Science.gov

Sample records for game hunting reserved

  1. 78 FR 21199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests... to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2013-14 hunting...

  2. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations... Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian... annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2011-12 hunting season. We annually...

  3. 77 FR 23093 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests... to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2012-13 hunting...

  4. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting...] RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for...

  5. 75 FR 32872 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2010-11 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Fish and... migratory game birds for the 2010-11 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed rule provides the... addressed the establishment of seasons, limits, and other regulations for hunting migratory game birds under...

  6. 75 FR 27143 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian...-2010-0040] [91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game... for certain migratory game birds for the 2010-11 hunting season. We annually prescribe outside limits...

  7. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters

    Treesearch

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...

  8. 78 FR 35844 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2013-14 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Fish and... migratory game birds for the 2013-14 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed rule provides the... migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through 20.107, 20.109, and 20.110 of subpart K. This document...

  9. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2011-12 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Fish and... migratory game birds for the 2011-12 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed rule provides the... migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through 20.107, 20.109, and 20.110 of subpart K. This document...

  10. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...) recognition of their authority to regulate hunting under established guidelines. This rule allows the... to tribal requests for Service recognition of their reserved hunting rights, and for some tribes, recognition of their authority to regulate hunting by both tribal members and nonmembers on their reservations...

  11. 75 FR 59041 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... and Wildlife Service (hereinafter Service or we) recognition of their authority to regulate hunting... to tribal requests for Service recognition of their reserved hunting rights, and for some tribes, recognition of their authority to regulate hunting by both tribal members and nonmembers on their reservations...

  12. 76 FR 54675 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...) recognition of tribal authority to regulate hunting under established guidelines. This rule allows the..., Federal Register (50 FR 23467). The guidelines respond to tribal requests for Service recognition of their reserved hunting rights, and for some tribes, recognition of their authority to regulate hunting by both...

  13. The Stag Hunt Game: An Example of an Excel-Based Probabilistic Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Dave

    2016-01-01

    With so many role-playing simulations already in the political science education literature, the recent repeated calls for new games is both timely and appropriate. This article answers and extends those calls by advocating the creation of probabilistic games using Microsoft Excel. I introduce the example of the Stag Hunt Game--a short, effective,…

  14. Multiple-host pathogens in domestic hunting dogs in Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Fiorello, Christine V; Straub, Mary H; Schwartz, Laura M; Liu, James; Campbell, Amanda; Kownacki, Alexa K; Foley, Janet E

    2017-03-01

    Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp. exceeded 50% of dogs. At least one dog was actively shedding leptospires in urine, and many dogs were anemic and/or dehydrated. These dogs interact with wildlife in the forest and humans and domestic livestock in the communities, and may therefore serve as sources of zoonotic and wildlife diseases. Bosawás represents one of the largest intact tracts of habitat for jaguars (Panthera onca) in Central America, and given that these communities are located within the forest, jaguars may be at risk from disease spillover from hunting dogs. Dog owners reported that four of 49 dogs had been attacked and killed by jaguars in the past year, and that retaliatory killing of jaguars was sometimes practiced. Disease spillover from dogs to wildlife could occur both in the course of dogs' hunting activities as well as during jaguar attacks. A better understanding of dog depredation by jaguars, pathogen exposure in jaguars, and a management strategy for the hunting dog population, are urgently needed to mitigate these dual threats to jaguars, improve the lives of hunting dogs, and safeguard the health of their owners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A hedonic analysis of big game hunting club dues in Georgia, USA

    Treesearch

    James C. Mingie; Neelam C. Poudyal; J. M.  Bowker; Michael T.  Mengak; Jacek P.  Siry

    2017-01-01

    Hunting lease revenue can be a reliable supplemental income for forest landowners. Although studies have examined factors influencing per acre lease rates, little is known about how various characteristics are capitalized in hunting club dues. The objective of this study was to conduct a hedonic analysis of big game hunting club dues in Georgia, USA using a variety of...

  16. Multilevel D-loop PCR identification of hunting game.

    PubMed

    Parkanyi, V; Ondruska, L; Vasicek, D; Slamecka, J

    2014-03-01

    The control region of mtDNA (D-loop) was used for hair samples of the five hunting game species identification: red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), and wild boar (Sus scrofa). For D-loop multilevel PCR detection scheme was applied in six primers (CE CVZV 1 = 5'-GATCACGAGCTTGATCACCA-3'; CE CVZV 2 = 5'-AGGAGTGGGCGATTTTAGGT-3'; DD CVZV 3 = 5'-CGCGTGAAACCAACAACCCGC-3'; DD CVZV 4 = 5'-CCGGGTCGGGGCCTTAGACG-3'; SSW CVZV 5 = 5'-ACACGTGCGTACACGCGCATA-3'; SSW CVZV 6 = 5'-GGTGCCTGCT T TCGTAGCACG-3') designed to identify unknown biological samples of the hunting game animals. The PCR reaction volume was 25 μl at conditions 95 °C for 2 min, 94 °C for 30 s, 60 °C for 30 s, 72 °C for 30 s, 35 cycles, with last extension at 72 °C for 10 min. D-loop mtDNA amplicons of the game animals are characterized with specific PCR product sizes depending on species: red deer = 163 bp and 140 bp, fallow deer = 280 bp and 138 bp, roe deer = 303 bp, 280 bp, 160 bp and 138 bp, mouflon = 299 bp and 178 bp, wild boar = 137 bp and 229 bp.

  17. 77 FR 54451 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... was consistent with recent changes in Wisconsin allowing the harvest of wolves at night. GLIWFC also...) The use of dogs is permitted to hunt waterfowl. (7) Shooting hours for all species of waterfowl are...

  18. Provisioning of Game Meat to Rural Communities as a Benefit of Sport Hunting in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    White, Paula A.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004–2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007–2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September–October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013–2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  19. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    PubMed

    White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.

  20. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  1. Lead Exposure in Bald Eagles from Big Game Hunting, the Continental Implications and Successful Mitigation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005–2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009–2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  2. Lead Exposure in Free-Flying Turkey Vultures Is Associated with Big Game Hunting in California

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers. PMID:21494326

  3. Lead exposure in free-flying turkey vultures is associated with big game hunting in California.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers.

  4. 75 FR 53774 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... finalized the guidelines beginning with the 1988-89 hunting season (August 18, 1988, Federal Register [53 FR...), snow geese (Chen caerulescens), Ross' geese (C. rossii), emperor geese (C. canagica), white-fronted... the Environmental Protection Agency on June 9, 1988. We published a notice of availability in the...

  5. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... authority, and has a court system with judges that hear cases and set fines. Nontoxic shot is required... possession limits. In all cases, the regulations established under the guidelines must be consistent with the... regulations for migratory bird hunting by American Indian tribal members. We received one comment on our...

  6. 77 FR 58627 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 184 / Friday, September 21, 2012... Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and... addressed the establishment of seasons, limits, and other regulations for hunting migratory game birds under...

  7. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game bird...

  8. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game bird...

  9. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game bird...

  10. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game bird...

  11. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual... published in the Federal Register for public review and comment, similar to the annual migratory game bird...

  12. Hunting with lead: association between blood lead levels and wild game consumption.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahed; Blumenthal, Wendy; Kennedy, Chinaro; Yip, Fuyuen Y; Pickard, Stephen; Flanders, W Dana; Loringer, Kelly; Kruger, Kirby; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jean Brown, Mary

    2009-11-01

    Wild game hunting is a popular activity in many regions of the United States. Recently, the presence of lead fragments in wild game meat, presumably from the bullets or shot used for hunting, has raised concerns about health risks from meat consumption. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (PbB) and wild game consumption. We recruited 742 participants, aged 2-92 years, from six North Dakota cities. Blood lead samples were collected from 736 persons. Information on socio-demographic background, housing, lead exposure source, and types of wild game consumption (i.e., venison, other game such as moose, birds) was also collected. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to determine the association between PbB and wild game consumption. Most participants reported consuming wild game (80.8%) obtained from hunting (98.8%). The geometric mean PbB were 1.27 and 0.84 microg/dl among persons who did and did not consume wild game, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, persons who consumed wild game had 0.30 microg/dl (95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.44 microg/dl) higher PbB than persons who did not. For all game types, recent (<1 month) wild game consumption was associated with higher PbB. PbB was also higher among those who consumed a larger serving size (> or = 2 oz vs. <2 oz); however, this association was significant for 'other game' consumption only. Participants who consumed wild game had higher PbB than those who did not consume wild game. Careful review of butchering practices and monitoring of meat-packing processes may decrease lead exposure from wild game consumption.

  13. Sexual dimorphism in relation to big-game hunting and economy in modern human populations.

    PubMed

    Collier, S

    1993-08-01

    Postcranial skeletal data from two recent Eskimo populations are used to test David Frayer's model of sexual dimorphism reduction in Europe between the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Frayer argued that a change from big-game hunting and adoption of new technology in the Mesolithic reduced selection for large body size in males and led to a reduction in skeletal sexual dimorphism. Though aspects of Frayer's work have been criticized in the literature, the association of big-game hunting and high sexual dimorphism is untested. This study employs univariate and multivariate analysis to test that association by examining sexual dimorphism of cranial and postcranial bones of two recent Alaskan Eskimo populations, one being big-game (whale and other large marine mammal) hunting people, and the second being salmon fishing, riverine people. While big-game hunting influences skeletal robusticity, it cannot be said to lead to greater sexual dimorphism generally. The two populations had different relative sexual dimorphism levels for different parts of the body. Notably, the big-game hunting (whaling) Eskimos had the lower multivariate dimorphism in the humerus, which could be expected to be the structure under greatest exertion by such hunting in males. While the exertions of the whale hunting economic activities led to high skeletal robusticity, as predicted by Frayer's model, this was true of the females as well as the males, resulting in low sexual dimorphism in some features. Females are half the sexual dimorphism equation, and they cannot be seen as constants in any model of economic behavior.

  14. Chapter 5. Plant gathering, game hunting, fishing, mineral collecting, and agriculture

    Treesearch

    Kurt F. Anschuetz

    2007-01-01

    Native American populations have cut wood for shelters and fuel, gathered native plants, hunted game animals, and collected various other resources, such as obsidian for making chipped-stone tools, clay for crafting pottery vessels, and stone slabs for producing piki (corn meal paper bread) griddles, in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) for countless...

  15. Big game hunter preferences for hunting club attributes: A choice experiment

    Treesearch

    James C. Mingie; Neelam C. Poudyal; J. M.  Bowker; Michael T.  Mengak; Jacek P.  Siry

    2017-01-01

    Big game hunting on private leased forestland is popular in Georgia and other parts of the southern United States. Very often, the leasing arrangement takes the form of a club, wherein a specified number of members pay an annual fee to either a landowner or the club's manager to have a certain bundle of access rights in accordance with other club regulations or...

  16. Sustainability and comanagement of subsistence hunting in an indigenous reserve in Guyana.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Christopher A; Milstein, Marissa S; Yukuma, Charakura; Marawanaru, Elisha; Suse, Phillip

    2017-10-01

    Although hunting is a key component of subsistence strategies of many Amazonians, it is also one of the greatest threats to wildlife. Because indigenous reserves comprise over 20% of Amazonia, effective conservation often requires that conservation professionals work closely with indigenous groups to manage resource use. We used hunter-generated harvesting data in spatially explicit biodemographic models to assess the sustainability of subsistence hunting of indigenous Waiwai in Guyana. We collected data through a hunter self-monitoring program, systematic follows of hunters, and semistructured interviews. We used these data to predict future densities of 2 indicator species, spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus) and bearded sakis (Chiropotes sagulatus), under different scenarios of human population expansion and changing hunting technology. We used encounter rates from transect surveys and hunter catch-per-unit effort (CPUE) to validate model predictions. Paca (Cuniculus paca) (198 /year), Currosaw (Crax alector) (168), and spider monkey (117) were the most frequently harvested species. Predicted densities of spider monkeys were statistically indistinguishable from empirically derived transect data (Kolmogorov-Smirnov D = 0.67, p = 0.759) and CPUE (D = 0.32, p = 1.000), demonstrating the robustness of model predictions. Ateles paniscus and C. sagulatus were predicted to be extirpated from <13% of the Waiwai reserve in 20 years, even under the most intensive hunting scenarios. Our results suggest Waiwai hunting is currently sustainable, primarily due to their low population density and use of bow and arrow. Continual monitoring is necessary, however, particularly if human population increases are accompanied by a switch to shotgun-only hunting. We suggest that hunter self-monitoring and biodemographic modeling can be used effectively in a comanagement approach in which indigenous parabiologists continuously provide hunting data that is then used to update model

  17. 75 FR 53226 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and...; sandhill cranes; sea ducks; early (September) waterfowl seasons; migratory game birds in Alaska, Hawaii... regulations for hunting migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through 20.107, 20.109, and 20.110 of...

  18. 76 FR 59271 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule..., and other regulations for hunting migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through 20.107, 20.109... of migratory shore and upland game birds and developed recommendations for the 2011-12 regulations...

  19. 78 FR 58204 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final..., and other regulations for hunting migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through 20.107, 20.109... participants reviewed information on the current status of migratory shore and upland game birds and developed...

  20. 75 FR 58993 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... seasons, limits, and other regulations for hunting migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through 20...

  1. Oil and gas development influences big-game hunting in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorning, Monica; Garman, Steven L.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Semmens, Darius J.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.

    2017-01-01

    Development from extracting oil and gas resources can have unintended effects on multiple ecosystem functions, with cascading effects on wildlife, ecosystem services, and local economies. Big-game hunting opportunities may be closely related to these effects, but empirical analyses of impacts of energy development on hunting are limited. We examined the influence of oil and gas development density on harvest efficiency, or harvest per unit of hunter effort, within all hunt areas in Wyoming, USA, from 2008 to 2014 for 3 big-game species: elk (Cervus canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Using harvest/hunter day as the response variable, we compared linear mixed-effects models for each species that included total well density (i.e., all wells constructed up to the year of record), active well density (i.e., only those wells currently producing oil or gas in that year), or neither as a predictor variable. We used well densities as indicators of development in the absence of data specifying the locations of other oil and gas infrastructure (e.g., roads, well pads). Models also accounted for the fixed effects of road density, hunter density, proportion of the area that is public land with unrestricted hunter access, proportion of the area that is forested, year of observation, and random effects of variation among hunt areas nested within associated game herd units. Presence of oil and gas wells had a positive influence on harvest efficiency for elk and mule deer. Although there was no overall effect to pronghorn, there was a negative influence of wells on juvenile pronghorn harvest efficiency. Changes in harvest efficiency due to expanding oil and gas development could alter the time spent hunting by hunters and their chances of harvesting an animal. This could have subsequent impacts on hunter satisfaction, game populations, and economic revenue generated from recreational hunters.

  2. Treasure hunt of mineral resources: a serious game in a virtual world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniello, Annalisa

    2015-04-01

    This posterdescribes a geoscience activities on mineral resources for students of 14-18 years old. The activities are created as a treasure hunt of mineral resources, students must pass test and solve questions, search mineral in different environments: near a volcanos, in the river, in a lake, in a cave, under the sea and on a mountain. The activity is created using a virtual environment a virtual world built with a software, Opensim, a opensource software. In this virtual world every student as avatar, a virtual rapresentation of himself, search information, objects, mineral as in a serious game, a digital serious game. In the serious game buit as a treasure hunt, students interact with environment in a learning by doing, and they interact with other students in a cooperative learning and a collaborative environment. In the hunt there is a challenge that student must overcome: understanding what is a mineral resource collecting data on mineral analyzing environments where they are created so the students can improve motivation and learn, and improve scientific skills.

  3. 76 FR 39185 - 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... that pertain to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing... wildlife refuges to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, or sport fishing.... Table 1--Changes for 2011-2012 Hunting/Fishing Season Migratory bird Upland game National wildlife...

  4. Large carnivores response to recreational big game hunting along the Yellowstone National Park and Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, T.E.; Smith, D.W.; Haroldson, M.A.; Buotte, P.C.; Schwartz, C.C.; Quigley, H.B.; Cherry, S.; Tyres, D.; Frey, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem contains the rare combination of an intact guild of native large carnivores, their prey, and differing land management policies (National Park versus National Forest; no hunting versus hunting). Concurrent field studies on large carnivores allowed us to investigate activities of humans and carnivores on Yellowstone National Park's (YNP) northern boundary. Prior to and during the backcountry big-game hunting season, we monitored movements of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), wolves (Canis lupus), and cougars (Puma concolor) on the northern boundary of YNP. Daily aerial telemetry locations (September 1999), augmented with weekly telemetry locations (August and October 1999), were obtained for 3 grizzly bears, 7 wolves in 2 groups of 1 pack, and 3 cougars in 1 family group. Grizzly bears were more likely located inside the YNP boundary during the pre-hunt period and north of the boundary once hunting began. The cougar family tended to be found outside YNP during the pre-hunt period and moved inside YNP when hunting began. Wolves did not significantly change their movement patterns during the pre-hunt and hunting periods. Qualitative information on elk (Cervus elaphus) indicated they moved into YNP once hunting started, suggesting that cougars followed living prey or responded to hunting activity, grizzly bears focused on dead prey (e.g., gut piles, crippled elk), and wolves may have taken advantage of both. Measures of association (Jacob's Index) were positive within carnivore species but inconclusive among species. Further collaborative research and the use of new technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry collars will advance our ability to understand these species, the carnivore community and its interactions, and human influences on carnivores.

  5. 77 FR 56027 - 2012-2013 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... that pertain to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing... fishing regulations when we open wildlife refuges to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, or sport fishing. These regulations list the wildlife species that you may hunt or fish...

  6. 77 FR 41001 - 2012-2013 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... other refuges that pertain to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, and... refuge-specific hunting and sport fishing regulations when we open wildlife refuges to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, or sport fishing. These regulations list the...

  7. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game or...

  8. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game or...

  9. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game or...

  10. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game or...

  11. 32 CFR 552.19 - Hunting and fishing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Hunting and fishing permits. 552.19 Section 552.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS... and fishing permits. All permits to hunt, catch, trap, or kill any kind of game animal, game or...

  12. Coordination strategies of chimpanzees and human children in a Stag Hunt game

    PubMed Central

    Duguid, Shona; Wyman, Emily; Bullinger, Anke F.; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Much of human cooperation takes place in mutualistic contexts in which the main challenge for individuals is how to coordinate decisions. In the current studies, we compared the abilities of chimpanzees and young children to coordinate with a partner in two versions of a Stag Hunt game. When risks were low (the hare was of low value) and information was cheap (the partner's behaviour was readily observable), partners of both species were able to successfully coordinate on the higher value stag more than 90% of the time. By contrast, when the risks were raised and observing the partner was more difficult, the chimpanzees became less successful, whereas the children compensated, and so remained highly successful, by communicating more often and more specifically. This pattern of results is consistent with the hypothesis that humans evolved unique skills of coordination and communication in the context of especially risky coordination problems. PMID:25320165

  13. 78 FR 58753 - 2013-2014 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... pertinent refuge-specific regulations on other refuges that pertain to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the 2013-2014 season. DATES: We will accept... migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, or sport fishing. These regulations list...

  14. Cooperative behavior and phase transitions in co-evolving stag hunt game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Li, Y. S.; Xu, C.; Hui, P. M.

    2016-02-01

    Cooperative behavior and different phases in a co-evolving network dynamics based on the stag hunt game is studied. The dynamical processes are parameterized by a payoff r that tends to promote non-cooperative behavior and a probability q for a rewiring attempt that could isolate the non-cooperators. The interplay between the parameters leads to different phases. Detailed simulations and a mean field theory are employed to reveal the properties of different phases. For small r, the cooperators are the majority and form a connected cluster while the non-cooperators increase with q but remain isolated over the whole range of q, and it is a static phase. For sufficiently large r, cooperators disappear in an intermediate range qL ≤ q ≤qU and a dynamical all-non-cooperators phase results. For q >qU, a static phase results again. A mean field theory based on how the link densities change in time by the co-evolving dynamics is constructed. The theory gives a phase diagram in the q- r parameter space that is qualitatively in agreement with simulation results. The sources of discrepancies between theory and simulations are discussed.

  15. Fatty acid composition of birds and game hunted by the Eastern James Bay Cree people of Québec

    PubMed Central

    Proust, Francoise; Johnson-Down, Louise; Berthiaume, Line; Greffard, Karine; Julien, Pierre; Robinson, Elizabeth; Lucas, Michel; Dewailly, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous peoples have traditionally relied on foods hunted and gathered from their immediate environment. The Eastern James Bay Cree people consume wild game and birds, and these are believed to provide health as well as cultural benefits. Objective To determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of traditional game and bird meats hunted in the Eastern James Bay area. Design Harvested traditional game and birds were analysed for FA composition. A total of 52 samples from six wildlife species were collected in the areas of Chisasibi, Waswanipi and Mistissini, of which 35 were from birds (white partridge and Canada goose) and 17 were from land animals (beaver, moose, caribou and black bear). Results Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was the most common n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in all samples except for the black bear flesh, in which it was docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3). In white partridge, beaver and caribou flesh, PUFAs (mainly n-6) were the most common category of fats while in goose, moose and black bear flesh, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) predominated. In all species, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were the second most important FAs. It would appear that in the land animals and birds that were analysed, the SFA content was lower and the PUFA content was higher than store-bought meats giving them a more heart-healthy profile. Conclusions These results showed that the FA composition of game species consumed by the James Bay Cree population is consistent with a beneficial diet and that traditional foods should continue to be promoted among the Cree people to provide better physical health as well as social and spiritual benefits. PMID:27495903

  16. Fatty acid composition of birds and game hunted by the Eastern James Bay Cree people of Québec.

    PubMed

    Proust, Francoise; Johnson-Down, Louise; Berthiaume, Line; Greffard, Karine; Julien, Pierre; Robinson, Elizabeth; Lucas, Michel; Dewailly, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous peoples have traditionally relied on foods hunted and gathered from their immediate environment. The Eastern James Bay Cree people consume wild game and birds, and these are believed to provide health as well as cultural benefits. To determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of traditional game and bird meats hunted in the Eastern James Bay area. Harvested traditional game and birds were analysed for FA composition. A total of 52 samples from six wildlife species were collected in the areas of Chisasibi, Waswanipi and Mistissini, of which 35 were from birds (white partridge and Canada goose) and 17 were from land animals (beaver, moose, caribou and black bear). Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was the most common n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in all samples except for the black bear flesh, in which it was docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3). In white partridge, beaver and caribou flesh, PUFAs (mainly n-6) were the most common category of fats while in goose, moose and black bear flesh, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) predominated. In all species, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were the second most important FAs. It would appear that in the land animals and birds that were analysed, the SFA content was lower and the PUFA content was higher than store-bought meats giving them a more heart-healthy profile. These results showed that the FA composition of game species consumed by the James Bay Cree population is consistent with a beneficial diet and that traditional foods should continue to be promoted among the Cree people to provide better physical health as well as social and spiritual benefits.

  17. EnviroAtlas - Big Game Hunting Recreation Demand by 12-Digit HUC in the Conterminous United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset includes the total number of recreational days per year demanded by people ages 18 and over for big game hunting by location in the contiguous United States. Big game includes deer, elk, bear, and wild turkey. These values are based on 2010 population distribution, 2011 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) Fish, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation (FHWAR) survey data, and 2011 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service National Visitor Use Monitoring program data, and have been summarized by 12-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC). This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to the EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  18. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  20. 77 FR 34931 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Meeting Regarding Regulations for the 2012-13 Hunting Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2012-13... hunting migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through 20.107, 20.109, and 20.110 of subpart K. On... migratory game bird hunting regulations (77 FR 29516). In that document, we announced a meeting of the SRC...

  1. Applying principles from the game theory to acute stroke care: Learning from the prisoner's dilemma, stag-hunt, and other strategies.

    PubMed

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2016-04-01

    Acute stroke care represents a challenge for decision makers. Decisions based on erroneous assessments may generate false expectations of patients and their family members, and potentially inappropriate medical advice. Game theory is the analysis of interactions between individuals to study how conflict and cooperation affect our decisions. We reviewed principles of game theory that could be applied to medical decisions under uncertainty. Medical decisions in acute stroke care are usually made under constrains: short period of time, with imperfect clinical information, limit understanding about patients and families' values and beliefs. Game theory brings some strategies to help us manage complex medical situations under uncertainty. For example, it offers a different perspective by encouraging the consideration of different alternatives through the understanding of patients' preferences and the careful evaluation of cognitive distortions when applying 'real-world' data. The stag-hunt game teaches us the importance of trust to strength cooperation for a successful patient-physician interaction that is beyond a good or poor clinical outcome. The application of game theory to stroke care may improve our understanding of complex medical situations and help clinicians make practical decisions under uncertainty. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  2. 75 FR 56359 - 2010-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to add one refuge to the list of areas open for hunting and/or sport fishing and increase the activities available at seven other refuges, along with pertinent refuge-specific regulations on other refuges that pertain to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the 2010-2011 season.

  3. 76 FR 3937 - 2010-2011 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ...The Fish and Wildlife Service adds one refuge to the list of areas open for hunting and/or sport fishing and increases the activities available at seven other refuges, along with pertinent refuge-specific regulations on other refuges that pertain to migratory game bird hunting, upland game hunting, big game hunting, and sport fishing for the 2010-2011 season.

  4. Spatial-temporal Trends and Factors Associated with the Bluetongue Virus Seropositivity in Large Game Hunting Areas from Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Montes, A; Paniagua, J; Arenas, A; Lorca-Oró, C; Carbonero, A; Cano-Terriza, D; García-Bocanegra, I

    2016-10-01

    An epidemiological study was carried out to determine the spatial-temporal trends and risk factors potentially involved in the seropositivity to bluetongue virus (BTV) in hunting areas with presence of red deer (Cervus elaphus). A total of 60 of 98 (61.2%; CI95% : 51.6-70.9) hunting areas sampled presented at least one seropositive red deer. Antibodies against BTV were detected in juvenile animals during the hunting seasons 2007/2008 to 2013/2014 in 15 of 98 (15.3%) hunting areas, which indicates an uninterrupted circulation of BTV in this period. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that the red deer density at hunting area level (>22 individuals/km(2) ), the annual abundance of Culicoides imicola (>1.4 mosquitoes/sampling) and the goat density at municipality level (>24.1 individuals/km(2) ) were factors significantly associated with BTV seropositivity in hunting areas. Control measures against BTV in the studied area include vaccination programmes in wild and domestic ruminants, movement control in areas with high densities and abundance of red deer and C. imicola, respectively. Considering the potential risk of BTV re-emergence, red deer should be included in the BT surveillance programmes in regions where these species share habitats with livestock. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. 77 FR 53751 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands... Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States... seasons; migratory game birds in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; youth waterfowl day...

  6. 78 FR 53199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands... Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States... seasons; migratory game birds in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; youth waterfowl day...

  7. 76 FR 54657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands... Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...; migratory game birds in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; and some extended falconry...

  8. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and publication of the opening of a wildlife refuge area to migratory game bird, upland game or big game hunting. (b) Refuge-specific hunting regulations may contain the following items: (1) Wildlife...

  9. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and publication of the opening of a wildlife refuge area to migratory game bird, upland game or big game hunting. (b) Refuge-specific hunting regulations may contain the following items: (1) Wildlife...

  10. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and publication of the opening of a wildlife refuge area to migratory game bird, upland game or big game hunting. (b) Refuge-specific hunting regulations may contain the following items: (1) Wildlife...

  11. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to the...

  12. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to the...

  13. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to the...

  14. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to the...

  15. 50 CFR 32.1 - Opening of wildlife refuge areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Secretary that the opening of the area to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, or big game will...” shall annually be open to the hunting of migratory game birds, upland game, and big game subject to the...

  16. Predicting the impacts of a high-voltage transmission line on big game hunting opportunities in Western Montana

    Treesearch

    Stewart Allen

    1985-01-01

    The State of Montana, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service and Bonneville Power Administration, is conducting a five-vear study on the impacts of a 500-kV transmission line on elk habitat and hunter opportunity. In fall 1983, baseline data on hunting patterns and quality were collected from over 600 hunters interviewed in three western Montana study areas. A...

  17. Baby's Gone A-Hunting: "The Hunger Games," "Bully," and Struggling to Grow Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Movies that treat the imagined future and that deal with issues of adolescence coming to adulthood are represented by "The Hunger Games." The role of movies that present a dystopic view of the future in our actual attempts to deal with contemporary adolescence is discussed in this article. The use of images of the future as…

  18. Internet Cruising with the Internet Hunt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Rick

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Internet Hunt, a game designed to challenge and inform librarians about information sources available on the Internet. The use of telnet, and FTP (File Transfer Protocol) are described, and the results of the first Internet Hunt are provided. (EA)

  19. Phase I archaeological survey of the proposed timber harvest area in hunting area 54 on the Fort Knox Military Reservation, Hardin County, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schenian, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    In July 1995, the Fort Knox Contract Staff Archaeologist conducted a Phase I archaeological survey of a proposed timber harvest area in Hunting Area 54 on the Fort Knox Military Reservation, Hardin County, Kentucky. The timber harvest area encompasses approximately 48 acres (19 ha) in an irregularly shaped area on the ridge tops and slopes adjoining Easy Gap Road. Only selected trees, which were marked by Forestry Section personnel prior to the archaeological survey, will be harvested for marketing, but fallen and damaged trees also will be removed. The survey resulted in the discovery of no archaeological sites. A cemeterymore » (Cemetery Number 109 or the Stone/Hem Cemetery) is located in the project area and has considerable tree damage near it. It is recommended that the timber harvest be conducted as proposed, but that the contract staff archaeologist be on-site when the timbering is performed in the vicinity of the cemetery to assist with the protection and clean-up of the cemetery. If feasible, the cemetery should be fenced after the logging operations are completed to facilitate its future location, protection, and management.« less

  20. 75 FR 52398 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... late-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or... migratory game birds under Sec. Sec. 20.101 through 20.107, 20.109, and 20.110 of subpart K. Major steps in... game birds and developed recommendations for the 2010-11 regulations for these species plus regulations...

  1. 50 CFR 32.3 - What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and publication of the opening of a wildlife refuge area to migratory game bird, upland game or big game hunting. (b) Refuge-specific hunting regulations may contain the following items: (1) Wildlife... FISHING General Provisions § 32.3 What are the procedures for publication of refuge-specific hunting...

