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Sample records for gambella region ethiopia

  1. Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing) were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. Results When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2–3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger) were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Conclusion and recommendation Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing. PMID:22834566

  2. Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) for tuberculosis control program in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia: ten years experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is still the leading cause of illness in the world which accounted for 2.5% of the global burden of disease, and 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. The aim of study was to assess impact of DOTS strategy on tuberculosis case finding and treatment outcome in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia from 2003 up to 2012 and from 2002 up to 2011, respectively. Methods Health facility-based retrospective study was conducted. Data were collected and reported in quarterly basis using WHO reporting format for TB case finding and treatment outcome from all DOTS implementing health facilities in all zones of the region to Federal Ministry of Health. Results A total of 10024 all form of TB cases had been registered between the periods from 2003 up to 2012. Of them, 4100 (40.9%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB, 3164 (31.6%) were smear-negative pulmonary TB and 2760(27.5%) had extra-pulmonary TB. Case detection rate of smear-positive pulmonary TB had increased from 31.7% to 46.5% from the total TB cases and treatment success rate increased from 13% to 92% with average mean value of being 40.9% (SD = 0.1) and 55.7% (SD = 0.28), respectively for the specified year periods. Moreover, the average values of treatment defaulter and treatment failure rates were 4.2% and 0.3%, respectively. Conclusion It is possible to achieve the recommended WHO target which is 70% of CDR for smear-positive pulmonary TB, and 85% of TSR as it was already been fulfilled the targets for treatments more than 85% from 2009 up to 2011 in the region. However, it requires strong efforts to enhance case detection rate of 40.9% for smear-positive pulmonary TB through implementing alternative case finding strategies. PMID:24444379

  3. Notes from the field: hepatitis E outbreak among refugees from South Sudan - Gambella, Ethiopia, April 2014-January 2015.

    PubMed

    Browne, Lauren B; Menkir, Zeray; Kahi, Vincent; Maina, Gidraf; Asnakew, Solomon; Tubman, Michelle; Elyas, Hajir Z; Nigatu, Alemayehu; Dak, David; Maung, U Aye; Nakao, Jolene H; Bilukha, Oleg; Shahpar, Cyrus

    2015-05-22

    In early April 2014, two South Sudanese refugees in the Gambella region of western Ethiopia experienced acute onset of jaundice, accompanied by fever. One patient was a pregnant woman aged 24 years evaluated at a routine prenatal clinic visit in Leitchour refugee camp. The second patient was a malnourished boy aged 1 year who resided in Tierkidi refugee camp. The boy died despite hospitalization. During the last 2 weeks of May, four more cases of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS), defined as yellow discoloration of the eyes, were detected in Leitchuor. By mid-June, an additional 50 AJS cases were reported across three large camps in the region, Kule, Leitchuor, and Tierkidi, with 45 (90%) of these cases reported in Leitchuor. Sera collected from a convenience sample of 21 AJS cases were sent to Addis Ababa and Nairobi for real-time polymerase chain reaction testing; 12 (57%) were positive for hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA. By January 2015, a total of 1,117 suspected cases of hepatitis E meeting the case definition of AJS were reported among refugees in camps across Gambella.

  4. Insecticide-treated net ownership and utilization and factors that influence their use in Itang, Gambella region, Ethiopia: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Watiro, Aklilu Habte; Awoke, Worku

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Consequently, Ethiopia designed the 2011–2015, Malaria Prevention and Control Strategic Plan to fight the vector. It was discovered that most of the studies conducted on the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) were not in line with the strategic plan of the country. This study aimed to assess ITN ownership and utilization, and includes barriers related to its use among the target-area population at household (HH) level. Materials and methods A cross-sectional design was employed in Itang for this study. Data were collected by trained nurses through face-to-face interview and observation. A total of 845 participants were selected through multistage sampling, and the size was determined by using a single-population proportion formula. EPI Info and SPSS was used for analysis, and all necessary statistical association was computed in order to explain the outcome variable through explanatory variables of this study. Results Among 845 HHs interviewed, 81.7% (690) had at least one ITN, while 52.3% (361) had used the ITN the night preceding the data-collection day. HH awareness of malaria prevention, number of ITNs, family size, number of family members sharing sleeping area/beds, sleeping patterns of adolescents, HH-head age, and inconvenience of using ITNs were found to be barriers to the use of ITNs in this study. Conclusion and recommendation The study concluded that very few HHs owned ITNs and there was very low usage of ITNs. In recommendation, the regional health bureau and district health office should consider bigger nets that can accommodate family members who share the same sleeping area/bed in the area. PMID:27330332

  5. Assessment of Challenges and Opportunity of Basketball Developments in Some Selected Regions in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufa, Gemechu Beker

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…

  6. Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however.

  7. Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    1988-07-01

    Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however. PMID:12177998

  8. Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…

  9. Determinants of Children's Schooling: The Case of Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,…

  10. Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year−1 and downward trends in rainfall of − 0.4 mm month−1 year−1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.

  11. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces. PMID:25911028

  12. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces.

  13. Notes from the field: malnutrition and elevated mortality among refugees from South Sudan - Ethiopia, June-July 2014.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Ellen; Bilukha, Oleg O; Menkir, Zeray; Gayford, Megan; Kavosa, Millicent; Wtsadik, Mulugeta; Maina, Gidraf; Gose, Mesfin; Nyagucha, Irene; Shahpar, Cyrus

    2014-08-15

    As a result of armed civil conflict in South Sudan that started in mid-December of 2013, an estimated 1.1 million persons were internally displaced, and approximately 400,000 refugees fled South Sudan to neighboring countries (primarily to Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, and Kenya). Refugees from South Sudan arriving in Ethiopia are sheltered in three refugee camps located in Gambella region: Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi. The camps were established during January-May 2014 and have estimated refugee populations of 47,000, 51,000, and 50,000, respectively. Reports from health clinics and humanitarian agencies providing assistance to refugees suggested poor nutritional status of arriving refugees and elevated mortality rates. To assess the nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and mortality rates (crude [all ages] and aged <5 years), the Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (an Ethiopian government aid agency), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Food Programme, and United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with CDC, conducted cross-sectional population-representative surveys in Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi camps during June-July 2014. Anthropometric measurements in children were taken using standard procedures, and nutritional status was classified based on 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards. Hemoglobin was measured using HemoCue Hb 301. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO thresholds. Retrospective mortality rates in Leitchuor and Kule were measured using a household census method.

  14. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deribe, Kebede; Cano, Jorge; Newport, Melanie J.; Golding, Nick; Pullan, Rachel L.; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P.; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J.; Aseffa, Abraham; Hay, Simon I.; Reithinger, Richard; Enquselassie, Fikre; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues. Methodology Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008–2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district) health offices’ reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence. Principal Findings Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2–51.7) million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3–64.8% of Ethiopia’s national population) lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis. Conclusions Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental

  15. Post-rifting relaxation in the Afar region, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooner, Scott L.; Bennati, Laura; Calais, Eric; Buck, W. Roger; Hamling, Ian J.; Wright, Tim J.; Lewi, Elias

    2009-11-01

    Crustal accretion at divergent plate boundaries typically occurs via the periodic intrusion of dikes, but their emplacement and the associated deformation are rarely observed. The few existing observations at subaerial rifts show that these diking events are followed by a decadal-scale period with extension rates faster than the secular divergent plate motion. This transient accelerated deformation has been explained by continued subsurface magma injection or by relaxation, in the viscoelastic mantle, of the stress changes imparted by dike opening. For the first time, GPS measurements were collected within a few months of a rifting event at a major plate boundary, the September 2005, 60 km-long dike intrusion in the Dabbahu segment, Afar, Ethiopia. Extension rates for the first 3 years greatly exceed the plate motion (Nubia-Arabia) secular divergence rate, even at sites located more than 60 km from the rift axis. Here we show that these observations are consistent with stress relaxation in a viscoelastic upper mantle with a viscosity of about 5 × 1018 Pa·s overlain by a 12-14 km-thick elastic crust. The alternative model of continued diking requires continuous opening well below the Moho and is therefore unlikely. Instead, magma injection in Afar since June 2006 has taken the form of smaller discrete diking events, tapping into a mid-crustal melt reservoir under the segment center.

  16. Low-land Gully Formation in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijkee, Pim; Keesstra, Saskia; Mekonnen Gethahun, Mulatie

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation and related processes such as gullying, flooding and sedimentation, are global phenomena. Their economic consequences however are more severe in developing countries, which lack resources for prevention and mitigation. In Ethiopia, therefore, gully erosion as a form of land degradation is a prime issue. Over the past decade, gullies have formed in the foothills of the Minizr sub-catchment in the highlands of North-Western Ethiopia. Local extension workers have reported increased gully growth rates in the past five years in the downslope foothill areas. This study answers the following questions: has the gully growth rate indeed increased over the past five years compared to historical rates? What is the mechanism behind gully formation in the study area? In addition, this study looked at three possible root causes for increased erosion rates: changing land use, an increase in the ground water level, and the implementation of soil and water conservation measures in the watershed of the study area. The merit of this study is twofold. First, it shows the applicability of a fast, accessible and accurate way to digitally represent gullies through the use of video footage and photogrammetry. Secondly, it shows the dominant processes in gully formation in the area, allowing for a justified selection of measures to halt further gully growth and rehabilitate existing gullies. Two medium and one large gully were selected for detailed analysis. All gullies were located in gently-sloped areas (0-5%), with Vertisol-dominated soils. Gully shape and volume were derived using terrestrial photogrammetry in AgiSoft PhotoScan Professional. Still frames exported from video footage served as input. Approximately 30 points per gully were sampled weekly for soil moisture content over the course of September, November, and December 2014. In addition, the sites were checked for signs of subsurface flow at the end of the rainy season and again 3 months into the dry season

  17. Mapping Distribution and Forecasting Invasion of Prosopis juliflora in Ethiopia's Afar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. M.; Wakie, T.; Luizza, M.; Evangelista, P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasion of non-native species is among the most critical threats to natural ecosystems and economies world-wide. Mesquite (which includes some 45 species) is an invasive deciduous tree which is known to have an array of negative impacts on ecosystems and rural livelihoods in arid and semi-arid regions around the world, dominating millions of hectares of land in Asia, Africa, Australia and the Americas. In Ethiopia, Prosopis juliflora (the only reported mesquite) is the most pervasive plant invader, threatening local livelihoods and the country's unique biodiversity. Due to its rapid spread and persistence, P. juliflora has been ranked as one of the leading threats to traditional land use, exceeded only by drought and conflict. This project utilized NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) data and species distribution modeling to map current infestations of P. juliflora in the Afar region of northeastern Ethiopia, and forecast its suitable habitat across the entire country. This project provided a time and cost-effective strategy for conducting risk assessments of invasive mesquite and subsequent monitoring and mitigation efforts by land managers and local communities.

  18. Drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Mengistu; Kebebe Borga, Dereje; Mulisa Bobasa, Eshetu

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustaining the availability and rational use of safe and effective drugs is a major problem in developing countries. Irrational drug use affects quality of health care more than accessibility of drugs. Objective To assess drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone from January 21–28, 2012 by using structured questionnaires. Results Of 50 prescribers and 30 dispensers, 58% and 83.3% were males, respectively. The result showed that majority of prescribers agreed on availability of essential drugs (72%) and had access to up-to-date drug information (76%). However, 43.3% of dispensers didn’t get access to up-to-date drug information. 86% and 88% of prescribers note cost of drugs and stick to standard treatment guidelines of Ethiopia during prescription, respectively. All drug dispensers check the name of the drug (100%), age of the patient (90%), the dosage form of drug (96.7%), the route of administration (90%), the duration of therapy (86.7%), and frequency of administration (86.7%) for prescription papers. Conclusion In general, drug utilization at the study sites was found to be good, although there are major deviations from the concept of rational drug use. PMID:26229506

  19. Uppermost mantle (Pn) velocity model for the Afar region, Ethiopia: an insight into rifting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, A. L.; Stuart, G. W.; Henderson, C. M.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J. O. S.

    2013-04-01

    The Afar Depression, Ethiopia, offers unique opportunities to study the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading because the process is occurring onland. Using traveltime tomography and data from a temporary seismic deployment, we describe the first regional study of uppermost mantle P-wave velocities (VPn). We find two separate low VPn zones (as low as 7.2 km s-1) beneath regions of localized thinned crust in northern Afar, indicating the existence of high temperatures and, potentially, partial melt. The zones are beneath and off-axis from, contemporary crustal magma intrusions in active magmatic segments, the Dabbahu-Manda-Hararo and Erta'Ale segments. This suggests that these intrusions can be fed by off-axis delivery of melt in the uppermost mantle and that discrete areas of mantle upwelling and partial melting, thought to characterize segmentation of the uppermost mantle at seafloor spreading centres, are initiated during the final stages of break-up.

  20. Famine in Ethiopia 1983-1985: kwashiorkor and marasmus in four regions.

    PubMed

    Lindtjørn, B

    1987-03-01

    Parts of southern Ethiopia were form 1983 to 1985 affected by drought and famine. This study describes the prevalence of marasmus and kwashiorkor in four drought-affected regions: Bale, Sidamo, Gamu Gofa and southern Shoa. An analysis of 37,511 children in the 1-5 year age group representing 212 communities has been performed. The study demonstrates that both marasmus and kwashiorkor are facets of drought. The epidemiologies of kwashiorkor and marasmus differ: marasmus is the most common form of acute malnutrition in all areas, while kwashiorkor is found in a limited number of communities only. These latter communities have a subsistence farming economy, most often in ensete-growing areas. In the lowland semi-arid regions, which have an agro-pastoralist economy, kwashiorkor is virtually absent. These epidemiological findings are discussed in relation to different theories of the aetiology and pathogenesis of kwashiorkor.

  1. Evaluation of quality of beef produced and sold in parts of Tigray Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Kebede, Etsay; Kassaye, Enquebaher

    2010-03-01

    Microbiological and physical quality of 83 samples of beef produced and marketed in some parts of Tigray region of Ethiopia were evaluated. The color, marbling, pH, bleeding status and aerobic plate count (APC) were within permissible limits in 35(42.16%), 47(56.63%), 51 (61.44%), 13(15.66%) and 20(24.09%) samples, respectively. Based on these parameters, a high percentage of samples (varying from 38.56%-84.34%) were of unsatisfactory quality. Such a widespread imperfect bleeding (84.34%) and high APC (75.91%) emphasize the need to improve the techniques of bleeding and hygienic conditions at the time of production of meat at abattoir and its marketing. PMID:19728134

  2. Newborn care practices at home and in health facilities in 4 regions of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the ten countries with the highest number of neonatal deaths globally, and only 1 in 10 women deliver with a skilled attendant. Promotion of essential newborn care practices is one strategy for improving newborn health outcomes that can be delivered in communities as well as facilities. This article describes newborn care practices reported by recently-delivered women (RDWs) in four regions of Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a household survey with two-stage cluster sampling to assess newborn care practices among women who delivered a live baby in the period 1 to 7 months prior to data collection. Results The majority of women made one antenatal care (ANC) visit to a health facility, although less than half made four or more visits and women were most likely to deliver their babies at home. About one-fifth of RDWs in this survey had contact with Health Extension Workers (HEWS) during ANC, but nurse/midwives were the most common providers, and few women had postnatal contact with any health provider. Common beneficial newborn care practices included exclusive breastfeeding (87.6%), wrapping the baby before delivery of the placenta (82.3%), and dry cord care (65.2%). Practices contrary to WHO recommendations that were reported in this population of recent mothers include bathing during the first 24 hours of life (74.7%), application of butter and other substances to the cord (19.9%), and discarding of colostrum milk (44.5%). The results suggest that there are not large differences for most essential newborn care indicators between facility and home deliveries, with the exception of delayed bathing and skin-to-skin care. Conclusions Improving newborn care and newborn health outcomes in Ethiopia will likely require a multifaceted approach. Given low facility delivery rates, community-based promotion of preventive newborn care practices, which has been effective in other settings, is an important strategy. For this strategy to be

  3. Spatial synchrony of malaria outbreaks in a highland region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wimberly, Michael C; Midekisa, Alemayehu; Semuniguse, Paulos; Teka, Hiwot; Henebry, Geoffrey M; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Senay, Gabriel B

    2012-10-01

    To understand the drivers and consequences of malaria in epidemic-prone regions, it is important to know whether epidemics emerge independently in different areas as a consequence of local contingencies, or whether they are synchronised across larger regions as a result of climatic fluctuations and other broad-scale drivers. To address this question, we collected historical malaria surveillance data for the Amhara region of Ethiopia and analysed them to assess the consistency of various indicators of malaria risk and determine the dominant spatial and temporal patterns of malaria within the region. We collected data from a total of 49 districts from 1999-2010. Data availability was better for more recent years and more data were available for clinically diagnosed outpatient malaria cases than confirmed malaria cases. Temporal patterns of outpatient malaria case counts were correlated with the proportion of outpatients diagnosed with malaria and confirmed malaria case counts. The proportion of outpatients diagnosed with malaria was spatially clustered, and these cluster locations were generally consistent from year to year. Outpatient malaria cases exhibited spatial synchrony at distances up to 300 km, supporting the hypothesis that regional climatic variability is an important driver of epidemics. Our results suggest that decomposing malaria risk into separate spatial and temporal components may be an effective strategy for modelling and forecasting malaria risk across large areas. They also emphasise both the value and limitations of working with historical surveillance datasets and highlight the importance of enhancing existing surveillance efforts.

  4. HIV Prevalence Correlates with High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Ethiopia's Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Chris R.; Tsoumanis, Achilleas; Schwartz, Ilan Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia’s eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation. Methods We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. Results There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0.87; P < 0.001; women: r = 0.60; P = 0.05); reporting sex with a non-married, non-cohabiting partner (men: r = 0.92; P < 0.001, women r = 0.93; P < 0.001); and premarital sex. Condom usage and HIV testing were positively associated with HIV prevalence, while the prevalence of circumcision, polygamy, age at sexual debut and male migration were not associated with HIV prevalence. Conclusion Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence by region in Ethiopia. Population-level interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior in high HIV incidence regions should be considered. PMID:26496073

  5. Correlates of postpartum common mental disorders: results from a population-based study in Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Parcesepe, Angela; Mekuria, Yared Getachew; Abitew, Dereje Birhanu; Gebeyehu, Wondimu; Okello, Francis; Shattuck, Dominick

    2016-10-01

    Postpartum common mental disorders are prevalent among women in Ethiopia. Data on associated factors are limited. This population-based study assessed mental health among 1294 nonpregnant, postpartum women in Amhara region. Poor health of the last delivered child and inequitable gender attitudes were associated with poor mental health among other factors. Social support from female friends was strongly protective. Community mental health services could strengthen social support between female friends with education and support group facilitation by health extension workers. PMID:26961004

  6. Tuberculosis Laboratory Diagnosis Quality Assurance among Public Health Facilities in West Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Hailu, Hiwot Amare; Fola, Abebe Alemu; Derebe, Mulatu Melese; Kebede, Aimro Tadese; Kebede, Abayneh Admas; Emiru, Manamnot Agegne; Gelaw, Zelalem Dessie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Reliable smear microscopy is an important component of Directly Observed Treatment Scheme (DOTS) strategy for TB control program in countries with limited resources. Despite external quality assessment is established in Ethiopia, there is lower TB detection rate (48%) in Amhara region compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate (70%). This highlights the quality of smear microscopy needs to be evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy performance among health center laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from July 08, 2013 to July 07, 2014. Data were collected from 201 public health center laboratories using a structured questionnaire. Slides were collected based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method and rechecked blindly by trained laboratory technologists. The data were entered into EPI info V.7 and smear quality indicators and AFB results were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results Among 201 laboratories enrolled in this study, 47 (23.4%) laboratories had major errors. Forty one (20.4%) laboratories had a total of 67 false negative and 29 (14.4%) laboratories had a total of 68 false positive results. Specimen quality, smear thickness and evenness were found poor in 134 (66.7%), 133 (66.2%) and 126 (62.7%) laboratories, respectively. Unavailability of microscope lens cleaning solution (AOR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.25–6.75; P: 0.013) and dirty smears (AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.14–6.18; P: 0.024) were correlated with false negative results whereas no previous EQA participation (AOR: 3.43; 95% CI: 1. 39-8.45; P: 0.007) was associated with false positive results. Conclusion The performance of health facilities for sputum smear microscopy was relatively poor in West Amhara region. Hence, strengthening the EQA program and technical support on sputum smear microscopy are recommended to ensure quality tuberculosis diagnostic

  7. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (< 20% versus ≥ 20%). The selected model was geographically and temporally validated. Model-predicted probabilities of low community sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. PMID:27430547

  8. Bovine cysticercosis and its food safety implications in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Yitagele; Redwan, Feysel; Zewdu, Endrias

    2014-01-01

    Taenia saginata cysticercosis is one of the zoonotic diseases that threaten food safety and food security, particularly in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and cyst distribution in infected cattle, and food safety implications of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia. Post-mortem inspection of carcasses and organs of slaughtered cattle in Harar Municipal Abattoir, cyst viability tests and interviews with randomly selected meat consumers were undertaken. The post-mortem inspection showed that of the 898 local zebu cattle slaughtered for human consumption and examined for the presence of cysticerci of T. saginata, 19.7% (177/898; 95% CI = 17.2-22.5) harboured at least one cyst in the muscles or organs inspected. Of the edible anatomical sites with cysticerci, shoulder muscle, liver and heart together represented 65.4%, 66.0% and 65.4% respectively of relative prevalence, total cyst count and cyst viability. These edible sites are preferred above others by local people for preparation and consumption of raw or inadequately cooked meat dishes that are locally served as kurt, kitffo and dullet. The interviews revealed that among the 300 study participants, 182 (60.7%) had been infected by taeniosis at least once during the previous year and of these 99.0% had eaten raw or undercooked beef, the majority (88.3%) obtained from butchers assumed to provide officially inspected meat that was fit for consumption. This indicated that existing meat inspection processes were inadequate to prevent carcasses infected with T. saginata cysticerci from reaching consumers. The high prevalence of viable cysts in the edible parts of beef together with the widespread consumption of raw or undercooked beef indicated the importance of T. saginata cysticercosis as a food safety problem in eastern Ethiopia. The promotion of policies to upgrade existing meat inspection procedures and

  9. Immunization Coverage Surveys and Linked Biomarker Serosurveys in Three Regions in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Travassos, Mark A.; Beyene, Berhane; Adam, Zenaw; Campbell, James D.; Mulholland, Nigisti; Diarra, Seydou S.; Kassa, Tassew; Oot, Lisa; Sequeira, Jenny; Reymann, Mardi; Blackwelder, William C.; Wu, Yukun; Ruslanova, Inna; Goswami, Jaya; Sow, Samba O.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Steinglass, Robert; Kebede, Amha; Levine, Myron M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Demographic and health surveys, immunization coverage surveys and administrative data often divergently estimate vaccination coverage, which hinders pinpointing districts where immunization services require strengthening. We assayed vaccination coverage in three regions in Ethiopia by coverage surveys and linked serosurveys. Methods Households with children aged 12–23 (N = 300) or 6–8 months (N = 100) in each of three districts (woredas) were randomly selected for immunization coverage surveys (inspection of vaccination cards and immunization clinic records and maternal recall) and linked serosurveys. IgG-ELISA serologic biomarkers included tetanus antitoxin ≥ 0.15 IU/ml in toddlers (receipt of tetanus toxoid) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) anti-capsular titers ≥ 1.0 mcg/ml in infants (timely receipt of Hib vaccine). Findings Coverage surveys enrolled 1,181 children across three woredas; 1,023 (87%) also enrolled in linked serosurveys. Administrative data over-estimated coverage compared to surveys, while maternal recall was unreliable. Serologic biomarkers documented a hierarchy among the districts. Biomarker measurement in infants provided insight on timeliness of vaccination not deducible from toddler results. Conclusion Neither administrative projections, vaccination card or EPI register inspections, nor parental recall, substitute for objective serological biomarker measurement. Including infants in serosurveys informs on vaccination timeliness. PMID:26934372

  10. Distribution and Availability of Essential Tuberculosis Diagnostic Items in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sinishaw, Mulusew Alemneh; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Shiferaw, Melashu Balew

    2015-01-01

    Adequate supplies of tuberculosis laboratory reagents and consumables are necessary for tuberculosis diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response. This study assessed the distribution and stock levels of laboratory commodities used in tuberculosis control in health centers of Amhara region, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 82 health centers, among 801, providing sputum microscopy services. Stock levels were calculated, and distribution of reagents and consumables assessed. Thirty three (40.2%) health centers were under stocked for at least one of the key items for tuberculosis diagnosis at the time of visit. Fifteen (18.3%) health centers had no stocks of at least one of the key items (methylene blue (11%), carbol fuchsin (11%), acid alcohol (8.5%) and sputum cups (3.7%)). Of the 82 health centers, 77 (93.9%) did not fulfill the criteria for effective distribution of tuberculosis laboratory reagents and consumables. There were many health centers that had no or only low stocks of key tuberculosis laboratory reagents and consumables as a result of ineffective distribution system. It is necessary to strengthen supply chain management to ensure uninterrupted TB diagnostic service. PMID:26641097

  11. Distribution and Availability of Essential Tuberculosis Diagnostic Items in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sinishaw, Mulusew Alemneh; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Shiferaw, Melashu Balew

    2015-01-01

    Adequate supplies of tuberculosis laboratory reagents and consumables are necessary for tuberculosis diagnosis and monitoring of treatment response. This study assessed the distribution and stock levels of laboratory commodities used in tuberculosis control in health centers of Amhara region, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 82 health centers, among 801, providing sputum microscopy services. Stock levels were calculated, and distribution of reagents and consumables assessed. Thirty three (40.2%) health centers were under stocked for at least one of the key items for tuberculosis diagnosis at the time of visit. Fifteen (18.3%) health centers had no stocks of at least one of the key items (methylene blue (11%), carbol fuchsin (11%), acid alcohol (8.5%) and sputum cups (3.7%)). Of the 82 health centers, 77 (93.9%) did not fulfill the criteria for effective distribution of tuberculosis laboratory reagents and consumables. There were many health centers that had no or only low stocks of key tuberculosis laboratory reagents and consumables as a result of ineffective distribution system. It is necessary to strengthen supply chain management to ensure uninterrupted TB diagnostic service.

  12. Camel milk, amoxicillin, and a prayer: medical pluralism and medical humanitarian aid in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2014-11-01

    This paper details how exposure to new clinics, diagnostic technologies, and pharmaceuticals during humanitarian relief operations in the Somali Region of Ethiopia shaped local pluralistic health systems and altered the ways in which residents subsequently conceived of and treated illness and disease. Despite rising demand for pharmaceuticals and diagnostic technologies among Somalis in Ethiopia, local ethnophysiologies continued to draw upon popular ideas about humoral flows, divine action, and spirit possession. Demands for therapeutic camel milk, Qur'anic spiritual healing, herbal remedies, and other historically popular therapies persisted, but were shaped by concurrent demands for and understandings of diagnostic biotechnologies and pharmaceutical medications. The reverse was also true: contemporary understandings and uses of non-biomedical healing modalities among Somalis shaped evaluations of clinical care, including healthcare during humanitarian responses. To illustrate these phenomena, based on ethnographic research in eastern Ethiopia between 2007 and 2009, this paper explores three topics vital to Somalis' pluralistic healthcare systems: camel milk and the management of digestive bile; women's experiences and clinical presentations with pain and disorder in their reproductive systems; and the rising popularity of high-tech diagnostic tests. I conclude that medical humanitarian aid never happens in a vacuum or among truly treatment-naïve populations. Instead, aid unfolds within ever-changing and pluralistic health cultures, and it permanently alters and is altered by the frames within which people evaluate and make future decisions about healthcare. PMID:24673888

  13. Khat Chewing Practice and Associated Factors among Adults in Ethiopia: Further Analysis Using the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Demewoz; Lakew, Yihunie

    2015-01-01

    Background Khat chewing has become a highly prevalent practice and a growing public health concern in Ethiopia. Although there have been many small scale studies, very limited national information has been available in the general population. This study aimed to identify factors associated with khat chewing practice among Ethiopian adults. Methods The study used the 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data. The survey was cross-sectional by design and used a multistage cluster sampling procedure. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to quantify the predictors. Results The overall khat chewing prevalence was 15.3% (95% CI: 14.90–15.71). Regional variation was observed with the highest in Harari [(53.2% (95% CI: 43.04–63.28)] and lowest in Tigray regional state [(1.1% (95% CI: 0.72–1.66)]. Multivariable analysis showed that Islam followers were 23.8 times more likely to chew khat as compared to Orthodox followers. Being a resident in Oromiya, South Nation, Nationalities and People (SNNP), Gambella, Harari and Dire Dawa regions had 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, 5.2 and 3.5 times higher odds of chewing khat as compared to Addis Ababa residents, respectively. Adults in the age group 45–49 years were 3.6 times more likely to chew khat as compared to 15–19 years. The middle and richest wealth quintiles were 1.3 and 1.5 times more likely to chew khat, respectively, as compared to the poorest category. Rural residents had 1.3 odds of chewing khat than urban residents. Those individuals who had occupation in sales, agriculture, service sector, skilled and unskilled manual workers were 1.6, 1.3, 2.4, 1.7 and 2.3 times more likely to chew khat, respectively, as compared to those who have no occupation. Females were 77% less likely to chew khat as compared to males. Formerly married and those experienced in child death had 1.4 and 1.2 times higher odds to chew khat as compared

  14. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between July and September 2011 through semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises and field observations. For the interviews, 72 knowledgeable informants were sampled using purposive sampling method. For the different ranking exercises, key informants were identified with the help of elders and local administrators from informants that were already involved in the interviews. Results The study revealed 114 medicinal plant species belonging to 100 genera and 53 families. The plants were used to treat 47 human and 19 livestock diseases. Of the species, the majority (74%) were obtained from the wild. Herbs were the most utilized plants, accounting for 44% of the species, followed by shrubs (29%). Leaf was the most commonly used plant part accounting for 42.98% of the plants, followed by roots (25.73%). Preference ranking exercise on selected plants used against abdominal pain indicated the highest preference of people for Solanum marginatum. Direct matrix ranking showed Cordia africana as the most preferred multipurpose plant in the community. Preference ranking of selected scarce medicinal plants indicated Myrica salicifolia as the most scarce species, followed by Boscia salicifolia and Acokanthera schimperi. According to priority ranking, drought was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by overgrazing and firewood collection. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still playing significant role in the management of various human and livestock diseases in

  15. How a geomorphosite inventory can contribute to regional sustainable development? The case of the Simen Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhofer, Lukas; Reynard, Emmanuel; Asrat, Asfawossen; Hurni, Hans; Wildlife Conservation Authority, Ethiopian

    2016-04-01

    This research aimed at investigating how an inventory of geomorphosites can foster or improve the knowledge and management of geomorphological heritages in the context of developing countries. Accordingly, a geomorphosite inventory in the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP), Ethiopia was conducted following the method of Reynard et al. (2015). The national context of geoheritage and geoconservation in Ethiopia was appraised and a road map for the management of the inventoried sites in the SMNP was elaborated. Ethiopia hosts numerous geoheritage sites, some of which of highest international significance. Therefore, geotourism has recently been promoted throughout the country (Asrat et al., 2008). Despite numerous trials of the scientific community, there is not yet a national policy for geoconservation in the country. Many parts of Ethiopia are underdeveloped in terms of economic subsistence and infrastructure, making these immediate priorities over conservation efforts. Nevertheless, this study showed that the Simen Mountains have the potential to become a UNESCO Global Geopark and that geosites could be used to develop geotourism within SMNP, and that development and conservation are not contradictory. Twenty-one geomorphosites were identified and assessed. Diverse geomorphological contexts including fluvial, structural, glacial, periglacial, anthropic and organic characterize the SMNP. The temporal stages, which allow the reconstitution of the morphogenesis of the Simen Mountains, are the Cenozoic volcanism, Last Glacial Maximum, Holocene as well as historic/modern landscape modification. Four synthesis maps were elaborated to present the results of the assessment. The average scientific value of the inventoried geomorphosites is very high compared to other inventories realized using the same method. This is particularly due to the extremely high integrity of the sites. Almost all geomorphosites are in a good state of conservation and only few sites are

  16. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yallew, Walelegn Worku; Kumie, Abera; Yehuala, Feleke Moges

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years). A total of 650 (71.6%) patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1). Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4%) were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was statistically significant. Conclusion It was observed that the prevalence of HAI was high in the teaching hospitals. Surgical site infections and pneumonia were the most common types of HAIs. Hospital management should give more attention to promoting infection prevention practice for better control of HAIs in teaching hospitals.

  17. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yallew, Walelegn Worku; Kumie, Abera; Yehuala, Feleke Moges

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years). A total of 650 (71.6%) patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1). Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4%) were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was statistically significant. Conclusion It was observed that the prevalence of HAI was high in the teaching hospitals. Surgical site infections and pneumonia were the most common types of HAIs. Hospital management should give more attention to promoting infection prevention practice for better control of HAIs in teaching hospitals. PMID:27601932

  18. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  19. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wakie, Tewodros; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species-occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  20. Intent to stay in the nursing profession and associated factors among nurses working in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses are essential to the health care delivery system especially to meet the health related millennium development goals. However, despite the significant shortage of nurses in Ethiopia, research in the country regarding nurses’ intent to stay in their profession is lacking. This study assessed intent to stay in the nursing profession and associated factors among nurses working in referral hospitals, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 389 nurses from April 8 to May 5, 2013. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the study participants from five referral hospitals. Data were collected using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were conducted to summarize the sample characteristics. Backward stepwise logistic regression model was fitted and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated to identify associated factors. Results The proportion of nurses who reported intent to stay in the nursing profession was 39.8%. Age 40 to 49 (AOR [95% CI] 4.5 [1.6-12.8]), being married (AOR [95% CI] 2.0 [1.0-3.8]), having a bachelor degree in nursing (AOR [95% CI] 2.2 [1.2-4.1]), satisfaction with: autonomy and professional opportunities (AOR [95% CI] 2.6 [1.2-5.9]), scheduling (AOR [95% CI] 3.4 [1.6-7.5]), and pay and benefits (AOR [95% CI] 8.8 [4.5-17.1]); high continuance commitment (AOR [95% CI] 2.4 [1.3-4.8]) and high normative commitment (AOR [95% CI] 3.7 [1.9-7.2]) were the significant predictors of intent to stay in the nursing profession. Conclusions Intent to stay in the nursing profession was low among nurses working in Amhara Regional State referral hospitals. Interventions aimed at increasing the professional autonomy of nurses and revising the current salary and other duty payments are vital. PMID:25180028

  1. Risky Sexual Behaviors among Female Youth in Tiss Abay, a Semi-Urban Area of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Gojjam; Yakob, Bereket

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about sexual risks and associated factors about female youths in semi-urban areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to describe the nature and magnitude of risky sexual behaviors, and the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants among female youths in Tiss Abay, a semi-urban area on the outskirts of Bahir Dar City of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional census type study was conducted among female youths who were unmarried and aged 15–29 years in September 2011. Results 711 female youths participated in the study, with the mean age of initiation of sex of 78.6% being16.73±2.53 years. Only 52(9.3%) used condom during the first sex. Within the last 12 months, 509(71.6%) had sexual intercourse and 278(54.6%) had two or more sex partners, and 316(62.1%) did not use condom during their last sex. Sex under the influence of substances was reported by 350(68.8%), and a third of the recent sexes were against the will of participants. One or more risky sexual practices were reported by 503(70.3%) participants, including: multiple sexual partnerships, inconsistently using or not using condoms, sex under the influence of alcohol and/or sex immediately after watching pornography. Age group, current marital status, drinking homemade alcohol, chewing ‘khat’, watching pornography and using any form of stimulant substances were the predictors of risky sexual behavior. Watching pornography before sex and sex for transaction were the predicators of not using condom during most recent sex. Conclusions Risky sexual behaviors were very common among the female youths in Tiss Abay. Initiation of context-based interventions, such as raising awareness about the risks, safer sex practices, condom promotion and integration of gender issues in the programs are recommended. PMID:25738508

  2. Mapping Current and Potential Distribution of Non-Native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wakie, Tewodros T.; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries. PMID:25393396

  3. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Evangelista, Paul H; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries. PMID:25393396

  4. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Evangelista, Paul H; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  5. Beliefs and practices related to diarrhoeal diseases among mothers in Gondar region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sircar, B K; Dagnow, M B

    1988-07-01

    A survey was carried out amongst a population of 6236 on diarrhoeal mortality and morbidity along with beliefs and practices at Addis Zemen, Northwestern Ethiopia. The prevalence (13.5%) and the proportion of diarrhoea related deaths (41.7%) were high among children below five years. Most of the mothers believed that diarrhoea was caused by the will of God (33.1%) and by sorcery (11.5%). Medication ranged from modern drugs (37.4%) oral rehydration therapy (ORT) (26.2%), and traditional medicine (22.4%). 86.1% continued breast feeding during diarrhoea. About 81.2% of mothers who used ORT believed that ORT would stop diarrhoea. The prevalent beliefs related to breast feeding and the usage of ORT are useful and should be encouraged with proper education of mothers on the significance of ORT in prevention and correction of dehydration. PMID:3188219

  6. Epidemiological study on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sanja area, Amhara region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of schistosomiasis is well documented and its geographic distribution has been mapped and there is an ongoing mapping in Ethiopia. Nevertheless, new transmission foci have been discovered in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the establishment of transmission and determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school children from Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional parasitological survey involving 384 school children in two primary schools of Sanja Town was conducted between February and April 2013. Stool specimens were collected and microscopically examined using Kato-Katz and Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) concentration methods. Malacological survey was also carried out to identify snail intermediate hosts and larval infection rate in the snail. The snails collected were checked for trematode infection by shedding. Observation was also made on water contact habits of the study population. Results The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection using Kato-Katz method was high among male (79.5%) children in Sanja Primary school while it was high among female (75%) children in Ewket Amba Primary school. The prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection among Sanja Primary school children in the age groups 5–9 and 10–14 years were 84.6% and 75.2%, respectively while in Ewket Amba Primary school, the prevalence was 66% and 77.9% in the age groups 5–9 and 10–14 years respectively. The prevalence of schistosome infection in Biomphalaria pfeifferi was 16.9% and 0.027% during February and April, respectively. S. mansoni infection was successfully established in laboratory mice and adult worms were harvested after six weeks of laboratory maintenance. Observations made on water contact activities showed swimming, bathing and washing in the river and the stream as the high risk activities for Schistosoma mansoni infection. Conclusion The study has shown

  7. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ (2)-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P < 0.05) in sheep but not in goats (P > 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required. PMID:26464950

  8. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ2-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P < 0.05) in sheep but not in goats (P > 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required. PMID:26464950

  9. Plant use in Odo-Bulu and Demaro, Bale region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Swartzinsky, Paul; Worede, Aserat; Evangelista, Paul

    2011-09-24

    This paper reports on the plant use of laypeople of the Oromo in Southern Ethiopia. The Oromo in Bale had names/uses for 294 species in comparison to 230 species documented in the lower reaches of the Bale area. Only 13 species was used for veterinary purposes, or as human medicine (46). Plant medicine served mostly to treat common everyday ailments such as stomach problems and diarrhea, for wound treatment and as toothbrush-sticks, as anthelmintic, for skin infections and to treat sore muscles and. Interestingly, 9 species were used to treat spiritual ailments and to expel demons. In most cases of medicinal applications the leaves or roots were employed.Traditional plant knowledge has clearly declined in a large part of the research area. Western style health care services as provided by governments and NGOs, in particular in rural areas, seem to have contributed to a decline in traditional knowledge, in part because the local population simply regards western medicine as more effective and safer.

  10. Plant use in Odo-Bulu and Demaro, Bale region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the plant use of laypeople of the Oromo in Southern Ethiopia. The Oromo in Bale had names/uses for 294 species in comparison to 230 species documented in the lower reaches of the Bale area. Only 13 species was used for veterinary purposes, or as human medicine (46). Plant medicine served mostly to treat common everyday ailments such as stomach problems and diarrhea, for wound treatment and as toothbrush-sticks, as anthelmintic, for skin infections and to treat sore muscles and. Interestingly, 9 species were used to treat spiritual ailments and to expel demons. In most cases of medicinal applications the leaves or roots were employed. Traditional plant knowledge has clearly declined in a large part of the research area. Western style health care services as provided by governments and NGOs, in particular in rural areas, seem to have contributed to a decline in traditional knowledge, in part because the local population simply regards western medicine as more effective and safer. PMID:21943288

  11. Conservation of socioculturally important local crop biodiversity in the Oromia region of Ethiopia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Balemie, Kebu; Singh, Ranjay K

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers' varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat (Triticum turgidum) and tef (Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of "improved" and farmers' varieties. Of the farmers' varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers' varieties were suggested. PMID:22729809

  12. Conservation of Socioculturally Important Local Crop Biodiversity in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balemie, Kebu; Singh, Ranjay K.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers' varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat ( Triticum turgidum) and tef ( Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of "improved" and farmers' varieties. Of the farmers' varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers' varieties were suggested.

  13. A Venue-Based Survey of Malaria, Anemia and Mobility Patterns among Migrant Farm Workers in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Schicker, Rebekah Stewart; Hiruy, Neway; Melak, Berhanu; Gelaye, Woyneshet; Bezabih, Belay; Stephenson, Rob; Patterson, Amy E.; Tadesse, Zerihun; Emerson, Paul M.; Richards, Frank O.; Noland, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile populations present unique challenges to malaria control and elimination efforts. Each year, a large number of individuals travel to northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia to seek seasonal employment on large-scale farms. Agricultural areas typically report the heaviest malaria burden within Amhara thereby placing migrants at high risk of infection. Yet little is known about these seasonal migrants and their malaria-related risk factors. Methods and Findings In July 2013, a venue-based survey of 605 migrant laborers 18 years or older was conducted in two districts of North Gondar zone, Amhara. The study population was predominantly male (97.7%) and young (mean age 22.8 years). Plasmodium prevalence by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was 12.0%; One quarter (28.3%) of individuals were anemic (hemoglobin <13 g/dl). Nearly all participants (95.6%) originated from within Amhara Region, with half (51.6%) coming from within North Gondar zone. Around half (51.2%) slept in temporary shelters, while 20.5% regularly slept outside. Only 11.9% of participants had access to a long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN). Reported net use the previous night was 8.8% overall but 74.6% among those with LLIN access. Nearly one-third (30.1%) reported having fever within the past two weeks, of whom 31.3% sought care. Cost and distance were the main reported barriers to seeking care. LLIN access (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30, P = 0.04) and malaria knowledge (OR = 0.50, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with reduced Plasmodium infection among migrants, with a similar but non-significant trend observed for reported net use the previous night (OR = 0.16, P = 0.14). Conclusions High prevalence of malaria and anemia were observed among a young population that originated from relatively proximate areas. Low access to care and low IRS and LLIN coverage likely place migrant workers at significant risk of malaria in this area and their return home may facilitate parasite transport to other

  14. Determinants of Occupational Injury: A Case Control Study among Textile Factory Workers in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Aderaw, Zewdie; Engdaw, Dagnew; Tadesse, Takele

    2011-01-01

    Background. Occupational injuries pose major public health and socioeconomic developmental problems. However, efforts towards investigation of determinants among factory workers are very minimal in developing countries. Thus, this study aimed at to identify determinants of occupational injury among textile factory workers in Amahara regional state in Ethiopia. Methods. A case control study was done among 456 textile factory workers (152 cases and 304 controls). Self-reported data from workers and document review from factories clinics were used to ascertain occupational injury status within one-year period. Data was collected using pretested and structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to assess level significance. Results. Young age (<30 years) (AOR 1.90, 95% CI (1.22, 2.94)), male gender (AOR 2.54, 95% CI (1.58, 4.07)), health and safety training (AOR 1.85, 95% CI (1.17, 2.91)), sleeping disturbance (AOR 1.99, 95% CI (1.30, 3.04)), and job stress (AOR 2.25, 95% CI (1.15, 4.41)) were significant predictors of occupation injury. Conclusion. Lack of training, sleeping disturbance, and job stress increased the risk of occupational injury. So, providing basic health and safety training with special emphasis on younger and male workers, reducing stressors, and providing sleep health education were recommended. PMID:22174723

  15. Sero-prevalence and risk factors study of brucellosis in small ruminants in Southern Zone of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklue, Teshale; Tolosa, Tadele; Tuli, Getachew; Beyene, Belay; Hailu, Birhanu

    2013-11-01

    This study reports a prevalence and risk factor survey of brucellosis in small ruminants in Southern Zone of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia between October 2011 and April 2012 to determine the sero-prevalence of small-ruminant brucellosis and to identify associated risk factors for the occurrence of disease in small ruminants under extensive production system. Multistage random sampling was followed to select locations, flocks, and individual animals. Laboratory analysis of serum samples provided sero-prevalence estimates for flocks and geographic location. Information on risk factors at the individual and flock level was obtained by examination of individual animal and a questionnaire interview to flock owners. The overall individual animal-level sero-prevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants was 3.5 % and flock level sero-prevalence was 28.3 %, and the within-flock sero-prevalence was ranged from 0 % to 22.2 % based on the Complement Fixation Test. Multivariable logistic regression showed that the major risk factors for flock level sero-positivity were flock size and abortion history. This study showed that small-ruminant brucellosis is prevalent in the study area. Larger flock size and history of previous abortion in the flock were major risk factors identified for sero-positivity of small-ruminant brucellosis.

  16. Determinants of Neonatal Mortality in North Shoa Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kolola, Tufa; Ekubay, Meseret; Tesfa, Endalamaw; Morka, Wogene

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, neonatal mortality has been declined since the declaration of Millennium Developmental Goals, but the rate was slower since 2006. Thus, this study was designed to assess the determinants of neonatal mortality (NM) in North Shoa Zone. A community based case-control study was conducted on 84 cases and 252 controls. Cases were deceased new-borns within 28 days of birth while controls were infants survived beyond the first 28 days. Data were collected from mothers of the cases and controls using interviewer administered questionnaires. Multivariate analysis was done to examine determinants of NM. Variables significantly associated with NM in bivariate analysis were selected for multivariate analysis. Neonates whose mothers not attended antenatal care (AOR: 3.47; 95%CI: 1.44–8.32), delivered at home (AOR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.56–5.26), and not received postnatal care services (AOR: 3.09; 95%CI: 1.73–5.51) were more likely to die. The odds of neonatal death was higher among neonates not breastfed within the first hour of delivery than those who breastfed within the first hour of delivery (AOR: 23.48; 95%CI: 8.43–65.37). Likewise, no-colostrum intake was positively associated with neonatal death. Neonates born to mothers who not received or received a single dose of tetanus toxoid injection (TTI) were more likely to experience death than those neonates born to mothers who received two or more doses of TTI (AOR: 2.05; 95%CI: 1.14–3.70). Furthermore, being small in size at birth (AOR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.33–5.33) and male in sex (AOR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.06–3.26) were risk factors for NM. In conclusion, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with factors that are modifiable through addressing the continuum-of-care approach in healthcare services in North Shoa. This implies that ensuring a continuity of health care services for maternal and new-borns from antenatal to postnatal care will improve neonatal survival. PMID:27741284

  17. Health Care Seeking Behavior for Common Childhood Illnesses in Jeldu District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kolola, Tufa; Gezahegn, Takele; Addisie, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Background Even though health care seeking interventions potentially reduce child mortality from easily treatable diseases, significant numbers of children die without ever reaching a health facility or due to delays in seeking care in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses and associated factors. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeldu District from January to February 2011. A systematic sampling method was used for sample selection. Data were collected from 422 caregivers with under-five children who experienced diseases within six weeks before the survey. Interviewer administered structured and pre-tested questionnaire which were used to collect data. Data entry and cleaning were carried out using Epi Info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive analysis was done to determine the magnitude of health care seeking behavior. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify associated factors. Results A total of 422 caregivers of under-five children were participated in the study giving an overall response rate of 97.5%. Three hundred fifteen (74.6%) children sought care from health facilities for all conditions. However, only 55.4% of them were taken to health facilities as first source treatment during their illness and prompt care was also very low (13.7%). Marital status of the caregivers (AOR = 2.84; 95%CI: 1.62–4.98), number of symptoms experienced by the child (AOR = 2.04; 95%CI: 1.24–3.36) and perceived severity of the illness (AOR = 3.20; 95%CI: 1.96–5.22) were predictors of health care seeking behavior. Conclusion Health care seeking behavior for childhood illnesses was delayed and decision to seek care from health facilities was influenced by worsening of the illnesses. Thus, community level promotion of prompt health care seeking is essential to enhance the health care seeking behavior for child hood illnesses in the

  18. Ethnoveterinary plants of Ankober District, North Shewa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional herbal preparations for addressing veterinary problems have been applied in Ankober District, Ethiopia, for generations. However, the millennia-old ethnoveterinary knowledge of the community, and the plants are subjected to loss without being scientifically documented due to anthropogenic and environmental threats. Hence, this study aims at providing a comprehensive documentation on ethnoveterinary plant knowledge of the people in order to preserve the fast-eroding knowledge and resources of the area. Methods Semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, participant observation and walk-in-the-woods methods were used to gather ethnoveterinary data. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity level (FL) values were calculated using quantitative approaches so as to check the level of informants' agreement on plant use and healing potential of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species, respectively. Indigenous knowledge on use of medicinal plants for ethnoveterinary purposes among different informant groups was compared using One-way ANOVA and t-tests. Results A total of 51 plant species representing 50 genera and 35 botanical families used in the treatment of 33 different ailments were identified. Medicinal plant species belonging to families Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Ranunculaceae were reported to be of frequent use in the local ethnoveterinary medical system. Roots (65%, 33 species) were most often utilized for remedy preparation. Highest ICF values were recorded for gastro-intestinal (0.71) ailments depicting best agreement on knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat aliments in this category. Embelia schimperi Vatke showed highest fidelity level value (90%) to treat gastro-intestinal diseases showing conformity of knowledge on this species' healing potential. Significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in average number of therapeutic plants reported by senior members of the community than younger groups

  19. Isolation of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli O157 from Goats in the Somali Region of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional, Abattoir-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia's livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations. PMID:26561414

  20. Isolation of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli O157 from Goats in the Somali Region of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional, Abattoir-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia's livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations.

