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Sample records for gamma activation of115in

  1. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoji; Oribe, Naoya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Nestor, Paul G; Spencer, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    A major goal of translational neuroscience is to identify neural circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders that can be studied in animal models to facilitate the development of new treatments. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-100 Hz) of the electroencephalogram have received considerable interest as the basic mechanisms underlying these oscillations are understood, and gamma abnormalities have been found in schizophrenia (SZ). Animal models of SZ based on hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) demonstrate increased spontaneous broadband gamma power, but this phenomenon has not been identified clearly in patients with SZ. To examine spontaneous gamma power and its relationship to evoked gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex of patients with SZ. We performed a cross-sectional study including 24 patients with chronic SZ and 24 matched healthy control participants at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012. Electroencephalograms were obtained during auditory steady-state stimulation at multiple frequencies (20, 30, and 40 Hz) and during a resting state in 18 participants in each group. Electroencephalographic activity in the auditory cortex was estimated using dipole source localization. Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures included the phase-locking factor and evoked power. Spontaneous gamma power was measured as induced (non-phase-locked) gamma power in the ASSR data and as total gamma power in the resting-state data. The ASSR phase-locking factor was reduced significantly in patients with SZ compared with controls for the 40-Hz stimulation (mean [SD], 0.075 [0.028] vs 0.113 [0.065]; F1,46 = 6.79 [P = .012]) but not the 20- or the 30-Hz stimulation (0.042 [0.038] vs 0.043 [0.034]; F1,46 = 0.006 [P = .938] and 0.084 [0.040] vs 0.098 [0.050]; F1,46 = 1.605 [P = .212], respectively), repeating previous findings. The mean [SD] broadband-induced (30

  2. gamma. -hexachlorocyclohexane (. gamma. -HCH) activates washed rabbit platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Lalau-Keraly, C.; Delautier, D.; Benveniste, J.; Puiseux-Dao, S.

    1986-03-01

    In guinea-pig macrophages, ..gamma..-HCH triggers activation of the phosphatidylinositol cycle and Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization. Since these two biochemical events are also involved in platelet activation, the authors examined the effects of ..gamma..-HCH on washed rabbit platelets. Release of /sup 14/C-serotonin (/sup 14/C-5HT) and ATP from platelets prelabelled with /sup 14/C-5HT was measured simultaneously with aggregation. ..gamma..-HCH induced shape-change, aggregation and release reaction of platelets. Maximal aggregation (89 arbitrary units, AU), was observed using 170 ..mu..M ..gamma..-HCH, and was associated with 38.1 +/- 6.9% and 161 +/- 48 nM for /sup 14/C-5HT and ATP release respectively (mean +/- 1 SD, n=3). Using 80 ..mu..M ..gamma..-HCH yielded 18 AU, 12.8 +/- 1.0% and 27 +/- 14 nM for aggregation, C-5HT and ATP release respectively (n=3). No effect was observed with 40 ..mu.. M ..gamma..-HCH. Aspirin (ASA), a cyclooxygenase blocker, did not affect ..gamma..-HCH-induced platelet activation. Apyrase (APY), an ADP scavenger, inhibited by 90% aggregation induced by 170 ..mu..M ..gamma..-HCH and slightly inhibited (15%) the /sup 14/C-5HT release. In the presence of both ASA and APY, 96% inhibition of aggregation and 48% inhibition of /sup 14/C-5HT release were observed. Thus, ..gamma..-HCH induced platelet activation in a dose-dependent manner ADP, but not cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonate metabolites, is involved in ..gamma..-HCH-induced aggregation, whereas, both appear to play a role in ..gamma..-HCH-induced release reaction.

  3. Prompt-Gamma Activation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Richard M

    1993-01-01

    A permanent, full-time instrument for prompt-gamma activation analysis is nearing completion as part of the Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The design of the analytical system has been optimized for high gamma detection efficiency and low background, particularly for hydrogen. Because of the purity of the neutron beam, shielding requirements are modest and the scatter-capture background is low. As a result of a compact sample-detector geometry, the sensitivity (counting rate per gram of analyte) is a factor of four better than the existing Maryland-NIST thermal-neutron instrument at this reactor. Hydrogen backgrounds of a few micrograms have already been achieved, which promises to be of value in numerous applications where quantitative nondestructive analysis of small quantities of hydrogen in materials is necessary.

  4. Gamma source for active interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Barletta, William A.

    2009-09-29

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  5. Gamma source for active interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Barletta, William A.

    2012-10-02

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  6. Geochemical applications for prompt gamma neutron activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glascock, M. D.; Coveney, R. M.; Tittle, C. W.; Gartner, M. L.; Murphy, R. D.

    1985-05-01

    Neutron-capture (prompt) gamma-ray neutron activation techniques are finding increasing application for both laboratory and in situ measurement of geological materials. Prompt gamma rays can be used to measure abundances for most light mass elements and several heavier mass elements which are more difficult by other techniques. These elements include many of those routinely measured in rocks and minerals. Geochemical abundance data provide information useful for determining rock and ore genesis, porosity, moisture content, salinity, and the detection of formerly oxidizing or reducing environments. Some of the applications include development of petrogenetic models, exploration and development of oil and mineral deposits, and process control in the mining industry.

  7. Study of Active Shielding for {gamma} - Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bikit, I.; Mrdja, D.; Forkapic, S.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.; Slivka, J.; Conkic, Lj.; Krmar, M.; Varga, E.

    2006-04-26

    The features of the ground located gamma ray spectrometer shielded passively with 12 cm of lead and actively by five 0.5m x 0.5m x 0.05m plastic veto shields are described. The detector mass related background was 0.345 C/kg s. The 511 keV annihilation line was reduced by the factor of 7 by the anticoincidence gate. It is shown that the plastic shields increase the neutron capture gamma line intensities due to neutron thermalization.

  8. Different origins of gamma rhythm and high-gamma activity in macaque visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Ray, Supratim; Maunsell, John H R

    2011-04-01

    During cognitive tasks electrical activity in the brain shows changes in power in specific frequency ranges, such as the alpha (8-12 Hz) or gamma (30-80 Hz) bands, as well as in a broad range above ∼80 Hz, called the high-gamma band. The role or significance of this broadband high-gamma activity is unclear. One hypothesis states that high-gamma oscillations serve just like gamma oscillations, operating at a higher frequency and consequently at a faster timescale. Another hypothesis states that high-gamma power is related to spiking activity. Because gamma power and spiking activity tend to co-vary during most stimulus manipulations (such as contrast modulations) or cognitive tasks (such as attentional modulation), it is difficult to dissociate these two hypotheses. We studied the relationship between high-gamma power, gamma rhythm, and spiking activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of awake monkeys while varying the stimulus size, which increased the gamma power but decreased the firing rate, permitting a dissociation. We found that gamma power became anti-correlated with the high-gamma power, suggesting that the two phenomena are distinct and have different origins. On the other hand, high-gamma power remained tightly correlated with spiking activity under a wide range of stimulus manipulations. We studied this relationship using a signal processing technique called Matching Pursuit and found that action potentials are associated with sharp transients in the LFP with broadband power, which is visible at frequencies as low as ∼50 Hz. These results distinguish broadband high-gamma activity from gamma rhythms as an easily obtained and reliable electrophysiological index of neuronal firing near the microelectrode. Further, they highlight the importance of making a careful dissociation between gamma rhythms and spike-related transients that could be incorrectly decomposed as rhythms using traditional signal processing methods.

  9. Gamma rays from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    1990-01-01

    The general properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and quasars are reviewed with emphasis on their continuum spectral emission. Two general classes of models for the continuum are outlined and critically reviewed in view of the impending GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory) launch and observations. The importance of GRO in distinguishing between these models and in general in furthering the understanding of AGN is discussed. The very broad terms the status of the current understanding of AGN are discussed.

  10. Dietary modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Marion-Letellier, R; Déchelotte, P; Iacucci, M; Ghosh, S

    2009-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates intestinal inflammation. PPAR gamma is highly expressed in the colon and can be activated by various dietary ligands. A number of fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids or eicosanoids are considered as endogenous PPAR gamma activators. Nevertheless, other nutrients such as glutamine, spicy food or flavonoids are also able to activate PPAR gamma. As PPAR gamma plays a key role in bacterial induced inflammation, anti-inflammatory properties of probiotics may be mediated through PPAR gamma. The aims of the present review are to discuss of the potential roles of dietary compounds in modulating intestinal inflammation through PPAR gamma.

  11. Gamma Band Activity in the Reticular Activating System

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Francisco J.; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Hyde, James; Simon, Christen; Beck, Paige; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high-threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band activity. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this activity. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep–wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band activity demonstrates the global nature of sleep–wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem–thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep–wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band activity in the RAS follows recent reports of such activity in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band activity manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable activation state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by pre-conscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the processes of

  12. Gamma band activity in the reticular activating system.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Francisco J; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Hyde, James; Simon, Christen; Beck, Paige; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high-threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band activity. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this activity. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band activity demonstrates the global nature of sleep-wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem-thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep-wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band activity in the RAS follows recent reports of such activity in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band activity manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable activation state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by pre-conscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the processes of pre

  13. Gamma-N activation of cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Meek, A.G.; Moskowitz, M.; Cohn, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    High energy gamma radiation (8 to 30 MeV) is gaining acceptance for radiation therapy of patients with deep cancers. This radiation is of sufficient energy to induce photonuclear activation of the elements in the human body. Our results of measurements of nitrogen and phosphorus in an anthropomorphic phantom, a cadaver, and a cancer patient with bremsstrahlung radiation from 15 MeV electrons demonstrate the feasibility of a method to monitor these two elements in the human body in vivo by measuring the radioactivity induced in these targets by photonuclear reactions. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Gamma Band Activity in the RAS-intracellular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; Kezunovic, N.; D’Onofrio, S.; Luster, B.; Hyde, J.; Bisagno, V.; Urbano, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the intrinsic membrane properties behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) all fire in the gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms involve high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels or sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. We address three necessary next steps resulting from these discoveries, an intracellular mechanism responsible for maintaining gamma band activity based on persistent G-protein activation, separate intracellular pathways that differentiate between gamma band activity during waking vs during REM sleep, and an intracellular mechanism responsible for the dysregulation in gamma band activity in schizophrenia. These findings open several promising research avenues that have not been thoroughly explored. What are the effects of sleep or REM sleep deprivation on these RAS mechanisms? Are these mechanisms involved in memory processing during waking and/or during REM sleep? Does gamma band processing differ during waking vs REM sleep after sleep or REM sleep deprivation? PMID:24309750

  15. Enhanced Gamma Oscillatory Activity in Rats with Chronic Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jing; Xing, Guo-Gang; Li, Xiaoli; Wan, You

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that oscillatory gamma activity participates in brief acute pain and tonic ongoing pain. It is of great interest to determine whether the gamma activity is involved in chronic pain since chronic pain is a more severe pathological condition characterized by pain persistency. To investigate the oscillatory gamma activity in chronic pain, in the present study, we recorded spontaneous electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals during chronic pain development in rats with chronic inflammatory pain induced by monoarthritis. Power spectrum analysis of ECoG data showed that gamma power increased significantly at the late stage of chronic inflammatory pain. The increased gamma activity occurred mainly at electrodes over primary somatosensory cortices. In rats with chronic pain, the gamma power was positively correlated with the hyperalgesia measured by laser energy that elicited hindpaw withdrawal response. Furthermore, an increased coupling between the amplitude of gamma power and the phase of theta oscillations was observed in chronic inflammatory pain condition. These results indicate an enhanced spontaneous gamma activity in chronic pain and suggest a potential biomarker for the severity of chronic pain. PMID:27847461

  16. Dissecting gamma frequency activity during human memory processing.

    PubMed

    Kucewicz, Michal T; Berry, Brent M; Kremen, Vaclav; Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Sperling, Michael R; Jobst, Barbara C; Gross, Robert E; Lega, Bradley; Sheth, Sameer A; Stein, Joel M; Das, Sandthitsu R; Gorniak, Richard; Stead, S Matthew; Rizzuto, Daniel S; Kahana, Michael J; Worrell, Gregory A

    2017-03-13

    Gamma frequency activity (30-150 Hz) is induced in cognitive tasks and is thought to reflect underlying neural processes. Gamma frequency activity can be recorded directly from the human brain using intracranial electrodes implanted in patients undergoing treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. Previous studies have independently explored narrowband oscillations in the local field potential and broadband power increases. It is not clear, however, which processes contribute to human brain gamma frequency activity, or their dynamics and roles during memory processing. Here a large dataset of intracranial recordings obtained during encoding of words from 101 patients was used to detect, characterize and compare induced gamma frequency activity events. Individual bursts of gamma frequency activity were isolated in the time-frequency domain to determine their spectral features, including peak frequency, amplitude, frequency span, and duration. We found two distinct types of gamma frequency activity events that showed either narrowband or broadband frequency spans revealing characteristic spectral properties. Narrowband events, the predominant type, were induced by word presentations following an initial induction of broadband events, which were temporally separated and selectively correlated with evoked response potentials, suggesting that they reflect different neural activities and play different roles during memory encoding. The two gamma frequency activity types were differentially modulated during encoding of subsequently recalled and forgotten words. In conclusion, we found evidence for two distinct activity types induced in the gamma frequency range during cognitive processing. Separating these two gamma frequency activity components contributes to the current understanding of electrophysiological biomarkers, and may prove useful for emerging neurotechnologies targeting, mapping and modulating distinct neurophysiological processes in normal and epileptogenic brain.

  17. Enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, R.; Ciprini, S.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary LAT analysis indicates enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula. The daily-averaged gamma-ray emission (E > 100 MeV) from the direction of the Crab Nebula has surpassed 4.0 x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 five times in the last 12 days.

  18. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) mediates the action of gamma linolenic acid in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W G; Redfern, A; Bryce, R P; Mansel, R E

    2000-02-01

    Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, which induces cytotoxicity and regulates cell adhesion in cancer cells. The molecular mechanism of these actions is not clear. We have shown that GLA acts via peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), by stimulating their phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus. Removing PPAR gamma with antisense oligos abolished the effect of GLA on the expression of adhesion molecules and tumour suppressor genes, whereas removal of PPAR alpha had no effect. Tissues from patients with breast cancer showed a reduction of expression of both PPARs in cancer tissues, as compared with normal. Thus, PPAR gamma serves as the receptor for GLA in the regulation of gene expression in breast cancer cells.

  19. Relation of gamma oscillations in scalp recordings to muscular activity.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kenneth J; Fitzgibbon, Sean P; Lewis, Trent W; Whitham, Emma M; Willoughby, John O

    2009-06-01

    We recorded scalp electrical activity before and after full neuro-muscular paralysis in 5 volunteers and determined differences due to elimination of muscular activity on several standard applications of EEG. Due to paralysis, there were reductions in 'noisiness' of the standard scalp recordings which were maximal over the peripheral scalp, not explained by abolition of movement artefact, and best accounted for by sustained EMG activity in resting individuals. There was a corresponding reduction in spectral power in the gamma range. In central leads, the extent of gamma frequency coherence during a non-time-locked mental task (1 s epochs) was reduced by paralysis, likely due to a reduction in gamma-frequency coherence in widely arising EMG signals. In a time-locked mental task (auditory oddball), evoked responses were qualitatively unaffected by paralysis but 3 of 4 induced gamma responses were obscured by EMG.

  20. Activation of human peroxisome-activated receptor-gamma ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Obesity in children has become an epidemic and recent research suggests a possible contribution from exposure to environmental chemicals. Several chemicals, such as phthalates, brominated flame retardants, and perfluorinated chemicals, are common in house dust on floors where children play and are suspected obesogens. Obesogens can act via a mechanism that involves activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARy). A previous study found that dust collected from children’s homes binds to PPARy. Here, we investigated the ability of house dust to activate PPARy in a transiently transfected cell assay. Dust samples were collected in 2012 from carpeted and hardwood floors in children’s homes using thimbles fitted into a vacuum cleaner hose (“TEO” samples), or from homes in an adult cohort NIEHS study. Dust was extracted with 50:50 hexane:acetone, sonicated, centrifuged, and the organic layer collected. This was repeated 2X. The extracts were filtered to remove particulates, dried with purified nitrogen, and reconstituted in DMS0 at 200 ug/ul. COS-1 cells were transfected for 24 hrs with a human PPARy vector containing a luciferase reporter, and exposed for 24 hrs to negative controls water or DMSO (0.1%), positive controls Troglitazone (3 uM in water) or Rosiglitazone (100 nM in DMSO), or dust extracts serially diluted in DMEM at 50, 100, and 200 ug/ml in 0.1% DMSO. Cells were lysed and luciferase activity was measured. Data were log-tra

  1. NDA via gamma-ray active and passive computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Decman, D.J.; Martz, H.E.; Roberson, G.P.; Johansson, E.

    1996-10-01

    Gamma-ray-based computed tomography (CT) requires that two different measurements be made on a closed waste container. [MAR92 and ROB94] When the results from these two measurements are combined, it becomes possible to identify and quantify all detectable gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes within a container. All measurements are made in a tomographic manner, i.e., the container is moved sequentially through well- known and accurately reproducible translation, rotation, and elevation positions in order to obtain gamma-ray data that is reconstructed by computer into images that represent waste contents. [ROB94] The two measurements modes are called active (A) and passive (P) CT. In the ACT mode, a collimated gamma-ray source external to the waste container emits multiple, mono-energetic gamma rays that pass through the container and are detected on the opposite side. The attenuated gamma-rays transmitted are measured as a function of both energy and position of the container. Thus, container contents are `mapped` via the measured amount of attenuation suffered at each gamma-ray energy. In effect, a three dimensional (3D) image of gamma- ray attenuation versus waste content is obtained. In the PCT measurement mode, the external radioactive source is shuttered turned- off, and the waste container, is moved through similar positions used for the ACT measurements. However, this time the radiation detectors record any gamma-rays emitted by radioactive sources on the inside of the waste container. Thus, internal radioactive content is mapped or 3D-imaged in the same tomographic manner as the attenuating matrix materials were in the ACT measurement mode.

  2. [Synchronization of the activity of gamma oscillation and ERP components].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshi; Liu, Jin; Zhu, Qiang; Chen, Yun

    2005-10-01

    In the present study the activity of the gamma oscillation synchronized with the stimuli and ERP is investigated by means of unimodal and bimodal experiments. The multiresolution wavelet algorithm is used for signal extraction and Gabor transform is employed to represent the temporal evolution of the selected frequency components. The results show that the gamma oscillation is strongly phase-locked not only with the exogenous stimuli in the three experiments, but also with the endogenous components of ERPs (N2b, P300). And the ERP and the gamma oscillation induced by the bimodal stimuli show the audio-visual bisensory integration and relationship. In addition, the results from the experiments with the auditory stimuli show that the gamma oscillation may be closely related to the perception of auditory signals.

  3. Gamma-irradiated bacterial preparation having anti-tumor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.; Terzaghi-Howe, P.

    1999-11-16

    This application describes a bacterial preparation from Pseudomonas species isolated {number{underscore}sign}15 ATCC 55638 that has been exposed to gamma radiation exhibits cytotoxicity that is specific for neoplastic carcinoma cells. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having antitumor activity consists of suspending a bacterial isolate in media and exposing the suspension to gamma radiation. A bacterial preparation of an aged culture of an amoeba-associated bacteria exhibits anti-reverse transcriptase activity. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having anti-reverse transcriptase activity from an amoeba-associated bacterial isolate grown to stationary phase is disclosed.

  4. Gamma-irradiated bacterial preparation having anti-tumor activity

    DOEpatents

    Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.; Terzaghi-Howe, Peggy

    1999-01-01

    A bacterial preparation from Pseudomonas species isolated #15 ATCC 55638 that has been exposed to gamma radiation exhibits cytotoxicity that is specific for neoplastic carcinoma cells. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having antitumor activity consists of suspending a bacterial isolate in media and exposing the suspension to gamma radiation. A bacterial preparation of an aged culture of an amoeba-associated bacteria exhibits anti-reverse transcriptase activity. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having anti-reverse transcriptase activity from an amoeba-associated bacterial isolate grown to stationary phase is disclosed.

  5. Ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma block activation of pancreatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Masamune, Atsushi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Masahiro; Sakai, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Akihiko; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2002-01-04

    Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis and inflammation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which controls growth, differentiation, and inflammation in different tissues. Roles of PPAR-gamma activation in PSCs are poorly characterized. Here we examined the effects of PPAR-gamma ligands on the key parameters of PSC activation. PSCs were isolated from rat pancreas tissue, and used in their culture-activated, myofibroblast-like phenotype. Activation of PPAR-gamma was induced with 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) or with troglitazone. Expression of PPAR-gamma was predominantly localized in the nuclei, and PPAR-gamma was transcriptionally active after ligand stimulation. PPAR-gamma ligands inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation. This effect was associated with inhibition of cell cycle progression beyond the G1 phase. PPAR-gamma ligands decreased alpha-smooth muscle actin protein expression and alpha1(I) procollagen and prolyl 4-hydroxylase(alpha) mRNA levels. Activation of PPAR-gamma also resulted in the inhibition of inducible monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. 15d-PGJ2, but not troglitazone, inhibited the degradation of IkappaB-alpha and consequent NF-kappaB activation. In conclusion, activation of PPAR-gamma inhibited profibrogenic and proinflammatory actions in activated PSCs, suggesting a potential application of PPAR-gamma ligands in the treatment of pancreatic fibrosis and inflammation.

  6. Beta-particle spectroscopy with active gamma-ray discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    A spectrometer was developed which was capable of measuring a beta-particle energy distribution while simultaneously (actively) rejecting the system's response to gamma rays. A two detector configuration was used, where the first detector was a thin, pancake type, gas-flow counter, positioned in front of the entrance window to a BC-400 plastic scintillator. The gas-flow counter was designed to be insensitive to gamma rays so that it could act as a sensor which would gate the spectrometer to accept only those pulses induced by beta-particle interactions in the scintillator. The gamma-ray rejection capability of the spectrometer was a linear function of gamma-ray energy. Various spectrometer design and response considerations were investigated to determine their effect on either the spectrometer's discrimination capabilities or on its ability to accurately measure the incident beta-particle energy distribution. The spectrometer was used to measure the energy distribution of the photoelectric and Compton recoil electrons which are produced by gamma ray interaction in thin metal foils. In addition, the energy distributions of each component of a radiation field consisting of beta particles and gamma rays were measured for several radiation sources.

  7. Hippocampal theta, gamma, and theta-gamma coupling: effects of aging, environmental change, and cholinergic activation

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Tara K.; Howe, Matthew D.; Schmidt, Brandy; Hinman, James R.; Escabí, Monty A.