  2. Anuniatiq (Hunting).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Truman

    This elementary language text, designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik, and Shungnak, contains fourteen passages about hunting in Alaska. Each page of text is illustrated with a black-and-white drawing. The English equivalent is given at the back and is not included in…

  3. Hunting Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank

    Eleven stories describe traditional practices and true adventures of the Tlingit hunters of Southeast Alaska. The stories are accompanied by learning activities and discussion questions for students and are arranged under the headings of bear, mountain goat and deer, and seal and sea lion. Topics include hunting weapons and strategies, bravery,…

  4. Outbreak of Trichinella spiralis Infections Associated With a Wild Boar Hunted at a Game Farm in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Holzhauer, Stacy M.; Agger, William A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Johnson, Gary M.; Schmitt, David; Garvey, Ann; Bishop, Henry S.; Rivera, Hilda; de Almeida, Marcos E.; Hill, Dolores; Stromberg, Bert E.; Lynfield, Ruth; Smith, Kirk E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rates of trichinellosis have declined significantly in the United States due to improved pork production practices and public awareness of the danger of eating raw or undercooked pork. In April 2011, the Minnesota Department of Health received a report of presumptive trichinellosis in a 50-year-old man with a history of wild boar consumption. A public health investigation was initiated. Methods Medical record reviews and patient and family interviews were conducted. Trichinella species serology was performed on patient and family serum samples, and larval identification was attempted on clinical specimens and meat samples. Results The index patient harvested a wild boar from an Iowa game farm; he processed the meat after returning home and developed gastrointestinal symptoms 2 days later. Four days after his illness onset, all 5 family members consumed a roast from the boar. The index patient sought healthcare 4 times after illness onset before being definitively diagnosed with trichinellosis. Following initiation of albendazole therapy, the index patient developed atrial fibrillation. One additional family member who processed the raw meat was diagnosed with trichinellosis. Trichinella spiralis larvae were identified in wild boar meat samples. Conclusions Trichinellosis has long been recognized as a potential hazard of consuming undercooked wild carnivore meat, and historically has been associated with consumption of pork from domestic swine, but may be unfamiliar to practicing clinicians in the United States. Education of hunters and the broader population on the potential for trichinellosis and the importance of proper handling and cooking meat from wild or free-range animals needs to be reinforced. PMID:25214511

  5. Outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infections associated with a wild boar hunted at a game farm in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Holzbauer, Stacy M; Agger, William A; Hall, Rebecca L; Johnson, Gary M; Schmitt, David; Garvey, Ann; Bishop, Henry S; Rivera, Hilda; de Almeida, Marcos E; Hill, Dolores; Stromberg, Bert E; Lynfield, Ruth; Smith, Kirk E

    2014-12-15

    Rates of trichinellosis have declined significantly in the United States due to improved pork production practices and public awareness of the danger of eating raw or undercooked pork. In April 2011, the Minnesota Department of Health received a report of presumptive trichinellosis in a 50-year-old man with a history of wild boar consumption. A public health investigation was initiated. Medical record reviews and patient and family interviews were conducted. Trichinella species serology was performed on patient and family serum samples, and larval identification was attempted on clinical specimens and meat samples. The index patient harvested a wild boar from an Iowa game farm; he processed the meat after returning home and developed gastrointestinal symptoms 2 days later. Four days after his illness onset, all 5 family members consumed a roast from the boar. The index patient sought healthcare 4 times after illness onset before being definitively diagnosed with trichinellosis. Following initiation of albendazole therapy, the index patient developed atrial fibrillation. One additional family member who processed the raw meat was diagnosed with trichinellosis. Trichinella spiralis larvae were identified in wild boar meat samples. Trichinellosis has long been recognized as a potential hazard of consuming undercooked wild carnivore meat, and historically has been associated with consumption of pork from domestic swine, but may be unfamiliar to practicing clinicians in the United States. Education of hunters and the broader population on the potential for trichinellosis and the importance of proper handling and cooking meat from wild or free-range animals needs to be reinforced. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Participatory epidemiology at the neotropics: study of diseases of backyard livestock and description of hunting patterns in Uaxactún, Maya Reserve Biosphere, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Mérida Ruíz, Samuel Alberto; Guerra Centeno, Dennis Sigfried; Bailey Leonardo, Edgar Leonel; Rohn, Karl; Kösters, Sarah; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2016-04-07

    The intention of the following study was to describe the interrelationship between villagers, domestic animals and wildlife at the Community Forestry Concession of Uaxactún, Guatemala by means of participatory epidemiological methods. The main focus was generating information regarding different livestock diseases considered important by villagers and their relevance, as well as obtaining knowledge concerning hunting activities and cooking methods to gain a better understanding of the interrelationship of people and animals and the diseases of their animals. For poultry, an overall prevalence of 41% of Newcastle disease was found by means of the ELISA test by antibody detection, chicken being the most affected species in the village. No samples were positive to avian influenza with the HI test. No virus was isolated by means of the tracheal or cloaca swabbing of ducks. All species could be hunted by chance at any time of the year. There was a difference in species hunted between seasons, peccaries being more frequently hunted during the dry season and in contrast, deer and wild avian during the rainy season. Villagers did not consume any raw meat. The cooking methods depended on the species. Stewing was the most favoured method for peccaries, wild birds, tepezcuintle and domestic poultry, whereas grilling was preferable for deer, roasting for armadillos and marinating for pork. According to the generated information, the most important domestic livestock species in the village are chickens and pigs, chickens being the most affected by diseases. No evident health problems on pigs were observed in this study. Hunting was shown as an activity enhanced by poverty and the lack of employment opportunities in the village and was mostly directed at larger species such as deer and peccaries. From the viewpoint of a transmission of zoonoses from animals to humans cooking methods mostly reflected a protective factor as no raw meat was eaten, stews and broths being the most

  7. Assessment of quality of water provided for wildlife in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selebatso, Moses; Maude, Glyn; Fynn, Richard W. S.

    2018-06-01

    Arid and semi-arid environments have low and unpredictable rainfall patterns resulting in limited availability of surface water for wildlife. In the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) wildlife populations have lost access to natural surface water through cordon fences, livestock and human encroachment along the access routes. Artificial waterholes have been developed in the reserve to compensate for this loss. However, there have not been any assessments of the quality of water provided for wildlife and how that may be contributing to populations declines in the CKGR. We assessed water quality from 12 artificial waterholes against both Botswana and international livestock standards for drinking. Overall the quality of water provided is poor and poses a health risk to both animals and humans. Eight out of twelve boreholes tested exceeded the maximum acceptable Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) limits while three and four boreholes have toxic levels of lead and arsenic, respectively. Thus, pumping ground water could have more negative than positive impacts on wildlife thus defeating the intended management purpose. Failure to provide water of acceptable quality is a major concern for wildlife management in the CKGR and it may underlie some wildlife declines in the reserve. These findings confirm that restriction of populations from natural water sources create complex management challenges, especially where safe and sustainable alternative sources are scarce. Restriction of access of the population to natural water sources by fences and provision of poor quality water could compromise the overall fitness of wildlife populations and contribute to their decline.

  8. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Henry; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  9. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Brink, Henry; Smith, Robert J; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  10. Reservation wage of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums: a bidding game approach.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Tasneem, Sakiba; Huq, Molla

    2014-12-01

    BRAC, a large Bangladeshi NGO, recently has been using female volunteer community health workers (CHWs) in Dhaka urban slums to provide maternal and child health services. Due to erratic performance-based income and higher opportunity cost the urban CHWs lose motivation which contributes to high dropout and poor performance. This results challenges for the cost effectiveness and sustainability of the urban health program. CHWs also consider their performance-based income very low compare to their work load. So, CHWs raise their voice for a fixed income. In order to understand this problem we explored fixed income for CHWs and the correlates that influence it. We surveyed a sample of 542 current CHWs. We used bidding game approach to derive the equilibrium reservation wage for CHWs for providing full-time services. Then, we performed ordered logit models with bootstrap simulation to identify the determinants of reservation wage. The average reservation wage of CHWs to continue their work as full-time CHWs rather than volunteer CHWs was US$24.11 which was three times higher than their current performance-based average income of US$ 8.03. Those CHWs received additional health training outside BRAC were 72% and those who joined with an expectation of income were 62% more likely to ask for higher reservation wage. On the contrary, CHWs who were burdened with household loan were 65% and CHWs who had alternative income generating scope were 47% less likely to ask for higher reservation wage. Other important factors we identified were BRAC village organization membership, competition with other health services providers, performance as a CHW, and current and past monthly CHW income. The findings of this study are relevant to certain developing countries such as Bangladesh and Tanzania which commonly use volunteer CHWs, and where poor retention and performance is a common issue due to erratic and performance-based income. So, the study has implications in improving

  11. The Role of Remote Sensing for Sustainable Elephant Management in South Africa. Four Medium Sized Game Reserves as Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordaan, M.

    2012-07-01

    Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha) in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

  12. Microbe Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, W. Ian

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Platforms for pathogen discovery have improved since the days of Koch and Pasteur; nonetheless, the challenges of proving causation are at least as daunting as they were in the late 1800s. Although we will almost certainly continue to accumulate low-hanging fruit, where simple relationships will be found between the presence of a cultivatable agent and a disease, these successes will be increasingly infrequent. The future of the field rests instead in our ability to follow footprints of infectious agents that cannot be characterized using classical microbiological techniques and to develop the laboratory and computational infrastructure required to dissect complex host-microbe interactions. I have tried to refine the criteria used by Koch and successors to prove linkage to disease. These refinements are working constructs that will continue to evolve in light of new technologies, new models, and new insights. What will endure is the excitement of the chase. Happy hunting! PMID:20805403

  13. Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

    2011-02-01

    Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) . ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Easy Games for the German Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The following easy games for the German classroom are described: around Germany, map identifications, fast response, bingo, memory training, geography college bowl, find the object, descriptions, pronunciation perfection, acrostics, simple board games, art lesson, treasure hunt, and miscellaneous games. (SW)

  15. Hunting and hallucinogens: The use psychoactive and other plants to improve the hunting ability of dogs.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bradley C; Alarcón, Rocío

    2015-08-02

    its prevalence suggests that it is both adaptive and that it has an underlying pharmacological explanation. We hypothesize that hallucinogenic plants alter perception in hunting dogs by diminishing extraneous signals and by enhancing sensory perception (most likely olfaction) that is directly involved in the detection and capture of game. If this is true, plant substances also might enhance the ability of dogs to detect explosives, drugs, human remains, or other targets for which they are valued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial variation in anthropogenic mortality induces a source-sink system in a hunted mesopredator.

    PubMed

    Minnie, Liaan; Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Kerley, Graham I H

    2018-04-01

    Lethal carnivore management is a prevailing strategy to reduce livestock predation. Intensity of lethal management varies according to land-use, where carnivores are more intensively hunted on farms relative to reserves. Variations in hunting intensity may result in the formation of a source-sink system where carnivores disperse from high-density to low-density areas. Few studies quantify dispersal between supposed sources and sinks-a fundamental requirement for source-sink systems. We used the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) as a model to determine if heterogeneous anthropogenic mortality induces a source-sink system. We analysed 12 microsatellite loci from 554 individuals from lightly hunted and previously unhunted reserves, as well as heavily hunted livestock- and game farms. Bayesian genotype assignment showed that jackal populations displayed a hierarchical population structure. We identified two genetically distinct populations at the regional level and nine distinct subpopulations at the local level, with each cluster corresponding to distinct land-use types separated by various dispersal barriers. Migration, estimated using Bayesian multilocus genotyping, between reserves and farms was asymmetric and heterogeneous anthropogenic mortality induced source-sink dynamics via compensatory immigration. Additionally some heavily hunted populations also acted as source populations, exporting individuals to other heavily hunted populations. This indicates that heterogeneous anthropogenic mortality results in the formation of a complex series of interconnected sources and sinks. Thus, lethal management of mesopredators may not be an effective long-term strategy in reducing livestock predation, as dispersal and, more importantly, compensatory immigration may continue to affect population reduction efforts as long as dispersal from other areas persists.

  17. 76 FR 43337 - Proposed Information Collection; Hunting and Fishing Application Forms and Activity Reports for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... and avoid confusion for applicants. The currently approved forms are available online at http://www.../Upland Game Hunt Application). FWS Form 3-2357 (Migratory Bird Hunt Application). FWS Form 3-2358... seasons, as determined by State or Federal regulations. FWS Form 3-2359 (Big Game Harvest Report). FWS...

  18. Hunting and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

  19. HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS THE GREAT CIRCUS - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  20. Hunting statistics: what data for what use? An account of an international workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Lebreton, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Hunting interacts with the underlying dynamics of game species in several different ways and is, at the same time, a source of valuable information not easily obtained from populations that are not subjected to hunting. Specific questions, including the sustainability of hunting activities, can be addressed using hunting statistics. Such investigations will frequently require that hunting statistics be combined with data from other sources of population-level information. Such reflections served as a basis for the meeting, ?Hunting Statistics: What Data for What Use,? held on January 15-18, 2001 in Saint-Benoist, France. We review here the 20 talks held during the workshop and the contribution of hunting statistics to our knowledge of the population dynamics of game species. Three specific topics (adaptive management, catch-effort models, and dynamics of exploited populations) were highlighted as important themes and are more extensively presented as boxes.

  1. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 50 CFR 32.41 - Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. Hunting of.... [Reserved] Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. Hunting is pursuant to State regulation. B. Upland Game Hunting. Hunting is pursuant to State regulation. C. Big Game...

  3. Hunting for Ecological Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Joel B.; Greenwood, David A.; Ryan, Jessica L.; Greenwood, Eli A.

    2013-01-01

    Considering (a) the many potential connections between hunting, culture, and environmental thought, (b) how much hunters have contributed to the conservation movement and to the protection of a viable land base, and (c) renewed interest in hunting as part of the wider movement toward eating local, non-industrialized food, we seek to bring hunting…

  4. 50 CFR 32.71 - United States Unincorporated Pacific Insular Possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved...

  5. 50 CFR 32.71 - United States Unincorporated Pacific Insular Possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved...

  6. 50 CFR 32.71 - United States Unincorporated Pacific Insular Possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved...

  7. 50 CFR 32.71 - United States Unincorporated Pacific Insular Possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved...

  8. 50 CFR 32.71 - United States Unincorporated Pacific Insular Possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved...

  9. 50 CFR 32.30 - Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Fishing is permitted on...

  10. 50 CFR 32.30 - Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Fishing is permitted on...

  11. 50 CFR 32.30 - Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Fishing is permitted on...

  12. Memory boosts turn taking in evolutionary dilemma games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zhigang; Yang, Lei; Zou, You; Luo, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Spontaneous turn taking phenomenon can be observed in many self-organized systems, and the mechanism is unclear. This paper tries to model it by evolutionary dilemma games with memory mechanism. Prisoner's dilemma, Snowdrift (including Leader and Hero) and Stag-hunt games are unified on an extended S-T plane. Agents play game with all the others and make decision by the last game histories. The experiments find that when agents remember last 2-step histories or more, a kind of cooperative turn taking (CAD) bursts at the area of Snowdrift game with restriction of S + T > 2R and S ≠ T, while the consistent strategy (DorC) gathers on the line of S + T > 2R and S = T. We also find that the system's fitness ratio greatly improved with 2-step memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling the impacts of hunting on the population dynamics of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rudran, Rasanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Overexploitation of wildlife populations occurs across the humid tropics and is a significant threat to the long-term survival of large-bodied primates. To investigate the impacts of hunting on primates and ways to mitigate them, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model for a landscape that included hunted and un-hunted areas. We used the large-bodied neotropical red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) as our case study species because its life history characteristics make it vulnerable to hunting. We modeled the influence of different rates of harvest and proportions of landscape dedicated to un-hunted reserves on population persistence, population size, social dynamics, and hunting yields of red howler monkeys. In most scenarios, the un-hunted populations maintained a constant density regardless of hunting pressure elsewhere, and allowed the overall population to persist. Therefore, the overall population was quite resilient to extinction; only in scenarios without any un-hunted areas did the population go extinct. However, the total and hunted populations did experience large declines over 100 years under moderate and high hunting pressure. In addition, when reserve area decreased, population losses and losses per unit area increased disproportionately. Furthermore, hunting disrupted the social structure of troops. The number of male turnovers and infanticides increased in hunted populations, while birth rates decreased and exacerbated population losses due to hunting. Finally, our results indicated that when more than 55% of the landscape was harvested at high (30%) rates, hunting yields, as measured by kilograms of biomass, were less than those obtained from moderate harvest rates. Additionally, hunting yields, expressed as the number of individuals hunted/year/km2, increased in proximity to un-hunted areas, and suggested that dispersal from un-hunted areas may have contributed to hunting sustainability. These results indicate that un-hunted

  14. Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Redleaf MI, Perry BP, Gubbels SP. Management of Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. In: Brackmann DE, Shelton ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  15. 50 CFR 32.41 - Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. We allow.... [Reserved] Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. Hunting is pursuant to State regulation. B. Upland Game Hunting. Hunting is pursuant to State regulation. C. Big Game...

  16. 75 FR 6056 - Establishment of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... among the public, the sporting conservation community, wildlife conservation groups, the States, Native... organizations. (5) Big game hunting organizations. (6) Sportsmen and women community at-large. (7) Archery... organizations. (9) Tourism, Outfitter, and/or Guide industries related to hunting and/or shooting sports. (10...

  17. Elk and mule deer responses to variation in hunting pressure.

    Treesearch

    Bruce K. Johnson; Alan A. Ager; James H. Noyes; Norm Cimon

    2004-01-01

    Hunting can exert a variety of effects on both targeted and nontargeted ungulates, and animals either run or hide in response to hunting pressure. If animals successfully elude hunters by running, the energetic cost may deplete fat reserves needed for survival during winter in temperate regions. If animals successfully elude hunters by hiding, there may be an energetic...

  18. 50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting... accordance with state regulations. Ninigret National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Anglers may...

  19. 50 CFR 32.30 - Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. Hunters may... National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Fishing is permitted on designated areas of the refuge...

  20. 50 CFR 32.30 - Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. Hunters may... National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Fishing is permitted on designated areas of the refuge...

  1. 50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting... accordance with state regulations. Ninigret National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Anglers may...

  2. Wildlife management: Managing the hunt versus the hunting experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitt, William E.; McDonald, Cary D.; Noe, Francis P.

    1989-07-01

    Deer hunter satisfaction is investigated from two perspectives, (1) satisfaction with the hunt/harvest and (2) satisfaction with the overall hunting trip experience. Regression analysis is used to determine what variables best predict satisfaction with the hunt and the hunting experience. Results indicate that animal population variables (number of deer seen, shot at, bagged) are the best determinants of a quality deer hunt, while environmental (outdoors) and social (crowding and hunter behavior) are the best predictors of a quality hunting trip experience. Wildlife managers and researchers need to realize that deer hunters view the hunt/harvest as different from the hunting trip experience and need to manage for both aspects of hunter satisfaction.

  3. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S; Avent, T; Doughty, L S

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob's correction of the Ivlev's selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in "open" or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition.

  4. Range Analysis and Terrain Preference of Adult Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) in a South African Private Game Reserve: Insights into Carrying Capacity and Future Management

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, S.; Doughty, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    The Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is a threatened species, central to the tourism appeal of private game reserves in South Africa. Privately owned reserves in South Africa tend to be smaller than government run reserves such as Kruger National Park. Because of their relatively small size and the often heterogeneous nature of the landscape private game reserve managers benefit from detailed knowledge of white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences, which can be assessed from their ranging behaviours. We collected adult and sub-adult white rhinoceros distribution data over a 15 month period, calculating individual range size using kernel density estimation analysis within a GIS. From this, terrain selectivity was calculated using 50% and 95% kernels to extract terrain composition values. Jacob’s correction of the Ivlev’s selectivity index was subsequently applied to the terrain composition of each individual to identify trends in selectivity. Results reveal that adult males hold exclusive territories considerably smaller than those found in previous work conducted in “open” or large reserves. Similarly, results for the size of male versus female territories were also not in keeping with those from previous field studies, with males, rather than females, having the larger territory requirement. Terrain selection for both genders and age classes (adult and sub-adult) showed a strong preference for open grassland and avoidance of hill slope and riparian terrains. This research reveals white rhinoceros terrain selection preferences and how they influence range requirements in small, closed reserves. We conclude that this knowledge will be valuable in future white rhinoceros conservation management in small private game reserves, particularly in decisions surrounding removal of surplus individuals or augmentation of existing populations, calculation of reserve carrying capacity and future private reserve acquisition. PMID:27622566

  5. A Geospatial Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Adriana E.; Williams, Nikki A.; Metoyer, Sandra K.; Morris, Jennifer N.; Berhane, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of technology such as Global Positioning System (GPS) units and Google Earth for a simple-machine scavenger hunt, you will transform a standard identification activity into an exciting learning experience that motivates students, incorporates practical skills in technology, and enhances students' spatial-thinking skills. In the…

  6. Risk and Ethical Concerns of Hunting Male Elephant: Behavioural and Physiological Assays of the Remaining Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Tarryne; Page, Bruce; Van Dyk, Gus; Millspaugh, Josh; Slotow, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Background Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1) risk of attack or damage (11 hunts), and (2) behavioural (movement dynamics) and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations) responses (4 hunts) in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds) did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites) in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt) and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt). Conclusions/Significance As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies. PMID:18560517

  7. 50 CFR 32.54 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D.... [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of white-tailed deer on designated areas of the refuge in... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.54 Ohio...

  8. 50 CFR 32.69 - Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting... National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of duck and coot on designated.... Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of ring-necked pheasant, gray partridge, squirrel, and cottontail...

  9. 50 CFR 32.69 - Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting... National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of duck and coot on designated.... Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of ring-necked pheasant, gray partridge, squirrel, and cottontail...

  10. 50 CFR 32.69 - Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting... National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of duck and coot on designated.... Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of ring-necked pheasant, gray partridge, squirrel, and cottontail...

  11. 50 CFR 32.69 - Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting... National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of duck and coot on designated.... Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of ring-necked pheasant, gray partridge, squirrel, and cottontail...

  12. 50 CFR 32.69 - Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting... National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of duck and coot on designated.... Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of ring-necked pheasant, gray partridge, squirrel, and cottontail...

  13. Visuomotor transformations underlying hunting behavior in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Isaac H; Engert, Florian

    2015-03-30

    Visuomotor circuits filter visual information and determine whether or not to engage downstream motor modules to produce behavioral outputs. However, the circuit mechanisms that mediate and link perception of salient stimuli to execution of an adaptive response are poorly understood. We combined a virtual hunting assay for tethered larval zebrafish with two-photon functional calcium imaging to simultaneously monitor neuronal activity in the optic tectum during naturalistic behavior. Hunting responses showed mixed selectivity for combinations of visual features, specifically stimulus size, speed, and contrast polarity. We identified a subset of tectal neurons with similar highly selective tuning, which show non-linear mixed selectivity for visual features and are likely to mediate the perceptual recognition of prey. By comparing neural dynamics in the optic tectum during response versus non-response trials, we discovered premotor population activity that specifically preceded initiation of hunting behavior and exhibited anatomical localization that correlated with motor variables. In summary, the optic tectum contains non-linear mixed selectivity neurons that are likely to mediate reliable detection of ethologically relevant sensory stimuli. Recruitment of small tectal assemblies appears to link perception to action by providing the premotor commands that release hunting responses. These findings allow us to propose a model circuit for the visuomotor transformations underlying a natural behavior. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. 50 CFR 32.56 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of goose, duck, coot, and snipe on that portion of the refuge.... Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. We allow sport fishing... Valley National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting...

  15. 50 CFR 32.54 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D... flotation devices. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of goose... nontoxic shotshells (see § 32.2(k)) while in the field in quantities of 25 or less. B. Upland Game Hunting...

  16. 50 CFR 32.56 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of goose, duck, coot, and snipe on that portion of the refuge.... Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. We allow sport fishing... Valley National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting...

  17. 50 CFR 32.56 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of goose, duck, coot, and snipe on that portion of the refuge.... Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. We allow sport fishing... Valley National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting...

  18. 50 CFR 32.54 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D... flotation devices. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of goose... nontoxic shotshells (see § 32.2(k)) while in the field in quantities of 25 or less. B. Upland Game Hunting...

  19. 50 CFR 32.54 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D... flotation devices. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of goose... nontoxic shotshells (see § 32.2(k)) while in the field in quantities of 25 or less. B. Upland Game Hunting...

  20. Hunting of roe deer and wild boar in Germany: Is non-lead ammunition suitable for hunting?

    PubMed

    Martin, Annett; Gremse, Carl; Selhorst, Thomas; Bandick, Niels; Müller-Graf, Christine; Greiner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Non-lead hunting ammunition is an alternative to bullets that contain lead. The use of lead ammunition can result in severe contamination of game meat, thus posing a health risk to consumers. With any kind of ammunition for hunting, the terminal effectiveness of bullets is an animal welfare issue. Doubts about the effectiveness of non-lead bullets for a humane kill of game animals in hunting have been discussed. The length of the escape distance after the shot has been used previously as an indicator for bullet performance. The object of this study was to determine how the bullet material (lead or non-lead) influences the observed escape distances. 1,234 records of the shooting of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 825 records of the shooting of wild boar (Sus scrofa) were evaluated. As the bullet material cannot be regarded as the sole cause of variability of escape distances, interactions of other potential influencing variables like shot placement, shooting distance, were analyzed using conditional regression trees and two-part hurdle models. The length of the escape distance is not influenced by the use of lead or non-lead ammunition with either roe deer or wild boar. With roe deer, the length of the escape distance is influenced significantly by the shot placement and the type of hunting. Increasing shooting distances increased the length of the escape distance. With wild boar, shot placement and the age of the animals were found to be a significant influencing factor on the length of the escape distance. The length of the escape distance can be used as an indicator for adequate bullet effectiveness for humane killings of game animals in hunting.Non-lead bullets already exist which have an equally reliable killing effect as lead bullets.

  1. Hunting of roe deer and wild boar in Germany: Is non-lead ammunition suitable for hunting?

    PubMed Central

    Gremse, Carl; Selhorst, Thomas; Bandick, Niels; Müller-Graf, Christine; Greiner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-lead hunting ammunition is an alternative to bullets that contain lead. The use of lead ammunition can result in severe contamination of game meat, thus posing a health risk to consumers. With any kind of ammunition for hunting, the terminal effectiveness of bullets is an animal welfare issue. Doubts about the effectiveness of non-lead bullets for a humane kill of game animals in hunting have been discussed. The length of the escape distance after the shot has been used previously as an indicator for bullet performance. Objective The object of this study was to determine how the bullet material (lead or non-lead) influences the observed escape distances. Methods 1,234 records of the shooting of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 825 records of the shooting of wild boar (Sus scrofa) were evaluated. As the bullet material cannot be regarded as the sole cause of variability of escape distances, interactions of other potential influencing variables like shot placement, shooting distance, were analyzed using conditional regression trees and two-part hurdle models. Results The length of the escape distance is not influenced by the use of lead or non-lead ammunition with either roe deer or wild boar. With roe deer, the length of the escape distance is influenced significantly by the shot placement and the type of hunting. Increasing shooting distances increased the length of the escape distance. With wild boar, shot placement and the age of the animals were found to be a significant influencing factor on the length of the escape distance. Conclusions The length of the escape distance can be used as an indicator for adequate bullet effectiveness for humane killings of game animals in hunting.Non-lead bullets already exist which have an equally reliable killing effect as lead bullets. PMID:28926620

  2. Can compensatory culling offset undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting?

    PubMed

    Mysterud, Atle; Bischof, Richard

    2010-01-01

    1. There is growing concern about the evolutionary consequences of human harvesting on phenotypic trait quality in wild populations. Undesirable consequences are especially likely with trophy hunting because of its strong bias for specific phenotypic trait values, such as large antlers in cervids and horns in bovids. Selective hunting can cause a decline in a trophy trait over time if it is heritable, thereby reducing the long-term sustainability of the activity itself. 2. How can we build a sustainable trophy hunting tradition without the negative trait-altering effects? We used an individual-based model to explore whether selective compensatory culling of 'low quality' individuals at an early life stage can facilitate sustainability, as suggested by information from managed game populations in eastern and central Europe. Our model was rooted in empirical data on red deer, where heritability of sexual ornaments has been confirmed and phenotypic quality can be assessed by antler size in individuals as young as 1 year. 3. Simulations showed that targeted culling of low-quality yearlings could counter the selective effects of trophy hunting on the distribution of the affected trait (e.g. antler or horn size) in prime-aged individuals. Assumptions of trait heritability and young-to-adult correlation were essential for compensation, but the model proved robust to various other assumptions and changes to input parameters. The simulation approach allowed us to verify responses as evolutionary changes in trait values rather than short-term consequences of altered age structure, density and viability selection. 4. We conclude that evolutionarily enlightened management may accommodate trophy hunting. This has far reaching implications as income from trophy hunting is often channelled into local conservation efforts and rural economies. As an essential follow-up, we recommend an analysis of the effects of trophy hunting in conjunction with compensatory culling on the

  3. What's Your Game Plan?: Developing Library Games Can Help Students Master Information Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siderius, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Stepping into a school library today reveals the dramatic changes in educational games since the author's elementary school days. Many current school libraries now boast computer- and video-based games, as well as geocaching, big games, or large-scale scavenger hunts that pit teams against each other in timed races to find clues about a…

  4. Reciprocity phase in various 2×2 games by agents equipped with two-memory length strategy encouraged by grouping for interaction and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wakiyama, Motoya; Tanimoto, Jun

    2011-01-01

    This paper numerically investigates 2×2 games involving the Prisoner's Dilemma, Chicken, Hero, Leader, Stag Hunt, and Trivial Games in which agents have a strategy expressed by five-bit, two-memory length. Our motivation is to explore how grouping for game interaction and strategy adaptation influence ST reciprocity and R reciprocity (Tanimoto and Sagara, 2007a [Tanimoto, J., Sagara, H., 2007a. A study on emergence of coordinated alternating reciprocity in a 2×2 game with 2-memory length strategy. Biosystems 90(3), 728-737]. Enhanced R reciprocity is observed with the stronger grouping for game interaction when a relatively stronger grouping for strategy adaptation is assumed. On the other hand, enhanced ST reciprocity emerged with the stronger grouping for strategy adaptation when the relatively weaker grouping for game interaction is imposed. Our numerical experiment deals with those two groupings independently and dependently. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Shooting and Hunting: Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W., Comp.