  1. Determinants of Desire for Children among HIV-Positive Women in the Afar Region, Ethiopia: Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The desire for a child in Ethiopian society is normal. Among HIV positive women, due to the risk of MTCT, it is imperative to understand factors influencing women’s desire for children. This study aimed at assessing factors associated with desire for children among HIV-positive women in two selected hospitals of Afar Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods A facility based case-control study was conducted among 157 cases (with a desire) and 157 controls of HIV positive individuals registered in the selected health facilities. The participants were selected by random sampling technique. Data were collected using face-to-face interview and was analyzed using logistic regression. Result Factors found to be independently associated with desire for children were age categories of 20–24 years (OR = 6.22, 1.29–10.87) and 25–29 years (OR = 14.6, 3.05–21.60), being married (OR = 5.51, 2.19–13.54), Afar ethnicity (OR 6.93, 1.19–12.14), having HIV-positive children (OR 0.23, 0.09–0.63), duration on ART more than one year (3.51, 1.68–9.05), CD4 count greater than 350 (OR 4.83, 1.51–7.27) and discussion of reproductive health issues with health providers (OR 0.31, 0.12–0.51). Conclusion Women who were young, married, Afar, those who received ART more than one year, and had CD4 count >350 were more likely to have a desire for children. Recommendation Health care workers at ART clinic should openly discuss about the reproductive options for the women living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26930467

  2. Nonadherence and factors affecting adherence of diabetic patients to anti-diabetic medication in Assela General Hospital, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kassahun, Ashebir; Gashe, Fanta; Mulisa, Eshetu; Rike, Wote Amelo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem covering approximately 347 million persons worldwide. Glycemic control has a main role in its management which mainly depends upon patient adherence to the treatment plan. Accurate assessment of medication adherence is necessary for effective management of diabetes. Objective: To assess nonadherence and factors affecting adherence of diabetic patients to anti-diabetic medication in Assela General Hospital (AGH), Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on patients seeking anti-diabetic drug treatment and follow-up at AGH using structured questionnaire and reviewing the patient record card using check list from January 24, 2014 to February 7, 2014. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the percentages and number of distributions of the variables in the study; and association was identified for categorical data. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: Of all respondents, 149 (52.3%) and 136 (47.7%) were female and male, respectively. The majority of the study participants 189 (66.3%) were in the age group of 30–60 years. Two-hundred nineteen (76.8%) of respondents were married currently. The majority, 237 (83.2%) of respondents did not have blood glucose self-monitoring equipment (glucometer). A total of 196 (68.8%) respondents were adhered to anti-diabetic medication. There was a significant association between adherence to the medication and side effect, level of education, monthly income and presence of glucometer at home (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The participants in the area of study were moderately adherent to their anti-diabetic medications with nonadherence rate of 31.2%. Different factors of medication nonadherence were identified such as side effect and complexity of regimen, failure to remember, and sociodemographic factors such as educational level and monthly income. PMID:27134464

  3. Health Extension Workers' and Mothers' Attitudes to Maternal Health Service Utilization and Acceptance in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Ruth; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Godefay, Hagos; Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher

    2016-01-01

    Background The maternal health system in Ethiopia links health posts in rural communities (kebeles) with district (woreda) health centres, and health centres with primary hospitals. At each health post two Health Extension Workers (HEWs) assist women with birth preparedness, complication readiness, and mobilize communities to facilitate timely referral to mid-level service providers. This study explored HEWs’ and mother’s attitudes to maternal health services in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region. Methods In this qualitative study, we trained 16 HEWs to interview 45 women to gain a better understanding of the social context of maternal health related behaviours. Themes included barriers to health services; women’s social status and mobility; and women’s perceptions of skilled birth attendant’s care. All data were analyzed thematically. Findings There have been substantial efforts to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality in Adwa Woreda. Women identified barriers to healthcare including distance and lack of transportation due to geographical factors; the absence of many husbands due to off-woreda farming; traditional factors such as zwar (some pregnant women are afraid of meeting other pregnant women), and discouragement from mothers and mothers-in-law who delivered their children at home. Some women experienced disrespectful care at the hospital. Facilitators to skilled birth attendance included: identification of pregnant women through Women’s Development Groups (WDGs), and referral by ambulance to health facilities either before a woman’s Expected Due Date (EDD) or if labour started at home. Conclusion With the support of WDGs, HEWs have increased the rate of skilled birth attendance by calling ambulances to transfer women to health centres either before their EDD or when labour starts at home. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that health workers at the community level can work with women’s groups to improve maternal

  4. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations and group discussion in which 63 (41 men & 22 women) randomly selected informants participated. Of which, 11 (10 male and 1 female) were local healers. Paired comparison method, direct matrix ranking and Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. Results A total of 126 medicinal plant species, distributed in 108 genera and 56 families, were collected together with their medicinal uses. Of the 126 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, eighty six (68%) were obtained from the wild whereas thirty three (26%) were from homegardens. The Fabaceae came out as a leading family with 15 medicinal species while the Solanaceae followed with eight species. Seventy eight (62%) of the medicinal plants were reported as being used for treating human ailments, 23 (18.2%) for the treatment of livestock ailments and 25 (20%) for both. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (43%), followed by roots (18.5%) while crushing, which accounted for (29%) and powdering (28%) were the widely used methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Conclusion The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the local people of the District indicate the depth of the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their application. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug. PMID:24295044

  5. Camelus dromedarius brucellosis and its public health associated risks in the Afar National Regional State in northeastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional study was carried out in four districts of the Afar region in Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in camels, and to identify risky practices that would facilitate the transmission of zoonoses to humans. This study involved testing 461 camels and interviewing 120 livestock owners. The modified Rose Bengal plate test (mRBPT) and complement fixation test (CFT) were used as screening and confirmatory tests, respectively. SPSS 16 was used to analyze the overall prevalence and potential risk factors for seropositivity, using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results In the camel herds tested, 5.4% had antibodies against Brucella species, and the district level seroprevalence ranged from 11.7% to 15.5% in camels. The logistic regression model for camels in a herd size > 20 animals (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.16-6.62) and greater than four years of age (OR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.45-16.82) showed a higher risk of infection when compared to small herds and those ≤ 4 years old. The questionnaire survey revealed that most respondents did not know about the transmission of zoonotic diseases, and that their practices could potentially facilitate the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Conclusions The results of this study revealed that camel brucellosis is prevalent in the study areas. Therefore, there is a need for implementing control measures and increasing public awareness in the prevention methods of brucellosis. PMID:24344729

  6. Molecular detection of Acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli), Bovicola bovis (B. bovis) and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus) on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus) on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger) on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001) higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1%) and keds (86.4%) including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001). Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001). Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.

  7. Patients’ preferences for attributes related to health care services at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Adugnaw; Enquselassie, Fikre

    2015-01-01

    Background Information from the patient’s point of view is essential in policy and clinical decisions. Prioritizing what patients value, need, and prefer in various aspects of a health program can be helpful in evaluating and designing hospital health care services. Objective To examine patients’ preference for attributes related to health care services and to ascertain the relative impact of attributes at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia. Methods A stated-preference discrete choice experiment survey was performed in multistage, stratified, and systematic sampling of patients who visited the hospitals. Attributes were selected based on a literature review of the most important characteristics of hospital health care service and reviewed and validated with inputs from patients and researchers in the field. Attributes included in the study were waiting time, physician communication, nursing communication, drug availability, continuity of care, and diagnostic facilities. A random-effects probit model was used to perform the analysis. Results One thousand and five respondents who received care in the outpatient and inpatient departments participated in the study. All attributes included in the study affected the choice of hospital. Patients were willing to wait up to 3.3 hours and 2.7 hours to get full drugs in the hospital and good nursing communication, respectively. The interaction terms indicate that preferences differ with the variables sex, occupation, and type of hospital. Patients expressed clear preferences in a decreasing order of all the significant attribute levels: a lot of diagnostic facilities, full drug availability, continuity of care, good nursing communication, partial drug availability, good physician communication, and shorter waiting time for the consultation. Conclusion Different hospital care attributes had a significant and different influence on patients’ choice of hospital. The study informs about patients’ preferences

  8. Fertility and child mortality in rural Ethiopia: Gondar and Hararge regions.

    PubMed

    Mengistu, G

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents fertility and child mortality estimates for agricultural households of the Gondar and Hararge regions, based on the 1981 Rural Demographic Survey. The study shows that fertility and child mortality are quite high in both regions as in the rest of the country. However, Hararge has significantly higher mean parity and child mortality than Gondar.

  9. Predictors of loss to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment for adult patients in the Oromia region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Megerso, Abebe; Garoma, Sileshi; Eticha, Tolosa; Workineh, Tilaye; Daba, Shallo; Tarekegn, Mihretu; Habtamu, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It is known that antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome related causes. Patient’s lost to follow-up (LTFU) in this treatment poses a paramount problem to the public and health care services. Information on predictors of loss to follow-up is scarce in this study area and similar settings. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying correlates of loss to follow-up in ART among adult patients in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. Methods A case–control study was conducted between February 2015 and April 2015 using medical records. The stratified sampling technique was used to select health facilities. The number of patient records to be included in the study was proportionally allocated to each stratum based on their patient proportion in the regional data. Specific health facilities from which to include the records were randomly selected from a list of the health facilities per stratum. All adult patient records registered as LTFU (416) in the selected health facilities during the 12-month period prior to the data collection date, and 832 patients with good adherence to ART were included. Data were double-entered into Epi Info 7 and analyzed using SPSS 20. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to report the results. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed using open code computer software. Results Age 15–24 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 19.82 95% CI: 6.80, 57.73); day laborers (AOR, 5.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.23, 8.89), rural residents (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.89), World Health Organization clinical stage IV (AOR, 2.29; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.62), baseline CD4 <350 cells/mL (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.13), suboptimal adherence to ART (AOR, 7.42; 95% CI: 1.87, 29.41), were factors which increased the risk of loss to follow-up in ART. Conclusion Multiple risk factors, both socioeconomic and clinical, were associated with loss to follow-up. Attention is required to

  10. Isolation of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli O157 from Goats in the Somali Region of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional, Abattoir-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dulo, Fitsum; Feleke, Aklilu; Szonyi, Barbara; Fries, Reinhard; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Toxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an important cause of gastroenteritis in developing countries. In Ethiopia, gastroenteritis due to food-borne disease is a leading cause of death. Yet, there is no surveillance for E. coli O157 and little is known about the carriage of this pathogen in Ethiopia’s livestock. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and levels of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli O157 in goat meat, feces, and environmental samples collected at a large abattoir in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The samples were enriched in modified tryptone broth containing novobiocin, and plated onto sorbitol MacConkey agar. Isolates were confirmed using indole test and latex agglutination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the disk diffusion method. A total of 235 samples, including 93 goat carcass swabs, 93 cecal contents, 14 water, 20 hand, and 15 knife swabs were collected. Overall, six (2.5%) samples were contaminated with E. coli O157 of which two (2.1%) were isolated from cecal contents, three (3.2%) from carcass swabs, and one (7.1%) from water. All isolates were resistant to at least two of the 18 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates (33.3%) were resistant to more than five antimicrobials. Abattoir facilities and slaughter techniques were conducive to carcass contamination. This study highlights how poor hygiene and slaughter practice can result in contaminated meat, which is especially risky in Ethiopia because of the common practice of eating raw meat. We detect multi-resistance to drugs not used in goats, suggesting that drugs used to treat human infections may be the originators of antimicrobial resistance in livestock in this ecosystem. The isolation of multidrug-resistant E. coli O157 from goats from a remote pastoralist system highlights the need for global action on regulating and monitoring antimicrobial use in both human and animal populations. PMID:26561414

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in bird species and their prey (fish) from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and stable isotopes were measured in muscle from 4 bird and 5 fish species from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region where DDT is used for malaria control and vast agricultural activities are carried out. We investigated the bioaccumulation of OCPs such as DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes, and heptachlors between the species, and examined the potential risk posed by these compounds for bird species. Significant differences in contaminant profiles and levels were observed within the species. Levels of total OCPs ranged from 3.7 to 148.7 μg/g lipid in bird and 0.04 to 10.9 μg/g lipid in fish species. DDTs were the predominant contaminant, and a positive relationship between δ(15)N and ΣDDT concentrations was found. The main DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant and significantly greater concentrations in bird species (up to 138.5 μg/g lipid), which could have deleterious effects on survival and/or reproduction of birds. PMID:24907858

  12. Organochlorine pesticides in bird species and their prey (fish) from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-09-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and stable isotopes were measured in muscle from 4 bird and 5 fish species from the Ethiopian Rift Valley region where DDT is used for malaria control and vast agricultural activities are carried out. We investigated the bioaccumulation of OCPs such as DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes, and heptachlors between the species, and examined the potential risk posed by these compounds for bird species. Significant differences in contaminant profiles and levels were observed within the species. Levels of total OCPs ranged from 3.7 to 148.7 μg/g lipid in bird and 0.04 to 10.9 μg/g lipid in fish species. DDTs were the predominant contaminant, and a positive relationship between δ(15)N and ΣDDT concentrations was found. The main DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant and significantly greater concentrations in bird species (up to 138.5 μg/g lipid), which could have deleterious effects on survival and/or reproduction of birds.

  13. Mange mites of sheep and goats in selected sites of Eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seid, Kibeb; Amare, Sisay; Tolossa, Yacob Hailu

    2016-03-01

    A cross sectional study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 324 sheep and 680 goats, to determine the prevalence of mange mites in sheep and goats, identifying the major species of mite and to determine the potential risk factors significantly predicting the disease. The result showed an overall mange mite prevalence of 7.5 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.5) in goats and 1.2 % (95 % CI 0.5-1.9) in sheep. The mites identified were Sarcoptes and Demodex in goats and Sarcoptes and Psoroptes in sheep. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (χ(2) = 16.636, P = 0.000). There was higher prevalence of mange mites in poor body condition than good body condition sheep and goats and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 5.513, P = 0.019 in sheep and χ(2) = 141.85, P = 0.000 in goats). But age and sex of the host animals and agro climates were not statistically significant predictors of prevalence of mange mite. This study demonstrated that mange mites are among the major parasitic health problems of shoats in Eastern Amhara region that require urgent control intervention. PMID:27065612

  14. The quality of sputum smear microscopy in public-private mix directly observed treatment laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Manalebh, Almaw; Demissie, Meaza; Mekonnen, Daniel; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia adopted Public-Private Mix Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Chemotherapy (PPM-DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control program. Quality of sputum smear microscopy has paramount importance for tuberculosis control program in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy in 37 Public-Private Mix laboratories in West Amhara, Ethiopia. The three external quality assessment methods (onsite evaluation, panel testing and blind rechecking) were employed. Onsite assessment revealed that 67.6% of PPM-DOTS laboratories were below the standard physical space (5 X 6) m2. The average monthly workload per laboratory technician was 19.5 (SD±2.9) slides with 12.8% positivity rate. The quality of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) staining reagents was sub-standard. The overall agreement for blind rechecking of 1,123 AFB slides was 99.4% (Kappa = 0.97). Reading of 370 AFB panel slides showed 3.5% false reading (Kappa = 0.92). Moreover, the consistency of reading scanty bacilli slides was lower (93%) compared to 1+, 2+ and 3+ bacilli. Based on blind rechecking and panel testing results, PPM-DOTS site laboratories showed good agreement with the reference laboratory. Physical space and qualities of AFB reagents would be areas of intervention to sustain the quality of sputum smear microscopy. Therefore, regular external quality assessment and provision of basic laboratory supplies for TB diagnosis would be the way forward to improve the quality of sputum smear microscopy services in PPM-DOTS laboratories.

  15. The Quality of Sputum Smear Microscopy in Public-Private Mix Directly Observed Treatment Laboratories in West Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Manalebh, Almaw; Demissie, Meaza; Mekonnen, Daniel; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia adopted Public-Private Mix Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Chemotherapy (PPM-DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control program. Quality of sputum smear microscopy has paramount importance for tuberculosis control program in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy in 37 Public-Private Mix laboratories in West Amhara, Ethiopia. The three external quality assessment methods (onsite evaluation, panel testing and blind rechecking) were employed. Onsite assessment revealed that 67.6% of PPM-DOTS laboratories were below the standard physical space (5 X 6) m2. The average monthly workload per laboratory technician was 19.5 (SD±2.9) slides with 12.8% positivity rate. The quality of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) staining reagents was sub-standard. The overall agreement for blind rechecking of 1,123 AFB slides was 99.4% (Kappa = 0.97). Reading of 370 AFB panel slides showed 3.5% false reading (Kappa = 0.92). Moreover, the consistency of reading scanty bacilli slides was lower (93%) compared to 1+, 2+ and 3+ bacilli. Based on blind rechecking and panel testing results, PPM-DOTS site laboratories showed good agreement with the reference laboratory. Physical space and qualities of AFB reagents would be areas of intervention to sustain the quality of sputum smear microscopy. Therefore, regular external quality assessment and provision of basic laboratory supplies for TB diagnosis would be the way forward to improve the quality of sputum smear microscopy services in PPM-DOTS laboratories. PMID:25849516

  16. Some structural aspects of urbanization in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1987-07-01

    This article studies the emerging patterns of urbanization in Ethiopia. Over the period from 1967-1984, a number of structural changes have occurred which are likely to play a dominant role in the future urban growth in Ethiopia. In spite of its long history of settled population, Ethiopia did not witness sustained growth of urban centers. Ethiopia is 1 of the least urbanized areas in the Third World. A 3rd aspect of urbanization in Ethiopia is the wide range of regional differentials in the level of urbanization. Most of the urban population is concentrated in 2 administrative regions--Shoa and Eritrea. A more balanced urban growth may, inter alia, involve a better spread in terms of higher education, industrialization, provision of health and social services, and the development of communication and commercial infrastructure. Another striking feature of urbanization in Ethiopia is that growth has not been disproportionately concentrated in the largest urban centers. The largest urban centers have not assumed an inordinately higher level of primacy. The basic form of the curve depicting the relationship between the size of a locality and its rank has remained unchanged over the period. The post-revolution land reforms and the new socioeconomic structure emerging from reorganization of the society appear to have a rural-urban migration inhibiting effect. Some of the country's regional differentials may be associated with environmental factors.

  17. Assessment of the magnitude and associated factors of immunological failure among adult and adolescent HIV-infected patients in St. Luke and Tulubolo Hospital, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayou, Bekelech; Sisay, Abay; Kumie, Abera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become a standard of care for the treatment of HIV infection. However, cost and resistance to ART are major obstacles for access to treatment especially in resource-limited settings. In this study, we aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of Immunological failure among adult and adolescent HIV infected Patients (with age ‘15yrs) on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in St. Luke and Tulu Bolo Hospitals, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among HIV-infected patients initiated 1st line ART at St. Luke and Tulu Bolo Hospitals, South West Shoa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Results A total of 828 patient charts were reviewed. 477(57.6%) were female and the median age was 32 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 148cells/mm3. The most common prescribed ART was TDF based (36.7%). Out of 828 patients chart reviewed 6.8% (56) were developed immunological failure. Out of them only 20 (2.4%) were detected and put on second line regimen. The incidence of immunological failure was 1.8 cases per 100 person years of follow-up. Patients who had not disclosed their HIV status to any one had high risk of immunological failure compared with patients those who had disclosed their HIV status (AHR, 0.429; 95% CI 0.206 - 0.893; P-value=0.024). Conclusion Non disclosures of HIV status and with ambulatory of baseline functional status were found to be predictors of immunological failure. Most of the immunological failure cases were not detected early and not switched to second line ARV regimen. So patients with the above risk factors should be considered for a timely switch to second line HAART. PMID:26587140

  18. Prevalence, risk factors, and major bacterial causes of camel mastitis in Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Regassa, Alemayehu; Golicha, Gelma; Tesfaye, Dawit; Abunna, Fufa; Megersa, Bekele

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to April 2011 to estimate mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors and to assess its bacterial causes in traditionally managed camels in Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thus, 348 lactating camels were examined clinically, and subclinical cases were checked with California mastitis test (CMT). The overall prevalence of mastitis was 44.8 % (156/348), comprising clinical (19, 5.4 %) and subclinical (137, 39.4 %) cases. The quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 24.0 % (334/1,392). Of the total 1,392 examined teats, 30 were blind, and hence, from the 1,362 non-blind CMT-examined teats, 22.3 % (304/1,362) were CMT positive. Of the 304 CMT-positive samples, 264 were culture positive (197 Gram-positive, 41 Gram-negative, and 26 mixed isolates), and 40 were culture negative. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest at both the animal (12.8 %, 39/304) and quarter level (2.9 %, 39/1,362). Regression analysis revealed higher likelihood of mastitis occurrence among camels from Dharito (OR = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.8, 6.4), Gagna (OR = 3.4, 95 % CI = 1.8, 6.5), and Haro Bake (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI = 1.3, 5.1) than camels from Surupha. Likewise, there was higher chance of mastitis occurrence among camels at the early lactation stage (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI = 1.1, 4.6) and camels with udder/teat lesions (OR = 13.7, 95 % CI = 1.7, 109.4) than among camels at late lactation stage and camels with healthy udder/teats, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals the current status of camel mastitis in Southern Ethiopia.

  19. Seroepidemiological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in East and West Shewa Zones of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed zoonosis. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat, which is among the main risk factors for acquiring human infection, is a popular tradition in Ethiopia. However, studies on toxoplasmosis in food animals used for human consumption in Ethiopia are very scarce. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the seroprevalence and the risk factors of T. gondii infection in sheep in Ambo, Ada’a-Liben and Fentale districts of Central Ethiopia. Sera from 1130 sheep were analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii specific IgG antibodies using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the P30 antigen. A questionnaire was administered to assess potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. Association of seroprevalence with potential risk factors related to altitude, host and farm characteristics were analyzed by univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results Overall flock and animal level seroprevalences were 70.48% (160/227; 95% CI: 64.51, 76.46) and 31.59% (357/1130; 95% CI: 28.88, 34.31), respectively. The multivariable logistic regression model indicated that the probability of acquiring T. gondii was higher in sheep from highland (2300 – 3200 meters above sea level) [Odds ratio (OR) = 4.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.65, 6.36; P < 0.001] and midland (OR = 4.54, 95% CI: 2.76, 7.49; P < 0.001) than from lowland (<1500 meters above sea level), in females than in males (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.43, P = 0.033), in adult than in young animals (OR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.97, 4.35, P < 0.001), in small than in large flocks (OR = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.26, 8.86, P = 0.016), and in sheep that were given tap water (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 1.07, 15.42, P = 0.039) and river water (OR = 4.18, 95% CI: 1.54, 11.35, P = 0.005) than in those that drunk water from mixed sources (i.e., river, well, lake and pond). Conclusions The high flock and animal

  20. Awareness of health effects of cooking smoke among women in the Gondar Region of Ethiopia: a pilot survey

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, M; Pitchforth, E; Asres, G; Silverman, M; Kulkarni, N

    2008-01-01

    Background The burning of biomass fuels results in exposure to high levels of indoor air pollution, with consequent health effects. Possible interventions to reduce the exposure include changing cooking practices and introduction of smoke-free stoves supported by health education. Social, cultural and financial constraints are major challenges to implementation and success of interventions. The objective of this study is to determine awareness of women in Gondar, Ethiopia to the harmful health effects of cooking smoke and to assess their willingness to change cooking practices. Methods We used a single, administered questionnaire which included questions on household circumstances, general health, awareness of health impact of cooking smoke and willingness to change. We interviewed 15 women from each of rural, urban-traditional and middle class backgrounds. Results Eighty percent of rural women cooked indoors using biomass fuel with no ventilation. Rural women reported two to three times more respiratory disease in their children and in themselves compared to the other two groups. Although aware of the negative effect of smoke on their own health, only 20% of participants realised it caused problems in children, and 13% thought it was a cause for concern. Once aware of adverse effects, women were willing to change cooking practices but were unable to afford cleaner fuels or improved stoves. Conclusion Increasing the awareness of the health-effects of indoor biomass cooking smoke may be the first step in implementing a programme to reduce exposure. PMID:18644103

  1. Ethnomedical survey of Berta ethnic group Assosa Zone, Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, mid-west Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Flatie, Teferi; Gedif, Teferi; Asres, Kaleab; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige

    2009-01-01

    Traditional medicine (TM) has been a major source of health care in Ethiopia as in most developing countries around the world. This survey examined the extent and factors determining the use of TM and medicinal plants by Berta community. One thousand and two hundred households (HHs) and fourteen traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and six focused group discussions (FGDs) were conducted. The prevalence of the use of TM in the two weeks recall period was 4.6%. The HH economic status was found to have a significant effect while the educational level and age of the patients have no effect either on the care seeking behavior or choice of care. Taking no action about a given health problem and using TM are common in females with low-income HHs. Forty plant species belonging to 23 families were reported, each with local names, methods of preparation and parts used. This study indicates that although the proportion of the population that uses TM may be small it is still an important component of the public health care in the study community as complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:19409096

  2. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS FROM AN AREA PREVIOUSLY NOT KNOWN TO BE ENDEMIC; DANGUR, BENSHANGUL-GUMUZ, REGIONAL STATE, NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA: A CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Abera, Adugna; Tasew, Geremew; Degu, Abay; Almneh, Mulusew; Mulugeta, Abate; Aseffa, Abraham; Gadisa, Endalamaw

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a ftial and growing public health problem in Ethiopia. VL is recently reported outside the major endemic foci, the lowlands in the northwest and the Omo and Abaroba-plain, Segen and Woito valleys in the southwest. Here, we report a visceral leishmaniasis case from Benishangul-Gumuz Regional state near the Guba area. The patient had no history of travel to known VL endemic areas. The patient is a temporary farm laborer from West Go'jam Zone, Wanbermna District in Amhara Regional State. While in Benishangul-Gumuz, the patient was diagnosed with prolonged and intermittentfever, epistaxis, splenomegaly, skin pallor, diarrhea, cough and oedema. Laboratory diagnosis results showed that he had marked leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia. The patient was suspected of having VL and checked with rK39 immunochromnatography and direct agglutination tests which were positive for anti leishmanial antibodies. After getting full dose of sodium stibogluconate as per the national visceral leishmaniasis treatment guideline, was clinically cured. As the area in Benshangul-Gumuz where this patient contracted visceral leishmaniasis is under social and ecological transformation with large scale projects attracting huge influx of temporary laborers and settlers, due attention is needed with respect to introduction or emergence of VL transmission. PMID:27191028

  3. Enterotoxin Gene Profile and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine Bulk Milk and Milk Products of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tarekgne, Enquebaher K; Skjerdal, Taran; Skeie, Siv; Rudi, Knut; Porcellato, Davide; Félix, Benjamin; Narvhus, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S. aureus, of which 82 (51%) were found to harbor se genes by a modified multiplex PCR. Nine se genes were identified: sea (n = 12), seb (n = 3), sec (n = 3), sed(n = 4), seg (n = 49), seh (n = 2), sei (n = 40), sej (n = 1), and tsst-1 (n = 24). The classical type of genes accounted for 27%. Of the 82 enterotoxigenic isolates, 41.5 and 12.4% harbored two or more se genes, respectively. The highest gene association was observed between sei and seg, whereas sea and seb were always found together with the new types of se genes. Altogether, 18 genotypes of toxin genes were identified, and 33% of the samples contained > 5 log CFU ml(-1) S. aureus. spa typing identified 22 spa types and three novel spa sequences, which showed the high genetic diversity of the isolates. No apparent relationship was observed between spa type and se genes. Of the 25 spa types, 13 (52%) were from raw milk, 3 (12%) from milk products, and 9 (36%) from both types of sample. Types t314 (20.7%,n = 17), t458 (18.3%, n = 15), and t6218 (9.8%, n= 8) were the most common spa types identified and were widely distributed in three of the eight studied localities. This is the first study from the Tigray region to report the high distribution of enterotoxigenic S. aureus with a diversified genetic background from dairy food. The study may provide valuable data for microbial food safety risk assessment, molecular epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies of S. aureus in Ethiopia.

  4. Enterotoxin Gene Profile and Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine Bulk Milk and Milk Products of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tarekgne, Enquebaher K; Skjerdal, Taran; Skeie, Siv; Rudi, Knut; Porcellato, Davide; Félix, Benjamin; Narvhus, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S. aureus, of which 82 (51%) were found to harbor se genes by a modified multiplex PCR. Nine se genes were identified: sea (n = 12), seb (n = 3), sec (n = 3), sed(n = 4), seg (n = 49), seh (n = 2), sei (n = 40), sej (n = 1), and tsst-1 (n = 24). The classical type of genes accounted for 27%. Of the 82 enterotoxigenic isolates, 41.5 and 12.4% harbored two or more se genes, respectively. The highest gene association was observed between sei and seg, whereas sea and seb were always found together with the new types of se genes. Altogether, 18 genotypes of toxin genes were identified, and 33% of the samples contained > 5 log CFU ml(-1) S. aureus. spa typing identified 22 spa types and three novel spa sequences, which showed the high genetic diversity of the isolates. No apparent relationship was observed between spa type and se genes. Of the 25 spa types, 13 (52%) were from raw milk, 3 (12%) from milk products, and 9 (36%) from both types of sample. Types t314 (20.7%,n = 17), t458 (18.3%, n = 15), and t6218 (9.8%, n= 8) were the most common spa types identified and were widely distributed in three of the eight studied localities. This is the first study from the Tigray region to report the high distribution of enterotoxigenic S. aureus with a diversified genetic background from dairy food. The study may provide valuable data for microbial food safety risk assessment, molecular epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies of S. aureus in Ethiopia. PMID

  5. Hydrological research in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, M.

    2012-12-01

    Almost all major development problems in Ethiopia are water-related: food insecurity, low economic development, recurrent droughts, disastrous floods, poor health conditions, and low energy condition. In order to develop and manage existing water resources in a sustainable manner, knowledge is required about water availability, water quality, water demand in various sectors, and the impacts of water resource projects on health and the environment. The lack of ground-based data has been a major challenge for generating this knowledge. Current advances in remote sensing and computer simulation technology could provide alternative source of datasets. In this talk, I will present the challenges and opportunities in using remote sensing datasets and hydrological models in regions such as Africa where ground-based datasets are scarce.

  6. The impacts of land use change on malaria vector abundance in a water-limited, highland region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Stryker, Jody J; Bomblies, Arne

    2012-12-01

    Changes in land use and climate are expected to alter the risk of malaria transmission in areas where rainfall limits vector abundance. We use a coupled hydrology-entomology model to investigate the effects of land use change on hydrological processes impacting mosquito abundance in a highland village of Ethiopia. Land use affects partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff that reaches small-scale topographic depressions, which constitute the primary breeding habitat of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. A physically based hydrology model isolates hydrological mechanisms by which land use impacts pool formation and persistence, and an agent-based entomology model evaluates the response of mosquito populations. This approach reproduced observed interannual variability in mosquito abundance between the 2009 and 2010 wet seasons. Several scenarios of land cover were then evaluated using the calibrated, field-validated model. Model results show variation in pool persistence and depth, as well as in mosquito abundance, due to land use changes alone. The model showed particular sensitivity to surface roughness, but also to root zone uptake. Scenarios in which land use was modified from agriculture to forest generally resulted in lowest mosquito abundance predictions; classification of the entire domain as rainforest produced a 34% decrease in abundance compared to 2010 results. This study also showed that in addition to vegetation type, spatial proximity of land use change to habitat locations has an impact on mosquito abundance. This modeling approach can be applied to assess impacts of climate and land use conditions that fall outside of the range of previously observed variability.

  7. The Impacts of Land Use Change on Malaria Vector Abundance in a Water-Limited Highland Region of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, J.; Bomblies, A.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in land use and climate are expected to alter risk of malaria transmission in areas where rainfall limits vector abundance. We use a coupled hydrology-entomology model to investigate the effects of land use change on hydrological processes impacting mosquito abundance in a highland village of Ethiopia. Land use affects partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff that reaches small-scale topographic depressions, which constitute the primary breeding habitat of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. A physically-based hydrology model isolates hydrological mechanisms by which land use impacts pool formation and persistence, and an agent-based entomology model evaluates the response of mosquito populations. This approach reproduced observed interannual variability in mosquito abundance between the 2009 and 2010 wet seasons. Several scenarios of land cover were then evaluated using the calibrated, field-validated model. Model results show variation in pool persistence and depth, as well as in mosquito abundance, due to land use changes alone. The model showed particular sensitivity to surface roughness, but also to root zone uptake. Scenarios in which land use was modified from agriculture to forest generally resulted in lowest mosquito abundance predictions; classification of the entire domain as rainforest produced a 34% decrease in abundance compared to 2010 results. This study also showed that in addition to vegetation type, spatial proximity of land use change to habitat locations has an impact on mosquito abundance. This modeling approach can be applied to assess impacts of climate and land use conditions that fall outside of the range of previously observed variability.

  8. Concentration levels of selected essential and toxic metals in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) of West Gojjam, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Berhe; Atlabachew, Minaleshewa; Mekonnen, Kebede Nigussie

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most widely used as a staple food crop for human diets. It is an excellent source of minerals. In this study, contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cd and Pb in potato cultivars cultivated in Yilmana Densa, and Mecha districts of the West Gojjam zone, Ethiopia were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A 0.50 g oven-dried potato sample was digested using a mixture of 10 mL HNO3:HClO4 (4:1 v/v) at 120 °C for 3 h. The concentration ranges in dry weight basis in decreasing order were: Mg (420-438 mg/kg) > Ca (176-254 mg/kg) > Fe (27.3-90.4 mg/kg) > Zn (20.6-77.7 mg/kg) > (2.00-17.4 mg/kg) for Pb. The toxic heavy metal Cd was below the limit of detection in all the analyzed samples (<0.1 mg/kg). The Mg found in highest contents while Fe was the most abundant microelement. The Cd was found below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of WHO/FAO and European Commission (EC) while Pb was above the limit. A wide range of variations was observed in the metal contents of potato cultivars collected from the two districts. Potato cultivars grown in West Gojam zone of Ethiopian could contribute a substantial amount of Fe and Zn together with the major elements, Ca and Mg to the individual's daily dietary needs if consumed on a regular basis.

  9. Child marriage prevention in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: association of communication exposure and social influence with parents/guardians' knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing international attention to child marriage and its negative health and social consequences, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of individuals who are in control of negotiating children's marriages and of the social context in which these individuals function. Using data from a 2007 cross-sectional household survey and multilevel logistic regression models, this paper examined the associations of communication exposure and measures of social influence with knowledge of marriage legislation, perceptions that marriage before age 18 was "too early", and beliefs in daughters' rights to individual marriage choice among parents/guardians in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study found that mass media and interpersonal communication exposure were positively associated with all outcomes. The influence of communication exposure on knowledge of the legal minimum age at marriage and the perception that marriage before 18 was "too early" varied significantly across communities. Community pressure to stop child marriages and awareness of marriage law enforcement were positively associated with endorsing daughters' rights to choose their marriage age and partner. Perceived social norms regarding early marriage, normative beliefs and perceived benefits of delayed marriage were at least as important as communication exposure for endorsing daughters' rights to marriage choice. Gender and education differences were detected. The findings imply that child marriage-prevention programs should diversify information channels, reinforce perceived advantages of delayed marriage, and adopt a social influence perspective.

  10. Rapid Increase in Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Decrease in Prevalence of Malaria in Three Regional States of Ethiopia (2006-2007)

    PubMed Central

    Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Graves, Patricia M.; Getachew, Asefaw; Hwang, Jimee; Gebre, Teshome; Mosher, Aryc W.; Ceccato, Pietro; Endeshaw, Tekola; Jima, Daddi; Tadesse, Zerihun; Tenaw, Eskindir; Reithinger, Richard; Emerson, Paul M.; Richards, Frank O.; Ghebreyesus, Tedros Adhanom

    2010-01-01

    Following recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, this study aimed to compare ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), and the change in malaria prevalence using two population-based household surveys in three regions of the country. Each survey used multistage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster. Household net ownership tripled from 19.6% in 2006 to 68.4% in 2007, with mean LLIN per household increasing from 0.3 to 1.2. Net use overall more than doubled from 15.3% to 34.5%, but in households owning LLIN, use declined from 71.7% to 48.3%. Parasitemia declined from 4.1% to 0.4%. Large scale-up of net ownership over a short period of time was possible. However, a large increase in net ownership was not necessarily mirrored directly by increased net use. Better targeting of nets to malaria-risk areas and sustained behavioural change communication are needed to increase and maintain net use. PMID:20936103

  11. Child marriage prevention in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: association of communication exposure and social influence with parents/guardians' knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing international attention to child marriage and its negative health and social consequences, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of individuals who are in control of negotiating children's marriages and of the social context in which these individuals function. Using data from a 2007 cross-sectional household survey and multilevel logistic regression models, this paper examined the associations of communication exposure and measures of social influence with knowledge of marriage legislation, perceptions that marriage before age 18 was "too early", and beliefs in daughters' rights to individual marriage choice among parents/guardians in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study found that mass media and interpersonal communication exposure were positively associated with all outcomes. The influence of communication exposure on knowledge of the legal minimum age at marriage and the perception that marriage before 18 was "too early" varied significantly across communities. Community pressure to stop child marriages and awareness of marriage law enforcement were positively associated with endorsing daughters' rights to choose their marriage age and partner. Perceived social norms regarding early marriage, normative beliefs and perceived benefits of delayed marriage were at least as important as communication exposure for endorsing daughters' rights to marriage choice. Gender and education differences were detected. The findings imply that child marriage-prevention programs should diversify information channels, reinforce perceived advantages of delayed marriage, and adopt a social influence perspective. PMID:24161097

  12. Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors among Jiga High School and Preparatory School Students, Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Degu, Genet; Yitayew, Meseret; Misganaw, Worku; Muche, Mikiyas; Demelash, Tiguaded; Mesele, Meless; Ayehu, Melat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Young people constitute a large number of population worldwide, and majority of this population group lives in developing countries. They are at high risk of engaging in risky sexual behaviors. These risk sexual behaviors predispose youths to several sexual and reproductive health problems like STIs, HIV, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion. So, this study was conducted to assess the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among Jiga high school and preparatory school students, northwest Ethiopia. Methodology. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted among Jiga town high school and preparatory school students. A total of 311 students were included in the study. Systematic random sampling method was used to select study participants. Data was entered using EpiData version 3.1 and it was exported to SPSS version 22 for further analysis. Descriptive analysis and bivariate and multivariate analysis were also calculated to determine factors associated with risky sexual behavior. Result. Forty-eight (16%) of respondents reported that they had sexual intercourse. From those who start sex, 44 (14.7%) were involved in risky sexual behavior which could predispose them to sexual and reproductive health problems. More than half, 27 (56.3%), of respondents first sexual intercourse was before their eighteenth birthday. The mean age and SD of fist sexual initiation were 17.2 years old and 1.35 years, respectively. Factors associated with risky sexual behavior include respondents between the ages of 20 and 23 (AOR: 5, 95%, CI: 1.59–15.98), drinking alcohol (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.13–5.41), and having poor knowledge towards HIV/AIDS (AOR: 4.53, 95%, CI: 2.06–9.94). Conclusion. A large number of in-school youths are involved in risky sexual behaviors like early sexual initiation, having multiple sexual partners, inconsistence use of condom, and having sex with high risk partner (CSWs). Age of respondents, alcohol drinking, and

  13. Metal contamination of the environment by placer and primary gold mining in the Adola region of southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getaneh, Worash; Alemayehu, Tamiru

    2006-06-01

    Primary and placer gold mining sites in southern Ethiopia were studied to see the contribution of mining to the accumulation of metals in different environmental media. Sediment, water and plant samples were analyzed for Al, Mn, Fe, As, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, W, Sb, Mo, Zn and V. Water parameters (pH, Eh, TDS, anions and cations) were also measured. The sediment analyses results show that the most abundant metals are Ni (average 224.7 mg/kg), Cr (199 mg/kg), Cu (174.2 mg/kg), V (167.3 mg/kg), Zn (105.5 mg/kg), Pb (61.5 mg/kg) and As (59.7 mg/kg) in the primary gold mining sites while the placer sites show high concentration of V (average 301.2 mg/kg), Cr (260.4 mg/kg), Zn (179 mg/kg), Ni (113.4 mg/kg), Cu (46.7 mg/kg), As (32.2 mg/kg) and Co (31 mg/kg). The metals Cu, Ni, W, Cr, As and Pb in primary and Sb, W, Cr, Ni, Zn, As and Mo in placer gold mining sites have geoaccumulation indexes ( I geo) from one to four indicating considerable accumulation of these metals. Waters from both primary and placer mining sites are near neutral to alkaline. Arsenic (average 92.8 μg/l), Ni (276.6 μg/l), Pb (18.7 μg/l), Sb (10.7 μg/l), Mn (1 mg/l), Fe (8.3 mg/l) and Al (23.8 mg/l) exceeded the guideline value for drinking water. Plants show high concentration of Cr (average 174.5 mg/kg), Ni (163.5 mg/kg), Zn (96 mg/kg) and W (48 mg/kg). Zinc, W, Mo, Ni and Cr show the maximum biological absorption coefficient (BAC) ranging 0.4 1.7, 0.1 104.6, 1.1 2.6, 0.2 1.6 and 0.2 3.6, respectively, and the results suggest bioaccumulation of these elements in plants. The minerals especially sulfides in the ore aggregate are the ultimate source of the metals. The release of the metals into the environmental media is facilitated (in addition to normal geologic processes) by human activities related to gold mining.

  14. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes Mellitus among Tuberculosis Patients in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Workneh, Mahteme Haile; Bjune, Gunnar Aksel; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) is re-emerging worldwide. Recently, the prevalence of DM is increasing in resource poor countries where TB is of high burden. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and analyze associated factors of TB and DM comorbidity in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods This was a facility based cross-sectional study. All newly diagnosed TB patients attending selected health facilities in the study area were consecutively screened for DM. DM was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyles and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with TB and DM comorbidity. Result Among a total of 1314 patients who participated in the study, the prevalence of DM was estimated at 109 (8.3%). Being female [odds ratio (OR) 1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.10–2.62)], patients age [41–64 years (OR 3.35; 95% CI (2.01–5.57), 65–89 years (OR 3.18; 95% CI (1.52–6.64)], being a pulmonary TB case [(OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.09–2.63)] and having a family history of DM [(OR 4.54; 95% CI (2.36–8.73)] were associated factors identified with TB and DM comorbidity. Conclusion The prevalence of DM among TB patients in South-Eastern Amahra Region is high. Routine screening of TB patients for DM is recommended in the study area. PMID:26808967

  15. Field trials on the repellent activity of four plant products against mainly Mansonia population in western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hadis, Mamuye; Lulu, Mesfin; Mekonnen, Yared; Asfaw, Teffera

    2003-03-01

    The repellent activity of essential oils of lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus maculata citrodion), rue (Ruta chalepensis), oleoresin of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) and neem (Azadiracta indica) have been field tested as 40%, 50% and 75% solutions in coconut oil against populations of mosquitoes consisting mainly of Mansonia in Gambella, western Ethiopia. A latin square design was used to randomize the test subjects for possible individual differences for mosquito attraction. Repellency was evaluated as the percentage protection. Deet was included in the study for comparison. All the plant products manifested repellency. At 50% concentration at which the highest repellency was recorded the protection was 91.6%, 87.0%, 96.0%, 97.9% for rue, neem, pyrethrum and deet, respectively. The essential oil of lemon eucalyptus was not tried at this concentration. At a 40% concentration deet, lemon eucalyptus and pyrethrum were significantly (p < 0.05) more effective than rue and neem. At a 50% concentration, deet and pyrethrum were significantly better (p < 0.05) than rue and neem. At a 75% concentration concentration, deet and lemon eucalypus performed significantly better (p < 0.05) than pyrethrum and neem. The difference between pyrethrum and neem was also significant (p < 0.01). PMID:12672146

  16. Acceptance of Provider Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling among Tuberculosis Patients in East Wollega Administrative Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Keno, Fikru; Ewunetu, Temesgen; Mamo, Gutu

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a powerful risk factor for the development of tuberculosis. This study assessed the acceptance and associated factors that can affect provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) among tuberculosis patients at the East Wollega administrative zone, Oromia regional state, western Ethiopia, from January to August, 2010. A single population proportion formula is used to calculate the total sample size of 406 and the cluster sampling technique was used to select 13 health centers that provide PITC services. The sample size was proportionally allocated to each health center. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique using the lottery method. Structured questionnaire was used for collection of sociodemographic data. From the total of study subjects, 399 (98.2%) TB patients were initiated for HIV test and 369 (92.5%) patients accepted the initiation. Of those, 353 (95.5%) patients had taken HIV test and received their results. According to the reviewed documents, the prevalence of HIV among tuberculosis (TB) patients in the study area was 137 (33.7%). The logistic regression result showed the PITC was significantly associated with their knowledge about HIV (AOR = 3.22, 95% CI: 1.3–7.97), self-perceived risk (AOR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.12–7.66), educational status (AOR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.13–10.91), and knowledge on transmission of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 7.56, 95% CI: 1.14–40.35) which were significantly associated with the acceptance of PITC among TB patients. Therefore, this study's results showed, the prevalence of HIV among TB patient was high; to enhance the acceptance of PITC among TB patients, health extension workers must provide health education during home-to-home visiting. TB treatment supervisors also provide counseling intensively for all forms of TB patients during their first clinical encounter. PMID:24778872

  17. The Health Extension Program and Its Association with Change in Utilization of Selected Maternal Health Services in Tigray Region, Ethiopia: A Segmented Linear Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher; San Sebastian, Miguel; Edin, Kerstin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health established the Health Extension Program (HEP), with the goal of improving access to health care and health promotion activities in rural areas of the country. This paper aims to assess the association of the HEP with improved utilization of maternal health services in Northern Ethiopia using institution-based retrospective data. Methods Average quarterly total attendances for antenatal care (ANC), delivery care (DC) and post-natal care (PNC) at health posts and health care centres were studied from 2002 to 2012. Regression analysis was applied to two models to assess whether trends were statistically significant. One model was used to estimate the level and trend changes associated with the immediate period of intervention, while changes related to the post-intervention period were estimated by the other. Results The total number of consultations for ANC, DC and PNC increased constantly, particularly after the late-intervention period. Increases were higher for ANC and PNC at health post level and for DC at health centres. A positive statistically significant upward trend was found for DC and PNC in all facilities (p<0.01). The positive trend was also present in ANC at health centres (p = 0.04), but not at health posts. Conclusion Our findings revealed an increase in the use of antenatal, delivery and post-natal care after the introduction of the HEP. We are aware that other factors, that we could not control for, might be explaining that increase. The figures for DC and PNC are however low and more needs to be done in order to increase the access to the health care system as well as the demand for these services by the population. Strengthening of the health information system in the region needs also to be prioritized. PMID:26218074

  18. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  19. Ethnobotanical study of plants used in management of livestock health problems by Afar people of Ada’ar District, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The great majority of the Afar people of Ethiopia are pastoralists, highly dependent on livestock and livestock products. Livestock productivity is, however, frequently affected by different diseases. Although many districts in the Region have veterinary clinics, they lack basic facilities. As a result, the Afar people are still dependent on local materials, mainly plants, and traditional knowledge to manage livestock health problems. However, there is a serious threat to such local resources mainly due to recurrent drought and influence of modernization. Hence there is a need for proper documentation and evaluation of the existing ethnoveterinary knowledge in the Region. This study was aimed at documenting and analysing ethnoveterinary knowledge of people in Ada’ar District of the Afar Region associated with the use of plants. Methods The study involved interviewing selected knowledgeable Afar people in Ada’ar District on the use of plants to manage livestock ailments. Fidelity Level (FL) values were calculated for the reported medicinal plant to estimate their healing potentials. Specimens of reported medicinal plant were collected, identified and deposited at the National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University. Results The study revealed 49 medicinal plants as being used by the Afar people of Ada’ar District for the treatment of various livestock ailments, the majority of which (67.3%) were shrubs. Highest number of medicinal plants was used to treat blackleg, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), sudden sickness and pneumonia. Leaf was the most frequently sought plant part, accounting for 47% of the reported plants. All the medicnal plants used in the District were uncultivated ones growing in semi-disturbed and disturbed habitats as remnant plants and weeds. Cissus quadrangularis and Solanum incanum were the plants scoring the highest fidelity level values for their use to treat blackleg and respiratory tract problems, respectively. Conclusion

  20. Assessing the Dimensionality and Reliability of Teachers' Performance Evaluation in Eastern Zone High Schools, Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embiza, Samuel; Hadush, Selamawit

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the dimensionality and reliability of Teachers Evaluation Questionnaire in Eastern Zone high school; Tigrai National Regional State which was filled by school principal. To this end: 9 high schools in 7 woredas were selected using the lottery method, in which 459 teachers' rate forms were collected. All…

  1. Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia where transmission is unstable. While household ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) has increased greatly, there are concerns about inadequate net use. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with net use at two time points, before and after mass distribution of nets. Methods Two cross sectional surveys were carried out in 2006 and 2007 in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions. The latter was a sub-sample of the national Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS 3R). Each survey wave used multi-stage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster (224 clusters with 5,730 households in Baseline 2006 and 245 clusters with 5,910 households in MIS 3R 2007). Net ownership was assessed by visual inspection while net utilization was reported as use of the net the previous night. This net level analysis was restricted to households owning at least one net of any type. Logistic regression models of association between net use and explanatory variables including net type, age, condition, cost and other household characteristics were undertaken using generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM). Results A total of 3,784 nets in 2,430 households were included in the baseline 2006 analysis while the MIS 3R 2007 analysis comprised 5,413 nets in 3,328 households. The proportion of nets used the previous night decreased from 85.1% to 56.0% between baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, respectively. Factors independently associated with increased proportion of nets used were: LLIN net type (at baseline 2006); indoor residual spraying (at MIS 3R 2007); and increasing wealth index at both surveys. At both baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, reduced proportion of nets used was independently associated with increasing net age, increasing damage of nets, increasing household net density, and increasing altitude (>2,000 m). Conclusion This study identified modifiable factors affecting

  2. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among School Children in a Rural Area of the Amhara Region, North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    de Lucio, Aida; Amor-Aramendía, Aranzazu; Bailo, Begoña; Saugar, José M.; Anegagrie, Melaku; Arroyo, Ana; López-Quintana, Beatriz; Zewdie, Derjew; Ayehubizu, Zimmam; Yizengaw, Endalew; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Mulu, Wondemagen; Hailu, Tadesse; Herrador, Zaida; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2016-01-01

    Backgroud Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries. Methods We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Principal Findings The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393) and 4.6% (18/393), respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%), BIII (28.2%), and BIV (32.0%). Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4%) isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A), resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study. Conclusions Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G

  3. Half of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases Were Left Undiagnosed in Prisons of the Tigray Region of Ethiopia: Implications for Tuberculosis Control

    PubMed Central

    Adane, Kelemework; Spigt, Mark; Ferede, Semaw; Asmelash, Tsehaye; Abebe, Markos; Dinant, Geert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prison settings have been often identified as important but neglected reservoirs for TB. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed pulmonary TB and assess the potential risk factors for such TB cases in prisons of the Tigray region. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2013 and February 2014 in nine prisons. A standardized symptom-based questionnaire was initially used to identify presumptive TB cases. From each, three consecutive sputum samples were collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy and culture. Blood samples were collected from consented participants for HIV testing. Result Out of 809 presumptive TB cases with culture result, 4.0% (95% CI: 2.65–5.35) were confirmed to have undiagnosed TB. The overall estimated point prevalence of undiagnosed TB was found to be 505/100,000 prisoners (95% CI: 360–640). Together with the 27 patients who were already on treatment, the overall estimated point prevalence of TB would be 793/100,000 prisoners (95% CI: 610–970), about four times higher than in the general population. The ratio of active to passive case detection was 1.18:1. The prevalence of HIV was 4.4% (36/809) among presumptive TB cases and 6.3% (2/32) among undiagnosed TB cases. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, chewing Khat (adjusted OR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.02–7.75) and having had a close contact with a TB patient (adjusted OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.05–4.51) were found to be predictors of undiagnosed TB among presumptive TB cases. Conclusions This study revealed that at least half of symptomatic pulmonary TB cases in Northern Ethiopian prisons remain undiagnosed and hence untreated. The prevalence of undiagnosed TB in the study prisons was more than two folds higher than in the general population of Tigray. This may indicate the need for more investment and commitment to improving TB case detection in the study prisons. PMID:26914770

  4. Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Formal Vocational Education Programs in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malle, Abebe Yehualawork; Pirttimaa, Raija; Saloviita, Timo

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia, individuals with disabilities have limited access to educational and vocational training opportunities. This study investigates prevailing challenges and opportunities for the participation of students with disabilities in vocational education programs in Ethiopia. Data for the study were gathered from the five biggest regions out of…

  5. Knowledge, Practice, and Associated Factors towards Prevention of Surgical Site Infection among Nurses Working in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teshager, Freahiywot Aklew; Engeda, Eshetu Haileselassie; Worku, Workie Zemene

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge and practice of nurses about surgical site infections (SSIs) are not well studied in Ethiopia. This paper contains findings about Northwest Ethiopian nurses' knowledge and practice regarding the prevention of SSIs. The main objective of the study was to assess knowledge, practice, and associated factors of nurses towards the prevention of SSIs. The study was done using a questionnaire survey on randomly selected 423 nurses who were working in referral hospitals during the study period. The study showed that more than half of the nurses who participated in the survey had inadequate knowledge about the prevention of SSIs. Moreover, more than half of them were practicing inappropriately. The most important associated factors include lack of training on evidence based guidelines and sociodemographic variables (age, year of service, educational status, etc.). Training of nurses with the up-to-date SSIs guidelines is recommended. PMID:26788549

  6. Oleaginous yeasts from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Abate, Dawit; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Pohl, Carolina; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2016-12-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms can produce high amounts of oil (>20 % of their biomass) under suitable cultivation conditions. In this research work 200 samples were collected from soil, plant surfaces (leaves, flowers and fruits), waste oils from traditional oil milling houses and dairy products (cheese, milk and yoghurt) in Ethiopia. Three hundred and forty yeast colonies were isolated from these samples. By applying Sudan III staining tests, 18 strains were selected as possible oleaginous yeasts. The 18 strains were identified and characterized for their lipid production as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. They were identified using morphological and physiological methods as well as sequencing the 3'end of the small-subunit rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS; ITS 1, ITS 2 and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene), and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The 18 yeasts were identified as Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus (syn, Cryptococcus curvatus) (PY39), Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) (SY89), Rhodotorula dairenensis (SY94) and Rhodotourula mucilaginosa (SY09, SY18, SY20, PY21, PY23, PY25, SY30, PY32, SY43, PY44, SY52, PY55, PY61, SY75 and PY86). Under nitrogen-limited cultivation conditions, R. mucilaginosa PY44 produced the highest biomass (15.10 ± 0.54 g/L), while R. mucilaginosa PY32 produced the lowest biomass (10.32 ± 0.18 g/L). The highest lipid yield of 6.87 ± 0.62 g/L and lipid content of 46.51 ± 0.70 % were attained by C. curvatus (syn, C. curvatus) PY39. On the other hand, R. mucilaginosa PY61 gave the lowest lipid yield (2.06 ± 0.52 g/L) and R. mucilaginosa SY52 gave the lowest lipid content of 16.99 ± 0.85 %. The results in this research work suggest that much more oleaginous yeasts can be isolated from Ethiopian environment. On the basis of their substantial lipid production abilities, the three oleaginous yeast strains PY39, SY89 and SY18 were selected and

  7. Oleaginous yeasts from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Abate, Dawit; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Pohl, Carolina; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2016-12-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms can produce high amounts of oil (>20 % of their biomass) under suitable cultivation conditions. In this research work 200 samples were collected from soil, plant surfaces (leaves, flowers and fruits), waste oils from traditional oil milling houses and dairy products (cheese, milk and yoghurt) in Ethiopia. Three hundred and forty yeast colonies were isolated from these samples. By applying Sudan III staining tests, 18 strains were selected as possible oleaginous yeasts. The 18 strains were identified and characterized for their lipid production as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. They were identified using morphological and physiological methods as well as sequencing the 3'end of the small-subunit rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS; ITS 1, ITS 2 and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene), and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The 18 yeasts were identified as Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus (syn, Cryptococcus curvatus) (PY39), Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) (SY89), Rhodotorula dairenensis (SY94) and Rhodotourula mucilaginosa (SY09, SY18, SY20, PY21, PY23, PY25, SY30, PY32, SY43, PY44, SY52, PY55, PY61, SY75 and PY86). Under nitrogen-limited cultivation conditions, R. mucilaginosa PY44 produced the highest biomass (15.10 ± 0.54 g/L), while R. mucilaginosa PY32 produced the lowest biomass (10.32 ± 0.18 g/L). The highest lipid yield of 6.87 ± 0.62 g/L and lipid content of 46.51 ± 0.70 % were attained by C. curvatus (syn, C. curvatus) PY39. On the other hand, R. mucilaginosa PY61 gave the lowest lipid yield (2.06 ± 0.52 g/L) and R. mucilaginosa SY52 gave the lowest lipid content of 16.99 ± 0.85 %. The results in this research work suggest that much more oleaginous yeasts can be isolated from Ethiopian environment. On the basis of their substantial lipid production abilities, the three oleaginous yeast strains PY39, SY89 and SY18 were selected and

  8. Integration of mother and child health services in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Walley, J D; McDonald, M

    1991-01-01

    In Wollo region of Ethiopia, various non-governmental officers have been working closely with each other and with the Regional Health Department to implement the policy of daily integrated mother and child health services. The record cards, registers, procedures and training courses of the separate 'vertically' organized services were brought together to enable the development of a model integrated service. There were improvements in accessibility, acceptability and output of the services. The system was evaluated by a joint Ministry of Health and UNICEF team, and was adopted for use in the rest of Ethiopia.

