itching to metastatic neoplasia. Environmental problems comprise a large segment of disabling skin disease. Although critical epidemiologic data is limited, cutaneous illnesses comprise a significant segment of occupational disease. This represents a significant loss in productivity and a major cause of disability. The most serious research needs include the development of surveillance systems for identifying skin hazards and determining frequency of environmental skin disease; the development of new models for studying cutaneous penetration; the elucidation of the mechanisms of nonallergic inflammatory reactions (primary irritation) and of the accommodation phenomenon; the development of more sensitive models for predicting adverse responses to marginal irritants; the utilization of modern skills of immunobiology and immunochemistry to elucidate mechanisms of allergic responses; the launching of epidemiologic studies to determine the long term effects of PCBs and associated compounds such as dioxins; and the expansion of research in the mechanisms of skin cancer in relation to susceptibility, genetic and metabolic

  6. The impact of methylmercury on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced transcriptomic responses in dolphin skin cells.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Blake C; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Kindy, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    The Atlantic bottlenose dolphin has been the focus of much attention owing to the considerable impact of environmental stress on its health and the associated implications for human health. Here, we used skin cells from the dolphin to investigate the protective role of the vitamin D pathway against environmental stressors. We previously reported that dolphin skin cells respond to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D3, by upregulation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and expression of several genes. Methylmercury is a highly bioaccumulative environmental stressor of relevance to the dolphin. We currently report that in dolphin cells sublethal concentrations of methylmercury compromise the ability of 1,25D3 to upregulate VDR, to transactivate a vitamin D-sensitive promoter, and to express specific target genes. These results help elucidate the effects of vitamin D and methylmercury on innate immunity in dolphin skin and potentially in human skin as well, considering similarities in the vitamin D pathway between the two species.

  7. Suppressive Effect of Dietary Fucoidan on Proinflammatory Immune Response and MMP-1 Expression in UVB-Irradiated Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Kawakami, Fumitaka; Yoshinaga, Keiko; Nakano, Takahisa

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that ultraviolet B irradiation leads to dermal inflammation. In this study, we found that Mekabu fucoidan suppressed edema, decreased the thickness of the prickle cell layer, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase 1 in the skin of mice irradiated with ultraviolet B. Moreover, we found that the mean level of interferon gamma of Mekabu fucoidan-treated, ultraviolet B-irradiated mice (approximately 2.2 ng/mL) was not significantly different from that in normal mice (approximately 2.5 ng/mL). In contrast, a significant decrease in the mean level of interferon gamma (approximately 1.3 ng/mL) in ultraviolet B-irradiated control mice was observed compared with that in Mekabu fucoidan-treated, ultraviolet B-irradiated mice. The mean thickness of the prickle cell layer in the skin of Mekabu fucoidan-treated, ultraviolet B-irradiated mice was less than that in the ultraviolet B-irradiated control mice. Metalloproteinase 1 activity was significantly higher in the skin of ultraviolet B-irradiated mice than in the skin of untreated, nonirradiated normal mice. Metalloproteinase 1 in the skin of ultraviolet B-irradiated, Mekabu fucoidan- or L(+)-ascorbic acid (vitamin C)-treated mice was significantly lower than that in the ultraviolet B-irradiated control mice. Mitigation of the morphological changes in Mekabu fucoidan-treated mice was correlated with a decrease in metalloproteinase 1 levels. These data indicate that Mekabu fucoidan is an effective suppressor of inflammation in an ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse model.

  8. [Effect of retroauricular galvanic stimulation on the central vestibular system--immunohistochemical evaluation of GABA].

    PubMed

    Okami, K; Sekitani, T

    1990-03-01

    The changes of the neurotransmitter (GABA) distribution in the brain stem of the rats by retroauricular galvanic stimulation were investigated using immunohistochemical method. Twenty-one rats were divided into two groups: the control group which received no galvanic stimulation, and the galvanically stimulated group which received anodal galvanic stimulation (unipolar monoauricular, 5 mA in intensity, 500 msec of duration, 1 Hz in frequency) for 30 minutes. The specimens obtained as usual strict procedure for histological investigation were stained immunohistochemically using antisera against GABA. The results were as follows: 1. In the control group, GABA-like immunoreactivity was observed in all four main vestibular nuclei. In the superior, medial, and descending vestibular nuclei GABA-like immunoreactivity was found in the small cells and the terminals. Giant cells in the lateral vestibular nucleus were surrounded by GABA immunoreactive terminals. 2. In the galvanically stimulated group GABA-like immunoreactivity showed recognizable laterality in the lateral vestibular nucleus where GABA-like immunoreactivity surrounding giant cells showed more intensive on the side ipsilateral to the stimulation compared with the opposite side. On the other hand GABA-like immunoreactivity showed no laterality in the superior, medial, and descending vestibular nuclei. 3. It can be concluded that the retroauricular galvanic stimulation cause some changes in the inhibitory activity of the lateral vestibulo-spinal tract and of the spinal motor neuron.