    The shooting and hunting manual, part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, explains shooting skills, hunting, and proper gun handling on the range and in the field. This manual should be supplemented and enriched by available references, facilities, and resources. It may be included in the community's educational and…

  6. Local Sparse Bump Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Rao, J. Sunil

    2010-01-01

    The search for structures in real datasets e.g. in the form of bumps, components, classes or clusters is important as these often reveal underlying phenomena leading to scientific discoveries. One of these tasks, known as bump hunting, is to locate domains of a multidimensional input space where the target function assumes local maxima without pre-specifying their total number. A number of related methods already exist, yet are challenged in the context of high dimensional data. We introduce a novel supervised and multivariate bump hunting strategy for exploring modes or classes of a target function of many continuous variables. This addresses the issues of correlation, interpretability, and high-dimensionality (p ≫ n case), while making minimal assumptions. The method is based upon a divide and conquer strategy, combining a tree-based method, a dimension reduction technique, and the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM). Important to this task, we show how to estimate the PRIM meta-parameters. Using accuracy evaluation procedures such as cross-validation and ROC analysis, we show empirically how the method outperforms a naive PRIM as well as competitive non-parametric supervised and unsupervised methods in the problem of class discovery. The method has practical application especially in the case of noisy high-throughput data. It is applied to a class discovery problem in a colon cancer micro-array dataset aimed at identifying tumor subtypes in the metastatic stage. Supplemental Materials are available online. PMID:22399839

  7. Quantum games on evolving random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawela, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    We study the advantages of quantum strategies in evolutionary social dilemmas on evolving random networks. We focus our study on the two-player games: prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and stag-hunt games. The obtained result show the benefits of quantum strategies for the prisoner's dilemma game. For the other two games, we obtain regions of parameters where the quantum strategies dominate, as well as regions where the classical strategies coexist.

  8. CyberHunt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truby, Dana

    2001-01-01

    Using a soccer cyberhunt, elementary school students can learn all about the game of soccer while practicing computer skills. The cyberhunt teaches about: the history of soccer; soccer's name in other countries; number of players on the field; women's World Cup soccer; soccer rules; soccer legend, Pele; soccer moves; and the soccer ball. A…

  9. Road Development and the Geography of Hunting by an Amazonian Indigenous Group: Consequences for Wildlife Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C.; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12–14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  10. Road development and the geography of hunting by an Amazonian indigenous group: consequences for wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12-14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  11. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting.

    PubMed

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P

    2014-06-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. 50 CFR 32.45 - Montana.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of duck, goose, swan, and coot in designated areas of the... game from areas closed to hunting. B. Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of pheasant, sharp-tailed... pheasant hunts in accordance with State regulations. C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing...

  13. Small game

    Treesearch

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    Although small game currently is not harvested on the Savannah river Site(SRS) soutside of the Crackerneck Wildlife Management area and logical Reserve (CWMA), several species of small game occur on SRS. these include snipe (Gallinago gallinago), American woodcock (Scolopax minor), morning dove (Zenaida macroura...

  14. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis

    2012-10-02

    Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large birds such as the Great Curassow and

  15. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large

  16. Why do men hunt? A reevaluation of "man the hunter" and the sexual division of labor.

    PubMed

    Gurven, Michael; Hill, Kim

    2009-02-01

    The role of men in hunter-gatherer societies has been subject to vigorous debate over the past 15 years. The proposal that men hunt wild game as a form of status signaling or "showing off" to provide reproductive benefits to the hunter challenges the traditional view that men hunt to provision their families. Two broad assumptions underlie the signaling view: (1) hunting is a poor means of obtaining food, and (2) hunted game is a public good shared widely with others and without expectation of future reciprocation. If hunters lack the ability to direct food shares and obtain subsequent benefits contingent on redistribution, then the ubiquitous observations of male hunting and universal pair-bonding cannot be explained from a perspective that emphasizes kin provisioning and a division of labor. Here we show that there is little empirical support for the view that men hunt for signaling benefits alone. The ethnographic record depicts a more complex relationship between food sharing patterns, subsistence strategies, mating, and the sexual division of labor. We present a framework incorporating trade-offs between mating and subsistence strategies in an economic bargaining context that contributes to understanding men's and women's roles in hunter-gatherer societies.

  17. How much land is needed for feral pig hunting in Hawai'i?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Jacobi, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Hunting is often considered to be incompatible with conservation of native biota and watershed functions in Hawai'i. Management actions for conservation generally exclude large non-native mammals from natural areas, thereby reducing the amount of land area available for hunting activities and the maintenance of sustainable game populations. An approach which may be useful in addressing the necessary minimum amount of land area allocated for hunting in Hawai'i is to determine the amount of land area necessary for sustaining populations of hunted animals to meet current levels harvested by the public. We ask: What is the total amount of land necessary to provide sustained-yield hunting of game meat for food at the current harvest level on Hawai'i Island if only feral pigs (Sus scrofa) were to be harvested? We used a simplistic analysis to estimate that 1 317.6 km2-1 651.4 km2 would be necessary to produce 187 333.6 kg of feral pig meat annually based on the range of dressed weight per whole pig, the proportion of a pig population that can be sustainably removed annually, and the density of pig populations in the wild. This amount of area comprises 12.6-15.8% of the total land area of Hawai'i Island, but more likely represents 27.6-43.5% of areas that may be compatible with sustained-yield hunting.

  18. A review of wildlife tourism and meta-analysis of parasitism in Africa's national parks and game reserves.

    PubMed

    Odeniran, Paul Olalekan; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi; Jegede, Henry Olanrewaju

    2018-06-14

    The recent increase of parasitic diseases associated with wildlife tourism can be traced to human contact with wildlife and intense modification of wildlife habitat. The continental estimates of parasitic diseases among visited wildlife-tourists and mammalian wildlife present in conservation areas are lacking; therefore, a general review was necessary to provide insights into Africa's parasitic disease burden and transmission between humans and wildlife. A two-step analysis was conducted with searches in Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science and Global Health. All diseases reported without prevalence were grouped and analysed as categorical data while meta-analysis of prevalence rates of parasitic diseases in wildlife from national parks and reserves in Africa was conducted. Only 4.7% of the tourist centres reported routine wildlife diagnosis for parasitic diseases. Disease intensity shows that cryptosporidiosis and seven other parasitic diseases were observed in both human and wildlife; however, no significant difference in intensity between human and wildlife hosts was observed. Schistosomiasis intensity reports showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) while entamoebiasis showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in humans as compared to wildlife. Visiting tourists were more infected with malaria, while wildlife was more infected with parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE). The meta-analysis of wildlife revealed the highest prevalence of PGE with mixed parasites and lowest prevalence of Giardia spp. at 99.9 and 5.7%, respectively. The zoonotic and socioeconomic impact of some of these parasites could pose a severe public threat to tourism. Pre- and post-travel clinical examinations are important for tourists while routine examination, treatment and rational surveillance are important for these animals to improve wildlife tourism.

  19. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  20. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  1. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  2. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  3. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  4. 50 CFR 32.25 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Game Bird Hunting. Hunting of geese, ducks, coots, snipe and mourning doves is permitted on designated... the waterfowl hunting season. B. Upland Game Hunting. Hunting of pheasant, cottontail rabbit, black... waterfowl hunting season. C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Arapaho National...

  5. 50 CFR 32.25 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Game Bird Hunting. Hunting of geese, ducks, coots, snipe and mourning doves is permitted on designated... the waterfowl hunting season. B. Upland Game Hunting. Hunting of pheasant, cottontail rabbit, black... waterfowl hunting season. C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Arapaho National...

  6. 50 CFR 32.25 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Game Bird Hunting. Hunting of geese, ducks, coots, snipe and mourning doves is permitted on designated... the waterfowl hunting season. B. Upland Game Hunting. Hunting of pheasant, cottontail rabbit, black... waterfowl hunting season. C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Arapaho National...

  7. 50 CFR 32.25 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Game Bird Hunting. Hunting of geese, ducks, coots, snipe and mourning doves is permitted on designated... the waterfowl hunting season. B. Upland Game Hunting. Hunting of pheasant, cottontail rabbit, black... waterfowl hunting season. C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Arapaho National...

  8. 50 CFR 32.25 - Colorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Game Bird Hunting. Hunting of geese, ducks, coots, snipe and mourning doves is permitted on designated... the waterfowl hunting season. B. Upland Game Hunting. Hunting of pheasant, cottontail rabbit, black... waterfowl hunting season. C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Arapaho National...

  9. Earl Busby Hunt (1933-2016).

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Anthony G

    2017-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Earl Busby Hunt-known to family, friends, and colleagues as Buz-who died at home in Bellevue, Washington, on April 12, 2016. Buz specialized in artificial intelligence (AI) and had a main focus in cognitive psychology. In fact he was editor of Cognitive Psychology from 1974-1987. Buz's honors include the Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Society for Intelligence Research (2009) and the Cattell Award from the Association for Psychological Science (2011) for lifetime contributions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. 50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... regulations. Guam National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Anglers may fish and collect marine life on...

  11. 50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations. Guam National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Anglers may fish and collect marine life on...

  12. 50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulations. Guam National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Anglers may fish and collect marine life on...

  13. 50 CFR 32.72 - Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations. Guam National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. Anglers may fish and collect marine life on...

  14. 50 CFR 32.70 - Wyoming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. National Elk Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. Hunters may hunt elk and bison.... Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. Hunting of geese, ducks and coots is...

  15. 50 CFR 32.70 - Wyoming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. National Elk Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. Hunters may hunt elk and bison.... Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. Hunting of geese, ducks and coots is...

  16. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting.

    PubMed

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by

  17. 50 CFR 32.26 - Connecticut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of duck, coot, and goose on designated areas of the...

  18. 50 CFR 32.46 - Nebraska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of ducks, geese, and coots on designated areas of the refuge... conclusion of each day's hunt. 3. You must adhere to all applicable State hunting regulations. B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of white-tailed deer in accordance with State...

  19. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  20. A Treasure Hunt for Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Adam J.; Rutledge, Peter J.; Todd, Matthew H.; Connor, Ricky

    2011-01-01

    A new group educational activity based on a treasure hunt is described. Students are asked questions and the answers specify a grid on a map. A specified object in the grid location must be found and photographed, and the photograph submitted electronically (through the Learning Management System) for assessment. Once a series of objects in…

  1. Child witch hunts in contemporary Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    inexplicable illnesses, untimely deaths, and financial hardships tend to be the major causal forces generating witch hunts. Additional research is necessary to further shed light on child witch hunts in Ghana and other countries. To reduce the incidence of such abuse, there is a need for increased advocacy and protections for children in the society. The government must also increase the penalties for child abuse. This will serve as a deterrent to potential offenders. Additionally, through public service campaigns, educating citizens about the causes and trajectories of diseases, will lead to a significant diminution of witchcraft accusations and the associated violence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SURVEILLANCE FOR VIRAL AND PARASITIC PATHOGENS IN A VULNERABLE AFRICAN LION (PANTHERA LEO) POPULATION IN THE NORTHERN TULI GAME RESERVE, BOTSWANA.

    PubMed

    McDermid, Kimberly R; Snyman, Andrei; Verreynne, Frederick J; Carroll, John P; Penzhorn, Banie L; Yabsley, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    African lion ( Panthera leo ) numbers are decreasing rapidly and populations are becoming smaller and more fragmented. Infectious diseases are one of numerous issues threatening free-ranging lion populations, and low-density populations are particularly at risk. We collected data on the prevalence and diversity of viral and parasitic pathogens in a small lion population in eastern Botswana. During 2012 and 2014, blood samples were collected from 59% (n=13) of the adult-subadult lions in the Northern Tuli Game Reserve in eastern Botswana. One lion had antibodies to feline panleukopenia virus, two had antibodies to canine distemper virus, and two had feline calicivirus antibodies. Ten of the 13 had antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus and 11 had feline herpesvirus antibodies. All lions were negative for antibodies to feline coronavirus. Blood samples from all lions were negative for Trypanosoma, Anaplasma, Theileria, and Ehrlichia spp. by molecular testing; however, all lions were positive for Babesia spp. by reverse line blot hybridization assay. Sequencing of amplicons from four lions revealed four groups of Babesia spp. including several genetic variants of Babesia felis , Babesia lengau, and Babesia canis and a group of novel Babesia sequences which were only 96% similar to other Babesia spp. Six lions were infested with four species of ticks (Rhipicentor nuttalli, Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus sulcatus, and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus). These data provide the first health assessment of this population and can be used to identify management and conservation strategies to decrease the impact of pathogens on this population. This is particularly important as there is an initiative to incorporate this population into a larger metapopulation of lions from adjacent South Africa and Zimbabwe.

  3. 50 CFR 32.53 - North Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of pheasant... § 27.95(a) of this chapter) and camping on the refuge. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow deer hunting on... chapter) and camping on the refuge. Arrowwood Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting...

  4. 50 CFR 32.53 - North Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of pheasant... § 27.95(a) of this chapter) and camping on the refuge. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow deer hunting on... chapter) and camping on the refuge. Arrowwood Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting...

  5. 50 CFR 32.53 - North Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of pheasant... § 27.95(a) of this chapter) and camping on the refuge. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow deer hunting on... chapter) and camping on the refuge. Arrowwood Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting...

  6. 50 CFR 32.53 - North Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of pheasant... § 27.95(a) of this chapter) and camping on the refuge. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow deer hunting on... chapter) and camping on the refuge. Arrowwood Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting...

  7. 50 CFR 32.53 - North Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. We allow hunting of pheasant... § 27.95(a) of this chapter) and camping on the refuge. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow deer hunting on... chapter) and camping on the refuge. Arrowwood Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting...

  8. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes [1] is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter [2]. The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars [3], performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial

  9. Differences between Pygmy and Non-Pygmy Hunting in Congo Basin Forests.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Lewis, Jerome; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Noss, Andrew; Hattori, Shiho; Hirai, Masaaki; Kamgaing, Towa O W; Carpaneto, Giuseppe; Germi, Francesco; Márquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Duda, Romain; Gallois, Sandrine; Riddell, Michael; Nasi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates) and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates). We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1) of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas.

  10. Differences between Pygmy and Non-Pygmy Hunting in Congo Basin Forests

    PubMed Central

    Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Lewis, Jerome; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Noss, Andrew; Hattori, Shiho; Hirai, Masaaki; Kamgaing, Towa O. W.; Carpaneto, Giuseppe; Germi, Francesco; Márquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Duda, Romain; Gallois, Sandrine; Riddell, Michael; Nasi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates) and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates). We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1) of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas. PMID:27589384

  11. Impact of environmental diversity of hunting complexes in the Lublin region on ontogenetic quality indicators in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Czyżowski, Piotr; Drozd, Leszek; Karpiński, Mirosław; Tajchman, Katarzyna; Goleman, Małgorzata; Wojtaś, Justyna; Zieliński, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Populations of game are not confined to single ecosystems but function within higher-order units, e.g. ecological landscape. The basis for the establishment of the hunting complexes was the assumption that the existing game hunting grounds, i.e. the basic units implementing game management, are too small and do not cover the natural areas inhabited by game populations. Roe deer are flexible species and easily adapt to various site conditions, so they inhabit many different habitats, from large forest complexes, through small in-field tree stands and shrubs, to treeless grounds and field monocultures. The aim of the study was to determine a possible impact of environmental conditions prevailing in the hunting complexes of the Regional Directorate of State Forests (RDLP in Lublin) on the ontogenetic quality of roe deer. The study was conducted on 518 European roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ) aged from 4 to 7 years (379 bucks and 139 does) harvested within hunting seasons 2010/2011-2013/2014. The results have shown that animals originating from areas with greater forest cover and denser stands are characterised by lower values of the mean ontogenetic quality parameters (carcase weight, kidney fat index, chest girth, weight of antlers) in comparison with animals from typical agricultural areas with fragmented forest complexes. These results indicate that, even in the case of such a eurytopic species as the roe deer, the ontogenetic quality differs between individual hunting complexes. The study has proved that strategies for hunting management of the roe deer should take into account the impact of the landscape structure, which provides a rationale behind creation of hunting complexes.

  12. 50 CFR 32.56 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of goose, duck, coot, and snipe on that portion of the refuge... § 32.2(k)). B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. We.... Highway 101. Bear Valley National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland...

  13. 78 FR 53217 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... effect, the mean light goose harvest increased 244 percent. One research study found that lesser snow.... Shooting hours are one-half hour before sunrise to one-half hour after sunset. Nontoxic shot is required... flexibility in daily bag and possession limits. In all cases, the regulations established under the guidelines...

  14. 78 FR 58233 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... seasons are now prescribed, and consideration having been given to all other relevant matters presented.... Daily Bag and Possession Limits: Three geese, including no more than three dark (Canada) geese and three white (snow, blue, Ross's) geese. The possession limit is six dark geese and six white geese. General...

  15. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. A bioeconomic analysis of bushmeat hunting

    PubMed Central

    Damania, R.; Milner-Gulland, E.J.; Crookes, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Unsustainable bushmeat hunting is a major threat to mammal species, particularly in West/Central Africa. We developed a multispecies dynamic simulation model of hunter behaviour, parameterized using data from the Ashanti region, Ghana. The model distinguishes between two hunting techniques, snaring and gun hunting. We analyse the impact of key economic parameters on off-takes. Economic incentives determine the effort devoted to hunting, the choice of hunting technique, and the species that are consumed domestically or traded in markets. These factors, together with the growth rates and catchabilities of hunted species, determine the ecological impact of hunting. The results suggest that increased bushmeat prices are likely to lead to a switch from snaring, which is cheaper but less efficient, to gun hunting, with a consequent impact on vulnerable species. Increases in agricultural prices have an ambiguous effect on hunter behaviour, depending on the balance between incentives to invest in agriculture and increased consumption as incomes improve. Penalties are more effective if they target bushmeat sales, rather than the act of hunting. This model represents a step forward because it explicitly considers bushmeat as a component of the household economy. This has important implications as regards the development of policies to conserve species hunted for bushmeat. PMID:15705550

  17. Sink populations in carnivore management: cougar demography and immigration in a hunted population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Hugh S; Wielgus, Robert B; Cooley, Hilary S; Cooley, Skye W

    2008-06-01

    Carnivores are widely hunted for both sport and population control, especially where they conflict with human interests. It is widely believed that sport hunting is effective in reducing carnivore populations and related human-carnivore conflicts, while maintaining viable populations. However, the way in which carnivore populations respond to harvest can vary greatly depending on their social structure, reproductive strategies, and dispersal patterns. For example, hunted cougar (Puma concolor) populations have shown a great degree of resiliency. Although hunting cougars on a broad geographic scale (> 2000 km2) has reduced densities, hunting of smaller areas (i.e., game management units, < 1000 km2), could conceivably fail because of increased immigration from adjacent source areas. We monitored a heavily hunted population from 2001 to 2006 to test for the effects of hunting at a small scale (< 1000 km2) and to gauge whether population control was achieved (lambda < or = 1.0) or if hunting losses were negated by increased immigration allowing the population to remain stable or increase (lambda > or = 1.0). The observed growth rate of 1.00 was significantly higher than our predicted survival/fecundity growth rates (using a Leslie matrix) of 0.89 (deterministic) and 0.84 (stochastic), with the difference representing an 11-16% annual immigration rate. We observed no decline in density of the total population or the adult population, but a significant decrease in the average age of independent males. We found that the male component of the population was increasing (observed male population growth rate, lambda(OM) = 1.09), masking a decrease in the female component (lambda(OF) = 0.91). Our data support the compensatory immigration sink hypothesis; cougar removal in small game management areas (< 1000 km2) increased immigration and recruitment of younger animals from adjacent areas, resulting in little or no reduction in local cougar densities and a shift in population

  18. Games for Learning: Which Template Generates Social Construction of Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Francisco A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover how three person teams use game templates (trivia, role-play, or scavenger hunt) to socially construct knowledge. The researcher designed an experimental Internet-based database to facilitate teams creating each game. Teams consisted of teachers, students, hobbyist, and business owners who shared similar…

  19. Evolutionary games in the multiverse.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S; Traulsen, Arne

    2010-03-23

    Evolutionary game dynamics of two players with two strategies has been studied in great detail. These games have been used to model many biologically relevant scenarios, ranging from social dilemmas in mammals to microbial diversity. Some of these games may, in fact, take place between a number of individuals and not just between two. Here we address one-shot games with multiple players. As long as we have only two strategies, many results from two-player games can be generalized to multiple players. For games with multiple players and more than two strategies, we show that statements derived for pairwise interactions no longer hold. For two-player games with any number of strategies there can be at most one isolated internal equilibrium. For any number of players with any number of strategies , there can be at most isolated internal equilibria. Multiplayer games show a great dynamical complexity that cannot be captured based on pairwise interactions. Our results hold for any game and can easily be applied to specific cases, such as public goods games or multiplayer stag hunts.

  20. Evolutionary games in the multiverse

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S.; Traulsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary game dynamics of two players with two strategies has been studied in great detail. These games have been used to model many biologically relevant scenarios, ranging from social dilemmas in mammals to microbial diversity. Some of these games may, in fact, take place between a number of individuals and not just between two. Here we address one-shot games with multiple players. As long as we have only two strategies, many results from two-player games can be generalized to multiple players. For games with multiple players and more than two strategies, we show that statements derived for pairwise interactions no longer hold. For two-player games with any number of strategies there can be at most one isolated internal equilibrium. For any number of players with any number of strategies , there can be at most isolated internal equilibria. Multiplayer games show a great dynamical complexity that cannot be captured based on pairwise interactions. Our results hold for any game and can easily be applied to specific cases, such as public goods games or multiplayer stag hunts. PMID:20212124

  1. Chronic Lead Intoxication From Eating Wild-Harvested Game.

    PubMed

    Buenz, Eric J; Parry, Gareth J

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine if conversion from eating wild game harvested with lead-based ammunition to nonlead-based ammunition results in lower blood lead levels. Supersonic injection of toxin-leeching frangible projectiles into food is intuitively bad. As much as 95% of the ~13.7 million hunters in the United States choose shrapnel-inducing lead bullets to kill game; in addition, not harvesting meat is an incarcerable crime. A lead ammunition ban on certain federal lands was recently rescinded and the National Rifle Association refutes any risk from eating lead bullet-harvested game. A patient subsisting solely on lead-shot meat was converted to non-lead ammunition and his blood lead level tracked. Concomitant with his conversion to nonlead ammunition, a controlled experiment was performed using the patient's bullets to determine his daily lead intake from lead-shot meat. While eating lead-shot meat, the patient was consuming 259.3 ± 235.6 µg of lead daily and his blood lead level was 74.7 µg/dL. Conversion to nonlead ammunition was associated with a reduced blood lead level. Unsafe blood lead levels can occur from eating game harvested with lead ammunition. Physicians should warn hunting patients of this potential risk and counsel them about the availability of nonlead ammunition alternatives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrocardiographic Responses to Deer Hunting in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Verba, Steven D; Jensen, Brock T; Lynn, Jeffrey S

    2016-09-01

    Deer hunting includes various stimuli resulting in augmented sympathetic activity, increased heart rate (HR) response, and rhythm changes. Collectively, these superimposed stresses may increase an individual's risk for cardiovascular events. We undertook this study to evaluate HR and rhythm responses in multiple phases of deer hunting in men and women with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nineteen participants age 38.3 ± 13.8 years (mean ± SD) with body mass index 29.2 ± 6.9 kg/m(2) followed their normal hunting routine. HR and rhythm were recorded continuously during the hunt using a small leadless electrocardiogram (ECG) patch monitor. Data were collected on 13 of 19 hunters while hiking. Three hunters recorded HR ≥85% of their age-predicted heart rate maximum (HRmax) for 1 to 2 minutes. Arrhythmias were detected in both participants with CVD and in 8 without CVD. Recorded rhythms included premature atrial, junctional, and ventricular complexes. Six hunters climbed a tree stand; 3 of them recorded HR ≥85% HRmax with sustained elevated HR response for 2 to 3 minutes with premature junctional contractions. Four of 19 participants dragged deer carcasses. During the drag, 1 male hunter recorded an HR of 91% HRmax, and another male hunter without CVD recorded an exercise-induced ischemic ECG. Fifteen of 19 hunters experienced "buck fever" (acute extreme excitation), with 7 reaching ≥85% HRmax for up to 1 minute. Ventricular bigeminy and trigeminy and ventricular couplets were observed in 1 subject during buck fever. Men and women with and without CVD recorded substantial increases in HR and clinically relevant arrhythmias while deer hunting. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans isolated from a hunting dog and its diphtheria toxin antibody titer.

    PubMed

    Katsukawa, Chihiro; Komiya, Takako; Umeda, Kaoru; Goto, Minami; Yanai, Tokuma; Takahashi, Motohide; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Iwaki, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans is a zoonotic pathogen that produces diphtheria toxin and causes a diphtheria-like illness in humans. The organism is known to infect and circulate among dogs, which can then transmit it to humans. Furthermore, previous studies have found that C. ulcerans is carried by wild animals, including game animals. In the present study, we tested hunting and companion dogs for the presence of toxigenic C. ulcerans and succeeded in isolating the bacterium from a hunting dog. Moreover, several hunting dogs had serum diphtheria antitoxin titers that were higher than the titers required for protection in humans, suggesting a history of exposure to toxigenic Corynebacterium strains. Notably, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and tox gene sequencing demonstrated that the isolate from the hunting dog clustered with previously characterized C. ulcerans strains isolated from wild animals, as opposed to groups of isolates from humans and companion dogs. Interestingly, the wild animal cluster also contains an isolate from an outdoor breeding dog, which could have formed a bridge between isolates from wild animals and those from companion dogs. The results presented herein provide insight into the mechanism by which the zoonotic pathogen C. ulcerans circulates among wild animals, hunting and companion dogs, and humans. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Protective Effect of Regular Physical Activity on Depression After Myocardial Infarction: The HUNT Study.

    PubMed

    Ernstsen, Linda; Rangul, Vegar; Nauman, Javaid; Nes, Bjarne M; Dalen, Håvard; Krokstad, Steinar; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    To study if physical activity within the recommended level over time was associated with risk of developing depression after the first myocardial infarction in older adults. Men (n = 143) and women (n = 46) who had reached the age of 60 years in 2006-2008 who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT1, 1984-1986; HUNT2, 1995-1997; HUNT3, 2006-2008) without any mental illness or cardiovascular disease at baseline in HUNT2 and who experienced their first myocardial infarction before HUNT3 were included. Based on the patterns of physical activity from HUNT1 to HUNT2, the sample was divided into 4 groups: persistently inactive, from active to inactive, from inactive to active, and persistently active. The primary outcome, post-myocardial infarction depression symptoms, was measured with the Hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale in HUNT3. In HUNT3, 11% of participants had depression. After multivariable adjustment, those who were persistently active had significantly lower odds of being depressed (odds ratio 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.98) compared with those who were persistently inactive. Additionally, a significant test for trend (P = .033) of lowering odds of depression was observed across all 4 categories of physical activity patterns at baseline. In this small sample of initially healthy adults, we observed a long-term protective effect of regular physical activity on the development of depression following myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-07

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hunting regulations. 770.4 Section 770.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES..., Virginia § 770.4 Hunting regulations. All persons possessing the proper State, Federal and Base licenses...

  7. 32 CFR 770.4 - Hunting regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hunting regulations. 770.4 Section 770.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES RULES..., Virginia § 770.4 Hunting regulations. All persons possessing the proper State, Federal and Base licenses...

  8. Americans with Disabilities Act Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a scavenger hunt for Business Law students. Specifically, students compete in this scavenger hunt to identify accessible design features on campus to undergird their study of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Title III of the ADA prohibits public accommodations from discriminating on the basis of…

  9. Memory does not necessarily promote cooperation in dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zhigang; Li, Kenli; Deng, Xiaoheng; Li, Deng

    2014-02-01

    Evolutionary games can model dilemmas for which cooperation can exist in rational populations. According to intuition, memory of the history can help individuals to overcome the dilemma and increase cooperation. However, here we show that no such general predictions can be made for dilemma games with memory. Agents play repeated prisoner’s dilemma, snowdrift, or stag hunt games in well-mixed populations or on a lattice. We compare the cooperation ratio and fitness for systems with or without memory. An interesting result is that cooperation is demoted in snowdrift and stag hunt games with memory when cost-to-benefit ratio is low, while system fitness still increases with memory in the snowdrift game. To illustrate this interesting phenomenon, two further experiments were performed to study R, ST, and P reciprocity and investigate 16 agent strategies for one-step memory. The results show that memory plays different roles in different dilemma games.

  10. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortuño, Anna; Scorza, Valeria; Castellà, Joaquim; Lappin, Mike

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain, fresh faecal samples from 81 shelter dogs and 88 hunting dogs were collected and analysed by faecal flotation. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 71.6% in each population. In the shelter dog group, 67.9% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 9.8% were positive for helminths. In the hunting dog group, 20.4% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 63.6% were positive for helminths. A subset of Giardia-positive samples was evaluated by PCR; Giardia assemblages C or D were detected. These results suggest that comprehensive parasite control measures should be implemented in both shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hearth-side socioeconomics, hunting and paleoecology during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave, Israel.

    PubMed

    Stiner, Mary C; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran

    2011-02-01

    The late Lower Paleolithic archaeofaunas of Qesem Cave in the southern Levant span 400-200 ka and associate with Acheulo-Yabrudian (mainly Amudian) industries. The large mammals are exclusively Eurasian in origin and formed under relatively cool, moist conditions. The zooarchaeological findings testify to large game hunting, hearth-centered carcass processing and meat sharing during the late Lower Paleolithic, not unlike the patterns known from Middle and Upper Paleolithic caves in the region. Well-defined hearth features are rarely preserved in Qesem Cave, but the heterogeneous distributions of burned bones indicate areas of frequent hearth rebuilding throughout the occupation sequence. The hominins delayed consumption of high quality body parts until they could be moved to the cave, where hearths were hubs of processing activities and social interaction. Paradoxically, the cut marks on the Qesem bones are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant. These results suggest that several individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones and that the social mechanics of meat sharing during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave differed from those typical of both the Middle and Upper Paleolithic in the region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 50 CFR 32.66 - Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting..., Virginia Department of Conservation & Recreation, and The Virginia Game and Inland Fisheries website... discharging of firearms within designated Safety Zones. We prohibit retrieval of wounded game from a “No...