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal theta and gamma oscillations coordinate the timing of multiple inputs to hippocampal neurons and have been linked to information processing and the dynamics of encoding and retrieval. One major influence on hippocampal rhythmicity is from cholinergic afferents. In both humans and rodents, aging is linked to impairments in hippocampus-dependent function along with degradation of cholinergic function. Cholinomimetics can reverse some age-related memory impairments and modulate oscillations in the hippocampus. Therefore, one would expect corresponding changes in these oscillations and possible rescue with the cholinomimetic physostigmine. Hippocampal activity was recorded while animals explored a familiar or a novel maze configuration. Reexposure to a familiar situation resulted in minimal aging effects or changes in theta or gamma oscillations. In contrast, exploration of a novel maze configuration increased theta power; this was greater in adult than old animals, although the deficit was reversed with physostigmine. In contrast to the theta results, the effects of novelty, age, and/or physostigmine on gamma were relatively weak. Unrelated to the behavioral situation were an age-related decrease in the degree of theta-gamma coupling and the fact that physostigmine lowered the frequency of theta in both adult and old animals. The results indicate that age-related changes in gamma and theta modulation of gamma, while reflecting aging changes in hippocampal circuitry, seem less related to aging changes in information processing. In contrast, the data support a role for theta and the cholinergic system in encoding and that hippocampal aging is related to impaired encoding of new information. PMID:23303862

  8. On-Line Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Proctor; M. J. Hurwitz

    2000-06-04

    Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) has become an important method for performing elemental analysis for on-line process control. A major advantage of PGNAA is that neutrons are a very penetrating radiation (200 mm), little influenced by the molecular form, temperature, or physical properties of the process materials being measured. The neutrons reacting with the process materials produce the gamma rays 'promptly' (in picoseconds), and the majority of the gamma rays have good penetrability (300 mm). This offers the advantage of very large analysis volumes, and unlike all other analytical methods, PGNAA has the ability to analyze the entire flow of material. PGNAA analyzers deliver rapid, sampling free, elemental analysis on large top-size, bulk materials moving at many metres per second on conveyor belts or in pipes or chutes. This paper describes some applications of PGNAA, the analysis method, sensitivities, and instrumentation.

  9. The optimization of gamma spectra processing in prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinault, Jean-Louis; Solis, Jose

    2009-04-01

    The uncertainty of the elemental analysis is one of the major factors governing the utility of on-line Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) in the blending and sorting of bulk materials. In this paper, a general method applicable to Gamma spectra processing is presented and applied to PGNAA in mineral industry. Based on the Fourier transform of spectra and their de-correlation in the Fourier space (the improvement of the conditioning of the correlation matrix), processing of overlapping of characteristic peaks minimizes the propagation of random errors, which optimizes the accuracy and decreases the detection limits of elemental analyses. In comparison with classical methods based on the linear combinations of relevant regions of spectra the improvement may be considerable, especially when several elements are interfering. The method is applied to four case stories covering both borehole logging and on-line analysis on conveyor belt of raw materials.

  10. Structural organization of mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (mPPAR{gamma}) gene: Alternative promoter use and different splicing yield two mPPAR{gamma} isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Qi, C.; Rao, M.S.

    1995-08-15

    To gain insight into the regulation of expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms, we have determined the structural organization of the mouse PPAR {gamma} (mPPAR{gamma}) gene. This gene extends >105 kb and gives rise to two mRNAs (mPPAR{gamma}1 and mPPAR{gamma}2) that differ at their 5{prime} ends. The mPPAR{gamma}2 cDNA encodes an additional 30 amino acids N-terminal to the first ATG codon of mPPAR{gamma}1 and reveals a different 5{prime} untranslated sequence. We show that mPPAR{gamma}1 mRNA is encoded by eight exons, whereas the mPPAR{gamma}2 mRNA is encoded by seven exons. Most of the 5{prime} untranslated sequence of mPPAR{gamma}1 mRNA is encoded by two exons, whereas the 5{prime} untranslated sequence of mPPAR{gamma}1 mRNA is encoded by two exons, whereas the 5{prime} untranslated sequence and the extra 30 N-terminal amino acids of mPPAR{gamma}2 are encoded by one exon, which is located between the second and third exons coding for mPPAR{gamma}1. The last six exons of mPPAR{gamma} gene code for identical sequences in mPPAR{gamma}1 and mPPAR{gamma}2 isoforms. The mPPAR{gamma}1 and mPPAR{gamma}2 isoforms are transcribed from different promoters. The mPPAR{gamma} gene has been mapped to chromosome 6 E3-F1 by in situ hybridization using a biotin-labeled probe. These results establish that at least one of the PPAR genes yields more than one protein product, similar to that encountered with retinoid X receptor and retinoic acid receptor genes. The existence of multiple PPAR isoforms transcribed from different promoters could increase in the diversity of ligand and tissue-specific transcriptional responses. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  11. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and their role in immunoregulation and inflammation control].

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, Milena; Kowalski, Marek L; Pawliczak, Rafał

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma (PPAR-gamma) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily containing transcription factors regulating gene expression. PPAR-gamma have attracted attention so far as key factors in adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and apoptosis. Recently, growing evidence points to their implication in the regulation of the immune response, particularly in inflammation control. Not only are PPAR-gamma found in various structures of the immune system, but many inflammatory mediators, such as arachidonic acid and its metabolites, also act as potent and specific ligands of them. Inflammation is the basis of the pathogeneses of such chronic diseases as bronchial asthma, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. The causative relationship between PPAR-gamma activity and the pathogeneses of these inflammatory disorders has been found in specific animal models. Moreover, PPAR-gamma agonists have been shown to act as potent anti-inflammatory agents. Thus, PPAR-gamma can serve as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of inflammation. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of PPAR-gamma regarding their gene and protein structures, ligand selectivity, mechanisms of action, and target genes. The review highlights the roles that PPAR-gamma play in inflammation and immune responses. Particular emphasis is focused on their roles in asthma, atheroclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.

  12. Active Galactic Nuclei and Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebels, Berrie; Aharonian, Felix; Sol, Hélène

    The supermassive black holes harboured in active galactic nuclei are at the origin of powerful jets which can emit copious amounts of γ-rays. The exact interplay between the infalling matter, the black hole and the relativistic outflow is still poorly known, and this parallel session of the 12th Marcel Grossman meeting intended to offer the most up to date status of observational results with the latest generation of ground and space-based instruments, as well as the theoretical developments relevant for the field.

  13. Planetary Geochemistry Using Active Neutron and Gamma Ray Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Pulsed Neutron Generator-Gamma Ray And Neutron Detector (PNG-GRAND) experiment is an innovative application of the active neutron-gamma ray technology so successfully used in oil field well logging and mineral exploration on Earth, The objective of our active neutron-gamma ray technology program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is to bring the PNG-GRAND instrument to the point where it can be flown on a variety of surface lander or rover missions to the Moon, Mars, Venus, asterOIds, comets and the satellites of the outer planets, Gamma-Ray Spectrometers have been incorporated into numerous orbital planetary science missions and, especially in the case of Mars Odyssey, have contributed detailed maps of the elemental composition over the entire surface of Mars, Neutron detectors have also been placed onboard orbital missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Prospector to measure the hydrogen content of the surface of the moon, The DAN in situ experiment on the Mars Science Laboratory not only includes neutron detectors, but also has its own neutron generator, However, no one has ever combined the three into one instrument PNG-GRAND combines a pulsed neutron generator (PNG) with gamma ray and neutron detectors to produce a landed instrument that can determine subsurface elemental composition without drilling. We are testing PNG-GRAND at a unique outdoor neutron instrumentation test facility recently constructed at NASA/GSFC that consists of a 2 m x 2 m x 1 m granite structure in an empty field, We will present data from the operation of PNG-GRAND in various experimental configurations on a known sample in a geometry that is identical to that which can be achieved on a planetary surface. We will also compare the material composition results inferred from our experiments to both an independent laboratory elemental composition analysis and MCNPX computer modeling results,

  14. Gamma-band activity reflects attentional guidance by facial expression.

    PubMed

    Müsch, Kathrin; Siegel, Markus; Engel, Andreas K; Schneider, Till R

    2017-02-01

    Facial expressions attract attention due to their motivational significance. Previous work focused on attentional biases towards threat-related, fearful faces, although healthy participants tend to avoid mild threat. Growing evidence suggests that neuronal gamma (>30Hz) and alpha-band activity (8-12Hz) play an important role in attentional selection, but it is unknown if such oscillatory activity is involved in the guidance of attention through facial expressions. Thus, in this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study we investigated whether attention is shifted towards or away from fearful faces and characterized the underlying neuronal activity in these frequency ranges in forty-four healthy volunteers. We employed a covert spatial attention task using neutral and fearful faces as task-irrelevant distractors and emotionally neutral Gabor patches as targets. Participants had to indicate the tilt direction of the target. Analysis of the neuronal data was restricted to the responses to target Gabor patches. We performed statistical analysis at the sensor level and used subsequent source reconstruction to localize the observed effects. Spatially selective attention effects in the alpha and gamma band were revealed in parieto-occipital regions. We observed an attentional cost of processing the face distractors, as reflected in lower task performance on targets with short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA <150ms) between faces and targets. On the neuronal level, attentional orienting to face distractors led to enhanced gamma band activity in bilateral occipital and parietal regions, when fearful faces were presented in the same hemifield as targets, but only in short SOA trials. Our findings provide evidence that both top-down and bottom-up attentional biases are reflected in parieto-occipital gamma-band activity.

  15. Dependency of {gamma}-secretase complex activity on the structural integrity of the bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hua; Zhou, Shuxia; Walian, Peter J.; Jap, Bing K.

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Partial solubilization of membranes with CHAPSO can increase {gamma}-secretase activity. {yields} Completely solubilized {gamma}-secretase is inactive. {yields} Purified {gamma}-secretase regains activity after reconstitution into lipid bilayers. {yields} A broad range of detergents can be used to successfully reconstitute {gamma}-secretase. -- Abstract: {gamma}-secretase is a membrane protein complex associated with the production of A{beta} peptides that are pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease. We have characterized the activity of {gamma}-secretase complexes under a variety of detergent solubilization and reconstitution conditions, and the structural state of proteoliposomes by electron microscopy. We found that {gamma}-secretase activity is highly dependent on the physical state or integrity of the membrane bilayer - partial solubilization may increase activity while complete solubilization will abolish it. The activity of well-solubilized {gamma}-secretase can be restored to near native levels when properly reconstituted into a lipid bilayer environment.

  16. Analyses of Oxyanion Materials by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Leung, K.-N.; Garabedian, G.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-03-24

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to analyze metal ion oxyanion materials that have multiple applications, including medicine, materials, catalysts, and electronics. The significance for the need for accurate, highly sensitive analyses for the materials is discussed in the context of quality control of end products containing the parent element in each material. Applications of the analytical data for input to models and theoretical calculations related to the electronic and other properties of the materials are discussed.

  17. Implications of gamma band activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; Luster, B.; D’Onofrio, S.; Mahaffey, S.; Bisagno, V.; Urbano, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    The fact that the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is part of the reticular activating system places it in a unique position to modulate sensory input and fight-or-flight responses. Arousing stimuli simultaneously activate ascending projections of the PPN to the intralaminar thalamus to trigger cortical high frequency activity and arousal, as well as descending projections to reticulospinal systems to alter posture and locomotion. As such, the PPN has become a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), modulating gait, posture, and higher functions. This article describes the latest discoveries on PPN physiology and the role of the PPN in a number of disorders. It has now been determined that high frequency activity during waking and REM sleep is controlled by two different intracellular pathways and two calcium channels in PPN cells. Moreover, there are three different PPN cell types that have one or both calcium channels and may be active during waking only, REM sleep only, or both. Based on the new discoveries, novel mechanisms are proposed for insomnia as a waking disorder. In addition, neuronal calcium sensor protein-1 (NCS-1), which is over expressed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, may be responsible for the dysregulation in gamma band activity in at least some patients with these diseases. Recent results suggest that NCS-1 modulates PPN gamma band activity and that lithium acts to reduce the effects of over expressed NCS-1, accounting for its effectiveness in bipolar disorder. PMID:26597124

  18. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  19. Active galactic nuclei horizons from the gamma-ray perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Andrew M.

    2017-08-01

    Recent results in the field of high energy active galactic nuclei (AGN) astrophysics, benefiting from improvements to gamma-ray instruments and observational strategies, have revealed a surprising wealth of unexpected phenomena. These developments have been brought about both through observational efforts to discover new very high energy gamma-ray emitters, as well as from further in-depth observations of previously detected and well studied objects. I here focus specifically on the discovery of repeated temporal structures observed in AGN lightcurves, and new hard spectral components within the spectral energy distributions of other AGN systems. The challenges that these new features place on the modeling of the sources are highlighted, along with some reflections on what these results tell us about the underlying nature of the emission processes at play.

  20. Cyclin D1 repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and transactivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenguang; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Zhou, Jian Nian; Fu, Maofu; Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Albanese, Chris; Li, Zhiping; Wu, Kongming; Hulit, James; Neumeister, Peter; Novikoff, Phyllis M; Brownlee, Michael; Scherer, Philipp E; Jones, Joan G; Whitney, Kathleen D; Donehower, Lawrence A; Harris, Emily L; Rohan, Thomas; Johns, David C; Pestell, Richard G

    2003-09-01

    The cyclin D1 gene is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is required for oncogene-induced tumorigenesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor selectively activated by ligands of the thiazolidinedione class. PPAR gamma induces hepatic steatosis, and liganded PPAR gamma promotes adipocyte differentiation. Herein, cyclin D1 inhibited ligand-induced PPAR gamma function, transactivation, expression, and promoter activity. PPAR gamma transactivation induced by the ligand BRL49653 was inhibited by cyclin D1 through a pRB- and cdk-independent mechanism, requiring a region predicted to form an helix-loop-helix (HLH) structure. The cyclin D1 HLH region was also required for repression of the PPAR gamma ligand-binding domain linked to a heterologous DNA binding domain. Adipocyte differentiation by PPAR gamma-specific ligands (BRL49653, troglitazone) was enhanced in cyclin D1(-/-) fibroblasts and reversed by retroviral expression of cyclin D1. Homozygous deletion of the cyclin D1 gene, enhanced expression by PPAR gamma ligands of PPAR gamma and PPAR gamma-responsive genes, and cyclin D1(-/-) mice exhibit hepatic steatosis. Finally, reduction of cyclin D1 abundance in vivo using ponasterone-inducible cyclin D1 antisense transgenic mice, increased expression of PPAR gamma in vivo. The inhibition of PPAR gamma function by cyclin D1 is a new mechanism of signal transduction cross talk between PPAR gamma ligands and mitogenic signals that induce cyclin D1.

  1. Resting-state beta and gamma activity in Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Park, Su Mi; Lee, Jaewon; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai Jin; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2013-09-01

    Internet addiction is the inability to control one's use of the Internet and is related to impulsivity. Although a few studies have examined neurophysiological activity as individuals with Internet addiction engage in cognitive processing, no information on spontaneous EEG activity in the eyes-closed resting-state is available. We investigated resting-state EEG activities in beta and gamma bands and examined their relationships with impulsivity among individuals with Internet addiction and healthy controls. Twenty-one drug-naïve patients with Internet addiction (age: 23.33 ± 3.50 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (age: 22.40 ± 2.33 years) were enrolled in this study. Severity of Internet addiction was identified by the total score on Young's Internet Addiction Test. Impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and a stop-signal task. Resting-state EEG during eyes closed was recorded, and the absolute/relative power of beta and gamma bands was analyzed. The Internet addiction group showed high impulsivity and impaired inhibitory control. The generalized estimating equation showed that the Internet-addiction group showed lower absolute power on the beta band than did the control group (estimate = -3.370, p < 0.01). On the other hand, the Internet-addiction group showed higher absolute power on the gamma band than did the control group (estimate = 0.434, p < 0.01). These EEG activities were significantly associated with the severity of Internet addiction as well as with the extent of impulsivity. The present study suggests that resting-state fast-wave brain activity is related to the impulsivity characterizing Internet addiction. These differences may be neurobiological markers for the pathophysiology of Internet addiction.

  2. Regeneration of sulfamethoxazole-saturated activated carbon using gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been widely used for reclamation and reuse of the effluent of wastewater treatment plant to further remove the emerging contaminants, such as PPCPs in recent years. How to regenerate the exhausted AC effectively and economically is still a challenge. In the present study, the regeneration of AC exhausted with SMX was performed by gamma irradiation to simultaneously recover the spent AC and degrade the pollutants. The results showed that the adsorption of SMX onto AC can be described by the Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption capacity was about 417 mg/g. SMX can be removed rapidly when exposed to gamma irradiation, with the initial concentration of 100 mg/L, more than 99% of SMX was removed at 5.0 kGy, while an extremely high dose (150 kGy) was needed to reach 80% mineralization ratio. The regeneration efficiency was about 21-30% at 50-200 kGy. The absorbed SMX and the intermediates formed during gamma irradiation were released into aqueous solution from AC and mineralized, leading to the partial regeneration of the adsorption capacity of AC. Further studies are needed to optimize the experimental conditions to increase the regeneration efficiency.

  3. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  4. Gamma-Ray Burst Precursor Activity as Observed with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshut, Thomas M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paciesas, William S.; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst time histories often consist of multiple episodes of emission with the count rate dropping to the background level between adjacent episodes. We define precursor activity as any case in which the first episode (referred to as the precursor episode) has a lower peak intensity than that of the remaining emission (referred to as the main episode) and is separated from the remaining burst emission by a background interval that is at least as long as the remaining emission. We find that approx. 3% of the bursts observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) satisfy this definition. We present the results of a study of the properties of these events. The spatial distribution of these sources is consistent with that of the larger set of all BATSE gamma-ray bursts: inhomogeneous and isotropic. A correlation between the duration of the precursor emission and the duration of the main episode emission is observed at about the 3 sigma confidence level. We find no meaningful significant correlations between or among any of the other characteristics of the precursor or main episode emission. It appears that the characteristics of the main episode emission are independent of the existence of the precursor emission.

  5. An experimental search for gamma radiation associated with thunderstorm activity

    SciTech Connect

    Fryberger, D.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment is a repeat of an earlier experiment, but with more sensitive apparatus and in a location with a higher incidence of thunderstorm activity. The earlier experiment was undertaken by Ashby and Whitehead to investigate the theory that ball lightning might be associated with the annihilation of small amounts of antimatter, and it yielded some very interesting but inconclusive results. In the course of about 12 months of data taking, four high rate bursts of gamma radiation were detected. These events lasted a few seconds and had many thousands of counts (16500, 5000, 3700, and {gt} 7700. Unfortunately, the association of these gamma ray bursts with thunderstorms or ball lightning was not clearly established, although one of the bursts did occur during a local thunderstorm in rough coincidence with a lightning bolt striking a flagpole about 100 yards from the gamma ray detection crystals. A pulse height spectrum taken for this burst (no spectrum was taken for the other three) exhibited a significant peak, well above background, the energy of which appeared to be compatible with the 511 keV positron annihilation line. While the peak could not be unambiguously attributed to positron annihilation, this certainly appeared to be the most likely source.

  6. An experimental search for gamma radiation associated with thunderstorm activity

    SciTech Connect

    Fryberger, D.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment is a repeat of an earlier experiment, but with more sensitive apparatus and in a location with a higher incidence of thunderstorm activity. The earlier experiment was undertaken by Ashby and Whitehead to investigate the theory that ball lightning might be associated with the annihilation of small amounts of antimatter, and it yielded some very interesting but inconclusive results. In the course of about 12 months of data taking, four high rate bursts of gamma radiation were detected. These events lasted a few seconds and had many thousands of counts (16500, 5000, 3700, and [gt] 7700. Unfortunately, the association of these gamma ray bursts with thunderstorms or ball lightning was not clearly established, although one of the bursts did occur during a local thunderstorm in rough coincidence with a lightning bolt striking a flagpole about 100 yards from the gamma ray detection crystals. A pulse height spectrum taken for this burst (no spectrum was taken for the other three) exhibited a significant peak, well above background, the energy of which appeared to be compatible with the 511 keV positron annihilation line. While the peak could not be unambiguously attributed to positron annihilation, this certainly appeared to be the most likely source.

  7. The evaluated gamma-ray activation file (EGAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.; Belgya, T.; McNabb, D.P.; Sleaford, B.W.

    2004-09-22

    The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF), a new database of prompt and delayed neutron capture g-ray cross sections, has been prepared as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project to develop a ''Database of Prompt Gamma-rays from Slow Neutron Capture for Elemental Analysis.'' Recent elemental g-ray cross-section measurements performed with the guided neutron beam at the Budapest Reactor have been combined with data from the literature to produce the EGAF database. EGAF contains thermal cross sections for {approx} 35,000 prompt and delayed g-rays from 262 isotopes. New precise total thermal radiative cross sections have been derived for many isotopes from the primary and secondary gamma-ray cross sections and additional level scheme data. An IAEA TECDOC describing the EGAF evaluation and tabulating the most prominent g-rays will be published in 2004. The TECDOC will include a CD-ROM containing the EGAF database in both ENSDF and tabular formats with an interactive viewer for searching and displaying the data. The Isotopes Project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory continues to maintain and update the EGAF file. These data are available on the Internet from both the IAEA and Isotopes Project websites.

  8. [Cloning, expression and antiviral activity of arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) interferon-gamma gene].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailing; Chai, Xiuli; Luo, Guoliang; Wang, Fengxue; Yi, Li; Shao, Xiqun; Yan, Xijun

    2008-09-01

    In order to characterize the biological activity of fox (Vulpes vulpes) interferon gamma(VuIFN-gamma), We have isolated the cDNA encoding arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) VuIFN-gamma. This cDNA encodes a 23 amino acid signal peptide and a 144 amino acid mature protein, which shares 99.8% or 99.4% for nucleotide identity with silver fox and canine, respectively, and 100% for amino acid identity. Expression of recombinant mature arctic fox interferon gamma (mVuIFN-gamma) in bacterial system was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. Recombinant VuIFN-gamma showed higher antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus in cultured Vero and MDCK by inhibiting virus induced cytopathic effect, In view of the immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of VuIFN-gamma, it may provide a basis for further research on antiviral therapy of recombinant VuIFN-gamma in economic animal practice.