  9. Calcium-activated force responses in fast- and slow-twitch skinned muscle fibres of the rat at different temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, D G; Williams, D A

    1981-01-01

    1. Force responses from mechanically skinned fibres of rat skeletal muscles (extensor digitorum longus and soleus) were measured at different temperatures in the range 3-35 degrees C following sudden changes in Ca2+ concentration in the preparations. 2. At all temperatures there were characteristic differences between the slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres with respect to the relative steady-state force-[Ca2+] relation: such as a lower [Ca2+] threshold for activation and a less steep force-pCa curve in slow-twitch muscle fibres. 3. At 3-5 degrees C the force changes in both types of muscle fibres lagged considerably behind the estimated changes in [Ca2+] within the preparations and this enabled us to perform a comparative analysis of the Ca2+ kinetics in the process of force development in both muscle fibre types. This analysis suggest that two and six Ca2+ ions are involved in the regulatory unit for contraction of slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres respectively. 4. The rate of relaxation following a sudden decrease in [Ca2+] was much lower in the slow-twitch than in the fast-twitch muscle at 5 degrees C, suggesting that properties of the contractile apparatus could play an essential role in determining the rate of relaxation in vivo. 5. There was substantial variation in Ca2+ sensitivity between muscle fibres of the same type from different animals at each temperature. However the steepness of the force-[Ca2+] relation was essentially the same for all fibres of the same type. 6. A change in temperature from 5 to 25 degrees C had a statistically significant effect on the sensitivity of the fast-twitch muscle fibres, rendering them less sensitive to Ca2+ by a factor of 2. However a further increase in temperature from 25 to 35 degrees C did not have any statistically significant effect on the force-[Ca2+] relation in fast-twitch muscle fibres. 7. The effect of temperature on the Ca2+ sensitivity of slow-twitch muscle fibres was not statistically significant

  10. Inhibition of phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-caused inflammatory responses in SENCAR mouse skin by black tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, S K; Mukhtar, H

    1997-10-01

    Over the past 10 years many studies from several laboratories defined anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of tea, a widely consumed beverage by the human population. Much of such work has been conducted with green tea or its polyphenolic constituents. Regarding black tea, studies have shown that its water extract affords protection against tumor promotion caused by chemical carcinogens or ultraviolet B radiation in murine skin carcinogenesis models. Several studies have shown that topical application of chemical tumor promoters to murine skin results in the induction of epidermal edema, hyperplasia and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and cyclo-oxygenase activities, and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1alpha) and ODC mRNA expression. In this study, we assessed whether topical application of polyphenols isolated from black tea leaves (hereafter referred to as BTP) mainly consisting of theaflavine gallates and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-caused induction of these markers of inflammatory responses in murine skin. Topical application of BTP (6 mg in 0.2 ml acetone/animal) 30 min prior to TPA application on to the mouse skin resulted in significant inhibition against TPA-caused induction of epidermal edema (40%, P < 0.01), hyperplasia (57%, P < 0.005), leukocytes infiltration (50%), and induction of epidermal ODC (57%) and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1alpha mRNA expression (69%). Pre-application of BTP to that of TPA also resulted in significant inhibition of TPA-caused induction of epidermal ODC (23-73%, P < 0.005-0.0001), and cyclo-oxygenase, in terms of prostaglandins metabolites formation (38-65%, P < 0.01-0.0005), enzyme activities. Our data indicate that the inhibition of TPA-caused changes in these markers of inflammatory responses in murine skin by BTP may be one of the possible mechanisms of chemopreventive effects associated with black tea against tumorigenesis. The results

  11. Subdominant H60 antigen-specific CD8 T-cell response precedes dominant H4 antigen-specific response during the initial phase of allogenic skin graft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kang Il; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Ryu, Su Jeong; Nam, Giri; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    In allogeneic transplantation, including the B6 anti-BALB.B settings, H60 and H4 are two representative dominant minor histocompatibility antigens that induce strong CD8 T-cell responses. With different distribution patterns, H60 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells, whereas H4 is ubiquitously expressed. H60-specific CD8 T-cell response has been known to be dominant in most cases of B6 anti-BALB.B allo-responses, except in the case of skin transplantation. To understand the mechanism underlying the subdominance of H60 during allogeneic skin transplantation, we investigated the dynamics of the H60-specific CD8 T cells in B6 mice transplanted with allogeneic BALB.B tail skin. Unexpectedly, longitudinal bioluminescence imaging and flow cytometric analyses revealed that H60-specific CD8 T cells were not always subdominant to H4-specific cells but instead showed a brief dominance before the H4 response became predominant. H60-specific CD8 T cells could expand in the draining lymph node and migrate to the BALB.B allografts, indicating their active participation in the anti-BALB.B allo-response. Enhancing the frequencies of H60-reactive CD8 T cells prior to skin transplantation reversed the immune hierarchy between H60 and H4. Additionally, H60 became predominant when antigen presentation was limited to the direct pathway. However, when antigen presentation was restricted to the indirect pathway, the expansion of H60-specific CD8 T cells was limited, whereas H4-specific CD8 T cells expanded significantly, suggesting that the temporary immunodominance and eventual subdominance of H60 could be due to their reliance on the direct antigen presentation pathway. These results enhance our understanding of the immunodominance phenomenon following allogeneic tissue transplantation. PMID:25676063

  12. Subdominant H60 antigen-specific CD8 T-cell response precedes dominant H4 antigen-specific response during the initial phase of allogenic skin graft rejection.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kang Il; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Ryu, Su Jeong; Nam, Giri; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-02-13