  13. Home Page, Alaska Department of Fish and Game

    Science.gov Websites

    Orders Media/Press Releases Hot Topics & Issues Board of Fisheries and Game: Actions & Activities Habitat Special Areas Fish Habitat Boards Board of Game Board of Fisheries The Joint Board Commissioner Maps & Area Information File Hunt Report Trapping Boards Board of Fisheries Board of Game

  14. Symbolism and ritual practices related to hunting in Maya communities from central Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Estrada, Erin I J; Mariaca, Ramón; Bello, Eduardo

    2015-09-29

    Some Mayan peasant-hunters across the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico still carry out a hunting ritual -Loojil Ts'oon, Loj Ts'oon or Carbine Ceremony- in which they renew the divine permission for hunting in order to continue deserving the gift of prey after a period of hunt. Thus they are granted access to game by the gods and the Lords of the Animals, particularly the spirit/evil-wind call. This paper focuses on the acts within the Loojil Ts'oon -which is performed in the X-Pichil community and surrounding area- that make it unique among the hunting rituals performed in other parts of the Peninsula. The Loojil Ts'oon hunting ritual was observed and registered in audiovisual format in two different occasions in X-Pichil (Friday 04/29/2011 and Friday 07/29/2011). Afterwards, we delivered digital videodisks (DVD) to hunters and their families and to the j-men (the magic-medic-ritual specialist) who participated in these ceremonies. This delivery produced confidence among participants to talk more openly and in-depth about the Loojil Ts'oon, revealing symbolic, psychological, and material details previously unknown to outsiders. Qualitative information was obtained through the ethnographic method using techniques such as participant observation and guided tours. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to obtain complementary information. On one hand, we describe the preparation and cleansing of the "Sip soup", as well as its parading and distribution -delivery to the spirit/evil-wind Sip- on the streets of the community (highlingting the role of the rooster as a counter-gift). On the other hand, the cleansing of the jaws (of deer: Odocoileus virginianus, Mazama spp.; and peccaries: Tayassuidae) and their return to the Lords of Animals in the hills so that they may give these animals new life. By performing the Loojil Ts'oon, the act of killing an animal is legitimized. The kill transforms into an exchange to perpetuate life, in which gods and Lords of animals grant

  15. Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Mark W; Craig, Allen S; Malama, Constantine; Kapina-Kany'anga, Muzala; Malenga, Philip; Munsaka, Fanny; Muwowo, Sergio; Shadomy, Sean; Marx, Melissa A

    2017-09-01

    In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamuses deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak. Eating, carrying, and preparing meat were associated with anthrax infection. Despite the risk, 23% of respondents reported they would eat meat from hippopotamuses found dead again because of food shortage (73%), lack of meat (12%), hunger (7%), and protein shortage (5%). Chronic food insecurity can lead to consumption of unsafe foods, leaving communities susceptible to zoonotic infection. Interagency cooperation is necessary to prevent outbreaks by addressing the root cause of exposure, such as food insecurity.

  16. Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Mark W.; Craig, Allen S.; Malama, Constantine; Kapina-Kany’anga, Muzala; Malenga, Philip; Munsaka, Fanny; Muwowo, Sergio; Shadomy, Sean

    2017-01-01

    In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamus deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak. Eating, carrying, and preparing meat were associated with anthrax infection. Despite the risk, 23% of respondents reported they would eat meat from hippopotamuses found dead again because of food shortage (73%), lack of meat (12%), hunger (7%), and protein shortage (5%). Chronic food insecurity can lead to consumption of unsafe foods, leaving communities susceptible to zoonotic infection. Interagency cooperation is necessary to prevent outbreaks by addressing the root cause of exposure, such as food insecurity. PMID:28820129

  17. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use area...

  18. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use area...

  19. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use area...

  20. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use area...

  1. 43 CFR 423.32 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hunting, fishing, and trapping. 423.32... of Conduct § 423.32 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) You may hunt, fish, and trap in accordance... pertaining to hunting, fishing, and trapping established by an authorized official in a special use area...

  2. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.

    1999-05-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for Americanmore » Indians if the Department of Energy`s INEEL lands are ever opened to public access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians.« less

  3. Isotopic evidence for Last Glacial climatic impacts on Neanderthal gazelle hunting territories at Amud Cave, Israel.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Gideon; Hovers, Erella; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Middle Paleolithic site of Amud Cave, Israel, was occupied by Neanderthals at two different time periods, evidenced by two chronologically and stratigraphically distinct depositional sub-units (B4 and B2/B1) during MIS 4 and MIS 3, respectively. The composition of both hunted large fauna and naturally-deposited micromammalian taxa is stable at the site over time, despite a ∼ 10 ky gap between the two occupation phases. However, while gazelle is the most ubiquitous hunted species throughout the occupation, isotopic analysis showed that there is a marked change in Neanderthal hunting ranges between the early (B4) and late (B2/B1) phases. Hunting ranges were reconstructed by comparing oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotopes from gazelle tooth enamel with modern isotope data from the Amud Cave region. This region is characterized by extensive topographic, lithological, and pedological heterogeneity. During the early occupation phase negative oxygen isotope values, low radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, and low Sr concentrations reveal restricted gazelle hunting in the high elevations west of Amud Cave. In the late occupation phase, hunting ranges became more diverse, but concentrate at low elevations closer to the site. Climatic proxies indicate that conditions were drier in the early occupation phase, which may have pushed gazelle populations into higher, more productive foraging areas. This study showed that Neanderthals adjusted their hunting territories considerably in relation to varying environmental conditions over the course of occupation in Amud Cave. It highlights the utility of multiple isotope analysis in enhancing the resolution of behavioral interpretations based on faunal remains and in reconstructing past hunting behaviors of Paleolithic hominins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cross-jurisdictional management of a trophy-hunted species.

    PubMed

    Hochard, Jacob; Finnoff, David

    2017-05-07

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) are managed for competing uses in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Tourism benefits Yellowstone National Park (YNP) visitors while trophy hunting benefits hunters outside of the park. We investigate the policy scope of gray wolf management across jurisdictional boundaries by incorporating three foundations of the behavioral ecology of wolves: refuge-seeking behavior, optimal foraging group size and territoriality. Tradeoffs between and within consumptive and non-consumptive human benefits and wolf population fitness and life history indicators are quantified as a set of elasticities, providing clear implications to resource managers. Our approach highlights that hunting intensity affects the provision of consumptive and non-consumptive human benefits across jurisdictional boundaries and ought to be managed accordingly. We also show that population levels are an incomplete indicator of species fitness, which may depend on how hunting policies impact underlying group ecology. Our findings suggest traditional optimization approaches to wildlife management may lead to suboptimal policy recommendations when the boundaries on the natural system are oversimplified. Highlighting the human element of wildlife management, we show that understanding tourist and hunter responses to wildlife population abundances is critical to balancing provision of consumptive and non-consumptive human uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Drivers of Bushmeat Hunting and Perceptions of Zoonoses in Nigerian Hunting Communities

    PubMed Central

    Friant, Sagan; Paige, Sarah B.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1) quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2) identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3) identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals to hunt, and 4) measure perceptions of risk. Participants engaged in a variety of behaviors that increased contact with wild animals, including: butchering to sell (37%), being injured (14%), using body parts for traditional medicine (19%), collecting carcasses found in forests and/or farms (18%), and keeping as pets (16%). Hunters came into contact with wildlife significantly more than non-hunters, even through non-hunting exposure pathways. Participants reported hunting rodents (95%), ungulates (93%), carnivores (93%), primates (87%), and bats (42%), among other prey. Reported hunting frequencies within taxonomic groups of prey were different for different hunting behaviors. Young age, lower education level, larger household size, having a father who hunts, and cultural group were all associated with becoming a hunter. Fifty-five percent of respondents were aware that they could contract diseases from wild animals, but only 26% of these individuals reported taking protective measures. Overall, hunters in this setting frequently contact a diversity of prey in risky ways, and the decision to become a hunter stems from family tradition, modified by economic necessity. Conservation and public health interventions in such settings may be most efficient when they capitalize on local knowledge and target root socio-economic and cultural drivers that lead to hunting behavior. Importantly, interventions that target

  6. Economic value of big game hunting in southeast Alaska

    Treesearch

    Cindy Swanson; Michael Thomas; Dennis M. Donnelly

    1989-01-01

    Surveys in southeast Alaska in 1984 and 1985 were the basis for estimating net willingness to pay of hunters. Net willingness to pay was highest for resident deer hunters ($331) and lowest for nonresident moose hunters ($55). Relationship between willingness to pay and expenditures is discussed.

  7. Black Hole Safari: Tracking Populations and Hunting Big Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, N. J.

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the physical connection, or lack thereof, between the growth of galaxies and supermassive black holes is a key challenge in extragalactic astronomy. Dynamical studies of nearby galaxies are building a census of black hole masses across a broad range of galaxy types and uncovering statistical correlations between galaxy bulge properties and black hole masses. These local correlations provide a baseline for studying galaxies and black holes at higher redshifts. Recent measurements have probed the extremes of the supermassive black hole population and introduced surprises that challenge simple models of black hole and galaxy co-evolution. Future advances in the quality and quantity of dynamical black hole mass measurements will shed light upon the growth of massive galaxies and black holes in different cosmic environments.

  8. The hygiene-sanitary control in the wild game meats.

    PubMed

    Giuggioli, Germana; Olivastri, Alberto; Pennisi, Luca; Paludi, Domenico; Ianieri, Adriana; Vergara, Alberto

    2017-10-20

    The use of game meat as a food source is currently a growing trend in our country. These products have strong and historic ties with cultural and culinary tradition, but are also appreciated for their sensory and nutritional characteristics. A major contributor to the supply of this type of product is hunting. Practiced since the dawn of time for survival, hunting has evolved into a recreational activity with substantial commercial interests. Of particular importance in this context is hunting of large ungulates. The progressive urbanization of the population has allowed for the re-establishment of bush and wooded areas that represent the ideal habitat of species such as the wild boar, whose numbers are increasing throughout the country. It is therefore clear that implementation of safety rules regarding the hunting and consumption of game meat needs to be urgently addressed. The understanding and application of rules isn't always easy since the health law is intertwined with that of hunting, and the decision- making power left to the different regions does not contribute to a uniform application throughout the country. The aim of this study was to examine the norms that regulate the use of large wild game meat intended for human consumption and their applicability in hunting activities. From the comparison of the data reported in the literature and our field experience the rules implementation and the problems are evaluated. Operational procedures are then proposed to simplify some of the most difficult aspects and fill in the gaps highlighted.

  9. Computer games supporting cognitive behaviour therapy in children.

    PubMed

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic computer games might enhance children's motivation for psychotherapy, facilitate their understanding of important therapeutic concepts, structure therapy sessions, enhance treatment of migrant children and disseminate evidence-based treatment approaches. The game Treasure Hunt was developed to support cognitive behaviour therapy with children who come into treatment for various mental health problems. To evaluate the applicability and appropriateness of the game, 124 therapists answered a questionnaire on their impression of Treasure Hunt three months after download. Of these, 42 consented to participate in the further evaluation and sent questionnaires of 218 children in whose therapy Treasure Hunt had been used. A limitation of these data is an eventual positive bias, as therapists with a positive attitude towards therapeutic computer games may have been more likely to participate. Data show that the vast majority of children were satisfied their therapist had used the game during treatment. Therapists used Treasure Hunt for a broad range of diagnoses. They judged the game as helpful in the explanation of cognitive-behavioural concepts, used it as reinforcement and reported it enhanced child motivation for psychotherapy and strengthened the therapeutic relationship with the child.

  10. 50 CFR 32.56 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of goose, duck, coot, and snipe on that portion of the refuge... hunt. 8. Hunters may enter closed areas of the refuge only to retrieve downed birds. B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. We allow sport fishing in accordance...

  11. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat.

  12. Line Transect Surveys Underdetect Terrestrial Mammals: Implications for the Sustainability of Subsistence Hunting

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Taal; Oliveira, Luiz F. B.; Luzar, Jeffrey B.; Overman, Han; Read, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of Neotropical game species must take into account the livelihood and food security needs of local human populations. Hunting management decisions should therefore rely on abundance and distribution data that are as representative as possible of true population sizes and dynamics. We simultaneously applied a commonly used encounter-based method and an infrequently used sign-based method to estimate hunted vertebrate abundance in a 48,000-km2 indigenous landscape in southern Guyana. Diurnal direct encounter data collected during three years along 216, four-kilometer -long transects consistently under-detected many diurnal and nocturnal mammal species readily detected through sign. Of 32 species analyzed, 31 were detected by both methods; however, encounters did not detect one and under-detected another 12 of the most heavily hunted species relative to sign, while sign under-detected 12 never or rarely collected species relative to encounters. The six most important game animals in the region, all ungulates, were not encountered at 11–40% of village and control sites or on 29–72% of transects where they were detected by sign. Using the sign methodology, we find that tapirs, one of the terrestrial vertebrates considered most sensitive to overexploitation, are present at many sites where they were never visually detected during distance sampling. We find that this is true for many other species as well. These high rates of under-detection suggest that behavioral changes in hunted populations may affect apparent occurrence and abundance of these populations. Accumulation curves (detection of species on transects) were much steeper for sign for 12 of 16 hunted species than for encounters, but that pattern was reversed for 12 of 16 species unhunted in our area. We conclude that collection of sign data is an efficient and effective method of monitoring hunted vertebrate populations that complements encounter and camera-trapping methods in areas impacted by

  13. Effects of Remedial Sport Hunting on Cougar Complaints and Livestock Depredations

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, Kaylie A.; Wielgus, Robert B.; Maletzke, Benjamin T.; Swanson, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Remedial sport hunting of predators is often used to reduce predator populations and associated complaints and livestock depredations. We assessed the effects of remedial sport hunting on reducing cougar complaints and livestock depredations in Washington from 2005 to 2010 (6 years). The number of complaints, livestock depredations, cougars harvested, estimated cougar populations, human population and livestock populations were calculated for all 39 counties and 136 GMUs (game management units) in Washington. The data was then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of complaints and depredations in the current year with the number of cougars harvested the previous year. As expected, we found that complaints and depredations were positively associated with human population, livestock population, and cougar population. However, contrary to expectations we found that complaints and depredations were most strongly associated with cougars harvested the previous year. The odds of increased complaints and livestock depredations increased dramatically (36 to 240%) with increased cougar harvest. We suggest that increased young male immigration, social disruption of cougar populations, and associated changes in space use by cougars - caused by increased hunting resulted in the increased complaints and livestock depredations. Widespread indiscriminate hunting does not appear to be an effective preventative and remedial method for reducing predator complaints and livestock depredations. PMID:24260291

  14. Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400-200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel.

    PubMed

    Stiner, Mary C; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi

    2009-08-11

    Zooarchaeological research at Qesem Cave, Israel demonstrates that large-game hunting was a regular practice by the late Lower Paleolithic period. The 400- to 200,000-year-old fallow deer assemblages from this cave provide early examples of prime-age-focused ungulate hunting, a human predator-prey relationship that has persisted into recent times. The meat diet at Qesem centered on large game and was supplemented with tortoises. These hominins hunted cooperatively, and consumption of the highest quality parts of large prey was delayed until the food could be moved to the cave and processed with the aid of blade cutting tools and fire. Delayed consumption of high-quality body parts implies that the meat was shared with other members of the group. The types of cut marks on upper limb bones indicate simple flesh removal activities only. The Qesem cut marks are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant, suggesting that more (skilled and unskilled) individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones at Qesem Cave. Among recent humans, butchering of large animals normally involves a chain of focused tasks performed by one or just a few persons, and butchering guides many of the formalities of meat distribution and sharing that follow. The results from Qesem Cave raise new hypotheses about possible differences in the mechanics of meat sharing between the late Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic.

  15. Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400–200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Stiner, Mary C.; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Zooarchaeological research at Qesem Cave, Israel demonstrates that large-game hunting was a regular practice by the late Lower Paleolithic period. The 400- to 200,000-year-old fallow deer assemblages from this cave provide early examples of prime-age-focused ungulate hunting, a human predator–prey relationship that has persisted into recent times. The meat diet at Qesem centered on large game and was supplemented with tortoises. These hominins hunted cooperatively, and consumption of the highest quality parts of large prey was delayed until the food could be moved to the cave and processed with the aid of blade cutting tools and fire. Delayed consumption of high-quality body parts implies that the meat was shared with other members of the group. The types of cut marks on upper limb bones indicate simple flesh removal activities only. The Qesem cut marks are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant, suggesting that more (skilled and unskilled) individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones at Qesem Cave. Among recent humans, butchering of large animals normally involves a chain of focused tasks performed by one or just a few persons, and butchering guides many of the formalities of meat distribution and sharing that follow. The results from Qesem Cave raise new hypotheses about possible differences in the mechanics of meat sharing between the late Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic. PMID:19666542

  16. The Quabbin controlled deer hunt 1991 - 2001: limitations of a controlled hunt

    Treesearch

    Beth E. Cohen; David K. Loomis

    2003-01-01

    The Quabbin Reservoir, built in the 1930's as a water supply for Boston, is an unfiltered source of water. The agency responsible for managing the reservoir wants it to remain unfiltered. As a result, human activity is kept to a minimum, including (until recently) a prohibition on hunting. The lack of natural predators and the ban on recreational hunting allowed...

  17. Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Giffen, Neil R; Evans, James W.; Parr, Patricia Dreyer

    This document outlines a plan for management of the wildlife resources on the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation. Management includes wildlife population control through hunting, trapping, removal, and habitat manipulation; wildlife damage control; restoration of wildlife species; preservation, management, and enhancement of wildlife habitats; coordination of wildlife studies and characterization of areas; and law enforcement. Wildlife resources are divided into several categories, each with a specific set of objectives and procedures for attaining them. These objectives are management of (1) wildlife habitats to ensure that all resident wildlife species exist on the Reservation in viable numbers; (2) featuredmore » species to produce selected species in desired numbers on designated land units; (3) game species for research, education, recreation, and public safety; (4) the Three Bend Scenic and Wildlife Management Refuge Area; (5) nuisance wildlife, including nonnative species, to achieve adequate population control for the maintenance of health and safety on the Reservation; (6) sensitive species (i.e., state or federally listed as endangered, threatened, of special concern, or in need of management) through preservation and protection of both the species and habitats critical to the survival of those species; and (7) wildlife disease. Achievement of the objectives is a joint effort between the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory through agreements between TWRA and DOE and between DOE and UT-Battelle, LLC.« less

  18. Management of hunting waste as control measure for tuberculosis in wild ungulates in south-central Spain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Terriza, D; Risalde, M A; Jiménez-Ruiz, S; Vicente, J; Isla, J; Paniagua, J; Moreno, I; Gortázar, C; Infantes-Lorenzo, J A; García-Bocanegra, I

    2018-03-13

    In recent decades, habitat change and the intensive management of wild ungulates for hunting have led to an increase in their populations in south-central Spain. This implies a higher generation of hunting waste, which can favour the transmission of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of the proper disposal of hunting waste as TB control measure in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the 2008/2009 to 2016/2017 hunting seasons. Blood samples from 664 wild boar and 934 red deer were obtained in 14 game estates in two provinces in Andalusia (Area 1), where the disposal of hunting waste was implemented since the 2012/2013 hunting season. Besides, six game estates in the province of Ciudad Real, in Castilla-La Mancha (Area 2), an adjacent region where this management measure was not implemented during the studied period, were used as controls, sampling 277 wild boar and 427 red deer sera. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), seroprevalence detected in wild boar from Area 1, was significantly higher before the disposal of big game hunting by-products (82.8%; 2008/2009-2012/2013) compared to the second period (61.8%; 2013/2014-2016/2017) (p < .001), after this control measure became established. By contrast, no significant differences between periods were found in wild boar (41.3% versus 44.8%; p = .33) and red deer (14.9% versus 11.6%; p = .19) from Area 2 as well as in red deer (10.8% versus 10.5%; p = .48) from Area 1. The proper disposal of hunting waste contributed to achieve a 25% reduction in MTC seroprevalence in wild boar. These results are of particular relevance regarding wild boar in the current context of re-emerging and emerging diseases such as TB and African Swine Fever in Europe. Further studies are needed to assess the effect of this measure on the health status of livestock and other wildlife species. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. The management of hunting of Anatidae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Johnson, F.A.; Birkan, Marcel

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of harvest management for members of family Anatidae typically involve the size of the harvested population and the size of the harvest. Hunting regulations are the primary tool used to try to achieve the objectives of harvest management. Informed harvest management thus requires a knowledge of the relationship between hunting regulations and both Anatid abundance and harvest. Results of retrospective studies in North America provide evidence that generally restrictive regulations produce lower harvest rates than generally liberal regulations. However, such studies have provided little evidence that specific hunting regulations designed to produce a change in the relative harvest rates of different species, or of the sexes within a species, have been successful in 'directing' harvest toward specific groups of birds and away from other groups. Estimates of the strength of the relationship between harvest mortality rates and annual survival rates of Anatidae have ranged from weak to strong. Thus, the key relationships for harvest management of Anatidae, those between hunting regulations and the size of both the subsequent harvest and the subsequent population, are not 'known' but are characterized by uncertainty. In the United States, this uncertainty led to a risk-aversive conservatism that characterized the setting of hunting regulations during the last decade. Recently, managers have begun to consider using hunting regulations themselves as a means to better understand the system being managed. This approach, referred to as active adaptive management, attempts to balance short-term demands for hunting opportunity with the learning needed to improve long-term management performance. Learning is accomplished by periodically comparing observed system response, as estimated by ongoing survey and data collection programs, with predictions of competing models. These periodic comparisons lead to changes in measures of credibility associated with the

  20. Target definition for shipwreck hunting

    PubMed Central

    Kirsner, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or “mean” just 2.7 NM (nautical miles) from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor's reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013). The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review. PMID:26579007

  1. Mourning dove hunting regulation strategy based on annual harvest statistics and banding data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Although managers should strive to base game bird harvest management strategies on mechanistic population models, monitoring programs required to build and continuously update these models may not be in place. Alternatively, If estimates of total harvest and harvest rates are available, then population estimates derived from these harvest data can serve as the basis for making hunting regulation decisions based on population growth rates derived from these estimates. I present a statistically rigorous approach for regulation decision-making using a hypothesis-testing framework and an assumed framework of 3 hunting regulation alternatives. I illustrate and evaluate the technique with historical data on the mid-continent mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population. I evaluate the statistical properties of the hypothesis-testing framework using the best available data on mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). I use these results to discuss practical implementation of the technique as an interim harvest strategy for mourning doves until reliable mechanistic population models and associated monitoring programs are developed.

  2. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1), more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting.

  3. High Risk of Lead Contamination for Scavengers in an Area with High Moose Hunting Success

    PubMed Central

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A.; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg.L−1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

  4. Navajo Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Janet M.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews 163 sources on Navajo games, play, and toys. Includes an annotated bibliography of those materials. Examines relationships between games and religion, origin myths, and ceremonies. Discusses attitudes toward games, gambling, and cheating; and the dichotomy between children's and adults' games. Describes specific toys, games, and play…

  5. Using Alternate Reality Games to Support First Year Induction with ELGG

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatt, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe a pilot project investigating the use of alternate reality game/treasure-hunt formats to provide an alternative to existing mechanisms for introducing new students to university information and services. Design/methodology/approach: An alternate reality game was designed to be played online and offline, which…

  6. From sport hunting to breeding success: Patterns of lead ammunition ingestion and its effects on an endangered raptor.

    PubMed

    Gil-Sánchez, José M; Molleda, Saray; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Bautista, Jesús; Navas, Isabel; Godinho, Raquel; García-Fernández, Antonio J; Moleón, Marcos

    2018-02-01

    Lead is highly toxic for wildlife, with pernicious consequences especially in long-lived predators. The causes of lead ammunition ingestion in Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) and its effects on breeding success were studied in one of the most important populations of this endangered species in Europe. Regurgitated pellets belonging to different pairs from 2004 to 2014 were analyzed, both in the breeding (1363 pellets from 12 territories) and non-breeding (172 pellets from 9 territories) seasons. From these territories, 57 molted feathers to study lead contamination were analyzed, and breeding success was monitored for 41 breeding attempts. The occurrence of lead shots in pellets was detected using X-ray photographs. Pellets were also used to describe eagle diet. Lead shots in pellets were present in 83.3% of the territories. The frequency of occurrence of lead shots in pellets (2.81% in spring and 1.31% in autumn) was primarily related to the consumption of red-legged partridge in the breeding season (when partridges are hunted from blinds using calling lures), and secondarily to rabbit consumption in the non-breeding season (coinciding with the main hunting season). Thus, our results indicate that injured small-game were the main source of lead contamination in the Bonelli's eagle. For the first time for a raptor species, a positive relationship between the frequency of occurrence of lead shots in pellets and lead concentration in eagles' feathers has been documented. Lead concentration in feathers (mean±SD: 816±426μgkg -1 , with no sex-related differences) was high for a species that rarely eats carrion or aquatic birds (the main prey-related lead source for raptors). This had negative effects on breeding success, which could jeopardize Bonelli's eagles in other European populations that are sustained by juvenile dispersal from the study population. Our work shows that some game modalities pose a potential threat to endangered raptors. Copyright © 2017

  7. Lead pollution from waterfowl hunting in wetlands and rice fields in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Romano, Marcelo; Ferreyra, Hebe; Ferreyroa, Gisele; Molina, Fernando V; Caselli, Andrea; Barberis, Ignacio; Beldoménico, Pablo; Uhart, Marcela

    2016-03-01

    The pollution of wetlands by lead derived from waterfowl hunting with lead shot was investigated. We determined soil pellet density and Pb concentration in soil, water and vegetation in natural wetlands and rice fields in central-eastern Santa Fe province, Argentina. Pellet density varied greatly among hunting sites (between 5.5-141 pellets/m(2)) and pellets were present in some control sites. Soil Pb concentration in most hunting sites (approximately 10-20 mg kg(-1)) was not much higher than in control sites (~5-10 mg kg(-1)), with the exception of the site with highest pellet density, which also had a high Pb soil concentration. In water, on the other hand, Pb concentration was similar in all sites (~4-7 μg L(-1)), both control and hunting, and higher than reference values for aquatic media. Lead was also present in vegetation, including grasses and rice crops, in almost all cases. Most soil-collection sites were slightly acidic, and were frequently flooded. These results strongly suggest that metallic Pb from spent shot is oxidized and dissolved due to wetland conditions. Thus, the pollutant is readily mobilized and distributed across all wetland areas, effectively homogenizing its concentration in locations with and without hunting activities. The replacement of lead by nontoxic materials in pellets appears to be the only effective way to prevent Pb pollution in wetlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Subsistence hunting of Cuniculus paca in the middle of the Solimões River, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, J; El Bizri, H R; Figueira, J E C

    2014-08-01

    Ungulates, large primates and caviomorfs are cited by Amazonian hunters as preferred species. In this research, paca (Cuniculus paca) hunting was investigated in relation to water levels and the lunar cycle. In eight years of monitoring in the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve, the killing of 625 pacas was registered in five monitored communities. Paca hunting took place mainly at night and the most commonly used method is "spotlighting". A positive correlation between the number of pacas killed and water level (rs=0.890; p<0.0001) was found. At least 37% of the pacas were hunted when moon illumination level was less than 10%, before moonrise or after moonset. In the Boa Esperança community, capture of paca tended to decrease on nights with high moon illumination (rs= -0.663; p=0.067). At the same time, an expressive catch-per-unity-effort decrease was also observed in this community (r2= -0.881; p<0.001), allowing us to predict unsustainable hunting levels for the next decade. The stock of animals in these areas could be continuously replaced if surrounding areas consisted of continuous forests. However, continuous hunting and deforestation force local hunters to travel longer distances to kill prey such as pacas. The confirmation of the relation between paca habits and lunar illumination and water level, a pattern described by local hunters, demonstrates the potential value of participatory research and the possibility of integrating traditional knowledge into scientific knowledge.

  9. Human Hunting and Nascent Animal Management at Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic Yiftah'el, Israel.

    PubMed

    Sapir-Hen, Lidar; Dayan, Tamar; Khalaily, Hamoudi; Munro, Natalie D

    2016-01-01

    The current view for the southern Levant is that wild game hunting was replaced by herd management over the course of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, but there is significant debate over the timing, scale and origin of this transition. To date, most relevant studies focus either on wild game exploitation in the periods prior to domestication or on classic markers of domestication of domestic progenitor species over the course of the PPNB. We studied the faunal remains from the 2007-2008 excavations of the Middle PPNB (MPPNB) site of Yiftah'el, Northern Israel. Our analysis included a close examination of the timing and impact of the trade-off between wild game and domestic progenitor taxa that reflects the very beginning of this critical transition in the Mediterranean zone of the southern Levant. Our results reveal a direct trade-off between the intensive hunting of wild ungulates that had been staples for millennia, and domestic progenitor taxa. We suggest that the changes in wild animal use are linked to a region-wide shift in the relationship between humans and domestic progenitor species including goat, pig and cattle.

  10. Predator facilitation or interference: a game of vipers and owls.

    PubMed

    Embar, Keren; Raveh, Ashael; Hoffmann, Ishai; Kotler, Burt P

    2014-04-01

    In predator-prey foraging games, the prey's reaction to one type of predator may either facilitate or hinder the success of another predator. We ask, do different predator species affect each other's patch selection? If the predators facilitate each other, they should prefer to hunt in the same patch; if they interfere, they should prefer to hunt alone. We performed an experiment in a large outdoor vivarium where we presented barn owls (Tyto alba) with a choice of hunting greater Egyptian gerbils (Gerbillus pyramidum) in patches with or without Saharan horned vipers (Cerastes cerastes). Gerbils foraged on feeding trays set under bushes or in the open. We monitored owl location, activity, and hunting attempts, viper activity and ambush site location, and the foraging behavior of the gerbils in bush and open microhabitats. Owls directed more attacks towards patches with vipers, and vipers were more active in the presence of owls. Owls and vipers facilitated each other's hunting through their combined effect on gerbil behavior, especially on full moon nights when vipers are more active. Owls forced gerbils into the bushes where vipers preferred to ambush, while viper presence chased gerbils into the open where they were exposed to owls. Owls and vipers took advantage of their indirect positive effect on each other. In the foraging game context, they improve each other's patch quality and hunting success.

  11. Learning with repeated-game strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Christos A.; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the “Grim-Trigger.” In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the “Win-Stay, Lose-Shift” and “Grim-Trigger” strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes. PMID:25126053

  12. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-10-23

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.

  13. Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat

    PubMed Central

    Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A.; Fick, Linda G.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Maloney, Shane K.; Fuller, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

  14. Small forest holdings could be combined for hunting leases

    Treesearch

    John J. Stransky; Lowell K. Halls

    1969-01-01

    Most forest land acreage in the South is in small holdings. Much-needed hunting land, and income for rural landowners, could be provided by combining small forest holdings into large units and teasing the hunting rights.

  15. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.; Evans, J.W.