  9. Minimum Detectable Activity for Tomographic Gamma Scanning System

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, Ram; Smith, Susan; Kirkpatrick, J. M.; Croft, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    For any radiation measurement system, it is useful to explore and establish the detection limits and a minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the radionuclides of interest, even if the system is to be used at far higher values. The MDA serves as an important figure of merit, and often a system is optimized and configured so that it can meet the MDA requirements of a measurement campaign. The non-destructive assay (NDA) systems based on gamma ray analysis are no exception and well established conventions, such the Currie method, exist for estimating the detection limits and the MDA. However, the Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) technique poses some challenges for the estimation of detection limits and MDAs. The TGS combines high resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) with low spatial resolution image reconstruction techniques. In non-imaging gamma ray based NDA techniques measured counts in a full energy peak can be used to estimate the activity of a radionuclide, independently of other counting trials. However, in the case of the TGS each “view” is a full spectral grab (each a counting trial), and each scan consists of 150 spectral grabs in the transmission and emission scans per vertical layer of the item. The set of views in a complete scan are then used to solve for the radionuclide activities on a voxel by voxel basis, over 16 layers of a 10x10 voxel grid. Thus, the raw count data are not independent trials any more, but rather constitute input to a matrix solution for the emission image values at the various locations inside the item volume used in the reconstruction. So, the validity of the methods used to estimate MDA for an imaging technique such as TGS warrant a close scrutiny, because the pair-counting concept of Currie is not directly applicable. One can also raise questions as to whether the TGS, along with other image reconstruction techniques which heavily intertwine data, is a suitable method if one expects to measure samples whose activities

  10. Gamma dose from activation of internal shields in IRIS reactor.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, Stefano; Cammi, Antonio; Garlati, Luisella; Lombardi, Carlo; Padovani, Enrico

    2005-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure is a modular pressurised water reactor with an integral design. This means that all the primary system components, such as the steam generators, pumps, pressuriser and control rod drive mechanisms, are located inside the reactor vessel, which requires a large diameter. For the sake of better reliability and safety, it is desirable to achieve the reduction of vessel embrittlement as well as the lowering of the dose beyond the vessel. The former can be easily accomplished by the presence of a wide downcomer, filled with water, which surrounds the core region, while the latter needs the presence of additional internal shields. An optimal shielding configuration is under investigation, for reducing the ex-vessel dose due to activated internals and for limiting the amount of the biological shielding. MCNP 4C calculations were performed to evaluate the neutron and the gamma dose during operation and the 60Co activation of various shields configurations. The gamma dose beyond the vessel from activation of its structural components was estimated in a shutdown condition, with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2002 and the MicroShield software. The results of the two codes are in agreement and show that the dose is sufficiently low, even without an additional shield.

  11. Comparison of activation effects in {gamma}-ray detector materials

    SciTech Connect

    Truscott, P.R.; Evans, H.E.; Dyer, C.S.; Peerless, C.L.; Flatman, J.C.; Cosby, M.; Knight, P.; Moss, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    Activation induced by cosmic and trapped radiation in {gamma}-ray detector materials represents a significant source of background for space-based detector systems. Selection of detector materials should therefore include consideration of this background source. Results are presented from measurements of induced radioactivity in different scintillators activated either as a result of irradiation by mono-energetic protons at accelerator facilities, or flight on board the Space Shuttle. Radiation transport computer codes are used to help compare the effects observed from the scintillators, by identifying and quantifying the influence on the background spectra from more than one hundred of the radionuclides produced by spallation. For the space experiment data, the simulation results also permit determination of the contributions to detector activation from the different sources of radiation in the Shuttle cabin.

  12. Calibration of the delayed-gamma neutron activation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, R.; Zhao, X.; Rarback, H.M.; Yasumura, S.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Moore, R.I.; Lo Monte, A.F.; Vodopia, K.A.; Liu, H.B.; Economos, C.D.; Nelson, M.E.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Weber, D.A.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.; Joel, D.D.

    1996-02-01

    The delayed-gamma neutron activation facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory was originally calibrated using an anthropomorphic hollow phantom filled with solutions containing predetermined amounts of Ca. However, 99{percent} of the total Ca in the human body is not homogeneously distributed but contained within the skeleton. Recently, an artificial skeleton was designed, constructed, and placed in a bottle phantom to better represent the Ca distribution in the human body. Neutron activation measurements of an anthropomorphic and a bottle (with no skeleton) phantom demonstrate that the difference in size and shape between the two phantoms changes the total body calcium results by less than 1{percent}. To test the artificial skeleton, two small polyethylene jerry-can phantoms were made, one with a femur from a cadaver and one with an artificial bone in exactly the same geometry. The femur was ashed following the neutron activation measurements for chemical analysis of Ca. Results indicate that the artificial bone closely simulates the real bone in neutron activation analysis and provides accurate calibration for Ca measurements. Therefore, the calibration of the delayed-gamma neutron activation system is now based on the new bottle phantom containing an artificial skeleton. This change has improved the accuracy of measurement for total body calcium. Also, the simple geometry of this phantom and the artificial skeleton allows us to simulate the neutron activation process using a Monte Carlo code, which enables us to calibrate the system for human subjects larger and smaller than the phantoms used as standards. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.}

  13. Cbl competitively inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Bae, Sun Sik; Park, Jong Bae; Ha, Sang Hoon; Song, Hebok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Cocco, Lucio; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2003-04-30

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) plays pivotal roles in cellular growth and proliferation through its two Src homology (SH) 2 domains and its single SH3 domain, which interact with signaling molecules in response to various growth factors and hormones. However, the role of the SH domains in the growth factor-induced regulation of PLC-gamma1 is unclear. By peptide-mass fingerprinting analysis we have identified Cbl as a binding protein for the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1 from rat pheochromatocyte PC12 cells. Association of Cbl with PLC-gamma1 was induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) but not by nerve growth factor (NGF). Upon EGF stimulation, both Cbl and PLC-gamma1 were recruited to the activated EGF receptor through their SH2 domains. Mutation of the SH2 domains of either Cbl or PLC-gamma1 abrogated the EGF-induced interaction of PLC-gamma1 with Cbl, indicating that SH2-mediated translocation is essential for the association of PLC-gamma1 and Cbl. Overexpression of Cbl attenuated EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of PLC-gamma1 by interfering competitively with the interaction between PLC-gamma1 and EGFR. Taken together, these results provide the first indications that Cbl may be a negative regulator of intracellular signaling following EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation.

  14. RELAXIN ACTIVATES PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhir; Bennett, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone that triggers multiple signaling pathways through its receptor RXFP1. Many of relaxin’s functions, including vascular and antifibrotic effects, are similar to those induced by activation of PPARγ. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that relaxin signaling through RXFP1 would activate PPARγ activity. In cells overexpressing RXFP1 (HEK-RXFP1), relaxin increased transcriptional activity through a PPAR response element (PPRE) in a concentration-dependent manner. In cells lacking RXFP1, relaxin had no effect. Relaxin increased both the baseline activity and the response to the PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and 15d-PGJ2, but not to agonists of PPARα or PPARδ. In HEK-RXFP1 cells infected with adenovirus expressing PPARγ, relaxin increased transcriptional activity through PPRE, and this effect was blocked with an adenovirus expressing a dominant-negative PPARγ. Knockdown of PPARγ using siRNA resulted in a decrease in the response to both relaxin and rosiglitazone. Both relaxin and rosiglitazone increased expression of the PPARγ target genes CD36 and LXRα in HEK-RXFP1 and in THP-1 cells naturally expressing RXFP1. Relaxin did not increase PPARγ mRNA or protein levels. Treatment of cells with GW9662, an inhibitor of PPARγ ligand binding, effectively blocked rosiglitazone-induced PPARγ activation, but had no effect on relaxin activation of PPARγ. These results suggest that relaxin activates PPARγ activity, and increases the overall response in the presence PPARγ agonists. This activation is dependent on the presence of RXFP1. Furthermore, relaxin activates PPARγ via a ligand-independent mechanism. These studies represent the first report that relaxin can activate the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. PMID:19712722

  15. Gamma-ray properties of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1994-01-01

    Recent observations by the Compton Observatory (CGRO) have increased our knowledge about the gamma-ray emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) considerably. The three most important findings of CGRO with respect to AGNs are: first, no Seyfert 1 galaxy has been found to show emission above 500 keV. The by far strongest Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 shows a spectrum which falls off exponentially with an e-folding energy of 39 keV between 65 and 500 keV. OSSE so far has detected or has indications of detections for seven additional Seyfert 1 galaxies, which, however, all show very weak hard X-ray emission compared to NGC 4151. No annihilation feature has been seen from any Seyfert galaxy to this date. Second, the radio galaxy Cen A shows a power-law energy spectrum from hard X-ray energies of about 150 keV to at least 3 MeV. It has not been seen at EGRET-energies. Third, a new class of AGN was discovered at energies above 100 MeV by EGRET. The power of these objects in gamma-rays can dominate the luminosity in other spectral ranges. These objects are associated with extragalactic sources that have blazar properties. The high-energy gamma-ray emission is probably produced in relativistically outflowing jets. At hard X-ray energies the objects are rather weak. Spectral breaks at MeV energies were found by COMPTEL for three of these objects (3C 273, 3C 279, and PKS 0528+134).

  16. X-rays and Gamma-rays from active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Photon-photon pair production in active galaxies is considered, and the concept of the annihilation efficiency, the efficiency of the conversion of continuum luminosity of greater than 511 keV into positron annihilation luminosity, is introduced. Equations that give the source's annihilation luminosity and 511-keV flux as a function of its size, continuum luminosity and distance are developed. These are applied to the available X-ray and gamma-ray data on active galaxies in order to make specific predictions. Efficiencies as high as over 6 percent and fluxes up to 0.0008 ph/sq cm s result. While the latter are below present limits, they are within the reach of advanced instruments now in development.

  17. Activating Fc gamma receptors participate in the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Kaifu, Tomonori; Sugahara-Tobinai, Akiko; Nakamura, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Takai, Toshiyuki

    2007-07-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in humans is an organ-specific autoimmune disease in which pancreatic islet beta cells are ruptured by autoreactive T cells. NOD mice, the most commonly used animal model of T1D, show early infiltration of leukocytes in the islets (insulitis), resulting in islet destruction and diabetes later. NOD mice produce various islet beta cell-specific autoantibodies, although it remains a subject of debate regarding whether these autoantibodies contribute to the development of T1D. Fc gammaRs are multipotent molecules that play important roles in Ab-mediated regulatory as well as effector functions in autoimmune diseases. To investigate the possible role of Fc gammaRs in NOD mice, we generated several Fc gammaR-less NOD lines, namely FcR common gamma-chain (Fc Rgamma)-deficient (NOD.gamma(-/-)), Fc gammaRIII-deficient (NOD.III(-/-)), Fc gammaRIIB-deficient (NOD.IIB(-/-)), and both Fc Rgamma and Fc gammaRIIB-deficient NOD (NOD.null) mice. In this study, we show significant protection from diabetes in NOD.gamma(-/-), NOD.III(-/-), and NOD.null, but not in NOD.IIB(-/-) mice even with grossly comparable production of autoantibodies among them. Insulitis in NOD.gamma(-/-) mice was also alleviated. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells or NK cells from NOD mice rendered NOD.gamma(-/-) animals more susceptible to diabetes, suggesting a possible scenario in which activating Fc gammaRs on dendritic cells enhance autoantigen presentation leading to the activation of autoreactive T cells, and Fc gammaRIII on NK cells trigger Ab-dependent effector functions and inflammation. These findings highlight the critical roles of activating Fc gammaRs in the development of T1D, and indicate that Fc gammaRs are novel targets for therapies for T1D.

  18. Experimental measurements with Monte Carlo corrections and theoretical calculations of neutron inelastic scattering cross section of 115In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Xiao, Jun; Luo, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    The neutron inelastic scattering cross section of 115In has been measured by the activation technique at neutron energies of 2.95, 3.94, and 5.24 MeV with the neutron capture cross sections of 197Au as an internal standard. The effects of multiple scattering and flux attenuation were corrected using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. Based on the experimental values, the 115In neutron inelastic scattering cross sections data were theoretically calculated between the 1 and 15 MeV with the TALYS software code, the theoretical results of this study are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental results.

  19. Cell death is induced by ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, independently of PPAR{gamma} in human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Kim, Hye Ryung; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Jin Mo; Ryu, Somi; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Soo Hyun; Son, Meong Hi; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Sung, Ki Woong

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greater than 30 {mu}M ciglitazone induces cell death in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell death by ciglitazone is independent of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CGZ induces cell death by the loss of MMP via decreased Akt. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates multiple signaling pathways, and its agonists induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. However, their role in cell death is unclear. In this study, the relationship between ciglitazone (CGZ) and PPAR{gamma} in CGZ-induced cell death was examined. At concentrations of greater than 30 {mu}M, CGZ, a synthetic PPAR{gamma} agonist, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis in T98G cells. Treatment of T98G cells with less than 30 {mu}M CGZ effectively induced cell death after pretreatment with 30 {mu}M of the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662, although GW9662 alone did not induce cell death. This cell death was also observed when cells were co-treated with CGZ and GW9662, but was not observed when cells were treated with CGZ prior to GW9662. In cells in which PPAR{gamma} was down-regulated cells by siRNA, lower concentrations of CGZ (<30 {mu}M) were sufficient to induce cell death, although higher concentrations of CGZ ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 30 {mu}M) were required to induce cell death in control T98G cells, indicating that CGZ effectively induces cell death in T98G cells independently of PPAR{gamma}. Treatment with GW9662 followed by CGZ resulted in a down-regulation of Akt activity and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in Bid cleavage. These data suggest that CGZ is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death independently of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells, by down-regulating Akt activity and inducing MMP collapse.

  20. Germa-gamma-lactones as novel inhibitors of bacterial urease activity.

    PubMed

    Amtul, Zareen; Follmer, Cristian; Mahboob, Sumera; Atta-Ur-Rahman; Mazhar, Muhammad; Khan, Khalid M; Siddiqui, Rafat A; Muhammad, Sajjad; Kazmi, Syed A; Choudhary, Mohammad Iqbal

    2007-05-04

    Organogermanium compounds have been used as pharmacological agents. However, very few reports are available on the synthesis and antibacterial activities of lactones containing organogermaniums. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of different lactone-substituted organogermaniums on bacterial growth and their urease activity. We report synthesis of 12 germa-gamma-lactones (GeL) and their antimicrobial activities against several bacterial pathogens. Antibacterial action of all GeL was highly selective against Gram-negative bacilli, particularly Proteus mirabilis, an important pathogen infecting the urinary tract. Furthermore, our data indicate that 8-quinoline derivatives were more potent against P. mirabilis than 2-methyl-8-quinoline. For example, the beta-(o-methylphenyl)-gamma,gamma-bis(8-quinolinoxy)germa-gamma-lactone and beta-(o-methoxyphenyl)-gamma,gamma-bis(8-quinolinoxy)germa-gamma-lactone were maximally active with MIC(90) of 61 and 94 microM, respectively. In vitro studies demonstrated a linear correlation between antibacterial activity and inhibition of P. mirabilis urease enzyme. Further kinetic analyses revealed that inhibition occurred in a noncompetitive and concentration-dependent manner with the minimum IC(50) of 31 microM for beta-(o-methoxyphenyl)-gamma,gamma-bis(8-quinolinoxy)germa-gamma-lactone. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GeL have potential to be developed as antimicrobial agents against P. mirabilis infection.

  1. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activity reduces imatinib uptake and efficacy in chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jueqiong; Lu, Liu; Kok, Chung H; Saunders, Verity A; Goyne, Jarrad M; Dang, Phuong; Leclercq, Tamara M; Hughes, Timothy P; White, Deborah L

    2017-02-02

    Imatinib is actively transported by OCT-1 influx transporter, and low OCT-1 activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia blood mononuclear cells is significantly associated with poor molecular response to imatinib. Here we report that, in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells and BCR-ABL1+ cell lines, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (GW1929, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone) significantly decrease OCT-1 activity; conversely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists (GW9662, T0070907) increase OCT-1 activity. Importantly, these effects can lead to corresponding changes in sensitivity to Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition. Results were confirmed in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-transduced K562 cells. Furthermore, we identified a strong negative correlation between OCT-1 activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcriptional activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia patients (n=84; p<0.0001), suggesting that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation has a negative impact on the intracellular uptake of imatinib and consequent Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition. The inter-patient variability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation likely accounts for the heterogeneity observed in patient OCT-1 activity at diagnosis. Recently, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone was reported to act synergistically with imatinib targeting the residual chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell pool. Our findings suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands have differential effects on circulating mononuclear cells compared to stem cells. Since the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation on imatinib uptake in mononuclear cells may counteract the clinical benefit of this activation in stem cells, caution should be applied when combining these therapies, especially in patients

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma overexpression suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the correlation between PPAR{gamma} expression and cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} overexpression reduces cell viability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the synergistic effect of cell growth inhibition by a PPAR{gamma} agonist. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) plays an important role in the differentiation of intestinal cells and tissues. Our previous reports indicate that PPAR{gamma} is expressed at considerable levels in human colon cancer cells. This suggests that PPAR{gamma} expression may be an important factor for cell growth regulation in colon cancer. In this study, we investigated PPAR{gamma} expression in 4 human colon cancer cell lines, HT-29, LOVO, DLD-1, and Caco-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that the relative levels of PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein in these cells were in the order HT-29 > LOVO > Caco-2 > DLD-1. We also found that PPAR{gamma} overexpression promoted cell growth inhibition in PPAR{gamma} lower-expressing cell lines (Caco-2 and DLD-1), but not in higher-expressing cells (HT-29 and LOVO). We observed a correlation between the level of PPAR{gamma} expression and the cells' sensitivity for proliferation.

  3. Human IFN-gamma up-regulates IL-2 receptors in mitogen-activated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, M A; De Sanctis, J B; Blasini, A M; Leon-Ponte, M; Abadi, I

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the role of human recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) in the expression of interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R) by human T lymphocytes. rIFN-gamma enhanced total numbers of IL-2R in mitogen-activated but not resting T cells. Scatchard plot analysis indicated that rIFN-gamma increased both high- and low-affinity receptors, with a predominant effect on the latter. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-activated T cells treated with IFN-gamma showed higher IL-2 binding and greater IL-2 internalization and degradation than cells treated with PHA alone. There was a corresponding increase of mitogen-driven proliferative responses, indicating an increase of functional receptors in IFN-treated cultures. IFN-gamma may influence T-cell activation and proliferation by enhancing expression of IL-2R and promoting IL-2 uptake by mitogen-activated lymphocytes. PMID:2110548

  4. Isotopic ratio of 129I/127I in seaweed measured by neutron activation analysis with gamma-gamma coincidence.

    PubMed

    Toh, Y; Hatsukawa, Y; Oshima, M; Shinohara, N; Hayakawa, T; Kushita, K; Ueno, T

    2002-07-01

    129I is a long-lived (1.6 x 10(7) y) radionuclide that is produced in nature as the result of spontaneous fission of heavy elements and reaction of xenon with cosmic rays. Recently, however, artificial sources from nuclear power plants and nuclear test explosions have become a significant component of environmental radioactive iodine. Coincidence gamma-ray detection using Ge detectors makes it possible to simultaneously resolve the numerous gamma-rays produced by neutron activation. In this study, the coincidence gamma-ray detection technique was combined with neutron activation analysis to determine the radioactive iodine composition of seaweed. The ratio of 129I/127I in this common Japanese food item collected from the Ibaraki prefecture has been derived without the need for radiochemical purification. The isotopic ratio of 129I/127I in Kajime algae is 3.5(5) x 10(-10).

  5. Detectors for on-line prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Ray; Yusuf, Siaka; Miller, Jim; Scott, Clark

    1999-02-01

    The uncertainty of the elemental analysis is one of the major factors governing the utility of on-line prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) in the blending and sorting of bulk materials. In this paper, a method for quantifying the relative uncertainty from full spectrum analysis on complex materials is presented. The method was applied to three different detector types, NaI, HPGe, and BGO. The results show that the 5-10 times higher detection efficiency of a large size scintillation detector can often outweigh the resolution superiority of a HPGe detector for simple to medium complex bulk materials. The better detector resolution of sodium iodide gave a significantly lower analysis uncertainty than BGO for equal efficiency detectors.

  6. The WISE Gamma-Ray Strip Parametrization: The Nature of the Gamma-Ray Active Galactic Nuclei of Uncertain Type

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, D.; Grindlay, J.E.; Smith, Howard A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2012-04-02

    Despite the large number of discoveries made recently by Fermi, the origins of the so called unidentified {gamma}-ray sources remain unknown. The large number of these sources suggests that among them there could be a population that significantly contributes to the isotropic gamma-ray background and is therefore crucial to understand their nature. The first step toward a complete comprehension of the unidentified {gamma}-ray source population is to identify those that can be associated with blazars, the most numerous class of extragalactic sources in the {gamma}-ray sky. Recently, we discovered that blazars can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources using the infrared (IR) WISE satellite colors. The blazar population delineates a remarkable and distinctive region of the IR color-color space, the WISE blazar strip. In particular, the subregion delineated by the {gamma}-ray emitting blazars is even narrower and we named it as the WISE Gamma-ray Strip (WGS). In this paper we parametrize the WGS on the basis of a single parameter s that we then use to determine if {gamma}-ray Active Galactic Nuclei of the uncertain type (AGUs) detected by Fermi are consistent with the WGS and so can be considered blazar candidates. We find that 54 AGUs out of a set 60 analyzed have IR colors consistent with the WGS; only 6 AGUs are outliers. This result implies that a very high percentage (i.e., in this sample about 90%) of the AGUs detected by Fermi are indeed blazar candidates.

  7. Biological activity of liposome-encapsulated murine interferon gamma is mediated by a cell membrane receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Eppstein, D A; Marsh, Y V; van der Pas, M; Felgner, P L; Schreiber, A B

    1985-01-01

    Recombinant murine gamma interferon (rMuIFN-gamma) was found to bind reversibly to a specific high-affinity surface receptor on L929 cells; neither murine alpha or beta nor human gamma IFN competed for receptor binding. Encapsulation of the rMuIFN-gamma in either negatively or positively charged liposomes reduced its immediate ability to bind to this surface receptor. Disruption of liposome integrity with detergent resulted in full ability of the rMuIFN-gamma to bind to the membrane receptor. Incubation of the liposomal IFN in serum-containing medium resulted in significant leakage so that the IFN was able to bind to its surface receptor. Assessment of the biological activity of the rMuIFN-gamma preparations revealed that full antiviral activity was observed in vitro with the liposomal IFN preparations without their prior disruption by detergent. The antiviral activity observed with either free or liposomal IFN was neutralized completely by antibodies against rMuIFN-gamma. Both free and liposomal rMuIFN-gamma, in conjunction with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, were also able to activate murine peritoneal macrophages to the tumoricidal state. Again, this activity of both free and liposomal IFN could be neutralized completely by antibody. These results indicate that although rMuIFN-gamma can be effectively incorporated into liposomes, it must ultimately leak out of the liposome in order to mediate its biological effects; these effects are triggered after the IFN binds to its cell surface receptors. PMID:3159018

  8. Gamma-Ray Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madejski, Grzegorz (Greg); Sikora, Marek

    2016-09-01

    This article reviews the recent observational results regarding γ-ray emission from active galaxies. The most numerous discrete extragalactic γ-ray sources are AGNs dominated by relativistic jets pointing in our direction (commonly known as blazars), and they are the main subject of the review. They are detected in all observable energy bands and are highly variable. The advent of the sensitive γ-ray observations, afforded by the launch and continuing operation of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the AGILE Gamma-ray Imaging Detector, as well as by the deployment of current-generation Air Cerenkov Telescope arrays such as VERITAS, MAGIC, and HESS-II, continually provides sensitive γ-ray data over the energy range of ˜100 MeV to multi-TeV. Importantly, it has motivated simultaneous, monitoring observations in other bands, resulting in unprecedented time-resolved broadband spectral coverage. After an introduction, in Sections 3, 4, and 5, we cover the current status and highlights of γ-ray observations with (mainly) Fermi but also AGILE and put those in the context of broadband spectra in Section 6. We discuss the radiation processes operating in blazars in Section 7, and we discuss the content of their jets and the constraints on the location of the energy dissipation regions in, respectively, Sections 8 and 9. Section 10 covers the current ideas for particle acceleration processes in jets, and Section 11 discusses the coupling of the jet to the accretion disk in the host galaxy. Finally, Sections 12, 13, and 14 cover, respectively, the contribution of blazars to the diffuse γ-ray background, the utility of blazars to study the extragalactic background light, and the insight they provide for study of populations of supermassive black holes early in the history of the Universe.