    In allogeneic transplantation, including the B6 anti-BALB.B settings, H60 and H4 are two representative dominant minor histocompatibility antigens that induce strong CD8 T-cell responses. With different distribution patterns, H60 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells, whereas H4 is ubiquitously expressed. H60-specific CD8 T-cell response has been known to be dominant in most cases of B6 anti-BALB.B allo-responses, except in the case of skin transplantation. To understand the mechanism underlying the subdominance of H60 during allogeneic skin transplantation, we investigated the dynamics of the H60-specific CD8 T cells in B6 mice transplanted with allogeneic BALB.B tail skin. Unexpectedly, longitudinal bioluminescence imaging and flow cytometric analyses revealed that H60-specific CD8 T cells were not always subdominant to H4-specific cells but instead showed a brief dominance before the H4 response became predominant. H60-specific CD8 T cells could expand in the draining lymph node and migrate to the BALB.B allografts, indicating their active participation in the anti-BALB.B allo-response. Enhancing the frequencies of H60-reactive CD8 T cells prior to skin transplantation reversed the immune hierarchy between H60 and H4. Additionally, H60 became predominant when antigen presentation was limited to the direct pathway. However, when antigen presentation was restricted to the indirect pathway, the expansion of H60-specific CD8 T cells was limited, whereas H4-specific CD8 T cells expanded significantly, suggesting that the temporary immunodominance and eventual subdominance of H60 could be due to their reliance on the direct antigen presentation pathway. These results enhance our understanding of the immunodominance phenomenon following allogeneic tissue transplantation.

  13. Galvanic corrosion of Mg-Zr fuel cladding and steel immobilized in Portland cement and geopolymer at early ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooses, Adrien; Lambertin, David; Chartier, David; Frizon, Fabien

    2013-04-01

    Galvanic corrosion behaviour of Mg-Zr alloy fuel cladding and steel has been studied in Ordinary Portland cement and Na-geopolymer. Portland cements implied the worse magnesium corrosion performances due to the negative effects of cement hydrates, grinding agents and gypsum on the galvanic corrosion. Galvanic corrosion in Na-geopolymer paste remains very low. Silicates and fluoride from the geopolymer activation solution significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy while coupling with a cathode.

  14. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  15. Effects of deuterium oxide and galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual cortical cell function.

    PubMed

    Reinis, S; Landolt, J P; Weiss, D S; Money, K E

    1984-03-01

    /he spontaneous and evoked unit activities of complex visual cortical cells were recorded from Brodmann's area 18 in immobilized, unanesthetized cats before, during, and after stimulation of the vestibular system. The vestibular system was stimulated by intravenous injection of deuterium oxide (D2O)--a noted nystagmogenic agent (14)--or by direct galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth. Measures of the receptive-field areas, poststimulus time histograms, directional preferences, and the optimal speed of the light bar stimulating the cell were obtained before and after the application of D2O. Directional preferences were determined in a novel manner, using a method derived from a hierarchical clustering technique (19). Data were collected and analyzed from a) visual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths, b) visual cortical cells in cats following bilateral labrinthectomies, and c) nonvisual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths. In cats with intact labyrinths, D2O changed the optimal length of the light bar that was able to stimulate the cortical cell as well as the path on which it evoked the response of the cell. Both values, which constitute the receptive field of the cell, changed approximately proportionately. This effect usually lasts for less than 4.5 h. The other cellular characteristics were also altered by the D2O. Galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth resembles, in its effects, the injection of D2O. In labyrinth-intact cats, the time course of area 18 spontaneous activity dramatically increased 30 min or more after D2O was administered. It peaked 2-3 h later and still had not returned to preinjection levels even 7 h after the D2O administration. In bilaterally labyrinthectomized cats, the spontaneous activity of the visual cells (and the other cellular characteristics studied) did not change following D2O administration. In nonvisual cells from labyrinth-intact cats, the spontaneous activity demonstrated a slight but significant decrease

  16. Analysis of skin and secretions of Dybowski's frogs (Rana dybowskii) exposed to Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli identifies immune response proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiang-Hong; Miao, Hui-Min; Xu, Yi-Gang; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Chai, Long-Hui; Xu, Jia-Jia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate responses in Dybowski's frogs (Rana dybowskii) exposed to bacteria, using proteomic and transcriptomic approaches. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were used as representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively, in an infectious challenge model. Frog skin and skin secretions were collected and protein expression in infected frogs compared to control frogs by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, silver staining, and image analysis. Proteins that demonstrated differential expression were analysed by mass spectrometry and identified by searching protein databases. More than 180 protein spots demonstrated differential expression in E. coli- or S. aureus-challenged groups and, of these, more than 55 spots were up- or down-regulated at least sixfold, post-infection. Proteins with a potential function in the immune response were identified, such as stathmin 1a, annexin A1, superoxide dismutase A, C-type lectin, lysozyme, antimicrobial peptides, cofilin-1-B, mannose receptor, histone H4, prohormone convertase 1, carbonyl reductase 1 and some components of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling pathway. These molecules are potential candidates for further investigation of immune mechanisms in R. dybowskii; in particular, TLR-mediated responses, which might be activated in frogs exposed to pathogenic bacteria as part of innate immune defence, but which might also impact on adaptive immunity to infection.

  17. The role of variants from the innate immune system genes in tuberculosis and skin test response in a Native American population.