  9. Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bariabagar, H

    1978-01-01

    2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction.

  10. Journey of Ethiopia Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay Tessema, Solomon

    2015-08-01

    Ancient astronomy had contributed away for the modern development of astronomy. The history of astronomy development in Ethiopian was liked with different beliefs and culture of the society. The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians. Even though, Ethiopian’s contributions for astronomy in the world were immense but the journey of modern astronomy is still in the infant stage. The modern astronomy and space program in Ethiopia was started in 2004 in well organized form from three individuals to the public. In the past eleven years of journey of astronomy development in Ethiopia was the most challenging from national to international level. After strong struggle of a few committed individuals for the past eleven years the development of astronomy is completely changed from dark age to bright age. This paper will try to address the details of journey of astronomy in Ethiopia.

  11. Typhoid fever in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Getenet; Asrat, Daniel; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abrham; Wain, John

    2008-12-01

    This review focuses on the reports of salmonellosis by investigators in different parts of Ethiopia, in particular focusing on the levels of typhoid fever. Many of the reports are published in local journals that are not available online. There have been seven studies which diagnosed typhoid fever by laboratory culture and there is no coordinated epidemiological surveillance. All conducted research and reports from different health institutions in Ethiopia indicate that typhoid fever was still a common problem up to the most recent study in 2000 and that the extensive use of first-line drugs has led to the development of multiple drug resistance. In the sites covered by this review, the total number of published cases of typhoid fever dropped over time reflecting the decline in research capacity in the country. Data on the proportion of patients infected by different serovars of Salmonella suggest that the non-Typhi serovars of Salmonella are increasing. The published evidence suggests that typhoid fever is a current public health problem in Ethiopia although population based surveys, based on good microbiological diagnosis, are urgently needed. Only then can the true burden of enteric fever be estimated and the benefit of public health control measures, such as health education, safe water provision, improved food hygienic practices and eventually vaccination, be properly assessed.

  12. Household Constraints on Schooling by Gender: Empirical Evidence from Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Pauline; Al-Samarrai, Samer

    2001-01-01

    Examines individual and household characteristics that affect the probability of a boy or girl attending and completing primary school in two regions of Ethiopia. Finds that school attendance was related to household wealth, parents' education, and child's nutritional status, while completion was affected more by economic constraints and, for…

  13. Domestic violence and its predictors among married women in reproductive age in Fagitalekoma Woreda, Awi zone, Amhara regional state, North Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against women is one of the most systematic and prevalent human rights abuses in the world. It is a form of discrimination and deeply rooted in power imbalances and structural inequality between women and men. Documenting the extent of the problem and associated factors is essential to develop public health interventions to tackle violence against women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine magnitude of domestic violence and identify its predictors among married women in the reproductive age in north western Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to March 15, 2011 among 682 married women and 46 key informants. Systematic sampling technique was used to select respondents for the quantitative method. Purposive sampling was used to select in-depth interview key informants for and focus group discussants. Data were analyzed using SPSS window version 16.0. Binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out to determine the prevalence and identify independent predictors of domestic violence against women. Statistical association was measured by adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was declared at P < 0.05. Result The prevalence of domestic violence was 78.0%. About 73.3%, 58.4% and 49.1% of women reported different forms of psychological, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Alcohol consumption by husband (AOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.3, 2.8), being pregnant (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4, 3.4), decision making power (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.5, 3.4) and annual income (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 3.3) were predictors of domestic violence. Conclusion The prevalence of domestic violence was very high as compared to other studies. Women’s husband alcohol consumption, decision making power annual household income and being pregnant are some of the predictors of domestic violence against

  14. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Related Factors in School-Aged Children in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Amhara Regional State

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Buño, Antonio; Gómez-Rioja, Rubén; Iturzaeta, Jose Manuel; de Armas, Lisset Fernandez; Benito, Agustín; Aseffa, Abraham; Moreno, Javier; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The present study describes the distribution of selected micronutrients and anaemia among school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Amhara State, Ethiopia), assessing differences by socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out during May–December 2009. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits were collected. Biomarkers were determined for 764 children. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess micronutrient deficiencies (MD), anaemia, and their association with different factors. Results More than two thirds of the school-aged children (79.5%) had at least one MD and 40.5% had two or more coexisting micronutrient deficiencies. The most prevalent deficiencies were of zinc (12.5%), folate (13.9%), vit A (29.3%) and vit D (49%). Anaemia occurred in 30.9% of the children. Children living in rural areas were more likely to have vit D insufficiency [OR: 5.9 (3.7–9.5)] but less likely to have folate deficiency [OR: 0.2 (0.1–0.4)] and anaemia [OR: 0.58 (0.35–0.97)]. Splenomegaly was positively associated with folate deficiency and anaemia [OR: 2.77 (1.19–6.48) and 4.91 (2.47–9.75)]. Meat and fish consumption were inversely correlated with zinc and ferritin deficiencies [OR: 0.2 (0.1–0.8) and 0.2 (0.1–0.9)], while oil consumption showed a negative association with anaemia and deficiencies of folate and vitamin A [0.58 (0.3–0.9), OR: 0.5 (0.3–0.9) and 0.6 (0.4–0.9)]. Serum ferritin levels were inversely correlated to the presence of anaemia (p<0.005). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency and a moderate prevalence of zinc and folate deficiencies in school-aged children in this area. The inverse association of anaemia and serum ferritin levels may be due to the presence of infectious diseases in the area. To effectively tackle malnutrition

  15. Outcomes and linkage to chronic care of HIV exposed infants among health centers and hospitals in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: implications to prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Zemene Tigabu; Taye, Belaynew Wasie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Numerous challenges exist in provision of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) such as linking HIV exposed infants (HEI) and their mothers to chronic cares services, and tackling loss to follow up. Limited evidence exists in Ethiopian setting that explains the persisting high HIV infection rate among HEIs and extent of linkage to chronic care. The study assessed the proportion of HIV infection; children linked to chronic care and determinants of HIV infection among HEI in Northern Ethiopia. Methods This institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in health centers and hospitals of Amhara Region. A total of 484 HEI-mother pairs selected by multistage random sampling were included in the study. Data were collected from PMTCT and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinics using pre-tested and structured questionnaires. Quantitative data were entered in Epi Info version 7.0 and exported to SPSS 20.0 for analysis. Results A total of 484 mother-infant pairs with a response rate of 92.4% were included in the analysis. About 94.2% of infants and women were linked to chronic care follow-up sometime after the diagnosis. The proportion of HIV infection was 12.4%. Antenatal care attendance had a significant association with HIV infection among HEI (p < 0.0001). Delivering in health institution (p < 0.005), mode of delivery (p < 0.032), and provision of both infant (p < 0.0001) and maternal (p < 0.0001) prophylaxis showed a highly significant association with HIV infection among HIV exposed infants. Conclusion Health facilities shall encourage antenatal care that increased institutional delivery, leads to timely initiation and high uptake of PMTCT to reduce the vertical transmission of HIV infection and meet national targets. PMID:27642402

  16. Ethiopia between famines.

    PubMed

    Forbes, C

    1990-08-01

    The author reports observations made during a visit with colleagues in Ethiopia. On the heels of the country's famine, she was surprised to see fertile land on an excursion 3 hours north of Addis Ababa. The harvest was expected to suffice for a 3-month period. While foreign technical and financial aid no doubt helped save countless lives during the famine, other serious health problems still remain in the country. In particular, the writer notes the ongoing high rates of maternal and infant mortality (IMR). The national IMR of 168/1000 live births is heavily fueled by diarrheal illness, infectious disease, and malaria. Nationally, only 15% of 2 year olds have completed an immunization program. Women have a 1:30 chance of dying in pregnancy or during childbirth, with over 1/2 due to illegal abortions and other maternal health problems. While family planning may be available, cultural norms limit the number of subscribers. Leprosy remains a significant problem, and AIDS was gaining notice in 1989. Moreover, drug supply constraints and the paucity of national medical doctors help stymie any efforts toward positive change. The writer encourages continued foreign aid. PMID:2387725

  17. Youth services in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Meredith, P

    1990-12-01

    Departing from the usual family planning education format in teenage counseling, the IPPF is funding youth centers providing contraception as well as education in Ethiopia, Kenya, Togo, Tunisia, and Turkey. The development concern is for a cost efficient and effective center with minimal criticism. 2 experimental Mexican models were used in the Ethiopian youth centers. Both models utilize young adult coordinators who supervise young promoters, however each operates differently. Mexican staff trained their African counterparts and a detailed project manual will be available soon. The Ethiopian youth centers utilizing NGO's and the private sector have been permitted freedom from central control. Alarming statistics include: 20.8% of pregnancies are teenaged; 20.8% of hospital reported abortions are teenaged; the contraceptive prevalence rate is 2%; population increased by 3% per year with the average children per woman of 7.5. Addis Ababa's youth project provides services to mostly zone 5 school aged adolescents who are informed and eager to purchase condoms, although they are not able to purchase them commercially. Revolutionary Ethiopian Youth Association (REYA) with its 200,000 membership, is increasing its contribution to expanding the network of promoters. Promoters are used to register those receiving free condoms, but the recommendation to cease this practice of registration is in, and replace it with the sale of 50 US cents per condom.

  18. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  19. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  20. Ethiopia: Country Status Report (Revision).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the distribution of Amharic, the sole official language and medium of elementary instruction, and Tigrinya, Oromo, Wolayto, Somali, Sidamo, Hadiyya, and English, the medium of secondary and higher education instruction. The relationship of language usage patterns to…

  1. Infecundity and subfertility among the rural population of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaghiorghis, H

    1991-10-01

    A 1980-81 survey of the rural population of Ethiopia found high levels of infecundity and subfertility, although there was considerable variation by region, ethnicity and age of women. Higher levels of infecundity were geographically concentrated in a broad belt that ran from the south and south-west of the country, across to the north-east. The analyses suggest that infecundity is influenced by ecological factors, more than by ethnicity.

  2. Exploring Agro-Climatic Trends in Ethiopia Using CHIRPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedreros, D. H.; Funk, C. C.; Brown, M. E.; Korecha, D.; Seid, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) uses the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) to monitor agricultural food production in different regions of the world. CHIRPS is a 1981-present, 5 day, approximately 5km resolution, rainfall product based on a combination of geostationary satellite observations, a high resolution climatology and in situ station observations. Furthermore, FEWS NET has developed a gridded implementation of the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), a water balance measurement indicator of crop performance. This study takes advantage of the CHIRPS' long term period of record and high spatial and temporal resolution to examine agro-climatic trends in Ethiopia. We use the CHIRPS rainfall dataset to calculate the WRSI for the boreal spring and summer crop seasons, as well as for spring-summer rangelands conditions. We find substantial long term rainfall declines in the spring and summer seasons across southeastern and northeastern Ethiopia. Crop Model results indicate that rainfall declines in the cropped regions have been associated with water deficits during the critical grain filling periods in well populated and/or highly vulnerable parts of eastern Ethiopia. WRSI results in the pastoral areas indicate substantial reductions in rangeland health during the later part of the growing seasons. These health declines correspond to the regions of Somaliland and Afar that have experienced chronic severe food insecurity since 2010. Key words: CHIRPS, satellite estimated rainfall, agricultural production

  3. Evolution, distribution, and characteristics of rifting in southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-04-01

    Southern Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.

  4. Assessment of Control Measures and Trends of Malaria in Burie-Zuria District, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kassa, Addisu Workineh; Tamiru, Mulugojjam Andualem; Yeshanew, Addisu Gize

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at Burie-Zuria district, Amhara region. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. We used health facility records of malaria data. We surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of Long Lasting Impregnated Nets (LLINs) and its status; the condition of Indore Residual Spraying (IRS) operation at household level was observed. Results. In Zelma-Shenbekuma kebele (village) the prevalence rate of confirmed malaria cases in the 2nd week of September was 1.2 per 1000 (17) of population and increased to 11.5 per 1000 (163) of population in the 3rd week of September 2012 and reached 16.6 per 1000 (236) of population in the 1st week of November 2012. The attack rate was the highest in 1-<5 years 120.3 per 1000 (1920) of population. LLINs were distributed four years back and only five of the fifteen respondents knew about the use of LLINs and used it regularly. Four of the fifteen households were not sprayed with IRS. Conclusion. Vector control interventions were not carried out timely. PMID:26171274

  5. Magnetostratigraphy of the hominin-bearing Hadar Formation (Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia), and regional evidence for environmental change ca. 3.2 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sier, M.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Campisano, C. J.; Arrowsmith, R.; Dimaggio, E.; Reed, K.; Lockwood, C.; Franke, C.; Huesing, S.

    2007-12-01

    To date and characterize depositional environments of the hominin-bearing Hadar Formation, magnetostratigraphy was applied to Pliocene lacustrine sediments from the eastern part of the Hadar Basin (Ledi-Geraru research area). Characteristic geochemistry and lithologic features of three tuffaceous horizons at the bottom, middle and top of the stratigraphy are recognized as the Sidi Hakoma Tuff (SHT), Triple Tuff-4 (TT-4) and the Kada Hadar Tuff (KHT), respectively, previously dated by 40Ar/39Ar in other part of the basin. Demagnetizations and rock magnetic analysis of paleomagnetic samples collected at regular 50 cm intervals on a total stratigraphic thickness of 230 meters between the SHT and the KHT enable us to isolate paleomagnetic directions from a primary detrital remanent magnetization mostly carried by (titano-)magnetites basaltic in origin. These results indicate two paleomagnetic reversals bracketing a reversed polarity interval identified as the Mammoth event (chron 2An.2r). The average paleomagnetic direction, consistent with existing paleomagnetic data, indicates a post-3 Ma counterclockwise vertical-axis tectonic rotation (5-10 degrees) of the Hadar Basin and pervasive shallowing of paleomagnetic inclination (5-10 degrees) related to sedimentation and compaction. Ages of tuffaceous layers and of paleomagnetic reversals show excellent consistency between 40Ar/39Ar dating and the most up to date astronomically tuned polarity time scale. Linear interpolations indicate constant sediment accumulation rates (~90 cm/kyr) throughout the section, except for the uppermost part which shows a threefold increase between the top of the Mammoth 2An.2r chron and the KHT. Along with existing chronostratigraphic results from the Hadar Basin, we show that the steady-state deposition, taking place in an eastward tilting basin since ~3.4 Ma, was regionally disrupted ca. 3.2 Ma by a relatively short-lived but significant change in environmental conditions. This disruption

  6. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  7. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  8. Flow, melt and fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Wookey, James; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay

    2014-05-01

    Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and use shear-wave splitting tomography to invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due aligned melt due to sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominate the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal magma storage dominate the signal and little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment, possibly due to a lack of mantle lithosphere. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is absent beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates in the upper mantle.

  9. Rainfall and runoff variability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time

  10. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts. PMID:26949190

  11. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts.

  12. African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development. Report and Recommendations = Colloque regional africain la telematique au service du developpement. Rapport et recommandations (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 3-7, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development was organized in view of the special educational and communication needs of Africa in a time of accelerating change and development of information technologies. The symposium brought together more than 150 African specialists, and over 40 participants from other regions and development…

  13. 2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Semaw, S; Renne, P; Harris, J W; Feibel, C S; Bernor, R L; Fesseha, N; Mowbray, K

    1997-01-23

    The Oldowan Stone tool industry was named for 1.8-million-year-old (Myr) artefacts found near the bottom of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Subsequent archaeological research in the Omo (Ethiopia) and Turkana (Kenya) also yielded stone tools dated to 2.3 Myr. Palaeoanthropological investigations in the Hadar region of the Awash Valley of Ethiopia, revealed Oldowan assemblages in the adjacent Gona River drainage. We conducted field work in the Gona study area of Ethiopia between 1992 and 1994 which resulted in additional archaeological discoveries as well as radioisotopic age control and a magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Gona sequence. These occurrences are now securely dated between 2.6-2.5 Myr. The stone tools are thus the oldest known artefacts from anywhere in the world. The artefacts show surprisingly sophisticated control of stone fracture mechanics, equivalent to much younger Oldowan assemblages of Early Pleistocene age. This indicates an unexpectedly long period of technological stasis in the Oldowan.

  14. The seismicity of Ethiopia; active plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohr, P.

    1981-01-01

    Ethiopia, descended from the semimythical Kingdom of Punt, lies at the strategic intersection of Schmidt's jigsaw puzzle where the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the African Rift System meet. Because of geologically recent uplift combined with rapid downcutting erosion by rivers, notably the Blue Nile (Abbay), Ethiopia is the most mountainous country in Africa. It is also the most volcanically active, while its historical seismicity matches that of the midocean ridges. And, in a sense, Ethiopia is host to an evoloving ocean ridge system. 

  15. Ethnocentrism and Ethnic-Based Peer Preferences in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Implications for Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admasu Gebru, Demewoz

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…

  16. Health, Nutrition and Informal Education of Pre-School Children in South-West Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    This report discusses the roles of health, nutrition and informal education in the preschool education of children in southwest Ethiopia. Information for the report is drawn from data from a study of traditional maternity and child care in the Southern Shewa region of the country. Mother and child health is a priority in Ethiopian health planning.…

  17. Omotic Peoples and the Early History of Agriculture in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…

  18. Differentiating flow, melt, or fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.

    2014-05-01

    is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.

  19. Dynamically downscaled multi-model ensemble seasonal forecasts over Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asharaf, Shakeel; Fröhlich, Kristina; Fernandez, Jesus; Cardoso, Rita; Nikulin, Grigory; Früh, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Truthful and reliable seasonal rainfall predictions have an important social and economic value for the east African countries as their economy is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and pastoral systems. Only June to September (JJAS) seasonal rainfall accounts to more than 80% crop production in Ethiopia. Hence, seasonal foresting is a crucial concern for the region. The European Provision of Regional Impact Assessment on a seasonal to decadal timescale (EUPORIAS) project offers a common framework to understand hindcast uncertainties through the use of multi-model and multi-member simulations over east Africa. Under this program, the participating regional climate models (RCMs) were driven by the atmospheric-only version of the ECEARTH global climate model, which provides hindcasts of a five-months period (May to September) from 1991-2012. In this study the RCMs downscaled rainfall is evaluated with respect to the observed JJAS rainfall over Ethiopia. Both deterministic and probabilistic based forecast skills are assessed. Our preliminary results show the potential usefulness of multi-model ensemble simulations in forecasting the seasonal rainfall over the region.

  20. Erosion-driven environmental degradation in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, N.; Willenbring, J.; Terwilliger, V. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Tigray Plateau of Northern Ethiopia is a key region for the study of relationships between climate, land use and the rise and fall of complex societies. Tigray has been the home to a succession of highly developed and powerful kingdoms and has a long history of agriculture, dating back to ~ 6,000 yrs BP. Unfortunately its mountainous topography makes the region particularly susceptible to accelerated erosion and mass wasting from intense land use practices and its location along the ITCZ and the East African rift system make the area prone to climatic changes. Today, after 6,000 years of agriculture, of which the last ~3,000 years have involved intense land use, the once fertile Tigray region is now highly degraded with frequent famine and some of the highest rates of soil erosion in the world. We find, based on a comparison of background (long-term) and anthropogenic short-term time-averaged erosion rates that deforestation and a transition to cropland farming likely increased rates of localized upstream erosion and downstream deposition by up to an order of magnitude greater than the natural background rates. We define three distinct periods of note in terms of rates and patterns of Holocene erosion and deposition in the east Tigray Plateau of Ethiopia. First, we take note of the depositional record and paleo-flaural reconstructions of a time of regional climate change yet little landuse change in Ethiopia, 7,500 - 6,000 cal yr BP (Late Prehistory and the beginning of the migration of peoples out of the Sahara and into Sudan and the highlands of Ethiopia). Second, we look at the stratigraphic record of the beginning of intense landuse and cultivation in the gently sloping lowland areas, 3200 -2300 Cal yrs BP (Pre-Aksumite period and the establishment of the first large centralized government in the upper Highlands). Third, we identify from the geological record a period of deforestation and farming of higher elevation, steep sloped hillsides and terraces 2300

  1. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: An Evolving Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253

  2. Establishing space research capability in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosinger, T.; Damtie, B.; Usoskin, I. G.

    It is often considered by various sources and institutions around the world that promotion of space physics activities in a developing country like Ethiopia is a waste of time and resources. It has, of course, some sense: developing countries should put all their efforts in improving the standard of life, infrastructure and basic education. However, it is straightforward to realize that nowadays improvement in any of the basic needs of developing countries is related to high technology (e.g. mobile phones, GPS, remote sensing). This means that a developing country has to take care of recruiting specialists among their own people who can take part in the decision making processes which are increasingly of global nature. Moreover, many citizens of developing countries are studying and working abroad attaining high expertise. As a matter of fact, there are more Ethiopians with PhD in physics working abroad than in the country. These people are lost for the benefit of their own country if there is no need for their profession in their home country. There is no doubt that the main task of improving the standard of living cannot be achieved without development and social transformation of the society, which can take place efficiently in a self-adopting and dynamic process. In line with the above argument, we have initiated the establishment of the Washera Space Physics Laboratory (WASPL) at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. It is a collaboration project between Oulu University and Addis Ababa University. The laboratory is expected to start operation of a pulsation magnetometer and photometer in September 2004. Other types of standard geophysical instruments are to be installed in subsequent missions. The project is of mutual interest of both parties. The equatorial ionosphere is still a poorly investigated region of our near Earth's space. In a first pilot investigation the existence and properties of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) in the equatorial ionosphere

  3. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission.

  4. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  5. Radargrammetry helps fight hunger in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanshie, Tadesse K.; Romeijn, Paul P.; Nezry, Edmond; Yakam-Simen, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the operational implementation of radargrammetry for the production of Digital Elevation Models, or DEMs, to areas of rugged topography. The Southern Ethiopian Highlands east of lake Abaya, with elevations between ca. 900 and 4,400 meters, were mapped. Currently available topographical maps are of insufficient quality to assist a study of the area's unique land use system, which is arguably the oldest and most durably sustained land use system of the planet. Without external inputs or terracing, the land use system maintains soil fertility and staves-off hunger. It has been doing so during the past 30 years of unrest and civil war, in one of the most crowded regions of Ethiopia. However, the central role of the staple crop enset within the land use system and its production cycles has hardly been the subject of scientific study. Understanding of this system is most likely to be relevant to enhancement of health and productivity in many regions of the world. Upon the request of the Agricultural Bureau for Gedeo Zone, geocoded and georeferenced topographical maps with accuracy of 20 meters (x, y and z) were made by PRIVATEERS N.V. on the basis of RADARSAT multi-incidence (S2/S7) images. These maps are now incorporated as the basic layer within the Bureau's GIS system. Map production techniques proved to be cost effective and relevant; especially for mountainous areas with poor accessability where correct geographic information is not available. The ease of orientation proved of invaluable help to rationalize execution and planning of cost-effective environmental field work and reporting.

  6. Soil erosion assessment and control in Northeast Wollega, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adugna, A.; Abegaz, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas and target locations for appropriate development of soil and water conservation measures. Fieldwork and household survey were conducted to identify major determinants of soil erosion control. Six principal factors were used to calculate soil loss per year, such as rainfallerosivity, soil erodiblity, slope length, slope steepness, crop management and erosion-control practices. The soil losses have shown spatio-temporal variations that range from 4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in forest to 65.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in cropland. Results from the analysis of stepwise multiple linear regression show that sustainable soil erosion control are determined byknowledge of farmers about soil conservation, land tenure security and off-farm income at community level. Thus, policy aim at keeping land productivity will need to focus on terracing, inter-cropping and improved agro-forestry practices.

  7. New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity.

    PubMed

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Gibert, Luis; Melillo, Stephanie M; Ryan, Timothy M; Alene, Mulugeta; Deino, Alan; Levin, Naomi E; Scott, Gary; Saylor, Beverly Z

    2015-05-28

    Middle Pliocene hominin species diversity has been a subject of debate over the past two decades, particularly after the naming of Australopithecus bahrelghazali and Kenyanthropus platyops in addition to the well-known species Australopithecus afarensis. Further analyses continue to support the proposal that several hominin species co-existed during this time period. Here we recognize a new hominin species (Australopithecus deyiremeda sp. nov.) from 3.3-3.5-million-year-old deposits in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. The new species from Woranso-Mille shows that there were at least two contemporaneous hominin species living in the Afar region of Ethiopia between 3.3 and 3.5 million years ago, and further confirms early hominin taxonomic diversity in eastern Africa during the Middle Pliocene epoch. The morphology of Au. deyiremeda also reinforces concerns related to dentognathic (that is, jaws and teeth) homoplasy in Plio-Pleistocene hominins, and shows that some dentognathic features traditionally associated with Paranthropus and Homo appeared in the fossil record earlier than previously thought. PMID:26017448

  8. A westward extension of the tropical Pacific warm pool leads to March through June drying in Kenya and Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, A. Park; Funk, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 14.3 million people are currently (July 2010) food insecure in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the U.S. government has spent more than $972 million on food aid in these two countries since 2009 (USAID, 2010). This insecurity stems from recent drought and rapid population growth that has outpaced agricultural development (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Brown, 2009). Previous work by Funk and others (2005, 2008) and Verdin and others (2005) has linked drought conditions in Kenya and Ethiopia with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean. Recent work has shown that Indian Ocean SSTs substantially affect rainfall in this region from March through June (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Verdin, 2009). This season is known as the 'long rains' in Kenya and the 'Belg' rains in Ethiopia.

  9. Gully Development in North Ethiopia's Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Amaury; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Meire, Ellen; de Dapper, Morgan; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku

    2010-05-01

    Understanding trends in gully erosion, and the relation with changes in its triggers, is important to make sustainable development possible in semi-arid regions suffering from low food security and threatened by climatic deterioration. The reconstruction of long-term (1868-2009) patterns in gully erosion in North Ethiopia and environmental control, i.e. LUC changes and rainfall pattern changes, requires an extensive database of ground-based photographs (1868-1975), aerial photographs (1964-1992), satellite images (1972-2009), meteorological station data (1950s-2009) and field measurements. Quantifying gully erosion networks and volumes is done from an integrated analysis of historical ground-based photographs, aerial photographs and IKONOS imagery. Therefore, new methodologies are being developed based on fieldwork, digital photogrammetry and Geographic Information Science techniques. LUC mapping and change analysis for periods prior to satellite imagery and aerial photography is done by developing a new methodology that georeferences LUC boundaries identified on historical photographs to the horizontal plane of the map. For the LANDSAT LUC analysis (1972-2000), images dated 1974-5 were calibrated using photographs of the same period. Therefore, a methodology was developed that involves the development of spectral signatures based on LUC observed on the photographs, and the recording of the location of those LUC units by GPS. Rainfall pattern changes will be analyzed from Rainfall Estimates(2001-2009) and meteorological station data. Early results show that gully erosion was already extensive in the late 19th century, caused by a largely degraded environment and that critical gully expansion occurred after the mid 20th century. Little care was given to land management in 1868 resulting in very low vegetation cover which depleted to a minimum in dry spells like in the 1980s. In recent decades land management practices result in an environmental recovery and

  10. Gravity field and isostatic state of Ethiopia and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Over 35,000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models against geologic structures over a part of the Afro-Arabian shield. The area of Ethiopia covers an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ≈5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and the Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinesz (flexural rigidity D = 10 22 Nm) models. The isostatic residual anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expressions of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity in the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. The small mean isostatic residual anomaly (about 8 mGal) and the isostatic analysis show a slight positive bias indicating under compensation. The undercompensation may imply that there are upper crustal features that are not compensated regionally (probably supported by the rigidity of the lithosphere) and isostatic disequilibrium in the region. Therefore, the high topography of Ethiopia and East African plateau is partly compensated by thicker crust (broad negative isostatic regional anomaly) and partly by dynamic forces. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and quantitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  11. Multisector Nutrition Program Governance and Implementation in Ethiopia: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Tessema, Masresha; Hailu, Tesfaye; Zerfu, Dilnesaw; Belay, Adamu; Ayana, Girmay; Kuche, Desalegn; Moges, Tibebu; Assefa, Tsehai; Samuel, Aregash; Kassaye, Tarik; Fekadu, Habtamu; Van Wassenhove, Joan

    2015-12-01

    Governments globally are stressing both direct nutrition interventions combined with nutrition sensitive policies and programs to combat malnutrition. Governance at all levels has been identified as a critical element in ensuring success of national nutrition plans. For example, the most recent National Nutrition Program (NNP) in Ethiopia discusses the essentiality of governance and coordination at all levels. The research uses a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with key informant. The research discussed in this article focuses on governance structures from national to regional to district level in Ethiopia with an emphasis on translation of a strategy and implementation of the NNP. This article concentrates primarily on results from the national and regional levels. Data at both the national and regional levels indicate that there is general agreement on the nature of the nutrition problems in Ethiopia. At all levels of government, under nutrition, food insecurity, and micronutrient deficiencies were listed as the main nutrition problems. The challenges in governance and implementation identified at both the national and regional levels, however, varied. The implementation of the 2013 NNP was in its early stages at the time of this research. While there was palpable energy around the launch of the NNP, respondents indicated issues related to leadership, coordination, collaboration, advocacy, and budget would be challenges in sustaining momentum. PMID:26531747

  12. Multisector Nutrition Program Governance and Implementation in Ethiopia: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Tessema, Masresha; Hailu, Tesfaye; Zerfu, Dilnesaw; Belay, Adamu; Ayana, Girmay; Kuche, Desalegn; Moges, Tibebu; Assefa, Tsehai; Samuel, Aregash; Kassaye, Tarik; Fekadu, Habtamu; Van Wassenhove, Joan

    2015-12-01

    Governments globally are stressing both direct nutrition interventions combined with nutrition sensitive policies and programs to combat malnutrition. Governance at all levels has been identified as a critical element in ensuring success of national nutrition plans. For example, the most recent National Nutrition Program (NNP) in Ethiopia discusses the essentiality of governance and coordination at all levels. The research uses a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with key informant. The research discussed in this article focuses on governance structures from national to regional to district level in Ethiopia with an emphasis on translation of a strategy and implementation of the NNP. This article concentrates primarily on results from the national and regional levels. Data at both the national and regional levels indicate that there is general agreement on the nature of the nutrition problems in Ethiopia. At all levels of government, under nutrition, food insecurity, and micronutrient deficiencies were listed as the main nutrition problems. The challenges in governance and implementation identified at both the national and regional levels, however, varied. The implementation of the 2013 NNP was in its early stages at the time of this research. While there was palpable energy around the launch of the NNP, respondents indicated issues related to leadership, coordination, collaboration, advocacy, and budget would be challenges in sustaining momentum.

  13. Assessing the Desired and Actual Levels of Teachers' Participation in Decision-Making in Secondary Schools of Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bademo, Yismaw; Tefera, Bekalu Ferede

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the desired and actual levels of teachers' participation in decision-making process in Ethiopian secondary schools. For this, the study employed a cross-sectional survey design collecting data from sampled secondary school teachers (n = 258) found in Assosa Zone, Benishangual Gumuz Regional state, Ethiopia.…

  14. Early Childhood in Ethiopia: Initiatives in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit

    2007-01-01

    This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…

  15. Communities and community genetics in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinalmalformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975

  16. Connecting Children with Modern Urban Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Jane

    1998-01-01

    An author relates memorable experiences of living in Ethiopia and describes how her brother's friendship with a poor boy in the city of Addis Ababa who cared for pigeons led to a children's book. Includes a descriptive list of books on pigeons, Africa, pets and wild animals, and cities, and a list of books by the author. (AEF)

  17. Geochemistry, PbPb single zircon ages and NdSr isotope composition of Precambrian rocks from southern and eastern Ethiopia: implications for crustal evolution in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklay, M.; Kröner, A.; Mezger, K.; Oberhänsli, R.

    1998-02-01

    Geochemical and isotope data for granitoid rocks from southern and eastern Ethiopia delineate the presumed margin of the Pan-African juvenile terrain of the Arabian-Nubian Shield against an older crustal segment of unknown origin extending from eastern Ethiopia to northern Somalia. Granitoids from southern Ethiopia have higher Na 2O and {Na20 }/{K2O} and lower Cr and Ni than granitoids with comparable SiO 2 values from eastern Ethiopia. In southern Ethiopia three periods of magmatism are identified on the basis on single zircon {207Pb}/{206Pb} evaporation ages, namely at ˜850, ˜750-700 and ˜650-550 Ma, and these correlate well with events documented from other parts of Ethiopia and the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The initial ɛNd(700 Ma) and ɛsr(700 Ma) values range from -1.2 to +3.2 and from -13.4 to + 3.7, respectively, which precludes any significant contribution from much older continental crust in the generation of these rocks. Neodymium mean crustal residence ages, based on a depleted mantle model, range from 0.96 to 1.26 Ga. These data support the interpretation that southern Ethiopia constitutes part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In contrast, granitoids from eastern Ethiopia show geochemical features of S-type granites. In eastern Ethiopia Pal aeo-Neoproterozoic zircon ages (781-2489 Ma) are found. Initial ɛNd(700 Ma) and ɛsr(700 Ma) values range from-4.3 to -18.3 and + 33.3 to + 99.8, respectively. Neodymium mean crustal residence ages range from 1.62 to 2.88 Ga. These data, in comparison to the western and southern parts of Ethiopia, are indicative of considerable reworking of pre-Pan-African crust. Variations in age, SrNd isotope ratios and chemistry of the granitoids on a regional scale also suggest the existence of two separate basement terrains between southern and eastern Ethiopia, which may be separated by a tectonic line now concealed by Phanerozoic rocks. This tectonic line may represent a major tectonic boundary between the juvenile Arabian

  18. First confirmation of foot and mouth disease virus serotype SAT-1 in cattle and small ruminants in Ethiopia in 2007/08.

    PubMed

    Legesse, Yoseph; Asfaw, Yilkal; Sahle, Mesfin; Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Negussie, Haileleul

    2013-06-01

    The study was conducted in three regional states of Ethiopia: Amhara, Oromia, and the Southern Nations Nationalities and people regional state from August 2007 to April 2008 with the objective of identifying the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in the region. Two serotypes were recorded from epithelial tissue and oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) fluid that were taken from outbreaks in study regions of Ethiopia. Serotype O FMDV was identified in Girar Jarso, Yabello, and Ankesha Guagusa districts while SAT-1 was isolated in Surma and Maji districts from tissue samples and this was the first report of the FMDV serotype in Ethiopia. Similarly, the OP fluid samples were found positive for SAT-1 FMDV in Maji and Surma districts. PMID:23250672

  19. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (P<0.05) and explained 32.87% of the explainable proportion of the heterogeneity noted between studies The prevalence was found to be higher in goats in lowland agro-ecology. Region wise the highest estimate was calculated for Amhara (6.4%) followed by Oromia (4.7%), Tigray (3.6%) and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR) (3.1%). Significant difference was noted between Amhara and SNNPR. The study further revealed that mites of the genus Sarcoptes, Demodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested. PMID:26872931

  20. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (P<0.05) and explained 32.87% of the explainable proportion of the heterogeneity noted between studies The prevalence was found to be higher in goats in lowland agro-ecology. Region wise the highest estimate was calculated for Amhara (6.4%) followed by Oromia (4.7%), Tigray (3.6%) and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR) (3.1%). Significant difference was noted between Amhara and SNNPR. The study further revealed that mites of the genus Sarcoptes, Demodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested.

  1. PLusiinae (Excl. Abrostolini) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Ethiopia. A faunistical survey with biogeographical comments.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Ronkay, Laszlo; Behounek, Gottfried; Müller, Günter C

    2015-01-01

    The extensive survey in different regions of Ethiopia between 1987-1990 and 2005-2011 resulted in the recognition of 39 species of Plusiinae. The majority of the species belong to two large genera, Ctenoplusia (15 species) and Thysanoplusia (16 species). A new synonymy is established, Plusiotricha gorilla (Holland, 1894) is proved to represent the female sex of Plusiotricha livida Holland, 1894 (syn. nov.). The present paper does not include the records of the species of the tribe Abrostolini. Eighteen species are recorded for the first time from Ethiopia. Twenty species of the identified taxa are known only from tropical and subtropical Africa, while the areas of ten species extend from Africa to the Arabian Peninsula or even further to the north. Eight species are widespread not only in Africa but also in the Palearctic and Oriental regions. One species-Autographa gamma, a well-known Palearctic pest of different vegetables-is found in the Afrotropical region only in Ethiopia, at medium and high mountain elevations but not in the tropical lowlands. PMID:26623895

  2. Anaesthesia in Ethiopia: providers' perspectives on the current state of the service.

    PubMed

    Bashford, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of surgical and anaesthetic safety in low-resource settings is hampered by a lack of reliable information on the current provision of these services. Ethiopia is one of the world's poorest countries and, despite large amounts of both foreign and domestic investment, still reports some of the worst health outcomes. However, information on anaesthesia and surgical provision is sparse. This work reproduces a questionnaire study, first used in Uganda in 2006, to survey practising anaesthetists regarding the current state of anaesthesia services across Ethiopia. The results indicate that a large proportion of centres remain unable to provide safe general, spinal, paediatric and obstetric anaesthesia, at all levels of hospital and across almost all of the country's regions. In addition to a lack of equipment and pharmaceuticals, anaesthetists report problems with professional recognition and a lack of access to continuing professional development as key barriers to service development. PMID:24240776

  3. Assessment of solar and wind energy resources in Ethiopia. I. Solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, F.; Mulugetta, Y.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes how data from a variety of sources are merged to present new countrywide maps of the solar energy distribution over Ethiopia. The spatial coverage of stations with radiation data was found to be unsatisfactory for the purpose of a countrywide solar energy assessment exercise. Therefore, radiation had to be predicted from sunshine hours by employing empirical models. Using data from seven stations in Ethiopia, linear and quadratic correlation relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and sunshine hours per day have been developed. These regional models show a distinct improvement over previously employed countrywide models. To produce a national solar-energy distribution profile, a spatial extension of the radiation/sunshine relationships had to be carried out. To do this, the intercepts(a) and slopes(b) of each of the seven linear regression equations and another six from previous studies, completed in neighbouring Sudan, Kenya and Yemen, were used to interpolate the corresponding values to areas between them. Subsequent to these procedures, 142 stations providing only sunshine data were assigned their `appropriate` a and b values to estimate the amount of solar radiation received, which was then used to produce annual and monthly solar radiation distribution maps for Ethiopia. The results show that in all regions solar energy is an abundant resource. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.

    PubMed

    Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success.

  5. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  6. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual…

  7. Reflections on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wondie, Yemataw

    2014-10-01

    The introduction and development of psychology in Ethiopia has been mainly limited to Addis Ababa University in the capital city, and also to educational and school psychology which was highly influenced by the field of education at this pioneering university. Similarly, mental health services have been principally developed at the Amanuel Mental Hospital in Addis Ababa that has existed since the 1950s. However, the expansion of higher learning institutions on one hand, and the apparent growing prevalence of mental illness on the other, seem to have contributed to the development of both mental health training and services in other regional cities and towns. Although the influence of the education-oriented psychological training of the Addis Ababa University is still present, clinical psychology education and services are now being started in other universities. One of these is the master's programme in clinical psychology opened for the first time in the University of Gondar. This article sheds light on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and addresses some of the issues raised about the factors that have influenced its development such as traditional beliefs, poverty and comparisons between mental health in lower middle-income countries and higher middle-income countries ( Uppal et al., 2014 ). The paper also proposes future directions for the education, research, infrastructure and services of clinical psychology and mental health in Ethiopia.

  8. The deep seismic structure of the Ethiopia/Afar hotspot and the African superplume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Samantha E.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

    2013-07-01

    The Ethiopia/Afar hotspot has been frequently explained as an upper mantle continuation of the African superplume, with anomalous material in the lower mantle under southern Africa, rising through the transition zone beneath eastern Africa. However, the significantly larger amplitude low velocity anomaly in the upper mantle beneath Ethiopia/Afar, compared to the anomalies beneath neighboring regions, has led to questions about whether or not along-strike differences in the seismic structure beneath eastern Africa and western Arabia are consistent with the superplume interpretation. Here we present a new P-wave model of the hotspot's deep structure and use it to evaluate the superplume model. At shallow (< ˜400 km) depths, the slowest velocities are centered beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift, and we attribute these low velocities to decompression melting beneath young, thin lithosphere. At deeper depths, the low velocity structure trends to the northeast, and the locus of the low velocity anomaly is found beneath Afar. The northeast-trending structure with depth is best modeled by northeastward flow of warm superplume material beneath eastern Africa. The combined effects of shallow decompression melting and northeastward flow of superplume material explain why upper mantle velocities beneath Ethiopia/Afar are significantly slower than those beneath neighboring East Africa and western Arabia. The superplume interpretation can thus explain the deep seismic structure of the hotspot if the effects of both decompression melting and mantle flow are considered.

  9. Population Genomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia Contradicts the Virgin Soil Hypothesis for Human Tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Comas, Iñaki; Hailu, Elena; Kiros, Teklu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Mekonnen, Wondale; Gumi, Balako; Tschopp, Rea; Ameni, Gobena; Hewinson, R Glyn; Robertson, Brian D; Goig, Galo A; Stucki, David; Gagneux, Sebastien; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas; Berg, Stefan

    2015-12-21

    Colonial medical reports claimed that tuberculosis (TB) was largely unknown in Africa prior to European contact, providing a "virgin soil" for spread of TB in highly susceptible populations previously unexposed to the disease [1, 2]. This is in direct contrast to recent phylogenetic models which support an African origin for TB [3-6]. To address this apparent contradiction, we performed a broad genomic sampling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia. All members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) arose from clonal expansion of a single common ancestor [7] with a proposed origin in East Africa [3, 4, 8]. Consistent with this proposal, MTBC lineage 7 is almost exclusively found in that region [9-11]. Although a detailed medical history of Ethiopia supports the view that TB was rare until the 20(th) century [12], over the last century Ethiopia has become a high-burden TB country [13]. Our results provide further support for an African origin for TB, with some genotypes already present on the continent well before European contact. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a pattern of serial introductions of multiple genotypes into Ethiopia in association with human migration and trade. In place of a "virgin soil" fostering the spread of TB in a previously naive population, we propose that increased TB mortality in Africa was driven by the introduction of European strains of M. tuberculosis alongside expansion of selected indigenous strains having biological characteristics that carry a fitness benefit in the urbanized settings of post-colonial Africa.

  10. Epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Innocent, G T; Trawford, A F; Reid, S W J; Love, S

    2010-05-11

    A cross-sectional coprological survey in the tropical regions of Ada, Akaki, Bereh and Boset, and a retrospective post-mortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Faecal samples from 803 donkeys were collected, and the number of liver flukes recovered from 112 donkeys at post-mortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. There was a high prevalence of fasciolosis irrespective of the age of the donkeys. The overall prevalence of the infection was 44.4% in coprologically examined donkeys, and the prevalence in the donkeys examined post-mortem was 41.9%. The infection prevalence was significantly higher in Bereh and Ada regions than in Akaki and Boset regions. Bereh with 72.6% and Boset with 21.5% showed a significantly higher and lower infection prevalence, respectively, than the rest of the regions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between different age groups of donkeys in the infection prevalence (P>0.05) but infection intensity was significantly higher in donkeys 8 years old and above (P<0.0001). Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were identified.

  11. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  12. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of race TKTTF of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici that caused a wheat stem rust epidemic in southern Ethiopia in 2013-2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A severe stem rust epidemic occurred in southern Ethiopia during November 2013 to January 2014 with yield losses close to 100% on the most widely grown wheat cultivar, 'Digalu'. Sixty-four stem rust samples collected from the regions were analyzed. A meteorological model for airborne spore dispersal...

  14. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia

  15. Census in a rural area of Ethiopia: methodology and results.

    PubMed

    Materia, E; Mehari, W; Mele, A; Rosmini, F; Stazi, M A; Damen, H M; Basile, G; Kifle, T; Miuccio, G; Ferrigno, L

    1993-01-01

    A census and an ecologic survey were performed in 39 villages of a rural district of Arsi Region, Ethiopia, in difficult field circumstances. Information on age, ethnic group, education and family relationship, as well as data on health facilities and availability of basic services were collected. Supervised students, working in teams, were used as interviewers. Communities were involved through plenary meetings and community health agents participated in the data collection process. A total of 64,714 people in 12,152 households were registered. The repeatability of age assessment was investigated by comparing the results from two villages with data obtained in a pilot study carried out 6 months earlier. The technical error was only 0.80 and 1.67 in the 0-5 and 6-15 age-groups, respectively. Three percent of the total population was under one year, less than previously estimated. This may, in part, be due to the family planning programme in the region. Eighteen percent of the households were headed by females. School attendance was less common among females and in the Oromo ethnic group. The availability of basic services, including safe water and basic sanitation supplies, was very poor in the area.

  16. Volcanic outcrops of southeast Ethiopia and the Ogaden Dyke Swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mège, Daniel; Purcell, Peter; Jourdan, Fred; Pochat, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    A new map of Tertiary volcanics occurrences in the Ogaden region of southeast Ethiopia and adjacent areas of Somalia has been prepared. Outcrop areas, mapped using satellite images and helicopter-­-supported field work in 2008, are more widespread than previously recognized, while magnetic and drill data reveal the vast subsurface extent of the magmatism. Several spectacular 'meandering' outcrops, over 100 km long, are undoubtedly exhumed canyon-­-filling flows and magnetic data show that many other apparently isolated outcrops are actually part of similar flows, the bulk of which are now subsurface. Age dating and well intersections show several volcanic episodes, with the major outpouring occurring across a broad peneplain in the Oligocene. Geological and aeromagnetic mapping, and 40Ar/39Ar age dating, reveal a dyke swarm extending SSE from the southern Afar margin more than 600 km across the Somali Plate, and coeval with dyke injection in the Red Sea rift at ~25 Ma. The Ogaden Dyke Swarm, which occurs in an area historically considered remote from the impact of the Afro-­-Arabian rifting and volcanism, appears associated with the Marda Fault and marks a zone of crustal dilation along the Red Sea trend across the Horn of Africa. Contemporaneous rifts, also trending WNW/ESE and over 120 km long, occur in NE Somalia, confirming the predominantly NE/SW-­-directed crustal stress regime in the Ogaden and adjacent region at this time.