  9. Grb2 negatively regulates epidermal growth factor-induced phospholipase C-gamma1 activity through the direct interaction with tyrosine-phosphorylated phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Hong, Won-Pyo; Yun, Sanguk; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Lee, Jong-Ryul; Park, Jong Bae; Bae, Yun Soo; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-10-01

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) plays pivotal roles in cellular growth and proliferation. Upon the stimulation of growth factors and hormones, PLC-gamma1 is rapidly phosphorylated at three known sites; Tyr771, Tyr783 and Tyr1254 and its enzymatic activity is up-regulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that Grb2, an adaptor protein, specifically interacts with tyrosine-phosphorylated PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783. The association of Grb2 with PLC-gamma1 was induced by the treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Replacement of Tyr783 with Phe completely blocked EGF-induced interaction of PLC-gamma1 with Grb2, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 at Tyr783 is essential for the interaction with Grb2. Interestingly, the depletion of Grb2 from HEK-293 cells by RNA interference significantly enhanced increased EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity and mobilization of the intracellular Ca2+, while it did not affect EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1. Furthermore, overexpression of Grb2 inhibited PLC-gamma1 enzymatic activity. Taken together, these results suggest Grb2, in addition to its key function in signaling through Ras, may have a negatively regulatory role on EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma ligands and ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2004-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that are related to retinoid, steroid and thyroid hormone receptors. The PPAR subfamily comprises of three members, PPAR-alpha, PPAR-beta and PPAR-gamma. PPAR-gamma has recently been implicated as a regulator of cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses. There is good evidence that ligands of PPAR-gamma, including certain thiazolinediones, reduce tissue injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion. The potential utility of PPAR-gamma ligands in ischemia and reperfusion will be discussed in this review.

  11. Structure and physiological functions of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Zieleniak, Andrzej; Wójcik, Marzena; Woźniak, Lucyna A

    2008-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. To date, three different PPAR isotypes, namely PPAR-alpha, -delta, and -gamma, have been identified in vertebrates and have distinct patterns of tissue distribution. Like all nuclear receptors, the human PPAR-gamma (hPPAR-gamma) is characterized by a modular structure composed of an N-terminal A/B domain, a DNA-binding domain with two zinc fingers (C domain), a D domain, and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain (E/F domain). Human PPAR-gamma exists in two protein isoforms, hPPAR-gamma(1) and -gamma(2), with different lengths of the N-terminal. The hPPAR-gamma(2) isoform is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, whereas hPPAR-gamma(1) is relatively widely expressed. Human PPAR-gamma plays a critical physiological role as a central transcriptional regulator of both adipogenic and lipogenic programs. Its transcriptional activity is induced by the binding of endogenous and synthetic lipophilic ligands, which has led to the determination of many roles for PPAR-gamma in pathological states such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cancer. Of the synthetic ligands, the thiazolidinedione class of insulin-sensitizing drugs (ciglitazone, pioglitazone, troglitazone, rosiglitazone) is employed clinically in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Gamma-band activation predicts both associative memory and cortical plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Headley, Drew B.; Weinberger, Norman M.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-band oscillations are a ubiquitous phenomenon in the nervous system and have been implicated in multiple aspects of cognition. In particular, the strength of gamma oscillations at the time a stimulus is encoded predicts its subsequent retrieval, suggesting that gamma may reflect enhanced mnemonic processing. Likewise, activity in the gamma-band can modulate plasticity in vitro. However, it is unclear whether experience-dependent plasticity in vivo is also related to gamma-band activation. The aim of the present study is to determine whether gamma activation in primary auditory cortex modulates both the associative memory for an auditory stimulus during classical conditioning and its accompanying specific receptive field plasticity. Rats received multiple daily sessions of single tone/shock trace and two-tone discrimination conditioning, during which local field potentials and multiunit discharges were recorded from chronically implanted electrodes. We found that the strength of tone-induced gamma predicted the acquisition of associative memory 24 h later, and ceased to predict subsequent performance once asymptote was reached. Gamma activation also predicted receptive field plasticity that specifically enhanced representation of the signal tone. This concordance provides a long-sought link between gamma oscillations, cortical plasticity and the formation of new memories. PMID:21900554

  13. Human face preference in gamma-frequency EEG activity.

    PubMed

    Zion-Golumbic, Elana; Golan, Tal; Anaki, David; Bentin, Shlomo

    2008-02-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that induced EEG activity in the gamma band (iGBA) plays an important role in object recognition and is modulated by stimulus familiarity and its compatibility with pre-existent representations. In the present study we investigated the modulation of iGBA by the degree of familiarity and perceptual expertise that observers have with stimuli from different categories. Specifically, we compared iGBA in response to human faces versus stimuli which subjects are not expert with (ape faces, human hands, buildings and watches). iGBA elicited by human faces was higher and peaked earlier than that elicited by all other categories, which did not differ significantly from each other. These findings can be accounted for by two characteristics of perceptual expertise. One is the activation of a richer, stronger and, therefore, more easily accessible mental representation of human faces. The second is the more detailed perceptual processing necessary for within-category distinctions, which is the hallmark of perceptual expertise. In addition, the sensitivity of iGBA to human but not ape faces was contrasted with the face-sensitive N170-effect, which was similar for human and ape faces. In concert with previous studies, this dissociation suggests a multi-level neuronal model of face recognition, manifested by these two electrophysiological measures, discussed in this paper.

  14. Computer-aided discovery, validation, and mechanistic characterization of novel neolignan activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Fakhrudin, Nanang; Ladurner, Angela; Atanasov, Atanas G; Heiss, Elke H; Baumgartner, Lisa; Markt, Patrick; Schuster, Daniela; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Wolber, Gerhard; Rollinger, Judith M; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M

    2010-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) agonists are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, the currently used PPAR gamma agonists display serious side effects, which has led to a great interest in the discovery of novel ligands with favorable properties. The aim of our study was to identify new PPARgamma agonists by a PPAR gamma pharmacophore-based virtual screening of 3D natural product libraries. This in silico approach led to the identification of several neolignans predicted to bind the receptor ligand binding domain (LBD). To confirm this prediction, the neolignans dieugenol, tetrahydrodieugenol, and magnolol were isolated from the respective natural source or synthesized and subsequently tested for PPAR gamma receptor binding. The neolignans bound to the PPAR gamma LBD with EC(50) values in the nanomolar range, exhibiting a binding pattern highly similar to the clinically used agonist pioglitazone. In intact cells, dieugenol and tetrahydrodieugenol selectively activated human PPAR gamma-mediated, but not human PPAR alpha- or -beta/delta-mediated luciferase reporter expression, with a pattern suggesting partial PPAR gamma agonism. The coactivator recruitment study also demonstrated partial agonism of the tested neolignans. Dieugenol, tetrahydrodieugenol, and magnolol but not the structurally related eugenol induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation, confirming effectiveness in a cell model with endogenous PPAR gamma expression. In conclusion, we identified neolignans as novel ligands for PPAR gamma, which exhibited interesting activation profiles, recommending them as potential pharmaceutical leads or dietary supplements.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and its ligands attenuate biologic functions of human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Rodriguez-Galán, Maria Cecilia; Subleski, Jeff J; Ortaldo, John R; Hodge, Deborah L; Wang, Ji-Ming; Shimozato, Osamu; Reynolds, Della A; Young, Howard A

    2004-11-15

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production and cytolytic activity are 2 major biologic functions of natural killer (NK) cells that are important for innate immunity. We demonstrate here that these functions are compromised in human NK cells treated with peroxisome proliferator-activated-gamma (PPAR-gamma) ligands via both PPAR-gamma-dependent and -independent pathways due to variation in PPAR-gamma expression. In PPAR-gamma-null NK cells, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14) prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), a natural PPAR-gamma ligand, reduces IFN-gamma production that can be reversed by MG132 and/or chloroquine, and it inhibits cytolytic activity of NK cells through reduction of both conjugate formation and CD69 expression. In PPARgamma-positive NK cells, PPAR-gamma activation by 15d-PGJ(2) and ciglitazone (a synthetic ligand) leads to reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of IFN-gamma. Overexpression of PPAR-gamma in PPAR-gamma-null NK cells reduces IFN-gamma gene expression. However, PPAR-gamma expression and activation has no effect on NK cell cytolytic activity. In addition, 15d-PGJ(2) but not ciglitazone reduces expression of CD69 in human NK cells, whereas CD44 expression is not affected. These results reveal novel pathways regulating NK cell biologic functions and provide a basis for the design of therapeutic agents that can regulate the function of NK cells within the innate immune response.

  16. Independent predictors of neuronal adaptation in human primary visual cortex measured with high-gamma activity.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Juhász, Csaba; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2012-01-16

    Neuronal adaptation is defined as a reduced neural response to a repeated stimulus and can be demonstrated by reduced augmentation of event-related gamma activity. Several studies reported that variance in the degree of gamma augmentation could be explained by pre-stimulus low-frequency oscillations. Here, we measured the spatio-temporal characteristics of visually-driven amplitude modulations in human primary visual cortex using intracranial electrocorticography. We determined if inter-stimulus intervals or pre-stimulus oscillations independently predicted local neuronal adaptation measured with amplitude changes of high-gamma activity at 80-150 Hz. Participants were given repetitive photic stimuli with a flash duration of 20 μs in each block; the inter-stimulus interval was set constant within each block but different (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0s) across blocks. Stimuli elicited augmentation of high-gamma activity in the occipital cortex at about 30 to 90 ms, and high-gamma augmentation was most prominent in the medial occipital region. High-gamma augmentation was subsequently followed by lingering beta augmentation at 20-30 Hz and high-gamma attenuation. Neuronal adaptation was demonstrated as a gradual reduction of high-gamma augmentation over trials. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a larger number of prior stimuli, shorter inter-stimulus interval, and pre-stimulus high-gamma attenuation independently predicted a reduced high-gamma augmentation in a given trial, while pre-stimulus beta amplitude or delta phase had no significant predictive value. Association between pre-stimulus high-gamma attenuation and a reduced neural response suggests that high-gamma attenuation represents a refractory period. The local effects of pre-stimulus beta augmentation and delta phase on neuronal adaptation may be modest in primary visual cortex.

  17. Structure and functions of gamma-dodecalactone isolated from Antrodia camphorata for NK cell activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Jung; Vijaya Krishna, R; Tsai, Chia-Che; Wu, Wan-Hsun; Chao, Louis Kuoping; Hwang, Kent-Hao; Chien, Chichen Michael; Chang, Hwan-You; Chen, Shui-Tein

    2010-09-15

    The preserved fungal species Antrodia camphorata has diverse health-promoting effects and has been popularly used in East Asia as a traditional herb. We isolated a volatile compound from the culture medium of A. camphorata and identified it as gamma-dodecalactone (gamma-DDL). Cytomic screening for immune-modulating activity revealed that gamma-DDL can activate human NK cells to express the early activation marker CD69. Further experiments showed that gamma-DDL not only can induce NK cells to express CD69 but also stimulate NK cells to secrete cytotoxic molecules (FasL and granzyme B) and Th1 cytokines (TNF-alpha and INF-gamma). Measuring the distribution of gamma-DDL in the subcellular compartments of NK cells revealed that gamma-DDL has been converted to 4-hydroxydodecanoic acid (an acyclic isomer of gamma-DDL) in a time-dependent manner in the cytoplasm. Synthetic (R,S)-4-hydroxydodecanoic acid activated NK cells to express CD69 mRNA within 10min, in contrast to gamma-DDL, which activated NK cells to express CD69 within 50min. This faster activation suggests that gamma-DDL has converted to 4-hydroxydodecanoic acid and to stimulate the NK cells to express CD69. Optically pure (R)-(+)-4-hydroxydodecanoic acid and (S)-(-)-4-hydroxydodecanoic acid were obtained via: (1) synthesis of its diastereomeric esters of (R,S)-4-hydroxydodecanoic (R)-(-)-2-phenylpropionate; (2) separation of diastereomers via preparative HPLC, and (3) subsequent hydrolysis of the obtained optical pure ester of (R)-(+)-4-hydroxydodecanoic acid (R)-(-)-2-phenylpropionate and (R)-(-)-4-hydroxydodecanoic acid (R)-(-)-2-phenylpropionate, respectively. Further assays of NK cells activation using each enantiomer showed that only the (R)-(+)-4-hydroxydodecanoic acid can activate NK cells.

  18. O-GlcNAc modification of PPAR{gamma} reduces its transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Suena; Park, Sang Yoon; Roth, Juergen; Kim, Hoe Suk; Cho, Jin Won

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that PPAR{gamma} is modified by O-GlcNAc in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Thr54 of PPAR{gamma}1 is the major O-GlcNAc site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transcriptional activity of PPAR{gamma}1 was decreased on treatment with the OGA inhibitor. -- Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a key regulator of adipogenesis and is important for the homeostasis of the adipose tissue. The {beta}-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, a posttranslational modification on various nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, is involved in the regulation of protein function. Here, we report that PPAR{gamma} is modified by O-GlcNAc in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mass spectrometric analysis and mutant studies revealed that the threonine 54 of the N-terminal AF-1 domain of PPAR{gamma} is the major O-GlcNAc site. Transcriptional activity of wild type PPAR{gamma} was decreased 30% by treatment with the specific O-GlcNAcase (OGA) inhibitor, but the T54A mutant of PPAR{gamma} did not respond to inhibitor treatment. In 3T3-L1 cells, an increase in O-GlcNAc modification by OGA inhibitor reduced PPAR{gamma} transcriptional activity and terminal adipocyte differentiation. Our results suggest that the O-GlcNAc state of PPAR{gamma} influences its transcriptional activity and is involved in adipocyte differentiation.

  19. Scalp EEG Ictal gamma and beta activity during infantile spasms: Evidence of focality.

    PubMed

    Nariai, Hiroki; Beal, Jules; Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Mowrey, Wenzhu B; Bickel, Stephan; Sogawa, Yoshimi; Jehle, Rana; Shinnar, Shlomo; Moshé, Solomon L

    2017-05-01

    We investigated temporal and spatial characteristics of ictal gamma and beta activity on scalp EEG during spasms in patients with West syndrome (WS) to evaluate potential focal cortical onset. A total of 1,033 spasms from 34 patients with WS of various etiologies were analyzed on video-electroencephalography (EEG) using time-frequency analysis. Ictal gamma (35-90 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) activities were correlated with visual symmetry of spasms, objective EMG (electromyography) analysis, and etiology of WS. Prior to the ictal motor manifestation, focal ictal gamma activity emerged from one hemisphere (71%, 24/34) or from midline (26%, 9/34), and was rarely simultaneously bilateral (3%, 1/34). Focal ictal beta activity emerged from either one hemisphere (68%, 23/34) or from midline (32%, 11/34). Onsets of focal ictal gamma and beta activity were most commonly observed around the parietal areas. Focal ictal gamma activity propagated faster than ictal beta activity to adjacent electrodes (median: 65 vs. 170 msec, p < 0.01), and to contralateral hemisphere (median: 100 vs. 170 msec, p = 0.01). Asymmetric peak amplitude of ictal gamma activity in the centroparietal areas (C3-P3 vs. C4-P4) correlated with asymmetric semiology. On the other hand, most of the visually symmetric spasms showed asymmetry in peak amplitude and interhemispheric onset latency difference in both ictal gamma and beta activity. Spasms may be a seizure with focal electrographic onset regardless of visual symmetry. Asymmetric involvement of ictal gamma activity to the centroparietal areas may determine the motor manifestations in WS. Scalp EEG ictal gamma and beta activity may be useful to demonstrate localized seizure onset in infants with WS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods.

  1. Coincidence Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. gandner; C.W. Mayo; W.A. Metwally; W. Zhang; W. Guo; A. Shehata

    2002-11-10

    The normal prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis for either bulk or small beam samples inherently has a small signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio due primarily to the neutron source being present while the sample signal is being obtained. Coincidence counting offers the possibility of greatly reducing or eliminating the noise generated by the neutron source. The present report presents our results to date on implementing the coincidence counting PGNAA approach. We conclude that coincidence PGNAA yields: (1) a larger signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, (2) more information (and therefore better accuracy) from essentially the same experiment when sophisticated coincidence electronics are used that can yield singles and coincidences simultaneously, and (3) a reduced (one or two orders of magnitude) signal from essentially the same experiment. In future work we will concentrate on: (1) modifying the existing CEARPGS Monte Carlo code to incorporate coincidence counting, (2) obtaining coincidence schemes for 18 or 20 of the common elements in coal and cement, and (3) optimizing the design of a PGNAA coincidence system for the bulk analysis of coal.

  2. Subthalamic nucleus gamma activity increases not only during movement but also during movement inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Petra; Pogosyan, Alek; Herz, Damian M; Cheeran, Binith; Green, Alexander L; Fitzgerald, James; Aziz, Tipu Z; Hyam, Jonathan; Little, Simon; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter; Tan, Huiling

    2017-07-25

    Gamma activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is widely viewed as a pro-kinetic rhythm. Here we test the hypothesis that rather than being specifically linked to movement execution, gamma activity reflects dynamic processing in this nucleus. We investigated the role of gamma during fast stopping and recorded scalp electroencephalogram and local field potentials from deep brain stimulation electrodes in 9 Parkinson's disease patients. Patients interrupted finger tapping (paced by a metronome) in response to a stop-signal sound, which was timed such that successful stopping would occur only in ~50% of all trials. STN gamma (60-90 Hz) increased most strongly when the tap was successfully stopped, whereas phase-based connectivity between the contralateral STN and motor cortex decreased. Beta or theta power seemed less directly related to stopping. In summary, STN gamma activity may support flexible motor control as it did not only increase during movement execution but also during rapid action-stopping.

  3. Phosphorylation and inhibition of. gamma. -glutamyl transferase activity by cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko, L.S.; Chernov, N.N.

    1986-10-20

    It was shown that preparations of bovine kidney ..gamma..-glutamyl transferase of differing degrees of purity are phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This is accompanied by a decrease in both the transferase and hydrolase activities of the enzyme. Consequently, ..gamma..-glutamyl transferase may serve as the substrate and target of the regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  4. Fermi LAT detection of renewed gamma-ray activity from PKS 2142-75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed high-level gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2142-75 (R.A.: 326.80304 deg, Dec.: -75.60367 deg, J2000, Johnston et al. ...

  5. Controlling nuclear JAKs and STATs for specific gene activation by IFN{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Noon-Song, Ezra N.; Ahmed, Chulbul M.; Dabelic, Rea; Canton, Johnathan; Johnson, Howard M.

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Gamma interferon (IFN{gamma}) and its receptor subunit, IFNGR1, interact with the promoter region of IFN{gamma}-associated genes along with transcription factor STAT1{alpha}. {yields} We show that activated Janus kinases pJAK2 and pJAK1 also associate with IFNGR1 in the nucleus. {yields} The activated Janus kinases are responsible for phosphorylation of tyrosine 41 on histone H3, an important epigenetic event for specific gene activation. -- Abstract: We previously showed that gamma interferon (IFN{gamma}) and its receptor subunit, IFNGR1, interacted with the promoter region of IFN{gamma}-activated genes along with transcription factor STAT1{alpha}. Recent studies have suggested that activated Janus kinases pJAK2 and pJAK1 also played a role in gene activation by phosphorylation of histone H3 on tyrosine 41. This study addresses the question of the role of activated JAKs in specific gene activation by IFN{gamma}. We carried out chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by PCR in IFN{gamma} treated WISH cells and showed association of pJAK1, pJAK2, IFNGR1, and STAT1 on the same DNA sequence of the IRF-1 gene promoter. The {beta}-actin gene, which is not activated by IFN{gamma}, did not show this association. The movement of activated JAK to the nucleus and the IRF-1 promoter was confirmed by the combination of nuclear fractionation, confocal microscopy and DNA precipitation analysis using the biotinylated GAS promoter. Activated JAKs in the nucleus was associated with phosphorylated tyrosine 41 on histone H3 in the region of the GAS promoter. Unphosphorylated JAK2 was found to be constitutively present in the nucleus and was capable of undergoing activation in IFN{gamma} treated cells, most likely via nuclear IFNGR1. Association of pJAK2 and IFNGR1 with histone H3 in IFN{gamma} treated cells was demonstrated by histone H3 immunoprecipitation. Unphosphorylated STAT1 protein was associated with histone H3 of untreated cells. IFN{gamma

  6. Brain oscillatory activity during spatial navigation: theta and gamma activity link medial temporal and parietal regions.

    PubMed

    White, David J; Congedo, Marco; Ciorciari, Joseph; Silberstein, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town environment. Data from periods of navigation between landmarks were subject to BSS analyses to obtain source components. Two of these cortical sources were found to exhibit significant spectral power differences during navigation with respect to a resting eyes open condition and were subject to source localization using sLORETA. These two sources were localized as a right parietal component with gamma activation and a right medial-temporal-parietal component with activation in theta and gamma bandwidths. The parietal gamma activity was thought to reflect visuospatial processing associated with the task. The medial-temporal-parietal activity was thought to be more specific to the navigational processing, representing the integration of ego- and allo-centric representations of space required for successful navigation, suggesting theta and gamma oscillations may have a role in integrating information from parietal and medial-temporal regions. Theta activity on this medial-temporal-parietal source was positively correlated with more efficient navigation performance. Results are discussed in light of the depth and proposed closed field structure of the hippocampus and potential implications for scalp EEG data. The findings of the present study suggest that appropriate BSS methods are ideally suited to minimizing the effects of volume conduction in noninvasive recordings, allowing more accurate exploration of deep brain processes.