    PubMed

    Lindenau, Juliana D; Salzano, Francisco M; Hurtado, Ana M; Hill, Kim R; Hutz, Mara H

    2016-10-01

    Native American populations show higher tuberculosis (TB) mortality and infectivity rates than non-Native populations. Variants in the innate immune system seem to have an important role on TB susceptibility. The role of some innate immune system variants in TB susceptibility and/or skin test response (PPD) were investigated in the Aché, a Native American population. Complement receptor 1 and toll like receptor 9 variants were associated with anergy to PPD and protection to TB, respectively. These findings demonstrate an important role of the innate immune system variants in TB susceptibility.

  18. Oily skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  19. Growth and galvanic replacement of silver nanocubes in organic media.

    PubMed

    Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2013-05-21

    Although metal nanoparticles with various shapes can be prepared in polar organic solvents, little has been advanced toward the shape-controlled synthesis in non-polar solvents. We report a simple method for the synthesis of nearly monodisperse single crystalline silver nanocubes in a non-polar solvent (1,2-dichlorobenzene) by using oleylamine as both a reducing and capping agent. Mechanistic studies based on the time evolution of Ag nanoparticles revealed that multiply twinned nanocrystals form at the beginning of the reaction, which are gradually transformed into single crystalline Ag nanocubes by oxidative etching. Control experiments showed that the solvent plays an important role in the formation of such single crystalline Ag nanocubes. The effects of reaction temperature, oleylamine concentration, solvent, and the nature of the silver ion precursor on the morphology and monodispersity of the nanoparticles were systematically investigated. Additionally, the galvanic replacement reaction with HAuCl4 in an organic medium was implemented to prepare hydrophobic hollow Au-Ag nanocages with tunable localized surface plasmon resonances.

  20. Synthesis of chromium containing pigments from chromium galvanic sludges.

    PubMed

    Andreola, F; Barbieri, L; Bondioli, F; Cannio, M; Ferrari, A M; Lancellotti, I

    2008-08-15

    In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on laboratory scale to valorise chromium(III) contained in the galvanic sludge as chromium precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. The valorisation of this waste as a secondary raw material (SRM) is obtained by achievement of thermal and chemical stable crystal structures able to color ceramic material. Two different pigments pink CaCr(0.04)Sn(0.97)SiO(5) and green Ca(3)Cr(2)(SiO(4))(3) were synthesized by solid-state reactions using dried Cr sludge as chromium oxide precursor. The obtained pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Furthermore the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure Cr(2)O(3). The characterization carried out corroborates the thermal and chemical stability of the synthesized pigments and, especially for the Cr-Sn pink pigment, the powders develop an intense color that is very similar to the color developed by the pigments obtained starting from pure Cr(2)O(3). PMID:18289775

  1. Counteracting Muscle Atrophy using Galvanic Stimulation of the Vestibular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Polyakov, Igor

    1999-01-01

    The unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles during space flight produces significant muscle atrophy and is one of the most serious health problems facing the space program. Various exercise regimens have been developed and used either alone or in combination with pharmacological techniques to ameliorate this atrophy, but no effective countermeasure exists for this problem. The research in this project was conducted to evaluate the potential use of vestibular galvanic stimulation (VGS) to prevent muscle atrophy resulting from unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles. This approach was developed based on two concepts related to the process of maintaining the status of the anti-gravity neuromuscular system. These two premises are: (1) The "tone," or bias on spinal motorneurons is affected by vestibular projections that contribute importantly to maintaining muscle health and status. (2) VGS can be used to modify the excitability, or 'tone' of motorneuron of antigravity muscles. Thus, the strategy is to use VGS to modify the gain of vestibular projections to antigravity muscles and thereby change the general status of these muscles.

  2. Galvanic Cell Type Sensor for Soil Moisture Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Pramod; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Paswan, Bhuneshwar; Raja Kottaichamy, Alagar; Makri Nimbegondi Kotresh, Harish; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2015-07-21

    Here we report the first potentiometric sensor for soil moisture analysis by bringing in the concept of Galvanic cells wherein the redox energies of Al and conducting polyaniline are exploited to design a battery type sensor. The sensor consists of only simple architectural components, and as such they are inexpensive and lightweight, making it suitable for on-site analysis. The sensing mechanism is proved to be identical to a battery type discharge reaction wherein polyaniline redox energy changes from the conducting to the nonconducting state with a resulting voltage shift in the presence of soil moisture. Unlike the state of the art soil moisture sensors, a signal derived from the proposed moisture sensor is probe size independent, as it is potentiometric in nature and, hence, can be fabricated in any shape or size and can provide a consistent output signal under the strong aberration conditions often encountered in soil moisture analysis. The sensor is regenerable by treating with 1 M HCl and can be used for multiple analysis with little read out hysteresis. Further, a portable sensor is fabricated which can provide warning signals to the end user when the moisture levels in the soil go below critically low levels, thereby functioning as a smart device. As the sensor is inexpensive, portable, and potentiometric, it opens up avenues for developing effective and energy efficient irrigation strategies, understanding the heat and water transfer at the atmosphere-land interface, understanding soil mechanics, forecasting the risk of natural calamities, and so on.