  17. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mirgissa; Bulto, Tesfaye; Tafesse, Zergu; Lingerh, Wassie; Ali, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women. Objective The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia. Methods A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11. Results Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited availability of supplies and equipment were found to maintain the preference to deliver at home. Conclusion The government’s endeavor to improve maternal health has generated positive results with more women now attending antenatal care. Yet over 80% of

  18. Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Taddese, G

    2001-06-01

    Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation.

  19. Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J

    2005-01-20

    Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland.

  20. Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J

    2005-01-20

    Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland. PMID:15662421

  1. Attitude toward female genital mutilation among Somali and Harari people, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abathun, Asresash Demissie; Sundby, Johanne; Gele, Abdi A

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a worldwide problem, and it is practiced by many communities in Africa and Asia as well as immigrants from those areas. This practice results in short- and long-term health consequences on women’s health. Like many other developing countries, FGM is widely practiced in Ethiopia, especially among Somali and Harari ethnic groups. Despite intensive campaigns against FGM in Ethiopia, since 2011, it has been practiced in the aforementioned communities. There is no recent information as to whether these campaigns have an impact on the attitude and practice of the community regarding FGM. This qualitative research was aimed at exploring the attitudes of Somali and Harari people between 18 and 65 years toward FGM. Methods A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 64 (32 in each region) participants. Data were collected from October to December 2015 in Somali and Harari Regions. Results The findings showed that there was a strong support for the continuation of the practice among female discussants in Somali region, whereas male discussants from the same region and the majority of the participants from Harari region had a positive attitude toward the discontinuation of the practice. Marriageability was the major reason for practicing FGM in Somali region, whereas making girls calm, sexually inactive, and faithful for their husbands were mentioned in Harari region. Although young men in both the regions prefer to marry uncircumcised girls, the study showed that there are some differences in the attitude toward the FGM practice between the people in the two regions. Conclusion The findings show that there is an attitudinal difference between the people in the two regions, which calls for behavioral change communication using women-centered approach and culturally appropriate strategies. As young people in both the regions had the intention to marry uncircumcised girls, there has to be a strong advocacy and multisectoral

  2. Genetic structuring of remnant forest patches in an endangered medicinal tree in North-western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Habitat loss and fragmentation may have detrimental impacts on genetic diversity, population structure and overall viability of tropical trees. The response of tropical trees to fragmentation processes may, however, be species, cohort or region-specific. Here we test the hypothesis that forest fragmentation is associated with lower genetic variability and higher genetic differentiation in adult and seedling populations of Prunus africana in North-western Ethiopia. This is a floristically impoverished region where all but a few remnant forest patches have been destroyed, mostly by anthropogenic means. Results Genetic diversity (based on allelic richness) was significantly greater in large and less-isolated forest patches as well as in adults than seedlings. Nearly all pairwise FST comparisons showed evidence for significant population genetic differentiation. Mean FST values were significantly greater in seedlings than adults, even after correction for within population diversity, but varied little with patch size or isolation. Conclusions Analysis of long-lived adult trees suggests the formerly contiguous forest in North-western Ethiopia probably exhibited strong spatial patterns of genetic structure. This means that protecting a range of patches including small and isolated ones is needed to conserve the extant genetic resources of the valuable forests in this region. However, given the high livelihood dependence of the local community and the high impact of foreign investors on forest resources of this region, in situ conservation efforts alone may not be helpful. Therefore, these efforts should be supported with ex situ gene conservation actions. PMID:24602239

  3. Molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia: new phylogenetic lineages found in Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although Ethiopia ranks seventh among the world’s 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries, little is known about strain diversity and transmission. In this study, we present the first in-depth analysis of the population structure and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In the present study, 244 M. tuberculosis isolates where analysed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit - variable number tandem repeat 24-loci typing and spoligotyping methods to determine phylogenetic lineages and perform cluster analysis. Clusters of strains with identical genotyping patterns were considered as an indicator for the recent transmission. Results Of 244 isolates, 59.0% were classified into nine previously described lineages: Dehli/CAS (38.9%), Haarlem (8.6%), Ural (3.3%), LAM (3.3%), TUR (2.0%), X-type (1.2%), S-type (0.8%), Beijing (0.4%) and Uganda II (0.4%). Interestingly, 31.6% of the strains were grouped into four new lineages and were named as Ethiopia_3 (13.1%), Ethiopia_1 (7.8%), Ethiopia_H37Rv like (7.0%) and Ethiopia_2 (3.7%) lineages. The remaining 9.4% of the isolates could not be assigned to the known or new lineages. Overall, 45.1% of the isolates were grouped in clusters, indicating a high rate of recent transmission. Conclusions This study confirms a highly diverse M. tuberculosis population structure, the presence of new phylogenetic lineages and a predominance of the Dehli/CAS lineage in Northwest Ethiopia. The high rate of recent transmission indicates defects of the TB control program in Northwest Ethiopia. This emphasizes the importance of strengthening laboratory diagnosis of TB, intensified case finding and treatment of TB patients to interrupt the chain of transmission. PMID:23496968

  4. First detection and molecular characterization of sapoviruses and noroviruses with zoonotic potential in swine in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J

    2016-10-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs), which belong to the family Caliciviridae, are important human and animal enteric pathogens with zoonotic potential. In Ethiopia, no study has been done on the epidemiology of animal NoVs and SaVs. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize NoVs and SaVs from swine of various ages. Swine fecal samples (n = 117) were collected from commercial farms in Ethiopia. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using a portion of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region and the VP1 region of genome sequences of caliciviruses. Among 117 samples, potential caliciviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 17 samples (14.5 %). Of the RT-PCR-positive fecal samples, four were sequenced, of which two were identified as human NoV GII.1 and the other two as porcine SaV GIII. The porcine SaV strains that were detected were genetically related to the porcine enteric calicivirus Cowden strain genogroup III (GIII), which is the prototype porcine SaV strain. No porcine NoVs were detected. Our results showed the presence of NoVs in swine that are most similar to human strains. These findings have important implications for NoV epidemiology and food safety. Therefore, continued surveillance of NoVs in swine is needed to define their zoonotic potential, epidemiology and public and animal health impact. This is the first study to investigate enteric caliciviruses (noroviruses and sapoviruses) in swine in Ethiopia. PMID:27424025

  5. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  6. Towards universal health coverage for reproductive health services in Ethiopia: two policy recommendations.

    PubMed

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Taddesse, Mieraf; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Abdullah, Muna; Miljeteig, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health services are crucial for maternal and child health, but universal health coverage is still not within reach in most societies. Ethiopia's goal of universal health coverage promises access to all necessary services for everyone while providing protection against financial risk. When moving towards universal health coverage, health plans and policies require contextualized knowledge about baseline indicators and their distributions. To understand more about the factors that explain coverage, we study the relationship between socioeconomic and geographic factors and the use of reproductive health services in Ethiopia, and further explore inequalities in reproductive health coverage. Based on these findings, we discuss the normative implications of these findings for health policy. Using population-level data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (2011) in a multivariate logistic model, we find that family planning and use of antenatal care are associated with higher wealth, higher education and being employed. Skilled attendance at birth is associated with higher wealth, higher education, and urban location. There is large variation between Addis Ababa (the capital) and other administrative regions. Concentration indices show substantial inequalities in the use of reproductive health services. Decomposition of the concentration indices indicates that difference in wealth is the most important explanatory factor for inequality in reproductive health coverage, but other factors, such as urban setting and previous health care use, are also associated with inequalities. When aiming for universal health coverage, this study shows that different socioeconomic factors as well as health-sector factors should be addressed. Our study re-confirms the importance of a broader approach to reproductive health, and in particular the importance of inequality in wealth and geography. Poor, non-educated, non-employed women in rural areas are

  7. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  8. Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

    2014-12-01

    Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face. PMID:25132572

  9. Facial injuries following hyena attack in rural eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M

    2014-12-01

    Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face.

  10. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Deribew, Ketema; Tekeste, Zinaye; Petros, Beyene

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P<0.05). The mean hemoglobin concentration between Plasmodium falciparum and S. haematobium infected children showed no significant difference (P>0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community. PMID:23620856

  11. Viral diseases in Ethiopia: a review.

    PubMed

    Aseffa, A

    1993-10-01

    Ethiopia is endemic for many viral diseases. Serosurveys have demonstrated the high prevalence rate of hepatitis B virus. There are also indications of high transmission for hepatitis C, hepatitis E and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The population is exposed to poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, measles, rubella and mumps early in life. Rotaviral diarrhoea is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Vast areas of the country are endemic for yellow fever and rabies. The extent of many other viral diseases in the country is unknown. There is a need for a well organised national laboratory to assess the impact of vaccination efforts and to support control as well as surveillance measures within the country.

  12. Viral diseases in Ethiopia: a review.

    PubMed

    Aseffa, A

    1993-10-01

    Ethiopia is endemic for many viral diseases. Serosurveys have demonstrated the high prevalence rate of hepatitis B virus. There are also indications of high transmission for hepatitis C, hepatitis E and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The population is exposed to poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, measles, rubella and mumps early in life. Rotaviral diarrhoea is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Vast areas of the country are endemic for yellow fever and rabies. The extent of many other viral diseases in the country is unknown. There is a need for a well organised national laboratory to assess the impact of vaccination efforts and to support control as well as surveillance measures within the country. PMID:8187657

  13. Comparative Hydrology in Ethiopia: a learning experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.

  14. Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheung, W.H.; Senay, G.B.; Singh, A.

    2008-01-01

    As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.

  15. Effects of the integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy on Child Mortality in Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Hazel, Elizabeth; Shaw, Bryan; Miller, Nathan P; Tafesse, Mengistu; Mekonnen, Yared; Moulton, Lawrence H; Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a cluster randomized trial of the effects of the integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) strategy on careseeking for and coverage of correct treatment of suspected pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria, and mortality among children aged 2-59 months in 31 districts of the Oromia region of Ethiopia. We conducted baseline and endline coverage and mortality surveys approximately 2 years apart, and assessed program strength after about 1 year of implementation. Results showed strong iCCM implementation, with iCCM-trained workers providing generally good quality of care. However, few sick children were taken to iCCM providers (average 16 per month). Difference in differences analyses revealed that careseeking for childhood illness was low and similar in both study arms at baseline and endline, and increased only marginally in intervention (22.9-25.7%) and comparison (23.3-29.3%) areas over the study period (P = 0.77). Mortality declined at similar rates in both study arms. Ethiopia's iCCM program did not generate levels of demand and utilization sufficient to achieve significant increases in intervention coverage and a resulting acceleration in reductions in child mortality. This evaluation has allowed Ethiopia to strengthen its strategic approaches to increasing population demand and use of iCCM services. PMID:26787148

  16. Effects of the integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy on Child Mortality in Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Hazel, Elizabeth; Shaw, Bryan; Miller, Nathan P.; Tafesse, Mengistu; Mekonnen, Yared; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cluster randomized trial of the effects of the integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) strategy on careseeking for and coverage of correct treatment of suspected pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria, and mortality among children aged 2–59 months in 31 districts of the Oromia region of Ethiopia. We conducted baseline and endline coverage and mortality surveys approximately 2 years apart, and assessed program strength after about 1 year of implementation. Results showed strong iCCM implementation, with iCCM-trained workers providing generally good quality of care. However, few sick children were taken to iCCM providers (average 16 per month). Difference in differences analyses revealed that careseeking for childhood illness was low and similar in both study arms at baseline and endline, and increased only marginally in intervention (22.9–25.7%) and comparison (23.3–29.3%) areas over the study period (P = 0.77). Mortality declined at similar rates in both study arms. Ethiopia's iCCM program did not generate levels of demand and utilization sufficient to achieve significant increases in intervention coverage and a resulting acceleration in reductions in child mortality. This evaluation has allowed Ethiopia to strengthen its strategic approaches to increasing population demand and use of iCCM services. PMID:26787148

  17. Effects of the integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness Strategy on Child Mortality in Ethiopia: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Hazel, Elizabeth; Shaw, Bryan; Miller, Nathan P; Tafesse, Mengistu; Mekonnen, Yared; Moulton, Lawrence H; Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a cluster randomized trial of the effects of the integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) strategy on careseeking for and coverage of correct treatment of suspected pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria, and mortality among children aged 2-59 months in 31 districts of the Oromia region of Ethiopia. We conducted baseline and endline coverage and mortality surveys approximately 2 years apart, and assessed program strength after about 1 year of implementation. Results showed strong iCCM implementation, with iCCM-trained workers providing generally good quality of care. However, few sick children were taken to iCCM providers (average 16 per month). Difference in differences analyses revealed that careseeking for childhood illness was low and similar in both study arms at baseline and endline, and increased only marginally in intervention (22.9-25.7%) and comparison (23.3-29.3%) areas over the study period (P = 0.77). Mortality declined at similar rates in both study arms. Ethiopia's iCCM program did not generate levels of demand and utilization sufficient to achieve significant increases in intervention coverage and a resulting acceleration in reductions in child mortality. This evaluation has allowed Ethiopia to strengthen its strategic approaches to increasing population demand and use of iCCM services.

  18. Features of groundwaters in basins shared between Ethiopia and Kenya and the implications for international legislation on transboundary aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Seifu; Ketema, Abebe; Tesema, Zenaw

    2010-11-01

    The implementation of laws relating to transboundary aquifers necessitates field knowledge so that the laws can be coincident with reality on the ground. The definition of ‘shared aquifer’ is more complex than the mere physically shared body of groundwater flowing from country A to country B. The border between Ethiopia and Kenya is characterized by low-volume groundwater storage and low transboundary flows. However, groundwater has visible environmental, social and economic functions. The characteristics of groundwater flow and storage in aquifers shared between Ethiopia and Kenya are different from those used in setting the foundation of the international legal framework on shared aquifers. By describing the characteristics of the groundwaters that are shared between Ethiopia and Kenya, this work demonstrates that the international legal framework is inadequate when applied in this region. The main inadequacies are: (1) international law does not specify the minimum volume of transboundary flow in an aquifer for it to qualify to be treated under the law, and (2) the physical aspects of water get more emphasis than the functions of groundwater. A more adequate international legal framework would be one that considers specific types of groundwater and local needs.

  19. Initial evidence of reduction of malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia due to rapid scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Mac; Aregawi, Maru; Were, Wilson; Karema, Corine; Medin, Ambachew; Bekele, Worku; Jima, Daddi; Gausi, Khoti; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Korenromp, Eline; Low-Beer, Daniel; Grabowsky, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background An increasing number of malaria-endemic African countries are rapidly scaling up malaria prevention and treatment. To have an initial estimate of the impact of these efforts, time trends in health facility records were evaluated in selected districts in Ethiopia and Rwanda, where long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) had been distributed nationwide by 2007. Methods In Ethiopia, a stratified convenience sample covered four major regions where (moderately) endemic malaria occurs. In Rwanda, two districts were sampled in all five provinces, with one rural health centre and one rural hospital selected in each district. The main impact indicator was percentage change in number of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old prior to (2001–2005/6) and after (2007) nationwide implementation of LLIN and ACT. Results In-patient malaria cases and deaths in children < 5 years old in Rwanda fell by 55% and 67%, respectively, and in Ethiopia by 73% and 62%. Over this same time period, non-malaria cases and deaths generally remained stable or increased. Conclusion Initial evidence indicated that the combination of mass distribution of LLIN to all children < 5 years or all households and nationwide distribution of ACT in the public sector was associated with substantial declines of in-patient malaria cases and deaths in Rwanda and Ethiopia. Clinic-based data was a useful tool for local monitoring of the impact of malaria programmes. PMID:19144183

  20. Population Genomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia Contradicts the Virgin Soil Hypothesis for Human Tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Iñaki; Hailu, Elena; Kiros, Teklu; Bekele, Shiferaw; Mekonnen, Wondale; Gumi, Balako; Tschopp, Rea; Ameni, Gobena; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Robertson, Brian D.; Goig, Galo A.; Stucki, David; Gagneux, Sebastien; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas; Berg, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Colonial medical reports claimed that tuberculosis (TB) was largely unknown in Africa prior to European contact, providing a “virgin soil” for spread of TB in highly susceptible populations previously unexposed to the disease [1, 2]. This is in direct contrast to recent phylogenetic models which support an African origin for TB [3, 4, 5, 6]. To address this apparent contradiction, we performed a broad genomic sampling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ethiopia. All members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) arose from clonal expansion of a single common ancestor [7] with a proposed origin in East Africa [3, 4, 8]. Consistent with this proposal, MTBC lineage 7 is almost exclusively found in that region [9, 10, 11]. Although a detailed medical history of Ethiopia supports the view that TB was rare until the 20th century [12], over the last century Ethiopia has become a high-burden TB country [13]. Our results provide further support for an African origin for TB, with some genotypes already present on the continent well before European contact. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a pattern of serial introductions of multiple genotypes into Ethiopia in association with human migration and trade. In place of a “virgin soil” fostering the spread of TB in a previously naive population, we propose that increased TB mortality in Africa was driven by the introduction of European strains of M. tuberculosis alongside expansion of selected indigenous strains having biological characteristics that carry a fitness benefit in the urbanized settings of post-colonial Africa. PMID:26687624

  1. Health Care Seeking Behavior in Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Begashaw, Bayu; Tessema, Fasil; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha

    2016-01-01

    Background Rural and urban populations have disparate socio-demographic and economic characteristics, which have an influence on equity and their health seeking behavior. We examined and compared the health care seeking behavior for perceived morbidity between urban and rural households in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Analytic cross-sectional study was conducted among urban and rural households living in Esera district of Southwest Ethiopia. A random sample of 388 head of households (126 urban and 262 rural) were selected. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used for data collection with face-to-face interview. In addition to descriptive methods, binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with health seeking behavior at p value of less than 0.05. Results Of the sample household heads, 377 (97.2%) (119 urban and 258 rural) were successfully interviewed. Among these, 58.4% (95% CI, 53.3–63.3%) of the households sought care from modern health care that was lower among rural (48.1%) than urban (80.7%) households. The prevalence of self-treatment was 35.3% in urban and 46.1% in rural households. Among the factors considered for modern health care utilization, higher monthly income (AOR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.04–15.4), perceived severity of disease (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1–5.8), acute duration of disease (AOR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.4–33.3) and short distance from health facilities (AOR, 3; 95% CI, 1.2–8.4) among rural and being married (AOR, 11.3; 95% CI, 1.2–110.2) and perceived severity of disease (AOR, 6.6; 95% CI, 1.1–10.9) among urban households showed statistically significant association. Conclusions The general health seeking behavior of households on perceived morbidity was satisfactory but lower in rural compared to urban households. Self-medication was also widely practiced in the study area. The findings signal the need to work more on accessibility and promotion of healthcare seeking behavior especially among rural households

  2. Deforestation and forest management in southern Ethiopia: investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  3. Deforestation and Forest Management in Southern Ethiopia: Investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  4. Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance.

  5. Child Wasting in Emergency Pockets: A Meta-Analysis of Small-Scale Surveys from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Altare, Chiara; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-02-01

    Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in Ethiopia (stunting national prevalence: 44%; wasting: 10%), despite the overall improvement in child health status during the last decade. Hundreds of small-scale surveys are conducted in Ethiopia's emergency pockets under ENCU's supervision. We reviewed the evidence from small-scale surveys conducted between 2008 and 2013 with two objectives: to provide a summary estimate of wasting prevalence from emergency pockets and to examine reasons for variation in prevalence estimates. We created a dataset by combining data from the Complex Emergency Database, the Famine Early Warning System Network and the Armed Conflict Location Event Data. We conducted a meta-analysis of small-scale surveys using a random effects model with known within-study heterogeneity. The influence of survey covariates on estimated prevalence was investigated with meta-regression techniques. We included 158 surveys in the analysis. A high degree of heterogeneity among surveys was observed. The overall estimate of wasting prevalence was 10.6% (95% CI 9.8-11.4), with differences among regions and between residents and refugees. Meta-regression results showed that vaccination coverage, child mortality, diarrhea prevalence and food insecurity are significantly associated with wasting prevalence. Child care and displacement status were not. Aggregated analysis of small-scale surveys provides insights into the prevalence of wasting and factors explaining its variation. It can also guide survey planning towards areas with limited data availability. PMID:26828512

  6. Child Wasting in Emergency Pockets: A Meta-Analysis of Small-Scale Surveys from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Altare, Chiara; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-02-01

    Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in Ethiopia (stunting national prevalence: 44%; wasting: 10%), despite the overall improvement in child health status during the last decade. Hundreds of small-scale surveys are conducted in Ethiopia's emergency pockets under ENCU's supervision. We reviewed the evidence from small-scale surveys conducted between 2008 and 2013 with two objectives: to provide a summary estimate of wasting prevalence from emergency pockets and to examine reasons for variation in prevalence estimates. We created a dataset by combining data from the Complex Emergency Database, the Famine Early Warning System Network and the Armed Conflict Location Event Data. We conducted a meta-analysis of small-scale surveys using a random effects model with known within-study heterogeneity. The influence of survey covariates on estimated prevalence was investigated with meta-regression techniques. We included 158 surveys in the analysis. A high degree of heterogeneity among surveys was observed. The overall estimate of wasting prevalence was 10.6% (95% CI 9.8-11.4), with differences among regions and between residents and refugees. Meta-regression results showed that vaccination coverage, child mortality, diarrhea prevalence and food insecurity are significantly associated with wasting prevalence. Child care and displacement status were not. Aggregated analysis of small-scale surveys provides insights into the prevalence of wasting and factors explaining its variation. It can also guide survey planning towards areas with limited data availability.

  7. First archaeomagnetic field intensity data from Ethiopia, Africa (1615 ± 12 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osete, María Luisa; Catanzariti, Gianluca; Chauvin, Annick; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Roperch, Pierrick; Fernández, Víctor M.

    2015-05-01

    First archaeointensity determinations have been obtained from Ethiopia. Seven bricks (34 specimens) from the Däbsan archaeological remains were subjected to archaeointensity determination by means of classical Thellier-Thellier experiment including tests for magnetic anisotropy and magnetic cooling rate dependency. The age of the Däbsan Palace is well controlled by historical information: between 1603, when land grants were conceded to the Jesuits and the Catholicism was established as the official religion in Ethiopia, and the age of the Palace foundation in 1626-27. Successful archaeointensity determinations were obtained in 27 specimens from five individual bricks revealing an average field value of 33.5 ± 1.1 μT, which is 11-26% lower than expected values from global geomagnetic models based on historical and archaeomagnetic data. Global models for 1615 AD predict a low in central-southern Africa related to past location of the present Southern Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Our results suggest that the field intensity in central Africa may have been slightly lower than global model predictions. This would indicate that the low could be probably more extended towards central-eastern Africa (or more intense) than previously considered. Further data from this region are especially welcome to delineate the evolution of the SAA.

  8. Virtual Reconstruction of the Almaqah Temple of Yeha in Ethiopia by Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstaedt, M.; Mechelke, K.; Schnelle, M.; Kersten, Th.

    2011-09-01

    In autumn 2009 the Almaqah Temple of Yeha in Ethiopia has been recorded by terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry in cooperation between the Sana'a Branch of the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute and the HafenCity University Hamburg. The temple dates from the 7th Century BC and is one of the best preserved buildings of Sabaean architecture in Africa. As a basis for all future project works a geodetic network was established in UTM-coordinates by GPS measurements. The geodata collected will form the basis for all future work on the temple. The deformations of the facades were determined for restoration issues and the existing parts of the temple were modelled by meshing (3D triangulation). Using the scanned point cloud and a technical analysis of the building the Propylon, which is no longer existent today, was virtually reconstructed. In future, the data will also be included in the master plan for touristic development of the region of Axum and Yeha in northern Ethiopia.

  9. Sawflies of Ethiopia (Hymenoptera: Argidae, Tenthredinidae).

    PubMed

    Koch, Frank; Pauly, Alain; Hora, Zewdu A; Boevé, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-24

    Sawflies were collected in Ethiopia during 2010-2013. Three species represent new records for the country: Arge deckerti Koch, 2005, Athalia excisa Koch, 2006 and Xenapates nigrifrons Koch, 2012. Arge flavifrons Mocsáry, 1909, syn. n. and A. transvaalensis Cameron, 1911, syn. n. are subjective synonyms of A. micheli (Buysson, 1900) that is re-described here. Athalia fumosa Gribodo, 1879 sp. rev. is recognized as a valid species and is removed from synonymy with A. scioensis Gribodo, 1879. Distega braunsi Enslin, 1911 syn. n. and D. brunniventris Enslin, 1913 syn. n. are subjective synonyms of D. montium Konow, 1907. Pseudoneacidiophora Koch, 1998 is a new junior synonym of Kivua Forsius, 1934 (syn. n.), resulting in the new combination Kivua pleuritica (comb. n.) for Athalia pleuritica Forsius, 1927. Kivua camerunensis nom. n. is proposed for P. bicolor Koch, 1998 (preoccupied in Kivua by K. bicolor (Pasteels, 1949) (Bicrista bicolor Pasteels)), the second species formerly included in Pseudoneacidiophora. The female of Distega abyssinica Pasteels, 1955 is described for the first time. An annotated and illustrated list including six distribution maps is given for Ethiopian sawflies. It is composed of 34 species belonging to the genus Arge (Argidae), and seven genera of Tenthredinidae: Athalia (Athaliinae), Kivua, Neacidiophora, Xenapates (Allantinae), Distega, Trisodontophyes (Blennocampinae), and Dulophanes (Selandriinae). Some ecological aspects of Athalia species are discussed, especially for the most abundantly collected A. vollenhoveni Gribodo, 1879.

  10. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide.

  11. Quaternary glaciation of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Henry A.; Mitchell, Wishart A.; Osmaston, J. A. Nigel

    2005-09-01

    Central Ethiopia comprises a high plateau at 2000-3000 m, formed from Tertiary lava flows and bisected by the Eastern African Rift. Ten volcanic mountains rise to altitudes of just over 4000 m, but on only three has Quaternary glaciation been substantiated by published field observations. On the Bale Mountains (4400 m), a previous report based on limited evidence proposed an ice-cap extending to 600 km2. Based on aerial photographs and ground surveys, this paper reports evidence of a more complex situation. A wide spread of large erratic boulders on the plateau records a central ice cap of 30 km2, though ice probably extended for a further 40 km2. Further north two groups of deeply incised and clearly glaciated valleys contain moraines and roches moutonnées (60 km2). On interfluves between them and on the open north slopes are moraines from an earlier stage of the same glaciation or from a distinct older event. Altogether about 180 km2 may have been glaciated. Cores dated by 14C from inside and outside the glaciated area suggest that at least the northern valley glaciers may date from the Last Glacial Maximum. Estimated equilibrium line altitudes for these glaciers and the ice-cap are 3750-4230 m. Copyright

  12. The Isostatic State of Ethiopia and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2003-04-01

    Over 35000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models and perform geologic correlations over a large section of the Afro-Arabian shield. Ethiopia is an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ca. 5000km Afro-Arabian rift and it includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinsez models. These anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expression of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity over the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. A series of NW-SE and E-W trending features are evident in the different isostatic residual maps. These parallel features include, from north to south, the Najid fault system, Red Sea axial zone, Melka Werer cross structure, the Anza rift and the Aswa shear zone. Additional NW-SE structures are apparent in the southern rift system, although these features are somewhat diffuse. Curvature enhanced maps are also useful for mapping fracture zones, major gravity lineaments and, in some cases, orientation of faults. Important areas from a metallogenesis point of view have been identified for further examination. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and qualitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  13. Adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklu, T.; Desalegn, F.; Tesfay, M.; Klinkenberg, E.; Mulugeta, A.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Mekelle Zone, Tigray Region, in Ethiopia. Objective: To investigate adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment. Design: A cross-sectional study in health facilities providing anti-tuberculosis treatment was conducted. Adherence was measured in three ways: through self-reported missed doses, by visual analogue scale whereby patients rate their own adherence and by record review. A patient was considered to be adherent if 90% or more of the prescribed medication was taken. Result: Of 278 TB patients included, 101 were in the intensive and 177 in the continuation phase. Respectively 67 (24.1%), 130 (46.8%) and 80 (28.8%) patients had smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB. Self-report of missed doses and record review indicated adherence of respectively 273 (97.3%) and 271 (97.5%) patients. By visual analogue scale, 250 (91.6%) patients rated themselves as adherent. History of drug side effects (aOR 0.25, 95%CI 0.08–0.77) and knowledge about TB prevention (aOR 0.19, 95%CI 0.05–0.8) were independently associated with being adherent in this setting. Conclusion: Adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment was high in our study. Adherence support should be given to the poor, the elderly, patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, alcohol abusers and smokers. Health education on TB prevention should be given to all TB patients regularly. PMID:26478511

  14. Secular spring rainfall variability at local scale over Ethiopia: trend and associated dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsidu, Gizaw Mengistu

    2016-07-01

    Spring rainfall secular variability is studied using observations, reanalysis, and model simulations. The joint coherent spatio-temporal secular variability of gridded monthly gauge rainfall over Ethiopia, ERA-Interim atmospheric variables and sea surface temperature (SST) from Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) data set is extracted using multi-taper method singular value decomposition (MTM-SVD). The contemporaneous associations are further examined using partial Granger causality to determine presence of causal linkage between any of the climate variables. This analysis reveals that only the northwestern Indian Ocean secular SST anomaly has direct causal links with spring rainfall over Ethiopia and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) over Africa inspite of the strong secular covariance of spring rainfall, SST in parts of subtropical Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Ocean and MSLP. High secular rainfall variance and statistically significant linear trend show consistently that there is a massive decline in spring rain over southern Ethiopia. This happened concurrently with significant buildup of MSLP over East Africa, northeastern Africa including parts of the Arabian Peninsula, some parts of central Africa and SST warming over all ocean basins with the exception of the ENSO regions. The east-west pressure gradient in response to the Indian Ocean warming led to secular southeasterly winds over the Arabian Sea, easterly over central Africa and equatorial Atlantic. These flows weakened climatological northeasterly flow over the Arabian Sea and southwesterly flow over equatorial Atlantic and Congo basins which supply moisture into the eastern Africa regions in spring. The secular divergent flow at low level is concurrent with upper level convergence due to the easterly secular anomalous flow. The mechanisms through which the northwestern Indian Ocean secular SST anomaly modulates rainfall are further explored in the context of East Africa using a simplified atmospheric

  15. Cropland land surface phenology and seasonality in East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, W. G.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Most people in East Africa depend on rainfed agriculture. Rainfall in the region has been decreasing recently and is highly variable in space and time leading to high food insecurity. A comprehensive understanding of the regional cropland dynamics is therefore needed. Land surface phenology and land surface seasonality have important roles in monitoring cropland dynamics in a region with sparse coverage of in situ climatic and biophysical observations. However, commonly used optical satellite data are often degraded by cloud cover, aerosols, and dust and they are restricted to daytime observations. Here we used near-daily passive microwave (PM) data at 25 km spatial resolution from a series of microwave radiometers—AMSR-E, FengYun3B/MWRI, AMSR2—to study cropland dynamics for 2003-2013 in three important grain production areas of East Africa: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and South Sudan. PM data can be collected through clouds and at night. Based on Google Earth imagery, we identified several cropland areas corresponding to PM grid cells. Rainfall from TRMM and atmospheric water vapor (V) from PM data displayed temporal patterns that were unimodal in Ethiopia and South Sudan, but bimodal in Tanzania. We fitted convex quadratic models to link growing season increments of V and vegetation optical depth (VOD) to accumulated V (AV). The models yielded high coefficients of determination (r2 ≥0.8) and phenometrics calculated from the parameter coefficients. Peak rainfall lagged peak V, but preceded peak VOD. Growing degree-days (GDD), calculated from the PM air temperature data, displayed a weaker bimodal seasonality in which the lowest values occurred during the peak rainy season, due to the cooling effect of latent heat flux and coupled with higher reflection of insolation by the cloud deck. V as a function of GDD displays quasi-periodic behavior. Drier sites in the region displayed larger (smaller) intra-annual dynamic range of V (GDD) compared to the moister sites.

  16. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  17. Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia: A Critical Analysis of Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semela, Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of teacher preparation in Ethiopia on top of a closer scrutiny of current teacher education reforms. In particular, it presents teacher education within the context of policy implementation over the last six decades by highlighting key reforms and how these reforms impacted the…

  18. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  19. What Community Participation in Schooling Means: Insights from Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift-Morgan, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…

  20. Molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Baneth, Gad; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Hailu, Asrat; Jabbar, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the first molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis in local breeds of cattle in Ethiopia. A conventional PCR utilizing major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene and an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) were used to characterize T. orientalis and to assess the infection intensity, respectively. Of 232 blood samples tested, T. orientalis DNA was detected in only 2.2% of samples using conventional PCR; two genotypes buffeli (1.3%; 3/232) and type 5 (0.9%; 2/232) of T. orientalis were detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the buffeli MPSP sequences from Ethiopia were closely related to those reported from Kenya, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, and type 5 sequences from Ethiopia grouped with those from Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Thailand. A higher number of samples (3.9%; 9/232) were test-positive by MT-PCR and four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of T. orientalis were detected. The average intensity of infections with genotypes buffeli (DNA copy numbers 11,056) and type 5 (7508) were significantly higher (P<0.0001) than the pathogenic genotype ikeda (61 DNA copies). This first insight into T. orientalis from cattle in Ethiopia using MPSP gene provides a basis for future studies of T. orientalis in various agroclimatic zones and of the impact of oriental theilerosis on cattle in this and other countries of Africa. PMID:27034193

  1. Quality Education Reform and Aid Effectiveness: Reflections from Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw

    2011-01-01

    Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…

  2. Adult Basic Literacy "Initiatives" in Ethiopia: Change and Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenea, Ambissa

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…

  3. Surveillance of Bacterial Meningitis, Ethiopia, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Mihret, Wude; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Merid, Yared; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Workeabeba; Moges, Beyene; Tenna, Admasu; Woldegebriel, Fitsum; Yidnekachew, Melaku; Mekonnen, Wondale; Ahmed, Arslan; Yamuah, Lawrence; Silamsaw, Mezgebu; Petros, Beyene; Oksnes, Jan; Rosenqvist, Einar; Ayele, Samuel; Aseffa, Abraham; Caugant, Dominique A; Norheim, Gunnstein

    2016-01-01

    Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012-2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed.

  4. Surveillance of Bacterial Meningitis, Ethiopia, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Mihret, Wude; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Merid, Yared; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Workeabeba; Moges, Beyene; Tenna, Admasu; Woldegebriel, Fitsum; Yidnekachew, Melaku; Mekonnen, Wondale; Ahmed, Arslan; Yamuah, Lawrence; Silamsaw, Mezgebu; Petros, Beyene; Oksnes, Jan; Rosenqvist, Einar; Ayele, Samuel; Aseffa, Abraham; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2016-01-01

    Among 139 patients with suspected bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2012–2013, meningococci (19.4%) and pneumococci (12.9%) were the major disease-causing organisms. Meningococcal serogroups detected were A (n = 11), W (n = 7), C (n = 1), and X (n = 1). Affordable, multivalent meningitis vaccines for the African meningitis belt are urgently needed. PMID:26689450

  5. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  6. Education for International Understanding: The Case of Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Paris (France).

    This study reviews Ethiopia's efforts, experiences, and achievements with respect to developing education for international understanding over the past two decades in response to the United Nations recognition of the role education plays in promoting peace. It is an overture aimed at sharing ideas and experiences with all concerned for the…

  7. Higher Education in Ethiopia: Expansion, Quality Assurance and Institutional Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2014-01-01

    This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly…

  8. Situation Report--Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…

  9. A review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Tiao, N; Gebreyes, W A; Jones, J L

    2012-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide zoonosis. In this paper published information on toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia is reviewed. Limited data indicate that the prevalence of T. gondii in humans in Ethiopia is very high, up to 41% of children aged 1-5 years were reported to be seropositive. There is little information on seroprevalence data in pregnant women and no data on congenital toxoplasmosis in children. About 1 million adults in Ethiopia are considered to be infected with HIV with less than one-third likely receive highly active antiviral therapy. Based on a conservative T. gondii seroprevalence of 50%, thousands might die of concurrent opportunistic infections, including toxoplasmosis. However, exact figures are not available, and most serological surveys are not current. Serological surveys indicate up to 79% of goats and sheep have T. gondii antibodies. However, there is no information on losses due to toxoplasmosis in livestock or the presence of viable T. gondii in any host in Ethiopia.

  10. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  11. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the

  12. Geology and mineral potential of Ethiopia: a note on geology and mineral map of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Solomon; Milesi, Jean-Pierre; Deschamps, Yves

    2003-05-01

    This work presents a geoscientific map and database for geology, mineral and energy resources of Ethiopia in a digital form at a scale of 1:2,000,000, compiled from several sources. The final result of the work has been recorded on CD-ROM in GIS format so that the map and the database could be available to users on a personal computer. Metallic resources (precious, rare, base and ferrous-ferroalloy metals) are widely related to the metamorphic meta-volcano-sedimentary belts and associated intrusives belonging to various terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, accreted during the East and West Gondwana collision (Neoproterozoic, 900-500 Ma). Industrial minerals and rock resources occur in more diversified geological environments, including the Proterozoic basement rocks, the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments and recent (Cenozoic) volcanics and associated sediments. Energy resources (oil, coal, geothermal resources) are restricted to Phanerozoic basin sediments and Cenozoic volcanism and rifting areas.

  13. Ethiopia: between Sub-Saharan Africa and western Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Lovell, A; Moreau, C; Yotova, V; Xiao, F; Bourgeois, S; Gehl, D; Bertranpetit, J; Schurr, E; Labuda, D

    2005-05-01

    Ethiopia is central to population genetic studies investigating the out of Africa expansion of modern humans, as shown by Y chromosome and mtDNA studies. To address the level of genetic differentiation within Ethiopia, and its relationship to Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia, we studied an 8 kb segment of the X-chromosome from 72 chromosomes from the Amhara, Oromo and Ethiopian Jews, and compared these results with 804 chromosomes from Middle Eastern, African, Asian and European populations, and 22 newly typed Saharawi. Within Ethiopia the two largest ethnic groups, the Amhara and Oromo, were not found to be statistically distinct, based on an exact test of haplotype frequencies. The Ethiopian Jews appear as an admixed population, possibly of Jewish origin, though the data remain equivocal. There is evidence of a close relationship between Ethiopian and Yemenite Jews, likely a result of indirect gene flow. Within an African and Eurasian context, the distribution of alleles of a variable T(n) repeat, and the spread of haplotypes containing Africa-specific alleles, provide evidence of a genetic continuity from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Near East, and furthermore suggest that a bottleneck occurred in Ethiopia associated with an out of Africa expansion. Ethiopian genetic heterogeneity, as evidenced by principal component analysis of haplotype frequencies, most likely resulted from periods of subsequent admixture. While these results are from the analysis of one locus, we feel that in association with data from other marker systems they add a complementary perspective on the history of Ethiopia.

  14. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  15. Barriers to tuberculosis care: a qualitative study among Somali pastoralists in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background At the dawn of the third millennium, while the control of the second biggest infectious killer in the world (tuberculosis [TB]) is an international priority, millions of pastoralist communities in the Horn of Africa are struggling to access TB care. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of pastoralist TB patients remain to be a challenge in TB control programs in many countries in this region, where pastoralism is a common means of livelihood. Better understanding of community perceptions of TB and its management could help identify reasons for the delay in diagnosis of TB among pastoral communities. The aim of this study is to explore barriers delaying diagnosis among pastoralist TB patients in the Somali Regional State (SRS) of Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study, including 19 respondents was conducted in the SRS of Ethiopia. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and informal interview techniques were employed to explore pastoralists' migration patterns, their perceptions of TB and their access to TB services. The influence of these factors on the delay of TB patients in receiving biomedical diagnosis was then assessed. Results We found that lack of access to formal health services as well as traditional beliefs leading to self treatment were barriers to prompt bio-medical diagnosis of TB among pastoralist TB patients in the SRS of Ethiopia. This study highlights that limited access to TB control programs is the most important barrier in early seeking of biomedical diagnosis of TB among pastoral communities with nomadic pastoralist being the most affected. Conclusions Diagnostic and treatment facilities should be established in strategic villages that pastoralist can reach in both dry and wet seasons. Such facilities may alleviate the observed long distance to health facilities and thus long delay in diagnosis of TB. This strategy should be compounded with a community based TB control approach, whereby basic medical training on TB management such as provision

  16. Use of Balanced Scorecard Methodology for Performance Measurement of the Health Extension Program in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Tedella, Aregawi A; Abdella, Mustofa

    2016-05-01

    In 2004, Ethiopia introduced a community-based Health Extension Program to deliver basic and essential health services. We developed a comprehensive performance scoring methodology to assess the performance of the program. A balanced scorecard with six domains and 32 indicators was developed. Data collected from 1,014 service providers, 433 health facilities, and 10,068 community members sampled from 298 villages were used to generate weighted national, regional, and agroecological zone scores for each indicator. The national median indicator scores ranged from 37% to 98% with poor performance in commodity availability, workforce motivation, referral linkage, infection prevention, and quality of care. Indicator scores showed significant difference by region (P < 0.001). Regional performance varied across indicators suggesting that each region had specific areas of strength and deficiency, with Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region being the best performers while the mainly pastoral regions of Gambela, Afar, and Benishangul-Gumuz were the worst. The findings of this study suggest the need for strategies aimed at improving specific elements of the program and its performance in specific regions to achieve quality and equitable health services.

  17. Use of Balanced Scorecard Methodology for Performance Measurement of the Health Extension Program in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Tedella, Aregawi A; Abdella, Mustofa

    2016-05-01

    In 2004, Ethiopia introduced a community-based Health Extension Program to deliver basic and essential health services. We developed a comprehensive performance scoring methodology to assess the performance of the program. A balanced scorecard with six domains and 32 indicators was developed. Data collected from 1,014 service providers, 433 health facilities, and 10,068 community members sampled from 298 villages were used to generate weighted national, regional, and agroecological zone scores for each indicator. The national median indicator scores ranged from 37% to 98% with poor performance in commodity availability, workforce motivation, referral linkage, infection prevention, and quality of care. Indicator scores showed significant difference by region (P < 0.001). Regional performance varied across indicators suggesting that each region had specific areas of strength and deficiency, with Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region being the best performers while the mainly pastoral regions of Gambela, Afar, and Benishangul-Gumuz were the worst. The findings of this study suggest the need for strategies aimed at improving specific elements of the program and its performance in specific regions to achieve quality and equitable health services. PMID:26928842

  18. Characterization of yield reduction in Ethiopia using a GIS-based crop water balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.

    2003-01-01

    In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, subsistence agriculture is characterized by significant fluctuations in yield and production due to variations in moisture availability to staple crops. Widespread drought can lead to crop failures, with associated deterioration in food security. Ground data collection networks are sparse, so methods using geospatial rainfall estimates derived from satellite and gauge observations, where available, have been developed to calculate seasonal crop water balances. Using conventional crop production data for 4 years in Ethiopia (1996-1999), it was found that water-limited and water-unlimited growing regions can be distinguished. Furthermore, maize growing conditions are also indicative of conditions for sorghum. However, another major staple, teff, was found to behave sufficiently differently from maize to warrant studies of its own.

  19. Household vulnerability to food crisis and mortality in the drought-prone areas of northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ezra, M; Kiros, G E

    2000-07-01

    This study examines the association between a household's degree of vulnerability to food crisis and the incidence of deaths using primary survey data carried out to look at the demographic consequences of drought and famine in the drought-prone areas of northern Ethiopia. Retrospective data on the occurrences of deaths within a household were collected for the period 1984 to 1994. Consistent with previous studies, the findings confirm that mortality was clustered among the age groups 1-4 and 5-9 and varied considerably by famine and non-famine years. Enormous variation in incidence of deaths was also observed by region, ethnicity and religion. Most importantly, the analysis provides substantial evidence that the level of household vulnerability to food crisis is strongly related to the number of hunger-related deaths reported in a household.

  20. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior and its predictors in southwest rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries. Methods We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations. Results Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ≥40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age. Conclusion A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area. PMID:27511625

  1. Exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in Northwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Gete, Yigzaw Kebede

    2015-01-01

    Despite the overall national success in reducing infant mortality rate in Ethiopia, infant mortality rate is still high in northwest Amhara region. This study is conducted in one of the high mortality areas with the aim of identifying risk factors that are associated with infant mortality in Northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A prospective open cohort study involving 1752 infants (1472.4518 person years of follow-up) was undertaken from November 2009 to August 2011. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis was used to estimate infant mortality rate. Risk factors associated with infant mortality were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression. The overall infant mortality rate was 88 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 74.3, 104.9). After controlling other important predictors in multivariate Poisson regression, infants not exclusively breastfed [IRR = 7.86, 95% CI: (5.11, 12.10), )], breast milk initiated after 24 hours of birth [IRR = 4.84,95% CI: (2.94,7.99)], mothers not washing hands with soap after visiting toilet and before feeding child [IRR = 4.61, 95% CI: (2.24, 9.48)], being rural residents [IRR = 2.33, 95% CI: (1.12, 4.88)], infants born within 24 months for the previous birth [IRR = 2.79, 95%CI: (1.88, 4.15)], have increased the risk of infant mortality. In conclusion, exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in this predominantly rural setting where hygienic standards are poor. Supporting mothers to exclusively breast feeding which is cost effective, safe and feasible strategy, can help reduce infant mortality in the study setting. PMID:26825334

  2. Shrinking the Lymphatic Filariasis Map of Ethiopia: Reassessing the Population at Risk through Nationwide Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Ashenafi; Cano, Jorge; Deribe, Kebede; Gonzalez-Escalada, Alba; Shafi, Oumer; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J.; Kebede, Amha; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is essential for the delineation of endemic implementation units and determining the population at risk that will be targeted for mass drug administration (MDA). Prior to the current study, only 116 of the 832 woredas (districts) in Ethiopia had been mapped for LF. The aim of this study was to perform a nationwide mapping exercise to determine the number of people that should be targeted for MDA in 2016 when national coverage was anticipated. Methodology/Principal Finding A two-stage cluster purposive sampling was used to conduct a community-based cross-sectional survey for an integrated mapping of LF and podoconiosis, in seven regional states and two city administrations. Two communities in each woreda were purposely selected using the World Health Organization (WHO) mapping strategy for LF based on sampling 100 individuals per community and two purposely selected communities per woreda. Overall, 130 166 people were examined in 1315 communities in 658 woredas. In total, 140 people were found to be positive for circulating LF antigen by immunochromatographic card test (ICT) in 89 communities. Based on WHO guidelines, 75 of the 658 woredas surveyed in the nine regions were found to be endemic for LF with a 2016 projected population of 9 267 410 residing in areas of active disease transmission. Combining these results with other data it is estimated that 11 580 010 people in 112 woredas will be exposed to infection in 2016. Conclusions We have conducted nationwide mapping of LF in Ethiopia and demonstrated that the number of people living in LF endemic areas is 60% lower than current estimates. We also showed that integrated mapping of multiple NTDs is feasible and cost effective and if properly planned, can be quickly achieved at national scale. PMID:26539700

  3. Water leakage investigation of micro-dam reservoirs in Mesozoic sedimentary sequences in Northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhane, Gebremedhin; Martens, Kristine; Al Farrah, Nawal; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-03-01

    Millions of people throughout the world depend on dam reservoirs for domestic water supply, irrigation, electricity and flood protection. In the last two decades, 54 micro-dam reservoirs have been constructed in Northern Ethiopia to fight the recurrent drought and improve agricultural productivity through irrigation. However, about 60% of these micro-dam reservoirs are suffering from excessive leakage. Comprehensive studies have been carried out on two micro-dams to assess and pinpoint the causes of leakage. Arato and Hashenge micro-dams located in Northern Ethiopia have 20 m and 19 m height, and 2.59 Mm3 and 2.23 Mm3 reservoir capacities respectively. Observational geological description, shallow hand dug test pits, vertical electrical sounding and drilling of geotechnical holes were used to understand the overall geological, engineering geological and geo-hydrological set-up of the area. The different methods applied, such as discontinuity analysis, geophysical surveys, drilling and packer tests, delivered results that were found to be in close agreement and led to the identification of the leakage zone. The geological units found in both sites are limestone-shale-marl intercalation, dolerite and recent soil deposits. The research results revealed that the limestone-shale-marl intercalation unit is heterogeneous and shows alternating sequences. Analysis of the different data shows that the limestone-shale-marl intercalation is a pervious unit (hydraulic conductivity in the range of 10-4-10+2 cm/s) and was found to be responsible for the excessive leakage of the micro-dams. It is hoped that the observations, data and insights gathered from these case studies will enable to plan technically and economically viable anti-leakage measures for these schemes and help for future new site selection and design activities in the region and other regions with a similar geological environment.

  4. Population level mental distress in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of a situational analysis for a research programme on the integration of mental health care into primary care (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care-PRIME), we conducted a baseline study aimed at determining the broad indicators of the population level of psychosocial distress in a predominantly rural community in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 1497 adults selected through a multi-stage random sampling process. Population level psychosocial distress was evaluated by estimating the magnitude of common mental disorder symptoms (CMD; depressive, anxiety and somatic symptoms reaching the level of probable clinical significance), harmful use of alcohol, suicidality and psychosocial stressors experienced by the population. Results The one-month prevalence of CMD at the mild, moderate and severe threshold levels was 13.8%, 9.0% and 5.1% respectively. The respective one-month prevalence of any suicidal ideation, persistent suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 13.5%, 3.8% and 1.8%. Hazardous use of alcohol was identified in 22.4%, significantly higher among men (33.4%) compared to women (11.3%). Stressful life events were widespread, with 41.4% reporting at least one threatening life event in the preceding six months. A similar proportion reported poor social support (40.8%). Stressful life events, increasing age, marital loss and hazardous use of alcohol were associated with CMD while stressful life events, marital loss and lower educational status, and CMD were associated with suicidality. CMD was the strongest factor associated with suicidality [e.g., OR (95% CI) for severe CMD = 60.91 (28.01, 132.48)] and the strength of association increased with increase in the severity of the CMD. Conclusion Indicators of psychosocial distress are prevalent in this rural community. Contrary to former assumptions in the literature, social support systems seem relatively weak and stressful life events common

  5. Tephrochronology of the Western Margin, Gona, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinsasser, L. L.; Quade, J.; Levin, N.; McIntosh, W.; Simpson, S. W.; Semaw, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project (GPRP) area includes many rich fossil localities that are of great consequence to the study of human evolution. Genetic estimates of the divergence between human and chimpanzee lineages indicate that this split happened between 5 and 7 Mya. The sedimentary deposits at Gona range in age from .15 Ma to 4.5 Ma at the base of the Sagantole Formation, with additional minor sedimentary deposits in the underlying Adu-Asa Formation. These older sedimentary deposits occur as small, disconnected packages interlayered with lava flows and are repeated due to NS-trending, west-dipping normal faults that accommodated extension in the Afar rift. New 40Ar-39Ar dates on tuffs from the Adu-Asa Formation indicate that the oldest hominid fossils thus found at Gona are around 5.5 Ma, and that all of the fossil sites in the Adu-Asa Formation identified thus far are approximately the same age. One tuff, named the Belewa, is dated at 5.51+/- .03 Ma, while the Kobo'o tuff, which outcrops to the west and thus is lower in the section, is dated at 5.42 +/-.07 Ma. Both dates are from sanidine and errors are at the 2 sigma level. In addition to these 40Ar-39Ar dates for the Adu-Asa Formation, the relative ages of many deposits have been clarified through studies of the major element geochemistry of glass shards from ashfall tuffs, which occur as beds within the sedimentary deposits. These geochemical comparisons, along with detailed stratigraphic sections through many sedimentary packages, have allowed the identification and correlation of four major tuffs, including the Belewa and Kobo'o tuffs, throughout the pre-4.5 Ma deposits of the Gona project area. Such studies may also lead to larger-scale correlations between the Gona project and other paleoanthropological projects in Ethiopia. Additional work on the tephrochronology and stratigraphy in the younger Sagantole, Hadar, and Busidima Formations has furthered our understanding of those deposits

  6. Reproductive and Obstetric Factors Are Key Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey (2011)

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Taddese; Umeta, Melaku

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, a nationally representative and consistent evidence is lacking on the prevalence and determinants during pregnancy. We conducted an in-depth analysis of demographic and health survey for the year 2011 which is a representative data collected from all regions in Ethiopia. Considering maternal anemia as an outcome variable, predicting variables from sociodemographic, household, and reproductive/obstetric characteristics were identified for analyses. Logistic regression model was applied to identify predictors at P < 0.05. The prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 23%. Maternal age, region, pregnancy trimester, number of under five children, previous history of abortion (termination of pregnancy), breastfeeding practices, and number of antenatal care visits were key independent predictors of anemia during pregnancy. In conclusion, the level of anemia during pregnancy is a moderate public health problem in Ethiopia. Yet, special preventive measures should be undertaken for pregnant women who are older in age and having too many under five children and previous history of abortion. Further evidence is expected to be generated concerning why pregnant mothers from the eastern part of the country and those with better access to radio disproportionately develop anemia more than their counterparts. PMID:26417454

  7. Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawit, Enkurie L.