    1992-06-01

    A plan for management of the wildlife resources on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation is outlined in this document. Management includes wildlife population control (hunts, trapping, and removal), handling specific problems with wildlife, restoration of species, coordination with researchers on wildlife studies, preservation and management of habitats, and law enforcement. Wildlife resources are divided into five categories, each with a specific set of objectives and procedures for obtaining these objectives. These categories are (1) species-richness management to ensure that all resident wildlife species exist on the Reservation in viable numbers; (2) featured species management to produce selectedmore » species in desired numbers on designated land units; (3) management of game species for research, education, recreation, and public safety, (4) endangered species management designed to preserve and protect both the species and habitats critical to the survival of those species; and (5) pest management. Achievement of the objectives is a joint effort between the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Environmental Sciences Division.« less

  16. The promotion of cooperation by the poor in dynamic chicken games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiromu; Katsumata, Yuki; Hasegawa, Eisuke; Yoshimura, Jin

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of cooperative behavior is one of the most important issues in game theory. Previous studies have shown that cooperation can evolve only under highly limited conditions, and various modifications have been introduced to games to explain the evolution of cooperation. Recently, a utility function basic to game theory was shown to be dependent on current wealth as a conditional (state) variable in a dynamic version of utility theory. Here, we introduce this dynamic utility function to several games. Under certain conditions, poor players exhibit cooperative behavior in two types of chicken games (the hawk-dove game and the snowdrift game) but not in the prisoner’s dilemma game and the stag hunt game. This result indicates that cooperation can be exhibited by the poor in some chicken games. Thus, the evolution of cooperation may not be as limited as has been suggested in previous studies.

  17. Opinions of elk viewers on a proposed Pennsylvania elk hunt

    Treesearch

    Bruce E. Lord; Charles H. Strauss; Walter M. Tzilkowski

    2001-01-01

    The Pennsylvania elk herd has grown to the size where a hunting season is being considered. Visitors to the principal elk viewing areas were asked their opinions about an elk hunt. Their responses were analyzed with respect to their personal profile and the characteristics of their visit. While roughly half the public supports a hunt, specific subgroups were found to...

  18. Hunting and fishing trends in the U.S.

    Treesearch

    J. John Charbonneau; James R. Lyons

    1980-01-01

    Trends in hunting and fishing participation are evaluated on the basis of responses to a telephone survey of the U.S. population conducted as a part of the 1975 National Hunting and Fishing Survey. Probability of participation in hunting and fishing is a function of the respondent's age, sex, income, place of residence, and a number of supply characteristics. The...

  19. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds for...

  20. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds for...

  1. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds for...

  2. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing may...

  3. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds for...

  4. 36 CFR § 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Hunting, fishing, and trapping... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except in...

  5. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds for...

  6. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing may...

  7. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except in...

  8. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing may...

  9. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except in...

  10. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing may...

  11. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except in...

  12. 36 CFR 327.8 - Hunting, fishing, and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hunting, fishing, and... THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.8 Hunting, fishing, and trapping. (a) Hunting is permitted except in... areas and during periods where prohibited by the District Commander. (c) Fishing is permitted except in...

  13. 50 CFR 31.15 - Public hunting and fishing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public hunting and fishing programs. 31.15 Section 31.15 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reduction and Disposal § 31.15 Public hunting and fishing programs. The privilege of hunting and fishing may...

  14. Yield from an intensively hunted population of eastern fox squirrels

    Treesearch

    James S. Jordan; James S. Jordan

    1971-01-01

    Rates at which Eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are exploited in areas open to public hunting may be useful guides for designing fall hunting seasons that are biologically defensible. However, there is a question whether the harvest of fox squirrels by public hunting will even occasionally be great enough to challenge the limit allowed by the best designed...

  15. 50 CFR 32.8 - Areas closed to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Areas closed to hunting. 32.8 Section 32.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING General Provisions § 32.8 Areas closed to hunting...

  16. Seasonal biotic and abiotic factors affecting hunting strategy in free-living Saharan sand vipers, Cerastes vipera.

    PubMed

    Horesh, Sefi J A; Sivan, Jaim; Rosenstrauch, Avi; Tesler, Itay; Degen, A Allan; Kam, Michael

    2017-02-01

    vulnerable small neonates used sit-and-wait ambush not only as a hunting strategy but also as a hiding technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hunting Elusive SPRITEs with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, astronomers have developed many wide-field imaging surveys in which the same targets are observed again and again. This new form of observing has allowed us to discover optical and radio transients explosive or irregular events with durations ranging from seconds to years. The dynamic infrared sky, however, has remained largely unexplored until now.Infrared ExplorationExample of a transient: SPIRITS 14ajc was visible when imaged by SPIRITS in 2014 (left) but it wasnt there during previous imaging between 2004 and 2008 (right). The bottom frame shows the difference between the two images. [Adapted from Kasliwal et al. 2017]Why hunt for infrared transients? Optical wavelengths dont allow us to observe events that are obscured, such that their own structure or their surroundings hide them from our view. Both supernovae and luminous red novae (associated with stellar mergers) are discoverable as infrared transients, and there may well be new types of transients in infrared that we havent seen before!To explore this uncharted territory, a team of scientists developed SPIRITS, the Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transients Survey. Begun in 2014, SPIRITS is a five-year long survey that uses the Spitzer Space Telescope to conduct a systematic search for mid-infrared transients in nearby galaxies.In a recent publication led by Mansi Kasliwal (Caltech and the Carnegie Institution for Science), the SPIRITS team has now detailed how their survey works and what theyve discovered in its first year.The light curves of SPRITEs (red stars) lie in the mid-infared luminosity gap between novae (orange) and supernovae (blue). [Kasliwal et al. 2017]Mystery TransientsKasliwal and collaborators used Spitzer to monitor 190 nearby galaxies. In SPIRITS first year, they found over 1958 variable stars and 43 infrared transient sources. Of these 43 transients, 21 were known supernovae, 4 were in the luminosity range of novae, and 4 had optical counterparts. The remaining 14 events

  18. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    PubMed Central

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos Resumen Científicos conservacionistas cada vez se

  19. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  20. William M. Harnett: "After the Hunt."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Edie

    1987-01-01

    Using William M. Harnett's 1884 oil painting "After the Hunt," this lesson introduces students in grades seven through nine to the style of realism popular in the late nineteenth century. The lesson is also designed to show how art reflects the values of the society in which it was created. (JDH)

  1. Concerning Hunt's New Ways of Assessing Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belmont, John M.

    1983-01-01

    In an earlier article, Hunt envisions the automation of intelligence testing, but he appears to be overly optimistic. He neglects to mention conceptual and practical difficulties at the interface of measurement and theory that place psychometry not in the dawn of microcomputerization, but rather more nearly in its primordium. (Author)

  2. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 406, in Sec. 32.45, the second entry for ``Northwest Montana Wetland Management District'' is...

  3. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 385, in Sec. 32.43, the entry for ``Coldwater National Wildlife Refuge'' is moved to precede the...

  4. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 326, in Sec. 32.35, in the entry for ``Marais des Cygnes National Wildlife Refuge'' , the heading...

  5. 76 FR 60379 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR... Wildlife Refuge * * * * * 0 D. Sport Fishing. We allow fishing on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations subject to the following conditions: 0 1. We allow fishing in impounded...

  6. American Indians, Witchcraft, and Witch-hunting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Explores North American Indian beliefs about witchcraft and witch-hunting. Focuses on the ideas and actions of the Iroquois about witchcraft. Addresses the changes in ideas of North American Indians living in the nineteenth century. Notes the transition from men and women perceived as witches to mostly females. (CMK)

  7. Hunting and Wildlife Management. Issue Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, three lesson plans, student data sheets, and a poster. The overview discusses hunting as a tool for wildlife management, the management of wildlife populations and hunter participation in providing research data, and the…

  8. The Great Bug Hunt Is Back!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Rapley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk" and Martin Rapley, presenter of "The Big Bug Experience," are again running the Great Bug Hunt in 2012. Simply identify a habitat, explore and discover the bugs that live there, photograph or draw them and record findings--it's that simple. The winner will be the…

  9. Visuomotor Transformations Underlying Hunting Behavior in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Isaac H.; Engert, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Visuomotor circuits filter visual information and determine whether or not to engage downstream motor modules to produce behavioral outputs. However, the circuit mechanisms that mediate and link perception of salient stimuli to execution of an adaptive response are poorly understood. We combined a virtual hunting assay for tethered larval zebrafish with two-photon functional calcium imaging to simultaneously monitor neuronal activity in the optic tectum during naturalistic behavior. Hunting responses showed mixed selectivity for combinations of visual features, specifically stimulus size, speed, and contrast polarity. We identified a subset of tectal neurons with similar highly selective tuning, which show non-linear mixed selectivity for visual features and are likely to mediate the perceptual recognition of prey. By comparing neural dynamics in the optic tectum during response versus non-response trials, we discovered premotor population activity that specifically preceded initiation of hunting behavior and exhibited anatomical localization that correlated with motor variables. In summary, the optic tectum contains non-linear mixed selectivity neurons that are likely to mediate reliable detection of ethologically relevant sensory stimuli. Recruitment of small tectal assemblies appears to link perception to action by providing the premotor commands that release hunting responses. These findings allow us to propose a model circuit for the visuomotor transformations underlying a natural behavior. PMID:25754638

  10. 50 CFR 32.46 - Nebraska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of ducks, geese, and coots on designated areas of the refuge... must adhere to all applicable State hunting regulations. B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game... than two lines and two hooks per line. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird...

  11. 50 CFR 32.46 - Nebraska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of ducks, geese, and coots on designated areas of the refuge... must adhere to all applicable State hunting regulations. B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game... than two lines and two hooks per line. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird...

  12. [New Developments in Video Games for Psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    A literature survey on new developments in the area of video games and psychotherapy of children and adolescents was conducted. Despite the omnipresence of computers and the internet, development of therapeutic games seems rather slow. The video game Treasure Hunt was introduced in 2008 to support treatment of children with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Camp Cope-A-Lot was developed for treatment of anxious children, whereas the self-help game SPARX is directed at depressed adolescents. Rage-Control is a biofeedback game for children with anger problems. The game Zoo U aims to assess and train social skills of primary school children. Ricky and the Spider for young children with obsessive compulsive disorder is meant to support the cognitive-behavioural treatment of these patients. Clash- Back is a French game for adolescents with externalizing problems. Possible reasons for the relatively slow development of therapeutic games are the high methodological demands concerning an evaluation as well as the high costs of game development. Nonetheless, computers and the internet are bound to influence psychotherapy with children and adolescents in the long run.

  13. Rabies of canid biotype in wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in Madikwe Game Reserve, South Africa in 2014-2015: Diagnosis, possible origins and implications for control.

    PubMed

    Sabeta, Claude T; Janse van Rensburg, Drienie; Phahladira, Baby; Mohale, Debra; Harrison-White, Robert F; Esterhuyzen, Carlien; Williams, June H

    2018-04-26

    Both domestic and wild carnivore species are commonly diagnosed with rabies virus (RABV) infection in South Africa. Although the majority of confirmed rabies cases in wild carnivore species are reported from the yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata), the rest are from other wild carnivores including the highly endangered wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Lyssavirus infection was confirmed in two wild dogs and a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Madikwe Game Reserve, North West province in South Africa, in 2014 and 2015, using a direct fluorescent antibody test and immunohistochemistry. There had been no new wild dog introductions to the Madikwe Game Reserve for many years and the wild dogs were last vaccinated against rabies approximately 11 years prior to the incident. The first euthanised wild dog was the last surviving of a break-away pack of 6, and the second was the last of a larger pack of 18, the rest of which died with no carcasses being found or carcasses too decomposed for sampling. Subsequent antigenic typing of the lyssaviruses indicated that they were canid RABVs. The RABVs originating from 22 wild carnivore species, 7 dogs, and a caprine, mostly from the North West province, were genetically characterised by targeting a partial region of the nucleoprotein gene. The nucleotide sequence analyses of these viruses and two previously characterised RABVs confirmed that the outbreak viruses were also canid rabies, phylogenetically clustering with virus isolates originating from black-backed jackals recovered between 2012 and 2015 from the North West province, and domestic dogs from neighbouring communal areas. The source(s) of the mortalities and possible reservoir host(s) for the virus could only be speculated upon from data on specific predator numbers, movements and behaviour, kills, park management and the changing environmental ecology, which were monitored closely in Madikwe over several years. The most likely rabies sources were from boundary fence

  14. Wapiti and warblers: integrating game and nongame management in Idaho

    Treesearch

    C. R. Groves; J. W. Unsworth

    1993-01-01

    The primary concern of wildlife managers in the USDA Forest Service (USFS) and ldaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) is maintaining elk herds and quality elk hunting. As a result, nongame species like neotropical migratory landbirds do not receive much management attention. Cause for concern over this neglect are twofold: 1) forest fragmentation may be having...

  15. Video games: good, bad, or other?

    PubMed

    Prot, Sara; McDonald, Katelyn A; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A

    2012-06-01

    Video games are a pervasive pastime among children and adolescents. The growing popularity of video games has instigated a debate among parents, researchers, video game producers, and policymakers concerning potential harmful and helpful effects of video games on children. This article provides an overview of research findings on the positive and negative effects of video games, thus providing an empirical answer to the question, are video games good or bad? The article also provides some guidelines to help pediatricians, parents, and other caregivers protect children from negative effects and to maximize positive effects of video games. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... III Gaming on the Warm Springs Reservation (``2005 Compact'' or ``Kah-Nee-Ta compact''), approved on... Reservation from the Tribe's Kah-Nee-Ta Resort facility to a temporary facility on U.S. Highway 26 in the Warm...

  17. Differential games.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varaiya, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    General discussion of the theory of differential games with two players and zero sum. Games starting at a fixed initial state and ending at a fixed final time are analyzed. Strategies for the games are defined. The existence of saddle values and saddle points is considered. A stochastic version of a differential game is used to examine the synthesis problem.

  18. Homozygosity mapping and sequencing identify two genes that might contribute to pointing behavior in hunting dogs.

    PubMed

    Akkad, Denis A; Gerding, Wanda M; Gasser, Robin B; Epplen, Jörg T

    2015-01-01

    The domestic dog represents an important model for studying the genetics of behavior. In spite of technological advances in genomics and phenomics, the genetic basis of most specific canine behaviors is largely unknown. Some breeds of hunting dogs exhibit a behavioral trait called "pointing" (a prolonged halt of movement to indicate the position of a game animal). Here, the genomes of pointing dogs (Large Munsterlander and Weimaraner) were compared with those of behaviorally distinct herding dogs (Berger des Pyrenées and Schapendoes). We assumed (i) that these four dog breeds initially represented inbred populations and (ii) that selective breeding for pointing behavior promotes an enrichment of the genetic trait in a homozygous state. The homozygosity mapping of 52 dogs (13 of each of the four breeds) followed by subsequent interval resequencing identified fixed genetic differences on chromosome 22 between pointers and herding dogs. In addition, we identified one non-synonomous variation in each of the coding genes SETDB2 and CYSLTR2 that might have a functional consequence. Genetic analysis of additional hunting and non-hunting dogs revealed consistent homozygosity for these two variations in six of seven pointing breeds. Based on the present findings, we propose that, together with other genetic, training and/or environmental factors, the nucleotide and associated amino acid variations identified in genes SETDB2 and CYSLTR2 contribute to pointing behavior.

  19. Wolves on the hunt: The behavior of wolves hunting wild prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Smith, Douglas W.; MacNulty, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between apex predators and their prey are some of the most awesome and meaningful in nature—displays of strength, endurance, and a deep coevolutionary history. And there is perhaps no apex predator more impressive and important in its hunting—or more infamous, more misjudged—than the wolf. Because of wolves’ habitat, speed, and general success at evading humans, researchers have faced great obstacles in studying their natural hunting behaviors. The first book to focus explicitly on wolf hunting of wild prey, Wolves on the Hunt seeks to fill these gaps in our knowledge and understanding. Combining behavioral data, thousands of hours of original field observations, research in the literature, a wealth of illustrations, and—in the e-book edition and online—video segments from cinematographer Robert K. Landis, the authors create a compelling and complex picture of these hunters. The wolf is indeed an adept killer, able to take down prey much larger than itself. While adapted to hunt primarily hoofed animals, a wolf—or especially a pack of wolves—can kill individuals of just about any species. But even as wolves help drive the underlying rhythms of the ecosystems they inhabit, their evolutionary prowess comes at a cost: wolves spend one-third of their time hunting—the most time consuming of all wolf activities—and success at the hunt only comes through traveling long distances, persisting in the face of regular failure, detecting and taking advantage of deficiencies in the physical condition of individual prey, and through ceaseless trial and error, all while risking injury or death. By describing and analyzing the behaviors wolves use to hunt and kill various wild prey—including deer, moose, caribou, elk, Dall sheep, mountain goats, bison, musk oxen, arctic hares, beavers, and others—Wolves on the Hunt provides a revelatory portrait of one of nature’s greatest hunters.

  20. 50 CFR 32.32 - Illinois.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of waterfowl on designated areas of the refuge in accordance... permanent blinds, stands, or scaffolds (see § 27.92 of this chapter). B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. We allow fishing on designated areas of the refuge in...

  1. Reductions in primate abundance and diversity in a multiuse protected area: synergistic impacts of hunting and logging in a congo basin forest.

    PubMed

    Remis, Melissa J; Jost Robinson, Carolyn A

    2012-07-01

    This article explores spatial and temporal changes in diurnal primate abundance and behavior in response to hunting, logging, and conservation at the Dzanga Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic over time. We use a combination of line-transect surveys in 2002 and 2009 (N = 540 km) and ethnographic interviews (N = 210) to investigate changes in the status of cercopithecines and colobines at RDS, with additional comparisons to earlier work. This protected area was lightly logged in the 1970s and the park was gazetted in 1990, with multiple-use reserve sectors allocated. Since the park's inception, hunting and the trade of primates have increased, along with human migration, greater accessibility of arms, and reduction of preferred ungulate prey. Primates have declined in both the park and reserve sectors. Our data further suggest that at RDS hunting has had a greater impact on primate diversity and abundance than logging. We have identified changes in species-specific vulnerability to hunting over time, with Cercopithecus nictitans and Lophocebus albigena initially having appeared to be relatively resistant to hunting pressure in 2002. However, subsequently as gun hunting has increased at RDS, these species have become vulnerable. Although monkeys at RDS have been responding behaviorally to increased gun hunting, they are not able to keep pace with changing hunting practices. This study allows us to begin to understand synergistic impacts of hunting and logging, necessary if we are to recommend strategies to better secure the future of primates in multiuse protected areas. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Games in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Rex

    Six games designed for classroom use are described in this book: 1) Shopping Game; 2) Bus Service Game; 3) North Sea Gas Game; 4) Railway Pioneers Game; 5) Development Game; and 6) Export Drive Game. The description of each game comprises a separate chapter, and includes information about the general aims of the game, how the various game elements…

  3. Identity-driven differences in stakeholder concerns about hunting wolves.

    PubMed

    Lute, Michelle L; Bump, Adam; Gore, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    Whereas past wolf management in the United States was restricted to recovery, managers must now contend with publicly contentious post-recovery issues including regulated hunting seasons. Understanding stakeholder concerns associated with hunting can inform stakeholder engagement, communication, and policy development and evaluation. Social identity theory (SIT) has been used to understand how groups interact, why they conflict, and how collaboration may be achieved. Applying SIT to stakeholder conflicts about wolf hunting may help delineate groups according to their concern about, support for or opposition to the policy choice of hunting wolves. Our objective was to assess concerns about hunting as a tool to resolve conflict in Michigan, using SIT as a framework. We used a mixed-modal sampling approach (e.g., paper, Internet) with wolf hunting-related public meeting participants in March 2013. Survey questions focused on 12 concerns previously identified as associated with hunting as a management tool to resolve conflict. Respondents (n  =  666) cared greatly about wolves but were divided over hunting wolves. Wolf conflicts, use of science in policy decisions, and maintaining a wolf population were the highest ranked concerns. Principle components analysis reduced concerns into three factors that explained 50.7% of total variance; concerns crystallized over justifications for hunting. General linear models revealed a lack of geographic influence on care, fear and support for hunting related to wolves. These findings challenge assumptions about regional differences and suggest a strong role for social identity in driving dichotomized public perceptions in wildlife management.

  4. Metabolic responses associated with deer hunting.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A T; Steffen, J; Terry, L; Davis, J; Porcari, J P; Foster, C

    1999-12-01

    Deer hunting is a popular recreational activity with a high rate of cardiovascular events. Previous studies have demonstrated large HR responses during deer hunting. This study compared the HR and metabolic costs of maximal treadmill (TM) exercise with those of hiking while deer hunting and while dragging a deer. Healthy male volunteers (N = 16) performed a maximal TM exercise test, a 0.8-km hiking test, and a 0.4-km dragging test over lightly rolling terrain. VO2 was measured by portable spirometry and HR by radiotelemetry. HR averaged 74.0 +/- 7.0% and 89.1 +/- 4.5% of peak TM HR during the hike and drag, respectively. The peak HR observed during hiking and dragging was 83.2 +/- 6.0% and 94.9 +/- 4.2% of peak TM HR, respectively. VO2 averaged 62.2 +/- 15.8% and achieved a peak of 77.2 +/- 19.0% of TM VO2 while hiking. This corresponded to 86.8 +/- 17.3% and 108.1 +/- 22.3% of ventilatory threshold (VT), respectively. VO2 averaged 72.3 +/- 21.0% and achieved a peak of 91.2 +/- 21.4% of peak TM VO2 while dragging the deer. This corresponded to 101.5 +/- 27.7% and 128.5 +/- 26.8% of VT, respectively. The VO2/HR relationship showed significant (P < 0.05) difference between the dragging test and the TM test with a disproportionately high HR. The VO2/HR relationship between the hiking and TM tests was comparable. In part, the previously described large HR responses and high rate of cardiovascular complications associated with deer hunting may attributable to the elevated metabolic costs of associated activities.

  5. Stress Induces Contextual Blindness in Lotteries and Coordination Games

    PubMed Central

    Brocas, Isabelle; Carrillo, Juan D.; Kendall, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study how stress affects risk taking in three tasks: individual lotteries, Stag Hunt (coordination) games, and Hawk-Dove (anti-coordination) games. Both control and stressed subjects take more risks in all three tasks when the value of the safe option is decreased and in lotteries when the expected gain is increased. Also, subjects take longer to take decisions when stakes are high, when the safe option is less attractive and in the conceptually more difficult Hawk-Dove game. Stress (weakly) increases reaction times in those cases. Finally, our main result is that the behavior of stressed subjects in lotteries, Stag Hunt and Hawk-Dove are all highly predictive of each other (p-value < 0.001 for all three pairwise correlations). Such strong relationship is not present in our control group. Our results illustrate a “contextual blindness” caused by stress. The mathematical and behavioral tensions of Stag Hunt and Hawk-Dove games are axiomatically different, and we should expect different behavior across these games, and also with respect to the individual task. A possible explanation for the highly significant connection across tasks in the stress condition is that stressed subjects habitually rely on one mechanism to make a decision in all contexts whereas unstressed subjects utilize a more cognitively flexible approach. PMID:29321733

  6. Combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.

  7. Evaluation of oxidative stress in hunting dogs during exercise.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, A; Luchetti, E; Cardini, G

    2010-08-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses, to cause oxidative stress. The aim of our trials was to evaluate oxidative stress and recovery times in trained dogs during two different hunting exercises, with reactive oxygen metabolites-derivatives (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests. A group of nine privately owned Italian hounds were included. A 20-min aerobic exercise and a 4-h aerobic exercise, after 30 days of rest, were performed by the dogs. Our results show an oxidative stress after exercise due to both the high concentration of oxidants (d-ROMs) and the low level of antioxidant power (BAP). Besides, the recovery time is faster after the 4-h aerobic exercise than the 20-min aerobic exercise. Oxidative stress monitoring during dogs exercise could become an interesting aid to establish ideal adaptation to training. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Body temperature, activity patterns, and hunting in free-living cheetah: biologging reveals new insights.

    PubMed

    Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

    2018-05-31

    As one of the few felids that is predominantly diurnal, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus Von Schreber, 1775) can be exposed to high heat loads in their natural habitat. Little is known about long-term patterns of body temperature and activity (including hunting) in cheetahs because long-term concurrent measurements of body temperature and activity never have been reported for cheetahs, or indeed for any free-living felid. We report here body temperature and locomotor activity measured with implanted data loggers over seven months in five free-living cheetahs in Namibia. Air temperature ranged from a maximum of 39ºC in summer to -2ºC in winter. Cheetahs had higher (∼0.4 ºC) maximum 24h body temperatures, later acrophase (∼1 h), with larger fluctuations in the range of the 24h body temperature rhythm (∼0.4 ºC) during a hot-dry period than during a cool-dry period, but maintained homeothermy irrespective of the climatic conditions. As ambient temperatures increased, the cheetahs shifted from a diurnal to a crepuscular activity pattern, with reduced activity between 9:00 and 15:00 and increased nocturnal activity. The timing of hunts followed the general pattern of activity; the cheetahs hunted when they were on the move. Cheetahs hunted if an opportunity presented itself, on occasion they hunted in the midday heat or in total darkness (new moon). Biologging revealed insights into cheetah biology that are not accessible by traditional observer-based techniques. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Bee community as a source of energy in the production of food, honey-plants in the ecosystem of Croatian Forests' hunting grounds.

    PubMed

    Tucak, Zvonimir; Beuk, Darko; Jumić, Vlado; Tusek, Tatjana; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda; Tolusić, Zdravko; Skrivanko, Mario; Konjarović, Anastazija; Aladić, Krunoslav; Cupurdija, Edita

    2009-12-01

    In addition to the process of photosynthesis, the bee community is the main source of energy in food production, honey-plants used by game and people in the hunting grounds ecosystem. It is a well-known fact that thousands of plant species depend on the presence of bee communities (pollination, fertilization). In this paper we studied the presence of the bee community in the hunting grounds of Croatian Forests, and their influence on the number of game (wild pigs), as well as the quality of honey, honey plants in the hunting grounds used by people and game. We established the total number of game (wild boars). The honey quality parameters were determined using the Harmonised methods of the European Honey (Bogdanov et al., 1997) and the pollen analysis by were conducted according to Harmonised methods of melissopalynology (Von der Ohe et al., 2004). Research results indicate that the presence of the bee community influences the number of wild boars from 3-18%, and the quality of honey is in line with the European and world standards. The SAS/STAT package was used for the statistical analysis (SAS Institute Inc., 2000). The significance of the differences among the groups was determined by Duncan test.

  10. A novel hunting accident. Discharge of a firearm by a hunting dog.

    PubMed

    Baker, A M; Keller, G; Garcia, D

    2001-09-01

    The authors report the case of a 21-year-old man who was killed while duck hunting when a shotgun accidentally discharged, shooting him in the head. The loaded weapon, which had been lying on the ground with the safety off and the muzzle pointed toward a river a few feet away, discharged when a hunting dog stepped on the trigger. Scene investigation confirmed that the victim had been standing in the river, planting decoys, with his head approximately level with the adjacent bank. Autopsy examination and ballistic testing confirmed a range of fire consistent with the witness' statements. Examination of the weapon in question documented a light trigger pull but no mechanical defects. The authors review the epidemiology and causality of hunting accidents and discuss the various safety rules that were violated in this highly unusual case. The importance of a complete death investigation, including autopsy, when dealing with a firearm death is emphasized.

  11. Selfishness, fraternity, and other-regarding preference in spatial evolutionary games.

    PubMed

    Szabó, György; Szolnoki, Attila

    2012-04-21

    Spatial evolutionary games are studied with myopic players whose payoff interest, as a personal character, is tuned from selfishness to other-regarding preference via fraternity. The players are located on a square lattice and collect income from symmetric two-person two-strategy (called cooperation and defection) games with their nearest neighbors. During the elementary steps of evolution a randomly chosen player modifies her strategy in order to maximize stochastically her utility function composed from her own and the co-players' income with weight factors 1-Q and Q. These models are studied within a wide range of payoff parameters using Monte Carlo simulations for noisy strategy updates and by spatial stability analysis in the low noise limit. For fraternal players (Q=1/2) the system evolves into ordered arrangements of strategies in the low noise limit in a way providing optimum payoff for the whole society. Dominance of defectors, representing the "tragedy of the commons", is found within the regions of prisoner's dilemma and stag hunt game for selfish players (Q=0). Due to the symmetry in the effective utility function the system exhibits similar behavior even for Q=1 that can be interpreted as the "lovers' dilemma". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Canvasback mortality from illegal hunting on the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, Carl E.; Kenow, Kevin P.; Nissen, James M.; Wetzel, John F.

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the consequences of local hunting on illegal kill of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), we studied the behavior of hunters on a 646-ha area open to duck hunting (closed to canvasback hunting) on Lake Onalaska, Navigation Pool 7, Wisconsin, during the 1991 and 1992 waterfowl hunting seasons. Law enforcement officers observed 258 hunting parties for 419 hours. Of 94 hunting parties encountering canvasbacks, 41 (44%) shot at the ducks on 56 occasions, or 27% of 207 encounters observed, Based on a ratio estimator, there were 790 (95% CI = 376) attempts to shoot at canvasbacks on the Lake Onalaska study area during 1991 and 837 (95% CI = 390) during 1992. Mortality of canvasbacks, excluding crippling loss, was estimated to be 128 during 1991 and 166 during 1992. Thus, total canvasback losses may be higher than currently estimated on a flyway or national basis. This estimating technique offers a promising method for enumerating hunter take of protected and legal species.

  13. [Game addiction].

    PubMed

    Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent.

  14. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  15. Winter Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

    Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

  16. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation and the State of Montana. DATES: Effective Date: February 13, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy...

  17. Supporting online learning with games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, JingTao; Kim, DongWon; Herbert, Joseph P.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a study on Web-based learning support systems that is enhanced with two major subsystems: a Web-based learning game and a learning-oriented Web search. The Internet and theWeb may be considered as a first resource for students seeking for information and help. However, much of the information available online is not related to the course contents or is wrong in the worse case. The search subsystem aims to provide students with precise, relative and adaptable documents about certain courses or classes. Therefore, students do not have to spend time to verify the relationship of documents to the class. The learning game subsystem stimulates students to study, enables students to review their studies and to perform self-evaluation through a Web-based learning game such as a treasure hunt game. During the challenge and entertaining learning and evaluation process, it is hoped that students will eventually understand and master the course concepts easily. The goal of developing such a system is to provide students with an efficient and effective learning environment.