  3. A Galvanic Sensor for Monitoring the Corrosion Condition of the Concrete Reinforcing Steel: Relationship Between the Galvanic and the Corrosion Currents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Elsa Vaz; Figueira, Rita Bacelar; Salta, Maria Manuela Lemos; da Fonseca, Inês Teodora Elias

    2009-01-01

    This work reports a study carried out on the design and performance of galvanic and polarization resistance sensors to be embedded in concrete systems for permanent monitoring of the corrosion condition of reinforcing steel, aiming to establish a correlation between the galvanic currents, Igal, and the corrosion currents, Icorr, estimated from the polarization resistance, Rp. Sensors have been tested in saturated Ca(OH)2 aqueous solutions, under a variety of conditions, simulating the most important parameters that can accelerate the corrosion of concrete reinforcing steel, such as carbonation, ingress of chloride ions, presence or absence of O2. For all the conditions, the influence of temperature (20 to 55 °C) has also been considered. From this study, it could be concluded that the galvanic currents are sensitive to the various parameters following a trend similar to that of the Rp values. A relationship between the galvanic and the corrosion current densities was obtained and the limiting values of the Igal, indicative of the state condition of the reinforcing steel for the designed sensor, were established. PMID:22291514

  4. Central Adaptation to Repeated Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation: Implications for Pre-Flight Astronaut Training

    PubMed Central

    Dilda, Valentina; Morris, Tiffany R.; Yungher, Don A.; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Moore, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy subjects (N = 10) were exposed to 10-min cumulative pseudorandom bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on a weekly basis for 12 weeks (120 min total exposure). During each trial subjects performed computerized dynamic posturography and eye movements were measured using digital video-oculography. Follow up tests were conducted 6 weeks and 6 months after the 12-week adaptation period. Postural performance was significantly impaired during GVS at first exposure, but recovered to baseline over a period of 7–8 weeks (70–80 min GVS exposure). This postural recovery was maintained 6 months after adaptation. In contrast, the roll vestibulo-ocular reflex response to GVS was not attenuated by repeated exposure. This suggests that GVS adaptation did not occur at the vestibular end-organs or involve changes in low-level (brainstem-mediated) vestibulo-ocular or vestibulo-spinal reflexes. Faced with unreliable vestibular input, the cerebellum reweighted sensory input to emphasize veridical extra-vestibular information, such as somatosensation, vision and visceral stretch receptors, to regain postural function. After a period of recovery subjects exhibited dual adaption and the ability to rapidly switch between the perturbed (GVS) and natural vestibular state for up to 6 months. PMID:25409443

  5. Central adaptation to repeated galvanic vestibular stimulation: implications for pre-flight astronaut training.

    PubMed

    Dilda, Valentina; Morris, Tiffany R; Yungher, Don A; MacDougall, Hamish G; Moore, Steven T

    2014-01-01

    Healthy subjects (N = 10) were exposed to 10-min cumulative pseudorandom bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on a weekly basis for 12 weeks (120 min total exposure). During each trial subjects performed computerized dynamic posturography and eye movements were measured using digital video-oculography. Follow up tests were conducted 6 weeks and 6 months after the 12-week adaptation period. Postural performance was significantly impaired during GVS at first exposure, but recovered to baseline over a period of 7-8 weeks (70-80 min GVS exposure). This postural recovery was maintained 6 months after adaptation. In contrast, the roll vestibulo-ocular reflex response to GVS was not attenuated by repeated exposure. This suggests that GVS adaptation did not occur at the vestibular end-organs or involve changes in low-level (brainstem-mediated) vestibulo-ocular or vestibulo-spinal reflexes. Faced with unreliable vestibular input, the cerebellum reweighted sensory input to emphasize veridical extra-vestibular information, such as somatosensation, vision and visceral stretch receptors, to regain postural function. After a period of recovery subjects exhibited dual adaption and the ability to rapidly switch between the perturbed (GVS) and natural vestibular state for up to 6 months.

  6. Chromophores in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Antony R.

    1997-05-01

    Human skin, especially the epidermis, contains several major solar ultraviolet-radiation- (UVR-) absorbing endogenous chromophores including DNA, urocanic acid, amino acids, melanins and their precursors and metabolites. The lack of solubility of melanins prevents their absorption spectra being defined by routine techniques. Indirect spectroscopic methods show that their spectral properties depend on the stimulus for melanogenesis. The photochemical consequences of UVR absorption by some epidermal chromophores are relatively well understood whereas we lack a detailed understanding of the consequent photobiological and clinical responses. Skin action spectroscopy is not a reliable way of relating a photobiological outcome to a specific chromophore but is important for UVR hazard assessment. Exogenous chromophores may be administered to the skin in combination with UVR exposure for therapeutic benefit, or as sunscreens for the prevention of sunburn and possibly skin cancer.

  7. An elastic second skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  8. An elastic second skin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings. PMID:27159017