    2014-11-01

    adapted to coastal plain wetland environments with the return of humid conditions in the Middle to early Late Triassic. The present data constitute the first paleontologically substantiated record for the existence of Permian strata in the Blue Nile Basin. The new results allow for the first time a reliable biostratigraphic subdivision of the central Ethiopia Karoo and its correlation with coeval strata of adjacent regions in Gondwana. From a phytogeographic point of view, the overall microfloral evidence is in support of the position of central Ethiopia occupying the northern part of the southern Gondwana palynofloral province. In view of palaeoecological and paleoclimatic conditions, the microfloral change from the base to the top of the studied section may indicate a response to shifting climatic belts from warm- and cool-temparate climate in the earliest Permian to progressively drier seasonal conditions at successively higher palaeolatitudes during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic.

  8. Health research in Ethiopia--past, present and suggestions on the way forward.

    PubMed

    Gaym, Asheber

    2008-07-01

    Health is a fundamental prerequisite to human development. Evidence based strategies for effective health interventions emanate from a representative, ethical and rigorously conducted health research. Health research undertakings require the coordinated efforts of researchers, research funders and research users as well as the presence of detailed laws and regulations conducive for undertaking health research. Global health research partners have stressed that attempts to improve country level health research should follow the "National Health Research Systems" approach as components of the system are highly interrelated. The systems approach begins with a situation analysis of the existing national health research system. History of health research in Ethiopia spans nearly seven decades. Study of historical abstracts, websites of health research and academic institutions, review of relevant publications, site visits and interview with institution authorities was undertaken to provide an overview of past and present status of health research in Ethiopia. The researcher profile, disease and health focus, publication audit, dissemination modalities and international collaboration of research institutes are outlined. Applicable Ethiopian laws and regulations regarding health research are documented. Existing challenges to conduct of health research are outlined. The number of health researchers, research institutes and volume of research output so far is small. Detailed laws and regulations pertaining to health research are not enacted and governance of health research is not clearly articulated. There are global, regional and programmatic inequities in the national health research arena. Evolution of the health research in the country into an organized "National Health Research System" is still at an early stage. Suggestions are forwarded to augment the ongoing discussions on strengthening efforts to improve the national health research system. These include the

  9. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    with decreased odds of women’s support of FGM continuation. FGM prevalence and geographic clustering showed variation across regions in Ethiopia. Conclusion Individual, economic, socio-demographic, religious and cultural factors played major roles in the existing practice and continuation of FGM. The significant geographic clustering of FGM was observed across regions in Ethiopia. Therefore, targeted and integrated interventions involving religious leaders in high FGM prevalence spot clusters and addressing the socio-economic and geographic inequalities are recommended to eliminate FGM. PMID:26741488

  10. Hydroclimate Forecasts in Ethiopia: Benefits, Impediments, and Ways Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.

  11. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  12. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction....

  13. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction....

  14. Instructional Language Policy in Ethiopia: Motivated by Politics or the Educational Needs of Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.; Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language…

  15. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…

  16. Divorce in Ethiopia: the impact of early marriage and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Tilson, D; Larsen, U

    2000-07-01

    Forty-five per cent of first marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years, and two-thirds of women who divorce do so within the first 5 years of marriage. This paper looks at two factors that may have an impact on the risk of divorce in Ethiopia: early age of first marriage, and childlessness within the first marriage. Data used were from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia. A total of 8757 women of reproductive age (15-49) were analysed. Life table analysis was used to determine the median age at first marriage, first birth and the median duration of marriage. Cox models were analysed to determine the differentials of divorce. The results of this analysis showed that both early age at marriage and childlessness have a significant impact on the risk of divorce. An inverse relationship was found between age at marriage and risk of divorce. Having a child within the first marriage also significantly reduced the risk of divorce. In addition, several cultural and socioeconomic variables were significant predictors of divorce.

  17. Divorce in Ethiopia: the impact of early marriage and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Tilson, D; Larsen, U

    2000-07-01

    Forty-five per cent of first marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years, and two-thirds of women who divorce do so within the first 5 years of marriage. This paper looks at two factors that may have an impact on the risk of divorce in Ethiopia: early age of first marriage, and childlessness within the first marriage. Data used were from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia. A total of 8757 women of reproductive age (15-49) were analysed. Life table analysis was used to determine the median age at first marriage, first birth and the median duration of marriage. Cox models were analysed to determine the differentials of divorce. The results of this analysis showed that both early age at marriage and childlessness have a significant impact on the risk of divorce. An inverse relationship was found between age at marriage and risk of divorce. Having a child within the first marriage also significantly reduced the risk of divorce. In addition, several cultural and socioeconomic variables were significant predictors of divorce. PMID:10979229

  18. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mitike, Getnet; Deressa, Wakgari

    2009-01-01

    Background Eastern Ethiopia hosts a substantial number of refugees originated from Somalia. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common practice in the area, despite the campaigns to eliminate it. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 492 respondents sampled from three refugee camps in Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence and associated factors of FGM. Data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Results Although the intention of the parents to circumcise their daughters was high (84%), 42.4% of 288 ≤12 girls were reported being undergone FGM. The prevalence increased with age, and about 52% and 95% were circumcised at the age of 7–8 and 11–12 years, respectively. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers (81%) and birth attendants (18%). Clitoral cutting (64%) and narrowing of the vaginal opening through stitching (36%) were the two common forms of FGM reported by the respondents. Participation of the parents in anti-FGM interventions is statistically associated with lower practice and intention of the procedures. Conclusion FGM is widely practised among the Somali refugee community in Eastern Ethiopia, and there was a considerable support for the continuation of the practice particularly among women. The findings indicate a reported shift of FGM from its severe form to milder clitoral cutting. More men than women positively viewed anti-FGM interventions, and fewer men than women had the intention to let their daughters undergo FGM, indicating the need to involve men in anti-FGM activities. PMID:19635149

  19. Common types of tuberculosis and co-infection with HIV at private health institutions in Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a global emergency predominantly affecting developing countries. HIV has been the single most important reason for acquisition of tuberculosis for many patients. Conversely, tuberculosis can result in rapid progression of HIV disease. Ethiopia is a country affected seriously by HIV and tuberculosis. The main aim of this study is assessment of the types of tuberculosis and the extent of HIV infection among tuberculosis patients visiting private health institutions in Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods The study used a cross sectional method with data collected using well structured pretested questionnaires containing socio-demographic and clinical variables including HIV serostatus. The setting is tuberculosis treatment sites situated at 15 private health institutions in Amhara region. Results A total of 1153 TB patients were included. The proportions of smear positive pulmonary TB, smear negative pulmonary TB, isolated extrapulmonary TB and disseminated TB cases were found to be 29.6%, 22.2%, 43.9% and 2.9%, respectively. TB lymphadenitis accounted for about 61% of the extrapulmonary cases followed by TB pleurisy (10.6%). Seventy percent of the patients had undergone HIV test, and 20% of them were HIV positive. Marital status, patient residence and type of TB are the major determinants of co-infection. Conclusion The occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis is relatively low. Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection is also lower than other reports. PMID:24708793

  20. Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Ethiopia and Chad.

    PubMed

    Mura, Alessandra; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ginesta, Jacques; Lafrance, Bertrand; Magnan, Stéphan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    DNA extracted from 363 ticks collected in Ethiopia and 9 ticks collected in Chad, Africa were screened by PCR to detect DNA from spotted fever group rickettsiae. Fifteen ticks (4.1%) collected in Ethiopia and one tick (11%) collected in Chad tested positive when PCR targeting the gltA and ompA rickettsial genes was performed. PCR-positive products of the gltA and ompA genes were used for DNA sequencing. Rickettsia africae was detected in 12/118 Amblyomma lepidum and in 1/2 A. variegatum. Also, 2/12 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes collected in Ethiopia and one H. marginatum rufipes collected in Chad were positive for R. aeschlimannii. Our results confirm the previously reported presence of R. africae in Ethiopia and also show the first evidence of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected in Ethiopia and Chad.

  1. First report, morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinemaelongatum and X.pachtaicum (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getaneh, Gezahegne; Bert, Wim; Decraemer, Wilfrida

    2015-01-01

    A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI) method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872Xiphinemaelongatum and KP407873Xiphinemapachtaicum) with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of Xiphinemapachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but Xiphinemaelongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4%) which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as Xiphinemaelongatum and Xiphinemapachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms.

  2. First report, morphological and molecular characterization of Xiphinema elongatum and X. pachtaicum (Nematoda, Longidoridae) from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Getaneh, Gezahegne; Bert, Wim; Decraemer, Wilfrida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI) method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872 Xiphinema elongatum and KP407873 Xiphinema pachtaicum) with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of Xiphinema pachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but Xiphinema elongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4%) which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms. PMID:25878528

  3. Patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in Ethiopia: implications for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Elias; Dominis, Sarah; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time-motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health worker

  4. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from agroforestry legume species in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew; Terefework, Zewdu; Frostegård, Asa; Lindström, Kristina

    2005-07-01

    The genetic diversity within 195 rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of 18 agroforestry species (15 woody and three herbaceous legumes) growing in diverse ecoclimatic zones in southern Ethiopia was investigated by using PCR-RFLP of the ribosomal operon [16S rRNA gene, 23S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region between the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes] and 16S rRNA gene partial sequence (800 and 1350 bp) analyses. All of the isolates and the 28 reference strains could be differentiated by using these methods. The size of the ITS varied among test strains (500-1300 bp), and 58 strains contained double copies. UPGMA dendrograms generated from cluster analyses of the 16S and 23S rRNA gene PCR-RFLP data were in good agreement, and the combined distance matrices delineated 87 genotypes, indicating considerable genetic diversity among the isolates. Furthermore, partial sequence analysis of 67 representative strains revealed 46 16S rRNA gene sequence types, among which 12 were 100% similar to those of previously described species and 34 were novel sequences with 94-99% similarity to those of recognized species. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that strains indigenous to Ethiopia belonged to the genera Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Methylobacterium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium. Many of the rhizobia isolated from previously uninvestigated indigenous woody legumes had novel 16S rRNA gene sequences and were phylogenetically diverse. This study clearly shows that the characterization of symbionts of unexplored legumes growing in previously unexplored biogeographical areas will reveal additional diversity.

  5. Patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in Ethiopia: implications for universal health coverage

    PubMed Central

    Asfaw, Elias; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time–motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health

  6. The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; Woldegabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane

    2013-01-29

    The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6-1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ∼1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world's earliest with an age of ∼1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ∼1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714

  7. Investigation of the impact of stone bunds on water erosion in northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Jakob; Strohmeier, Stefan; Demelash, Nigus; Ziadat, Feras; Klik, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Soil degradation in northern Ethiopia results from intensive land-use, massive deforestation in the past and missing conservation measures. Every year huge amounts of fertile soil are flushed away irreversibly into the rivers. In order to prevent soil erosion, conservation methods are necessary, because otherwise erosion may cause severe problems in the future, especially in the cases of nutrition supply and agricultural land-use. In this study, the effectiveness of stone bonds as a soil conservation method was evaluated. The assessments took part during the raining season from June to September 2013 in the Gumara - Maksegnit watershed in the Amhara region in northern Ethiopia. On farmland two erosion plots were constructed at a representative hillslope. The plots were 20m long, 3m wide and bordered with metal sheets. In order to compare the effectiveness of stone bunds on soil erosion, one plot was constructed with a stone bund on his toe slope the other plot was constructed without a stone bund. The investigated slope was selected that all characteristics like slope, crop cover, stone cover, soil aggregate size, etc... could be considered as similar. To evaluate the impact of stone bunds on soil erosion, the lateral and the longitudinal runoff from the plot with the stone bund were collected separately. Surface runoff and eroded sediment were collected at the downward end of the plot using a trough leading to a divider sampling 10% of the total runoff. The sample was then collected in a pond (1,8m long, 1m wide and 0,5m deep). During the investigated period soil loss from the untreated plot amounted to 23.0 t.ha-1, whereas only 13.5 t.ha-1 were measured spilling over the stone bunds. This corresponds to a decrease by 41%. Beside the erosion monitoring, stone and crop cover were analyzed regularly as well as surface roughness and soil texture.

  8. Phylogeny of early Australopithecus: new fossil evidence from the Woranso-Mille (central Afar, Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes

    2010-10-27

    The earliest evidence of Australopithecus goes back to ca 4.2 Ma with the first recorded appearance of Australopithecus 'anamensis' at Kanapoi, Kenya. Australopithecus afarensis is well documented between 3.6 and 3.0 Ma mainly from deposits at Laetoli (Tanzania) and Hadar (Ethiopia). The phylogenetic relationship of these two 'species' is hypothesized as ancestor-descendant. However, the lack of fossil evidence from the time between 3.6 and 3.9 Ma has been one of its weakest points. Recent fieldwork in the Woranso-Mille study area in the Afar region of Ethiopia has yielded fossil hominids dated between 3.6 and 3.8 Ma. These new fossils play a significant role in testing the proposed relationship between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. The Woranso-Mille hominids (3.6-3.8 Ma) show a mosaic of primitive, predominantly Au. anamensis-like, and some derived (Au. afarensis-like) dentognathic features. Furthermore, they show that, as currently known, there are no discrete and functionally significant anatomical differences between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. Based on the currently available evidence, it appears that there is no compelling evidence to falsify the hypothesis of 'chronospecies pair' or ancestor-descendant relationship between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. Most importantly, however, the temporally and morphologically intermediate Woranso-Mille hominids indicate that the species names Au. afarensis and Au. anamensis do not refer to two real species, but rather to earlier and later representatives of a single phyletically evolving lineage. However, if retaining these two names is necessary for communication purposes, the Woranso-Mille hominids are best referred to as Au. anamensis based on new dentognathic evidence.

  9. Patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in Ethiopia: implications for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Elias; Dominis, Sarah; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time-motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health worker

  10. The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R.; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane

    2013-01-01

    The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6–1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ∼1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world’s earliest with an age of ∼1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ∼1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714

  11. Phylogeny of early Australopithecus: new fossil evidence from the Woranso-Mille (central Afar, Ethiopia)

    PubMed Central

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes

    2010-01-01

    The earliest evidence of Australopithecus goes back to ca 4.2 Ma with the first recorded appearance of Australopithecus ‘anamensis’ at Kanapoi, Kenya. Australopithecus afarensis is well documented between 3.6 and 3.0 Ma mainly from deposits at Laetoli (Tanzania) and Hadar (Ethiopia). The phylogenetic relationship of these two ‘species’ is hypothesized as ancestor–descendant. However, the lack of fossil evidence from the time between 3.6 and 3.9 Ma has been one of its weakest points. Recent fieldwork in the Woranso-Mille study area in the Afar region of Ethiopia has yielded fossil hominids dated between 3.6 and 3.8 Ma. These new fossils play a significant role in testing the proposed relationship between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. The Woranso-Mille hominids (3.6–3.8 Ma) show a mosaic of primitive, predominantly Au. anamensis-like, and some derived (Au. afarensis-like) dentognathic features. Furthermore, they show that, as currently known, there are no discrete and functionally significant anatomical differences between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. Based on the currently available evidence, it appears that there is no compelling evidence to falsify the hypothesis of ‘chronospecies pair’ or ancestor–descendant relationship between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. Most importantly, however, the temporally and morphologically intermediate Woranso-Mille hominids indicate that the species names Au. afarensis and Au. anamensis do not refer to two real species, but rather to earlier and later representatives of a single phyletically evolving lineage. However, if retaining these two names is necessary for communication purposes, the Woranso-Mille hominids are best referred to as Au. anamensis based on new dentognathic evidence. PMID:20855306

  12. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria.

  13. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria. PMID:25843811

  14. Is tuberculous lymphadenitis over-diagnosed in Ethiopia? Comparative performance of diagnostic tests for mycobacterial lymphadenitis in a high-burden country.

    PubMed

    Iwnetu, Rahel; van den Hombergh, Jan; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asfaw, Mulat; Gebrekirstos, Cherinet; Negussie, Yared; Bekele, Teklu; Ashenafi, Senait; Seyoum, Berhanu; Melaku, Kibrebeal; Yamuah, Lawrence; Tilahun, Hiwot; Tadesse, Zerihun; Aseffa, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Ethiopia reports the third highest number of extrapulmonary TB cases globally, most of which are lymph node TB (TBLN). We investigated the performance of the available diagnostic tests for TBLN. Fine needle aspirate (FNA) and excision biopsy samples from affected lymph nodes were collected from 150 consenting patients with suspected TBLN visiting regional hospitals in Ethiopia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of histopathology against culture as reference was 92%, 88%, 97% and 77% and of FNA cytology (FNAC) 76%, 88%, 100% and 55%, respectively. Naked eye examination of FNA had 67% sensitivity and 64% specificity. HIV coinfection did not diminish the performance of macroscopic examination, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, histology or cytology examinations. When any positive result in ZN, histopathology or culture was considered confirmatory, clinical diagnosis could be confirmed in 85% of the patients, suggesting that TBLN is over-diagnosed in up to 15% of cases. With combined criteria as reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of FNAC was 72%, 100%, 100% and 55%, respectively. FNAC is a practical tool that can improve the diagnosis of TBLN in high-burden settings. Over-diagnosis alone cannot explain the high burden of LNTB in Ethiopia. PMID:19382003

  15. Surface wave tomography across Afar, Ethiopia: Crustal structure at a rift triple-junction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidarelli, M.; Stuart, G.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J. M.; Ayele, A.; Belachew, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Afar Depression in northeast Africa contains the rift triple-junction between the Nubia, Arabia and Somalia plates. We analyze Rayleigh wave group velocity from 250 regional earthquakes recorded by 40 broadband stations to study the crustal structure across Afar and adjacent plateau regions in northern Ethiopia. The dispersion velocities are inverted to obtain surface wave tomographic maps for periods between 5 and 25 seconds, sensitive to approximately the top 30 km of the lithosphere. The tomographic maps show a significant low dispersion velocity anomaly (>20%) within the upper crust, below the site of recent dyke intrusions (2005-present) in the Dabbahu and Manda-Hararo magmatic segments. Similar low velocity regions are imaged where magma intrusion in the Afar crust has been inferred over the last decade from seismicity or volcanic eruptions. We invert two group velocity curves to compare the S-wave velocity structure of the crust within an active magmatic segment with that of adjacent areas; the active region has a low velocity zone (Vs ˜ 3.2 km/s), between about 6-12 km, which we infer to be due to the presence of partial melt within the lower crust.

  16. Cataract surgery in Southern Ethiopia: distribution, rates and determinants of service provision

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, with the greatest burden found in low-income countries. Cataract surgery is a curative and cost-effective intervention. Despite major non-governmental organization (NGO) support, the cataract surgery performed in Southern Region, Ethiopia is currently insufficient to address the need. We analyzed the distribution, productivity, cost and determinants of cataract surgery services. Methods Confidential interviews were conducted with all eye surgeons (Ophthalmologists & Non-Physician Cataract Surgeons [NPCS]) in Southern Region using semi-structured questionnaires. Eye care project managers were interviewed using open-ended qualitative questionnaires. All eye units were visited. Information on resources, costs, and the rates and determinants of surgical output were collected. Results Cataract surgery provision is uneven across Southern Region: 66% of the units are within 200 km of the regional capital. Surgeon to population ratios varied widely from 1:70,000 in the capital to no service provision in areas containing 7 million people. The Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) in 2010 was 406 operations/million/year with zonal CSRs ranging between 204 and 1349. Average number of surgeries performed was 374 operations/surgeon/year. Ophthalmologists and NPCS performed a mean of 682 and 280 cataract operations/surgeon/year, respectively (p = 0.03). Resources are underutilized, at 56% of capacity. Community awareness programs were associated with increased activity (p = 0.009). Several factors were associated with increased surgeon productivity (p < 0.05): working for >2 years, working in a NGO/private clinic, working in an urban unit, having a unit manger, conducting outreach programs and a satisfactory work environment. The average cost of cataract surgery in 2010 was US$141.6 (Range: US$37.6–312.6). Units received >70% of their consumables from NGOs. Mangers identified poor staff motivation, community

  17. Road failure caused by landslide in north Ethiopia: A case study from Dedebit - Adi-Remets road segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisseha, Shimeles; Mewa, Getnet

    2016-06-01

    Landslide represents one of the main constraints for the development of road infrastructures in many parts of Ethiopia. While rugged topography, intra-sedimentary clay horizons, thick talus deposits at the foot of hills and wide spread tectonic fissures and faults account for the prominent inducing factors, heavy monsoon rainfall is the most common triggering factor for the majority of road failures caused by landslides. We present the results of geoelectrical investigation of a landslide that caused a severe damage to the Dedebit-Adi-Remets segment of the recently built highway that transects the high relief and mountainous region of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) measurements were taken at twelve points, systematically distributed to cover the affected area. The resulting geo-electric sections revealed that the shallow subsurface is composed of four distinct geo-electric layers. The corresponding major lithological successions, from top to bottom, are: unconsolidated conglomeratic layer, moist silty clay, moderately weathered and fractured basaltic rock and a possibly saturated portion of the basalt. Major discontinuities, indications of structural weak zones, have also been inferred based on abrupt vertical shift in geo-electrical layer boundaries between neighboring soundings. Based on the main findings, the road failure in the study area appears to be caused by a downslope movement of the subgrade composed of top unconsolidated sediment soaked with water from heavy rain. The location of the probable slip plane could be the inclined interface between the conductive clayey soil and the underlying resistive weathered basalt.

  18. Development of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moges, Asmare D; Admassu, Belayneh; Belew, Derbew; Yesuf, Mohammed; Njuguna, Joyce; Kyalo, Martina; Ghimire, Sita R

    2016-01-01

    Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for citrus plant pathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and were used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of 163 isolates from four different geographical regions of Ethiopia. These loci produced a total of 118 alleles with an average of 5.13 alleles per microsatellite marker. The polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.104 to 0.597 with an average of 0.371. The average observed heterozygosity across all loci varied from 0.046 to 0.058. The gene diversity among the loci ranged from 0.106 to 0.664. Unweighted Neighbor-joining and population structure analysis grouped these 163 isolates into three major groups. The clusters were not according to the geographic origin of the isolates. Analysis of molecular variance showed 85% of the total variation within populations and only 5% among populations. There was low genetic differentiation in the total populations (FST = 0.049) as evidenced by high level of gene flow estimate (Nm = 4.8 per generation) among populations. The results show that Ethiopian C. gloeosporioides populations are generally characterized by a low level of genetic diversity. The newly developed microsatellite markers were useful in analyzing the genetic diversity and population structure of the C. gloeosporioides populations. Information obtained from this study could be useful as a base to design strategies for better management of leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus in Ethiopia.

  19. Development of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moges, Asmare D; Admassu, Belayneh; Belew, Derbew; Yesuf, Mohammed; Njuguna, Joyce; Kyalo, Martina; Ghimire, Sita R

    2016-01-01

    Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for citrus plant pathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and were used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of 163 isolates from four different geographical regions of Ethiopia. These loci produced a total of 118 alleles with an average of 5.13 alleles per microsatellite marker. The polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.104 to 0.597 with an average of 0.371. The average observed heterozygosity across all loci varied from 0.046 to 0.058. The gene diversity among the loci ranged from 0.106 to 0.664. Unweighted Neighbor-joining and population structure analysis grouped these 163 isolates into three major groups. The clusters were not according to the geographic origin of the isolates. Analysis of molecular variance showed 85% of the total variation within populations and only 5% among populations. There was low genetic differentiation in the total populations (FST = 0.049) as evidenced by high level of gene flow estimate (Nm = 4.8 per generation) among populations. The results show that Ethiopian C. gloeosporioides populations are generally characterized by a low level of genetic diversity. The newly developed microsatellite markers were useful in analyzing the genetic diversity and population structure of the C. gloeosporioides populations. Information obtained from this study could be useful as a base to design strategies for better management of leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus in Ethiopia. PMID:26978654

  20. Development of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Moges, Asmare D.; Admassu, Belayneh; Belew, Derbew; Yesuf, Mohammed; Njuguna, Joyce; Kyalo, Martina; Ghimire, Sita R.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for citrus plant pathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and were used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of 163 isolates from four different geographical regions of Ethiopia. These loci produced a total of 118 alleles with an average of 5.13 alleles per microsatellite marker. The polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.104 to 0.597 with an average of 0.371. The average observed heterozygosity across all loci varied from 0.046 to 0.058. The gene diversity among the loci ranged from 0.106 to 0.664. Unweighted Neighbor-joining and population structure analysis grouped these 163 isolates into three major groups. The clusters were not according to the geographic origin of the isolates. Analysis of molecular variance showed 85% of the total variation within populations and only 5% among populations. There was low genetic differentiation in the total populations (FST = 0.049) as evidenced by high level of gene flow estimate (Nm = 4.8 per generation) among populations. The results show that Ethiopian C. gloeosporioides populations are generally characterized by a low level of genetic diversity. The newly developed microsatellite markers were useful in analyzing the genetic diversity and population structure of the C. gloeosporioides populations. Information obtained from this study could be useful as a base to design strategies for better management of leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus in Ethiopia. PMID:26978654

  1. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Regional Activities. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six of the seven papers in this collection focus on regional library activities in Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America and the Caribbean: (1) "Libraries and Information Services in a Changing World: The Challenges African Information Services Face at the End of the 1980s" (Dejen Abate, Ethiopia); (2) "The Computer and Knowledge Information…

  2. Trends in contraceptive use and distribution of births with demographic risk factors in Ethiopia: a sub-national analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Solomon; Abdullah, Muna; Mekonnen, Yared; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Akinyemi, Akanni; Amouzou, Agbessi; Friedman, Howard; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Hounton, Sennen

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence shows that family planning contributes to the decline in child mortality by decreasing the proportions of births that are considered high risk. The main objective of the present analysis was to examine the trends in use of modern contraceptives and their relationship with total fertility rate (TFR) and distribution of births by demographic risk factors as defined by mother's age, birth interval, and birth order at the sub-national level in Ethiopia. Design Analyses used data from three Demographic and Health Surveys in Ethiopia (2000, 2005, and 2011), which are nationally representative data collected through questionnaire-based interviews from women 15–49 using a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling. First, we examined the trends of and relationship between TFR (in the 3 years before each survey) and modern contraceptive use among currently married women in all administrative regions over the time period 2000–2011 using linear regression analysis. We also examined the relationship between birth risks and under-five mortality using the no-risk group as a reference. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the effect of being a resident in one of the regions and having an avoidable birth risk (which includes births to mothers younger than 18 and older than 34 years, birth interval of less than 24 months and birth order higher than third) after adjusting for select covariates including wealth, educational status, residence, religion and exposure to family planning information. Results Sub-national-level regression analysis showed an inverse relationship between modern contraceptive use among married women and the TFR, with an average decrease of TFR by one child per woman associated with a 13 percentage point increase in modern contraceptive use between 2000 and 2011. A high percentage of births in Ethiopia (62%) fall in one of the risk categories (excluding first births), with wide

  3. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact.

  4. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia.

  5. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia. PMID:25481716

  6. Teaching the right hydrology with minimum resources in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Collick, Amy; Wondie, Ayalew; Jemberu, Tsehai

    2010-05-01

    This presentation will highlight our experience in teaching 19 Master's students from diverse backgrounds hydrology and watershed management in Ethiopia. Although the program was based at Bahir Dar University on the shores of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, the students received an US degree. The goal was to train professionals who can help to institute more effective and sustainable watershed management practices in Ethiopia. Teaching hydrology was a challenge. From the literature and personal observation, it was obvious that the traditional techniques of predicting runoff based on infiltration excess runoff and SCS curve number method were not satisfactory. Saturation excess runoff was more likely. However there was no research to prove that it actually was the case. In class we taught both runoff principles but stressed the saturation excess runoff. It was impossible to convince the students that the techniques that came from the western world be incorrect. For their Masters thesis, eight students did field research on runoff and erosion processes in watershed (some of which has a long record of discharge and sediment data). The students recorded water table heights, measured infiltration rates and determined where most erosion took place in the landscape. Based on this data they modeled the previously observed discharge successful using a saturation excess type model. From these studies we could establish that saturation in the landscape had a great effect on both runoff and sediment losses. As result of the field work, students had changed their mind about the appropriateness of using for example the SCS curve number method in Ethiopian highlands Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that we do not need a lot of funds to teach students the right hydrology. However, there is no substitute for going out in the field and experiencing what the right hydrology is by studying the processes in the landscape itself. By simply teaching in class, students will and cannot accept

  7. Health workers’ perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to institutional delivery in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence shows that the three delays, delay in 1) deciding to seek medical care, 2) reaching health facilities and 3) receiving adequate obstetric care, are still contributing to maternal deaths in low-income countries. Ethiopia is a major contributor to the worldwide death toll of mothers with a maternal mortality ratio of 676 per 100,000 live births. The Ethiopian Ministry of Health launched a community-based health-care system in 2003, the Health Extension Programme (HEP), to tackle maternal mortality. Despite strong efforts, universal access to services remains limited, particularly skilled delivery attendance. With the help of ‘the three delays’ framework, this study explores health-service providers’ perceptions of facilitators and barriers to the utilization of institutional delivery in Tigray, a northern region of Ethiopia. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were carried out with eight health extension workers (HEWs) and four midwives. Each interview lasted between 90 and 120 minutes. Data were analysed through a thematic analysis approach. Results Three themes emerged from the analysis: the struggle between tradition and newly acquired knowledge, community willingness to deal with geographical barriers, and striving to do a good job with insufficient resources. These themes represent the three steps in the path towards receiving adequate institutional delivery care at a health facility. Of the themes, ‘increased community awareness’, ‘organization of the community’ and ‘hospital with specialized staff’ were recognized as facilitators. On the other hand, ‘delivery as a natural event’, ‘cultural tradition and rituals’, ‘inaccessible transport’, ‘unmet community expectation’ and ‘shortage of skilled human resources’ were represented as barriers to institutional delivery. Conclusions The participants in this study gave emphasis to the major barriers to institutional delivery that are closely connected with the

  8. Diarrhoea morbidity in an urban area of southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getaneh, T; Assefa, A; Tadesse, Z

    1997-08-01

    A diarrhoea morbidity survey was conducted in children between the ages of six and 59 months in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia. Nearly 37% of the 820 children surveyed had one or more episodes of diarrhoea over a period of one month preceding the study. Although several factors showed significant association with diarrhoea morbidity on bivariate analysis, child's age, immunisation status, father's ethnicity, family income and availability of latrine were the only significant variables on multivariate analysis. Based on the study results feasible intervention measures are recommended.

  9. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Background Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. Methods The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. Results A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001), wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001) and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001) from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade. Conclusion Economic growth

  10. Association between morphological traits and yield components in the durra sorghums of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesso, Tesfaye; Tirfessa, Alemu; Mohammed, Hussein

    2011-06-01

    The Ethio-Sudan region is recognized as the center of origin and diversity for cultivated sorghum. All major races of the crop are widely grown in Ethiopia with durras being dominant. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent of morphological variability among the Ethiopian durras and examine the pattern of relationships among these traits and their association with yield and yield components. Two hundred accessions collected from major sorghum-growing regions of the country were evaluated during the 2007 season at two locations representing hot and dry low land and mild mid-altitude environments. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Data were collected on phenology, plant height, a range of leaf traits and yield components. Significant variation was observed among all traits measured. Phenological traits and plant height were significantly correlated with each other and with all leaf traits. There was positive correlation among leaf traits, and between leaf traits and yield components except thousand kernel weight (TKW) and panicle length (PL). Grain fill duration was negatively correlated with all traits except days to maturity, TKW, and leaf length. Yield components except PL and TKW were positively correlated with each other. Selection that focuses on key yield components, larger leaf area, and on enhancing the grain filling rate by reducing excessive grain fill duration may contribute to yield improvement. PMID:21756255

  11. Gastrointestinal nematode infection in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Sheferaw, Desie; Aragaw, Kassaye; Abera, Mesele; Sibhat, Berhanu; Haile, Aynalem; Kiara, Henry; Szonyi, Barbara; Skjerve, Eystein; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are a major health challenge affecting productive and reproductive performance of sheep and goats in Ethiopia. However, there is no comprehensive summary on the occurrence and distribution of the infection at national level. This systematic review provides pooled prevalence estimates and assesses potential predictors of the nematode infections in small ruminants, i.e. helpful in planning interventions or control strategies. The review used 50 animal level datasets retrieved from 24 manuscripts. The studies used data collected from 9407 sheep and 3478 goats. A meta-analytical approach was employed to analyze Effect size (ES). The reported GI nematodes represented eleven genera affecting sheep and goats including: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia/Ostertagia, Strongyloides, Bunostomum, Nematodirus, Chabertia, Trichuris, Cooperia, Skrjabinema and Oesophagostomum. The GI nematodes pooled prevalence estimate in the random effect model was 75.8% (95% CI: 69.6, 80.8). The subgroup analysis revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in the prevalence between different regions and type of diagnostic methods used. 'Postmortem technique' and 'eastern part of the country' were associated with higher GI nematode prevalence and accounted for 68.1% of the between studies heterogeneity. In light of the high parasitic prevalence in all agro-ecologies, the need for strategic intervention is recommended. Meanwhile, data need to be generated for some of the regions where dependable survey reports are lacking.

  12. Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) Examination at the Fanta Stream Site, Central Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzarone, P. M.

    2009-12-01

    The use of near-surface geophysical analysis for paleontological and archaeological site detection has been a relatively unexplored field in sub-Saharan Africa. A new site discovered in 2007 within the city limits of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is currently under imminent destruction due to urban and industrial entrenchment. Located along the banks of the Fanta Stream, this site contains visible exposures of dense in-situ fossiliferous deposits and archaeological remains. The Fanta Stream Site is important because of the widespread deposition of fossil deposits possibly dating to the early or middle Pleistocene epoch from a rare high altitude context of the east African region. A detailed GPR survey over a large study area (> 1000 m2) utilizing a GSSI SIR-2 with 100 and 500 MHz antennas provides a multi-scalar data visualization of fossil bearing stratigraphic units and information about the vertical and lateral distribution of these deposits across the site. The GPR profiles exhibit strong radar reflections at the contact zones between sedimentary units known to contain fossil and artifactual deposits. Shallow (< 3 m) hand-augured geological cores along GPR transects provide a correlative ground truth for the depth and extent of primary deposits across the site. These geophysical data situate the known and associated fossil and artifact assemblages into their appropriate spatial and geoenvironmental contexts and this information will be useful for developing a regional natural and cultural resource management plan for the Fanta Site.

  13. Outbreak of tungiasis following a trip to Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Grupper, M; Potasman, I

    2012-09-01

    Tungiasis is a skin disease caused by the ectoparasite sand flea Tunga penetrans. Although tungiasis is an important health problem in endemic areas, mainly South America and sub-Saharan Africa, it is reported uncommonly in travelers. We describe an outbreak of tungiasis in a group of travelers to Ethiopia. Following the diagnosis of tungiasis in a member of a group of 17 Israeli travelers to Ethiopia, other affected members were identified by photograph assisted self diagnosis. The characteristics, including relevant demographic and epidemiologic data were recorded using a telephone interview and computerized questionnaire, and analyzed subsequently. The attack rate of tungiasis in the travel group was 53% (9 patients). Most of the patients (89%) wore open sandals during prolonged periods of their journey, but the pattern of shoeware use was similar in unaffected group members. An insect bite was not felt by any patient. The median number of skin lesions was one, and most lesions were located on the foot (7 of 9 travelers), but the hands were also affected in 2 travelers. All skin lesions healed without a need for a major intervention and without major sequela within 5 weeks of their appearance. Tungiasis may be underdiagnosed in travelers. Medical personnel should include tungiasis in pre-travel recommendations, and post-travel assessment. PMID:23031181

  14. Patterns of caesarean-section delivery in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mashalla, Yohana J.S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Setting The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services. Objective The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS) delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Results Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socio-economic standing. Conclusion Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions. PMID:27542289

  15. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714

  16. Participatory Forest Management in Ethiopia: Learning from Pilot Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-04-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

  17. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance. PMID:24069773

  18. Triticale adaption and competence assessment result in the high lands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Legesse, Wasihun

    2014-01-01

    Triticale is a crop that resulted from the addition of chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum ) and rye cereals (Secale cereale). The crop came on the market as bread cereal in the 1980s. Different varieties were released. Triticale is a high yielding crop when compared with tef, wheat and barley, particularly on locations with soil nutrient deficiency. The study was initiated with the question to which extent the growing of triticale crop (Triticosecale Wittmack) improves food security, and which factors can play a major role for its successful adoption, particularly in major food insecure areas of Ethiopia. The study has three main objectives: (1) to investigate the adaptability of triticale to the Ethiopian agro-ecological conditions, particularly in areas with low soil fertility, hence this is a crop considered to provide considerably a higher harvest under low agricultural inputs, such as fertilizer, insects and pests sprays; (2) to analyze the injera--and bread-baking quality of the crop in comparison with tef (a staple cereal limited to Ethiopia) and wheat cereals, and examine the acceptance by consumers of these products made from this grain. The study was conducted in the two major triticale producing districts (wereda), Farta and Estie of the South Gondar Administrative Zone in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The production of crops and the adoption of triticale as a new technology by smallholder farmers are influenced by several factors such as family size, age, gender and education of the household head, availability of agricultural extension services and farm credits, and labour. Despite the high yield and widespread adoption of triticale crop in the study areas and the Amhara Region at large, it faced some amount of resistance from a few farmers and some agriculturalists. This is because of the possibility of soil nutrients exploitation by the triticale plant, with a consequent drop of nutrition for the succeeding crops. This is however, a hardly valid

  19. Triticale adaption and competence assessment result in the high lands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Legesse, Wasihun

    2014-01-01

    Triticale is a crop that resulted from the addition of chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum ) and rye cereals (Secale cereale). The crop came on the market as bread cereal in the 1980s. Different varieties were released. Triticale is a high yielding crop when compared with tef, wheat and barley, particularly on locations with soil nutrient deficiency. The study was initiated with the question to which extent the growing of triticale crop (Triticosecale Wittmack) improves food security, and which factors can play a major role for its successful adoption, particularly in major food insecure areas of Ethiopia. The study has three main objectives: (1) to investigate the adaptability of triticale to the Ethiopian agro-ecological conditions, particularly in areas with low soil fertility, hence this is a crop considered to provide considerably a higher harvest under low agricultural inputs, such as fertilizer, insects and pests sprays; (2) to analyze the injera--and bread-baking quality of the crop in comparison with tef (a staple cereal limited to Ethiopia) and wheat cereals, and examine the acceptance by consumers of these products made from this grain. The study was conducted in the two major triticale producing districts (wereda), Farta and Estie of the South Gondar Administrative Zone in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The production of crops and the adoption of triticale as a new technology by smallholder farmers are influenced by several factors such as family size, age, gender and education of the household head, availability of agricultural extension services and farm credits, and labour. Despite the high yield and widespread adoption of triticale crop in the study areas and the Amhara Region at large, it faced some amount of resistance from a few farmers and some agriculturalists. This is because of the possibility of soil nutrients exploitation by the triticale plant, with a consequent drop of nutrition for the succeeding crops. This is however, a hardly valid

  20. Tephrostratigraphy of the Waki-Mille area of the Woranso-Mille paleoanthropological research project, Afar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Beverly Z; Angelini, Joshua; Deino, Alan; Alene, Mulugeta; Fournelle, John H; Haile-Selassie, Yohannes

    2016-04-01

    Tephra geochemistry and (40)Ar/(39)Ar geochronology are reported for the Waki-Mille area in the northwestern part of the Woranso-Mille paleoanthropological project area in the west central Afar region of Ethiopia. Previous studies documented dentognathic fossils that are morphologically intermediate between Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis and some that are attributed to Australopithecus afarensis. Additional dentognathic remains from the study area were assigned to the newly identified species Australopithecus deyiremeda. These fossil hominin taxa were recovered from volcanic and sedimentary strata containing tuffs ranging in age from more than 3.77 million years ago (Ma) to less than 3.469 Ma. One of the tuffs was correlated based on geochemistry, feldspar mineralogy, and age to the Lokochot Tuff of the Omo-Turkana Basin of southern Ethiopia and Kenya. Variations in major and minor element abundances in volcanic glass demarcate ten geochemically distinct tuffs and tuff sequences, including three that are geochemically similar to widespread regional tuffs, specifically the Lomogol, Lokochot, and β- Tulu Bor/Sidi Hakoma tuffs. A new (40)Ar/(39)Ar age for the Waki Tuff, which is geochemically similar to the Lomogol Tuff, is 3.664 ± 0.016 Ma. Other tuffs in the Waki-Mille area are geochemically dissimilar to regional tuffs documented to date. Identification of tuffs based on character, stratigraphic position, and geochemistry refines local stratigraphic correlations and delineates the geographic distributions of precisely dated fossiliferous levels within the Waki-Mille area. PMID:27086054

  1. Adult Literacy for Development in Ethiopia: A Review of Policy and Performance at Mid-Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    When Ethiopia launched its National Literacy Campaign (NLC) in July 1979, it was announced that illiteracy would be removed from the urban areas of the country by 1982 and from rural Ethiopia by 1987. By the end of the 12th round of the NLC in February 1985, 16.9 million youths and adults had been covered by the campaign, and 12 million (almost…

  2. Multivariate analysis of diversity of tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) germplasm from western and southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Kebebew; Merker, Arnulf; Tefera, Hailu

    2003-01-01

    Sixty tef germplasm populations consisting of 3,000 panicle-derived lines from six western and southern regions of Ethiopia were evaluated for 17 pheno-morphic and agronomic traits on pellic Vertisols at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center during the 1999 main season. The objectives were to study the extent and pattern of variation of the germplasm with respect to regions and altitude zones, to classify the populations into relatively homogenous groups and to identify the major traits contributing to the overall diversity of the populations. At 75 % similarity level, the 60 populations aggregated into nine complexes of two to 10, with 12 populations remaining un-grouped. Five principal components (PC) extracted about 81 % of the gross variance among the populations. About 40 % of the variance accounted for by the first PC alone resulted largely from variations in diameters of the two basal culm internodes, grain yield and number of spikelets/panicle, shoot phytomass and grain yield/plant, and number of culm internodes. The entire regional as well as the clinal (altitude zone) variation was explained by five and two PCs, respectively. The discriminant analyses depicted about 77 % correct grouping of the 47 populations into nine clusters and about 62 % and 68 % correct origin-based classification of the germplasm in terms of altitude zones and regions, respectively. In general, the study demonstrated the existence of regional and clinal (altitude zone) variation patterns in the tef germplasm populations. The broad trait variation in the germplasm implies ample opportunities for genetic improvement of tef through selection and hybridization.

  3. Multisensor earth observations to characterize wetlands and malaria epidemiology in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midekisa, Alemayehu; Senay, Gabriel B.; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2014-11-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The spatial heterogeneity of malaria can be affected by factors such as hydrological processes, physiography, and land cover patterns. Tropical wetlands, for example, are important hydrological features that can serve as mosquito breeding habitats. Mapping and monitoring of wetlands using satellite remote sensing can thus help to target interventions aimed at reducing malaria transmission. The objective of this study was to map wetlands and other major land cover types in the Amhara region of Ethiopia and to analyze district-level associations of malaria and wetlands across the region. We evaluated three random forests classification models using remotely sensed topographic and spectral data based on Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, respectively. The model that integrated data from both sensors yielded more accurate land cover classification than single-sensor models. The resulting map of wetlands and other major land cover classes had an overall accuracy of 93.5%. Topographic indices and subpixel level fractional cover indices contributed most strongly to the land cover classification. Further, we found strong spatial associations of percent area of wetlands with malaria cases at the district level across the dry, wet, and fall seasons. Overall, our study provided the most extensive map of wetlands for the Amhara region and documented spatiotemporal associations of wetlands and malaria risk at a broad regional level. These findings can assist public health personnel in developing strategies to effectively control and eliminate malaria in the region.

  4. International Clinical Trial Day and clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed

    2014-12-19

    Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

  5. International Clinical Trial Day and clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa. PMID:25526797

  6. Key informants' perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia's health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  7. Anaemia prevalence and associated factors among lactating mothers in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2005 and 2011 demographic and health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Lakew, Yihunie; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Haile, Demewoz

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with anaemia in lactating mothers in Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data pooled from two rounds of the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) was used. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to determine the factors associated with anaemia. Population A total of 7332 lactating mothers (2285 from EDHS 2005 and 5047 from EDHS 2011) were included from 11 administrative states of Ethiopia. Main outcome measures Lactating mothers considered anaemic if haemoglobin level <12 g/dL. Results The overall prevalence of anaemia among lactating mothers was 22.1% (95% CI 21.13% to 23.03%). The highest prevalence was 48.7% (95% CI 40.80% to 56.62%) found in the Somali region, followed by 43.8% (95% CI 31.83% to 56.87%) in the Afar region. The multivariate statistical model showed that having a husband who had attended primary education (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.91), working during the 12 months preceding the survey (AOR 0.71; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.80), having a normal maternal body mass index (18.5–24.99 kg/m2) (AOR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89), being in the middle wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.98) or rich wealth quintile (AOR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98), having ever used family planning (AOR 0.68; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.80), having attended antenatal care (ANC) for the indexed pregnancy four times or more (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91), having experienced time variation between the two surveys (AOR 0.73; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.85), and breastfeeding for 2 years (AOR 0.76; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.87) were factors associated with lower odds of having anaemia in lactating mothers. Conclusions Anaemia is highly prevalent among lactating mothers, particularly in the pastoralist communities of Somali and Afar. Promoting partner education, improving maternal nutritional status, and creating behavioural change to use family planning and ANC services at health facilities

  8. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs). However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective space–time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district) to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB). Scan statistics, Global Moran’s I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi*) statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings. Results A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001), with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001), with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012. Conclusion The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control

  9. Crustal Structure of the Flood Basalt Province of Ethiopia from Constrained 3-D Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammo, Tilahun

    2013-12-01

    The Oligocene Afar mantle plume resulted in the eruption of a large volume of basaltic magma, including major sequences of rhyolitic ignimbrites, in a short span of time across Ethiopia. In order to assess the impact of these magmatic processes on the crust and to investigate the general crustal configuration beneath the Ethiopian plateau, northern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift and the Afar depression, analysis and modeling of the gravity field have been conducted. The Bouguer gravity map is dominated by long-wavelength anomalies that primarily arise from the isostatic compensation of the topography. Consequently, anomalies within the crust/upper mantle are masked and quantitative interpretation becomes difficult. The long-wavelength anomalies are approximated using admittance technique and subsequently removed from the Bouguer anomalies to obtain the residual isostatic anomalies. The residual map contains both short- and intermediate-wavelength anomalies related to geologic and tectonic features. The long-wavelength regional isostatic field is used to map the crust-mantle interface and the results are in good agreement with those determined by other geophysical methods. Seismic constrained gravity inversion was performed on the isostatic residual field and series of three-dimensional models have been constructed for the structures of the crust and upper mantle beneath the uplifted and rifted flood basalt province of northern Ethiopia. The inversion results have shown that the NW plateau has thick crust that rests on normal lithospheric mantle. Afar, On the other hand, is marked by thin stretched crust resting on a low-density upper mantle indicating a hotter thermal regime and partial melt. No lithospheric mantle is observed beneath Afar. The models further indicate the presence of an extensive sub-crustal thick (~12 km on average) and high-density (~3.06 gm/cc) mafic accreted igneous layer of fractionated cumulate (magmatic underplating) beneath the NW plateau

  10. Knowledge, attitude, practice, and management of traditional medicine among people of Burka Jato Kebele, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Akawak; Yarlagadda, Raghavendra; Wolde-Mariam, Messay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional medicine (TM) has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world. Even though, the wide acceptance of TM is a well-established fact, its status in a population with access to modern health is not well clear in the whole country. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practice and management of TM among the community of Burka Jato Kebele, West Ethiopia. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 282 sampled individuals’ selected using systematic random sampling from January 28, 2013 to February 8, 2013 in Burka Jato Kebele, Nekemte town, East Wollega Zone, West of Ethiopia. Results: The majority (94.22%) of people in the study area relied on TM. Most of them were aware of medicinal herbs (55.7%). About half (40.79%) of the respondents were aware of the major side-effects of TM such as diarrhea (36.64%). About 31.85% of them prefer traditional medical practices (TMP) because they are cheap. Most (50%) of the species were harvested for their leaves to prepare remedies, followed by seed (21.15%) and root (13.46%) and the methods of preparation were pounding (27.54%), crushing (18.84%), a concoction (15.95%) and squeezing (13.04%). About 53.84% of them were used as fresh preparations. Remedies were reported to be administered through oral (53.85%), dermal or topical (36.54%), buccal (3.85%) and anal (5.77%). Conclusion: The study revealed that the use of TMs were quite popular among the population and a large proportion of the respondents not only preferred, but also used TMs notwithstanding that they lived in the urban communities with better access to modern medical care and medical practitioners. To use TM as a valuable alternative to conventional western medicine, further investigation must be undertaken to determine the validity, efficacy of the plants to make it available as an alternative medicine to human beings. PMID:25883518

  11. A meta-analysis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Mekuria, Solomon; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Skjerve, Eystein; Szonyi, Barbara; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    This systematic literature review was initiated due to lack of comprehensive information on the status and distribution of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Ethiopia. The objectives of the review were thus to provide a pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP in the country and asses the level of in between study variance among the available reports. Manual and electronic search was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015. A total of twelve published articles and one MSc thesis was retrieved from 19 initially identified studies. Twenty five animal level datasets were extracted at regional level considering some hypothesized predictors. The retrieved data were summarized in a meta-analytical approach. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate of CCPP was 25.7% (95% CI:20.9,31.0). The inverse variance square (I(2)) that explains the variation in effect size attributed to reports true heterogeneity was 95.7%.The sub-group analysis was also computed for assumed predictors including, age, sex, type of study population, production systems and regional states. Among these predictors, study population type revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Accordingly, the prevalence estimate for samples collected at abattoir was 39.2%, while that of samples collected at field level was 22.4%. In the final model, type of study population fitted the multivariable meta-regression model accounting for 22.87% of the explainable proportion of heterogeneity among the presumed predictors. Evidence on isolation and confirmation of Mycoplasma capricolum subspp. capripneumonie in the country was obtained from five regional states. In conclusion, it is recommended to further investigate facilities related with transportation and collection premises along with potential role of sheep in the epidemiology of CCPP. Finally, the review emphasizes the need for monitoring the ongoing CCPP control intervention and introduces amendments based on the findings

  12. Epidemiological survey of brucellosis in sheep and goats in selected pastoral and agro-pastoral lowlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sintayehu, G; Melesse, B; Abayneh, D; Sintayehu, A; Melaku, S; Alehegne, W; Mesfin, S; De Blas, I; Casal, J; Allepuz, A; Martin-Valls, G; Africa, T; Abera, K

    2015-12-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in pastoral regions of Ethiopia to investigate the distribution of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Between November 2004 and December 2007, a total of 6,201 serum samples were collected from 67 randomly selected peasant associations, 25 districts and eight pastoral zones of Ethiopia. The Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and complement fixation test were used in series. Samples for bacteriology were collected from three export abattoirs, where 285 goats were randomly selected and tested by RBPTthree days before slaughter. Tissue samples were collected from 14 strongly positive goats and cultured in dextrose agar and Brucella agar base. To confirm and subtype the isolates, staining, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction were used. The overall standardised seroprevalence of brucellosis was 1.9%, ranging from 0.07% in Jijiga zone to 3.3% in Borena zone. There was statistically significant variation among the studied regions, zones, districts and peasant associations (p < 0.05). Male goats and sheep were twice as likely to test positive as females (relative risk [RRJ: 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.7-3.4; x2 = 21.05, p < 0.05). Adults (older than 1.5 years) were three times more likely to test positive than younger animals (RR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.14-6.73; chi2 = 5.18, p < 0.05). Goats were around four times more likely to be infected than sheep (RR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.4-6.1; chi2 = 36.99, p < 0.05). Brucella melitensis was isolated from 2 of the 14 samples analysed. The widespread distribution of brucellosis in goats and sheep in these areas justifies the use of control measures to minimise the economic losses and public health hazards.