  7. Biological and antigenic similarities of murine interferon-gamma and macrophage-activating factor

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Murine peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) treated with murine recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) (greater than 99% estimated purity), or concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cell supernatants developed tumoricidal properties (macrophage activation factor [MAF] activity). MAF activity was found to occur with treatments of 10 U/ml IFN-gamma, and at levels as low as 1 U/ml IFN-gamma if a second signal (5 ng/ml endotoxin) was present in the MAF assay. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) alone at these levels failed to induce MAF; induction of MAF was observed at 1,000-fold greater levels. The ability of IFN-gamma to stimulate murine PEC was species specific. Various sources of materials that displayed MAF activity, including supernatants from interleukin 2- dependent cloned cytotoxic murine T lymphocyte lines that did not display detectable antiviral activity, were neutralized by antibody raised and affinity purified against recombinant IFN-gamma. Thus, IFN- gamma, although never detectable by antiviral assays, appears to be present in many lymphokine preparations and has potent macrophage activation capability. PMID:6421982

  8. Gamma-ray bursts, QSOs and active galaxies.

    PubMed

    Burbidge, Geoffrey

    2007-05-15

    The similarity of the absorption spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) sources or afterglows with the absorption spectra of quasars (QSOs) suggests that QSOs and GRB sources are very closely related. Since most people believe that the redshifts of QSOs are of cosmological origin, it is natural to assume that GRBs or their afterglows also have cosmological redshifts. For some years a few of us have argued that there is much optical evidence suggesting a very different model for QSOs, in which their redshifts have a non-cosmological origin, and are ejected from low-redshift active galaxies. In this paper I extend these ideas to GRBs. In 2003, Burbidge (Burbidge 2003 Astrophys. J. 183, 112-120) showed that the redshift periodicity in the spectra of QSOs appears in the redshift of GRBs. This in turn means that both the QSOs and the GRB sources are similar objects ejected from comparatively low-redshift active galaxies. It is now clear that many of the GRBs of low redshift do appear in, or very near, active galaxies.A new and powerful result supporting this hypothesis has been produced by Prochter et al. (Prochter et al. 2006 Astrophys. J. Lett. 648, L93-L96). They show that in a survey for strong MgII absorption systems along the sightlines to long-duration GRBs, nearly every sightline shows at least one absorber. If the absorbers are intervening clouds or galaxies, only a small fraction should show absorption of this kind. The number found by Prochter et al. is four times higher than that normally found for the MgII absorption spectra of QSOs. They believe that this result is inconsistent with the intervening hypothesis and would require a statistical fluctuation greater than 99.1% probability. This is what we expect if the absorption is intrinsic to the GRBs and the redshifts are not associated with their distances. In this case, the absorption must be associated with gas ejected from the QSO. This in turn implies that the GRBs actually originate in comparatively low

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Jia-Peng; Zheng, Yong-Chao; Chen, Wei; Sun, Yong-Wei; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Luo, Meng

    2011-02-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a necessary step in the development of hepatic cirrhosis. In this study we used lentiviral vector-mediated transfection technology to evaluate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) on rat hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis in rats was induced by CCl4 for 2 weeks (early fibrosis) and 8 weeks (sustained fibrosis). The rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, fibrosis, blank vector, and PPAR-gamma. They were infected with the recombinant lentiviral expression vector carrying the rat PPAR-gamma gene by portal vein injection. The liver of the rats was examined histologically and hydroxyproline was assessed. In vitro primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were infected with the recombinant lentiviral expression vector carrying the rat PPAR-gamma gene. The status of HSC proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. The protein levels of PPAR-gamma, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and type I collagen expression were evaluated by the Western blotting method. In vitro studies revealed that expression of PPAR-gamma inhibited expression of alpha-SMA and type I collagen in activated HSCs (P<0.01) as well as HSC proliferation (P<0.01). In vivo experiments indicated that in the early hepatic fibrosis group, the hydroxyproline content and the level of collagen I protein in the liver in the PPAR-gamma transfected group were not significantly different compared to the hepatic fibrosis group and the blank vector group; whereas the expressions of PPAR-gamma and alpha-SMA were different compared to the hepatic fibrosis group (P<0.01). In the sustained hepatic fibrosis group, there were significant differences in the hydroxyproline content and the expression of PPAR-gamma, alpha-SMA, and type I collagen between each group. PPAR-gamma can inhibit HSC proliferation and hepatic fibrosis, and suppress alpha-SMA and type I collagen expression.

  10. SwrAA activates poly-gamma-glutamate synthesis in addition to swarming in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Osera, Cecilia; Amati, Giuseppe; Calvio, Cinzia; Galizzi, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    Poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) is an extracellular polymer produced by various strains of Bacillus. Iotat was first described as the component of the capsule in Bacillus anthracis, where it plays a relevant role in virulence. gamma-PGA is also a distinctive component of 'natto', a traditional Japanese food consisting of soybean fermented by Bacillus subtilis (natto). Domesticated B. subtilis strains do not synthesize gamma-PGA although they possess the functional biosynthetic pgs operon. In the present work we explore the correlation between the genetic determinants, swrAA and degU, which allow a derivative of the domestic strain JH642 to display a mucoid colony morphology on LB agar plates due to the production of gamma-PGA. Full activation of the pgs operon requires the co-presence of SwrAA and the phosphorylated form of DegU (DegU approximately P). The presence of either DegU approximately P or SwrAA alone has only marginal effects on pgs operon transcription and gamma-PGA production. Although SwrAA was identified as necessary for swarming and full swimming motility together with DegU, we show that motility is not involved in gamma-PGA production. Activation of gamma-PGA synthesis is therefore a motility-independent phenotype in which SwrAA and DegU approximately P display a cooperative effect.

  11. Structure-activity relationships of rosiglitazone for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transrepression.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Yosuke; Nomura, Sayaka; Makishima, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2017-06-15

    Anti-inflammatory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPRAγ) ligands are thought to be largely due to PPARγ-mediated transrepression. Thus, transrepression-selective PPARγ ligands without agonistic activity or with only partial agonistic activity should exhibit anti-inflammatory properties with reduced side effects. Here, we investigated the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, focusing on transrepression activity. Alkenic analogs showed slightly more potent transrepression with reduced efficacy of transactivating agonistic activity. Removal of the alkyl group on the nitrogen atom improved selectivity for transrepression over transactivation. Among the synthesized compounds, 3l exhibited stronger transrepressional activity (IC50: 14μM) and weaker agonistic efficacy (11%) than rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gamma-ray spectrometer experiment, Apollo 17: NaI(T1) detector crystal activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Bielefeld, M.; Okelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Northcutt, K. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Schonfeld, E.; Peterson, L. E.; Arnold, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt was made to obtain experimental data on proton induced activity and its effect on gamma ray spectral measurements. A NaI(T1) crystal flown in Apollo 17 command module was used for the experiment.

  13. Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for Elemental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Robin P. Gardner

    2006-04-11

    This research project was to improve the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement approach for bulk analysis, oil well logging, and small sample thermal enutron bean applications.

  14. Potent Antimicrobial activity of Lipidated Short alpha, gamma-hybrid peptides.

    PubMed

    Benke, Sushil; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu; Gopi, Hosahudya

    2017-08-18

    We are reporting potent antimicrobial activity of alpha,gamma-hybrid lipopeptides constituted with 1:1 alternating alpha- and gamma-amino acids. Along with their potent antimicrobial activity against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, these hybrid lipopeptides were found to be less haemolytic. The mechanism of action revealed that these short cationic lipopeptides bind and disrupt the bacterial cell membrane. Further, the time kill kinetics analysis revealed that the potent alpha,gamma-hybrid lipopeptides completely inhibit the bacterial growth in less than 20 minutes. Overall, the promising antimicrobial activity along with less haemolytic activity displayed by the alpha,gamma-hybrid lipopeptides can be further explored to design potent lipopeptide antibiotics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. In situ characterization of hazardous contaminants using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, F.H.; Congedo, T.V.; Seidel, J.G.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Weigle, D.H.

    1993-12-31

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) has been developed for real-time, in situ measurements of contaminant elements in soil. Pulsed neutron activation coupled with state-of-the-art high count rate throughput electronics and time-sequenced gamma ray energy analysis have been used to obtain sensitivities at the trace level for uranium in soil. The results of detailed neutron dosimetry and prompt neutron-induced gamma ray transport measurements carried out using a soil test matrix will be reported. Initial field deployment of the PGNAA system at a former solution uranium mine in Bruni, Texas will also be described.

  16. 131I activity quantification of gamma camera planar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barquero, Raquel; Garcia, Hugo P.; Incio, Monica G.; Minguez, Pablo; Cardenas, Alexander; Martínez, Daniel; Lassmann, Michael

    2017-02-01

    A procedure to estimate the activity in target tissues in patients during the therapeutic administration of 131I radiopharmaceutical treatment for thyroid conditions (hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer) using a gamma camera (GC) with a high energy (HE) collimator, is proposed. Planar images are acquired for lesions of different sizes r, and at different distances d, in two HE GC systems. Defining a region of interest (ROI) on the image of size r, total counts n g are measured. Sensitivity S (cps MBq-1) in each acquisition is estimated as the product of the geometric G and the intrinsic efficiency η 0. The mean fluence of 364 keV photons arriving at the ROI per disintegration G, is calculated with the MCNPX code, simulating the entire GC and the HE collimator. Intrinsic efficiency η 0 is estimated from a calibration measurement of a plane reference source of 131I in air. Values of G and S for two GC systems—Philips Skylight and Siemens e-cam—are calculated. The total range of possible sensitivity values in thyroidal imaging in the e-cam and skylight GC measure from 7 cps MBq-1 to 35 cps MBq-1, and from 6 cps MBq-1 to 29 cps MBq-1, respectively. These sensitivity values have been verified with the SIMIND code, with good agreement between them. The results have been validated with experimental measurements in air, and in a medium with scatter and attenuation. The counts in the ROI can be produced by direct, scatter and penetration photons. The fluence value for direct photons is constant for any r and d values, but scatter and penetration photons show different values related to specific r and d values, resulting in the large sensitivity differences found. The sensitivity in thyroidal GC planar imaging is strongly dependent on uptake size, and distance from the GC. An individual value for the acquisition sensitivity of each lesion can significantly alleviate the level of uncertainty in the measurement of thyroid uptake activity for each patient.

  17. (131)I activity quantification of gamma camera planar images.

    PubMed

    Barquero, Raquel; Garcia, Hugo P; Incio, Monica G; Minguez, Pablo; Cardenas, Alexander; Martínez, Daniel; Lassmann, Michael

    2017-02-07

    A procedure to estimate the activity in target tissues in patients during the therapeutic administration of (131)I radiopharmaceutical treatment for thyroid conditions (hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer) using a gamma camera (GC) with a high energy (HE) collimator, is proposed. Planar images are acquired for lesions of different sizes r, and at different distances d, in two HE GC systems. Defining a region of interest (ROI) on the image of size r, total counts n g are measured. Sensitivity S (cps MBq(-1)) in each acquisition is estimated as the product of the geometric G and the intrinsic efficiency η 0. The mean fluence of 364 keV photons arriving at the ROI per disintegration G, is calculated with the MCNPX code, simulating the entire GC and the HE collimator. Intrinsic efficiency η 0 is estimated from a calibration measurement of a plane reference source of (131)I in air. Values of G and S for two GC systems-Philips Skylight and Siemens e-cam-are calculated. The total range of possible sensitivity values in thyroidal imaging in the e-cam and skylight GC measure from 7 cps MBq(-1) to 35 cps MBq(-1), and from 6 cps MBq(-1) to 29 cps MBq(-1), respectively. These sensitivity values have been verified with the SIMIND code, with good agreement between them. The results have been validated with experimental measurements in air, and in a medium with scatter and attenuation. The counts in the ROI can be produced by direct, scatter and penetration photons. The fluence value for direct photons is constant for any r and d values, but scatter and penetration photons show different values related to specific r and d values, resulting in the large sensitivity differences found. The sensitivity in thyroidal GC planar imaging is strongly dependent on uptake size, and distance from the GC. An individual value for the acquisition sensitivity of each lesion can significantly alleviate the level of uncertainty in the measurement of thyroid uptake activity for

  18. Induction of self awareness in dreams through frontal low current stimulation of gamma activity.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ursula; Holzmann, Romain; Hobson, Allan; Paulus, Walter; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Klimke, Ansgar; Nitsche, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Recent findings link fronto-temporal gamma electroencephalographic (EEG) activity to conscious awareness in dreams, but a causal relationship has not yet been established. We found that current stimulation in the lower gamma band during REM sleep influences ongoing brain activity and induces self-reflective awareness in dreams. Other stimulation frequencies were not effective, suggesting that higher order consciousness is indeed related to synchronous oscillations around 25 and 40 Hz.

  19. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma and hypertension: lessons of the history of researches].

    PubMed

    Rasin, M S

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes data from the clinical use of thiazolidinediones, human genetic observations and experiments with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma) gene removal, and also those on the role of PPAR-alpha and -gamma in the function of the vascular endothelium, sympathetic autonomic nervous system, and renal sodium reabsorption. It is concluded that the tonic activity of PPAR is a universal protective mechanism counteracting the development of hypertension.

  20. Broad-band radio activity of gamma-ray flaring FSRQ B3 0650+453

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Nestoras, I.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Zensus, J. A.; Ungerechts, H.; Sievers, A.; Riquelme, D.

    2011-08-01

    Responding to ATel #3580 reporting the recent Fermi/GST flaring activity of B3 0650+453 at gamma-rays late August 2011, we here report its behavior at radio bands as observed by the F-GAMMA program. Long-term activity: The source has been observed with the Effelsberg 100-m and the IRAM 30-m telescope since January and late July 2009, respectively.

  1. Identification of interferon-gamma as the lymphokine that activates human macrophage oxidative metabolism and antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Human blood mononuclear leukocytes stimulated with toxoplasma antigen, concanavalin A, mezerein plus lentil lectin, or staphylococcal enterotoxin A secreted a factor (macrophage-activating factor, or MAF) that enhanced the capacity of human macrophages to release H2O2 and to kill toxoplasmas. The same lymphoid supernatants contained IFN gamma but not IFN alpha or IFN beta. The MAF activity of six of seven unfractionated supernatants was completely eliminated by a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes IFN gamma, and MAF in the remaining supernatant was almost completely neutralized. Native IFN gamma partially purified by two independent protocols to specific activities of 1 X 10(6) and 10(7) U/mg protein was enriched in MAF activity at least as much as in antiviral activity. The capacity of macrophages to secrete H2O2 after incubation in partially purified native IFN gamma (mean peak stimulation, 8.8-fold) was greater than with unpurified lymphokines (3.8-fold) and sometimes equaled or exceeded the capacity of freshly harvested monocytes. The MAF activity of the partially purified native IFN gamma preparations was abolished by monoclonal anti- IFN gamma. Finally, IFN gamma of greater than 99% estimated purity was isolated (at Genentech, Inc.) from bacteria transformed with the cloned human gene for this lymphokine. Recombinant IFN gamma had potent MAF activity, stimulating the peroxide-releasing capacity of macrophages an average of 19.8-fold at peak response and enhancing their ability to kill toxoplasmas from 2.6 +/- 1.3% for untreated cells to 54 +/- 0.4% for treated cells. Attainment of 50% of the maximal elevation in peroxide-releasing capacity required a geometric mean concentration of 0.1 antiviral U/ml of recombinant IFN gamma, which is estimated to be approximately 6 picomolar for this preparation. Peroxide secretory capacity and toxoplasmacidal activity of macrophages peaked 2-4 d after exposure to IFN gamma. Peroxide-secretory capacity remained elevated

  2. Specification of High Activity Gamma-Ray Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    The report is concerned with making recommendations for the specifications of gamma ray sources, which relate to the quantity of radioactive material and the radiation emitted. Primary consideration is given to sources in teletherapy and to a lesser extent those used in industrial radiography and in irradiation units used in industry and research.…

  3. Specification of High Activity Gamma-Ray Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    The report is concerned with making recommendations for the specifications of gamma ray sources, which relate to the quantity of radioactive material and the radiation emitted. Primary consideration is given to sources in teletherapy and to a lesser extent those used in industrial radiography and in irradiation units used in industry and research.…

  4. New activity in the Dorado gamma-ray burst source

    SciTech Connect

    Golenetskii, S.V.; Mazets, E.P.; Aptekar, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    On 1981 December 1 and 1982 January 2 the Cone detectors aboard the Venera 13 and Venera 14 probes recorded ..gamma..-ray transients generated by the same source in Dorado as the notable sequence of events observed 1979 March 5, 6 and April 4, 24.

  5. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation activities and gamma-decalactone production by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Pagot, Y; Le Clainche, A; Nicaud, J M; Wache, Y; Belin, J M

    1998-03-01

    gamma-Decalactone is a peachy aroma compound resulting from the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of ricinoleic acid by yeasts. The expression levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (gene deletion) and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase activities (gene amplification on replicative plasmids) were modified in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The effects of these modifications on beta-oxidation were measured. Overexpression of thiolase activity did not have any effect on the overall beta-oxidation activity. The disruption of one of the acyl-CoA oxidase genes resulted in an enhanced activity. The enhancement led to an increase of overall beta-oxidation activity but reduced the gamma-decalactone production rates. This seemed to indicate a non-rate-limiting role for beta-oxidation in the biotransformation of ricinoleic acid to gamma-decalactone by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. All strains produced and then consumed gamma-decalactone. We checked the ability of the different strains to consume gamma-decalactone in a medium containing the lactone as sole carbon source. The consumption of the strain overexpressing acyl-CoA oxidase activity was higher than that of the wild-type strain. We concluded that peroxisomal beta-oxidation is certainly involved in gamma-decalactone catabolism by the yeast Y. lipolytica. The observed production rates probably depend on an equilibrium between production and consumption of the lactone.

  6. Feature integration in visual working memory: parietal gamma activity is related to cognitive coordination.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Helen M; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Hibbs, Carina S; Shapiro, Kimron L; Bracewell, R Martyn; Singh, Krish D; Linden, David E J

    2011-12-01

    The mechanism by which distinct subprocesses in the brain are coordinated is a central conundrum of systems neuroscience. The parietal lobe is thought to play a key role in visual feature integration, and oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range has been associated with perception of coherent objects and other tasks requiring neural coordination. Here, we examined the neural correlates of integrating mental representations in working memory and hypothesized that parietal gamma activity would be related to the success of cognitive coordination. Working memory is a classic example of a cognitive operation that requires the coordinated processing of different types of information and the contribution of multiple cognitive domains. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we report parietal activity in the high gamma (80-100 Hz) range during manipulation of visual and spatial information (colors and angles) in working memory. This parietal gamma activity was significantly higher during manipulation of visual-spatial conjunctions compared with single features. Furthermore, gamma activity correlated with successful performance during the conjunction task but not during the component tasks. Cortical gamma activity in parietal cortex may therefore play a role in cognitive coordination.

  7. Feature integration in visual working memory: parietal gamma activity is related to cognitive coordination

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Hibbs, Carina S.; Shapiro, Kimron L.; Bracewell, R. Martyn; Singh, Krish D.; Linden, David E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism by which distinct subprocesses in the brain are coordinated is a central conundrum of systems neuroscience. The parietal lobe is thought to play a key role in visual feature integration, and oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range has been associated with perception of coherent objects and other tasks requiring neural coordination. Here, we examined the neural correlates of integrating mental representations in working memory and hypothesized that parietal gamma activity would be related to the success of cognitive coordination. Working memory is a classic example of a cognitive operation that requires the coordinated processing of different types of information and the contribution of multiple cognitive domains. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we report parietal activity in the high gamma (80–100 Hz) range during manipulation of visual and spatial information (colors and angles) in working memory. This parietal gamma activity was significantly higher during manipulation of visual-spatial conjunctions compared with single features. Furthermore, gamma activity correlated with successful performance during the conjunction task but not during the component tasks. Cortical gamma activity in parietal cortex may therefore play a role in cognitive coordination. PMID:21940605

  8. IP receptor-dependent activation of PPAR{gamma} by stable prostacyclin analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Falcetti, Emilia; Flavell, David M.; Staels, Bart; Tinker, Andrew; Haworth, Sheila G.; Clapp, Lucie H. . E-mail: l.clapp@ucl.ac.uk

    2007-09-07

    Stable prostacyclin analogues can signal through cell surface IP receptors or by ligand binding to nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). So far these agents have been reported to activate PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{delta} but not PPAR{gamma}. Given PPAR{gamma} agonists and prostacyclin analogues both inhibit cell proliferation, we postulated that the IP receptor might elicit PPAR{gamma} activation. Using a dual luciferase reporter gene assay in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the IP receptor or empty vector, we found that prostacyclin analogues only activated PPAR{gamma} in the presence of the IP receptor. Moreover, the novel IP receptor antagonist, RO1138452, but not inhibitors of the cyclic AMP pathway, prevented activation. Likewise, the anti-proliferative effects of treprostinil observed in IP receptor expressing cells, were partially inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist, GW9662. We conclude that PPAR{gamma} is activated through the IP receptor via a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism and contributes to the anti-growth effects of prostacyclin analogues.

  9. Interferon-gamma and transforming growth factor-beta modulate the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production induced by Fc gamma-receptor stimulation in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rose, D M; Winston, B W; Chan, E D; Riches, D W; Henson, P M

    1997-09-08

    Engagement of receptors for the Fc region of IgG (Fc gamma R) can activate a variety of biological responses in macrophages, and these responses can be modulated either positively or negatively by co-stimulation with a variety of agents including cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). We have previously demonstrated that Fc gamma R crosslinking activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members p42MAPK, p38, and JNK. Herein, we examined the modulatory effect of IFN-gamma, TGF-beta, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) on Fc gamma R-induced MAPK activation in murine macrophages. Fc gamma R-induced activation of p42MAPK and JNK was augmented nearly two-fold by pretreatment with IFN-gamma. Conversely, TGF-beta pretreatment suppressed Fc gamma R-induced activation of p42MAPK, JNK, and p38. These modulatory effects of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta on MAPK activation correlated with changes in Fc gamma R-stimulated TNF-alpha production by these two cytokines.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: a novel target for cancer therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Han, ShouWei; Roman, Jesse

    2007-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are ligand-activated intracellular transcription factors that have been implicated in important biological processes such as inflammation, tissue remodeling and atherosclerosis. Emerging information also implicates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in oncogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, the best studied of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, modulates the proliferation and apoptosis of many cancer cell types, and it is expressed in many human tumors including lung, breast, colon, prostate and bladder. Natural and synthetic agents capable of activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma have been found to inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and in animal models. These agents, however, are not specific and both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-independent pathways involved in their effects have been identified. Together, these studies, coupled with a few clinical trials, suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is a novel target for the development of new and effective anticancer therapies.

  11. Fermi-LAT detection of ongoing gamma-ray activity from the new gamma-ray source Fermi J1654-1055 (PMN J1632-1052)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, D.; Ajello, M.; Buson, S.; Buehler, R.; Giomi, M.