  18. Monitoring the Diversity of Hunting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on a Fragmented and Restored Andean Landscape.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Rangel, J; Jiménez-Carmona, E; Armbrecht, I

    2015-10-01

    Hunting ants are predators of organisms belonging to different trophic levels. Their presence, abundance, and diversity may reflect the diversity of other ants and contribute to evaluate habitat conditions. Between 2003 and 2005 the restoration of seven corridors in an Andean rural landscape of Colombia was performed. The restoration took place in lands that were formerly either forestry plantations or pasturelands. To evaluate restoration progress, hunting ants were intensely sampled for 7 yr, using sifted leaf litter and mini-Winkler, and pitfall traps in 21 plots classified into five vegetation types: forests, riparian forests, two types of restored corridors, and pasturelands. The ant communities were faithful to their habitat over time, and the main differences in ant composition, abundance, and richness were due to differences among land use types. The forests and riparian forests support 45% of the species in the landscape while the restored corridors contain between 8.3-25%. The change from forest to pasturelands represents a loss of 80% of the species. Ant composition in restored corridors was significantly different than in forests but restored corridors of soil of forestry plantations retained 16.7% more species than restored corridors from pasturelands. Ubiquitous hunting ants, Hypoponera opacior (Forel) and Gnamptogenys ca andina were usually associated with pastures and dominate restored corridors. Other cryptic, small, and specialized hunting ants are not present in the restored corridors. Results suggest that the history of land use is important for the biodiversity of hunting ants but also that corridors have not yet effectively contributed toward conservation goals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Adhesive foot pads: an adaptation to climbing? An ecological survey in hunting spiders.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonas O; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-02-01

    at a lower energy demand if compared to alternative attachment devices (claws, silk). The previously presumed enhanced access to new microhabitat sites may play only a minor role as hunting spiders without claw tufts are present in most microhabitats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Video games.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-06-01

    The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.

  1. Game theory.

    PubMed

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Hunting for Knowledge: Using a Scavenger Hunt to Orient Graduate Veterinary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Caitlin; Alpi, Kristine M.

    2015-01-01

    Active participation in orientation is hoped to increase understanding and use of library resources and services beyond the effect of tours or welcome lectures. Timed scavenger hunts have been used to orient undergraduate and medical students to academic libraries. This report describes the planning, execution, and evaluation of an untimed…

  3. 76 FR 58681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... shooting hours, the season lengths, the earliest opening and latest closing season dates, and hunting areas... amending 50 CFR part 20 to reflect seasons, limits, and shooting hours for the conterminous United States... lengths, shooting hours, bag and possession limits, and outside dates within which States may select...

  4. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... frameworks from which States may select season dates, shooting hours, and daily bag and possession limits for... forth the species to be hunted, the daily bag and possession limits, the shooting hours, the season... seasons, limits, and shooting hours for the conterminous United States for the 2010-11 season. List of...

  5. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... open to public observation and you may submit comments on the matters discussed. Population Status and... geese would be three light geese and three dark geese. The possession limit would be six light geese and six dark geese after opening day. In 1996, the Tribes conducted a detailed assessment of dove hunting...

  6. Hunting as a management tool? Cougar-human conflict is positively related to trophy hunting.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Kristine J; Cristescu, Bogdan; Darimont, Chris T

    2016-10-11

    Overexploitation and persecution of large carnivores resulting from conflict with humans comprise major causes of declines worldwide. Although little is known about the interplay between these mortality types, hunting of predators remains a common management strategy aimed at reducing predator-human conflict. Emerging theory and data, however, caution that such policy can alter the age structure of populations, triggering increased conflict in which conflict-prone juveniles are involved. Using a 30-year dataset on human-caused cougar (Puma concolor) kills in British Columbia (BC), Canada, we examined relationships between hunter-caused and conflict-associated mortality. Individuals that were killed via conflict with humans were younger than hunted cougars. Accounting for human density and habitat productivity, human hunting pressure during or before the year of conflict comprised the most important variables. Both were associated with increased male cougar-human conflict. Moreover, in each of five regions assessed, conflict was higher with increased human hunting pressure for at least one cougar sex. Although only providing correlative evidence, such patterns over large geographic and temporal scales suggest that alternative approaches to conflict mitigation might yield more effective outcomes for humans as well as cougar populations and the individuals within populations.

  7. Game injuries in relation to game schedules in the National Basketball Association.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Masaru; Cross, Chad L; Cushman, Daniel M; Maak, Travis G; Petron, David J; Willick, Stuart E

    2017-03-01

    Injury management is critical in the National Basketball Association (NBA), as players experience a wide variety of injuries. Recently, it has been suggested that game schedules, such as back-to-back games and four games in five days, increase the risk of injuries in the NBA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between game schedules and player injuries in the NBA. Descriptive epidemiology study. The present study analyzed game injuries and game schedules in the 2012-13 through 2014-15 regular seasons. Game injuries by game schedules and players' profiles were examined using an exact binomial test, the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. A Poisson regression analysis was performed to predict the number of game injuries sustained by each player from game schedules and injured players' profiles. There were a total of 681 cases of game injuries sustained by 280 different players during the three years (total N=1443 players). Playing back-to-back games or playing four games in five days alone was not associated with an increased rate of game injuries, whereas a significant positive association was found between game injuries and playing away from home (p<0.05). Playing back-to-back games and away games were significant predictors of frequent game injuries (p<0.05). Game schedules could be one factor that impacts the risk of game injuries in the NBA. The findings could be useful for designing optimal game schedules in the NBA as well as helping NBA teams make adjustments to minimize game injuries. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 50 CFR 32.34 - Iowa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. De Soto National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. We allow youth hunting of ring-necked pheasant on... manager will annually determine and publish hunting seasons, dates, and designated areas. C. Big Game...

  9. 50 CFR 32.34 - Iowa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. De Soto National Wildlife Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. [Reserved] B. Upland Game Hunting. We allow youth hunting of ring-necked pheasant on... manager will annually determine and publish hunting seasons, dates, and designated areas. C. Big Game...

  10. Reducing Pb poisoning in birds and Pb exposure in game meat consumers: the dual benefit of effective Pb shot regulation.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Vallverdú-Coll, Núria; López-Antia, Ana; Taggart, Mark A; Martínez-Haro, Monica; Guitart, Raimon; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2014-02-01

    The use of lead (Pb) ammunition in the form of shot pellets has been identified as a Pb exposure risk in wildlife and their human consumers. We explore the hypothesis that Pb shot ban enforcement reduces the risk of avian Pb poisoning as well as Pb exposure in game meat consumers. We assessed compliance with a partial ban on Pb shot commencing in 2003 by examination of 937 waterbirds harvested by hunters between 2007 and 2012 in the Ebro delta (Spain). Prevalence of Pb shot ingestion was determined, as were Pb concentrations in liver and muscle tissue to evaluate the potential for Pb exposure in game meat consumers. Hunted birds with only embedded Pb shot (no steel) declined from 26.9% in 2007-08 to <2% over the following three hunting seasons after ban reinforcement. Pb shot ingestion in mallards decreased from a pre-ban value of 30.2% to 15.5% in the post-ban period. Liver Pb levels were predominantly defined by the presence of ingested shot, whereas muscle levels were defined by the presence of both ingested and embedded shot. Only 2.5% of mallard muscle tissue had Pb levels above European Union regulations for meat (0.1μg/g wet weight) in the 2008-09 season, when Pb shot ingestion prevalence was also at a minimum (5.1%). Effective restrictions in Pb ammunition use have a dual benefit since this reduces Pb exposure for game meat consumers due to embedded ammunition as well as reducing Pb poisoning in waterbirds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 19 CFR 10.76 - Game animals and birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Game animals and birds. 10.76 Section 10.76... § 10.76 Game animals and birds. (a) The following classes of live game animals and birds may be...) [Reserved] (d) Game animals and birds killed in foreign countries by residents of the United States, if not...

  12. 19 CFR 10.76 - Game animals and birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Game animals and birds. 10.76 Section 10.76... § 10.76 Game animals and birds. (a) The following classes of live game animals and birds may be...) [Reserved] (d) Game animals and birds killed in foreign countries by residents of the United States, if not...

  13. 19 CFR 10.76 - Game animals and birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Game animals and birds. 10.76 Section 10.76... § 10.76 Game animals and birds. (a) The following classes of live game animals and birds may be...) [Reserved] (d) Game animals and birds killed in foreign countries by residents of the United States, if not...

  14. 19 CFR 10.76 - Game animals and birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Game animals and birds. 10.76 Section 10.76... § 10.76 Game animals and birds. (a) The following classes of live game animals and birds may be...) [Reserved] (d) Game animals and birds killed in foreign countries by residents of the United States, if not...

  15. 19 CFR 10.76 - Game animals and birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Game animals and birds. 10.76 Section 10.76... § 10.76 Game animals and birds. (a) The following classes of live game animals and birds may be...) [Reserved] (d) Game animals and birds killed in foreign countries by residents of the United States, if not...

  16. Mourning Dove Nesting: Seasonal Patterns and Effects of September Hunting,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    A nationwide State-Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on nesting mourning doves (Zenaida...October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in zones where early September dove hunting is permitted

  17. Demand for resident hunting in the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Neelam Poudyal; Seong Hoon Cho; J. Michael Bowker

    2008-01-01

    We modeled hunting demand among resident hunters in the Southeastern United States. Our model revealed that future hunting demand will likely decline in this region. Population growth in the region will increase demand but structural change in the region's demography (e.g., "browning" and "aging "), along with declining forestland access will...

  18. The hunting behavior of eastern screech-owls (Otus asio)

    Treesearch

    Carlo M. Abbruzzese; Gary Ritchison

    1997-01-01

    We studied the nocturnal hunting behavior of eight radio-tagged Eastern Screech-owls (Otus asio; five females and three males) during the period from November 1994 through March 1995. Screech-owls selected low perches when hunting (x = 1.66 m), presumably to obtain a clear view of the ground and an unobstructed flight path to prey. Low perches may...

  19. 75 FR 57292 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2010-N183] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting...

  20. 76 FR 30192 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2011-N098] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting...

  1. 76 FR 3155 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2010-N288] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting of the Wildlife and Hunting...

  2. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and fishing...

  3. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and fishing...

  4. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and fishing...

  5. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and fishing...

  6. 32 CFR 643.117 - Hunting, trapping, and fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Hunting, trapping, and fishing. 643.117 Section 643.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.117 Hunting, trapping, and fishing...

  7. Supply of Private Acreage for Recreational Deer Hunting in Georgia

    Treesearch

    Neelam C. Poudyal; J. M. Bowker; Gary T. Green; Michael A. Tarrant

    2012-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence the supply of private acreage for lease hunting has become increasingly important to sustaining hunting. Improving on existing studies that mostly utilized landowners’ responses from contingent surveys, we adopted a different approach to this question by analyzing 2009 market data from Georgia counties. Results from multivariate...

  8. 50 CFR 20.133 - Hunting regulations for crows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hunting regulations for crows. 20.133 Section 20.133 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 20.133...

  9. 50 CFR 20.133 - Hunting regulations for crows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hunting regulations for crows. 20.133 Section 20.133 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 20.133...

  10. 78 FR 78377 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...-134-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AZ80 Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting... preliminary issues concerning the 2014-15 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held..., Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, ms-4107...

  11. 78 FR 3446 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...-FXMB1231099BPP0] Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... 2013-14 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held February 6, 2013. ADDRESSES... Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, ms-4107-ARLSQ, 1849 C...

  12. 77 FR 1718 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... 2012-13 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held February 1, 2012. ADDRESSES... Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, ms-4107-ARLSQ, 1849 C...

  13. Efficient boundary hunting via vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantini, Claudia; Panti, Maurizio

    2001-03-01

    A great amount of information about a classification problem is contained in those instances falling near the decision boundary. This intuition dates back to the earliest studies in pattern recognition, and in the more recent adaptive approaches to the so called boundary hunting, such as the work of Aha et alii on Instance Based Learning and the work of Vapnik et alii on Support Vector Machines. The last work is of particular interest, since theoretical and experimental results ensure the accuracy of boundary reconstruction. However, its optimization approach has heavy computational and memory requirements, which limits its application on huge amounts of data. In the paper we describe an alternative approach to boundary hunting based on adaptive labeled quantization architectures. The adaptation is performed by a stochastic gradient algorithm for the minimization of the error probability. Error probability minimization guarantees the accurate approximation of the optimal decision boundary, while the use of a stochastic gradient algorithm defines an efficient method to reach such approximation. In the paper comparisons to Support Vector Machines are considered.

  14. 78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... North Dakota; the Amended Gaming Compact between the Spirit Lake Nation and the State of North Dakota... Reservation, the Spirit Lake Tribe, the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe of North and South Dakota, the Three...

  15. Reservation Information

    Science.gov Websites

    "See Cabin Availability" button, which will take you to the Reserve America Website. On the Plans Under Review Regulations & Statutes Newsroom News Releases Current Eagle Watch Issue Previous Eagle Watch Issues Bid Calendar & Results Heritage Newsletter Advisory Board Meetings Store Parks

  16. Performance of lead-free versus lead-based hunting ammunition in ballistic soap.

    PubMed

    Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape, and reproducibility, showing that

  17. Performance of Lead-Free versus Lead-Based Hunting Ammunition in Ballistic Soap

    PubMed Central

    Gremse, Felix; Krone, Oliver; Thamm, Mirko; Kiessling, Fabian; Tolba, René Hany; Rieger, Siegfried; Gremse, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background Lead-free hunting bullets are an alternative to lead-containing bullets which cause health risks for humans and endangered scavenging raptors through lead ingestion. However, doubts concerning the effectiveness of lead-free hunting bullets hinder the wide-spread acceptance in the hunting and wildlife management community. Methods We performed terminal ballistic experiments under standardized conditions with ballistic soap as surrogate for game animal tissue to characterize dimensionally stable, partially fragmenting, and deforming lead-free bullets and one commonly used lead-containing bullet. The permanent cavities created in soap blocks are used as a measure for the potential wound damage. The soap blocks were imaged using computed tomography to assess the volume and shape of the cavity and the number of fragments. Shots were performed at different impact speeds, covering a realistic shooting range. Using 3D image segmentation, cavity volume, metal fragment count, deflection angle, and depth of maximum damage were determined. Shots were repeated to investigate the reproducibility of ballistic soap experiments. Results All bullets showed an increasing cavity volume with increasing deposited energy. The dimensionally stable and fragmenting lead-free bullets achieved a constant conversion ratio while the deforming copper and lead-containing bullets showed a ratio, which increases linearly with the total deposited energy. The lead-containing bullet created hundreds of fragments and significantly more fragments than the lead-free bullets. The deflection angle was significantly higher for the dimensionally stable bullet due to its tumbling behavior and was similarly low for the other bullets. The deforming bullets achieved higher reproducibility than the fragmenting and dimensionally stable bullets. Conclusion The deforming lead-free bullet closely resembled the deforming lead-containing bullet in terms of energy conversion, deflection angle, cavity shape

  18. The sustainability of subsistence hunting by Matsigenka native communities in Manu National Park, Peru.

    PubMed

    Ohl-Schacherer, Julia; Shepard, Glenn H; Kaplan, Hillard; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Yu, Douglas W

    2007-10-01

    The presence of indigenous people in tropical parks has fueled a debate over whether people in parks are conservation allies or direct threats to biodiversity. A well-known example is the Matsigenka (or Machiguenga) population residing in Manu National Park in Peruvian Amazonia. Because the exploitation of wild meat (or bushmeat), especially large vertebrates, represents the most significant internal threat to biodiversity in Manu, we analyzed 1 year of participatory monitoring of game offtake in two Matsigenka native communities within Manu Park (102,397 consumer days and 2,089 prey items). We used the Robinson and Redford (1991) index to identify five prey species hunted at or above maximum sustainable yield within the approximately 150-km(2) core hunting zones of the two communities: woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), spider monkey (Ateles chamek), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), Razor-billed Currasow (Mitu tuberosa), and Spix's Guan (Penelope jacquacu). There was little or no evidence that any of these five species has become depleted, other than locally, despite a near doubling of the human population since 1988. Hunter-prey profiles have not changed since 1988, and there has been little change in per capita consumption rates or mean prey weights. The current offtake by the Matsigenka appears to be sustainable, apparently due to source-sink dynamics. Source-sink dynamics imply that even with continued human population growth within a settlement, offtake for each hunted species will eventually reach an asymptote. Thus, stabilizing the Matsigenka population around existing settlements should be a primary policy goal for Manu Park.

  19. Analysis of two-player quantum games in an EPR setting using Clifford's geometric algebra.

    PubMed

    Chappell, James M; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The framework for playing quantum games in an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type setting is investigated using the mathematical formalism of geometric algebra (GA). The main advantage of this framework is that the players' strategy sets remain identical to the ones in the classical mixed-strategy version of the game, and hence the quantum game becomes a proper extension of the classical game, avoiding a criticism of other quantum game frameworks. We produce a general solution for two-player games, and as examples, we analyze the games of Prisoners' Dilemma and Stag Hunt in the EPR setting. The use of GA allows a quantum-mechanical analysis without the use of complex numbers or the Dirac Bra-ket notation, and hence is more accessible to the non-physicist.

  20. Analysis of Two-Player Quantum Games in an EPR Setting Using Clifford's Geometric Algebra

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, James M.; Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The framework for playing quantum games in an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type setting is investigated using the mathematical formalism of geometric algebra (GA). The main advantage of this framework is that the players' strategy sets remain identical to the ones in the classical mixed-strategy version of the game, and hence the quantum game becomes a proper extension of the classical game, avoiding a criticism of other quantum game frameworks. We produce a general solution for two-player games, and as examples, we analyze the games of Prisoners' Dilemma and Stag Hunt in the EPR setting. The use of GA allows a quantum-mechanical analysis without the use of complex numbers or the Dirac Bra-ket notation, and hence is more accessible to the non-physicist. PMID:22279525

  1. [Serious video games in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Drummond, D; Tesnière, A; Hadchouel, A

    2018-01-01

    Playing video games has been associated with several negative effects in children. However, serious games, which are video games designed for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment, should not be neglected by pediatricians. In the field of public health, some serious games are a means to decrease drug consumption and improve sexual health behavior in adolescents. In schools, serious games can be used to change students' perception of the disease of one of their classmates, or to train students on basic life support. Serious games are also used with patients: they can distract them from a painful procedure, increase their compliance to treatments, or participate in their rehabilitation. Finally, serious games allow healthcare professionals to train on the management of various medical situations without risk. For every field of application, this review presents the rationale of the use of video games, followed by concrete examples of video games and the results of their scientific evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Hunting for new physics with unitarity boomerangs

    SciTech Connect

    Frampton, Paul H.; Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568; He Xiaogang

    2010-07-01

    The standard model of particle theory will be rigorously tested by upcoming precision data on flavor mixing. Although the unitarity triangles (UTs) carry information about the Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) quark mixing matrix, it explicitly contains just three parameters which is one short to completely fix the KM matrix. We have recently shown that the unitarity boomerangs (UBs) formed using two UTs, with a common inner angle, can completely determine the KM matrix and, therefore, better represents quark mixing. Out of the total 18 possible UBs, there is only one that does not involve very small angles and is the ideal onemore » for practical uses. Although the UBs have different areas, there is, however, an invariant quantity, for all UBs, which is equal to a quarter of the Jarlskog parameter J squared. Hunting for new physics, with a unitarity boomerang, can reveal more information, than just using a UTs.« less

  3. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Benjamin C.; Smith, Eric A.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18–82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by ‘showing off’ was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

  4. "Failure-to-Identify" Hunting Incidents: A Resilience Engineering Approach.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Karl E; Corballis, Paul M; Hollnagel, Erik

    2018-03-01

    Objective The objective was to develop an understanding, using the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM), of the factors that could cause a deer hunter to misidentify their intended target. Background Hunting is a popular activity in many communities. However, hunters vary considerably based on training, experience, and expertise. Surprisingly, safety in hunting has not received much attention, especially failure-to-identify hunting incidents. These are incidents in which the hunter, after spotting and targeting their quarry, discharge their firearm only to discover they have been spotting and targeting another human, an inanimate object, or flora by mistake. The hunter must consider environment, target, time of day, weather, and many other factors-continuously evaluating whether the hunt should continue. To understand how these factors can relate to one another is fundamental to begin to understand how incidents happen. Method Workshops with highly experienced and active hunters led to the development of a FRAM model detailing the functions of a "Hunting FRAM." The model was evaluated for correctness based on confidential and anonymous near-miss event submissions by hunters. Results A FRAM model presenting the functions of a hunt was produced, evaluated, and accepted. Using the model, potential sources of incidents or other unintended outcomes were identified, which in turn helped to improve the model. Conclusion Utilizing principles of understanding and visualization tools of the FRAM, the findings create a foundation for safety improvements potentially through training or safety messages based on an increased understanding of the complexity of hunting.

  5. Impacts of roads and hunting on central African rainforest mammals.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William E; Croes, Barbara M; Tchignoumba, Landry; Lahm, Sally A; Alonso, Alfonso; Lee, Michelle E; Campbell, Patrick; Ondzeano, Claude

    2006-08-01

    Road expansion and associated increases in bunting pressure are a rapidly growing threat to African tropical wildlife. In the rainforests of southern Gabon, we compared abundances of larger (>1 kg) mammal species at varying distances from forest roads and between hunted and unhunted treatments (comparing a 130-km2 oil concession that was almost entirely protected from bunting with nearby areas outside the concession that had moderate hunting pressure). At each of 12 study sites that were evenly divided between hunted and unhunted areas, we established standardized 1-km transects at five distances (50, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 m) from an unpaved road, and then repeatedly surveyed mammals during the 2004 dry and wet seasons. Hunting had the greatest impact on duikers (Cephalophus spp.), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus), which declined in abundance outside the oil concession, and lesser effects on lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and carnivores. Roads depressed abundances of duikers, sitatungas (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), and forest elephants (Loxondonta africana cyclotis), with avoidance of roads being stronger outside than inside the concession. Five monkey species showed little response to roads or hunting, whereas some rodents and pangolins increased in abundance outside the concession, possibly in response to greater forest disturbance. Our findings suggest that even moderate hunting pressure can markedly alter the structure of mammal communities in central Africa. Roads had the greatest impacts on large and small ungulates, with the magnitude of road avoidance increasing with local hunting pressure.

  6. Hunting with lead ammunition is not sustainable: European perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kanstrup, Niels; Swift, John; Stroud, David A; Lewis, Melissa

    2018-03-12

    Much evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of lead ammunition on wildlife, their habitats and human health, and confirms that the use of such ammunition has no place within sustainable hunting. We identify the provisions that define sustainable hunting according to European law and international treaties, together with their guidance documents. We accept the substantial evidence for lead's actual and potential effects on wildlife, habitats and health as persuasive and assess how these effects relate to stated provisions for sustainability and hunting. We evaluate how continued use of lead ammunition negatively affects international efforts to halt loss of biodiversity, sustain wildlife populations and conserve their habitats. We highlight the indiscriminate and avoidable health and welfare impacts for large numbers of exposed wild animals as ethically unsustainable. In societal terms, continued use of lead ammunition undermines public perceptions of hunting. Given the existence of acceptable, non-toxic alternatives for lead ammunition, we conclude that hunting with lead ammunition cannot be justified under established principles of public/international policy and is not sustainable. Changing from lead ammunition to non-toxic alternatives will bring significant nature conservation and human health gains, and from the hunter's perspective will enhance societal acceptance of hunting. Change will create opportunities for improved constructive dialogue between hunting stakeholders and others engaged with enhancing biodiversity and nature conservation objectives.

  7. Should legislation regarding maximum Pb and Cd levels in human food also cover large game meat?

    PubMed

    Taggart, Mark A; Reglero, Manuel M; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Game meat may be contaminated with metals and metalloids if animals reside in anthropogenically polluted areas, or if ammunition used to kill the game contaminates the meat. Muscle tissue from red deer and wild boar shot in Ciudad Real province (Spain) in 2005-06 was analysed for As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd. Samples were collected from hunting estates within and outside an area that has been historically used for mining, smelting and refining various metals and metalloids. Meat destined for human consumption, contained more Pb, As and Se (red deer) and Pb (boar) when harvested from animals that had resided in mined areas. Age related accumulation of Cd, Zn and As (in deer) and Cd, Cu and Se (in boar) was also observed. Two boar meat samples contained high Pb, at 352 and 2408 μg/g d.w., and these were likely to have been contaminated by Pb ammunition. Likewise, 19-84% of all samples (depending on species and sampling area) had Pb levels > 0.1 μg/g w.w., the EU maximum residue level (MRL) for farm reared meat. Between 9 and 43% of samples exceeded comparable Cd limits. Such data highlight a discrepancy between what is considered safe for human consumption in popular farmed meat (chicken, beef, lamb), and what in game may often exist. A risk assessment is presented which describes the number of meals required to exceed current tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Cd, and the potential contribution of large game consumption to such intake limit criteria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gaming Increases Craving to Gaming-Related Stimuli in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Lingxiao; Du, Xiaoxia; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-07-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been proposed as a behavioral addiction warranting additional investigation. Craving is considered a core component of addictions. However, few studies to date have investigated craving in IGD. In the current study, we investigated how gaming was associated with changes in response to gaming-related stimuli in subjects with IGD and those with recreational game use (RGU). Behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 27 individuals with IGD and 43 individuals with RGU. Subjects' craving responses to gaming-related stimuli were measured before and after 30 minutes of gaming. The comparison between post- and pregaming measures showed that for IGD, gaming was associated with increased craving and increased brain activation of the lateral and prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the precuneus when exposed to gaming-related stimuli. In individuals with RGU, no enhanced brain activity was observed. These results suggest that gaming behavior enhances craving responses in subjects with IGD but not in subjects with RGU, provide insight into potential mechanisms underlying IGD, and suggest behavioral and neurobiological targets for IGD-related interventions. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    PubMed

    Bump, Joseph K; Murawski, Chelsea M; Kartano, Linda M; Beyer, Dean E; Roell, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting practices, the effect of compensation on hunter behavior, and depredation

  10. Bear-Baiting May Exacerbate Wolf-Hunting Dog Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bump, Joseph K.; Murawski, Chelsea M.; Kartano, Linda M.; Beyer, Dean E.; Roell, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. Methodology/Principal Findings We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12–7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. Conclusions/Significance These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting

  11. Game Time!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Edmund; Howell, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classic playground game called "Sharks and Fishes" to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of "predation," or the relationships between a predator and its prey. By incorporating the game in a learning cycle on predation, students not only learn about predation in a memorable way, but they…

  12. Game On!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deubel, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This article describes digital game-based learning (DGBL), the uniting of educational content with computer or online games, that holds the potential for a wealth of educational applications, if managed properly. DGBL motivates by virtue of being fun. It is versatile, can be used to teach almost any subject or skill, and, when used correctly, is…

  13. Fun & Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Amy; Kohl, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how math skills, teamwork and higher-level thinking come together when students create strategic board games. In this article, the authors provide a glimpse of what it was like to be part of "To the Sun!," a game designed by students in the fifth-grade class at Olive Martin School in Lake Villa, IL. Students combined a math…

  14. Inuit Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keewatin Regional Education Authority, Rankin Inlet (Northwest Territories).

    The purpose of this publication is to record the traditional games played by the Inuit and to preserve a unique form of sports and recreation found in northern Canada. Written in English and Inupiaq, this manual contains descriptions of games played throughout the Arctic with special emphasis on the Keewatin Region, suggestions for teaching Inuit…

  15. Effect of British hunting ban on fox numbers.

    PubMed

    Baker, Philip J; Harris, Stephen; Webbon, Charlotte C

    2002-09-05

    Pressure to ban the hunting of foxes with hounds in Britain has fuelled debate about its contribution to the control of fox populations. We took advantage of a nationwide one-year ban on fox-hunting during the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001 to examine this issue and found that the ban had no measurable impact on fox numbers in randomly selected areas. Our results argue against suggestions that fox populations would increase markedly in the event of a permanent ban on hunting.

  16. Effects of landscape features on the distribution and sustainability of ungulate hunting in northern Congo

    Treesearch

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Robert F. Rockwell; Kent H. Redford; Nicholas S. Keuler

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the spatial dimensions of hunting and prey population dynamics is important in order to estimate the sustainability of hunting in tropical forests. We investigated how hunting offtake of vertebrates differed in mixed forest and monodominant forest (composed of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei) and over different spatial extents within the hunting catchment...

  17. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 27, Wildlife Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.; Evans, J.W.

    1992-06-01

    A plan for management of the wildlife resources on the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation is outlined in this document. Management includes wildlife population control (hunts, trapping, and removal), handling specific problems with wildlife, restoration of species, coordination with researchers on wildlife studies, preservation and management of habitats, and law enforcement. Wildlife resources are divided into five categories, each with a specific set of objectives and procedures for obtaining these objectives. These categories are (1) species-richness management to ensure that all resident wildlife species exist on the Reservation in viable numbers; (2) featured species management to produce selectedmore » species in desired numbers on designated land units; (3) management of game species for research, education, recreation, and public safety, (4) endangered species management designed to preserve and protect both the species and habitats critical to the survival of those species; and (5) pest management. Achievement of the objectives is a joint effort between the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Environmental Sciences Division.« less

  18. Game Over?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.

  19. Social Structure of Lions (Panthera leo) Is Affected by Management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin

    PubMed Central

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J.; De Snoo, Geert R.; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H.

    2014-01-01

    Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting. PMID:24416263

  20. Social structure of lions (Panthera leo) is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.

    PubMed

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J; De Snoo, Geert R; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

  1. Games of multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Kaveh, Kamran; Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-08-21

    Evolutionary game dynamics are often studied in the context of different population structures. Here we propose a new population structure that is inspired by simple multicellular life forms. In our model, cells reproduce but can stay together after reproduction. They reach complexes of a certain size, n, before producing single cells again. The cells within a complex derive payoff from an evolutionary game by interacting with each other. The reproductive rate of cells is proportional to their payoff. We consider all two-strategy games. We study deterministic evolutionary dynamics with mutations, and derive exact conditions for selection to favor one strategy over another. Our main result has the same symmetry as the well-known sigma condition, which has been proven for stochastic game dynamics and weak selection. For a maximum complex size of n=2 our result holds for any intensity of selection. For n≥3 it holds for weak selection. As specific examples we study the prisoner's dilemma and hawk-dove games. Our model advances theoretical work on multicellularity by allowing for frequency-dependent interactions within groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal changes in health within 5 years before and after disability pension-the HUNT Study.