  13. Assessment of Late Quaternary strain partitioning in the Afar Triple Junction: Dobe and Hanle grabens, Ethiopia and Djibouti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polun, S. G.; Stockman, M. B.; Hickcox, K.; Horrell, D.; Tesfaye, S.; Gomez, F. G.

    2015-12-01

    As the only subaerial exposure of a ridge - ridge - ridge triple junction, the Afar region of Ethiopia and Djibouti offers a rare opportunity to assess strain partitioning within this type of triple junction. Here, the plate boundaries do not link discretely, but rather the East African rift meets the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts in a zone of diffuse normal faulting characterized by a lack of magmatic activity, referred to as the central Afar. An initial assessment of Late Quaternary strain partitioning is based on faulted landforms in the Dobe - Hanle graben system in Ethiopia and Djibouti. These two extensional basins are connected by an imbricated accommodation zone. Several fault scarps occur within terraces formed during the last highstand of Lake Dobe, around 5 ka - they provide a means of calibrating a numerical model of fault scarp degradation. Additional timing constraints will be provided by pending exposure ages. The spreading rates of both grabens are equivalent, however in Dobe graben, extension is partitioned 2:1 between northern, south dipping faults and the southern, north dipping fault. Extension in Hanle graben is primarily focused on the north dipping Hanle fault. On the north margin of Dobe graben, the boundary fault bifurcates, where the basin-bordering fault displays a significantly higher modeled uplift rate than the more distal fault, suggesting a basinward propagation of faulting. On the southern Dobe fault, surveyed fault scarps have ages ranging from 30 - 5 ka with uplift rates of 0.71, 0.47, and 0.68 mm/yr, suggesting no secular variation in slip rates from the late Plestocene through the Holocene. These rates are converted into horizontal stretching estimates, which are compared with regional strain estimated from velocities of relatively sparse GPS data.

  14. Calf survival and reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yalew, Berhanu; Lobago, Fikre; Goshu, Gebeyehu

    2011-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the reproductive performance and calves survival rate of Holstein-Friesian (HF) herd in Holeta, central highland of Ethiopia. A retrospective analysis of 26 years data was carried out, from which records of 724 age at first calving (AFC), 2,022 calving intervals (CI), 2,971 breeding efficiencies (BE), 260 abortions, 111 stillbirths were derived from 795 cows. Moreover, 738 female calves' records were also included for survival rate study. The overall least squares means of AFC, CI, and BE were 40.9 ± 0.33 months, 475 ± 2.84 days, 81.9 ± 0.26%, respectively, while the incidence rates of abortion, stillbirth, and female calves survival rate for this herd were 8.0%, 3.4%, and 77.5%, respectively. The effects of parity number and year of birth/calving on CI and BE were significant (P < 0.001). Moreover, birth year had significant (P < 0.001) effect on AFC and calves survival rate, while calving season had significant effect on BE. The reproductive performance found in this study was lower than the performance reported in many tropical regions and the genetic potential of HF breed in their origins. Moreover, higher loss due to calf mortality was observed. Thus, the centre should consider appropriate measures to improve its herd reproductive performance and calves survival rate for attaining its aspired objectives.

  15. Healthcare-seeking behaviour in rural Ethiopia: evidence from clinical vignettes

    PubMed Central

    Mebratie, Anagaw D; Van de Poel, Ellen; Yilma, Zelalem; Abebaw, Degnet; Alemu, Getnet; Bedi, Arjun S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the determinants of healthcare-seeking behaviour using five context-relevant clinical vignettes. The analysis deals with three issues: whether and where to seek modern care and when to seek care. Setting This study is set in 96 villages located in four main regions of Ethiopia. The participants of this study are 1632 rural households comprising 9455 individuals. Primary and secondary outcome measures Probability of seeking modern care for symptoms related to acute respiratory infections/pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, tetanus and tuberculosis. Conditional on choosing modern healthcare, where to seek care (health post, health centre, clinic and hospital). Conditional on choosing modern healthcare, when to seek care (seek care immediately, the next day, after 2 days, between 3 days to 1 week, a week or more). Results We find almost universal preference for modern care. Foregone care ranges from 0.6% for diarrhoea to 2.5% for tetanus. There is a systematic relationship between socioeconomic status and choice of providers mainly for adult-related conditions with households in higher consumption quintiles more likely to seek care in health centres, private/Non-Government Organization (NGO) clinics as opposed to health posts. Delays in care-seeking behaviour are apparent mainly for adult-related conditions and among poorer households. Conclusions The analysis suggests that the lack of healthcare utilisation is not driven by the inability to recognise health problems or due to a low perceived need for modern care. PMID:24525391

  16. Improving maternity care in Ethiopia through facility based review of maternal deaths and near misses.

    PubMed

    Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Tewolde, Birukkidus T

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to initiate facility based review of maternal deaths and near misses as part of the Ethiopian effort to reduce maternal mortality and achieve United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. An in-depth review of all maternal deaths and near misses among women who visited 10 hospitals in four regions of Ethiopia was conducted between May 2011 and October 2012 as part of the FIGO LOGIC initiative. During the study period, a total of 2774 cases (206 deaths and 2568 near misses) were reviewed. The ratio of maternal deaths to near misses was 1:12 and the overall maternal death rate was 728 per 100 000 live births. Socioeconomic factors associated with maternal mortality included illiteracy 1672 (60.3%) and lack of employment outside the home 2098 (75.6%). In all, 1946 (70.2%) women arrived at hospital after they had developed serious complications owing to issues such as lack of transportation. Only 1223 (44.1%) women received prenatal follow-up and 157 (76.2%) deaths were attributed to direct obstetric causes. Based on the findings, facilities adopted a number of quality improvement measures such as providing 24-hour services, and making ambulances available. Integrating review of maternal deaths and near misses into regular practice provides accurate information on causes of maternal deaths and near misses and also improves quality of care in facilities.

  17. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) in the Bume (Nyangaton) people of South Omo, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemaneh, L; Taticheff, S

    1993-07-01

    A village-to-village search for active dracunculiasis cases was carried out in an endemic area of the Bume (Nyangaton) tribe of South Omo Region, Ethiopia. A total of 21 cases, of which 6, 5, and 10 had pre-emergent, emergent and complicated Guinea worm disease, respectively, were identified. Twenty-two worms, ranging from 1-3 per patient, were removed mainly from the lower limbs; worm appearance seems to be associated more with the right limb. Adults between the ages of 20-30 years are highly affected and infection appears to be sex-related as 14/21 (66.7%) of the cases are females. Water procured from water-holes drug in dry river beds provides an ideal situation for the transmission of dracunculiasis amongst the tribesmen. The knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the Bume people towards the disease and the public health significance of dracunculiasis are discussed in relation to the current goal of the national and global Guinea worm eradication programme.

  18. A national system for monitoring the performance of hospitals in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika; Endeshaw, Abraham; Tatek, Dawit; Conteh, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many countries struggle to develop and implement strategies to monitor hospitals nationally. The challenge is particularly acute in low-income countries where resources for measurement and reporting are scarce. We examined the experience of developing and implementing a national system for monitoring the performance of 130 government hospitals in Ethiopia. Using participatory observation, we found that the monitoring system resulted in more consistent hospital reporting of performance data to regional health bureaus and the federal government, increased transparency about hospital performance and the development of multiple quality-improvement projects. The development and implementation of the system, which required technical and political investment and support, would not have been possible without strong hospital-level management capacity. Thorough assessment of the health sector’s readiness to change and desire to prioritize hospital quality can be helpful in the early stages of design and implementation. This assessment may include interviews with key informants, collection of data about health facilities and human resources and discussion with academic partners. Aligning partners and donors with the government’s vision for quality improvement can enhance acceptability and political support. Such alignment can enable resources to be focused strategically towards one national effort – rather than be diluted across dozens of potentially competing projects. Initial stages benefit from having modest goals and the flexibility for continuous modification and improvement, through active engagement with all stakeholders. PMID:26600614

  19. Low Prevalence of Leishmania Infection in Post-Epidemic Areas of Libo Kemkem, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cruz, Israel; Simón, Fernando; Abraham, Zelalem; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Tsegaye, Hailu; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In Libo Kemkem (a district of Amhara region, Ethiopia), no cases of kala-azar had ever been reported until 2005 when an outbreak occurred. Over one-third of those cases were children under 15 years of age. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Leishmania infection in children aged 4–15 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009. Children participating in the survey were selected using a three-stage cluster sampling method. A total of 386 children were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Leishmania infection (direct agglutination test- and/or rK39 immunochromatographic test- and/or leishmanin skin test-positive subjects) in this population was 1.02% (95% confidence interval = 0–4.54), and prevalence was higher in boys and children older than 12 years. Only one case of active disease was encountered. The results suggest that the conditions responsible for the outbreak no longer reign. However, active surveillance remains necessary. PMID:22665599

  20. Livestock mortality in pastoralist herds in Ethiopia and implications for drought response.

    PubMed

    Catley, Andy; Admassu, Berhanu; Bekele, Gezu; Abebe, Dawit

    2014-07-01

    Participatory epidemiology methods were employed retrospectively in three pastoralist regions of Ethiopia to estimate the specific causes of excess livestock mortality during drought. The results showed that starvation/dehydration accounted for between 61.5 and 100 per cent of excess livestock mortality during drought, whereas disease-related mortality accounted for between 0 and 28.1 per cent of excess mortality. Field observations indicate that, in livestock, disease risks and mortality increase in the immediate post-drought period, during rain. The design of livelihoods-based drought response programmes should include protection of core livestock assets, and it should take account of the specific causes of excess livestock mortality during drought and immediately afterwards. This study shows that, when comparing livestock feed supplementation and veterinary support, relatively more aid should be directed at the former if the objective is to protect core livestock during drought. Veterinary support should consider disease-related mortality in the immediate post-drought period, and tailor inputs accordingly.

  1. Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia: assessment and comparison of knowledge and attitude of health workers and rural inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Getahun, Haileyesus; Lambein, Fernand; Vanhoorne, Michel

    2002-05-01

    A cross sectional community based study was done in the Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia in 1999-2000 to assess and compare knowledge and attitude towards neurolathyrism among health workers and the rural community. A sample of 217 health workers selected by probability proportional to size and randomly selected 589 heads of household from a rural district were interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires. Neurolathyrism was widely known among the health workers and the community. More than half of community respondents associated the disorder with walking or lying on the straw and the stalks of grass pea. In a multivariate analysis. poor neurolathyrism knowledge among the community was associated with illiteracy and with presence of a neurolathyrism patient at home. Among health workers, contact with vapour or steam of grass pea foods was the commonest cause cited. In a multivariate analysis nurses had the poorest knowledge among the health workers. Depending on the subject, health workers and community respondents had more or less knowledge than the other. The prevailing recurrent adverse climatic conditions might promote grass pea as a 'friendly' crop to the poor peasants in marginal areas who otherwise rely on it only during times of food shortages and could increase the incidence of neurolathyrism. The poor knowledge among health workers and the community and the general neglect of neurolathyrism requires urgent intervention. Appropriate strategies for the dissemination of information education, and communication (IEC) are needed.

  2. Scaling-up essential neuropsychiatric services in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Chisholm, Dan; Fekadu, Abebaw; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is an immense need for scaling-up neuropsychiatric care in low-income countries. Contextualized cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) provide relevant information for local policies. The aim of this study is to perform a contextualized CEA of neuropsychiatric interventions in Ethiopia and to illustrate expected population health and budget impacts across neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A mathematical population model (PopMod) was used to estimate intervention costs and effectiveness. Existing variables from a previous WHO-CHOICE regional CEA model were substantially revised. Treatments for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and epilepsy were analysed. The best available local data on epidemiology, intervention efficacy, current and target coverage, resource prices and salaries were used. Data were obtained from expert opinion, local hospital information systems, the Ministry of Health and literature reviews. Results Treatment of epilepsy with a first generation antiepileptic drug is the most cost-effective treatment (US$ 321 per DALY adverted). Treatments for depression have mid-range values compared with other interventions (US$ 457–1026 per DALY adverted). Treatments for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are least cost-effective (US$ 1168–3739 per DALY adverted). Conclusion This analysis gives the Ethiopian government a comprehensive overview of the expected costs, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing basic neuropsychiatric interventions. PMID:26491060

  3. Governance change and institutional adaptation: a case study from Harenna forest, ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wakjira, Dereje T; Fischer, Anke; Pinard, Michelle A

    2013-04-01

    Many common pool resources have traditionally been managed through intricate local governance arrangements. Over time, such arrangements are confronted with manifold political, social, economic and ecological changes. However, the ways in which local governance arrangements react to such changes are poorly understood. Using the theoretical concept of institutional adaptation, we analyse the history of Harenna forest, Ethiopia, to examine processes of institutional change over the last 150 years. We find that the traditional institutions that governed Harenna's resources persisted, in essence, over time. However, these institutions were modified repeatedly to address changes caused by varying formal, supra-regional governance regimes, the development of markets for forest products, increasing population pressure and changes in formal property rights. A key mechanism for adaptation was combining elements from both informal and formal institutions, which allowed traditional rules to persist in the guise of more formal arrangements. Our findings also highlight several constraints of institutional adaptation. For example, by abolishing fora for collective decision-making, regime changes limited adaptive capacity. To conclude, we argue that such insights into traditional resource governance and its adaptability and dynamics over time are essential to develop sustainable approaches to participatory forest management for the future, both in Harenna and more generally. PMID:23354873

  4. A novel zoonotic genotype related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Marion; Woldeyes, Daniel; Gerbi, Banchwosen Mechal; Ebi, Dennis; Zeyhle, Eberhard; Mackenstedt, Ute; Petros, Beyene; Tilahun, Getachew; Kern, Peter; Romig, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences of a novel genotype (GOmo) related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto are described from a metacestode isolate retrieved from a human patient in southwestern Ethiopia. Phylogenetically, the genotype is positioned within the E. granulosus sensu stricto/Echinococcus felidis cluster, but cannot easily be allocated to either species. Based on different mitochondrial DNA markers, it is closest to the haplotype cluster that currently defines the species E. granulosus sensu stricto (which includes variants showing the widely cited G1, G2 and G3 sequences), but is clearly not part of this cluster. Pairwise distances between GOmo and E. granulosus sensu stricto are in the range of those between the most distant members of the Echinococcus canadensis complex (G6-10) that were recently proposed as separate species. At this stage, we prefer to list GOmo informally as a genotype rather than giving it any taxonomic rank because our knowledge rests on a single isolate from a dead-end host (human), and its lifecycle is unknown. According to data on molecularly characterised Echinococcus isolates from this region, GOmo has never been found in the usual livestock species that carry cystic echinococcosis and the possibility of a wildlife source of this newly recognised zoonotic agent cannot be excluded. The discovery of GOmo adds complexity to the already diverse array of cystic echinococcosis agents in sub-Saharan Africa and challenges hypotheses on the biogeographical origin of the E. granulosus sensu stricto clade.

  5. Governance Change and Institutional Adaptation: A Case Study from Harenna Forest, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakjira, Dereje T.; Fischer, Anke; Pinard, Michelle A.

    2013-04-01

    Many common pool resources have traditionally been managed through intricate local governance arrangements. Over time, such arrangements are confronted with manifold political, social, economic and ecological changes. However, the ways in which local governance arrangements react to such changes are poorly understood. Using the theoretical concept of institutional adaptation, we analyse the history of Harenna forest, Ethiopia, to examine processes of institutional change over the last 150 years. We find that the traditional institutions that governed Harenna's resources persisted, in essence, over time. However, these institutions were modified repeatedly to address changes caused by varying formal, supra-regional governance regimes, the development of markets for forest products, increasing population pressure and changes in formal property rights. A key mechanism for adaptation was combining elements from both informal and formal institutions, which allowed traditional rules to persist in the guise of more formal arrangements. Our findings also highlight several constraints of institutional adaptation. For example, by abolishing fora for collective decision-making, regime changes limited adaptive capacity. To conclude, we argue that such insights into traditional resource governance and its adaptability and dynamics over time are essential to develop sustainable approaches to participatory forest management for the future, both in Harenna and more generally.

  6. A novel zoonotic genotype related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Marion; Woldeyes, Daniel; Gerbi, Banchwosen Mechal; Ebi, Dennis; Zeyhle, Eberhard; Mackenstedt, Ute; Petros, Beyene; Tilahun, Getachew; Kern, Peter; Romig, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences of a novel genotype (GOmo) related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto are described from a metacestode isolate retrieved from a human patient in southwestern Ethiopia. Phylogenetically, the genotype is positioned within the E. granulosus sensu stricto/Echinococcus felidis cluster, but cannot easily be allocated to either species. Based on different mitochondrial DNA markers, it is closest to the haplotype cluster that currently defines the species E. granulosus sensu stricto (which includes variants showing the widely cited G1, G2 and G3 sequences), but is clearly not part of this cluster. Pairwise distances between GOmo and E. granulosus sensu stricto are in the range of those between the most distant members of the Echinococcus canadensis complex (G6-10) that were recently proposed as separate species. At this stage, we prefer to list GOmo informally as a genotype rather than giving it any taxonomic rank because our knowledge rests on a single isolate from a dead-end host (human), and its lifecycle is unknown. According to data on molecularly characterised Echinococcus isolates from this region, GOmo has never been found in the usual livestock species that carry cystic echinococcosis and the possibility of a wildlife source of this newly recognised zoonotic agent cannot be excluded. The discovery of GOmo adds complexity to the already diverse array of cystic echinococcosis agents in sub-Saharan Africa and challenges hypotheses on the biogeographical origin of the E. granulosus sensu stricto clade. PMID:27181929

  7. Studies on neurolathyrism in Ethiopia: dietary habits, perception of risks and prevention.

    PubMed

    Fikre, A; Van Moorhem, M; Ahmed, S; Lambein, F; Gheysen, G

    2011-03-01

    This study describes the correlation of traditional perceptions and dietary habits with the incidence of neurolathyrism to propose preventive measures. Therefore, 118 households of South Wollo and North Gondar (Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia), of which one third had at least one neurolathyrism affected member, were interviewed. Most of the affected families in this study had one neurolathyrism victim, being predominantly male and of younger age. The incidence among youngsters (boys and girls) was significantly correlated with the consumption of green unripe seeds (eshet), confirming this as a risk factor for developing neurolathyrism. The consumption of other popular grass pea preparations was not age related. Neurolathyrism patients did not attempt any medication as most people knew that neurolathyrism is incurable, but the consumption of grass pea was abandoned after developing the disease. The minority 'Woito' tribe was virtually unaffected. They were the only people reporting to consume fish which is rich in amino acids such as methionine and using metallic kitchen utensils in addition to clay pots. This observation points to the correlation between low neurolathyrism incidence and a better balanced diet as well as metallic kitchen utensils, suggesting a new approach for neurolathyrism prevention. PMID:20950665

  8. Factors contributing to participation of a rural community in health education: a case study from ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Abebaw Yirga

    This study investigated factors that contributed to the participation of a rural community in health education. It was conducted in the Awi zone of the Amhara region in Ethiopia. The participants were rural community members and health extension workers. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit rural community members, whereas convenient sampling was used to recruit health extension workers. Data was collected through in-depth individual interviews, and focus group discussions. The study revealed various factors contributing to the participation of a rural community in health education, including attainability of the objectives of health education, profiles of the health extension workers, peer influence, organization of the health education program in terms of place and time, and meaningfulness of the health education in terms of rural community lives. Although the ultimate goal of participation in health education is similar for all rural community members, they were attracted to the program by one or more than one different factor. Efforts aimed at enhancing participation of a rural community in health education program should address each factor that contributes to the participation of community members. PMID:23000462

  9. Acheulean technological behaviour in the Middle Pleistocene landscape of Mieso (East-Central Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Mora, Rafael; Arroyo, Adrian; Benito-Calvo, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    The Mieso valley is a new paleoanthropological sequence located in East-Central Ethiopia. It contains Middle and Upper Pleistocene deposits with fossil and lithic assemblages in stratified deposits. This paper introduces the Middle Pleistocene archaeological sequence, attributed to the late Acheulean. Low density clusters of artefacts suggest short-term use of the landscape by Acheulean hominins. In Mieso 31, one of the excavated assemblages, refit sets indicate fragmentation of the reduction sequences and enable study of the initial stages of biface manufacture. Mieso 7, also a stratified site, is primarily characterized by a small concentration of standardized cleavers, and portrays another dimension of Acheulean technology, that related to final stages of use and discard of large cutting tools. Available radiometric dates place the Mieso Acheulean around 212 ka (thousands of years) ago, which would make this sequence among the latest evidence of the Acheulean in East Africa, in a time span when the Middle Stone Age is already documented in the region.

  10. Early Neoproterozoic Global Change Through the Lens of the Tambien Group, Northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson-Hysell, N.; Maloof, A. C.; Condon, D. J.; Park, Y.; MacLennan, S. A.; Schoene, B.; Tremblay, M. M.; Alene, M.; Anttila, E.; Haileab, B.; Tesema, T.

    2015-12-01

    The early Neoproterozoic is a crucial period in the evolution of life and climate on Earth. Basins that developed during the time contain a record of the diversification of eukaryotic life as well as large-scale changes to the carbon cycle and paleogeography during the period leading up to Cryogenian glaciation. Understanding global change leading up to Cryogenian glaciation is key for interpreting the boundary conditions that resulted in the beginning of dramatic climate and geochemical oscillations during this critical interval. Existing age models for Neoproterozoic nonglacial intervals, such as the time leading up to Cryogenian glaciation, largely have been based on correlation of carbonate δ13C values, but there are few tests of the assumed synchroneity of these records between basins. In contrast to the ash-poor successions typically targeted for Neoproterozoic chemostratigraphy, the Tonian to Cryogenian Tambien Group (Tigray region, Ethiopia) was deposited in an arc-proximal basin where volcanic tuffs suitable for U-Pb geochronology are preserved within the mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary succession. We use physical and isotopic stratigraphic data sets from Tambien Group sedimentary rocks in concert with high-precision U-Pb dates from intercalated tuffs to establish global synchroneity of large scale carbon isotopic change. These new temporal constraints strengthen the case for interpreting Neoproterozoic carbon isotope variation as a record of large-scale changes to the carbon cycle. Furthermore, these dates strengthen the temporal framework for interpreting paleogeographic change, geochemical cycling, and environmental evolution during the radiation of early eukaryotes.

  11. Child Wasting in Emergency Pockets: A Meta-Analysis of Small-Scale Surveys from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Altare, Chiara; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in Ethiopia (stunting national prevalence: 44%; wasting: 10%), despite the overall improvement in child health status during the last decade. Hundreds of small-scale surveys are conducted in Ethiopia’s emergency pockets under ENCU’s supervision. We reviewed the evidence from small-scale surveys conducted between 2008 and 2013 with two objectives: to provide a summary estimate of wasting prevalence from emergency pockets and to examine reasons for variation in prevalence estimates. We created a dataset by combining data from the Complex Emergency Database, the Famine Early Warning System Network and the Armed Conflict Location Event Data. We conducted a meta-analysis of small-scale surveys using a random effects model with known within-study heterogeneity. The influence of survey covariates on estimated prevalence was investigated with meta-regression techniques. We included 158 surveys in the analysis. A high degree of heterogeneity among surveys was observed. The overall estimate of wasting prevalence was 10.6% (95% CI 9.8–11.4), with differences among regions and between residents and refugees. Meta-regression results showed that vaccination coverage, child mortality, diarrhea prevalence and food insecurity are significantly associated with wasting prevalence. Child care and displacement status were not. Aggregated analysis of small-scale surveys provides insights into the prevalence of wasting and factors explaining its variation. It can also guide survey planning towards areas with limited data availability. PMID:26828512

  12. Conceptual design of first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, T.D.; Melaku, M.; Betemariam, G.

    1996-12-31

    The Aluto-Langano Geothermal Pilot Plant will be the first geothermal power plant in Ethiopia. Its purpose is to utilize existing wells, drilled about a decade ago, to generate additional electricity for the power system and to prove the capability of the Aluto-Langano field to support expansion to 30 MWe. This paper discusses the evaluation of possible production wells, in combination with three power cycle options, leading to selection of a preferred development concept. Despite the small size of the pilot plant, the high elevation of the site, and the very high gas content of the field, a condensing unit was selected. Particular design features proposed for the steamfield and power plant are explained, including those that reflect the pilot plant nature of the project.

  13. What Time is it? Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tiruneh, Yordanos M.; Wilson, Ira B.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and explored the sociocultural context in which they relate to their regimen requirements. Data were collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 105 patients on ART and observations held at the study clinic. We analyzed data using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Our findings indicate that study participants are highly adherent to dose but less adherent to dose schedule. Strict dose time instructions were reported as stressful and unrealistic. The discrepancy between adherence to dose and dose schedule could be explained by time perception, difficulty with the strictness of medication regimens, or beliefs about dose timing adherence. Care providers should acknowledge the complexities of medication practices and engage in shared decision-making to incorporate patients’ perspectives and identify effective interventions. PMID:26873491

  14. The tale of the hearts: deciding on abortion in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Meselu Taye; Hilden, Per Kristian; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary Ethiopia, abortion decision-making is a challenging process involving moral and/or religious dilemmas, as well as considerations of health and safety. Amidst widespread condemnation of female premarital sex and clear moral sanction against induced abortion, young Ethiopian women are nevertheless sexually active and induced abortions are still sought and performed, with the potential for grave physical harm and social stigmatization. This paper examines young unmarried Ethiopian women's narratives of abortion decision-making. In particular, it identifies and explores the operations of a particular discursive shape from within in such narratives, here described as The tale of the hearts. Analysing The tale of the hearts as a decision-making resource, it is argued, allows us to explore the particular, local, historical and cultural character of Ethiopian women's abortion decision-making dilemmas and the culturally available resources contributing to their resolution.

  15. Magnitude of Birth Defects in Central and Northwest Ethiopia from 2010-2014: A Descriptive Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Taye, Molla; Afework, Mekbeb; Fantaye, Wondwossen; Diro, Ermias; Worku, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth defects are defined as structural and functional defects that develop during the organogenesis period and present at birth or detected later in life. They are one of the leading causes of infant and child mortality, morbidity, and long term disability. The magnitude of birth defects varies from country to country and from race/ethnicity to race/ethnicity, and about 40–60% of their causes are unknown. The known causes of birth defects are genetic and environmental factors which may be prevented. For various reasons, there is lack of data and research on birth defects in Ethiopia. Objective The major objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude of birth defects in Ethiopia. Subject and Methods A hospital based, retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive study was conducted. The subjects were babies/children aged 0–17years who visited selected hospitals between 2010 and 2014. Fourteen hospitals (8 in Addis Ababa, 6 in Amhara Region) were selected purposively based on case load. A data retrieving form was developed to extract relevant information from record books. Results In the hospitals mentioned, 319,776 various medical records of children aged 0–17years were found. Of these, 6,076 (1.9% with 95% CI: 1.85%–1.95%) children were diagnosed as having birth defects. The majority (58.5%) of the children were male and 41.5% female. A slightly more than half (51.1%) of the children were urban dwellers, while 48.9% were from rural areas. Among the participants of the study the proportion of birth defects ranged as follows: orofacial (34.2%), neural tube (30.8%), upper and lower limb (12.8%), cardiovascular system (10.3%), digestive system and abdominal wall (4.8%), unspecified congenital malformations (2.5%), Down syndrome (2%), genitourinary system (2%), head, face, and neck defects (0.4%), and others (0.3%). The trend of birth defects increased linearly over time [Extended Mantel-Haenszel chi square for linear trend = 356.7 (P<0

  16. In Vivo Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine and Chloroquine against Plasmodium vivax: A Randomized Open Label Trial in Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Reithinger, Richard; Tekleyohannes, Samuel Girma; Takele Teshi; Birhanu, Sintayehu Gebresillasie; Demeke, Leykun; Hoos, David; Melaku, Zenebe; Kassa, Moges; Jima, Daddi; Malone, Joseph L.; Nettey, Henry; Green, Michael; Poe, Amanda; Akinyi, Sheila; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Kachur, S. Patrick; Filler, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background In vivo efficacy assessments of antimalarials are essential for ensuring effective case management. In Ethiopia, chloroquine (CQ) without primaquine is the first-line treatment for Plasmodium vivax in malarious areas, but artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is also commonly used. Methods and Findings In 2009, we conducted a 42-day efficacy study of AL or CQ for P. vivax in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Individuals with P. vivax monoinfection were enrolled. Primary endpoint was day 28 cure rate. In patients with recurrent parasitemia, drug level and genotyping using microsatellite markers were assessed. Using survival analysis, uncorrected patient cure rates at day 28 were 75.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 66.8–82.5) for AL and 90.8% (95% CI 83.6–94.9) for CQ. During the 42 days of follow-up, 41.6% (47/113) of patients in the AL arm and 31.8% (34/107) in the CQ arm presented with recurrent P. vivax infection, with the median number of days to recurrence of 28 compared to 35 days in the AL and CQ arm, respectively. Using microsatellite markers to reclassify recurrent parasitemias with a different genotype as non-treatment failures, day 28 cure rates were genotype adjusted to 91.1% (95% CI 84.1–95.1) for AL and to 97.2% (91.6–99.1) for CQ. Three patients (2.8%) with recurrent parasitemia by day 28 in the CQ arm were noted to have drug levels above 100 ng/ml. Conclusions In the short term, both AL and CQ were effective and well-tolerated for P. vivax malaria, but high rates of recurrent parasitemia were noted with both drugs. CQ provided longer post-treatment prophylaxis than AL, resulting in delayed recurrence of parasitemia. Although the current policy of species-specific treatment can be maintained for Ethiopia, the co-administration of primaquine for treatment of P. vivax malaria needs to be urgently considered to prevent relapse infections. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01052584 PMID:23717423

  17. Assessment of strip tillage systems for maize production in semi-arid Ethiopia: effects on grain yield and water balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temesgen, M.; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.

    2007-07-01

    The traditional tillage implement, the Maresha plow, and the tillage systems that require repeated and cross plowing have caused poor rainfall partitioning, land degradation and hence low water productivity in Ethiopia. Conservation tillage could alleviate these problems. However, no-till can not be feasible for smallholder farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia because of difficulties in maintaining soil cover due to low rainfall and communal grazing and because of high costs of herbicides. Strip tillage systems may offer a solution. This study was initiated to test strip tillage systems using implements that were modified forms of the Maresha plow, and to evaluate the impacts of the new tillage systems on water balance and grain yields of maize (Zea mays XX). Experiments were conducted in two dry semi arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity, in the central Rift Valley of Ethiopia during 2003-2005. Strip tillage systems that involved cultivating planting lines at a spacing of 0.75 m using the Maresha plow followed by subsoiling along the same lines (STS) and without subsoiling (ST) were compared with the traditional tillage system of 3 to 4 times plowing with the Maresha plow (CONV). Soil moisture was monitored to a depth of 1.8 m using Time Domain Reflectometer while surface runoff was measured using rectangular trough installed at the bottom of each plot. STS resulted in the least surface runoff (Qs=17 mm-season-1), the highest transpiration (T=196 mm-season-1), the highest grain yields (Y=2130 kg-ha-1) and the highest water productivity using total evaporation (WPET=0.67 kg-m-3) followed by ST (Qs=25 mm-season-1, T=178 mm-season-1, Y=1840 kg-ha-1, WPET=0.60 kg-m-3) and CONV (Qs=40 mm-season-1,T=158 mm-season-1, Y=1720 kg-ha-1, WPET=0.58 kg-m-3). However, when the time between the last tillage operation and planting of maize was more than 26 days, the reverse occurred. There was no statistically significant change in soil physical and chemical properties

  18. The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Getaneh

    Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

  19. Factors associated with place of death in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying at home is highly prevalent in Africa partly due to lack of accessibility of modern health services. In turn, limited infrastructure and health care deliveries in Africa complicate access to health services. A weak infrastructure and limited health facilities with lower quality in Ethiopia resulted poor health service utilization and coverage, high morbidity and mortality rates. We examined whether people in Addis Ababa died in health facilities and investigated the basic factors associated with place of death. Methods We used verbal autopsy data of 4,776 adults (age>14 years) for the years 2006–2010 from the Addis Ababa Mortality Surveillance Program (AAMSP). The main data source of AAMSP is the burial surveillance from all cemeteries in Addis Ababa. We provide descriptive statistics of place of adult deaths and discussed their covariates using multivariate analyses. Results Only 28.7% died at health facilities, while the remaining died out of health facilities. There was an increase trend in the proportion of health facility deaths from 25.3% in 2006 to 32.5% in 2010. The risk of health facility death versus out of health facility deaths decreased with age. Compared with those who had no education educated people were more likely to die at health facilities. The chance of in health facility death was a little higher for females than males while religion, occupational status and ethnicity of the deceased had no any significance difference in place of death. Conclusion Both demographic and social factors determine where adults will die in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The majority of people in Addis Ababa died out of health facilities. The health system should also give special attention to the emerging non communicable diseases like cancer for effective treatment of patients. PMID:23530478

  20. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  1. Child survival during the 2002-2003 drought in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    De Waal, A; Taffesse, A Seyoum; Carruth, L

    2006-01-01

    Droughts in Ethiopia have commonly been associated with increased child mortality. Early indications were that the 2002/03 drought, which affected 13.2 million people, was no exception, despite a large relief operation. Humanitarian agencies reported sharp increases in child deaths and pockets of acute distress in some hard-hit localities. In response, the 2004 Ethiopia Child Survival Survey (ECSS) was designed to investigate the impact of the drought on child survival in the general population. The survey covered 4816 households in both drought-affected and non-drought affected, as well as rural and urban localities. Data from the ECSS indicate that child mortality was indeed higher in drought-affected areas. However, a closer analysis reveals that this differential is attributable to chronic conditions in those localities, rather than the immediate impact of the 2002/03 drought. Multivariate analysis was used to construct a model for the determinants of child survival in the sample population. Household-level demographic factors, household-level food and livelihood security, community-level economic production, and access to potable water, were predictive of child survival. Additionally, household receipt of food aid had a small but significant positive association with child survival, even though the ECSS cannot determine either the underlying causal mechanisms of this association or the role of confounding factors. Nonetheless, it is remarkable that the most extensive drought in the country's modern history passed without a measurable increase in child mortality among the general population. Yet Ethiopian children still suffer unacceptably high rates of chronic malnutrition and poor life chances, and large populations continue to live at the brink of destitution and calamity.

  2. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  3. The changing face of obstetric fistula surgery in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jeremy; Ayenachew, Fekade; Ballard, Karen D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the incidence and type of obstetric fistula presenting to Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia over a 4-year period. Study design This is a 4-year retrospective survey of obstetric fistula treated at three Hamlin Fistula Hospitals in Ethiopia, where approximately half of all women in the country are treated. The operation logbook was reviewed to identify all new cases of obstetric fistula presenting from 2011 to 2015. New cases of urinary fistula were classified by fistula type (high or low), age, and parity of the woman. Results In total, 2,593 new cases of urinary fistulae were identified in the study period. The number of new cases fell by 20% per year over the 4 years (P<0.001). A total of 1,845 cases (71.1%) were low (ischemic) fistulae, and 804 cases (43.6%) of these had an extreme form of low circumferential fistula. A total of 638 (24.6%) women had a high bladder fistula, which predominantly occurs following surgery, specifically cesarean section or emergency hysterectomy, and 110 (4.2%) women had a ureteric fistula. The incidence of high fistulae increased over the study period from 26.9% to 36.2% (P<0.001). A greater proportion of multiparous women had a high bladder fistula (70.3%) compared with primigravid women (29.7%) (P<0.001). Conversely, a greater proportion of primiparous women experienced a low circumferential fistulae (68.6%) compared with multiparous women (31.4%) (P<0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a decline in the number of Ethiopian women being treated for new obstetric urinary fistulae. However, the type of fistula being presented for treatment is changing, with a rise in high fistulae that very likely occurred following cesarean section and a decline in the classic low fistulae that arise following obstructed childbirth. PMID:27445505

  4. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included randomly selected primary school students. Hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Hemocue haemoglobinometer. A child was identified as anemic if the hemoglobin concentration was <11.5 g/dl for children (5–11 yrs) and < 12 g/dl for child older than 12 years age. Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to calculate prevalence ratios. Result The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.1% (95% CI: 24.98, 29.14): 13.8% had mild, 10.8% moderate, and 2.3% severe anemia. Children with in the age group of 5-9 years (APR, 1.083; 95% CI, 1.044- 1.124) were at higher risk for anemia. Paternal education (Illiterate, 1.109; 1.044 - 1.178) was positively associated with anemia. Children who had irregular legume consumption (APR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.022 -1.118) were at higher risk for anemia. Conclusion About a quarter of school children suffer from anemia and their educational potential is likely to be affected especially for those with moderate and severe anemia. Child age, irregular legume consumption, and low paternal schooling were associated with anemia. Intervention programmes aimed to reduce anemia among school children are crucial to ensure proper growth and development of children. PMID:25902055

  5. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  6. Rainwater harvesting for small-scale irrigation of maize in the Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Hartog, Maaike; Muluneh, Alemayehu; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2013-04-01

    In the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, small scale farmers mostly rely on rainfall for crop production. The erratic nature of rainfall causes frequent crop failures and makes the region structurally dependent on food aid. Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) is a technique to collect and store runoff that could provide water for livestock, domestic use or small scale irrigation. Usually, such irrigation is promoted for high value crops, but in the light of regional food security it may become interesting to invest in irrigation of maize. In this research, two cemented RWH cisterns were investigated to determine their economic and social potential for supplemental irrigation of maize using drip irrigation. For this, data from test fields with irrigated maize and monitoring of water levels of the cisterns were used, as well as a survey under 30 farmers living close to the experimental site. The results show that catchment size and management should be in balance with the designed RWH system, to prevent too little runoff or flooding. An analysis with Cropwat 8.0 was used to investigate the possibility of irrigating maize with the observed amounts of water in the RWH cisterns. This would suffice for 0.3-0.8 ha of maize. For a RWH cistern with a drip irrigation system to be economically viable, the production on this acreage should become 3-4 ton/ha; 2.5 times higher than the current yield. But the biggest challenge would be to change the perception of respondents, who don't find it logical to spend precious water on a common crop like maize. Therefore, if the Ethiopian government considers the irrigation of maize to be important for regional food security, it is recommended to either subsidize the construction of RWH cisterns or provide credit on favourable terms.

  7. Eruption parameters elicitation for volcanoes in Ethiopia and Kenya Informing a World Bank GFDRR project on volcanic threat in sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Susanna; Lark, Murray; Loughlin, Sue; Fontijn, Karen; Mather, Tamsin; Pyle, David; Lewi, Elias; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Sparks, Steve

    2016-04-01

    Despite large numbers of very visible active volcanoes in sub-Saharan Africa, data about eruptions are limited compared to elsewhere in the world. We present the method and findings from elicitations carried out to characterise likely future eruptions in the region as part of a World Bank GFDRR risk profiling project for sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of the elicitations was to better understand the characteristics and frequencies of explosive eruptions at volcanoes in Ethiopia and Kenya. The elicitations will provide source parameters for tephra fall modelling at select volcanoes in Ethiopia (Aluto, Corbetti, Fentale) and Kenya (Menegai, Longonot, Suswa). There were two stages of elicitation: 1) a 'sanity check' of initial assumptions around likely eruption style, magnitude and frequency for the six selected volcanoes; 2) a formal SHELF (SHeffield ELicitation Framework) elicitation that centred round establishing frequency-magnitude relationships for the volcanoes. The elicitation suggested that explosive eruptions at Aluto and Corbetti were less likely than at the other volcanoes, although the uncertainty was significant. Menengai and Rungwe volcano in Tanzania (elicited as an analogue for Fentale, Longonot and Suswa volcanoes) were characterised by approximately similar probabilities of eruption. However, Rungwe was considered more likely to produce larger explosive (VEI ≥ 4) eruptions than Menengai. Elicitation discussions highlighted the knowledge and data gaps for African volcanoes and raised important questions around whether gaps in the eruption record were real and related to changing regimes at the volcanoes over time or if they were a function of under-recording or lack of preservation. Further investigation is therefore needed to validate the findings of the elicitation. It is hoped that continued collaboration with local partners and studies within the ongoing NERC-funded RiftVolc project will address these issues and help to improve our knowledge

  8. How Can the Health System Retain Women in HIV Treatment for a Lifetime? A Discrete Choice Experiment in Ethiopia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Margaret E.; Riley, Patricia L.; Palma, Anton M.; Adhikari, Sweta; Ahoua, Laurence; Arnaldo, Carlos; Belo, Dercio F.; Brusamento, Serena; Cumba, Luisa I. G.; Dziuban, Eric J.; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Gutema, Yoseph; Habtamu, Zelalem; Heller, Thomas; Kidanu, Aklilu; Langa, Judite; Mahagaja, Epifanio; McCarthy, Carey F.; Melaku, Zenebe; Shodell, Daniel; Tsiouris, Fatima; Young, Paul R.; Rabkin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Option B+, an approach that involves provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-infected pregnant women for life, is the preferred strategy for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Lifelong retention in care is essential to its success. We conducted a discrete choice experiment in Ethiopia and Mozambique to identify health system characteristics preferred by HIV-infected women to promote continuity of care. Methods Women living with HIV and receiving care at hospitals in Oromia Region, Ethiopia and Zambézia Province, Mozambique were shown nine choice cards and asked to select one of two hypothetical health facilities, each with six varying characteristics related to the delivery of HIV services for long term treatment. Mixed logit models were used to estimate the influence of six health service attributes on choice of clinics. Results 2,033 women participated in the study (response rate 97.8% in Ethiopia and 94.7% in Mozambique). Among the various attributes of structure and content of lifelong ART services, the most important attributes identified in both countries were respectful provider attitude and ability to obtain non-HIV health services during HIV-related visits. Availability of counseling support services was also a driver of choice. Facility type, i.e., hospital versus health center, was substantially less important. Conclusions Efforts to enhance retention in HIV care and treatment for pregnant women should focus on promoting respectful care by providers and integrating access to non-HIV health services in the same visit, as well as continuing to strengthen counseling. PMID:27551785

  9. In vivo experimental drug resistance study in Trypanosoma vivax isolates from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dagnachew, Shimelis; Terefe, Getachew; Abebe, Getachew; Barry, Dave; McCulloch, Richard; Goddeeris, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Ethiopia, particularly in the Northwest region, is affected by both tsetse fly and non-tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA) or isometamidium chloride (ISM), respectively. However, since these two trypanocides have been on the market for more than 40 years, this may have resulted in drug-resistance. Therefore, in vivo drug resistance tests on two Ethiopian isolates of Trypanosoma vivax were completed, one from an area where tsetse flies are present and one from an area where tsetse flies are not present. Twenty four cattle (Bos indicus) aged between 6 and 12 months, purchased from a trypanosome-free area (Debre Brehan: Northcentral Ethiopia) and confirmed to be trypanosome-negative, were randomly assigned into four groups of six animals, which were infected with T. vivax isolated from a tsetse-infested or non-tsetse infested area, and in each case treated with curative doses of DA or ISM. Each animal were inoculated intravenously 3×10(6) trypanosomes from donor animals. Parasitaemia became patent earlier in infections with non-tsetse T. vivax (∼7 days post-infection) than tsetse (∼14 days post-infection). Both groups were treated at the highest peak parasitaemia with DA or ISM and nine cattle, four with non-tsetse T. vivax (two ISM- and two DA-treated) and five with tsetse T. vivax (three ISM- and two DA-treated) showed relapses of parasitaemia. Moreover, treatment did not improve diagnostic host markers of trypanosome infections in these animals. In conclusion, in vivo drug tests indicated the presence of resistant parasites (>20% of treated animals in each group relapsed) against recommended doses of both available trypanocidal drugs.

  10. HIV-Related Sexual Behaviors among Migrants and Non-migrants in Rural Ethiopia: Role of Rural to Urban Migration in HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Tamiru, Melesse; Hailemariam, Damen; Mitike, Getnet; Haidar, Jemal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare HIV-related sexual risk behavior among temporary rural to urban migrants and non-migrants and to explore the role of migration in HIV transmission in a rural area of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Bure Woreda, West Gojam, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A total of 1,310 male subjects (655 rural to urban migrants and 655 non-migrants) were selected randomly and were assessed, analyzed using SPSS version 17 software for their HIV related sexual risk behaviours including the role of migration in HIV transmission in a rural Ethiopia. Two parts of questionnaires were prepared and used for comparing the above groups. The first part of the questionnaires included non-sensitive questions such as demographics and HIV knowledge while the second part comprised sensitive questions related to sexual behaviors. Results: When multiple sexual partners, sex with commercial sex workers, sexual transmitted infections and premarital sex compared between the two groups, the proportions of rural to urban migrants Vs non- migrants who had multiple sexual partners (31.4 % Vs 7.4 %), sex with commercial sex workers (22.3% Vs 13.3%), sexual transmitted infections (11.7% Vs 3.2%) and premarital sex (20.8% Vs 14.2 %) were significantly higher in rural to urban migrants than non-migrants. Among those who had multiple sexual partners, only 12.7 % of, rural to urban migrants and 9.8 % of non-migrants reported consistent condom use with sexual partners other than their spouse. Conclusions: As both rural to urban migrants and non-migrants are at risk for HIV infection, intervention programmes targeting both groups are recommended. However, in order to contain the bridging effect on HIV transmission from urban to rural areas particular attention should be given for the rural to urban migrant population. PMID:23675250

  11. Linking long-term gully and river channel dynamics to environmental change using repeat photography (Northern Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Amaury; Nyssen, Jan; De Dapper, Morgan; Haile, Mitiku; Billi, Paolo; Munro, R. Neil; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

    2011-06-01

    In the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia gully occurrence is linked to poverty-driven unsustainable use of the land in a vulnerable semi-arid and mountainous environment, where intensive rainfall challenges the physical integrity of the landscape. Trends in gully and river channel erosion, and their relation to triggering environmental changes can proffer valuable insights into sustainable development in Northern Ethiopia. In order to assess the region-wide change in gully and river channel morphology over 140 years, a set of 57 historical photographs taken in Tigray, and, clearly displaying gully cross-sections, were precisely repeated from 2006 till 2009. Ninety-two percent of the gully and river sections (n = 38) increased in cross-sectional area during the studied period, especially after 1975. Two repeatedly photographed catchments of Lake Ashenge and Atsela allowed a detailed study of gully development from 1936 until 2009. A conceptual hydrogeomorphic model was devised for these catchments and validated for the Northern Ethiopian Highlands. Three major phases can be distinguished in the hydrological regime of the catchments. In the first phase, between 1868 (or earlier) and ca. 1965, the relatively stable channels showed an oversized morphology inherited from a previous period when external forcing in environmental conditions had caused the channels to shape. In the second phase (ca. 1965 - ca. 2000), increased aridity and continued vegetation clearance accelerated the channel dynamics of the gully and river system. The third phase (ca. 2000 - present) started after the large-scale implementation of soil and water conservation measures. In 2009, 23% of the gully and river sections were stabilizing. This paper validates previous research indicating severe land degradation in the second half of the 20th century. Additionally, it demonstrates that the recent erosive cycle started around 1965 and, that at the present time, improved land management stabilizes

  12. Determinants of inter birth interval among married women living in rural pastoral communities of southern Ethiopia: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though birth interval has beneficial effects on health status of the mother and their children, it is affected by range of factors some of which are rooted in social and cultural norms and the reproductive behaviors of individual women. However, there was limited data showed the determinants of birth intervals in rural pastoral communities of South Ethiopia. Therefore, the study was aimed to assess the determinants of inter birth interval among women’s of child bearing age in Yaballo Woreda, Borena zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods A community based unmatched case–control study with multi stage sampling technique was conducted from January to March 2012. Cases were women with two subsequent birth intervals of less than three years and controls were women with two subsequent birth intervals between three and above years. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select six hundred fifty two (326 cases and 326 controls) study subjects. All explanatory variables that were associated with the outcome variable (birth interval) during bivariate analysis were included in the final logistic model. Multivariable backward logistic regression when P values less than or equal to 0.05 and 95% CI were used to determine independent determinants for the outcome of interest. Results The median duration of birth interval was 31 & 40 months among cases and controls respectively. Variables such as number of children (AOR 3.73 95% CI: (1.50, 9.25), use of modern contraceptives (AOR 5.91 95% CI: (4.02, 8.69), mothers’ educational status (AOR 1.89 95% CI: (1.15, 3.37), and sex of the child (AOR 1.72 95% CI: (1.17, 2.52) were significantly associated with birth intervals. Conclusions Concerted efforts to encourage modern contraceptive use, women education, and breastfeeding should be made. PMID:23688144

  13. The impact of traditional coffee processing on river water quality in Ethiopia and the urgency of adopting sound environmental practices.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Abebe; Kassahun, Yared; Addis, Taffere; Assefa, Fassil; Amsalu, Aklilu; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Triest, Ludwig

    2012-11-01

    Although waste from coffee processing is a valuable resource to make biogas, compost, and nutrient-rich animal food, it is usually dumped into nearby water courses. We carried out water quality assessment at 44 sampling sites along 18 rivers that receive untreated waste from 23 coffee pulping and processing plants in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Twenty upstream sampling sites free from coffee waste impact served as control, and 24 downstream sampling sites affected by coffee waste were selected for comparison. Physicochemical and biological results revealed a significant river water quality deterioration as a result of disposing untreated coffee waste into running water courses. During coffee-processing (wet) season, the highest organic load (1,900 mg/l), measured as biochemical oxygen demand, depleted dissolved oxygen (DO) to a level less than 0.01 mg/l, and thus curtailed nitrification. During off season, oxygen started to recuperate and augmented nitrification. The shift from significantly elevated organic load and reduced DO in the wet season to increased nitrate in the off season was found to be the determining factor for the difference in macroinvertebrate community structure as verified by ordination analysis. Macroinvertebrate diversity was significantly reduced in impacted sites during the wet season contrary to the off season. However, there was a significant difference in the ratio of sensitive to pollution-tolerant taxa in the off season, which remained depreciated in the longer term. This study highlights the urgency of research exploring on the feasibility of adopting appropriate pollution abatement technologies to implement ecologically sound coffee-processing systems in coffee-growing regions of Ethiopia.