    2016-02-01

    During the week between February 8 and 15, 2016, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, observed gamma-ray activity from a new transient source, Fermi J1654-1055.

  12. EEG gamma-band activity during audiovisual speech comprehension in different noise environments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanfei; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Zhiwen; Gao, Xiaorong

    2015-08-01

    The presence of cross-modal stochastic resonance in different noise environments has been proved in previous behavioral and event-related potential studies, while it was still unclear whether the gamma-band oscillation study was another evidence of cross-modal stochastic resonance. The multisensory gain of gamma-band activity between the audiovisual (AV) and auditory-only conditions in different noise environments was analyzed. Videos of face motion articulating words concordant with different levels of pink noise were used as stimuli. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 0, -4, -8, -12 and -16 dB were selected to measure the speech recognition accuracy and EEG activity for 20 healthy subjects. The power and phase of EEG gamma-band oscillations increased in a time window of 50-90 ms. The multisensory gains of evoked and total activity, as well as phase-locking factor, were greatest at the -12 dB SNR, which were consistent with the behavioral result. The multisensory gain of gamma-band activity showed an inverted U-shaped curve as a function of SNR. This finding confirmed the presence of cross-modal stochastic resonance. In addition, there was a significant correlation between evoked activity and phase-locking factor of gamma-band at five different SNRs. Gamma-band oscillation was believed to play a role in the rapid processing and information linkage strengthening of AV modalities in the early stage of cognitive processes.

  13. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  14. The maize Dof protein PBF activates transcription of gamma-zein during maize seed development.

    PubMed

    Marzábal, Pau; Gas, Elisabet; Fontanet, Pilar; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Torrent, Margarita; Ludevid, M Dolores

    2008-07-01

    Maize PBF (prolamin-box binding factor) belongs to the Dof class of plant specific transcription factors containing one highly conserved zinc finger DNA-binding domain, called Dof (DNA binding with one finger) domain. Maize PBF trans-activates the gamma-zein gene (gammaZ) promoter in developing maize seeds as shown by transient expression in maize endosperms. Co-transfection of a gammaZ:GUS construct with 35S:PBF resulted in a sevenfold increase in GUS expression, however, PBF mutation in Cys residues within the Dof domain abolishes both, binding to DNA and the capacity to activate gammaZ promoter. We present two pieces of evidence that PBF transactivates gammaZ promoter by binding to the Pb3 motif (TGTAAAG). First, recombinant Dof domain of PBF (bdPBF) specifically recognized Pb3 site as shown by gel mobility shift assays and second, co-expression of PBF with gammaZ promoter mutated in Pb3 motif suppressed PBF trans-activation capacity. Immunocytochemical analysis on developing endosperm sections shows that PBF is localized in the nuclei of the peripheral layer cells of starchy endosperm, the tissue in which the initial accumulation of gamma-zein protein occurs. By contrast, PBF is detected in the cytosol of the starchy endosperm cells newly differentiated from aleurone daughter cells, where gamma-zein was absent. Taken together these data indicate that maize PBF plays an essential role in the regulation of the temporal and spatial expression of gammaZ gene.

  15. Structural recognition and functional activation of Fc[gamma]R by innate pentraxins

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jinghua; Marnell, Lorraine L.; Marjon, Kristopher D.; Mold, Carolyn; Du Clos, Terry W.; Sun, Peter D.

    2009-10-05

    Pentraxins are a family of ancient innate immune mediators conserved throughout evolution. The classical pentraxins include serum amyloid P component (SAP) and C-reactive protein, which are two of the acute-phase proteins synthesized in response to infection. Both recognize microbial pathogens and activate the classical complement pathway through C1q. More recently, members of the pentraxin family were found to interact with cell-surface Fc{gamma} receptors (Fc{gamma}R) and activate leukocyte-mediated phagocytosis. Here we describe the structural mechanism for pentraxin's binding to Fc{gamma}R and its functional activation of Fc{gamma}R-mediated phagocytosis and cytokine secretion. The complex structure between human SAP and Fc{gamma}RIIa reveals a diagonally bound receptor on each SAP pentamer with both D1 and D2 domains of the receptor contacting the ridge helices from two SAP subunits. The 1:1 stoichiometry between SAP and Fc{gamma}RIIa infers the requirement for multivalent pathogen binding for receptor aggregation. Mutational and binding studies show that pentraxins are diverse in their binding specificity for Fc{gamma}R isoforms but conserved in their recognition structure. The shared binding site for SAP and IgG results in competition for Fc{gamma}R binding and the inhibition of immune-complex-mediated phagocytosis by soluble pentraxins. These results establish antibody-like functions for pentraxins in the Fc{gamma}R pathway, suggest an evolutionary overlap between the innate and adaptive immune systems, and have new therapeutic implications for autoimmune diseases.

  16. In vitro effects of interleukin-4 on interferon-gamma-induced macrophage activation.

    PubMed Central

    Appelberg, R; Orme, I M; Pinto de Sousa, M I; Silva, M T

    1992-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) have been shown to be secreted by distinct T-helper cell subsets which have different roles in the determination of host resistance to infection. We studied the activity of these two cytokines on effector mechanisms of mouse macrophages. In vitro cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages from C57BL/6 mice were treated with IFN-gamma, IL-4, or a combination of both cytokines and the ability to secrete superoxide or nitrite or to restrict growth of Mycobacterium avium and Toxoplasma gondii was then evaluated. We found that IL-4 could inhibit the priming of macrophages for enhanced superoxide production induced by IFN-gamma although IL-4 when used alone did have some enhancing effect of its own. This effect of IL-4 on IFN-gamma-primed superoxide production was dose dependent and could be observed even if the treatment by IL-4 was done 24 hr after treatment by IFN-gamma. IL-4 did not, however, influence the enhanced production of nitrogen reactive intermediates, the induction of bacteriostatic activity against M. avium, or the restriction of T. gondii by IFN-gamma-treated macrophages, and did not have any effect of its own regarding these latter functions. PMID:1328038

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands for the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Martin H; Elstner, Elena

    2005-06-01

    Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone are thiazolidinediones used for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. They modulate glucose and fat metabolism, mainly by binding to the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma. PPAR-gamma signalling is involved in a number of other disease conditions including cancer. In breast cancer cells, PPAR-gamma ligands inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. PPAR-gamma ligands also inhibit tumour angiogenesis and invasion. The only published clinical trial using a PPAR-gamma ligand in patients with metastatic breast cancer failed to show any clinical benefits. The mechanism of action of the thiazolidinediones in breast cancer cells is not fully understood but involves interactions with other nuclear hormone receptors, transcriptional co-activators and repressors as well as PPAR-gamma-independent effects. A better understanding of these mechanisms will be needed before PPAR-gamma ligands may be useful in the treatment of breast cancer patients.

  18. Illuminating Radio Dim/Gamma-ray Bright Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macomb, Daryl J.; Bohney, Amanda; Shrader, Chris R.

    2017-08-01

    A recent survey of high-latitude gamma-ray sources by Schinzel et al. (arXiv:1702.070336), reveals a sample of about 100 objects which are not detected in the 4-10 GHz radio band to a limiting flux of about 2mJy. This apparent lack of radio flux is puzzling, and may indicate either an extreme Compton-dominated sample, or copious gamma-ray emission from a heretofore unknown population such as a subclass of radio-quiet AGN. To further investigate the nature sources, we have undertaken the task of searching for transient or faint steady emission in the ~15-100-keV X-ray band using the Swift/BAT archive. Here we discuss the analysis, detection's (or not) , and any spectral or temporal information that may enable us to assess the nature of these sources.

  19. Identification of a phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) SH3 domain-binding site in SLP-76 required for T-cell receptor-mediated activation of PLC-gamma1 and NFAT.

    PubMed

    Yablonski, D; Kadlecek, T; Weiss, A

    2001-07-01

    SLP-76 is an adapter protein required for T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. In particular, TCR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1), and the resultant TCR-inducible gene expression, depend on SLP-76. Nonetheless, the mechanisms by which SLP-76 mediates PLC-gamma1 activation are not well understood. We now demonstrate that SLP-76 directly interacts with the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of PLC-gamma1. Structure-function analysis of SLP-76 revealed that each of the previously defined protein-protein interaction domains can be individually deleted without completely disrupting SLP-76 function. Additional deletion mutations revealed a new, 67-amino-acid functional domain within the proline-rich region of SLP-76, which we have termed the P-1 domain. The P-1 domain mediates a constitutive interaction of SLP-76 with the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1 and is required for TCR-mediated activation of Erk, PLC-gamma1, and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells). The adjacent Gads-binding domain of SLP-76, also within the proline-rich region, mediates inducible recruitment of SLP-76 to a PLC-gamma1-containing complex via the recruitment of both PLC-gamma1 and Gads to another cell-type-specific adapter, LAT. Thus, TCR-induced activation of PLC-gamma1 entails the binding of PLC-gamma1 to both LAT and SLP-76, a finding that may underlie the requirement for both LAT and SLP-76 to mediate the optimal activation of PLC-gamma1.

  20. Sporadic and familial subgroups of schizophrenia do not differ on dense array spontaneous gamma oscillatory activity.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Sai Krishna; Yadav, Shailly; Nizamie, S Haque; Das, Basudeb; Goyal, Nishant; Tikka, Deyashini Lahiri

    2014-12-30

    Genetic variations and developmental insults independently have been proposed to underlie aberrant gamma activity in schizophrenia. We investigated differences in spectral power in gamma (30-100Hz) frequency in patients with familial and sporadic schizophrenia. Subjects underwent resting-awake EEG recording on 192 channels. The two patient subgroups did not significantly differ in any of the gamma bands and regions. We conclude that complex gene-environment interactions are responsible for the limited power of familial-sporadic distinction in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid In-Situ Measurement of Gamma Activity in Soil for Environmental Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, T. K.

    2003-12-01

    In-situ measurements of gamma radiation in soil are used as a rapid, low-cost, non-intrusive alternative to conventional sampling and analysis methods in the preliminary assessment of environmental impacts to watersheds at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The method resolves the ambient gamma-radiation field near ground surface into background and residual components and provides radionuclide-specific soil activity determination. The efficacy of the method has been evaluated and compares favorably with conventional gamma-PHA soil analyses and aerial survey data. The method has garnered regulatory approval and is being successfully deployed to evaluate the impact of Cs-137 contamination from CERCLA sites.

  2. Abnormal interictal gamma activity may manifest a seizure onset zone in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Andrei V; Murro, Anthony M; Meador, Kimford J

    2011-04-01

    Even though recent studies have suggested that seizures do not occur suddenly and that before a seizure there is a period with an increased probability of seizure occurrence, neurophysiological mechanisms of interictal and pre-seizure states are unknown. The ability of mathematical methods to provide much more sensitive tools for the detection of subtle changes in the electrical activity of the brain gives promise that electrophysiological markers of enhanced seizure susceptibility can be found even during interictal periods when EEG of epilepsy patients often looks 'normal'. Previously, we demonstrated in animals that hippocampal and neocortical gamma-band rhythms (30-100 Hz) intensify long before seizures caused by systemic infusion of kainic acid. Other studies in recent years have also drawn attention to the fast activity (>30 Hz) as a possible marker of epileptogenic tissue. The current study quantified gamma-band activity during interictal periods and seizures in intracranial EEG (iEEG) in 5 patients implanted with subdural grids/intracranial electrodes during their pre-surgical evaluation. In all our patients, we found distinctive (abnormal) bursts of gamma activity with a 3 to 100 fold increase in power at gamma frequencies with respect to selected by clinicians, quiescent, artifact-free, 7-20 min "normal" background (interictal) iEEG epochs 1 to 14 hours prior to seizures. Increases in gamma activity were largest in those channels which later displayed the most intensive electrographic seizure discharges. Moreover, location of gamma-band bursts correlated (with high specificity, 96.4% and sensitivity, 83.8%) with seizure onset zone (SOZ) determined by clinicians. Spatial localization of interictal gamma rhythms within SOZ suggests that the persistent presence of abnormally intensified gamma rhythms in the EEG may be an important tool for focus localization and possibly a determinant of epileptogenesis.

  3. Inositol 5'-phosphatase, SHIP1 interacts with phospholipase C-gamma1 and modulates EGF-induced PLC activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Minseok; Kim, Myung Jong; Ha, Sanghoon; Park, Jong Bae; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-06-30

    Phospholipase C-gamma1, containing two SH2 and one SH3 domains which participate in the interaction between signaling molecules, plays a significant role in the growth factor-induced signal transduction. However, the role of the SH domains in the growth factor-induced PLC-gamma1 regulation is unclear. By peptide-mass fingerprinting analysis, we have identified SHIP1 as the binding protein for the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1. SHIP1 was co-immunoprecipitated with PLC-gamma1 and potentiated EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation. However, inositol 5'-phosphatase activity of SHIP1 was not required for the potentiation of EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation. Taken together, these results suggest that SHIP1 may function as an adaptor protein which can potentiate EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation without regards to its inositol 5'-phosphatase activity.

  4. Development of Monte Carlo code for coincidence prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaogang

    Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) offers a non-destructive, relatively rapid on-line method for determination of elemental composition of bulk and other samples. However, PGNAA has an inherently large background. These backgrounds are primarily due to the presence of the neutron excitation source. It also includes neutron activation of the detector and the prompt gamma rays from the structure materials of PGNAA devices. These large backgrounds limit the sensitivity and accuracy of PGNAA. Since most of the prompt gamma rays from the same element are emitted in coincidence, a possible approach for further improvement is to change the traditional PGNAA measurement technique and introduce the gamma-gamma coincidence technique. It is well known that the coincidence techniques can eliminate most of the interference backgrounds and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. A new Monte Carlo code, CEARCPG has been developed at CEAR to simulate gamma-gamma coincidence spectra in PGNAA experiment. Compared to the other existing Monte Carlo code CEARPGA I and CEARPGA II, a new algorithm of sampling the prompt gamma rays produced from neutron capture reaction and neutron inelastic scattering reaction, is developed in this work. All the prompt gamma rays are taken into account by using this new algorithm. Before this work, the commonly used method is to interpolate the prompt gamma rays from the pre-calculated gamma-ray table. This technique works fine for the single spectrum. However it limits the capability to simulate the coincidence spectrum. The new algorithm samples the prompt gamma rays from the nucleus excitation scheme. The primary nuclear data library used to sample the prompt gamma rays comes from ENSDF library. Three cases are simulated and the simulated results are benchmarked with experiments. The first case is the prototype for ETI PGNAA application. This case is designed to check the capability of CEARCPG for single spectrum simulation. The second

  5. The Monte Carlo code CEARCPG for coincidence prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaogang; Gardner, Robin P.

    2007-10-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is widely used to determine the elemental composition of bulk samples. The detection sensitivities of PGNAA are often restricted by the inherent poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). There are many sources of noise (background) including the natural background, neutron activation of the detector, gamma-rays associated with the neutron source and prompt gamma-rays from the structural materials of the analyzer. Results of the prompt gamma-ray coincidence technique show that it could greatly improve the SNR by removing almost all of the background interferences. The first specific Monte Carlo code (CEARCPG) for coincidence PGNAA has been developed at the Center for Engineering Application of Radioisotopes (CEAR) to explore the capabilities of this technique. Benchmark bulk sample experiments have been performed with coal, sulfur, and mercury samples and indicate that the code is accurate and will be very useful in the design of coincidence PGNAA devices.

  6. Implementation of gamma-ray instrumentation for solid solar system bodies using neutron activation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Golovin, D. V.; Jun, I.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Sanin, A. B.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Zontikov, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of ground tests performed with a flight model and with industry prototypes of passive and active gamma ray spectrometers with the objective of understanding their capability to distinguish the elemental composition of planetary bodies in the solar system. The gamma instrumentation, which was developed for future space missions was used in the measurements at a special ground test facility where a simulant of planetary material was fabricated with a martian-like composition. In this study, a special attention was paid to the gamma lines from activation reaction products generated by a pulsed neutron generator. The instrumentation was able to detect and identify gamma lines attributed to O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca and Fe.

  7. Transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} requires activation of both protein kinase A and Akt during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-pil; Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Chung, Sung Woon; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae; Bae, Sun Sik

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated cAMP activates both PKA and Epac. {yields} PKA activates CREB transcriptional factor and Epac activates PI3K/Akt pathway via Rap1. {yields} Akt modulates PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in concert with CREB. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is required for the conversion of pre-adipocytes. However, the mechanism underlying activation of PPAR-{gamma} is unclear. Here we showed that cAMP-induced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt is essential for the transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}. Hormonal induction of adipogenesis was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), and by a Rap1 inhibitor (GGTI-298). Transcriptional activity of PPAR-{gamma} was markedly enhanced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), but not insulin and dexamethasone. In addition, IBMX-induced PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity was blocked by PI3K/Akt, PKA, or Rap1 inhibitors. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) which is a specific agonist for exchanger protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) significantly induced the activation of Akt. Furthermore, knock-down of Akt1 markedly attenuated PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity. These results indicate that both PKA and Akt signaling pathways are required for transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}, suggesting post-translational activation of PPAR-{gamma} might be critical step for adipogenic gene expression.

  8. Activation of pulmonary macrophages for fungicidal activity by gamma-interferon or lymphokines.

    PubMed Central

    Brummer, E; Stevens, D A

    1987-01-01

    The ability of murine recombinant gamma interferon (IFN) or lymphokines to enhance the fungicidal activity of murine pulmonary macrophages (PuM) was studied in in vitro. PuM monolayers were incubated overnight with IFN, lymph node cells (LNC) plus concanavalin A, supernatants from Con A stimulated LNC or spleen cell cultures (Con A Sup), or tissue culture medium (TCM) +/- Con A (5 micrograms/ml) or +/- lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ng to 10 micrograms/ml). After treatment, culture fluids were removed and PuM were challenged for 4 h with the yeast-form Blastomyces dermatitidis or 2 h with Candida albicans. Inoculum colony forming units (CFU) of B. dermatitidis were significantly reduced by PuM treated with 1000 U/ml of IFN (25 +/- 3%), Con A Sup (25 +/- 3%) or LNC plus Con A (37-44%), but not by TCM, ConA or LPS. Candida albicans was killed by PuM treated with Con A Sup (33 +/- 8%) or LNC plus Con A (30-43%), but not by TCM, Con A, or LPS, and the activity of Con A Sup was neutralized by anti-IFN antibody. Candida albicans was not significantly killed by PuM treated with IFN doses ranging from 1 to 10(5) U/ml; nor did addition of LPS to IFN, or prolonged (3 day) treatment with IFN, result in significant killing of C. albicans by PuM. However, IFN (100 U/ml) could activate resident peritoneal macrophages for significant candidacidal activity (63%). These data indicate that PuM can be activated for fungicidal activity, and that PuM differ from resident peritoneal macrophages with regard to induction of candidacidal activity by recombinant gamma-IFN. PMID:3124995

  9. Two Active States of the Narrow-Line Gamma-Ray-Loud AGN GB 1310 + 487

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Schinzel, F. K.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Abolmasov, P. K.; Angelakis, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cenko, S. B.; Cheung, C. C.; Clubb, K. I.; D'Ammando, F.; Escande, L.; Fegan, S. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Finke, J. D.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Kawabata, K. S.; Komatsu, T.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krichbaum, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB1310 487 showed gamma-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of approximately 10(exp -6) photons cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) at energies E greater than 100MeV and became one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum shows strong forbidden-line emission while lacking broad permitted lines, which is not typical for a blazar. Instead, the spectrum resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. Aims. We investigate changes in the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent gamma-ray flare with the aim of determining the nature of the object and of constraining the origin of the variable high-energy emission. Methods. The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at gamma-ray energies; Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet (UV); the Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical; OAGH and WISE at infrared (IR); and IRAM30m, OVRO 40m, Effelsberg 100m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio are analyzed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. Results. The gamma-ray radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z = 0.638. It shines through an unrelated foreground galaxy at z = 0.500. The AGN light is probably amplified by gravitational lensing. The AGN SED shows a two-humped structure typical of blazars and gamma-ray-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, with the high-energy (inverse-Compton) emission dominating by more than an order of magnitude over the low-energy (synchrotron) emission during gamma-ray flares. The difference between the two SED humps is smaller during the low-activity state. Fermi observations reveal a strong correlation between the gamma-ray flux and spectral index, with the hardest spectrum observed during the brightest gamma-ray state. The gamma-ray flares occurred before and during a slow rising trend in the radio, but no direct association between gamma-ray and

  10. Protein tyrosine kinase activity is essential for Fc gamma receptor-mediated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L; Nibbering, P H; Zomerdijk, T P; van Furth, R

    1994-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that the intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma receptor I (Fc gamma RI) or Fc gamma RII is a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent process. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity plays a role in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of bacteria and activation of PLC in these cells. The results showed that phagocytosis of bacteria by monocytes was not affected by the PTK inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin-47. The intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma RII or Fc gamma RII with anti-Fc gamma R monoclonal antibody and a bridging antibody or with human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was inhibited by these compounds in a dose-dependent fashion. The production of O2- by monocytes after stimulation with IgG or IgG-opsonized S. aureus was almost completely blocked by the PTK inhibitor. These results indicate that inhibition of PTK impairs the oxygen-dependent bactericidal mechanisms of monocytes. Genistein and tyrphostin-47, which do not affect the enzymatic activity of purified PLC, prevented activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII, measured as an increase in the intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration. Cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in monocytes, one of which was identified as PLC-gamma 1, and the phosphorylation could be completely blocked by PTK inhibitors, leading to the conclusion that activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma R in monocytes is regulated by PTK activity. Together, these results demonstrate that PTK activity is essential for the activation of PLC which is involved in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of S. aureus by human monocytes. Images PMID:7927687

  11. Identification of a truncated alternative splicing variant of human PPAR{gamma}1 that exhibits dominant negative activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Woo, Im Sun; Kang, Eun Sil; Eun, So Young; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk . E-mail: hgseo@gnu.ac.kr

    2006-09-01

    We have identified a novel variant of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}), derived from insertion of a novel exon 3'. Insertion leads to the introduction of a premature stop codon, resulting in the formation of a truncated splice variant of PPAR{gamma}1 (PPAR{gamma}1{sub tr}). Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of PPAR{gamma}1{sub tr} in tumor-derived cell lines. Although PPAR{gamma}1{sub tr} interfered with transcriptional activity of wild-type PPAR{gamma}1 (PPAR{gamma}1{sub wt}), activity could be rescued by cotransfection with a vector expressing p300. Overexpression of PPAR{gamma}1{sub tr} protein in CHO cells greatly enhanced their proliferation and anchorage-independent colony growth on soft agar. These data demonstrate that PPAR{gamma}1{sub tr} is an important physiologic isoform of PPAR{gamma} that modulates cellular functions of PPAR{gamma}1{sub wt}.