  9. Altered Cortical Responsiveness to Pain Stimuli after High Frequency Electrical Stimulation of the Skin in Patients with Persistent Pain after Inguinal Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    van den Broeke, Emanuel N.; Koeslag, Lonneke; Arendsen, Laura J.; Nienhuijs, Simon W.; Rosman, Camiel; van Rijn, Clementina M.; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H. G.; van Goor, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Background High Frequency electrical Stimulation (HFS) of the skin induces enhanced brain responsiveness expressed as enhanced Event-Related Potential (ERP) N1 amplitude to stimuli applied to the surrounding unconditioned skin in healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this enhanced ERP N1 amplitude could be a potential marker for altered cortical sensory processing in patients with persistent pain after surgery. Materials and Methods Nineteen male patients; 9 with and 10 without persistent pain after inguinal hernia repair received HFS. Before, directly after and thirty minutes after HFS evoked potentials and the subjective pain intensity were measured in response to electric pain stimuli applied to the surrounding unconditioned skin. Results The results show that, thirty minutes after HFS, the ERP N1 amplitude observed at the conditioned arm was statistically significantly larger than the amplitude at the control arm across all patients. No statistically significant differences were observed regarding ERP N1 amplitude between patients with and without persistent pain. However, thirty minutes after HFS we did observe statistically significant differences of P2 amplitude at the conditioned arm between the two groups. The P2 amplitude decreased in comparison to baseline in the group of patients with pain. Conclusion The ERP N1 effect, induced after HFS, was not different between patients with vs. without persistent pain. The decreasing P2 amplitude was not observed in the patients without pain and also not in the previous healthy volunteer study and thus might be a marker for altered cortical sensory processing in patients with persistent pain after surgery. PMID:24376568

  10. The loss of ATP2C1 impairs the DNA damage response and induces altered skin homeostasis: Consequences for epidermal biology in Hailey-Hailey disease.

    PubMed

    Cialfi, Samantha; Le Pera, Loredana; De Blasio, Carlo; Mariano, Germano; Palermo, Rocco; Zonfrilli, Azzurra; Uccelletti, Daniela; Palleschi, Claudio; Biolcati, Gianfranco; Barbieri, Luca; Screpanti, Isabella; Talora, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of the Golgi Ca(2+)-ATPase ATP2C1 is associated with deregulated calcium homeostasis and altered skin function. ATP2C1 mutations have been identified as having a causative role in Hailey-Hailey disease, an autosomal-dominant skin disorder. Here, we identified ATP2C1 as a crucial regulator of epidermal homeostasis through the regulation of oxidative stress. Upon ATP2C1 inactivation, oxidative stress and Notch1 activation were increased in cultured human keratinocytes. Using RNA-seq experiments, we found that the DNA damage response (DDR) was consistently down-regulated in keratinocytes derived from the lesions of patients with Hailey-Hailey disease. Although oxidative stress activates the DDR, ATP2C1 inactivation down-regulates DDR gene expression. We showed that the DDR response was a major target of oxidative stress-induced Notch1 activation. Here, we show that this activation is functionally important because early Notch1 activation in keratinocytes induces keratinocyte differentiation and represses the DDR. These results indicate that an ATP2C1/NOTCH1 axis might be critical for keratinocyte function and cutaneous homeostasis, suggesting a plausible model for the pathological features of Hailey-Hailey disease. PMID:27528123

  11. The loss of ATP2C1 impairs the DNA damage response and induces altered skin homeostasis: Consequences for epidermal biology in Hailey-Hailey disease

    PubMed Central

    Cialfi, Samantha; Le Pera, Loredana; De Blasio, Carlo; Mariano, Germano; Palermo, Rocco; Zonfrilli, Azzurra; Uccelletti, Daniela; Palleschi, Claudio; Biolcati, Gianfranco; Barbieri, Luca; Screpanti, Isabella; Talora, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of the Golgi Ca2+-ATPase ATP2C1 is associated with deregulated calcium homeostasis and altered skin function. ATP2C1 mutations have been identified as having a causative role in Hailey-Hailey disease, an autosomal-dominant skin disorder. Here, we identified ATP2C1 as a crucial regulator of epidermal homeostasis through the regulation of oxidative stress. Upon ATP2C1 inactivation, oxidative stress and Notch1 activation were increased in cultured human keratinocytes. Using RNA-seq experiments, we found that the DNA damage response (DDR) was consistently down-regulated in keratinocytes derived from the lesions of patients with Hailey-Hailey disease. Although oxidative stress activates the DDR, ATP2C1 inactivation down-regulates DDR gene expression. We showed that the DDR response was a major target of oxidative stress-induced Notch1 activation. Here, we show that this activation is functionally important because early Notch1 activation in keratinocytes induces keratinocyte differentiation and represses the DDR. These results indicate that an ATP2C1/NOTCH1 axis might be critical for keratinocyte function and cutaneous homeostasis, suggesting a plausible model for the pathological features of Hailey-Hailey disease. PMID:27528123

  12. Influence of stripping and cooling atmospheres on surface properties and corrosion of zinc galvanizing coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasakau, K. A.; Giner, I.; Vree, C.; Ozcan, O.; Grothe, R.; Oliveira, A.; Grundmeier, G.; Ferreira, M. G. S.; Zheludkevich, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In this work the influence of stripping/cooling atmospheres used after withdrawal of steel sheet from Zn or Zn-alloy melt on surface properties of Zn (Z) and Zn-Al-Mg (ZM) hot-dip galvanizing coatings has been studied. The aim was to understand how the atmosphere (composed by nitrogen (N2) or air) affects adhesion strength to model adhesive and corrosive behaviour of the galvanized substrates. It was shown that the surface chemical composition and Volta potential of the galvanizing coatings prepared under the air or nitrogen atmosphere are strongly influenced by the atmosphere. The surface chemistry Z and ZM surfaces prepared under N2 contained a higher content of metal atoms and a richer hydroxide density than the specimens prepared under air atmosphere as assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The induced differences on the microstructure of the galvanized coatings played a key role on the local corrosion induced defects as observed by means of in situ Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Peel force tests performed on the substrates coated by model adhesive films indicate a higher adhesive strength to the surfaces prepared under nitrogen atmosphere. The obtained results have been discussed in terms of the microstructure and surface chemical composition of the galvanizing coatings.