  14. Factors Associated with Leishmania Asymptomatic Infection: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Highland Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Custodio, Estefanía; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Sordo, Luis; Cruz, Israel; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Abraham, Zelalem; Hailu, Tsegaye; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background In northern Ethiopia the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis is steadily rising posing an increasing public health concern. In order to develop effective control strategies on the transmission of the disease it is important to generate knowledge on the epidemiological determinants of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey on children 4–15 years of age using a multi staged stratified cluster sampling on high incidence sub-districts of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. The survey included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements. We performed rK39-ICT and DAT serological tests in order to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies and carried out Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) using L.major antigen. Logistic regression models were used. Of the 565 children surveyed 56 children were positive to infection (9.9%). The individual variables that showed a positive association with infection were increasing age, being male and sleeping outside [adjusted odds ratios (95% CI): 1.15 (1.03, 1.29), 2.56 (1.19, 5.48) and 2.21 (1.03, 4.71) respectively] and in relation to the household: past history of VL in the family, living in a straw roofed house and if the family owned sheep [adjusted OR (95% CI): 2.92 (1.25, 6.81), 2.71 (1.21, 6.07) and 4.16 (1.41, 12.31) respectively]. Conclusions/Significance A behavioural pattern like sleeping outside is determinant in the transmission of the infection in this area. Protective measures should be implemented against this identified risk activity. Results also suggest a geographical clustering and a household focalization of the infection. The behaviour of the vector in the area needs to be clarified in order to establish the role of domestic animals and house materials in the transmission of the infection. PMID:23029576

  15. Toward universal access to HIV counseling and testing and antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia: looking beyond HIV testing and ART initiation.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Yibeltal; Van Damme, Wim; Mariam, Damen Haile; Kloos, Helmut

    2010-08-01

    Expanding access to HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) has reduced morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS. As a result, many countries are scaling up HIV/AIDS services. In this paper we discuss challenges experienced during the move toward universal access to HCT and ART services in Ethiopia. We reviewed routine reports from the Ministry of Health and implementing partners. We also had interviews, about linkage to and retention in care of patients, with 10 HIV/AIDS program managers, as well as 2 to 7 health care providers and 5 to 15 patients in each of 23 health centers and 32 hospitals in all regions of the country. We found that the number of people tested for HIV increased 10-fold from 435,854 in 2005 to 4,559,954 in 2008. Only 61% of the HIV-positive patients were linked to chronic care immediately after tested for HIV. The number of patients initiated on ART annually increased from 26,021 in 2005 to 53,696 in 2008. Attrition of patients increased from 18% in 2005 to 26% in 2008. Our interviews indicated that fear of stigma, transport cost, feeling healthy and opting for traditional medicines were the main reasons for poor linkage to and retention in care. Lack of nutrition and feeling better were also reasons for poor retention. In conclusion, in spite of the rapid scale-up of HCT and ART services in Ethiopia, linkage and retention were not adequate. Therefore, strategies should be developed and implemented to improve linkage and retention.

  16. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Fisseha; Demissew, Sebsebe; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2009-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'). Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71%) from natural vegetation and 27 (29%) from home gardens. Forty-five (62%) were used for humans, 15(21%) for livestock and 13(18%) for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2%) were Shrubs, 28(34.5%) herbs, 17 (20.9%) trees and 1(1.2%) climbers. The root (35.8%) was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4%) in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%). Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future

  17. Evaluating spatial and temporal variations of rainfall erosivity, case of Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Adgo, Enyew

    2015-02-01

    Land degradation in many Ethiopian highlands occurs mainly due to high rainfall erosivity and poor soil conservation practices. Rainfall erosivity is an indicator of the precipitation energy and ability to cause soil erosion. In Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, where the climate is characterized as arid and semiarid, rainfall is the main driver of soil erosion that in turn causes a serious expansion in land degradation. In order to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall erosivity and its impact on soil erosion, long-term rainfall data (1980-2010) was used, and the monthly Fournier index (FI) and the annual modified Fournier index (MFI) were applied. Student's t test analysis was performed particularly to examine statistical significances of differences in average monthly and annual erosivity values. The result indicated that, in a similar spatial pattern with elevation and rainfall amount, average annual erosivity is also found being higher in western highlands of the valley and gradually decreased towards the east. The long-term average annual erosivity (MFI) showed a general decreasing trend in recent 10 years (2000-2010) as compared to previous 20 years (1980-1999). In most of the stations, average erosivity of main rainy months (May, June, July, and August) showed a decreasing trend, whereby some of them (about 33.3 %) are statically significant at 90 and 95 % confidence intervals but with high variation in spatial pattern of changes. The overall result of the study showed that rainfall aggression (erosivity) in the region has a general decreasing trend in the recent decade as compared to previous decades, especially in the western highlands of the valley. Hence, it implies that anthropogenic factors such as land use change being coupled with topography (steep slope) have largely contributed to increased soil erosion rate in the region.

  18. Umbilical cord care in Ethiopia and implications for behavioral change: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections account for up to a half of neonatal deaths in low income countries. The umbilicus is a common source of infection in such settings. This qualitative study investigates practices and perspectives related to umbilical cord care in Ethiopia. Methods In-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted in a district in each of the four most populous regions in the country: Oromia, Amhara, Tigray and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR). In each district, one community was purposively selected; and in each study community, IDIs were conducted with 6 mothers, 4 grandmothers, 2 Traditional Birth Attendants and 2 Health Extension Workers (HEWs). The two main questions in the interview guide related to cord care were: How was the umbilical cord cut and tied? Was anything applied to the cord stump immediately after cutting/in the first 7 days? Why was it applied/not applied? Results The study elucidates local cord care practices and the rational for these practices. Concepts underlying cord tying practices were how to stem blood flow and facilitate delivery of the placenta. Substances were applied on the cord to moisturize it, facilitate its separation and promote healing. Locally recognized cord problems were delayed healing, bleeding or swelling. Few respondents reported familiarity with redness of the cord - a sign of infection. Grandmothers, TBAs and HEWs were influential regarding cord care. Conclusions This study highlights local rationale for cord practices, concerns about cord related problems and recognition of signs of infection. Behavioral change messages aimed at improving cord care including cleansing with CHX should address these local perspectives. It is suggested that HEWs and health facility staff target mothers, grandmothers, TBAs and other community women with messages and counseling. PMID:24742223

  19. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia).

    PubMed

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene.

  20. Analysis of the Junction of the East African Rift and the Cretaceous-Paleogene Rifts in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariita, N. O.; Tadesse, K.; Keller, G. R.

    2003-12-01

    The East African rift (EAR) is a Tertiary-Miocene system that extends from the Middle East, through East Africa, to Mozambique in southern Africa. Much of the present information is from the Ethiopian and Kenyan parts of the rift. Several characteristics of the EAR such as rift-related volcanism, faulting and topographic relief being exposed make it attractive for studying continental rift processes. Structural complexities reflected in the geometries of grabens and half-grabens, the existence of transverse fault zones and accommodation zones, and the influence of pre-existing geologic structures have been documented. In particular, the EAR traverses the Anza graben and related structures near the Kenya/Ethiopian border. The Anza graben is one in a series of Cretaceous-Paleogene failed rifts that trend across Central Africa from Nigeria through Chad to Sudan and Kenya with an overall northwest-southeast trend. In spite of a number of recent studies, we do not understand the interaction of these two rift systems. In both Ethiopia and Kenya, the rift segments share some broad similarities in timing and are related in a geographic sense. For example, volcanism appears to have generally preceded or in some cases have been contemporaneous with major rift faulting. Although, these segments are distinct entities, each with its own tectonic and magmatic evolution, and they do connect in the region crossed by the Anza graben and related structures. In our present study, we are using a combination of recently collected seismic, gravity and remote sensing data to increase our understanding of these two segments of the EAR. We hope that by analysing the satellite data, the variety and differences in the volume of magmatic products extruded along in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya will be identified. The geometry of structures (in particular, those causing the gravity axial high) will be modelled to study the impact of the older Anza graben structural trends with the

  1. Geographical distribution and dramatic increases in incidences of malaria: consequences of the resettlement scheme in Gambela, SW Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woube, M

    1997-09-01

    The spatial distribution of malaria results from the interaction between vector, parasite, host, physical and human environments. This basic geographical approach provides an illustration of the geographical distribution of malaria in the world, particularly in the tropical regions. Due to the global climate change and population movements, it is predicted that malaria could have a greater impact on the non-immune or unprepared populations in the Northern Hemisphere in the coming decades. Presently, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the most adversely affected region in the world. Like any other SSA country, Ethiopia suffers from both epidemic (unstable) and endemic (stable) malaria in the high and lowland regions, respectively. Gambela is one of the areas with stable malaria in the humid tropical region of the country. This study is based on observations, unpublished data, interviews and discussions with settlers and officials in Gambela. It is found that a degree of diverse malaria prevalence is associated with altitudinal, temperature and rainfall variations. Owing to the settlement and land-use changes, unexpected rainfall patterns, temperature increase, unstable political system and poverty, malaria has gone beyond its geographical limits. As a result, the number of malaria affected people has increased in the last 12 years. It is suggested that proper physical and social planning, understanding the geography, entomology, epidemiology, behaviour and life-cycle of malaria parasite, cooperation between the policy-makers, malaria specialists, neighbouring countries and international communities are urgent, if malaria has to be controlled and eradicated.

  2. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teshale, Sori; Kumsa, Bersissa; Menandro, Maria Luisa; Cassini, Rudi; Martini, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Although ticks are widely distributed in all agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia, information on tick-borne pathogens is scarce. This study was conducted to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Rickettsia spp. in Rhipicephalus evertsi and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus collected from cattle and sheep at Bako, western Oromia, Ethiopia, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in Rh. decoloratus, whereas only A. ovis was detected in Rh. evertsi. Both tick species were found to harbor DNA belonging to Rickettsia spp., and Rickettsia africae. Our findings highlight the risk of infection of animals and humans with these zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in Ethiopia. PMID:27411938

  3. Establishing a Cosmic Ray Station and Other Space Research Facilities in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damtie, B.; Bosinger, T.; Usoskin, I.

    This paper describes the potential of Ethiopia in establishing space research facilities and conducting collaborative research and training. It also describes the goals and objectives of a proposed cosmic ray station in Ethiopia which would greatly improve the abilities of the existing worldwide network for heliospheric and cosmic ray research. The station will be located at the geomagentic equator, which is a very unique place for geomagnetic and heliospheric studies. Moreover, the paper presents an overview of the research and training activities in space physics and the successful collaborative project between Ethiopia and Finland, which facilitated the installation of a pulsation magnetometer and a photometer at Entoto Mountain in a suburb of the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa.

  4. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-02-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led to mixed feelings among the Ethiopian public. While some laud the opportunities and advantages these new institutions bring, others are apprehensive that the quality of education might be compromised by an expansion motivated by monetary gain. This article sheds light on these paradoxes and provides suggestions for policy and practices.

  5. Determinants of Utilization of Health Extension Workers in the Context of Scale-Up of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illnesses in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Bryan; Amouzou, Agbessi; Miller, Nathan P.; Tsui, Amy O.; Bryce, Jennifer; Tafesse, Mengistu; Surkan, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia has invested significant resources in integrated community case management (iCCM) of childhood illness. In Oromia Region, iCCM scale-up was phased in, allowing for comparisons between districts providing iCCM and routine services. We assessed the determinants of utilization of health extension workers (HEWs) delivering iCCM services at rural health posts by caregivers of sick, under-five children in a cross-sectional survey. We found low utilization of HEWs with only 9.3% of caregivers of a child sick with diarrhea, fever, and/or pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks taking their child to HEWs in both iCCM and routine areas. There was a higher likelihood of utilization of HEWs in iCCM areas (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 0.97–2.12; P = 0.07), but this effect disappeared after accounting for confounders. In iCCM areas, maternal education, illness type, and distance were associated with utilization. Perceptions of illness severity and service quality were the primary reasons given for not utilizing the health post. Our findings suggest that though iCCM is reaching some vulnerable populations, there remain significant barriers to use of HEWs delivering iCCM services. Efforts for demand generation and minimization of remaining barriers are urgently needed for the sustained success of the iCCM strategy in Ethiopia. PMID:26195461

  6. Determinants of Utilization of Health Extension Workers in the Context of Scale-Up of Integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illnesses in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Bryan; Amouzou, Agbessi; Miller, Nathan P; Tsui, Amy O; Bryce, Jennifer; Tafesse, Mengistu; Surkan, Pamela J

    2015-09-01

    Ethiopia has invested significant resources in integrated community case management (iCCM) of childhood illness. In Oromia Region, iCCM scale-up was phased in, allowing for comparisons between districts providing iCCM and routine services. We assessed the determinants of utilization of health extension workers (HEWs) delivering iCCM services at rural health posts by caregivers of sick, under-five children in a cross-sectional survey. We found low utilization of HEWs with only 9.3% of caregivers of a child sick with diarrhea, fever, and/or pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks taking their child to HEWs in both iCCM and routine areas. There was a higher likelihood of utilization of HEWs in iCCM areas (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 0.97-2.12; P = 0.07), but this effect disappeared after accounting for confounders. In iCCM areas, maternal education, illness type, and distance were associated with utilization. Perceptions of illness severity and service quality were the primary reasons given for not utilizing the health post. Our findings suggest that though iCCM is reaching some vulnerable populations, there remain significant barriers to use of HEWs delivering iCCM services. Efforts for demand generation and minimization of remaining barriers are urgently needed for the sustained success of the iCCM strategy in Ethiopia.

  7. Measuring the Impact of Convenient Water Supply on Household Time Use in Rural Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.; Masuda, Y.; Fortmann, L.; Smith-Nilson, M.; Gugerty, M.

    2012-12-01

    What is the impact of providing convenient water supply on water carriers' pattern of time use? How much of the freed time is re-allocated to paid market work, education (for girls), agricultural labor, or leisure? Do women report spending more time on activities they enjoy? Does convenient water supply lead to a re-allocation of leisure time to other household members? These questions are an important, but largely missing, piece of the economic evidence base for investment in the water supply sector. Cairncross and Valdmanis (2007) observe that "given the relevance of the time-saving benefit to water supply policy and the fact that the benefit is usually uppermost in the mind of the consumer, it is remarkable how few data have been collected on the amounts of time spent collecting water". We address this gap by measuring changes in time use among female water carriers before and after new water systems are installed in three rural villages in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. The timing of completion of the projects in the three villages was staggered over time for logistical reasons, so our quasi-experimental design allows us to control for any region-wide changes in time use. Because of low literacy levels, we used a pictorial time use elicitation approach based on respondents' recall of the previous day as well as the standard questions used in the DHS and LSMS ("how many minutes..."). We measured time use for all household members over the age of 10. We use this unique panel dataset with both pre- and post-project time use data to examine not only the effect on water carriers' time use but also any intra-household reallocation of time savings. In total, we interviewed 454 randomly-selected households in the three villages over three rainy seasons, and collected time use information on 1,590 household members. Primary water carriers spend (pre-project) an average of 110 minutes per day collecting water, roughly representative of water collection times reported in

  8. Predictors of institutional delivery in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Woldie, Mirkuzie; Tafese, Fikru

    2013-01-01

    Background Women are more liable to die during or following delivery than during pregnancy but use of both delivery services and post-partum care is low. Objective To find out the prevalence and predictors of institutional delivery in Wolaita Sodo (Sodo) town, southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to look at 844 women who had given birth in the previous five years in Sodo town. The study employed a multistage-sampling scheme. Codes were given for all identified women in selected kebeles (neighbourhoods) and a simple random-sampling technique was used after generating random numbers using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). SPSS was then used to carry out binary- and multiple logistic regressions. A 95% CI for the odds ratio was applied to judge the presence of relationships between variables. Results The prevalence of institutional delivery-service utilisation in Sodo town was 62.2%. Husband educational status, parity, number of antenatal clinic visits, perceived quality of care and knowledge regarding pregnancy danger signs were independent predictors of utilisation of institutional delivery services. Conclusion Institutional delivery service utilisation in Sodo town was much higher than the national figure. Findings in this study showed that promotion of antenatal care, involvement of men in maternal healthcare, provision of health education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and improvement of service quality are recommended in order to sustain or even improve the current level of utilisation in the town.

  9. Pictorial approaches for measuring time use in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Yuta J.; Fortmann, Lea; Gugerty, Mary Kay; Smith-Nilson, Marla; Cook, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Time use researchers working in least developed countries (LDCs) face difficulties collecting data from illiterate populations who may conceptualize time differently than those in industrialized countries. We identify existing gaps in time use data collection methods and discuss two novel, pictorial methods to collect time use data from these populations. The first method is a modified recall interview modeled on participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods that asks respondents to place macaroni on pictures of activity categories in proportion to the amount of time spent on that activity during the previous day. The second is a simplified pictorial time diary that uses a timer and sequentially-numbered stickers to re-create the temporal order of activities in 30-minute increments. The latter method also avoids recall bias problems. We present time use data collected in 2009 using these methods in a study examining the impacts of water infrastructure on women and children’s time use in rural Ethiopia. In total, we collected information using the first method from 263 household members over age 10, including 167 water collectors, and pilot-tested the pictorial diary approach with 10 adult respondents. PMID:25620832

  10. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-06-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa.

  11. Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haile-Selassie, Y

    2001-07-12

    Molecular studies suggest that the lineages leading to humans and chimpanzees diverged approximately 6.5-5.5 million years (Myr) ago, in the Late Miocene. Hominid fossils from this interval, however, are fragmentary and of uncertain phylogenetic status, age, or both. Here I report new hominid specimens from the Middle Awash area of Ethiopia that date to 5.2-5.8 Myr and are associated with a wooded palaeoenvironment. These Late Miocene fossils are assigned to the hominid genus Ardipithecus and represent the earliest definitive evidence of the hominid clade. Derived dental characters are shared exclusively with all younger hominids. This indicates that the fossils probably represent a hominid taxon that postdated the divergence of lineages leading to modern chimpanzees and humans. However, the persistence of primitive dental and postcranial characters in these new fossils indicates that Ardipithecus was phylogenetically close to the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans. These new findings raise additional questions about the claimed hominid status of Orrorin tugenensis, recently described from Kenya and dated to approximately 6 Myr.

  12. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Berta Badi, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general.

  13. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Berta Badi, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general. PMID:27656213

  14. Marriage through abduction ('Telefa') in rural north west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getahun, H

    2001-04-01

    A community based cross sectional study was conducted in a rural district of North West Ethiopia between February and April 1997 to determine the magnitude of marriage through abduction ('Telefa') and identify problems associated with it. Randomly selected and currently married 1,168 women were interviewed. The prevalence of marriage through abduction was 6.2% (72/1168). All the abductions reported were only once in lifetime during the first marriage. The median age at first marriage of abducted women was 13 years with a range of 13 (Minimum = 7 and Maximum 20). About two third (66.7%) of abducted women had been married more than once in their life time. Following a multivariate analysis in a logistic regression model abducted women were likely to be victims of abortion [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.71 (1.10-3.05)], marital instability [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.87 (1.10-3.18)], rape [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 7.77 (3.78-15.95)] and domestic violence [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.69 (1.11-2.81)]. The recognition of the magnitude and the associated health problems of marriage through abduction (Telefa) is important. Appropriate strategies that address the health needs of abducted women must be designed. Enforcing the judiciary system to discourage this harmful practice and empowerment of young girls and rural women is needed. PMID:11501287

  15. Level and differentials of fertility in Awassa town, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Samson; Betre, Mulugeta

    2009-03-01

    A cross-sectional, descriptive study with internal comparison was conducted among 1376 women of reproductive age with the objective of assessing the level and determinants of fertility in Awassa town, Ethiopia. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) was 3.4 and the mean Child Ever Born (CEB) was 1.72 and 3.02 among all women and married women. Regarding proximate determinants of fertility, the mean age at first marriage and duration of postpartum infecundability were 17.75 years and 12.3 months, respectively. Further, Contraceptive Prevalence Rate among married women was 41.2% and Total Abortion Rate was 0.02. Sociodemographic characteristics of mothers like poor educational status, absence of income, rural place of birth, early marriage, and other variables like history of child death, negative husbands' attitude towards contraceptive use, poor educational status of husbands, need for additional children, were found to have significant association with high fertility; accordingly, these variables need to addressed in activities against high fertility. PMID:20687268

  16. Field temperature measurements at Erta'Ale Lava Lake, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Caillet, Marc; Haefeli, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The shield volcano Erta'Ale, situated in the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia, is known for its active lava lake. In February 2001, our team visited this lake, located inside an 80-m-deep pit, to perform field temperature measurements. The distribution and variation of temperature inside the lake were obtained on the basis of infrared radiation measurements performed from the rim of the pit and from the lake shores. The crust temperature was also determined from the lake shores with a thermocouple to calibrate the pyrometer. We estimated an emissivity of the basalt of 0.74 from this experiment. Through the application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we then obtained an estimate of the total radiative heat flux, constrained by pyrometer measurements of the pit, and visual observations of the lake activity. Taking into account the atmospheric convective heat flux, the convected magma mass flux needed to balance the energy budget was subsequently derived and found to represent between 510 and 580 kg s-1. The surface circulation of this mass flux was also analyzed through motion processing techniques applied to video images of the lake. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-002-0224-3.

  17. Genetic characterization of Moniezia species in Senegal and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Diop, Gora; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Ito, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Genetic diversity of Moniezia spp. from domestic ruminants in Senegal and Ethiopia was investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA). A total of 64 adult tapeworms were collected from sheep, goat and cattle, and the tapeworms from cattle were all morphologically identified as Moniezia benedeni. On the other hand, the tapeworms obtained from sheep and goat were identified as Moniezia expansa or could not be identified because of the lack of diagnostic morphologic character, i.e. interproglottidal glands (IPGs). Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 gene sequences revealed that the worms from sheep/goat and cattle formed distinct clades, and three mitochondrial lineages were confirmed within the sheep/goat tapeworms. The maximum pairwise divergences among the three mitochondrial linages were about 3% in cox1 and 0.1% in SSU rDNA, while that between the worms from sheep/goat and cattle reached 13% in cox1 and 2.7% in SSU rDNA. All of the three mitochondrial lineages contained tapeworms morphologically identified as M. expansa, and the tapeworms without IPGs were confirmed in one of the three lineages, indicating the tapeworms without IPGs were also M. expansa.

  18. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Tewodros Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-07-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.

  19. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  20. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Getu Melese, Kidest; Gebrie, Mignote Hailu; Berta Badi, Martha; Fekadu Mersha, Wubalem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time) and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all). Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general. PMID:27656213

  1. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-01-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4–2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965

  2. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jonathan G; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wilson, Jessica N

    2013-06-25

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa.

  3. Strengthening Pharmaceutical Care Education in Ethiopia Through Instructional Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Tadeg, Hailu; Downing, Don; Suleman, Sultan; Bedada, Worku; Paulos, Getahun; Mekonnen, Hailemeskel; Negussu, Mekonnen; Bartlein, Rebecca; Stergachis, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and initial outcomes of a pharmaceutical care training-of-trainers course developed to assist Ethiopian pharmacy faculty members and graduate students in the development of curriculum and provision of pharmaceutical care services of relevance to this low-income country. Design. In this collaboration, US and Ethiopian faculty members worked together in a week-long seminar and in hospital ward rounds to develop and offer a course to facilitate faculty members, curricular, and service development in pharmaceutical care in Ethiopia. Assessment. Assessments were conducted during the seminar, immediately post-seminar, at 3 months post-seminar, and at 1 year post-seminar. An examination was administered at the conclusion of the course to assess immediate learning outcomes for the graduate students. Post-course assessments of short-term (3-month) and longer-term (12-month) impact were conducted to identify pharmaceutical care services that had been implemented to assess knowledge and skill gained during the seminar. Correspondence between seminar participants and the US faculty members as well as graduate student thesis projects provided further evidence of changes at 3 and 12 months post-course. Conclusion. Pharmaceutical care training was developed for Ethiopian faculty members through a seminar and hospital ward rounds. Enhancements have been added to curricula for bachelor in pharmacy students and select pharmaceutical care services have been implemented through master's thesis projects. PMID:21969720

  4. Efficiency of the health extension programme in Tigray, Ethiopia: a data envelopment analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 2004, the government of Ethiopia has made a bold decision to strengthen and expand its primary health care system by launching the Health Extension Program (HEP). While the scaling up of the HEP is necessary to achieve the aim of universal access to primary health care, close attention should be paid to the performance of the program. Using a data envelopment analysis this study aimed at (i) to estimate the technical efficiency of a sample of health posts in rural Tigray, ii) to identify those factors which might be explaining the efficiency results. Methods Efficiency was measured using a data envelopment analysis model. A Tobit model was performed to identify factors associated with efficiency. Seven rural districts (out of 35) were purposely chosen. Input/output information was collected from the database of the Tigray Health Bureau during July 2007-June 2008. Information was also collected on environmental factors that might influence the efficiency outcomes through a structured questionnaire from the correspondent district health officers. Results Analysis was based on data from 60 health posts. The mean scores for technical and scale efficiency were 0.57 (SD = 0.32) and 0.95 (SD = 0.11) respectively. Out of the 60 health posts, 15 (25.0%) were found to be technically efficient constituting the best practice frontier. Thirty eight (63.3%) were operating at their most productive scale size. In the regression analysis, none of the variables was significantly associated with the efficiency outcome. Conclusion There is a need to review the management of the health information system in the region. The findings have also revealed that only a quarter of the health posts are working efficiently and pointed the need for improvement. A closer monitoring of the health extension programme is required in order to achieve the best possible performance. PMID:20546597

  5. Epidemiological aspects and financial impact of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gari, G; Bonnet, P; Roger, F; Waret-Szkuta, A

    2011-12-15

    The financial cost of clinical Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) and the financial benefit of its control through vaccination were studied based on questionnaire survey in Oromia region of Ethiopia from the perspective of livestock farmers. Production loss impacts for local zebu cattle were compared with those of Holstein Friesian (HF)/crossbred cattle in the study area. Annual cumulative incidence of LSD infection in HF/crossbred and local zebu cattle were 33.93% (95% CI: 30.92-36.94) and 13.41% (95% CI: 12.6-14.25) respectively and significantly different (p<0.05). Annual mortality was also significantly higher in HF/crossbred 7.43% (95% CI: 5.76-9.10) than in local zebu cattle 1.25% (95% CI: 0.98-1.52). The annual financial cost was calculated as the sum of the average production losses due to morbidity and mortality arising from milk loss, beef loss, traction power loss, and treatment and vaccination costs at the herd level. The financial cost in infected herds was estimated to be USD 6.43 (5.12-8) per head for local zebu and USD 58 (42-73) per head for HF/crossbred cattle. A partial budget analysis was used to estimate the financial benefit of an annual vaccination program in both the local zebu and HF/crossbred cattle farming systems. The marginal rate of return (MRR) gained from this control intervention was estimated to be 34 (3400%) and the net benefit per head was USD 1 for local zebu and USD 19 for HF/crossbred cattle. Vaccination thus enabled financial costs due to LSD to be reduced by 17% per head in local zebu herds and 31% per head in HF/crossbred herds. These results could provide guidance to producers and the government in their endeavors to control the disease.

  6. Climatic variability, plasticity, and dispersal: A case study from Lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Grove, Matt; Lamb, Henry; Roberts, Helen; Davies, Sarah; Marshall, Mike; Bates, Richard; Huws, Dei

    2015-10-01

    The numerous dispersal events that have occurred during the prehistory of hominin lineages are the subject of longstanding and increasingly active debate in evolutionary anthropology. As well as research into the dating and geographic extent of such dispersals, there is an increasing focus on the factors that may have been responsible for dispersal. The growing body of detailed regional palaeoclimatic data is invaluable in demonstrating the often close relationship between changes in prehistoric environments and the movements of hominin populations. The scenarios constructed from such data are often overly simplistic, however, concentrating on the dynamics of cyclical contraction and expansion during severe and ameliorated conditions respectively. This contribution proposes a two-stage hypothesis of hominin dispersal in which populations (1) accumulate high levels of climatic tolerance during highly variable climatic phases, and (2) express such heightened tolerance via dispersal in subsequent low-variability phases. Likely dispersal phases are thus proposed to occur during stable climatic phases that immediately follow phases of high climatic variability. Employing high resolution palaeoclimatic data from Lake Tana, Ethiopia, the hypothesis is examined in relation to the early dispersal of Homo sapiens out of East Africa and into the Levant. A dispersal phase is identified in the Lake Tana record between c. 112,550 and c. 96,975 years ago, a date bracket that accords well with the dating evidence for H. sapiens occupation at the sites of Qafzeh and Skhul. Results are discussed in relation to the complex pattern of H. sapiens dispersal out of East Africa, with particular attention paid to the implications of recent genetic chronologies for the origin of non-African modern humans. PMID:26472274

  7. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

    2007-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and the fidelity level (FL) of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 aliments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb) (42%). The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8%) followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%). The administration routes are oral (51.4%), external (38.6%), nasal (7.9%), and ear (2.1%). The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80) had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific aliment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum) than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of aliments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana). PMID:17355645

  8. Magma storage conditions beneath Dabbahu Volcano (Ethiopia) constrained by petrology, seismicity and satellite geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, L.; Blundy, J.; Brooker, R. A.; Wright, T.; Yirgu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A variety of methods exist to constrain sub-volcanic storage conditions of magmas. Petrological, seismological and satellite geodetic methods are integrated to determine storage conditions of peralkaline magmas beneath Dabbahu Volcano, Afar, Ethiopia. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis of volatile contents in melt inclusions trapped within phenocrysts of alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene and olivine from pantellerite obsidians representing the youngest eruptive phase (<8 ka) show H2O contents ≤5.8 wt.% and CO2 contents generally below 500 ppm, although rarely as high as 1,500 ppm. Volatile saturation pressures (at 679-835°C) are in the range 43-207 MPa, consistent with published experimental data for similar pantellerites, which show that the phenocryst assemblage of alkali feldspar + cpx + aenigmatite ± ilmenite is stable at 100 to 150 MPa. Inferred magma storage depths for these historic eruptions are ~1-5 km below sea-level, consistent with the depths of earthquakes, associated with magma chamber deflation following a dyke intrusion in the period Oct 2005-Apr 2006. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for the same period reveal a broad ~20 km diameter area of uplift. Modelling of different geometries reveals that a series of stacked sills over a 1-5 km depth range best matches the InSAR data. The consistency of depth estimates based on petrological study of ancient eruptions and the seismicity, inflation and deflation of Dabbahu observed in relation to the dyking event of 2005, suggest a small but vertically extensive and potentially long-lived magma storage region.

  9. Analysis of climate change in Northern Ethiopia: implications for agricultural production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadgu, Gebre; Tesfaye, Kindie; Mamo, Girma

    2015-08-01

    The impact of climatic change can be on specific locations. However, the broader the affected area coverage, in mind, the higher would be the chance in missing critical details. In this light, this paper attempts to assess the possible climatic changes and their corresponding implications on agricultural production in northern Ethiopia. The analysis is based on the future (2030 and 2050) temperature and rainfall data, downscaled as ensemble of four general circulation models (GCMs) using the A2 and B1 emission scenarios for ten meteorological stations located in different agroecological zones of the study region. The result indicates that, based on emission scenarios, the mean maximum and minimum temperature would increase by 2-2.3 and 0.8-0.9 °C in 2030 and by 2.2-2.7 and 1.4-1.7 °C in 2050, respectively. This will be accompanied by an increase in the frequency of hot days and nights and a decrease in cool days and nights. While annual rainfall totals will remain unchanged, main rainy season ( kiremt) rainfall total would increase on average in 12.9 and 14.2 % under A2 and 9.5 and 11.2 % under B1 by 2030 and 2050, respectively. Owing to an increase in kiremt rainfall, the yield of maize and sorghum may increase at some sites under future climatic conditions, and the increase would be higher under CO2 fertilization. The results suggest the need for site-specific adaptation strategies to reduce the impact and/or exploit the opportunities of climate change.

  10. 3-D analysis and interpretation of magnetotelluric data from the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrock, F.; Kuvshinov, A.; Bakker, J.; Jackson, A.; Fisseha, S.

    2015-09-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift Valley encompasses a number of volcanoes, which are known to be actively deforming with reoccurring periods of uplift and setting. One of the regions where temporal changes take place is the Aluto volcanic complex. It hosts a productive geothermal field and the only currently operating geothermal power plant of Ethiopia. We carried out magnetotelluric (MT) measurements in early 2012 in order to identify the source of unrest. Broad-band MT data (0.001-1000 s) have been acquired at 46 sites covering the expanse of the Aluto volcanic complex with an average site spacing of 1 km. Based on this MT data it is possible to map the bulk electrical resistivity of the subsurface down to depths of several kilometres. Resistivity is a crucial geophysical parameter in geothermal exploration as hydrothermal and magmatic reservoirs are typically related to low resistive zones, which can be easily sensed by MT. Thus by mapping the electrical conductivity one can identify and analyse geothermal systems with respect to their temperature, extent and potential for production of energy. 3-D inversions of the observed MT data from Aluto reveal the typical electrical conductivity distribution of a high-enthalpy geothermal system, which is mainly governed by the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy. The recovered 3-D conductivity models provide no evidence for an active deep magmatic system under Aluto. Forward modelling of the tippers rather suggest that occurrence of melt is predominantly at lower crustal depths along an off-axis fault zone a few tens of kilometres west of the central rift axis. The absence of an active magmatic system implies that the deforming source is most likely situated within the shallow hydrothermal system of the Aluto-Langano geothermal field.

  11. Geochronology of the Turkana depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Francis H; McDougall, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Turkana Depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rest on basement rocks that yield K/Ar cooling ages between 433 and 522 Ma. Proven Cretaceous strata are exposed in Lokitaung Gorge in northwest Kenya. Eocene basalts and rhyolites in Lokitaung Gorge, the Nabwal Hills, and at Kangamajoj, date between 34 and 36 Ma, recording the earliest volcanism in the region. Oligocene volcanic rocks, with associated fossiliferous sedimentary strata at Eragaleit, Nakwai, and Lokone, all west of Lake Turkana, are 23 to 28 Ma old, as is the Langaria Formation east of Lake Turkana. Lower and Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences are present both east and west of Lake Turkana, where ages from 17.9 to 9.1 Ma have been measured at many levels. Upper Miocene strata are presently known only at Lothagam, with ages ranging from 7.4 to 6.5 Ma. Deposition of Pliocene strata of the Omo Group begins in the Omo-Turkana, Kerio, and South Turkana basins -4.3 Ma ago and continues in parts of those basins until nearly the present time, but with some gaps. These strata are linked through volcanic ash correlations at many levels, as are Pleistocene strata of the Omo Group (principally the Shungura, Koobi Fora, and Nachukui formations). (40) Ar/(39) Ar dates on many volcanic ash layers within the Omo Group, supplemented by K/Ar ages on intercalated basalts and paleomagnetic polarity stratigraphy, provide excellent age control from 4.2 to 0.75 Ma, although there is a gap in the record between -1 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Members I to III of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo Valley record deposition between 0.2 and 0.1 Ma ago; Member IV, correlative with the Galana Boi Formation, was deposited principally between 12 and 7 ka BP. PMID:22170691

  12. Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium Infection among School-Age Children in Afar Area, Northeastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Degarege, Abraham; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Levecke, Bruno; Legesse, Mengistu; Negash, Yohannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Erko, Berhanu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection was determined among school-age children living in the Middle and Lower Awash Valley, Afar Regional State of Ethiopia. Between February and May 2014, urine samples were collected from 885 school-age children (5-16 years of age) from the Middle (n = 632; 4 villages) and Lower (n = 253; 3 villages) Awash Valley. All samples were processed using urine filtration to detect and quantify S. haematobium eggs. In addition, a subset of the urine samples was tested for hematuria using a urine dipstick (n = 556). The overall prevalence was 20.8% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 18.1%, 23.5%), based on urine filtration but the prevalence considerably varied across villages both in the Middle (from 12.5% to 37.0%) and Lower Awash Valley (from 0 to 5.3%). The overall mean urine egg count (UEC) among the infected children was 4.0 eggs/10 ml of urine (95% CI = 2.43, 5.52). The infection intensity varied from 0.4 eggs/10 ml of urine to 7.7 eggs/10 ml of urine in the Middle Awash Valley, and from 0 to 1.1 eggs/10 ml of urine in Lower Awash Valley. Age and sex were not associated with S. haematobium infection based on the multivariable logistic regression model. The prevalence of hematuria was 56.3% (95% CI = 52.2%, 60.4%) among a subset of the study participants (556) examined using the urine dipstick. The prevalence of hematuria also varies with villages from 8.3% to 93.2%. In conclusion, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection in the Middle Awash Valley was high and it varies across villages. Hence, children living in the present study villages of the Middle Awash Valley need to be treated with praziquantel to reduce morbidity and disrupt transmission. PMID:26252615

  13. Phylogenetic diversity of Rhizobium strains nodulating diverse legume species growing in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-meskel, Endalkachew; Frostegård, Åsa

    2013-06-01

    The taxonomic diversity of thirty-seven Rhizobium strains, isolated from nodules of leguminous trees and herbs growing in Ethiopia, was studied using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of six core and two symbiosis-related genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene grouped them into five clusters related to nine Rhizobium reference species (99-100% sequence similarity). In addition, two test strains occupied their own independent branches on the phylogenetic tree (AC86a2 along with R. tibeticum; 99.1% similarity and AC100b along with R. multihospitium; 99.5% similarity). One strain from Milletia ferruginea was closely related (>99%) to the genus Shinella, further corroborating earlier findings that nitrogen-fixing bacteria are distributed among phylogenetically unrelated taxa. Sequence analyses of five housekeeping genes also separated the strains into five well-supported clusters, three of which grouped with previously studied Ethiopian common bean rhizobia. Three of the five clusters could potentially be described into new species. Based on the nifH genes, most of the test strains from crop legumes were closely related to several strains of Ethiopian common bean rhizobia and other symbionts of bean plants (R. etli and R. gallicum sv. phaseoli). The grouping of the test strains based on the symbiosis-related genes was not in agreement with the housekeeping genes, signifying differences in their evolutionary history. Our earlier studies revealing a large diversity of Mesorhizobium and Ensifer microsymbionts isolated from Ethiopian legumes, together with the results from the present analysis of Rhizobium strains, suggest that this region might be a potential hotspot for rhizobial biodiversity. PMID:23643092

  14. Geochronology of the Turkana depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Francis H; McDougall, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Turkana Depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rest on basement rocks that yield K/Ar cooling ages between 433 and 522 Ma. Proven Cretaceous strata are exposed in Lokitaung Gorge in northwest Kenya. Eocene basalts and rhyolites in Lokitaung Gorge, the Nabwal Hills, and at Kangamajoj, date between 34 and 36 Ma, recording the earliest volcanism in the region. Oligocene volcanic rocks, with associated fossiliferous sedimentary strata at Eragaleit, Nakwai, and Lokone, all west of Lake Turkana, are 23 to 28 Ma old, as is the Langaria Formation east of Lake Turkana. Lower and Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences are present both east and west of Lake Turkana, where ages from 17.9 to 9.1 Ma have been measured at many levels. Upper Miocene strata are presently known only at Lothagam, with ages ranging from 7.4 to 6.5 Ma. Deposition of Pliocene strata of the Omo Group begins in the Omo-Turkana, Kerio, and South Turkana basins -4.3 Ma ago and continues in parts of those basins until nearly the present time, but with some gaps. These strata are linked through volcanic ash correlations at many levels, as are Pleistocene strata of the Omo Group (principally the Shungura, Koobi Fora, and Nachukui formations). (40) Ar/(39) Ar dates on many volcanic ash layers within the Omo Group, supplemented by K/Ar ages on intercalated basalts and paleomagnetic polarity stratigraphy, provide excellent age control from 4.2 to 0.75 Ma, although there is a gap in the record between -1 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Members I to III of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo Valley record deposition between 0.2 and 0.1 Ma ago; Member IV, correlative with the Galana Boi Formation, was deposited principally between 12 and 7 ka BP.

  15. Correlates of Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Results From a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Habte, Dereje; Teklu, Sisay; Melese, Tadele; Magafu, Mgaywa G. M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy has been a major reproductive health challenge in resource poor settings including Ethiopia. It has adverse consequences to the mother, child and the health sector’s resources. Understanding the extent of unintended pregnancy and the factors associated is crucial to devise evidence based interventions. The analysis was aimed at assessing the unintended pregnancy prevalence rate among pregnant women and the factors predisposing to unintended pregnancy. Methods This secondary data analysis was done on women’s dataset from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). A total of 1267 pregnant women were included in the analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using SPSS software to identify the factors associated with unintended pregnancy. Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was computed to assess the association of different factors with unintended pregnancy. Results The overall prevalence of unintended pregnancy was found to be 24%: those who wanted it at a later time and not at all accounted for 17.1% and 6.9%, respectively. The unintended pregnancy rate ranged from 1.5% in Afar Regional State to 39.8% in Oromiya Regional State. Women who knew the timing of ovulation had a 45% reduced chance of unintended pregnancy (OR (95% CI): 0.55 (0.35, 0.85)). Ever use of family planning, presence of five or more born children, and two or more births in the past five years were associated with unintended pregnancy (OR (95% CI): 1.79 (1.31, 2.45), 2.36 (1.01, 5.49) and 2.00 (1.12, 3.58), respectively). Conclusions A significant proportion of the current pregnancies were found to be unintended with significant variations among the different regions. Women already burdened with higher fertility were suffering from unintended pregnancy. Family planning programs need to concentrate on the highly affected regions and target women with higher fertility to reduce the level of unintended pregnancy at

  16. Multiplying a Force for Good? the Impact of Security Sector Management Postgraduate Education in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…

  17. Molecular characterization of Xanthomonas strains responsible for bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...

  18. Assessing gully widening and its control in the Debri-Mawi Watershed, northern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...

  19. Khat Use and Its Impact on Academic Performance: The Case of Jimma University, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abafita, Jemal; Chala, Badassa Wolteji; Eba, Kasahun; Kim, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The use or misuse of addictive substances like khat has become widespread among the youths especially in countries where the substance is produced and/or consumed. In this paper, we examine whether khat use has any impact on the academic achievement of university students with particular reference to undergraduates in Jimma University, Ethiopia.…

  20. Challenges and Opportunities in Mainstreaming Environmental Education into the Curricula of Teachers' Colleges in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waktola, Daniel Kassahun

    2009-01-01

    Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…

  1. Developing a Lifelong Learning System in Ethiopia: Contextual Considerations and Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen

    2014-01-01

    Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national…

  2. Reflections on Meeting the Needs of Children with Disabilities in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…

  3. Interrogating the Continuing Professional Development Policy Framework in Ethiopia: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2016-01-01

    The continuing professional development (CPD) of teachers has increasingly come to be considered an important component of teacher policy reforms throughout much of the world. As part of its comprehensive school improvement and teacher development programmes, Ethiopia has recently developed a national policy framework on CPD for teachers. Arguing…

  4. Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

    2012-01-01

    We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…

  5. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  6. "Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

  7. Multi-criteria assessment of community-based fluoride-removal technologies for rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Osterwalder, Lars; Johnson, C Annette; Yang, Hong; Johnston, Richard B

    2014-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally-occurring fluoride in groundwater pose a serious health risk to millions of people living in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. In the absence of low-fluoride water resources of sufficient capacity, fluoride removal from drinking water is the accepted mitigation option. To date, five different community-level fluoride-removal technologies have been implemented in Ethiopia, although only a few units have been found in a functional state in the field. Which technology should be promoted and up-scaled is the subject of controversial debate amongst key stakeholders. This paper describes a multi-criteria decision analysis exercise, which was conducted with the participation of stakeholders in Ethiopia during a one-day workshop, to assess in an objective and transparent manner the available technology options. Criteria for technology comparison were selected and weighted, thus enabling the participants to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies and hear the views of other stakeholders. It was shown that there is no single most-preferable, technical solution for fluoride removal in Ethiopia. Selection of the most suitable solution depends on location-specific parameters and on the relative importance given to different criteria by the stakeholders involved. The data presented in this paper can be used as reference values for Ethiopia.

  8. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  9. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  10. Reflections on the Teacher Education System Overhaul (TESO) Program in Ethiopia: Promises, Pitfalls, and Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mekonnen, Dawit M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 the Ethiopian education system experienced wide-ranging reform that touches every aspect of the system. This reform is called TESO (Teacher Education System Overhaul). Designed to address educational problems in Ethiopia, TESO introduced significant structural changes and promised to bring a "paradigm shift" in the Ethiopian educational…

  11. The Impacts of an Integrated Community Development Program in Southern Ethiopia--A Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Ning

    2013-01-01

    With funding through grants and donations, an international development organization has provided developmental services to a woreda in southern Ethiopia since the early 1980s. This study is intended to assess the outcome and impact of the program and address the following questions: (1) Did direct beneficiaries of the CDTP program exhibit better…

  12. The Invisibility of Children's Paid and Unpaid Work: Implications for Ethiopia's National Poverty Reduction Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household…

  13. Review of Malaria Epidemics in Ethiopia using Enhanced Climate Services (ENACTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, A.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a disease directly linked to temperature and rainfall. In Ethiopia, the influence of climate variables on malaria transmission and the subsequent role of ENSO in the rise of malaria incidence are becoming more recognized. Numerous publications attest to the extreme sensitivity of malaria to climate in Ethiopia. The majority of large-scale epidemics in the past were associated with climatic factors such as temperature and rainfall. However, there is limited information on climate variability and ENSO at the district level to aid in public health decision-making. Since 2008, the National Meteorogy Agency (NMA) and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) have been collaborating on improving climate services in Ethiopia. This collaboration spurred the implementation of the Enhancing National Climate Services (ENACTS) initiative and the creation of the IRI Data Library (DL) NMA Ethiopia Maproom. ENACTS provides reliable and readily accessible climate data at high resolutions and the Maproom uses ENACTS to build a collection of maps and other figures that monitor climate and societal conditions at present and in the recent past (1981-2010). A recent analysis exploring the relationship of rainfall and temperature ENACTS products to malaria epidemics in proceeding rainy seasons within 12 woredas found above normal temperature anomalies to be more readily associated with epidemics when compared to above normal rainfall anomalies, regardless of the ENSO phase (Figure 1-2).

  14. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  15. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

  16. Political Geographies of Academic Development in Jamaica, Ethiopia and Japan: Reflections on the Impossibilities of Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…

  17. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in an Urban Area of Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Mohamed Dohe, Abdulahi

    2014-01-01

    This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. PMID:25215230

  18. Pastoral mobility and policy recommendations for livestock herding in the Borana pastoral system in southern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livelihoods of pastoralists in the Borana Zone of southern Ethiopia have become increasingly vulnerable as a result of stressors like accelerating population growth, shrinking resource availability, sedentarization, and increased frequency and severity of drought. A research team from the USDA Agric...

  19. Stigma in Ethiopia: association with depressive symptoms in people with HIV.

    PubMed

    Endeshaw, Meheret; Walson, Judd; Rawlins, Sarah; Dessie, Abere; Alemu, Shitaye; Andrews, Nancy; Rao, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Rates of depression among people living with HIV can be as high as 50%. In many settings, HIV-related stigma has been associated with depressive symptoms which may lead to poor engagement in care and ultimately, poorer health outcomes. Stigma is a major issue in Ethiopia but data examining the relationship between stigma and depression in Ethiopia are lacking. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between stigma of HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms in Gondar, Ethiopia. We interviewed patients who presented for routine HIV care at Gondar University Hospital during the study period, examining depressive symptoms and HIV/AIDS-related stigma using standardized measures. Multiple-regression was used to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms, stigma, and gender. Of 55 patients included in this analysis, 63.6% were female and most participants had limited formal education (69%, less than 12th grade education). The majority reported experiencing both stigma (78%) and depressive symptoms (60%) ranging in severity from mild to moderately severe. Higher levels of HIV-related stigma were significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = 0.464, p ≤ 0.001). Although gender was associated with stigma, it was not associated with depressive symptoms (β = -0.027, p > 0.05). Results suggest the importance of psychosocial issues in the lives of people with HIV in Ethiopia.

  20. Global ENT Outreach: Taking Ear, Nose, and Throat Treatment and Surgery Techniques to Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The author, as an otolaryngologist and the Director of Global ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Outreach, traveled to Ethiopia to help 11 children who could not breathe because of respiratory papillomas blocking their airways and who had been hospitalized for years. The disease, called juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, is what affected these 11…

  1. Impediments to Educative Practicum: The Case of Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie

    2011-01-01

    The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The…

  2. Social Actors and Victims of Exploitation: Working Children in the Cash Economy of Ethiopia's South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abebe, Tatek; Kjorholt, Anne Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural…

  3. Globalization of psychology: Implications for the development of psychology in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Swancott, Rachel; Uppal, Gobinderjit; Crossley, Jon

    2014-10-01

    The present article reports on the variation of mental health resources across the globe and considers the merits or otherwise of the process of globalization in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with a specific emphasis on Ethiopia. Although globalization has gained momentum in recent years, there is a concern that the globalization of Western mental health frameworks is problematic, as these concepts have been developed in a different context and do not accommodate the current diversity in understanding in LMIC countries. The importance of understanding the mental health frameworks of LMIC like Ethiopia, prior to considering if and how aspects of high-income countries (HIC) conceptualizations may be appropriately imported, is therefore reflected upon. Traditional approaches in managing mental health difficulties and possible reasons for the limited engagement with clinical psychology in Ethiopia are considered. Current developments within the fields of mental health and clinical psychology in Ethiopia are discussed, and the need to develop more local research in order to increase understanding and evaluate treatment interventions is recognized. Further consideration and debate by Ethiopian mental health professionals as well as those from HIC are recommended, to promote both reciprocal learning and new local discourses about mental health.

  4. Evaluation of sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali against Fusarium thapsinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-eight sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali along with resistant (Sureno and SC719) and susceptible (RTx430 and RTx2536) checks were evaluated in replicated plots for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum at Isabela, Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions such as temperature, relative hum...