  12. Optogenetically induced spatiotemporal gamma oscillations and neuronal spiking activity in primate motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Truccolo, Wilson; Wagner, Fabien B.; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E.; Ozden, Ilker; Zimmermann, Jonas B.; May, Travis; Agha, Naubahar S.; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Transient gamma-band (40–80 Hz) spatiotemporal patterns are hypothesized to play important roles in cortical function. Here we report the direct observation of gamma oscillations as spatiotemporal waves induced by targeted optogenetic stimulation, recorded by intracortical multichannel extracellular techniques in macaque monkeys during their awake resting states. Microelectrode arrays integrating an optical fiber at their center were chronically implanted in primary motor (M1) and ventral premotor (PMv) cortices of two subjects. Targeted brain tissue was transduced with the red-shifted opsin C1V1(T/T). Constant (1-s square pulses) and ramp stimulation induced narrowband gamma oscillations during awake resting states. Recordings across 95 microelectrodes (4 × 4-mm array) enabled us to track the transient gamma spatiotemporal patterns manifested, e.g., as concentric expanding and spiral waves. Gamma oscillations were induced well beyond the light stimulation volume, via network interactions at distal electrode sites, depending on optical power. Despite stimulation-related modulation in spiking rates, neuronal spiking remained highly asynchronous during induced gamma oscillations. In one subject we examined stimulation effects during preparation and execution of a motor task and observed that movement execution largely attenuated optically induced gamma oscillations. Our findings demonstrate that, beyond previously reported induced gamma activity under periodic drive, a prolonged constant stimulus above a certain threshold may carry primate motor cortex network dynamics into gamma oscillations, likely via a Hopf bifurcation. More broadly, the experimental capability in combining microelectrode array recordings and optogenetic stimulation provides an important approach for probing spatiotemporal dynamics in primate cortical networks during various physiological and behavioral conditions. PMID:25761956

  13. Clinical significance and developmental changes of auditory-language-related gamma activity

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Katsuaki; Brown, Erik C.; Rothermel, Robert; Carlson, Alanna; Fuerst, Darren; Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Shah, Aashit; Atkinson, Marie; Basha, Maysaa; Mittal, Sandeep; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We determined the clinical impact and developmental changes of auditory-language-related augmentation of gamma activity at 50–120 Hz recorded on electrocorticography (ECoG). METHODS We analyzed data from 77 epileptic patients ranging 4 – 56 years in age. We determined the effects of seizure-onset zone, electrode location, and patient-age upon gamma-augmentation elicited by an auditory-naming task. RESULTS Gamma-augmentation was less frequently elicited within seizure-onset sites compared to other sites. Regardless of age, gamma-augmentation most often involved the 80–100 Hz frequency band. Gamma-augmentation initially involved bilateral superior-temporal regions, followed by left-side dominant involvement in the middle-temporal, medial-temporal, inferior-frontal, dorsolateral-premotor, and medial-frontal regions and concluded with bilateral inferior-Rolandic involvement. Compared to younger patients, those older than 10 years had a larger proportion of left dorsolateral-premotor and right inferior-frontal sites showing gamma-augmentation. The incidence of a post-operative language deficit requiring speech therapy was predicted by the number of resected sites with gamma-augmentation in the superior-temporal, inferior-frontal, dorsolateral-premotor, and inferior-Rolandic regions of the left hemisphere assumed to contain essential language function (r2=0.59; p=0.001; odds ratio=6.04 [95% confidence-interval: 2.26 to 16.15]). CONCLUSIONS Auditory-language-related gamma-augmentation can provide additional information useful to localize the primary language areas. SIGNIFICANCE These results derived from a large sample of patients support the utility of auditory-language-related gamma-augmentation in presurgical evaluation. PMID:23141882

  14. Optogenetically induced spatiotemporal gamma oscillations and neuronal spiking activity in primate motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Truccolo, Wilson; Wagner, Fabien B; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E; Ozden, Ilker; Zimmermann, Jonas B; May, Travis; Agha, Naubahar S; Wang, Jing; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2015-06-01

    Transient gamma-band (40-80 Hz) spatiotemporal patterns are hypothesized to play important roles in cortical function. Here we report the direct observation of gamma oscillations as spatiotemporal waves induced by targeted optogenetic stimulation, recorded by intracortical multichannel extracellular techniques in macaque monkeys during their awake resting states. Microelectrode arrays integrating an optical fiber at their center were chronically implanted in primary motor (M1) and ventral premotor (PMv) cortices of two subjects. Targeted brain tissue was transduced with the red-shifted opsin C1V1(T/T). Constant (1-s square pulses) and ramp stimulation induced narrowband gamma oscillations during awake resting states. Recordings across 95 microelectrodes (4 × 4-mm array) enabled us to track the transient gamma spatiotemporal patterns manifested, e.g., as concentric expanding and spiral waves. Gamma oscillations were induced well beyond the light stimulation volume, via network interactions at distal electrode sites, depending on optical power. Despite stimulation-related modulation in spiking rates, neuronal spiking remained highly asynchronous during induced gamma oscillations. In one subject we examined stimulation effects during preparation and execution of a motor task and observed that movement execution largely attenuated optically induced gamma oscillations. Our findings demonstrate that, beyond previously reported induced gamma activity under periodic drive, a prolonged constant stimulus above a certain threshold may carry primate motor cortex network dynamics into gamma oscillations, likely via a Hopf bifurcation. More broadly, the experimental capability in combining microelectrode array recordings and optogenetic stimulation provides an important approach for probing spatiotemporal dynamics in primate cortical networks during various physiological and behavioral conditions.

  15. Phospholipase C-gamma1 potentiates integrin-dependent cell spreading and migration through Pyk2/paxillin activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Yang, Yong-Ryoul; Lee, Seul Ki; Kim, Il-Shin; Ha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Eung-Kyun; Bae, Yun Soo; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2007-08-01

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1), which generates two second messengers, namely, inositol-1, 4, 5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, is implicated in growth factor-mediated chemotaxis. However, the exact role of PLC-gamma1 in integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that PLC-gamma1 is required for actin cytoskeletal organization and cell motility through the regulation of Pyk2 and paxillin activation. After fibronectin stimulation, PLC-gamma1 directly interacted with the cytoplasmic tail of integrin beta1. In PLC-gamma1-silenced cells, integrin-induced Pyk2 and paxillin phosphorylation were significantly reduced and PLC-gamma1 potentiated the integrin-induced Pyk2/paxillin activation in its enzymatic activity-dependent manner. In addition, specific knock-down of PLC-gamma1 resulted in a failure to form focal adhesions dependent on fibronectin stimulation, which appeared to be caused by the suppression of Pyk2 and paxillin phosphorylation. Interestingly, PLC-gamma1 potentiated the activations of Rac, thus integrin-induced lamellipodia formation was up-regulated. Consequently, the strength of cell-substratum interaction and cell motility were profoundly up-regulated by PLC-gamma1. Taken together, these results suggest that PLC-gamma1 is a key player in integrin-mediated cell spreading and motility achieved by the activation of Pyk2/paxillin/Rac signaling.

  16. Pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium for human monocytes: absence of macrophage-activating factor activity of gamma interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Toba, H; Crawford, J T; Ellner, J J

    1989-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is a frequent opportunistic pathogen in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We compared 12 strains of M. avium in an in vitro model of pathogenicity. Peripheral blood-derived monocytes from healthy individuals were infected with M. avium in vitro. Bacterial uptake and intracellular replication were assessed by microscopic count of acid-fast bacilli and CFU of bacteria, respectively, in lysed monocytes. The CFU assay showed that among five AIDS-associated strains, only one replicated in monocytes. Two of seven non-AIDS-associated strains replicated intracellularly. In addition, we examined the effect of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) on M. avium infection. IFN-gamma treatment of monocytes decreased phagocytosis and had no effect on the intracellular replication of M. avium. Thus, most strains of M. avium do not multiply within monocytes from healthy individuals and IFN-gamma does not have macrophage-activating factor activity for M. avium infection of human monocytes. PMID:2491838

  17. Cholinergic and glutamatergic agonists induce gamma frequency activity in dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Christen; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Williams, D. Keith; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    The dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus (SubCD) is involved in generating two signs of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep: muscle atonia and ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves. We tested the hypothesis that single cell and/or population responses of SubCD neurons are capable of generating gamma frequency activity in response to intracellular stimulation or receptor agonist activation. Whole cell patch clamp recordings (immersion chamber) and population responses (interface chamber) were conducted on 9- to 20-day-old rat brain stem slices. All SubCD neurons (n = 103) fired at gamma frequency when subjected to depolarizing steps. Two statistically distinct populations of neurons were observed, which were distinguished by their high (>80 Hz, n = 24) versus low (35–80 Hz, n = 16) initial firing frequencies. Both cell types exhibited subthreshold oscillations in the gamma range (n = 43), which may underlie the gamma band firing properties of these neurons. The subthreshold oscillations were blocked by the sodium channel blockers tetrodotoxin (TTX, n = 21) extracellularly and N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)triethylammonium bromide (QX-314) intracellularly (n = 5), indicating they were sodium channel dependent. Gamma frequency subthreshold oscillations were observed in response to the nonspecific cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol (CAR, n = 11, d = 1.08) and the glutamate receptor agonists N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA, n = 12, d = 1.09) and kainic acid (KA, n = 13, d = 0.96), indicating that cholinergic and glutamatergic inputs may be involved in the activation of these subthreshold currents. Gamma band activity also was observed in population responses following application of CAR (n = 4, P < 0.05), NMDA (n = 4, P < 0.05) and KA (n = 4, P < 0.05). Voltage-sensitive, sodium channel-dependent gamma band activity appears to be a part of the intrinsic membrane properties of SubCD neurons. PMID:21543743

  18. EEG Gamma Band Is Asymmetrically Activated by Location and Shape Memory Tasks in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yoshio; Shibata, Tadahiko; Shimizu, Shinobu

    2002-01-01

    From the viewpoint of psychology, it is thought that perception analysis of the visual world includes two information processes: global (whole) and local (part) processes. It is assumed that the global process is carried out in the right hemisphere, and the local process, in the left hemisphere. In the present study, gamma EEG band activities during location memory (LM) task, as a global form, and shape memory (SM) task, as a local form, were calculated from the temporal, parietal and occipital areas using stimuli consisting of categorical patterns of small shapes. Gamma band activity during the SM task was greater than that during the LM task. It was assumed that the SM task requires a higher memory load condition than the LM task. In terms of the laterality ratio obtained from the whole electrode array, the gamma band was significantly activated in the right hemisphere during the LM task, and in the left hemisphere during the SM task. The gamma activation in the occipital area was significantly high in the right hemisphere for both tasks. High gamma band activation was observed in the right parietal area during the LM task and in the left temporal area during the SM task. It was concluded that global and local information processes occur in the left temporal areas and in the right occipitoparietal areas, respectively. The results of this study are useful in the assessment of visual cognition deficits in patients with cerebral hemispheric lesions in the physical therapy. PMID:25792923

  19. EEG gamma band is asymmetrically activated by location and shape memory tasks in humans.

    PubMed

    Numata, Kenji; Nakajima, Yoshio; Shibata, Tadahiko; Shimizu, Shinobu

    2002-01-01

    From the viewpoint of psychology, it is thought that perception analysis of the visual world includes two information processes: global (whole) and local (part) processes. It is assumed that the global process is carried out in the right hemisphere, and the local process, in the left hemisphere. In the present study, gamma EEG band activities during location memory (LM) task, as a global form, and shape memory (SM) task, as a local form, were calculated from the temporal, parietal and occipital areas using stimuli consisting of categorical patterns of small shapes. Gamma band activity during the SM task was greater than that during the LM task. It was assumed that the SM task requires a higher memory load condition than the LM task. In terms of the laterality ratio obtained from the whole electrode array, the gamma band was significantly activated in the right hemisphere during the LM task, and in the left hemisphere during the SM task. The gamma activation in the occipital area was significantly high in the right hemisphere for both tasks. High gamma band activation was observed in the right parietal area during the LM task and in the left temporal area during the SM task. It was concluded that global and local information processes occur in the left temporal areas and in the right occipitoparietal areas, respectively. The results of this study are useful in the assessment of visual cognition deficits in patients with cerebral hemispheric lesions in the physical therapy.

  20. Independent control of gamma and theta activity by distinct interneuron networks in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, Izumi; Herb, Jan; Kollo, Mihaly; Boyden, Edward S; Schaefer, Andreas T

    2014-01-01

    Circuits in the brain possess a remarkable ability to orchestrate activities on different timescales, but how distinct circuits interact to sculpt diverse rhythms remains unresolved. The olfactory bulb is a classic example where slow, theta, and fast, gamma, rhythms coexist. Furthermore inhibitory interneurons generally implicated in rhythm generation are segregated into distinct layers, neatly separating local from global motifs. Here, combining intracellular recordings in vivo with circuit-specific optogenetic interference we dissect the contribution of inhibition to rhythmic activity in the mouse olfactory bulb. We found that the two inhibitory circuits control rhythms on distinct timescales: local, glomerular networks coordinate theta activity, regulating baseline and odor-evoked inhibition; granule cells orchestrate gamma synchrony and spike timing. Surprisingly, they did not contribute to baseline rhythms, or sniff-coupled odor-evoked inhibition despite their perceived dominance. Thus, activities on theta and gamma time scales are controlled by separate, dissociable inhibitory networks in the olfactory bulb. PMID:24997762

  1. Gamma-Ray Spectrometers Using Superconducting Transition Edge Sensors with External Active Feedback Bias

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, D.T.; van den Berg, M.L.; Loshak, A.; Frank, M.; Barbee, T.W.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-09-22

    The authors are developing x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers with high absorption efficiency and high energy-resolution for x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy. They are microcalorimeters consisting of a bulk Sn absorber coupled to a Mo/Cu multilayer superconducting transition edge sensor (TES). The authors have measured an energy resolution of 70 eV FWHM for 60 keV incident gamma-rays using electrothermal feedback. They have also operated these microcalorimeters with an external active feedback bias to linearize the detector response, improve the count rate performance, and extend the detection energy range. They present x-ray and gamma-ray results operation of this detector design in both bias modes.

  2. Determination of whole-body nitrogen and radiation assessment using in vivo prompt gamma activation technique.

    PubMed

    Chung, C; Wei, Y Y; Chen, Y Y

    1993-06-01

    Body nitrogen content in the phantom is measured by semiconducting and scintillation spectrometers using in vivo prompt gamma-ray activation analysis technique. The effective dose rate equivalents for sensitive organs and tissues inside the phantom are assessed by dosimetric measurement and neutron transport calculation. The bismuth germanate scintillator is found superior to the germanium semiconducting detector to quantitatively measure the photopeak of the 10.829 MeV prompt gamma-ray emitted from the 14N(n, gamma) reaction. Recommended scanning period for current setup using the BGO detector is 1 h on the modified mobile nuclear reactor. The effective dose equivalents from both neutrons and gamma-rays are estimated around 63 microSv per scan in the phantom test, making it a safe and reliable nuclear analytical method for in vivo body nitrogen measurement.

  3. The effect of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on gamma activity and working memory in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Kate E; Bailey, Neil W; Arnold, Sara L; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2015-08-15

    Working memory impairments in schizophrenia have been strongly associated with abnormalities in gamma oscillations within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC). We recently published the first ever study showing that anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to the left DLPFC was able to significantly improve working memory performance in schizophrenia. In the current paper we present a secondary analysis from this study, specifically looking at the effect of tDCS on gamma activity and its relationship to working memory. In a repeated measures design we assessed the impact of anodal tDCS (1mA, 2mA, sham) on gamma activity in the left DLPFC at three time-points post-stimulation (0min, 20min, 40min). EEG data was available for 16 participants in the 2mA condition, 13 in the 1mA condition and 12 in the sham condition. Following 2mA stimulation we found a significant increase in gamma event-related synchronisation in the left DLPFC, this was in the context of a significantly improved working memory performance. There was also a significant decrease in gamma event-related synchronisation, with no changes in working memory, following sham stimulation. The current study provides preliminary evidence that tDCS may enhance working memory in schizophrenia by restoring normal gamma oscillatory function.

  4. Interleukin-12- and interferon-gamma-mediated natural killer cell activation by Agaricus blazei Murill.

    PubMed

    Yuminamochi, Eri; Koike, Taisuke; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Horiuchi, Isao; Okumura, Ko

    2007-06-01

    Dried fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei Murill (A. blazei) and its extracts have generally used as complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). Here, we report that the oral administration of A. blazei augmented cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6, C3H/HeJ, and BALB/c mice. Augmented cytotoxicity was demonstrated by purified NK cells from treated wild-type (WT) and RAG-2-deficient mice, but not from interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) deficient mice. NK cell activation and IFN-gamma production was also observed in vitro when dendritic cell (DC)-rich splenocytes of WT mice were coincubation with an extract of A. blazei. Both parameters were largely inhibited by neutralizing anti-interleukin-12 (IL-12) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and completely inhibited when anti-IL-12 mAb and anti-IL-18 mAb were used in combination. An aqueous extract of the hemicellulase-digested compound of A. blazei particle; (ABPC) induced IFN-gamma production more effectively, and this was completely inhibited by anti-IL-12 mAb alone. NK cell cytotoxicty was augmented with the same extracts, again in an IL-12 and IFN-gamma-dependent manner. These results clearly demonstrated that A. blazei and ABPC augmented NK cell activation through IL-12-mediated IFN-gamma production.

  5. Identification and sequence of an accessory factor required for activation of the human interferon gamma receptor.

    PubMed

    Soh, J; Donnelly, R J; Kotenko, S; Mariano, T M; Cook, J R; Wang, N; Emanuel, S; Schwartz, B; Miki, T; Pestka, S

    1994-03-11

    Human chromosomes 6 and 21 are both necessary to confer sensitivity to human interferon gamma (Hu-IFN-gamma), as measured by induction of class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and protection against encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection. Whereas human chromosome 6 encodes the Hu-IFN-gamma receptor, human chromosome 21 encodes accessory factors for generating biological activity through the Hu-IFN-gamma receptor. Probes from a genomic clone were used to identity cDNA clones expressing a species-specific accessory factor. These cDNA clones are able to substitute for human chromosome 21 to reconstitute the Hu-IFN-gamma receptor-mediated induction of class I HLA antigens. However, the factor encoded by the cDNA does not confer full antiviral protection against EMCV, confirming that an additional factor encoded on human chromosome 21 is required for reconstitution of antiviral activity against EMCV. We conclude that this accessory factor belongs to a family of such accessory factors responsible for different actions of IFN-gamma.

  6. Statins enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha activity to regulate energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxian; Wong, Chi-Wai

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) serves as an inducible coactivator for a number of transcription factors to control energy metabolism. Insulin signaling through Akt kinase has been demonstrated to phosphorylate PGC-1alpha at serine 571 and downregulate its activity in the liver. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. In this study, we found that statins reduced the active form of Akt and enhanced PGC-1alpha activity. Specifically, statins failed to activate an S571A mutant of PGC-1alpha. The activation of PGC-1alpha by statins selectively enhanced the expression of energy metabolizing enzymes and regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. Importantly, a constitutively active form of Akt partially reduced the statin-enhanced gene expression. Our study thus provides a plausible mechanistic explanation for the hypolipidemic effect of statin through elevating the rate of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial Kreb's cycle capacity to enhance fatty acid utilization while reducing the rate of glycolysis.

  7. HCV core protein induces hepatic lipid accumulation by activating SREBP1 and PPAR{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kook Hwan; Hong, Sung Pyo; Kim, KyeongJin; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Kwang Jin; Cheong, JaeHun . E-mail: molecule85@pusan.ac.kr

    2007-04-20

    Hepatic steatosis is a common feature in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV core protein plays an important role in the development of hepatic steatosis in HCV infection. Because SREBP1 (sterol regulatory element binding protein 1) and PPAR{gamma} (peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor {gamma}) are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism of hepatocyte, we sought to determine whether HCV core protein may impair the expression and activity of SREBP1 and PPAR{gamma}. In this study, it was demonstrated that HCV core protein increases the gene expression of SREBP1 not only in Chang liver, Huh7, and HepG2 cells transiently transfected with HCV core protein expression plasmid, but also in Chang liver-core stable cells. Furthermore, HCV core protein enhanced the transcriptional activity of SREBP1. In addition, HCV core protein elevated PPAR{gamma} transcriptional activity. However, HCV core protein had no effect on PPAR{gamma} gene expression. Finally, we showed that HCV core protein stimulates the genes expression of lipogenic enzyme and fatty acid uptake associated protein. Therefore, our finding provides a new insight into the mechanism of hepatic steatosis by HCV infection.

  8. Downregulation of Parvalbumin at Cortical GABA Synapses Reduces Network Gamma Oscillatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Volman, Vladislav; Behrens, M. Margarita; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Postmortem and functional imaging studies of patients with psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, are consistent with a dysfunction of interneurons leading to compromised inhibitory control of network activity. Parvalbumin (PV)-expressing, fast-spiking interneurons interacting with pyramidal neurons generate cortical gamma oscillations (30 – 80 Hz) that synchronize cortical activity during cognitive processing. In postmortem studies of schizophrenia patients, these interneurons show reduced PV and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), an enzyme that synthesizes GABA, but the consequences of this downregulation are unclear. We developed a biophysically realistic and detailed computational model of a cortical circuit including asynchronous release from GABAergic interneurons to investigate how reductions in PV and GABA affect gamma oscillations induced by sensory stimuli. Networks with reduced GABA were disinhibited and had altered gamma oscillations in response to stimulation; PV-deficient GABA synapses had increased asynchronous release of GABA, which decreased the level of excitation and reduced gamma-band activity. Combined reductions of PV and GABA resulted in a diminished gamma-band oscillatory activity in response to stimuli, similar to that observed in schizophrenia patients. Our results suggest a mechanism by which reduced GAD67 and PV in fast-spiking interneurons may contribute to cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders. PMID:22159125

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation inhibits progesterone-stimulated human MUC1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Dharmaraj, Neeraja; Brayman, Melissa J; Carson, Daniel D

    2010-07-01

    Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein abundantly expressed on nearly all epithelial tissues and overexpressed by many cancer cells. Previous studies from our lab showed that progesterone receptor (PR)B is a strong stimulator of MUC1 gene expression. It is reported that liganded peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) stimulates Muc1 expression in murine trophoblast. Here, we demonstrate that although the PPARgamma ligand, rosiglitazone, stimulates the murine Muc1 promoter in HEC1A, a human uterine epithelial cell line, rosiglitazone alone, has no significant effect on basal human MUC1 promoter activity. In fact, rosiglitazone treatment antagonizes progesterone-stimulated human MUC1 promoter activity and protein expression in two human uterine epithelial cell lines and T47D human breast cancer cells. This response is antagonized by the PPARgamma antagonist, GW9662, as well as a dominant-negative form of PPARgamma, demonstrating the response is mediated by PPARgamma. Additional studies indicate that PPARgamma activation does not change PR binding to the MUC1 promoter but generally antagonizes progesterone activity by stimulating PRB degradation and inhibiting progesterone-induced PRB phosphorylation. Collectively, these studies indicate that PPARgamma activation inhibits PRB activity through both acute (phosphorylation) and long-term (PRB degradation) pathways.