    PubMed

    Vie, Gunnhild Åberge; Pape, Kristine; Krokstad, Steinar; Johnsen, Roar; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2017-08-01

    Health status has been reported to change before, during and after disability pension receipt. These associations might be subject to temporal changes according to changes in policy, incidence of disability pensions and other contextual factors. We compared the perceived health around time of disability retirement among persons receiving disability pension in the 1990 s and 2000 s in Norway. We linked data from two consecutive cross-sectional population based Norwegian health surveys, HUNT2 (1995-97) and HUNT3 (2006-08), to national registries, identifying those who received disability pension within 5 years before or after participation in the survey (HUNT2: n = 5362, HUNT3: n = 4649). We used logistic regression to assess associations of time from receiving a disability pension with self-rated health, insomnia, depression and anxiety symptoms and subsequently estimated adjusted prevalence over time. Prevalence of poor self-rated health peaked around time of receiving disability pension in both decades. For those aged 50+, prevalence the year before disability pension was slightly lower in 2006-08 (74%, 95% CI 70-79%) than in 1995-97 (83%, 95% CI 79-87%), whereas peak prevalence was similar between surveys for those younger than 50. Depression symptoms peaked more pronouncedly in 1995-97 than in 2006-08, whereas prevalence of anxiety symptoms was similar at time of receiving disability pension between surveys. We found no strong evidence of differences in health selection to disability pension in the 2000 s compared to the 1990 s. However, we found indication of less depression symptoms around time of disability pension in the 2000 s compared to the 1990 s. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. 170. GWMP SOUTH OF GREAT HUNTING CREEK LOOKING SOUTH. (NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. GWMP SOUTH OF GREAT HUNTING CREEK LOOKING SOUTH. (NOTE ASPHALT PAVEMENT AND FILLED LAND) - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  4. 36 CFR 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA...: (a) The hunting, trapping, catching, molesting, killing, or having in possession any wild animal or...

  5. 36 CFR 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA...: (a) The hunting, trapping, catching, molesting, killing, or having in possession any wild animal or...

  6. 36 CFR 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA...: (a) The hunting, trapping, catching, molesting, killing, or having in possession any wild animal or...

  7. 36 CFR 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA...: (a) The hunting, trapping, catching, molesting, killing, or having in possession any wild animal or...

  8. 36 CFR § 331.3 - Hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.3 Hunting and trapping. Unless authorized in writing by the... wild animal or bird, or taking the eggs of any such bird, is prohibited. (b) Possession of equipment...

  9. 50 CFR 20.133 - Hunting regulations for crows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., the bag and possession limits, the dates and duration of the hunting season, and such other regulations as may be deemed appropriate, subject to the following limitations for each State: (1) Crows shall...

  10. Geocaching: Finding Mathematics in a Global Treasure Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Leicha A.

    2014-01-01

    If you love taking mathematics lessons outdoors, then you will love this article. Leicha Bragg describes geocaching, which combines technology, treasure hunting and mathematics, and results in purposeful, authentic and engaging mathematics.

  11. 25 CFR 543.8-543.15 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 543.8-543.15 Section 543.8-543.15 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING §§ 543.8-543.15 [Reserved] ...

  12. 25 CFR 543.4-543.5 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 543.4-543.5 Section 543.4-543.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING §§ 543.4-543.5 [Reserved] ...

  13. The microbiological conditions of carcasses from large game animals in Italy.

    PubMed

    Avagnina, A; Nucera, D; Grassi, M A; Ferroglio, E; Dalmasso, A; Civera, T

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates the microbiological conditions of large game animal carcasses following evisceration. Carcasses of animals (N=291) hunted in the Upper Susa Valley (Italian Alps) were analysed for pH, Aerobic Viable Count (AVC), Enterobacteriaceae, Yersinia spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. After shooting, evisceration occurred within 60 min in 90.7% of animals and sampling within 90 min in 88.3% of animals. Mean pH values (5.97: ruminants; 5.77: wild boar) were similar to those of regularly slaughtered domestic species. AVC values were highest in animals shot in the abdomen. Within species, AVC and Enterobacteriaceae values did not differ across different shooting-evisceration/sampling times. However, these counts exceeded 5 and 2.5 log, respectively, in 18% of wild boar and 39% of ruminants; the highest values were detected in wild boar. No pathogens were detected in any species. These results reveal inadequate hygiene in game meat handling/harvesting, implicating the need for improved practices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Rhett D; Sreekar, Rachakonda; Brodie, Jedediah F; Brook, Sarah; Luskin, Matthew; O'Kelly, Hannah; Rao, Madhu; Scheffers, Brett; Velho, Nandini

    2016-10-01

    Although deforestation and forest degradation have long been considered the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, across Southeast Asia (Northeast India, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines) substantial areas of natural habitat have few wild animals (>1 kg), bar a few hunting-tolerant species. To document hunting impacts on vertebrate populations regionally, we conducted an extensive literature review, including papers in local journals and reports of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. Evidence from multiple sites indicated animal populations declined precipitously across the region since approximately 1980, and many species are now extirpated from substantial portions of their former ranges. Hunting is by far the greatest immediate threat to the survival of most of the region's endangered vertebrates. Causes of recent overhunting include improved access to forests and markets, improved hunting technology, and escalating demand for wild meat, wildlife-derived medicinal products, and wild animals as pets. Although hunters often take common species, such as pigs or rats, for their own consumption, they take rarer species opportunistically and sell surplus meat and commercially valuable products. There is also widespread targeted hunting of high-value species. Consequently, as currently practiced, hunting cannot be considered sustainable anywhere in the region, and in most places enforcement of protected-area and protected-species legislation is weak. The international community's focus on cross-border trade fails to address overexploitation of wildlife because hunting and the sale of wild meat is largely a local issue and most of the harvest is consumed in villages, rural towns, and nearby cities. In addition to improved enforcement, efforts to engage hunters and manage wildlife populations through sustainable hunting practices are urgently needed. Unless there is a step change in efforts to reduce wildlife exploitation to sustainable levels, the

  15. Different hunting strategies of generalist predators result in functional differences.

    PubMed

    Michalko, Radek; Pekár, Stano

    2016-08-01

    The morphological, physiological, and behavioural traits of organisms are often used as surrogates for actual ecological functions. However, differences in these traits do not necessarily lead to functional differences and/or can be context-dependent. Therefore, it is necessary to explicitly test whether the surrogates have general ecological relevance. To investigate the relationship between the hunting strategies of predators (i.e., how, where, and when they hunt) and their function, we used euryphagous spiders as a model group. We used published data on the diet composition of 76 spider species based on natural prey and laboratory prey acceptance experiments. We computed differences in the position and width of trophic niches among pairs of sympatrically occurring species. Pairs were made at different classification levels, ranked according to the dissimilarity in their hunting strategies: congeners, confamiliars (as phylogenetic proxies for similarity in hunting strategy), species from the same main class of hunting strategy, from the same supra-class, and from different supra-classes. As for niche position computed from the natural prey analyses, species from the same class differed less than species from different classes. A similar pattern was obtained from the laboratory studies, but the congeners differed less than the species from the same classes. Niche widths were most similar among congeners and dissimilar among species from different supra-classes. Functional differences among euryphagous spiders increased continuously with increasing difference in their hunting strategy. The relative frequency of hunting strategies within spider assemblages can, therefore, influence the food webs through hunting strategy-specific predator-prey interactions.

  16. Game Warden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    18 Py ’chologicalf operations ........ i.. . * ...... ~..,..24 Game Warden in;h the’RSSZ sete o.. & . e ........ o 99oao999*ie ooo ... a e o...o 26 Game , VWarden ih. the’ Mekong Delta o o o ** ***~o e ........... o oeoo * eoee , 4f -’. 30 The situa~tion,’in October .1968 **99*9*9*999*9*999999...H - Mekong RiVer xiierchant ship smuggling f.. * f.. e .o"f ao ..o.o H-i - H-2 Appendix I - Game Wardenchronology............... I-1-1!-is Appendi*, J

  17. Quantum game theory and open access publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Bernius, Steffen; Dugall, Berndt

    2007-08-01

    The digital revolution of the information age and in particular the sweeping changes of scientific communication brought about by computing and novel communication technology, potentiate global, high grade scientific information for free. The arXiv, for example, is the leading scientific communication platform, mainly for mathematics and physics, where everyone in the world has free access on. While in some scientific disciplines the open access way is successfully realized, other disciplines (e.g. humanities and social sciences) dwell on the traditional path, even though many scientists belonging to these communities approve the open access principle. In this paper we try to explain these different publication patterns by using a game theoretical approach. Based on the assumption, that the main goal of scientists is the maximization of their reputation, we model different possible game settings, namely a zero sum game, the prisoners’ dilemma case and a version of the stag hunt game, that show the dilemma of scientists belonging to “non-open access communities”. From an individual perspective, they have no incentive to deviate from the Nash equilibrium of traditional publishing. By extending the model using the quantum game theory approach it can be shown, that if the strength of entanglement exceeds a certain value, the scientists will overcome the dilemma and terminate to publish only traditionally in all three settings.

  18. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting

    PubMed Central

    Lönnstedt, Oona M.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. PMID:24966203

  19. African wildlife conservation and the evolution of hunting institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Sas-Rolfes, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Hunting regulation presents a significant challenge for contemporary global conservation governance. Motivated by various incentives, hunters may act legally or illegally, for or against the interests of conservation. Hunter incentives are shaped by the interactions between unevenly evolving formal and informal institutions, embedded in socio-ecological systems. To work effectively for conservation, regulatory interventions must take these evolving institutional interactions into account. Drawing on analytical tools from evolutionary institutional economics, this article examines the trajectory of African hunting regulation and its consequences. Concepts of institutional dynamics, fit, scale, and interplay are applied to case studies of rhinoceros and lion hunting to highlight issues of significance to conservation outcomes. These include important links between different forms of hunting and dynamic interplay with institutions of trade. The case studies reveal that inappropriate formal regulatory approaches may be undermined by adaptive informal market responses. Poorly regulated hunting may lead to calls for stricter regulations or bans, but such legal restrictions may in turn perversely lead to more intensified and organised illegal hunting activity, further undermining conservation objectives. I conclude by offering insights and recommendations to guide more effective future regulatory interventions and priorities for further research. Specifically, I advocate approaches that move beyond simplistic regulatory interventions toward more complex, but supportive, institutional arrangements that align formal and informal institutions through inclusive stakeholder engagement.

  20. The Hundred Year Hunt for the Red Sprite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Schmidt, M.

    2003-12-01

    This presentation reviews an NSF Informal Science Education project directed by the PO of an ongoing NSF Physical Meteorology/Aeronomy-sponsored research program on red sprites. For over 100 years, anecdotal reports and citations in the literature have persisted of strange luminous apparitions occurring high above thunderstorms. They were long discounted by the scientific community - until 1989, when by pure chance, a video revealed two giant pillars of light extending tens of kilometers above a thunderstorm. Since then, thousands of events, now called sprites, have been imaged, many by the PI. Mesospheric sprites, at 40 to 90 km altitude, are induced by lightning discharges having highly unusual characteristics. Science is now gradually unraveling the nature of the giant lightning discharges which spawn sprites. In the process we have found even more unusual electrical discharges above thunderstorms, suggesting that many new discoveries await to be made. We produced and are distributing a planetarium DVD/video program (42 minutes length) entitled, "The Hundred Year Hunt for the Red Sprite." It documents the application of the scientific method to unraveling this century old mystery surrounding strange lights in the night sky. We also contrasted this story of discovery to the pseudo-science prevalent today in topics such as UFOs. With distribution to numerous planetaria and science centers, we believe over 200,000 persons will eventually view this program (which has won three major video production awards). Our long term goal is to inspire planetarium visitors to undertake their own self-directed learning programs. A companion educational web site (www.Sky-Fire.TV) allows students and adults sufficiently motivated by the planetarium experience to further investigate sprites and related basic science topics. The highly interactive web site challenges visitors to test their knowledge of sprites and lightning by participating in an on-line 20 question quiz game, which

  1. 50 CFR 32.57 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., rabbit, woodchuck, pheasant, quail, raccoon, fox, coyote, skunk, and opossum on designated areas of the... watercraft for big game hunting. D. Sport Fishing. We allow fishing on designated areas of the refuge in.... Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. [Reserved] D. Sport Fishing. We allow sport fishing...

  2. Smoothbore hunting ammunition - a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Bochyński, Piotr J; Karpiewska, Anna; Kuliczkowski, Maciej; Dobosz, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with traditional hunting amunitions in paper cases, intended for smooth-bore shotgun. The paper describes the development of gunshot cartridges in historical terms, with particular emphasis on the origins and development of systems, initiating the combustion of subsequent generations of propelling cargo. The work gives an author's look into the uprising process of an integrating gunshot cartridge. The article contains a number of information about historical cartridges, currently not to be found, their dimensions, markings and ignition systems. The described cartridges are often examples of rare and long-lasting constructional solutions, that have been made to create a modern cartridge in weight scale calibers. The presented work includes a number of numerical data as well as ballistic, obsolete and archaic today's cartridges, with dimensions and ballistic properties. Some of the theses and data in this paper contained, according to the author's knowledge, are for the first time presented in the literature, and others can be found, but it is very tedious because of their dispersion in the literature or the availability of hard to find and unstable internet sources.

  3. Hunting for Snarks in Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hestenes, David

    2009-12-08

    A long-standing debate over the interpretation of quantum mechanics has centered on the meaning of Schroedinger's wave function {psi} for an electron. Broadly speaking, there are two major opposing schools. On the one side, the Copenhagen school(led by Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli) holds that {psi} provides a complete description of a single electron state; hence the probability interpretation of {psi}{psi}* expresses an irreducible uncertainty in electron behavior that is intrinsic in nature. On the other side, the realist school(led by Einstein, de Broglie, Bohm and Jaynes) holds that {psi} represents a statistical ensemble of possible electron states; hence it ismore » an incomplete description of a single electron state. I contend that the debaters have overlooked crucial facts about the electron revealed by Dirac theory. In particular, analysis of electron zitterbewegung(first noticed by Schroedinger) opens a window to particle substructure in quantum mechanics that explains the physical significance of the complex phase factor in {psi}. This led to a testable model for particle substructure with surprising support by recent experimental evidence. If the explanation is upheld by further research, it will resolve the debate in favor of the realist school. I give details. The perils of research on the foundations of quantum mechanics have been foreseen by Lewis Carroll in The Hunting of the Snark{exclamation_point}.« less

  4. Mine-hunting dolphins of the Navy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick W.

    1997-07-01

    Current counter-mine and obstacle avoidance technology is inadequate, and limits the Navy's capability to conduct shallow water (SW) and very shallow water (VSW) MCM in support of beach assaults by Marine Corps forces. Without information as to the location or density of mined beach areas, it must be assumed that if mines are present in one area then they are present in all areas. Marine mammal systems (MMS) are an unusual, effective and unique solution to current problems of mine and obstacle hunting. In the US Navy Mine Warfare Plan for 1994-1995 Marine Mammal Systems are explicitly identified as the Navy's only means of countering buried mines and the best means for dealing with close-tethered mines. The dolphins in these systems possess a biological sonar specifically adapted for their shallow and very shallow water habitat. Research has demonstrated that the dolphin biosonar outperforms any current hardware system available for SW and VSW applications. This presentation will cover current Fleet MCM systems and future technology application to the littoral region.

  5. The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Extrasolar moons may be frequent temperate abodes for life and their detection would not only have astrobiological significance but would also greatly further our understanding of planet/moon formation theories. To date, the bulk of research on this topic has been mostly theoretical, focussing on detection techniques and expected sensitivities as well as exomoon origin and evolution. Here, we introduce a new observational project which aims to change this, enabled by the fact both the theory and available instrumentation have evolved to the required level to make such a search feasible. Our project, "The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler” (HEK), will be a systematic search for exomoons around planets which are viable hosts, with the explicit goal of determining the frequency of large exomoons in the cosmos. We will overview the observational strategy including the detection tools and target selection routines which have been developed, methods to vet false-positives, and some preliminary results from our first batch of candidates. This research is enabled by the NASA Carl Sagan fellowships for exoplanetary research.

  6. Hubble’s Hunting Dog Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Tucked away in the small northern constellation of Canes Venatici (The Hunting Dogs) is the galaxy NGC 4242, shown here as seen by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The galaxy lies some 30 million light-years from us. At this distance from Earth, actually not all that far on a cosmic scale, NGC 4242 is visible to anyone armed with even a basic telescope, as British astronomer William Herschel found when he discovered the galaxy in 1788. This image shows the galaxy’s bright center and the surrounding dimmer and more diffuse “fuzz.” Despite appearing to be relatively bright in this image, studies have found that NGC 4242 is actually relatively dim (it has a moderate-to-low surface brightness and low luminosity) and also supports a low rate of star formation. The galaxy also seems to have a weak bar of stars cutting through its asymmetric center, and a very faint and poorly-defined spiral structure throughout its disk. But if NGC 4242 is not all that remarkable, as with much of the Universe, it is still a beautiful and ethereal sight. Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA

  7. Natural games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto

    2011-10-01

    A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem.

  8. Duality, phase structures, and dilemmas in symmetric quantum games

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Tsutsui, Izumi

    Symmetric quantum games for 2-player, 2-qubit strategies are analyzed in detail by using a scheme in which all pure states in the 2-qubit Hilbert space are utilized for strategies. We consider two different types of symmetric games exemplified by the familiar games, the Battle of the Sexes (BoS) and the Prisoners' Dilemma (PD). These two types of symmetric games are shown to be related by a duality map, which ensures that they share common phase structures with respect to the equilibria of the strategies. We find eight distinct phase structures possible for the symmetric games, which are determined by themore » classical payoff matrices from which the quantum games are defined. We also discuss the possibility of resolving the dilemmas in the classical BoS, PD, and the Stag Hunt (SH) game based on the phase structures obtained in the quantum games. It is observed that quantization cannot resolve the dilemma fully for the BoS, while it generically can for the PD and SH if appropriate correlations for the strategies of the players are provided.« less

  9. Computer Game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Using NASA studies of advanced lunar exploration and colonization, KDT Industries, Inc. and Wesson International have developed MOONBASE, a computer game. The player, or team commander, must build and operate a lunar base using NASA technology. He has 10 years to explore the surface, select a site and assemble structures brought from Earth into an efficient base. The game was introduced in 1991 by Texas Space Grant Consortium.

  10. Lead from hunting activities and its potential environmental threat to wildlife in a protected wetland in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Noreña-Barroso, Elsa; Oceguera-Vargas, Ismael

    2014-02-01

    This study provides insights into the status of lead in the protected wetland of El Palmar, located on the northwestern littoral of the Yucatan Peninsula. This reserve is ecologically and economically important because it provides feeding and breeding habitats for many species, as well as being an ecotourism destination (especially for bird watching). Although it is a protected area, duck species are heavily hunted within the reserve during the winter. As a result, animals feeding or living in sediments could be exposed to anthropogenic lead. Total lead and its geochemical fractionated forms were measured in sediment cores from six selected sites in "El Palmar" wetland, during pre- and post-hunting seasons, to approximate the potential environmental threat (especially for benthonic living/feeding organisms). Anthropogenic lead concentrations detected in soil cores ranged from below the minimum infaunal community effect level (30.24 μg g(-1)) during the pre-hunting season, to bordering the probable infaunal community effect level (112.18 μg g(-1)) during the post-hunting season, according to SquiiRTs NOAA guidelines. Yet, these results were lower than expected based on the intensity of hunting. Consequently, this article explores the possibility that the lower than expected lead concentration in sediments results from (1) degradation of shot and transformation to soluble or particulate forms; or (2) ingestion of lead shot by benthic and other lacustrine species living in the protected area. Geochemical fractionation of lead demonstrated that in the top 6 cm of the soil column at heavily active hunting sites (EP5 and EP6), lead was associated with the lithogenic fraction (average 45 percent) and with the organic fraction (average 20 percent). Bioavailable lead (sum of lead adsorbed to the carbonates, Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and organic fractions) in sediments was lower than 50 percent for the heavily active hunting areas and higher for the rest of the sites

  11. Game playing.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Christopher D

    2014-03-01

    Game playing has been a core domain of artificial intelligence research since the beginnings of the field. Game playing provides clearly defined arenas within which computational approaches can be readily compared to human expertise through head-to-head competition and other benchmarks. Game playing research has identified several simple core algorithms that provide successful foundations, with development focused on the challenges of defeating human experts in specific games. Key developments include minimax search in chess, machine learning from self-play in backgammon, and Monte Carlo tree search in Go. These approaches have generalized successfully to additional games. While computers have surpassed human expertise in a wide variety of games, open challenges remain and research focuses on identifying and developing new successful algorithmic foundations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:193-205. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1278 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. To dare or not to dare? Risk management by owls in a predator-prey foraging game.

    PubMed

    Embar, Keren; Raveh, Ashael; Burns, Darren; Kotler, Burt P

    2014-07-01

    In a foraging game, predators must catch elusive prey while avoiding injury. Predators manage their hunting success with behavioral tools such as habitat selection, time allocation, and perhaps daring-the willingness to risk injury to increase hunting success. A predator's level of daring should be state dependent: the hungrier it is, the more it should be willing to risk injury to better capture prey. We ask, in a foraging game, will a hungry predator be more willing to risk injury while hunting? We performed an experiment in an outdoor vivarium in which barn owls (Tyto alba) were allowed to hunt Allenby's gerbils (Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi) from a choice of safe and risky patches. Owls were either well fed or hungry, representing the high and low state, respectively. We quantified the owls' patch use behavior. We predicted that hungry owls would be more daring and allocate more time to the risky patches. Owls preferred to hunt in the safe patches. This indicates that owls manage risk of injury by avoiding the risky patches. Hungry owls doubled their attacks on gerbils, but directed the added effort mostly toward the safe patch and the safer, open areas in the risky patch. Thus, owls dared by performing a risky action-the attack maneuver-more times, but only in the safest places-the open areas. We conclude that daring can be used to manage risk of injury and owls implement it strategically, in ways we did not foresee, to minimize risk of injury while maximizing hunting success.

  13. Hunting or habitat? Drivers of waterbird abundance and community structure in agricultural wetlands of southern India.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Ramesh; Kumar, Ajith; Gopi Sundar, Kolla S; Bhalla, Ravinder Singh

    2017-09-01

    The relative impacts of hunting and habitat on waterbird community were studied in agricultural wetlands of southern India. We surveyed wetlands to document waterbird community, and interviewed hunters to document hunting intensity, targeted species, and the motivations for hunting. Our results show that hunting leads to drastic declines in waterbird diversity and numbers, and skew the community towards smaller species. Hunting intensity, water spread, and vegetation cover were the three most important determinants of waterbird abundance and community structure. Species richness, density of piscivorous species, and medium-sized species (31-65 cm) were most affected by hunting. Out of 53 species recorded, 47 were hunted, with a preference for larger birds. Although illegal, hunting has increased in recent years and is driven by market demand. This challenges the widely held belief that waterbird hunting in India is a low intensity, subsistence activity, and undermines the importance of agricultural wetlands in waterbird conservation.

  14. A systematic review of serious video games used for vaccination.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Robin; Yaghobian, Sarina; Verger, Pierre; Vanhems, Philippe

    2016-08-31

    Vaccination is an effective and proven method of preventing infectious diseases. However, uptake has not been optimal with available vaccines partly due to vaccination hesitancy. Various public health approaches have adressed vaccination hesitancy. Serious video games involving vaccination may represent an innovative public health approach. The aim of this study was to identify, describe, and review existing serious video games on vaccination. A systematic review was performed. Various databases were used to find data on vaccination-related serious video games published from January 1st 2000 to May 15th 2015. Data including featured medical and vaccination content, publication characteristics and games classification were collected for each identified serious game. Sixteen serious video games involved in vaccination were identified. All games were developed in high-income countries between 2003 and 2014. The majority of games were available online and were sponsored by educational/health institutions. All games were free of charge to users. Edugame was the most prevalent serious game subcategory. Twelve games were infectious disease-specific and the majority concerned influenza. The main objective of the games was disease control with a collective perspective. Utilization data was available for two games. Two games were formally evaluated. The use of serious video games for vaccination is an innovative tool for public health. Evaluation of vaccination related serious video games should be encouraged to demonstrate their efficacy and utility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 50 CFR 32.26 - Connecticut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... refuge each day (see §§ 27.93 and 27.94 of this chapter). B. Upland Game Hunting. [Reserved] C. Big Game... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.26 Connecticut. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are...

  16. Intense video gaming is not essentially problematic.

    PubMed

    Király, Orsolya; Tóth, Dénes; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Maraz, Aniko

    2017-11-01

    Video games are more popular than ever and the general public, including parents, educators, and the media, tends to consider intense video gaming fundamentally problematic. To test this hypothesis, participants were recruited via gaming-related websites resulting in a sample of N = 5,222 online video gamers (mean age: 22.2 years, SD = 6.4). Besides assessing gaming time, we administered the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire. Two structural regression models were estimated with both gaming time and problematic gaming as outcome variables. Predictors were psychiatric symptoms in the first, and gaming motives in the second model. Both models yielded adequate fit indices. Psychiatric symptoms had a moderate positive effect on problematic use (β = .46, p < .001) whereas their effect on gaming time was practically zero (β = -.01, p = .84). In the second model, Escape was the most prominent motive and was moderately to-strongly associated (β = .58, p < .001) with problematic use. However, the association between Escape and gaming time was substantially weaker (β = .21, p < .001). The correlation between gaming time and problematic use was weak-to-moderate in both models (r = .26, p < .001 and r = .21, p < .001, respectively). Data suggest that gaming time is weakly associated with negative psychological factors such as psychiatric symptoms and Escape motive, which were found to be consistently related to problematic use. Therefore, the amount of gaming time alone appears to be an unreliable predictor of problematic use, which questions the aforementioned idea that intense gaming is essentially problematic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Smoking in Video Games: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-06-01

    remains unclear, there appears to be a correlation between problem gaming and smoking and the genre of games may play a role in adolescent smoking behavior. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Geochemical Treasure Hunt for Primary School Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesmer, Maja; Frick, Daniel; Gerrits, Ruben; des GFZ-GeoWunderWerkstatt, Schülerlabor

    2017-04-01

    How can you inspire school children for geochemistry, and scientific exploratory urge? The key is to raise their curiosity and make learning new things a hands-on experience. The Fellows of the European Marie Curie Initial Training Network IsoNose designed and established a "Geochemical Treasure Hunt" to excite children for scientific investigations. This workshop explains primary school children the research and scientific methods of isotopic geochemistry, and their use to understand processes on the Earth's surface. From obtaining 'samples', performing various experiments, the school children gather clues leading them to the hidden treasure on the Telegrafenberg (campus of the GFZ Potsdam). The course was designed for school children to learn hands-on the meaning of elements, atoms and isotopes. In small groups the children conduct experiments of simplified methods being indispensable to any isotope geochemist. However, prior to working in any laboratory environment, a security briefing is necessary. For the course, two stages were implemented; firstly the use of harmful substances and dangerous equipment was minimised, and secondly children were equipped with size-matched personal protective equipment (lab coats, gloves, and safety googles). The purification of elements prior to isotopic analysis was visualised using colour chromatography. However, instead of using delicate mass spectrometers for the isotope ratio measurements, the pupils applied flame spectroscopy to analyse their dissolved and purified mineral solutions. Depending on the specific element present, a different colour was observed in the flame. The children plotted their colours of the flame spectroscopy onto a map and by interpreting the emerging colour patterns they localized the treasure on the map. In small teams they swarmed out on the Telegrafenberg to recover the hidden treasure. The project leading to this outreach activity has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie

  19. 50 CFR 32.54 - Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... [Reserved] C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting of white-tailed deer on designated areas of the refuge in... wounded deer out of their assigned hunting unit. 9. We prohibit shooting from any road. D. Sport Fishing... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.54 Ohio...

  20. Bringing your a-game: Educational gaming for student success.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Haley P; Kaylor, Sara K

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the theoretical basis for the integration of gaming in nursing education and discuss aspects related to the implementation of "The Race for Nursing Student Success" game. This game was designed for 112 junior-level baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a fundamentals nursing course. Students were divided into groups of 5-8 and rotated through ten specific learning activities that took place in various locations throughout the nursing building. Student and faculty feedback indicated positive responses to this instructional strategy and also promoted a learner-centered teaching environment. This learning activity supports the use of educational gaming as a means to develop learner-centered environments that provide experiential experiences, enhance learning, and stimulate interest, and motivation for students to learn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Autocratic strategies for alternating games.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Repeated games have a long tradition in the behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce linear constraints on payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of "zero-determinant" (or, more generally, "autocratic") strategies to alternating games, which are often biologically more relevant than traditional synchronous games. Alternating games naturally result in asymmetries between players because the first move matters or because players might not move with equal probabilities. In a strictly-alternating game with two players, X and Y, we give conditions for the existence of autocratic strategies for player X when (i) X moves first and (ii) Y moves first. Furthermore, we show that autocratic strategies exist even for (iii) games with randomly-alternating moves. Particularly important categories of autocratic strategies are extortionate and generous strategies, which enforce unfavorable and favorable outcomes for the opponent, respectively. We illustrate these strategies using the continuous Donation Game, in which a player pays a cost to provide a benefit to the opponent according to a continuous cooperative investment level. Asymmetries due to alternating moves could easily arise from dominance hierarchies, and we show that they can endow subordinate players with more autocratic strategies than dominant players. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thresher sharks use tail-slaps as a hunting strategy.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Turner, John R; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails.