  13. Experimental Study on Rebar Corrosion Using the Galvanic Sensor Combined with the Electronic Resistance Technique

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunze; Li, Kaiqiang; Liu, Liang; Yang, Lujia; Wang, Xiaona; Huang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new kind of carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) galvanic sensor system was developed for the study of rebar corrosion in different pore solution conditions. Through the special design of the CS and SS electronic coupons, the electronic resistance (ER) method and zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) technique were used simultaneously for the measurement of both the galvanic current and the corrosion depth. The corrosion processes in different solution conditions were also studied by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and the measurements of polarization curves. The test result shows that the galvanic current noise can provide detailed information of the corrosion processes. When localized corrosion occurs, the corrosion rate measured by the ER method is lower than the real corrosion rate. However, the value measured by the LPR method is higher than the real corrosion rate. The galvanic current and the corrosion current measured by the LPR method shows linear correlation in chloride-containing saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. The relationship between the corrosion current differences measured by the CS electronic coupons and the galvanic current between the CS and SS electronic coupons can also be used to evaluate the localized corrosion in reinforced concrete. PMID:27618054

  14. Experimental Study on Rebar Corrosion Using the Galvanic Sensor Combined with the Electronic Resistance Technique.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunze; Li, Kaiqiang; Liu, Liang; Yang, Lujia; Wang, Xiaona; Huang, Yi

    2016-09-08

    In this paper, a new kind of carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) galvanic sensor system was developed for the study of rebar corrosion in different pore solution conditions. Through the special design of the CS and SS electronic coupons, the electronic resistance (ER) method and zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) technique were used simultaneously for the measurement of both the galvanic current and the corrosion depth. The corrosion processes in different solution conditions were also studied by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and the measurements of polarization curves. The test result shows that the galvanic current noise can provide detailed information of the corrosion processes. When localized corrosion occurs, the corrosion rate measured by the ER method is lower than the real corrosion rate. However, the value measured by the LPR method is higher than the real corrosion rate. The galvanic current and the corrosion current measured by the LPR method shows linear correlation in chloride-containing saturated Ca(OH)₂ solution. The relationship between the corrosion current differences measured by the CS electronic coupons and the galvanic current between the CS and SS electronic coupons can also be used to evaluate the localized corrosion in reinforced concrete.

  15. Experimental Study on Rebar Corrosion Using the Galvanic Sensor Combined with the Electronic Resistance Technique.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunze; Li, Kaiqiang; Liu, Liang; Yang, Lujia; Wang, Xiaona; Huang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new kind of carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) galvanic sensor system was developed for the study of rebar corrosion in different pore solution conditions. Through the special design of the CS and SS electronic coupons, the electronic resistance (ER) method and zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) technique were used simultaneously for the measurement of both the galvanic current and the corrosion depth. The corrosion processes in different solution conditions were also studied by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and the measurements of polarization curves. The test result shows that the galvanic current noise can provide detailed information of the corrosion processes. When localized corrosion occurs, the corrosion rate measured by the ER method is lower than the real corrosion rate. However, the value measured by the LPR method is higher than the real corrosion rate. The galvanic current and the corrosion current measured by the LPR method shows linear correlation in chloride-containing saturated Ca(OH)₂ solution. The relationship between the corrosion current differences measured by the CS electronic coupons and the galvanic current between the CS and SS electronic coupons can also be used to evaluate the localized corrosion in reinforced concrete. PMID:27618054

  16. Synthetic antimicrobial and LPS-neutralising peptides suppress inflammatory and immune responses in skin cells and promote keratinocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Pfalzgraff, Anja; Heinbockel, Lena; Su, Qi; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Weindl, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The stagnation in the development of new antibiotics and the concomitant high increase of resistant bacteria emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Antimicrobial peptides are promising agents for the treatment of bacterial infections and recent studies indicate that Pep19-2.5, a synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) peptide (SALP), efficiently neutralises pathogenicity factors of Gram-negative (LPS) and Gram-positive (lipoprotein/-peptide, LP) bacteria and protects against sepsis. Here, we investigated the potential of Pep19-2.5 and the structurally related compound Pep19-4LF for their therapeutic application in bacterial skin infections. SALPs inhibited LP-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK and reduced cytokine release and gene expression in primary human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. In LPS-stimulated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and Langerhans-like cells, the peptides blocked IL-6 secretion, downregulated expression of maturation markers and inhibited dendritic cell migration. Both SALPs showed a low cytotoxicity in all investigated cell types. Furthermore, SALPs markedly promoted cell migration via EGFR transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and accelerated artificial wound closure in keratinocytes. Peptide-induced keratinocyte migration was mediated by purinergic receptors and metalloproteases. In contrast, SALPs did not affect proliferation of keratinocytes. Conclusively, our data suggest a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with acute and chronic skin infections. PMID:27509895