  5. The Unfolding Trends and Consequences of Expanding Higher Education in Ethiopia: Massive Universities, Massive Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessema, Kedir Assefa

    2009-01-01

    There have been significant increases in the number of universities and student enrollments in the last fifteen years in Ethiopia. The numerical gains have brought about improved access to higher education for students. The expansion has also diversified fields of study and opened opportunities to pursue higher degrees to a significant number of…

  6. Application of Instrumental Enrichment Cognitive Intervention Program with Deaf Immigrant Children from Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Lea; Kozulin, Alex

    R. Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment (IE) Program was used as a tool of cognitive educational intervention with 10 deaf children (ages 7 to 15), all recent immigrants from Ethiopia to Israel. The group's special education needs resulted from their deafness, lack of formal educational experience, lack of previous exposure to sign language or…

  7. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  8. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  9. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  10. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  11. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  12. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements of 14 CFR 121.557, 121.559, or 135.19, each person who deviates from this rule shall, within ten... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC...

  13. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  14. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  15. Spirituality, social capital and service: Factors promoting resilience among Expert Patients living with HIV in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hussen, Sophia Ahmed; Tsegaye, Mulugeta; Argaw, Meron Gurji; Andes, Karen; Gilliard, Danielle; del Rio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) in Ethiopia and other developing nations face numerous challenges to their health and well-being, including poverty, limited healthcare infrastructure, and high levels of societal stigma. Despite these challenges, resilient trajectories have been observed even within such resource-limited settings. In Ethiopia, such resilience is exemplified by the ‘Expert Patients’, HIV-positive lay health workers who function as adherence counsellors, health educators, outreach workers and community advocates. We conducted a multi-method qualitative study with 20 Expert Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in order to understand pathways to resilience in this select population. Participants described 3 key mechanisms of resilient coping: (1) The use of spirituality and faith-based practices to manage psychological difficulties associated with living with HIV; (2) Utilisation of social capital from family and community networks as a buffer against the psychological and economic consequences of societal stigma; and (3) Serving others as a mechanism for finding optimism and purpose in life. Interventions designed to facilitate and/or augment these social processes in the wider community may be promising strategies for improving health among PLHIV in Ethiopia and other resource-limited settings. PMID:24520996

  16. Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersi, Afra Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

  17. CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--EXPERIENCES, NEEDS, AND INTEREST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDSTROEM, LARS-OLOF

    THIS REPORT ON THE SALIENT FEATURES AND CONCERNS OF CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--(1) DISCUSSES ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT, (2) SURVEYS CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES (POSTAL SERVICES, ROADS, INSTRUCTIONAL RADIO AND TELEVISION,…

  18. Socioeconomic Status and Hypertension among Teachers and Bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fikadu, Girma; Lemma, Seblewengel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The social and economic changes taking place in developing countries are influencing the pace at which hypertension and its risk factors are expanding. As opposed to the already established inverse association in developed nations, the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension in developing countries is poor and inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. This study is based on a cross-sectional study conducted to assess the prevalence of NCDs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was undertaken among workers of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia and teachers of public schools in 2010. Results. Majority of participants were teachers (70.3%). Most of the respondents (54.1%) earn an annual income between 15,000 ETB and 48,000 ETB, and 51.9% of them have educational status of first degree and above. Among the socioeconomic factors income was strongly associated with the odds of having hypertension (AOR: 2.17 with 95% CI: 1.58-2.98). Conclusions. Higher burden of hypertension is observed among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Promotion of healthy behaviors and interventions that target higher income groups needs to be put in place. PMID:27313874

  19. Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

  20. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION TO THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF ETHIOPIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KERBRET, MAKONNEN

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AND A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD WAS MADE THROUGH INTENSIVE LIBRARY RESEARCH. GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE BASED ON THE REVIEW SUBMITTED TO A JURY OF EXPERTS FOR VERIFICATION. REVISED GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE THEN DEVELOPED FOR GUIDING AND IMPLEMENTING THE…

  1. The ecohydrological biotechnology (SBFS) for reduction of dioxin-induced toxicity in Asella lake, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbaniak, M.; Zerihun Negussie, Y.; Zalewski, M.

    2012-04-01

    The transfer of dioxins along river continuum is a well know process which indicated permanent increase of their content in the river sediments. Despite this, there is still lack of empirical data highlighting the role of lakes and reservoirs in dioxins transfer along river continuum. Using the ecohydrology as a framework for water problem solving, the reduction of dioxins bioaccumulation in aquatic food chain should be based on two steps: 1) a reduction of dioxins emission to the water ecosystems and 2) an understanding of the role that the factors determining dioxins accumulation, transportation and transformation in the river and lake/reservoir system play for implementation of ecohydrological biotechnologies and system solutions. From limnological perspective lakes and reservoirs are considered as traps for organic and mineral sediments and bounded with them nutrients and other polluting substances. As effect of long term ecological succession the amount of sedimented matter, nutrients and loads and concentrations of pollutants usually increases. Such situation was observed in Asella lake, located in the Arsi zone of the Oromia region about 175 kilometers from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. As the results of above processes the high concentration of dioxin concentrations in the sediments was observed, inducing decline in the water resources use. During this study the spatial pattern of dioxins concentration and toxicity (measured as WHO TEQ concentration) in the sediments of Asella river and lake taken before (in 2009) and after (in 2010) construction of Sequentional BioFiltering System (SBFS) were compared. The determination of dioxin concentrations were followed according to US EPA 1613 and 1668 Methods. Among the samples collected in the 2009 year, the contamination of lake sediments amounted for 127.65 ng kg-1 dry weight (d.w.), whereas concentration of dioxins in samples taken at the lake outflow decreased to the value of 26.65 ng kg-1 d.w. The WHO

  2. Seismic characteristics of variable convection at Erta ´Ale lava lake, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua; Carniel, Roberto; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Malone, Steve

    2006-05-01

    The active summit lava lake of Erta ´Ale volcano, Ethiopia, offers a unique opportunity to study magma convection. In February 2002, we collected a multiparametric set of seismic, thermal and video data. These data indicate that the lake cycled between periods characterized by low (0.01-0.08 m s - 1 ) and high (0.1-0.4 m s - 1 ) convection rates, typically lasting tens to hundreds of minutes. Three seismometers placed around the active crater recorded continuous tremor with a dominant frequency of 2 Hz, and energy at frequencies from 0.8 to 12 Hz. Here, we characterize the seismic signature of each regime by its spectral content, wavefield polarization, and tremor source location. For both regimes, the wavefield is mostly rectilinear. Azimuths and incidence angles are consistent with P waves originating in one of two locations: the north edge of the active lava lake, or a region 100-150 m ENE of the lava lake. Because both regimes are dominated by a low frequency, rectilinearly polarized wavefield, we investigate the source location using a method that solves for location and isotropic source power by a weighted least-squares amplitude-based inversion of seismic data. We find that tremor source regions are unique to each convective regime, although some location overlap exists when tremor is located in short time windows. Wavefield composition suggests that the convective phases may share a common source process, but their differing locations indicate that either the source region is non-stationary, or a second source skews the location during the high convective phase. Tremor polarization and location suggests that the low-frequency tremor is caused by bubble coalescence and bursting in a conduit whose surface is the lava lake. The higher frequency signal associated with the high convective regime is associated with a scattered, more complex wavefield superimposed on the low-frequency background tremor, caused by bubble bursting and cracking of cooled crust at

  3. Environmental change and human occupation of southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya during the last 20,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Verena; Vogelsang, Ralf; Junginger, Annett; Asrat, Asfawossen; Lamb, Henry F.; Schaebitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin H.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of the impact of climate-driven environmental change on prehistoric human populations is hampered by the scarcity of continuous paleoenvironmental records in the vicinity of archaeological sites. Here we compare a continuous paleoclimatic record of the last 20 ka before present from the Chew Bahir basin, southwest Ethiopia, with the available archaeological record of human presence in the region. The correlation of this record with orbitally-driven insolation variations suggests a complex nonlinear response of the environment to climate forcing, reflected in several long-term and short-term transitions between wet and dry conditions, resulting in abrupt changes between favorable and unfavorable living conditions for humans. Correlating the archaeological record in the surrounding region of the Chew Bahir basin, presumably including montane and lake-marginal refugia for human populations, with our climate record suggests a complex interplay between humans and their environment during the last 20 ka. The result may contribute to our understanding of how a dynamic environment may have impacted the adaptation and dispersal of early humans in eastern Africa.

  4. Trypanosome infection in dromedary camels in Eastern Ethiopia: Prevalence, relative performance of diagnostic tools and host related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fikru, Regassa; Andualem, Yimer; Getachew, Terefe; Menten, Joris; Hasker, Epco; Merga, Bekana; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chifra and Dewe districts of Afar region, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, agreement between diagnostic tests and host related risk factors of trypanosome infection in camel. An overall prevalence of 2%, 24.1%, 21.3%, 9.5% and 7.8% was recorded with respectively Giemsa stained thin blood smear, CATT/T. evansi, RoTat1.2 PCR, 18S PCR and ITS-1PCR in a cohort of 399 animals. Only one T. vivax infection was confirmed by TvPRAC PCR indicating T. evansi as the predominant species affecting camels in the study area. No single animal was positive when tested with T. evansi type B specific EVAB PCR. There was slight agreement between the CATT/T. evansi and the molecular tests. Among the PCR methods, RoTat 1.2 PCR yielded a significantly higher positivity rate compared to 18S PCR and ITS-1 PCR. There was no significant difference in the positivity rate observed in each gender of camels (p>0.05). The positivity rate was significantly higher in camels with poor body condition and in older animals when tested using the CATT/T.evansi or RoTat 1.2 PCR (p>0.05). Camels that tested positive with all tests had significantly lower PCV's (p<0.05). This study provides further evidence that T. evansi is endemic in the Afar region of Ethiopia. The latent class analysis indicated an estimate overall prevalence of 19% (95% CI: 13-28). Moreover, the model indicated low sensitivity of CATT/T. evansi (43%) and the PCR tests (39-53%) but higher specificity of the PCR tests (86-99%) and low specificity of CATT/T. evansi (80%). This study suggests that improved sensitivity and reliability of the tests would help diagnosis of trypanosomosis. Further studies are required to determine the prevalence of clinical disease and losses due to trypanosomosis.

  5. Afro-alpine forest cover change on Mt. Guna (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birhanu, Adugnaw; Frankl, Amaury; Jacob, Miro; Lanckriet, Sil; Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    High mountain forests, such as the afro-alpine Erica arborea L. forests in Ethiopia, are very important for the livelihood of local communities, in relation to their impacts on the water balance of mountain ecosystems and surrounding agricultural areas. On volcanoes, the dominance of volcanic tuffs on the slopes, as well as that of gelifracts near the top further enhances infiltration, making it recharge areas. Earlier forest cover change studies in the Ethiopian highlands mainly deal with the lower vegetation belts. In this study, 3.37 km² on the western slopes of Mount Guna (one of the dozens of Miocene shield volcanoes that exist on top of the Ethiopian plateau) was mapped. The slope has an elevation between 3200 at its base and 4113 m a.s.l. at the peak. The present forest cover was recorded from high-resolution georeferenced satellite imagery from Google Maps and field data (2015), while historical forest cover was studied from georeferenced aerial photographs of 1982. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted to identify the trend of forest cover change and management practices. Whereas burning of the Erica forest for sake of land clearance (a typical practice on all Ethiopian mountains until the 1980s) most strikingly took place for three consecutive days in 1975, large-scale deforestation resulting from agricultural expansion and livestock pressure continued thereafter. However, between 2000 and 2014, due to active involvement of local and governmental institutions there was a slight regeneration of the vegetation and the Erica forest. Protection and regeneration of the forest was particularly efficient after it was given into custody of an orthodox church established in 1999 at the lower side of the forest. Overall, the study revealed that human and livestock pressures are the strongest drivers of deforestation. Furthermore, the study indicated that integrating the actions of local and governmental institutions is key for the protection of the

  6. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Alemi; Hassen, Kalkidan; Nigussie Teklehaymanot, Aderajew

    2016-01-01

    Background Most obstetric complications occur unpredictably during the time of delivery, but they can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities. Despite the Ethiopian government’s efforts to expand health service facilities and promote health institution-based delivery service in the country, an estimated 85% of births still take place at home. Objective The review was conducted with the aim of generating the best evidence on the determinants of institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia. Methods The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed, HINARI, Mendeley reference manager, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Review Manager V5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using I2 test. Results People living in urban areas (OR =13.16, CI =1.24, 3.68), with primary and above educational level of the mother and husband (OR =4.95, CI =2.3, 4. 8, and OR =4.43, CI =1.14, 3.36, respectively), who encountered problems during pregnancy (OR =2.83, CI =4.54, 7.39), and living at a distance <5 km from nearby health facility (OR =2.6, CI =3.33, 6.57) showed significant association with institutional delivery service utilization. Women’s autonomy was not significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Conclusion and recommendation Distance to health facility and problems during pregnancy were factors positively and significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Promoting couples education beyond primary education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery through available communication networks such as health development army and promotion of antenatal care visits and completion of four standard visits by pregnant women were recommended. PMID:27672342

  7. Recent rift-related volcanism in Afar, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, David J.; Barnie, Talfan D.; Pyle, David M.; Oppenheimer, Clive; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Lewi, Elias; Kidane, Tesfaye; Carn, Simon; Hamling, Ian

    2010-04-01

    Rift zones are the most common magmatic environment on Earth. However opportunities to observe active rifting are rare, and consequently the volcanological characteristics of rift systems are not well understood. An ongoing phase of magmatic rifting along a section of the Red Sea system in Afar, Ethiopia, presents an exceptional opportunity to constrain relationships between volcanism and crustal growth. Here, by integrating analyses of satellite images (i.e. MODIS, OMI, ASTER, and ALI) with field observations, we characterise two recent (August 2007 and June 2009) basaltic fissure eruptions in Afar and evaluate the role and significance of volcanism in the rifting process. Both events were brief (36-72 h) and erupted 4.4-18 × 10 6 m 3 of lava from a fissure system 4-6.5 km in length. Data from the spaceborne Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) suggests total SO 2 emissions for each eruption of 26 ± 5 kt (2007) and 34 ± 7 kt (2009), consistent with complete degassing of the erupted magma volumes. Using geodetic models for the intrusive activity in Afar we estimate the partitioning of magma between intrusive and extrusive components, up to July 2009, to be ˜ 180:1. Comparing the first-order volcanic characteristics and the intrusive-extrusive volume balance for the Afar volcanism with data from the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting cycle (Iceland) suggests that the volcanic flux in Afar will rise significantly over the next few years as the stresses are increasingly relieved by dyking, and subsequent dykes are able to propagate more easily to the surface. As a consequence, basaltic fissure eruptions in this section of the Afar rift will become of increasing large magnitude as the rifting event matures over the next 5-10 yr. Using available models of magmatic rifting we forecast the likely size and location of future eruptions in Afar.

  8. River sedimentation and channel bed characteristics in northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Biadgilgn; Billi, Paolo; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Lanckriet, Sil; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sedimentation and flood hazard are common in ephemeral streams which are characterized by flashy floods. The purposes of this study was to investigate the temporal variability of bio-climatic factors in controlling sediment supply to downstream channel reaches and the effect of bridges on local hydro-geomorphic conditions in causing the excess sedimentation and flood hazard in ephemeral rivers of the Raya graben (northern Ethiopia). Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was analyzed for the study area using Landsat imageries of 1972, 1986, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2012). Middle term, 1993-2011, daily rainfall data of three meteorological stations, namely, Alamata, Korem and Maychew, were considered to analyse the temporal trends and to calculate the return time intervals of rainfall intensity in 24 hours for 2, 5, 10 and 20 years using the log-normal and the Gumbel extreme events method. Streambed gradient and bed material grain size were measured in 22 river reaches (at bridges and upstream). In the study catchments, the maximum NDVI values were recorded in the time interval from 2000 to 2010, i.e. the decade during which the study bridges experienced the most severe excess sedimentation problems. The time series analysis for a few rainfall parameters do not show any evidence of rainfall pattern accountable for an increase in sediment delivery from the headwaters nor for the generation of higher floods with larger bedload transport capacities. Stream bed gradient and bed material grain size data were measured in order to investigate the effect of the marked decrease in width from the wide upstream channels to the narrow recently constructed bridges. The study found the narrowing of the channels due to the bridges as the main cause of the thick sedimentation that has been clogging the study bridges and increasing the frequency of overbank flows during the last 15 years. Key terms: sedimentation, ephemeral streams, sediment size, bridge clogging

  9. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Alemi; Hassen, Kalkidan; Nigussie Teklehaymanot, Aderajew

    2016-01-01

    Background Most obstetric complications occur unpredictably during the time of delivery, but they can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities. Despite the Ethiopian government’s efforts to expand health service facilities and promote health institution-based delivery service in the country, an estimated 85% of births still take place at home. Objective The review was conducted with the aim of generating the best evidence on the determinants of institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia. Methods The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed, HINARI, Mendeley reference manager, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Review Manager V5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using I2 test. Results People living in urban areas (OR =13.16, CI =1.24, 3.68), with primary and above educational level of the mother and husband (OR =4.95, CI =2.3, 4. 8, and OR =4.43, CI =1.14, 3.36, respectively), who encountered problems during pregnancy (OR =2.83, CI =4.54, 7.39), and living at a distance <5 km from nearby health facility (OR =2.6, CI =3.33, 6.57) showed significant association with institutional delivery service utilization. Women’s autonomy was not significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Conclusion and recommendation Distance to health facility and problems during pregnancy were factors positively and significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Promoting couples education beyond primary education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery through available communication networks such as health development army and promotion of antenatal care visits and completion of four standard visits by pregnant women were recommended.

  10. Dairy technology adoption in smallholder farms in "Dejen" district, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, H; Dehninet, G; Kelay, B

    2010-02-01

    Factors influencing dairy technology adoption and impact on milk yield were studied in 240 smallholder farms in Dejen district, Ethiopia. The majority of the smallholders had more than 20 years of farming experience and were living at more than 10 km distance from market or trading centers (67% and 54% in that order). The dairy technologies studied included the use of crossbred animals, improved feed technologies and improved management practices. Application of acaricides, deworming, vaccination, heat-detection and haymaking had wide application (more than 80% adoption levels) while urea straw treatment, silage making, rotational grazing and fodder beet development were the least practiced ones. Only 20 percent of the cows were crossbred animals. It has been found that higher level of technology adoption is associated with better milk yield regardless of the breed of cattle (local or crossbred) owned by the farmers. Milk yields in local breeds increased by 0.07 times when the number of technologies increased by one unit. In crossbred cows, this rate of increase was five fold higher (0.38 times for one unit increase). Correlation coefficients between and within farm household characteristics and technologies adoption were, generally, significant. Male-headed households adopted significantly higher number of technologies than female-headed households (P < 0.001). Technology adoption rates increased significantly with increased education level and family size and decreasing distance from market or trade centers (P < 0.01). The level of technology adoption by smallholder farmers is still unsatisfactory and is highly dependent on gender, family size and level of education of smallholder farmers and location of farms.

  11. Microscopic examination and smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Keflie, Tibebe Seyoum; Ameni, Gobena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis causes illness among millions of people each year and ranks as the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of microscopic examination and estimate risk of transmission of TB by smear negative pulmonary TB patients. Methods A cross-sectional study and retrospective data analysis on TB were undertaken in Northwest Shewa, Ethiopia. Microscopic examination, bacterial culture and PCR were performed. The statistical analysis was made by using STATA software version 10. Results A total of 92 suspected TB cases was included in the study. Of these, 27.17% (25/92) were positive for microscopic examination and 51% (47/92) for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic examination with 95% CI were 48.94% (34.08% to 63.93%) and 95.56% (84.82 to 99.33%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92% (73.93% to 98.78%) and 64.18% (51.53% to 75.53%), respectively. Of 8150 pulmonary TB cases in the retrospective study, 58.9% was smear negative. The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335). Conclusion The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low. The poor sensitivity of this test together with the advent of HIV/AIDS elevated the prevalence of smear negative pulmonary TB. This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission. PMID:25810798

  12. Key informants’ perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia’s health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  13. Burden of Podoconiosis in Poor Rural Communities in Gulliso woreda, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Getahun; Tekola Ayele, Fasil; Daniel, Takele; Ahrens, Christel; Davey, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is an environmental lymphoedema affecting people living and working barefoot on irritant red clay soil. Podoconiosis is relatively well described in southern Ethiopia, but remains neglected in other parts of the Ethiopian highlands. This study aimed to assess the burden of podoconiosis in rural communities in western Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gulliso woreda (district), west Ethiopia. A household survey in the 26 rural kebeles (villages) of this district was conducted to identify podoconiosis patients and to measure disease prevalence. A more detailed study was done in six randomly selected kebeles to describe clinical features of the disease, patients' experiences of foot hygiene, and shoe wearing practice. 1,935 cases of podoconiosis were registered, giving a prevalence of 2.8%. The prevalence was higher in those aged 15–64 years (5.2%) and in females than males (prevalence ratio 2.6∶1). 90.3% of patients were in the 15–64 year age group. In the detailed study, 335 cases were interviewed and their feet assessed. The majority of patients were farmers, uneducated, and poor. Two-third of patients developed the disease before the age of thirty. Almost all patients (97.0%) had experienced adenolymphangitis (ALA - red, hot legs, swollen and painful groin) at least once during the previous year. Patients experienced an average of 5.5 ALA episodes annually, each of average 4.4 days, thus 24 working days were lost annually. The incidence of ALA in podoconiosis patients was higher than that reported for filariasis in other countries. Shoe wearing was limited mainly due to financial problems. Conclusions We have documented high podoconiosis prevalence, frequent adenolymphangitis and high disease-related morbidity in west Ethiopia. Interventions must be developed to prevent, treat and control podoconiosis, one of the core neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia. PMID:21666795

  14. Genetically Divergent Types of the Wheat Leaf Fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a Center of Tetraploid Wheat Diversity.

    PubMed

    Kolmer, J A; Acevedo, M A

    2016-04-01

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya, from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. Single-uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single leaf rust resistance genes and for molecular genotypes with 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Nine virulence phenotypes were described among the 193 isolates tested for virulence. Phenotype BBBQJ, found only in Ethiopia, was predominantly collected from tetraploid wheat. Phenotype EEEEE, also found only in Ethiopia, was exclusively collected from tetraploid wheat and was avirulent to the susceptible hexaploid wheat 'Thatcher'. Phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS, found in both Ethiopia and Kenya, were predominantly collected from common wheat. Phenotypes CCMSS, CCPSS, and CBMSS were found in Ethiopia from common wheat at low frequency. Phenotypes TCBSS and TCBSQ were found on durum wheat and common wheat in Kenya. Four groups of distinct SSR genotypes were described among the 48 isolates genotyped. Isolates with phenotypes BBBQJ and EEEEE were in two distinct SSR groups, and isolates with phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS were in a third group. Isolates with CCMSS, CCPSS, CBMSS, TCBSS, and TCBSQ phenotypes were in a fourth SSR genotype group. The diverse host environment of Ethiopia has selected and maintained a genetically divergent population of P. triticina.

  15. Exposure to Large-Scale Social and Behavior Change Communication Interventions Is Associated with Improvements in Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Rahul; Mwangi, Edina M.; Tesfaye, Roman; Abebe, Yewelsew; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Optimal breastfeeding (BF) practices in Ethiopia are far below the government’s targets, and complementary feeding practices are poor. The Alive & Thrive initiative aimed to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices through large-scale implementation of social and behavior change communication interventions in four regions of Ethiopia. The study assessed the effects of the interventions on IYCF practices and anthropometry over time in two regions–Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region and Tigray. A pre- and post-intervention adequacy evaluation design was used; repeated cross-sectional surveys of households with children aged 0–23.9 mo (n = 1481 and n = 1494) and with children aged 24–59.9 mo (n = 1481 and n = 1475) were conducted at baseline (2010) and endline (2014), respectively. Differences in outcomes over time were estimated using regression models, accounting for clustering and covariates. Plausibility analyses included tracing recall of key messages and promoted foods and dose-response analyses. We observed improvements in most WHO-recommended IYCF indicators. Early BF initiation and exclusive BF increased by 13.7 and 9.4 percentage points (pp), respectively. Differences for timely introduction of complementary foods, minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD), and consumption of iron-rich foods were 22.2, 3.3, 26.2, 3.5, and 2.7 pp, respectively. Timely introduction and intake of foods promoted by the interventions improved significantly, but anthropometric outcomes did not. We also observed a dose-response association between health post visits and early initiation of BF (OR: 1.8); higher numbers of home visits by community volunteers and key messages recalled were associated with 1.8–4.4 times greater odds of achieving MDD, MMF, and MAD, and higher numbers of radio spots heard were associated with 3 times greater odds of achieving MDD and MAD. The interventions were

  16. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  17. Flash Floods Simulation Using a Physical based hydrological Model at the Eastern Nile Basin: Case studies; Wadi Assiut, Egypt and Wadi Gumara, Lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, M.; Sefelnasr, A.; Yilmaz, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Flash flood is a natural hydrological phenomenon which affects many regions of the world. The behavior and effect of this phenomenon is different from one region to the other regions depending on several issues such as climatology and hydrological and topographical conditions at the target regions. Wadi assiut, Egypt as arid environment, and Gumara catchment, Lake Tana, Ethiopia, as humid conditions have been selected for application. The main target of this work is to simulate flash floods at both catchments considering the difference between them on the flash flood behaviors based on the variability of both of them. In order to simulate the flash floods, remote sensing data and a physical-based distributed hydrological model, Hydro-BEAM-WaS (Hydrological River Basin Environmental Assessment Model incorporating Wadi System) have been integrated used in this work. Based on the simulation results of flash floods in these regions, it was found that the time to reach the maximum peak is very short and consequently the warning time is very short as well. It was found that the flash floods starts from zero flow in arid environment, but on the contrary in humid arid, it starts from Base flow which is changeable based on the simulated events. Distribution maps of flash floods showing the vulnerable regions of these selected areas have been developed. Consequently, some mitigation strategies relying on this study have been introduced. The proposed methodology can be applied effectively for flash flood forecasting at different climate regions, however the paucity of observational data.

  18. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  19. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among voluntary counseling and testing clients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sinku, Yohannes; Gezahegn, Takele; Gashaw, Yalewayiker; Workineh, Meseret; Deressa, Tekalign

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Ethiopia varies with regions, study population, and time. Thus, timely information on HIV epidemiology is critical for the combat of the epidemic. In this study, we aim to update HIV prevalence and risk factors among voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A total of 2,120 VCT clients’ records from September 2007 to August 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant predictors. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Statistical significance was set at P-value <0.05. Results Of 2,120 VCT clients, 363 (17.1%) were seropositive for HIV. A higher rate of HIV positivity was observed among female clients (20.4%) than that in male clients (14.0%) (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.26–1.98, P=0.00). Widowed (95% CI 10.42–34.92, P=0.00), married (95% CI 3.42–5.94, P=0.00), divorced (95% CI 2.79–5.32, P=0.00), and illiterate (95% CI 2.33–5.47, P=0.00) clients were associated with HIV infection with the odds ratios of 19.07, 4.51, 3.85, and 3.57, respectively. Clients within the age category of 35–49 years (OR 5.03, 95% CI 3.56–7.12, P=0.00) and above the age of 50 years (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.67–9.34, P=0.00) were more likely to be infected with HIV. Conclusion HIV is still the major concern of public health in the Gondar area as evidenced by our data. Being female, widowed, married, illiterate, and older age were the identified risk factors for HIV infection. Thus, consideration of these factors in future intervention and clinical practice is recommended. PMID:27574468

  20. The role of land rehabilitation by landless farmers and impacts on soil properties in Hawzen, North Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, Hailemariam; Gebresamuel, Girmay; Asfaha, Tesfaalem; Frankl, Amaury

    2014-05-01

    degraded hillsides to landless farmers for tree planting should be scaled-up to other regions where extreme shortage of land and soil erosion challenges the rural livelihoods. Key words: degraded hillsides, tree planting, soil properties, northern Ethiopia.

  1. Barriers and Facilitators of Adherence to Antiretroviral Drug Therapy and Retention in Care among Adult HIV-Positive Patients: A Qualitative Study from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bezabhe, Woldesellassie M.; Chalmers, Leanne; Bereznicki, Luke R.; Peterson, Gregory M.; Bimirew, Mekides A.; Kassie, Desalew M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been life saving for hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians. With increased availability of ART in recent years, achievement of optimal adherence and patient retention are becoming the greatest challenges in the management of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. However, few studies have explored factors influencing medication adherence to ART and retention in follow-up care among adult Ethiopian HIV-positive patients, especially in the Amhara region of the country, where almost one-third of the country’s ART is prescribed. The aim of this qualitative study was to collect such data from patients and healthcare providers in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 patients, of whom 11 had been lost to follow-up and were non-persistent with ART. In addition, focus group discussions were performed with 15 ART nurses and 19 case managers. All interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes and patterns in Amharic using a grounded theory approach. The emergent concepts and categories were translated into English. Results Economic constraints, perceived stigma and discrimination, fasting, holy water, medication side effects, and dissatisfaction with healthcare services were major reasons for patients being non-adherent and lost to follow-up. Disclosure of HIV status, social support, use of reminder aids, responsibility for raising children, improved health on ART, and receiving education and counseling emerged as facilitators of adherence to ART. Conclusions Improving adherence and retention requires integration of enhanced treatment access with improved job and food security. Healthcare providers need to be supported to better equip patients to cope with the issues associated with ART. Development of social policies and cooperation between various agencies are required to facilitate optimal adherence to ART, patient retention, and improved patient outcomes

  2. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L∞, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that

  3. Village poultry production systems in the central highlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dessie, T; Ogle, B

    2001-12-01

    Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), supported by checklists and intensive case studies on individual households, was carried out in three villages at three different altitudes in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The chicken production system in each village is described and the problems are discussed. More than 60% of the families kept chickens, and in most cases the women owned and managed the birds and controlled the cash from the sales. The production systems followed were mainly low-input and small-scale, with 7-10 mature birds per household, reared in the back yards with inadequate housing, feeding and health care. The average egg production per clutch was 15-20, with 3-4 clutches per year. The mean number of eggs set per bird was 12.9 +/- 2.2 (n = 160), depending on the size of the bird and season, and the hatching rate was 80.9% +/- 11.1%, range 44%-100% (n = 160). Poultry meat and eggs were generally accepted and appreciated in all three villages. In addition to the small amount of cash income they provide, scavenging chickens have nutritional, cultural and social functions. The flock composition, price of poultry and poultry products, disease outbreaks and hatching of chicks were strongly affected by season. Disease was cited as the most important problem by most of the members of the community, followed by predation, lack of feed, poor housing, insufficient water and parasites. Disease periodically decimated the flocks, and consequently, about 50% of the eggs produced were incubated in order to replace the birds that had died. The major source of loss in the system was the high mortality of chicks (61%) that occurred between hatching and the end of brooding at 8 weeks of age. The system was characterized by no or few inputs and a low output level. The major input was the cost of foundation stock, but after that virtually no cost was involved. The major source of feed for the birds was from the scavenging feed resource base, which comprised table

  4. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L∞, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that

  5. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:24086614

  6. Village chickens management in Wolaita zone of southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli

    2013-02-01

    Little effort has been made to improve village chickens housing, feeding, and health care. Due to this, the amount of output obtained is usually low. The aim of this study was to elicit farmers' knowledge on the routine husbandry practices of village chickens. One hundred nineteen farmers were one-on-one interviewed in the highland and lowland areas of Wolaita zone (southern Ethiopia) to generate the dataset used in this analysis. We found that all the respondents supplemented the scavenging chickens with locally available feed resources. However, the amount of supplementary feeds provided hardly meets the nutritional requirement of the flock. As a result, farmers were forced to practice a sort of preferential feeding mainly based on laying performance and the scavenging ability of different classes of the family flock. Moreover, there is a wide difference in the amount and type of feed available among seasons. This variation has forced farmers to resort on strategic supplementation to overcome the adverse effect of inherent feed (grain) scarcity on chickens' performance especially during wet season. Feed loss should be kept at a minimum by using feeding troughs, and a fraction of money obtained from selling of the chickens and eggs needs to be set aside to purchase feed. The risk of disease was higher during main rain season (June to September). Besides providing sanitary condition and feed supplementation, capacitating the veterinary service and validating the efficacy of ethno-veterinary practices through objective studies is required to improve the health status of village chickens. Majority of the farmers use rudimentary types of in-house built shelters to protect their chickens from adverse effects of bad weather, predation, and theft. This indicates the importance of constructing proper types of shelters from locally (freely) available or inexpensive materials. The existing tradition of responsibility sharing among family members while doing the routine

  7. Genotypes and viral load of hepatitis C virus among persons attending a voluntary counseling and testing center in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abreha, Tesfay; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Pietsch, Corinna; Maier, Melanie; Asrat, Daniel; Abebe, Almaz; Hailegiorgis, Bereket; Aseffa, Abraham; Liebert, Uwe Gerd

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of different genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Ethiopia is not known. HCV genotypes influence the response to therapy with alpha-interferon alone or in combination with ribavirin. A cross sectional study was conducted on attendees of voluntary counseling and testing center. Serum samples from 1,954 (734 HIV positive and 1,220 HIV negative) individuals were screened for HCV antibody. Active HCV infection was confirmed by quantitative PCR in 18 of the 71 samples with anti-HCV antibodies. The HCV viral load ranged from 39,650 to 9,878,341 IU/ml (median 1,589,631 IU/ml) with no significant difference [χ(2)(17) = 18.00, P = 0.389] between persons positive or negative for HIV. The viral load of HCV was, however, higher in older study subjects (r = 0.80, P = 0.000). HCV genotypes were determined using the VERSANT HCV Genotype Assay (LiPA) and sequence analysis of the NS5b region of the HCV genome. Diverse HCV genotypes were found including genotypes 1, 2, 4, and 5. There was no difference in the distribution regarding the HIV status. As in other parts of the world, genotyping of HCV must be considered whenever HCV is incriminated as a cause of hepatitis. PMID:21351106

  8. Pattern of blood pressure distribution and prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension among adults in Northern Ethiopia: disclosing the hidden burden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the 3rd cause of death accounting for one in eight deaths worldwide. Hypertension was thought to be rare in Africa, but it is now recognized as one of the most important cerebrovascular diseases contributing to about 40% of these diseases in the continent. The aims of this study were to describe the pattern of blood pressure distribution among adults, and determine prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among adults in Northern Ethiopia. Method The study was done on a community-based sample of 1183 adults of 697 (58.8%) urban and 486 (41.1%) rural residents using statistical multistage sampling procedures. The study was based on the recent WHO and JNC-7 classification of blood pressure. Multi-item structured questionnaires were also developed to elicit additional information on the subjects. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension in the study population was 18.1% and 37.2%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension positively correlated with body mass index and age in both urban and rural residents (P = 0.001). Sex and age adjusted mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was statistically higher in urban than in rural population (P = 0.001). Conclusion Hypertension was found to have high prevalence in the study region. However, people’s awareness and control of hypertension was found to be very poor. Lack of a clear hypertension prevention guidelines and strategies nationwide can aggravate the impact of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24592854

  9. The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2013-11-13

    As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces.

  10. Seismicity during lateral dike propagation: Insights from new data in the recent Manda Hararo-Dabbahu rifting episode (Afar, Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, R.; Jacques, E.; Nercessian, A.; Ayele, A.; Doubre, C.; Socquet, A.; Keir, D.; Kassim, M.; Lemarchand, A.; King, G. C. P.

    2011-04-01

    Seismicity released during lateral dike intrusions in the Manda Hararo-Dabbahu Rift (Afar, Ethiopia) provides indirect insight into the distribution and evolution of tensile stress along this magma-assisted divergent plate boundary. In this paper, 5 dike intrusions among the 14 that form the 2005-present rifting episode are analyzed with local and regional seismic data. During dike intrusions, seismicity migrates over distances of 10-15 km at velocities of 0.5-3.0 km/h away from a single reservoir in the center of the rift segment, confirming the analogy with a slow spreading mid-ocean ridge segment. Comparison with geodetic data shows that the reservoir is located 7 km down rift from the topographic summit of the axial depression. Dikes emplaced toward the north are observed to migrate faster and to be more voluminous than those migrating southward, suggesting an asymmetry of tension in the brittle-elastic lithosphere. Seismicity during dike injections is concentrated near the propagating crack front. In contrast, faults and fissures in the subsurface appear to slip or open aseismically coeval with the intrusions. The seismic energy released during dike intrusions in the Manda Hararo Rift appears to be primarily modulated by the local magnitude of differential tensile stress and marginally by the rate of stress change induced by the intrusion. The low level of seismic energy accompanying dike intrusions, despite their significant volumes, is likely an indicator of an overall low level of tension in the lithosphere of this nascent plate boundary.

  11. The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2013-11-13

    As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces. PMID:24080620

  12. Does decentralisation of tuberculosis care influence treatment outcomes? The case of Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ketema, K H; Raya, J; Workineh, T; Klinkenberg, E; Enquselassie, F

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Région d'Oromia, Ethiopie.Objectif : Examiner l'effet d'un traitement décentralisé de la tuberculose (TB) sur les résultats de ce traitement et identifier les facteurs affectant les résultats parmi des patients tuberculeux nouveaux à frottis positif.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte comparant les patients traités en communauté pendant la phase de continuation avec ceux traités dans les structures de santé. Des données ont été recueillies à partir des registres de TB et des cartes de traitement des patients grâce à un formulaire de recueil de données prétesté.Résultats : De 2226 patients tuberculeux nouveaux à frottis positif enregistrés entre juillet 2010 et juillet 2012, et inclus dans cette étude, 1599 (72,6%) ont été traités dans des structures de santé et le reste en communauté. Le succès d'ensemble du traitement a été de 94,7%. Les patients traités en communauté ont eu un taux de réussite comparable à ceux traités dans les structures de santé (OR ajusté 1,7 ; IC95% 0,80–3,57). Des doses manquées (OR 0,22 ; IC95% 0,08–0,55), une supervision pendant la phase de prolongation (OR 2,6 ; IC95% 1,34–5,05), des crachats positifs au deuxième mois (OR 0,07 ; IC95% 0,04–0,13) et l'infection au virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (OR 0,25 ; IC95% 0,13–0,46) étaient des facteurs prédictifs indépendants de succès du traitement.Conclusion : Le succès d'ensemble du traitement est élevé chez les patients tuberculeux nouveaux à frottis positif de la région d'Oromia. Les patients traités en communauté pendant la phase de continuation ont un taux de réussite du traitement comparable à celui des patients traités dans des structures de santé.

  13. A land cover change study in the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia using a flight of aerial photographs dating back to the 1930s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyassa, Etefa; Frankl, Amaury; Zenebe, Amanuel; Lanckriet, Sil; Demissie, Biadgilgn; Zenebe, Gebreyohanis; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    proportion of built-up areas also explains the shrinking of shrubland. On the studied flight of aerial photographs, forests were not existing in 1935 and have not been restored until present. The increased area of open water, on the other hand, is related to the ongoing land rehabilitation activities carried out in the region. These results confirm previous studies that severe land degradation has occurred in the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia over a long time, due to early (pre-1935) cropland expansion and deforestation.

  14. A status report of veterinary education in Ethiopia: perceived needs, past history, recent changes, and current and future concerns.

    PubMed

    Mayen, Friederike

    2006-01-01

    Ethiopia, which owns the most important livestock resources in Africa, opened its first faculty of veterinary medicine in 1979. In 2003, in response to a government mandate to increase the number of veterinarians, four new veterinary faculties were founded, but these facilities still have very limited resources. Currently, quality standards and controls for veterinary studies are not established in Ethiopia, and the country does not have any type of veterinary council or oversight body to establish such standards or the essential evaluation and credentialing procedures. The veterinary degree, as currently obtained in Ethiopia, is not internationally recognized. A second specific concern for veterinary education in Ethiopia is that it is not well adapted to the special needs of the country. Clearly, quality control of veterinary education needs to be established, and teaching methods and materials need to be adapted to the special needs of the country. So far, the veterinary faculty in Ethiopia has been more interested in partnerships with universities from developed countries than in partnerships and cooperation with other African universities. In 2002, after six years of cooperation with a German university, the Veterinary Faculty at Addis Ababa started its own post-graduate program, with some key contributions from foreign instructors and some foreign funding. While this has been a service to Ethiopian veterinary medicine, the cooperation of the Ethiopian veterinary schools with African universities must also be strengthened. Overall, the good efforts to date in Ethiopian veterinary medicine have only barely scratched the surface of its critical needs. In order to meet Ethiopia's needs for both a reliable and high-quality veterinary education and a trustworthy animal disease surveillance mechanism, it is important that veterinary education in Ethiopia be improved. PMID:16849305

  15. Livestock feed resources utilization practices in Tanqua-Abergelle district of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Tikabo; Belay, Shumuye

    2016-08-01

    A study was carried out with the objective to assess the utilization practices of local feed resources. It was implemented in Tanqua-Abergelle district of the Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Lemlem and Gera peasant associations (PAs) were selected purposively based on their potentiality in livestock resources and road access for household (HH) interview purpose. Likewise, Sheka-Tekli and Hadinet PAs were chosen for the purpose of focus group discussion (FGD). A total of 60 HHs (30 from each PA) were selected randomly for interview using semi-structured questionnaire. About 16 % of the respondents were female HHs. Two FGDs were held with key informants. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (2013, version 21) statistical software procedures. The study area is characterized by mixed crop-livestock farming system with high interaction between crop and livestock. Livestock are the mainstay for the farm community with many benefits as sources of draught, meat, milk, income, and manures. Cattle are kept primarily for the purpose of draught power with meat and milk as secondary products, whereas shoats are kept mainly for cash income, manure, meat, and milk. The land holding size per HH was 1.44 ha while the herd size was 4.93 tropical livestock unit (TLU). Almost all the land holding (97 %) is allocated for crop cultivation with lesser for forage production (<1 %) indicating poor attention for fodder harvesting. The cattle herd is composed of local breeds (99 %) with less exotic/crossbred (1 %), indicating that the livestock rearing is practiced using local breed. Crop residues, natural pastures, stubble grazing, hay, and browsing are the main feed resources for animals. The availability and contribution of each feed vary with season and areas. Sorghum stover is the main feed source in the area and followed by maize stover, Eragrostis tef straw, and pulse straws. Crop residues are fed as basal diet with no or less supplementation using local concentrates

  16. Making pragmatic choices: women’s experiences of delivery care in Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health launched the Health Extension Programme (HEP), which was intended to increase access to reproductive health care. Despite enormous effort, utilization of maternal health services remains limited, and the reasons for the low utilization of the services offered through the HEP previously have not been explored in depth. This study explores women’s experiences and perceptions regarding delivery care in Tigray, a northern region of Ethiopia, and enables us to make suggestions for better implementation of maternal health care services in this setting. Methods We used six focus group discussions with 51 women to explore perceptions and experiences regarding delivery care. The data were analysed by means of grounded theory. Results One core category emerged, ‘making pragmatic choices’, which connected the categories ‘aiming for safer deliveries’, ‘embedded in tradition’, and ‘medical knowledge under constrained circumstances’. In this setting, women – aiming for safer deliveries – made choices pragmatically between the two available models of childbirth. On the one hand, choice of home delivery, represented by the category ‘embedded in tradition’, was related to their faith, the ascendancy of elderly women, the advantages of staying at home and the custom of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). On the other, institutional delivery, represented by the category ‘medical knowledge under constrained circumstances’, and linked to how women appreciated medical resources and the support of health extension workers (HEWs) but were uncertain about the quality of care, emphasized the barriers to transportation. In Tigray women made choices pragmatically and seemed to not feel any conflict between the two available models, being supported by traditional birth attendants, HEWs and husbands in their decision-making. Representatives of the two models were not as open to collaboration as the women

  17. Impact of Trichiasis Surgery on Quality of Life: A Longitudinal Study in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Habtamu, Esmael; Wondie, Tariku; Aweke, Sintayehu; Tadesse, Zerihun; Zerihun, Mulat; Mohammed, Aderajew; Zewudie, Zebideru; Callahan, Kelly; Emerson, Paul M.; Bailey, Robin L.; Mabey, David C. W.; Rajak, Saul N.; Kuper, Hannah; Polack, Sarah; Weiss, Helen A.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachomatous trichiasis significantly reduces vision and health related quality of life (QoL). Although trichiasis surgery is widely performed to treat trichiasis, there is little data on the effect of surgery on QoL. We measured the impact of trichiasis surgery on vision and health related QoL in a longitudinal study from Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 1000 adult participants with trichiasis (cases) and 200 comparison participants, matched to every fifth trichiasis case on age (+/- two years), sex and location. Vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were measured using the WHO/PBD-VF20 and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires respectively, at enrolment and 12 months after enrolment. All trichiasis cases received free standard trichiasis surgery immediately after enrolment. The mean difference in QoL scores between enrolment and follow-up for cases and comparison participants, and the difference-in-differences by baseline trichiasis status was analysed using random effects linear regression, the later adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status. At 12-months follow-up, data was collected from 980 (98%) and 198 (98%) trichiasis cases and comparison participants respectively. At this follow-up visit, VRQoL and HRQoL scores of trichiasis cases improved substantially in all subscales and domains by 19.1–42.0 points (p<0.0001) and 4.7–17.2 points (p<0.0001), respectively. In contrast, among the comparison participants, there was no evidence of improvement in VRQoL and HRQoL domain scores during follow-up. The improvement in VRQoL and HRQoL in cases was independent of the presence of visual acuity improvement at 12 months. Conclusions/Significance Trichiasis surgery substantially improves both VRQoL and HRQoL regardless of visual acuity change. Unprecedented effort is needed to scale-up trichiasis surgical programmes not only to prevent the risk of sight loss but also to improve

  18. Taphonomy of fossils from the hominin-bearing deposits at Dikika, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jessica C; McPherron, Shannon P; Bobe, René; Reed, Denné; Barr, W Andrew; Wynn, Jonathan G; Marean, Curtis W; Geraads, Denis; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2015-09-01

    Two fossil specimens from the DIK-55 locality in the Hadar Formation at Dikika, Ethiopia, are contemporaneous with the earliest documented stone tools, and they collectively bear twelve marks interpreted to be characteristic of stone tool butchery damage. An alternative interpretation of the marks has been that they were caused by trampling animals and do not provide evidence of stone tool use or large ungulate exploitation by Australopithecus-grade hominins. Thus, resolving which agents created marks on fossils in deposits from Dikika is an essential step in understanding the ecological and taphonomic contexts of the hominin-bearing deposits in this region and establishing their relevance for investigations of the earliest stone tool use. This paper presents results of microscopic scrutiny of all non-hominin fossils collected from the Hadar Formation at Dikika, including additional fossils from DIK-55, and describes in detail seven assemblages from sieved surface sediment samples. The study is the first taphonomic description of Pliocene fossil assemblages from open-air deposits in Africa that were collected without using only methods that emphasize the selective retention of taxonomically-informative specimens. The sieved assemblages show distinctive differences in faunal representation and taphonomic modifications that suggest they sample a range of depositional environments in the Pliocene Hadar Lake Basin, and have implications for how landscape-based taphonomy can be used to infer past microhabitats. The surface modification data show that no marks on any other fossils resemble in size or shape those on the two specimens from DIK-55 that were interpreted to bear stone tool inflicted damage. A large sample of marks from the sieved collections has characteristics that match modern trampling damage, but these marks are significantly smaller than those on the DIK-55 specimens and have different suites of characteristics. Most are not visible without magnification

  19. Livestock feed resources utilization practices in Tanqua-Abergelle district of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Tikabo; Belay, Shumuye

    2016-08-01

    A study was carried out with the objective to assess the utilization practices of local feed resources. It was implemented in Tanqua-Abergelle district of the Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Lemlem and Gera peasant associations (PAs) were selected purposively based on their potentiality in livestock resources and road access for household (HH) interview purpose. Likewise, Sheka-Tekli and Hadinet PAs were chosen for the purpose of focus group discussion (FGD). A total of 60 HHs (30 from each PA) were selected randomly for interview using semi-structured questionnaire. About 16 % of the respondents were female HHs. Two FGDs were held with key informants. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (2013, version 21) statistical software procedures. The study area is characterized by mixed crop-livestock farming system with high interaction between crop and livestock. Livestock are the mainstay for the farm community with many benefits as sources of draught, meat, milk, income, and manures. Cattle are kept primarily for the purpose of draught power with meat and milk as secondary products, whereas shoats are kept mainly for cash income, manure, meat, and milk. The land holding size per HH was 1.44 ha while the herd size was 4.93 tropical livestock unit (TLU). Almost all the land holding (97 %) is allocated for crop cultivation with lesser for forage production (<1 %) indicating poor attention for fodder harvesting. The cattle herd is composed of local breeds (99 %) with less exotic/crossbred (1 %), indicating that the livestock rearing is practiced using local breed. Crop residues, natural pastures, stubble grazing, hay, and browsing are the main feed resources for animals. The availability and contribution of each feed vary with season and areas. Sorghum stover is the main feed source in the area and followed by maize stover, Eragrostis tef straw, and pulse straws. Crop residues are fed as basal diet with no or less supplementation using local concentrates

  20. Taphonomy of fossils from the hominin-bearing deposits at Dikika, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jessica C; McPherron, Shannon P; Bobe, René; Reed, Denné; Barr, W Andrew; Wynn, Jonathan G; Marean, Curtis W; Geraads, Denis; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2015-09-01

    Two fossil specimens from the DIK-55 locality in the Hadar Formation at Dikika, Ethiopia, are contemporaneous with the earliest documented stone tools, and they collectively bear twelve marks interpreted to be characteristic of stone tool butchery damage. An alternative interpretation of the marks has been that they were caused by trampling animals and do not provide evidence of stone tool use or large ungulate exploitation by Australopithecus-grade hominins. Thus, resolving which agents created marks on fossils in deposits from Dikika is an essential step in understanding the ecological and taphonomic contexts of the hominin-bearing deposits in this region and establishing their relevance for investigations of the earliest stone tool use. This paper presents results of microscopic scrutiny of all non-hominin fossils collected from the Hadar Formation at Dikika, including additional fossils from DIK-55, and describes in detail seven assemblages from sieved surface sediment samples. The study is the first taphonomic description of Pliocene fossil assemblages from open-air deposits in Africa that were collected without using only methods that emphasize the selective retention of taxonomically-informative specimens. The sieved assemblages show distinctive differences in faunal representation and taphonomic modifications that suggest they sample a range of depositional environments in the Pliocene Hadar Lake Basin, and have implications for how landscape-based taphonomy can be used to infer past microhabitats. The surface modification data show that no marks on any other fossils resemble in size or shape those on the two specimens from DIK-55 that were interpreted to bear stone tool inflicted damage. A large sample of marks from the sieved collections has characteristics that match modern trampling damage, but these marks are significantly smaller than those on the DIK-55 specimens and have different suites of characteristics. Most are not visible without magnification

  1. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in Cattle in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dejene, Sintayehu W; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; Prins, Herbert H T; Lemma, Fitsum A; Mekonnen, Daniel A; Alemu, Zelalem E; Kelkay, Tessema Z; de Boer, Willem F

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife-including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT). Data on herd structure