  3. Thresher Sharks Use Tail-Slaps as a Hunting Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Turner, John R.; Gann, Klemens; Silvosa, Medel; D'Urban Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The hunting strategies of pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) were investigated at Pescador Island in the Philippines. It has long been suspected that thresher sharks hunt with their scythe-like tails but the kinematics associated with the behaviour in the wild are poorly understood. From 61 observations recorded by handheld underwater video camera between June and October 2010, 25 thresher shark shunting events were analysed. Thresher sharks employed tail-slaps to debilitate sardines at all times of day. Hunting events comprised preparation, strike, wind-down recovery and prey item collection phases, which occurred sequentially. Preparation phases were significantly longer than the others, presumably to enable a shark to windup a tail-slap. Tail-slaps were initiated by an adduction of the pectoral fins, a manoeuvre that changed a thresher shark's pitch promoting its posterior region to lift rapidly, and stall its approach. Tail-slaps occurred with such force that they may have caused dissolved gas to diffuse out of the water column forming bubbles. Thresher sharks were able to consume more than one sardine at a time, suggesting that tail-slapping is an effective foraging strategy for hunting schooling prey. Pelagic thresher sharks appear to pursue sardines opportunistically by day and night, which may make them vulnerable to fisheries. Alopiids possess specialist pectoral and caudal fins that are likely to have evolved, at least in part, for tail-slapping. The evidence is now clear; thresher sharks really do hunt with their tails. PMID:23874415

  4. Long-Term Changes in Game Species Over a Long Period of Transformation in the Iberian Mediterranean Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Olivero, Jesús; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario

    2009-06-01

    Agricultural change has transformed large areas of traditional farming landscapes, leading to important changes in the species community assemblages in most European countries. We suspect that the drastic changes in land-use that have occurred in Andalusia (southern Spain) over recent decades, may have affected the distribution and abundance of game species in this region. This article compares the distribution of the main game species in Andalusia during the 1960s and 1990s, using data from maps available from the Mainland Spanish Fish, Game and National Parks Service and from recent datasets on hunting yield distributions, respectively. Big-game and small-game species were significantly segregated in southern Spain during the 1990s, as two clearly independent chorotypes (groups of species whose abundances are similarly distributed) were obtained from the classification analysis. In contrast, big-game and small-game species were not significantly segregated several decades ago, when there was only one chorotype consisting of small-game species and wild boar. The other three ungulates did not constitute a significant chorotype, as they showed positive correlations with some species in the group mentioned above. These changes seem to be a consequence of the transformations that have occurred in the Iberian Mediterranean landscape over the last few decades. The abandoning of traditional activities, and the consequent formation of dense scrubland and woodland, has led to an expansion of big-game species, and a decrease of small-game species in mountain areas. Moreover, agricultural intensification has apparently depleted small-game species populations in some agricultural areas. On the other hand, the increasingly intensive hunting management could be artificially boosting this segregation between small-game and big-game species. Our results suggest that the conservation and regeneration of traditional agricultural landscapes (like those predominating in the 1960s

  5. ‘Impact hunters’ catalyse cooperative hunting in two wild chimpanzee communities

    PubMed Central

    Gilby, Ian C.; Machanda, Zarin P.; Mjungu, Deus C.; Rosen, Jeremiah; Muller, Martin N.; Pusey, Anne E.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Even when hunting in groups is mutually beneficial, it is unclear how communal hunts are initiated. If it is costly to be the only hunter, individuals should be reluctant to hunt unless others already are. We used 70 years of data from three communities to examine how male chimpanzees ‘solve’ this apparent collective action problem. The ‘impact hunter’ hypothesis proposes that group hunts are sometimes catalysed by certain individuals that hunt more readily than others. In two communities (Kasekela and Kanyawara), we identified a total of five males that exhibited high hunt participation rates for their age, and whose presence at an encounter with red colobus monkeys increased group hunting probability. Critically, these impact hunters were observed to hunt first more often than expected by chance. We argue that by hunting first, these males dilute prey defences and create opportunities for previously reluctant participants. This by-product mutualism can explain variation in group hunting rates within and between social groups. Hunting rates declined after the death of impact hunter FG in Kasekela and after impact hunter MS stopped hunting frequently in Kanyawara. There were no impact hunters in the third, smaller community (Mitumba), where, unlike the others, hunting probability increased with the number of females present at an encounter with prey. PMID:26503679

  6. Gaming the System: Developing an Educational Game for Securing Principles of Arterial Blood Gases.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Cory Ann; Warren, Jonah; Glendon, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development process for creating a digital educational mini game prototype designed to provide practice opportunities for learning fundamental principles of arterial blood gases. Mini games generally take less than an hour to play and focus on specific subject matter. An interdisciplinary team of faculty from two universities mentored student game developers to design a digital educational mini game prototype. Sixteen accelerated bachelor of science in nursing students collaborated with game development students and playtested the game prototype during the last semester of their senior year in nursing school. Playtesting is a form of feedback that supports an iterative design process that is critical to game development. A 10-question survey was coupled with group discussions addressing five broad themes of an archetypical digital educational mini game to yield feedback on game design, play, and content. Four rounds of playtesting and incorporating feedback supported the iterative process. Accelerated bachelor of science in nursing student playtester feedback suggests that the digital educational mini game prototype has potential for offering an engaging, playful game experience that will support securing the fundamental principles of arterial blood gases. Next steps are to test the digital educational mini game for teaching and learning effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mourning dove nesting: seasonal patterns and effects of September hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, Paul H.; Dolton, David D.; Field, Rebecca; Coon, Richard A.; Percival, H. Franklin; Hayne, Don W.; Soileau, Lawrence D.; George, Ronnie R.; Dunks, James H.; Bunnell, S. Dwight

    1987-01-01

    A nationwide State-Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on nesting mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). This study was designed to (1) determine the proportion of the annual total of dove nesting activity and production that occurs in September and October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in zones where early September dove hunting is permitted than in zones where it is prohibited. During 1979 and 1980, 6,950 active nests were monitored to obtain data on nesting patterns. Nest initiation was estimated using two measurements, backdating from hatch dates and counting numbers of nests found for the first time. The nationwide percentage of the annual total of nests that were initiated in September and October was 1.0% based on backdating from hatch dates and 2.7% based on nests found for the first time. Nesting activity was measured by numbers of eggs and nestlings present in weekly counts. Nationally, 4.5% of the annual nesting activity occurred in September and October. The activity of 80% of the observed nests was within the period of 22 April to 4 September. The measure of production used in this study was numbers of young fledged. Nationally, 10.3% of all observed fledging occurred in September and October. Because a decline in nests found in the latter half of the nesting season preceded the 1 September start of hunting, we concluded that the reduction in nesting activity at the end of the season is a natural phenomenon and is not caused by hunting disturbance. In a separate part of this study, we estimated survival rates in adjacent hunted and nonhunted zones from data on 668 nests. The estimated daily survival rates for individual eggs and nestlings were 95.8% in the nonhunted and 95.0% in the hunted zones; the corresponding fledging rates were 33 and 26%, respectively. The fledging rates are lower because they are the daily survival rates operating over a 26-day

  8. Mourning Dove Nesting: Seasonal Patterns and Effects of September Hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.; Dolton, D.D.; Coon, R.A.; Percival, H.F.; Field, R.; Hayne, D.W.; Soileau, L.D.; George, R.R.; Dunks, J.H.; Bunnell, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A nationwide State/Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) nesting. This study was designed to (1) determine the proportion of the annual total of dove nesting activity and production that occurs in September and October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in areas where early September dove hunting is permitted compared to areas where it is prohibited. During 1979 and 1980, 6,950 active nests were followed to obtain data on nesting patterns. Nest initiation was estimated both by backdating from hatch dates and by the numbers of nests found for the first time. The nationwide percent of the annual total of nests that were initiated in September and October was 1.0% based on backdating hatch dates and 2.7% based on nests found for the first time. Nesting activity was measured by numbers of eggs and nestlings present in weekly counts. Nationally, 4.5% of the annual total of nesting activity occurred in September and October. The observed period when 80% of the nests were active, based on hatch dates, lasted from April 22 to September 4. The measure of production used in this study was numbers of young fledged. Nationally, 10.3% of all observed fledging occurred in September and October. A decline in nests found in the latter half of the nesting season preceded the September 1 start of hunting. From this we concluded that the reduction in nesting activity at the end of the season is a natural phenomenon and not caused by hunting disturbance. In a separate part of this study, we estimated survival rates in hunted and nonhunted sections from data on 668 nests. The estimated daily survival rates for individual eggs and nestlings were 95.8% in the nonhunted and 95.0% in the hunted sections; the corresponding fledging rates were 33% and 26%, respectively. The fledging rates are lower because they are the daily survival rates operating over a 26

  9. Shoot first, ask questions later: Interpretative narratives of Neanderthal hunting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mark; Pettitt, Paul; Schreve, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the hunting strategies employed by Neanderthals at a series of kill or near-kill sites from the Middle Palaeolithic of Europe (Mauran, La Borde, Taubach, Zwoleń and Salzgitter Lebenstedt). Using palaeolandscape reconstructions and animal ethology as our context, we adopt a multifaceted approach that views hunting as a chaîne opératoire involving the decisions and actions of both the hunter and the hunted, which together help reconstruct a forensic picture of past events as they unfolded. Our conclusions indicate that Neanderthals did not necessarily pre-select individuals from a herd, who they then isolated, pursued and killed, but rather ambushed whole groups, which they slaughtered indiscriminately. There is strong evidence, however, that Neanderthals were highly selective in the carcasses they then chose to process. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals were excellent tacticians, casual executioners and discerning diners.

  10. Serious Games: Video Games for Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…

  11. Postseason hunting to reduce deer damage to Douglas-fir in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Glenn L. Crouch

    1980-01-01

    Effects of two successive postseason deer hunts on deer browsing of Douglas-fir seedlings in the Coast Range in western Oregon were evaluated. Terminal browsing was significantly lower on the area subjected to more hunting compared with other areas.

  12. [The determination of the ballistics of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet].

    PubMed

    Svetlakov, A V; Sotin, A V; Nagornov, M N

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are considered to determine the shooting range of a hunting rifle loaded with a Poleva-3 bullet from the specific features of gunshot injuries inflicted by container-type Poleba-3 bullets for hunting rifles.

  13. A Nine-Year Hunt for Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    How do we hunt for elusive neutrinos emitted by distant astrophysical sources? Submerge a huge observatory under ice or water and then wait patiently.Sneaky MessengersNeutrinos tiny, nearly massless particles that only weakly interact with other matter are thought to be produced as a constant background originating from throughout our universe. In contrast to known point sources of neutrinos (for instance, nearby supernovae), the diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos could be emitted from unresolved astrophysical sources too faint to be individually detected, or from the interactions of high-energy cosmic rays propagating across the universe.Observations of this diffuse flux of cosmic neutrinos would be a huge step toward understanding cosmic-ray production, acceleration, and interaction properties. Unfortunately, these observations arent easy to make!Diagram showing the path of a neutrino from a distant astrophysical source (accelerator) through the Earth. It is eventually converted into an upward-traveling muon that registers in the ANTARES detector under the sea. [ANTARES]Looking for What Doesnt Want to Be FoundBecause neutrinos so rarely interact with matter, most pass right through us, eluding detection. The most common means of spotting the rare interacting neutrino is to look for Cherenkov radiation in a medium like ice or water, produced when a neutrino has interacted with matterto produce a charged particle (for instance, a muon) moving faster than the speed of light in the medium.Muons produced in our atmosphere can also register in such detectors, however, so we need a way of filtering out these non-cosmic background events. The solution is a clever trick: search for particles traveling upward, not downward. Atmospheric muons will come only from above, whereas muons produced by neutrinos should travel through the detectors in all directions, since cosmic neutrinos arrive from all directions including from below, after passing through the Earth

  14. 32 CFR 770.6 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... buckshot to hunt any game; use of a light, attached to a vehicle or otherwise, for the purpose of spotting game; use of dogs for hunting or tracking deer; training deer dogs on the Reservation; training or... are posted daily at the Game Checking Station. (e) Weapons will not be loaded outside of hunting hours...

  15. 32 CFR 770.6 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... buckshot to hunt any game; use of a light, attached to a vehicle or otherwise, for the purpose of spotting game; use of dogs for hunting or tracking deer; training deer dogs on the Reservation; training or... are posted daily at the Game Checking Station. (e) Weapons will not be loaded outside of hunting hours...

  16. 32 CFR 770.6 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... buckshot to hunt any game; use of a light, attached to a vehicle or otherwise, for the purpose of spotting game; use of dogs for hunting or tracking deer; training deer dogs on the Reservation; training or... are posted daily at the Game Checking Station. (e) Weapons will not be loaded outside of hunting hours...

  17. 32 CFR 770.6 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... buckshot to hunt any game; use of a light, attached to a vehicle or otherwise, for the purpose of spotting game; use of dogs for hunting or tracking deer; training deer dogs on the Reservation; training or... are posted daily at the Game Checking Station. (e) Weapons will not be loaded outside of hunting hours...

  18. Public health significance of Campylobacter spp. colonisation of wild game pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Seguino, Alessandro; Chintoan-Uta, Cosmin; Smith, Sionagh H; Shaw, Darren J

    2018-09-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. Chicken meat is considered the main source of human infection; however, C. jejuni and C. coli have also been reported in a range of livestock and wildlife species, including pheasants. Wild pheasant meat reaches the consumer's table because of hunting but there is a lack of information concerning the risk of Campylobacter infection in humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in wild game pheasants in Scotland, to identify the main sequence types (STs) present and to evaluate their impact on public health. A total of 287 caecal samples from five Scottish regions were collected during the hunting season 2013/2014. Campylobacter was detected and enumerated using standard culture methods. PCR and High Throughput Multi Locus Sequence Typing (HiMLST) were used for species identification and sequence typing. In total, 36.6% of 287 caecal samples (n = 105; 95% CI: 14-59.2) were Campylobacter positive. Using PCR, 62.6% of samples (n = 99) were identified as C. coli and 37.4% as C. jejuni. HiMLST (n = 80) identified 19 different STs. ST-828 (n = 19) was the most common, followed by ST-827 (n = 12) and ST19 (n = 7). Sixteen of the 19 STs isolated are present in humans and eight are C. coli STs that account for 6.96% of human infections, although the overall risk to public health from pheasant meat is still considered to be low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shell Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Bill

    1982-01-01

    The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

  20. Math Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzi, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…

  1. Got Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Around the country, disabled sports are often treated like second-class siblings to their able-bodied counterparts, largely because the latter bring in prestigious tournaments and bowl games, lucrative TV contracts and national exposure for top athletes and coaches. Because disabled people are so sparsely distributed in the general population, it…

  2. Evil games.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    A defining characteristic of humans is our capacity to create a better world through mutual action. Traditional ethics attempts to define and impose the one or several things we should all want. The alternative argued here is that we can retain our individual definitions of what matters and still work together for mutual improvement. Agreeing on common ethical principles is not a precondition for an effective moral life. This approach to morality is based on game theory, which holds that in purposely social interactions: (a) there are basic understandings, (b) individuals pursue their own interests, (c) we can judge others' interests, and (d) the distribution of benefits and burdens depends on the joint action of individuals, not on the action of individuals in isolation. In this view, immorality becomes a matter of cheating in the game of life. The three primary forms of cheating are deception (misleading others into thinking they are playing a game other than the one that is to their advantage to play), coercion (blocking courses of action others would normally be entitled to), and reneging (playing the game and then dodging the payoff if one does not like the outcome). These three evils are illustrated by Shakespeare's plays Othello, Richard III, and Antony and Cleopatra.

  3. Grammar Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kim

    2004-01-01

    The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

  4. Paralympic Games: History and Legacy of a Global Movement.

    PubMed

    Legg, David

    2018-05-01

    The Paralympic Games have an interesting history that began after World War II. The Games and movement have been impacted by and have had an impact on society and the larger able-bodied sport system. The future of the Games and movement is also further impacted by larger cultural shifts, and the Games themselves have potentially left lasting legacies for the host cities and persons with impairment worldwide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, S; Kuperman, M N

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  6. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzat, S.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  7. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National fish...

  8. 78 FR 37397 - Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Small Business Size Standards: Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... (NAICS) Sector 11, Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, and retaining the current standards for...-industries (``exceptions'') in NAICS Sector 11, Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, to determine...

  9. 3 CFR 8720 - Proclamation 8720 of September 23, 2011. National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Hunting and Fishing Day, 2011 8720 Proclamation 8720 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8720 of September 23, 2011 Proc. 8720 National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2011By the President of the... outdoors. As we mark National Hunting and Fishing Day, we are reminded of the uniquely American idea that...

  10. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National fish...

  11. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National fish...

  12. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National fish...

  13. 50 CFR 71.1 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. 71.1 Section 71.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Hunting § 71.1 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to hunting. National fish...

  14. The value of wooded draws on the northern high plains for hunting, furs, and woodcutting

    Treesearch

    Ardell J. Bjugstad; Cindy F. Sorg

    1985-01-01

    Data from wildlife habitat use, wood production, and values of hunting, trapping, and firewood reflect the contribution to values of wooded draws on the northern High Plains. Values included expenditures and net willingness to pay. Approximate values per annum derived were: deer hunting $26 million; turkey hunting $1 million; fur trapping $4 million; and firewood $7...

  15. Deer hunting and television: are tv shows creating expectations among deer hunters?

    Treesearch

    Joshua D. Agee; Craig A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the past two decades new media outlets emphasizing trophy deer hunting have come to dominate hunting culture. Using data collected through a mail survey of Illinois deer hunters (n = 2,683, 78.5-percent response), we tested two hypotheses to determine factors that contribute to preference for hunting trophy deer. In particular, we examined the relationship...

  16. 77 FR 52344 - Proposed Information Collection; Annual Certification of Hunting and Sport Fishing Licenses Issued

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Hunting and Sport Fishing Licenses Issued AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act (16 U.S.C. 669 et seq.) and the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration...--Summary of Hunting and Sport Fishing Licenses Issued) to certify the number and amount of hunting and...

  17. 76 FR 59304 - 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ...-0038; 93270-1265-0000-4A] RIN 1018-AX54 2011-2012 Refuge-Specific Hunting and Sport Fishing Regulations... our regulations concerning hunting and sport fishing programs at national wildlife refuges... part 32 concerning hunting and sport fishing programs at national wildlife refuges. The final rule...

  18. Teaching Using Computer Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat

    2011-01-01

    Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…

  19. Ontology of Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayaga, Lakshmi; Rasmussen, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    Computer games are no longer just for entertainment; they have also become a useful instructional strategy for acquiring knowledge. When games are used for purposes other than strict entertainment they become serious games. The goal of serious games is to enable the player to learn a task, master a strategy or develop a skill. Serious games can be…

  20. Games and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, Diana G.

    2006-01-01

    From a very early age, people learn from games and play. Parents and preschool teachers use games to teach colors, numbers, names, and shapes; the process is drill and practice. Games engage everyone, capturing their attention. People willingly spend time on task. Although students in high school and college continue to play games, games rarely…

  1. Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores.

    PubMed

    Packer, Craig; Kosmala, Margaret; Cooley, Hilary S; Brink, Henry; Pintea, Lilian; Garshelis, David; Purchase, Gianetta; Strauss, Megan; Swanson, Alexandra; Balme, Guy; Hunter, Luke; Nowell, Kristin

    2009-06-17

    Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities.

  2. Reward Your Students with an Online Scavenger Hunt!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Do you have a class of students who do excellent work and whom you would like to give an enjoyable reward? Try an "Internet scavenger hunt" for a fun and educational change of pace! This article shares how to run the activity.

  3. Bee Hunt! Ecojustice in Practice for Earth's Buzzing Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.; Pickering, John

    2010-01-01

    The Bee Hunt! project and curriculum are designed with cultural and environmental sensitivity in mind. In this project, K-12 students develop their awareness and understanding of science and investigate North American pollinator declines. Bees, butterflies, and other pollinators are integrally connected to the pollination of the world's crops for…

  4. Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers. PMID:22863070

  5. Using Scavenger Hunts to Familiarize Students with Scientific Journal Articles.

    PubMed

    Lijek, Rebeccah S; Fankhauser, Sarah C

    2016-03-01

    Primary scientific literature can be difficult to navigate for anyone unfamiliar with its foreign, formal structure. We sought to create a fun, easy learning tool to help familiarize students of all ages with the structure of a scientific article. Our main learning objective was for the student to realize that science writing is formulaic-that specific information is found in predictable locations within an article-and that, with an understanding of the formula, anyone can comfortably navigate any journal article and accurately predict what to expect to find in each section. To this end, we designed a Journal Article Scavenger Hunt that requires the user to find and identify a series of commonplace features of a primary research article. The scavenger hunt activity is quick and easy to implement, and is adaptable to various ages and settings, including the classroom, lab, and at outreach events. The questions in the scavenger hunt can be scaled in difficulty and specificity to suit the instructor's needs. Over many years of using this activity, we have received positive feedback from students of all ages, from elementary school students to lay adult-learners as well as science teachers themselves. By making the unknown seem predictable and approachable, the scavenger hunt helps a variety of audiences feel more comfortable with science and more confident in their ability to engage directly with the scientific literature. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  6. Bushmeat Hunting, Deforestation, and Prediction of Zoonotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, Peter; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Burke, Donald S.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the emergence of new zoonotic agents requires knowledge of pathogen biodiversity in wildlife, human-wildlife interactions, anthropogenic pressures on wildlife populations, and changes in society and human behavior. We discuss an interdisciplinary approach combining virology, wildlife biology, disease ecology, and anthropology that enables better understanding of how deforestation and associated hunting leads to the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens. PMID:16485465

  7. 75 FR 60277 - National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Part VII The President Proclamation 8567--National Hunting and Fishing Day, 2010 Proclamation 8568--National Public Lands Day, 2010 Proclamation 8569--Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2010 #0; #0; #0... into the character of our Nation. From the rocky shoals of New England to the rugged mountains of the...

  8. The Public Services Job Hunt: Observations and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The library science job market is competitive, and library and information science (LIS) students and new graduates often have questions and concerns about how to engage in a successful job hunt. Based on research with employers and interactions with students and alumni, the author offers advice for job-seekers looking for public services…

  9. 78 FR 25463 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-HQ-EA-2013-N093; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC0-134] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public...

  10. 76 FR 12130 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2011-N033] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of teleconference. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a public teleconference of...

  11. 77 FR 10543 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary [FF09D00000-123-FXGO1664091HCC05d] Wildlife and... renewed the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council) charter for 2 years. DATES: The..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joshua Winchell, Council Coordinator, U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  12. 78 FR 48460 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-HQ-EA-2013-N154; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC0-134] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public...

  13. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14...

  14. 77 FR 4575 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2012-N009; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC05D-123] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public...

  15. 77 FR 57577 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-HQ-EA-2012-N217; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC05D-123] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public...

  16. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14...

  17. 77 FR 74864 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-HQ-EA-2012-N288; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC0-134] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public...

  18. 77 FR 31636 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2012-N133; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC05D-123] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public...

  19. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14...

  20. 77 FR 38317 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2012-N150; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC05D-123] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of teleconference. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a...

  1. 78 FR 73205 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-HQ-EA-2013-N235; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC0-145] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public...

  2. 77 FR 15386 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2012-N055; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC05D-123] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of teleconference. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a...

  3. 76 FR 66955 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2011-N213; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC05D-123] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public...

  4. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14...

  5. 77 FR 16051 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary [FF09D00000-123-FXGO1664091HCC05d] Wildlife and... individuals to be considered as members of the Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council (Council). The Council provides advice about wildlife and habitat conservation endeavors that (a) benefit...

  6. 50 CFR 36.14 - Subsistence hunting and trapping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsistence hunting and trapping. 36.14 Section 36.14 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.14...

  7. 76 FR 17442 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2011-N065] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council Teleconference AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of teleconference. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a public teleconference of...

  8. 77 FR 25191 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2012-N100; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC05D-123] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of teleconference. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a...

  9. 76 FR 39433 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R9-EA-2011-N125; 90100-1664-1HCC-5A] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of teleconference. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a public...

  10. 78 FR 42104 - Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-HQ-EA-2013-N136; FF09D00000-FXGO1664091HCC05D-134] Wildlife and Hunting Heritage Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of teleconference. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a...

  11. Meet EPA Scientist Sherri Hunt, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dr. Sherri Hunt is the Assistant Center Director for the Air, Climate, and Energy (ACE) Research Program. She plays an active leadership role in the ACE program planning and coordination and was a key author for the Research Action Plan development

  12. A Hunt for Tennyson: Teaching Poetry through Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lask-Spinac, Sabina

    Tennyson's poem "The Lady of Shalott" and Holman Hunt's painting of the same subject are excellent examples of the value of exploring poetry through painting. One of the biggest questions raised in relation to the poem's theme is the problem of its ambiguity. By looking at the painting in class, one can sense the lack of definite…

  13. Future-Oriented Coping and Job Hunting among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yueqin; Gan, Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of Chinese college students (n = 216), the present study showed that future-oriented coping negatively correlated with perceived pressure and positively correlated with successful job hunting. The relationship between proactive coping and preventive coping was also explored. Structural equation modeling suggested that a sequence…

  14. NASA Social Briefing on Planet-Hunting Mission Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-15

    Social Media participants gathered at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Sunday, April 15 to hear from NASA and its partners about the agnecy’s next-generation planet hunting satellite. NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is scheduled to launch April 16 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  15. Sport Hunting, Predator Control and Conservation of Large Carnivores

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Craig; Kosmala, Margaret; Cooley, Hilary S.; Brink, Henry; Pintea, Lilian; Garshelis, David; Purchase, Gianetta; Strauss, Megan; Swanson, Alexandra; Balme, Guy; Hunter, Luke; Nowell, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Sport hunting has provided important economic incentives for conserving large predators since the early 1970's, but wildlife managers also face substantial pressure to reduce depredation. Sport hunting is an inherently risky strategy for controlling predators as carnivore populations are difficult to monitor and some species show a propensity for infanticide that is exacerbated by removing adult males. Simulation models predict population declines from even moderate levels of hunting in infanticidal species, and harvest data suggest that African countries and U.S. states with the highest intensity of sport hunting have shown the steepest population declines in African lions and cougars over the past 25 yrs. Similar effects in African leopards may have been masked by mesopredator release owing to declines in sympatric lion populations, whereas there is no evidence of overhunting in non-infanticidal populations of American black bears. Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities. PMID:19536277

  16. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: relationship with management practices and livestock influence.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Sánchez, S; Sánchez, S; Herrera-León, S; Porrero, C; Blanco, J; Dahbi, G; Blanco, J E; Mora, A; Mateo, R; Hanning, I; Vidal, D

    2013-05-03

    Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N=574) and carcasses (N=585) sampled from red deer (N=295), wild boar (N=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N=9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), being significantly higher in faeces from red deer (90 out of 264). A total of 58 isolates were serotyped. Serotypes O146:H- and O27:H30 were the most frequent in red deer and the majority of isolates from red deer and wild boar were from serotypes previously found in STEC strains associated with human infection, including the serotype O157:H7. The STEC prevalence in red deer faeces was significantly higher with the presence of livestock (p<0, 01) where high densities of red deer (p<0.001) were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and STEC in carcasses of large game animals. Furthermore, this study confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that cross contamination of STEC during carcass dressing occurred, implying the likelihood of these pathogens entering into the food chain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Responses of Florida panthers to recreational deer and hog hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janis, Michael W.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Big Cypress National Preserve constitutes approximately one-third of the range of the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi). Because recreational hunting is allowed in Big Cypress National Preserve, we examined 8 response variables (activity rates, movement rates, predation success, home-range size, home-range shifts, proximity to off-road vehicle trails, use of areas with concentrated human activity, and habitat selection) to evaluate how Florida panthers respond to human activity associated with deer and hog hunting. Data consisted of panther radiolocations collected since 1981 by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and the National Park Service, which we augmented with radiolocations and activity monitoring from 1994 to 1998. A split-plot (treatment and control) study design with repeated measures of the variables for each panther taken before, during, and after the hunting season was used. We did not detect responses to hunting for variables most directly related to panther energy intake or expenditure (i.e., activity rates, movement rates, predation success of females; P>0.10). However, panthers reduced their use of Bear Island (P=0.021), an area of concentrated human activity, and were found farther from off-road vehicle trails (P≤0.001) during the hunting season, which was indicative of a reaction to human disturbance. Whereas the reaction to human activity on off-road vehicle trails probably has minor biological implications and may be linked to prey behavior, the decreased use of Bear Island is most likely a direct reaction to human activity and resulted in increased use of adjacent private lands. Future habitat loss on those private lands could exacerbate the negative consequences of this response by panthers.

  18. Can hunting of translocated nuisance Canada geese reduce local conflicts?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holevinski, R.A.; Malecki, R.A.; Curtis, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis) nest or reside in the temperate latitudes of North America. In past years, translocation-the capture and subsequent release of geese at distant locations-has been used to establish resident goose populations and to reduce nuisance problems. However, with new special hunting seasons designed to target resident Canada geese, we can now evaluate translocation as a management tool when hunting is allowed at release sites. We selected 2 study sites, representative of urban and suburban locations with nuisance resident geese, in central and western New York, USA. In June 2003, we translocated 80 neck-banded adult geese, 14 radiomarked adult females, and 83 juveniles 150 km east and southwest from urban and suburban problem sites in western New York to state-owned Wildlife Management Areas. At these same capture sites, we used 151 neck-banded adult geese, 12 radiomarked females, and 100 juveniles as controls to compare dispersal movements and harvest vulnerability to translocated geese. All observations (n = 45) of translocated radiomarked geese were <20 km from release sites, in areas where hunting was permitted. Only 25 of 538 observations (4.6%) of radiomarked geese at control sites were in areas open to hunting. The remainder of observations occurred at nonhunting locations within 10 km of control sites. More translocated adult geese (23.8%) were harvested than control geese (6.6%; ??2 = 72.98, P = 0.0009). More translocated juvenile geese were harvested (22.9%) than juvenile controls (5.0%; ??2 = 72.30, P = 0.0005). Only 7 (8.8%) translocated adult geese returned to the original capture sites during Canada goose hunting seasons. Translocation of adult and juvenile geese in family groups may alleviate nuisance problems at conflict sites through increased harvest, reducing the number of birds returning in subsequent years.

  19. The weather diaries of a hunting and fishing estate in Connemara, Co. Galway, Ireland from 1898 to 1972

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Kieran

    2017-04-01

    A game diary from 1898-1917, fishing diary from 1899-1951 and daily work and weather diaries from 1933 -1972 have survived from the Fermoyle Lodge estate, Connemara, Co. Galway, Ireland. The diaries come from three generations of the Spellman family who retained their role as estate managers despite a number of changes in ownership over this time period. Using the information preserved in these volumes this paper will reconstruct the role of weather in the daily activities of this hunting and fishing estate. Severe weather generally only limited the numbers of days when hunting took place. In the case of fishing again severe weather could limit the number of days of fishing, however flood waters on the streams from the various small lakes on the estate improved fish runs during the spawning season which led to much improved fishing on the lakes. In addition different lakes were fished depending on the wind direction. The weather and especially severe weather played an important role in the general operation of the estate and the lives of the estate manager's family. This was especially true of severe weather, whether storms, flooding or cold in this relatively isolated location e.g. the cold spell of 1947 which is captured in the weather diaries.

  20. Utility of Game Instructions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    interface. These results can be incorporated in military training programs where computer games are part of the curriculum. Future military game ... development can also utilize these results to determine which type of instructional material to be included in the games.