  17. Synthetic antimicrobial and LPS-neutralising peptides suppress inflammatory and immune responses in skin cells and promote keratinocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Pfalzgraff, Anja; Heinbockel, Lena; Su, Qi; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus; Weindl, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The stagnation in the development of new antibiotics and the concomitant high increase of resistant bacteria emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Antimicrobial peptides are promising agents for the treatment of bacterial infections and recent studies indicate that Pep19-2.5, a synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) peptide (SALP), efficiently neutralises pathogenicity factors of Gram-negative (LPS) and Gram-positive (lipoprotein/-peptide, LP) bacteria and protects against sepsis. Here, we investigated the potential of Pep19-2.5 and the structurally related compound Pep19-4LF for their therapeutic application in bacterial skin infections. SALPs inhibited LP-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK and reduced cytokine release and gene expression in primary human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. In LPS-stimulated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and Langerhans-like cells, the peptides blocked IL-6 secretion, downregulated expression of maturation markers and inhibited dendritic cell migration. Both SALPs showed a low cytotoxicity in all investigated cell types. Furthermore, SALPs markedly promoted cell migration via EGFR transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and accelerated artificial wound closure in keratinocytes. Peptide-induced keratinocyte migration was mediated by purinergic receptors and metalloproteases. In contrast, SALPs did not affect proliferation of keratinocytes. Conclusively, our data suggest a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with acute and chronic skin infections. PMID:27509895

  18. Time course of lewisite-induced skin lesions and inflammatory response in the SKH-1 hairless mouse model.

    PubMed

    Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Vallet, Virginie; Elbakdouri, Nacéra; Wartelle, Julien; Mouret, Stéphane; Bertoni, Marine; Dorandeu, Frédéric; Boudry, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Data on the toxicity of lewisite (L), a vesicant chemical warfare agent, are scarce and conflicting, and the use of the specific antidote is not without drawbacks. This study was designed to evaluate if the SKH-1 hairless mouse model was suitable to study the L-induced skin injuries. We studied the progression of lesions following exposure to L vapors for 21 days using paraclinical parameters (color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and biomechanical measurements), histological assessments, and biochemical indexes of inflammation. Some data were also obtained over 27 weeks. The development of lesions was similar to that reported in other models. The TEWL parameter appeared to be the most appropriate index to follow their progression. Histological analysis showed inflammatory cell infiltration and microvesications at day 1 and a complete wound closure by day 21. Biochemical studies indicated a deregulation of the levels of several cytokines and receptors involved in inflammation. An increase in the quantity of pro-matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 was shown as observed in other models. This suggests that the SKH-1 mouse model is relevant for the investigation of the physiopathological process of skin lesions induced by L and to screen new treatment candidates. PMID:24635178

  19. Nitric oxide and sensory nerves are involved in the vasodilator response to acetylcholine but not calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat skin microvasculature.

    PubMed Central

    Ralevic, V.; Khalil, Z.; Dusting, G. J.; Helme, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    1. The contributions of sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO) to vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were examined in rat skin microvasculature with a laser Doppler flowmeter to monitor relative blood flow. 2. Perfusion of ACh (100 microM; for 30 min) over a blister base on the rat hind footpad elicited microvascular vasodilatation and this response was not sustained. CGRP (1 microM; 10 min perfusion) also elicited vasodilatation and this response was maintained even when CGRP was no longer in contact with the blister base. 3. The vasodilator response to ACh was significantly smaller in rats pretreated as neonates with capsaicin to destroy primary sensory afferents than it was in age-matched controls. The vasodilator response to CGRP was unaffected by capsaicin pretreatment. 4. Selective inhibitors of NO synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) (both at 100 microM) attenuated the vasodilator response to ACh in control rats, but had no effect on the vasodilator response to CGRP. There was a significant L-NOARG-resistant component in control rats while in capsaicin-treated rats the vasodilator response to ACh was virtually abolished by L-NOARG. The inactive stereoisomer NG-monomethyl-D-arginine (100 microM) did not affect the vasodilator response to ACh. 5. The efficacy of L-NOARG and L-NMMA as inhibitors of endothelium-dependent responses was confirmed by use of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, the calcium ionophore A23187 (100 microM; 10 min perfusion). Vasodilatation to A23187 was strongly attenuated by both L-NOARG and L-NMMA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1504748

  20. Tonic eye movements induced by bilateral and unilateral galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno

    2013-01-01

    Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) stimulates primary vestibular afferents innervating the semicircular canals (SCCs) and otoliths found in the inner ear of humans and other mammals, including guinea pigs. To determine which pathways contribute to eye movements generated by this artificial vestibular stimulation in guinea pigs, low current intensities of GVS were passed either bilaterally between the tensor-tympani muscles of the two ears (up to 30 μA) or unilaterally between one tensor-tympani electrode and an indifferent on the back of the neck (up to 60 μA). Both forms of GVS were found to selectively generate tonic eye movements without nystagmus, characteristic of the otolith-ocular reflex; the axis of eye rotation did not align with any semicircular canal plane, but was oriented close to the expected axis of eye rotation that would occur in response to the net stimulation of otolith afferents. The induced eye rotation was predominantly vertical with a smaller horizontal deviation and very little torsion. Consistent with the results of previous human studies, the tonic eye movements were found to exhibit bilateral gain enhancement, whereby bilateral GVS generated twice the amplitude of eye rotation as unilateral anodal or cathodal stimulation alone. Eye movement responses to unilateral GVS were symmetrical in amplitude during equivalent intensities of anodal and cathodal stimulation, consistent with the known responses of more regularly and intermediately discharging primary vestibular afferents to GVS. These results together suggest that more regularly discharging otolith-ocular projections may mediate the tonic changes in eye position induced during maintained, low-intensity GVS in guinea pigs.