  10. Renewed gamma-ray activity of the Blazar 3C 454.3 detected by AGILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Parmiggiani, N.; Fioretti, V.; Zoli, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Vercellone, S.; Piano, G.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Tavani, M.; Donnarumma, I.; Striani, E.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Ferrari, A.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2016-06-01

    The AGILE satellite is detecting a significant enhancement in gamma-ray activity from the FSRQ 3C 454.3 (known as 1AGLR J2254+1609) since the recent AGILE ATel #9157, and the optical activity reported in ATel #9150.

  11. Spontaneous fast gamma activity in the septal hippocampal region correlates with spatial learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, B R; Overstreet, C; Grillon, C

    2014-03-15

    Hippocampal neuronal populations exhibit multiple kinds of activity patterns, from the dominant theta rhythm during active exploration to high-frequency ripple-like activity during periods of relative inactivity. In animals, evidence is rapidly accruing that these high-frequency ripple activity patterns subserve retention of spatial learning performance. In a translational effort to address the possible function of offline hippocampal processes in humans, we measured spontaneous gamma activity during an awake rest period within a virtual spatial learning context. Whole-head magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings were taken while healthy participants (N=24) quietly rested (eyes open) between encoding and retrieval phases of a hippocampal-dependent virtual Morris water maze task. Results are that fast gamma activity (80-140 Hz) in the septal or posterior region of the hippocampus (bilaterally) was positively correlated across participants with subsequent within-session spatial learning rate. Fast gamma did not predict initial retrieval performance following rest, failing to provide evidence of a direct link between spontaneous high-frequency activity patterns during awake rest and consolidation of previous spatial memories. The findings nevertheless are consistent with a prospective role for offline human hippocampal processes in spatial learning and indicate that higher spontaneous gamma activity in the septal hippocampal region is related to faster updating of spatial knowledge in familiar virtual surroundings. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The analysis of C 60 and C 70 fullerenes by prompt gamma neutron activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Révay, Zs.; Belgya, T.; Molnár, G. L.; Rausch, H.; Braun, T.

    2006-06-01

    The capabilities of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGAA) are examined for fullerene samples. As shown PGAA is a promising instrumental technique for the determination of the light elements of the periodic table. These elements (C, H, O, N and B) were inaccessible by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as done by the authors in previous publications.

  13. Locomotor activity and tissues levels following acute administration of lambda- and gamma-cyhalothrin in rats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    raw motor activity counts and tissue levelsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Moser, G., Z. Liu, C. Schlosser, T. Spanogle, A. Chandrasekaran, and K. Mcdaniel. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute administration of lambda- and gamma-cyhalothrin in rats. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY. Academic Press Incorporated, Orlando, FL, USA, 313: 97-103, (2016).

  14. Testing of regolith of celestial bolides with active neutron gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrukhin, Andrey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Golovin, Dmitry; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Current space instruments for studying planet's surface include gamma ray spectrometers that detect natural radioactive isotopes as well as gamma-rays induced in subsurface by galactic cosmic rays. When measuring from celestial body's surface, statistics and amount of detected elements can be dramatically increased with active methods, where soil exposed to artificial flux of particles. One good example is the Russian Dynamic Albedo of Neutron (DAN) instrument onboard Martian Science Laboratory mission (Curiosity rover) developed in 2005-2011. It is the first active neutron spectrometer flown to another planet as part of a landed mission to investigate subsurface water distribution and which has now successfully operated for more than two years on the Martian surface. Presentation describes a number of space instruments for different landers and rovers being developed in Russian Space Research Institute for studying Moon and Mars, as well as method of active neutron and gamma spectrometry overview.

  15. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants ( P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  16. 11 kGy gamma irradiated demineralized bone matrix enhances osteoclast activity.

    PubMed

    Wong, May Y W; Yu, Yan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Woolford, Tracey; Morgan, David A F; Walsh, William R

    2014-07-01

    Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) allografts are widely used in orthopaedic clinics. However, the biological impact on its osteoinductivity after its sterilization process by gamma irradiation is not well studied. Furthermore, little is known about the relationship between residual calcium levels on osteoinductivity. We hypothesize that low-dose gamma irradiation retains the osteoinducitivity properties of DBM and causes ectopic bone formation. A randomised animal trial was performed to compare tissue and molecular responses of low-dose (11 kGy) gamma irradiated and non-irradiated human DBM at 6 weeks post-intramuscular implantation using an athymic rat model. In addition, we correlated residual calcium levels and bone formation in gamma irradiated DBM. A modified haematoxylin and eosin stain identified ectopic bony capsules at all implanted sites with no significant difference on the amount of new bone formed between the groups. Statistically significantly lower ratio of alkaline phosphatase expression over tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and/or cathepsin K expressions was found between the groups. This study found that low-dose gamma irradiated DBM, which provides a sterility assurance level of 10(-6) for bone allografts, retained osteoinductivity but exhibited significantly enhanced osteoclastic activity. Furthermore, this is the first study to find a positive correlation between residual calcium levels and bone formation in gamma irradiated DBM.

  17. Casein kinase 1 gamma couples Wnt receptor activation to cytoplasmic signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gary; Wu, Wei; Shen, Jinlong; Bilic, Josipa; Fenger, Ursula; Stannek, Peter; Glinka, Andrei; Niehrs, Christof

    2005-12-08

    Signalling by Wnt proteins (Wingless in Drosophila) has diverse roles during embryonic development and in adults, and is implicated in human diseases, including cancer. LDL-receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5 and LRP6; Arrow in Drosophila) are key receptors required for transmission of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in metazoa. Although the role of these receptors in Wnt signalling is well established, their coupling with the cytoplasmic signalling apparatus remains poorly defined. Using a protein modification screen for regulators of LRP6, we describe the identification of Xenopus Casein kinase 1 gamma (CK1gamma), a membrane-bound member of the CK1 family. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments show that CK1gamma is both necessary and sufficient to transduce LRP6 signalling in vertebrates and Drosophila cells. In Xenopus embryos, CK1gamma is required during anterio-posterior patterning to promote posteriorizing Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. CK1gamma is associated with LRP6, which has multiple, modular CK1 phosphorylation sites. Wnt treatment induces the rapid CK1gamma-mediated phosphorylation of these sites within LRP6, which, in turn, promotes the recruitment of the scaffold protein Axin. Our results reveal an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that couples Wnt receptor activation to the cytoplasmic signal transduction apparatus.

  18. Gamma activity modulated by naming of ambiguous and unambiguous images: intracranial recording

    PubMed Central

    Cho-Hisamoto, Yoshimi; Kojima, Katsuaki; Brown, Erik C; Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Asano, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Humans sometimes need to recognize objects based on vague and ambiguous silhouettes. Recognition of such images may require an intuitive guess. We determined the spatial-temporal characteristics of intracranially-recorded gamma activity (at 50–120 Hz) augmented differentially by naming of ambiguous and unambiguous images. METHODS We studied ten patients who underwent epilepsy surgery. Ambiguous and unambiguous images were presented during extraoperative electrocorticography recording, and patients were instructed to overtly name the object as it is first perceived. RESULTS Both naming tasks were commonly associated with gamma-augmentation sequentially involving the occipital and occipital-temporal regions, bilaterally, within 200 ms after the onset of image presentation. Naming of ambiguous images elicited gamma-augmentation specifically involving portions of the inferior-frontal, orbitofrontal, and inferior-parietal regions at 400 ms and after. Unambiguous images were associated with more intense gamma-augmentation in portions of the occipital and occipital-temporal regions. CONCLUSIONS Frontal-parietal gamma-augmentation specific to ambiguous images may reflect the additional cortical processing involved in exerting intuitive guess. Occipital gamma-augmentation enhanced during naming of unambiguous images can be explained by visual processing of stimuli with richer detail. SIGNIFICANCE Our results support the theoretical model that guessing processes in visual domain occur following the accumulation of sensory evidence resulting from the bottom-up processing in the occipital-temporal visual pathways. PMID:24815577

  19. Gamma activity modulated by picture and auditory naming tasks: intracranial recording in patients with focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Katsuaki; Brown, Erik C; Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Rothermel, Robert; Fuerst, Darren; Shah, Aashit; Mittal, Sandeep; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2013-09-01

    We measured the spatial, temporal and developmental patterns of gamma activity augmented by picture- and auditory-naming tasks and determined the clinical significance of naming-related gamma-augmentation. We studied 56 epileptic patients (age: 4-56 years) who underwent extraoperative electrocorticography. The picture-naming task consisted of naming of a visually-presented object; the auditory-naming task consisted of answering an auditorily-presented sentence question. Naming-related gamma-augmentation at 50-120 Hz involved the modality-specific sensory cortices during stimulus presentation and inferior-Rolandic regions during responses. Gamma-augmentation in the bilateral occipital and inferior/medial-temporal regions was more intense in the picture-naming than auditory-naming task, whereas that in the bilateral superior-temporal, left middle-temporal, left inferior-parietal, and left frontal regions was more intense in the auditory-naming task. Patients above 10 years old, compared to those younger, showed more extensive gamma-augmentation in the left dorsolateral-premotor region. Resection of sites showing naming-related gamma-augmentation in the left hemisphere assumed to contain essential language function was associated with increased risk of post-operative language deficits requiring speech therapy (p < 0.05). Measurement of gamma-augmentation elicited by either naming task was useful to predict postoperative language deficits. A smaller degree of frontal engagement in the picture-naming task can be explained by no requirement of syntactic processing or less working memory load. More extensive gamma-augmentation in the left dorsolateral-premotor region in older individuals may suggest more proficient processing by the mature brain. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Differential Interactions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor [gamma] Ligands with Tyr473 Is a Physical Basis for Their Unique Biological Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Einstein, Monica; Akiyama, Taro E.; Castriota, Gino A.; Wang, Chuanlin F.; McKeever, Brian; Mosley, Ralph T.; Becker, Joseph W.; Moller, David E.; Meinke, Peter T.; Wood, Harold B.; Berger, Joel P.

    2008-08-01

    Despite their proven antidiabetic efficacy, widespread use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){gamma} agonists has been limited by adverse cardiovascular effects. To overcome this shortcoming, selective PPAR{gamma} modulators (SPPAR{gamma}Ms) have been identified that have antidiabetic efficacy comparable with full agonists with improved tolerability in preclinical species. The results of structural studies support the proposition that SPPAR{gamma}Ms interact with PPAR{gamma} differently from full agonists, thereby providing a physical basis for their novel activities. Herein, we describe a novel PPAR{gamma} ligand, SPPAR{gamma}M2. This compound was a partial agonist in a cell-based transcriptional activity assay, with diminished adipogenic activity and an attenuated gene signature in cultured human adipocytes. X-ray cocrystallography studies demonstrated that, unlike rosiglitazone, SPPAR{gamma}M2 did not interact with the Tyr473 residue located within helix 12 of the ligand binding domain (LBD). Instead, SPPAR{gamma}M2 was found to bind to and activate human PPAR{gamma} in which the Tyr473 residue had been mutated to alanine (hPPAR{gamma}Y473A), with potencies similar to those observed with the wild-type receptor (hPPAR{gamma}WT). In additional studies, we found that the intrinsic binding and functional potencies of structurally distinct SPPAR{gamma}Ms were not diminished by the Y473A mutation, whereas those of various thiazolidinedione (TZD) and non-TZD PPAR{gamma} full agonists were reduced in a correlative manner. These results directly demonstrate the important role of Tyr473 in mediating the interaction of full agonists but not SPPAR{gamma}Ms with the PPAR{gamma} LBD, thereby providing a precise molecular determinant for their differing pharmacologies.

  1. Intravenous immunoglobulin ameliorates ITP via activating Fc gamma receptors on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Siragam, Vinayakumar; Crow, Andrew R; Brinc, Davor; Song, Seng; Freedman, John; Lazarus, Alan H

    2006-06-01

    Despite a more than 20-year experience of therapeutic benefit, the relevant molecular and cellular targets of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in autoimmune disease remain unclear. Contrary to the prevailing theories of IVIg action in autoimmunity, we show that IVIg drives signaling through activating Fc gamma receptors (Fc gammaR) in the amelioration of mouse immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The actual administration of IVIg was unnecessary because as few as 10(5) IVIg-treated cells could, upon adoptive transfer, ameliorate ITP. IVIg did not interact with the inhibitory Fc gammaRIIB on the initiator cell, although Fc gammaRIIB does have a role in the late phase of IVIg action. Notably, only IVIg-treated CD11c+ dendritic cells could mediate these effects. We hypothesize that IVIg forms soluble immune complexes in vivo that prime dendritic-cell regulatory activity. In conclusion, the clinical effects of IVIg in ameliorating ITP seem to involve the acute interaction of IVIg with activating Fc gammaR on dendritic cells.

  2. Subthalamic nucleus gamma activity increases not only during movement but also during movement inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Petra; Pogosyan, Alek; Herz, Damian M; Cheeran, Binith; Green, Alexander L; Fitzgerald, James; Aziz, Tipu Z; Hyam, Jonathan; Little, Simon; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter; Tan, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    Gamma activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is widely viewed as a pro-kinetic rhythm. Here we test the hypothesis that rather than being specifically linked to movement execution, gamma activity reflects dynamic processing in this nucleus. We investigated the role of gamma during fast stopping and recorded scalp electroencephalogram and local field potentials from deep brain stimulation electrodes in 9 Parkinson’s disease patients. Patients interrupted finger tapping (paced by a metronome) in response to a stop-signal sound, which was timed such that successful stopping would occur only in ~50% of all trials. STN gamma (60–90 Hz) increased most strongly when the tap was successfully stopped, whereas phase-based connectivity between the contralateral STN and motor cortex decreased. Beta or theta power seemed less directly related to stopping. In summary, STN gamma activity may support flexible motor control as it did not only increase during movement execution but also during rapid action-stopping. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23947.001 PMID:28742498

  3. Gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in mammary gland of pregnant rats and its regulation by ovarian hormones, prolactin and placental lactogen.

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, L E; Deis, R P

    1984-01-01

    Ovariectomy and ovariectomy plus hysterectomy on day 18 of pregnancy increased gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in the mammary gland. The withdrawal of progesterone and the subsequent release of prolactin are responsible for the rise in enzyme activity. Rat placental lactogen in the absence of prolactin and progesterone is able to induce gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. PMID:6149746

  4. Diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Galactic center and implications of its past activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Kimura, Shigeo S.; Murase, Kohta

    2017-01-01

    It has been indicated that low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) are accelerating high-energy cosmic-ray (CR) protons in their radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs). If this is the case, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) should also be generating CR protons, because Sgr A* is a LLAGN. Based on this scenario, we calculate a production rate of CR protons in Sgr A* and their diffusion in the central molecular zone (CMZ) around Sgr A*. The CR protons diffusing in the CMZ create gamma-rays through pp interaction. We show that the gamma-ray luminosity and spectrum are consistent with observations if Sgr A* was active in the past.

  5. Phospholipase C-gamma 1 can induce DNA synthesis by a mechanism independent of its lipase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M R; Liu, Y L; Matthews, N T; Rhee, S G; Sung, W K; Kung, H F

    1994-01-01

    Inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is involved in several signaling pathways leading to cellular growth and differentiation. Our previous studies reported the induction of DNA synthesis in quiescent NIH 3T3 cells after microinjection of PLC and the inhibition of serum- or Ras-stimulated DNA synthesis by a mixture of monoclonal antibodies to PLC-gamma 1. In the course of our investigation of anti-PLC-gamma 1 monoclonal antibodies, we found that each antibody exerts different inhibitory effects on the phosphatidylinositol-hydrolyzing activity of PLC-gamma 1 and that the inhibition of enzymatic activity does not correlate with the inhibition of DNA synthesis observed in the microinjection assay. PLC-gamma 1 with defective enzymatic activity was synthesized by substituting phenylalanine for histidine within the PLC-gamma 1 catalytic domain at amino acids 335 and 380, and mutant enzymes were expressed using a vaccinia expression system. The mutant enzymes were purified and microinjected into quiescent NIH 3T3 cells to evaluate their mitogenic activity. A moderate induction of DNA synthesis occurred after injection of mutant PLC-gamma 1. This mitogenic activity was inhibited by an antibody (alpha E 8-4) that does not significantly inhibit PLC-gamma 1 enzyme activity, which indicates that something else has to be inhibited. Furthermore, the partial induction of DNA synthesis observed with mutant PLC-gamma 1 was increased to levels seen with wild-type PLC-gamma 1 by coinjection of mutant PLC-gamma 1 with two second messengers, diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate. These results suggest that the mitogenic activity of PLC-gamma 1 does not exclusively result from the enzymatic activity of the lipase and that another activity inherent to the PLC-gamma 1 molecule can also induce DNA synthesis in quiescent cells. Images PMID:8022819

  6. Synthesis of theanine from glutamic acid gamma-methyl ester and ethylamine catalyzed by Escherichia coli having gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Zheng, Qing-Zhong; Jiao, Qing-Cai; Liu, Jun-Zhong; Zhao, Gen-Hai

    2010-08-01

    Glutamic acid gamma-methyl ester (GAME) was used as substrate for theanine synthesis catalyzed by Escherichia coli cells possessing gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity. The yield was about 1.2-fold higher than with glutamine as substrate. The reaction was optimal at pH 10 and 45 degrees C, and the optimal substrate ratio of GAME to ethylamine was 1:10 (mol/mol). With GAME at 100 mmol, 95 mmol theanine was obtained after 8 h.

  7. Carbonic anhydrase III regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterberger, Maria C.; Kim, Geumsoo; Rostek, Ursula; Levine, Rodney L.; Zwerschke, Werner

    2012-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is an isoenzyme of the CA family. Because of its low specific anhydrase activity, physiological functions in addition to hydrating CO{sub 2} have been proposed. CAIII expression is highly induced in adipogenesis and CAIII is the most abundant protein in adipose tissues. The function of CAIII in both preadipocytes and adipocytes is however unknown. In the present study we demonstrate that adipogenesis is greatly increased in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from CAIII knockout (KO) mice, as demonstrated by a greater than 10-fold increase in the induction of fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP4) and increased triglyceride formation in CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs compared with CAIII{sup +/+} cells. To address the underlying mechanism, we investigated the expression of the two adipogenic key regulators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2 (PPAR{gamma}2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-{alpha}. We found a considerable (approximately 1000-fold) increase in the PPAR{gamma}2 expression in the CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous CAIII in NIH 3T3-L1 preadipocytes resulted in a significant increase in the induction of PPAR{gamma}2 and FABP4. When both CAIII and PPAR{gamma}2 were knocked down, FABP4 was not induced. We conclude that down-regulation of CAIII in preadipocytes enhances adipogenesis and that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenic differentiation which acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discover a novel function of Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that CAIII acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our data contribute to a better understanding of the role of CAIII in fat tissue.

  8. A bulk analysis system using the prompt gamma neutron activation method and neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Ali; Heidary, Saeed; Gholipour Peyvandi, Reza

    2017-06-01

    In this work, an on-line and bulk analysis system based on the prompt gamma neutron activation method and neural network is introduced. Using a setup that includes a 252Cf source and a BGO scintillator detector, a set of semi-experimental data obtained from cement raw materials is produced to train an optimized neural network. The neural network is trained based on a back-propagation algorithm with 100 experimental prompt gamma-ray spectra. The elements existing in the different cement samples are specified. With a good precision compared to the least square analysis, the ANN (Artificial Neural Network) could identify elements. One of the key points in this work is that more than 100 different prompt gamma spectra of neutron activated samples were produced without the need for different cement samples or Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. Monte-carlo simulation of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis system with a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyunha; Hong, Byungsik; Lee, Kyong-Sei; Lee, Sungman; Cha, Hyungki

    2012-09-01

    The prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system is a useful tool to detect the concentrations of the various composite elements of a sample by measuring the prompt gammas that are activated by neutrons. The composition in terms of the constituent elements is essential information for the identification of the material species of any unknown object. A PGNAA system initiated by a high-power laser has been designed and optimized by using a Monte-Carlo simulation. In order to improve the signal-to-background ratio, we designed an improved neutron-shielding structure and imposed a proper time window in the analysis. In particular, the yield ratio of nitrogen to carbon in a TNT sample was investigated in detail. These simulation results demonstrate that the gamma rays from an explosive sample under a vast level of background can indeed be identified.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulates expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Hanne; Haldosen, Lars-Arne . E-mail: Lars-Arne.Haldosen@mednut.ki.se

    2006-05-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) has been shown to be important for terminal differentiation of mammary epithelial cells. In order to understand regulation of expression of STAT5A, the 5' end of the mouse Stat5a gene was isolated. Putative regulatory elements was searched for and several peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs) were found, one with high (12/13 nucleotides) and three with less (8-10/13) similarity to the reported consensus sequence. Mouse mammary epithelial HC11 cells were treated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) ligand, the thiazolidinedione (TZD) troglitazone, and an increase in STAT5A protein expression was seen. The 5' flank of Stat5a gene was cloned in a luciferase reporter vector. A concentration dependent activation of the STAT5A-luciferase reporter was detected, when transiently transfected HC11 cells were treated with TZD. The activation could be inhibited by treatment with a PPAR{gamma} antagonist. It has earlier been shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces MAPK phosphorylation of PPAR{gamma} resulting in a less transcriptionally active receptor. In HC11 cells, EGF inhibited TZD induced STAT5A-reporter activity suggesting that our previously reported EGF-mediated suppression of STAT5A expression is mediated in all or partly through inhibition of PPAR{gamma} activity. Furthermore, the MEK inhibitor PD98059 inhibited the EGF effect. All together, data presented suggest that PPAR{gamma} participates in regulation of STAT5A expression.

  11. FEF-Controlled Alpha Delay Activity Precedes Stimulus-Induced Gamma-Band Activity in Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Popov, Tzvetan; Kastner, Sabine; Jensen, Ole

    2017-04-12

    Recent findings in the visual system of nonhuman primates have demonstrated an important role of gamma-band activity (40-100 Hz) in the feedforward flow of sensory information, whereas feedback control appears to be established dynamically by oscillations in the alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-18 Hz) bands (van Kerkoerle et al., 2014; Bastos et al., 2015). It is not clear, however, how alpha oscillations are controlled and how they interact with the flow of visual information mediated by gamma-band activity. Using noninvasive human MEG recordings in subjects performing a visuospatial attention task, we show that fluctuations in alpha power during a delay period in a spatial attention task preceded subsequent stimulus-driven gamma-band activity. Importantly, these interactions correlated with behavioral performance. Using Granger analysis, we further show that the right frontal-eye field (rFEF) exerted feedback control of the visual alpha oscillations. Our findings suggest that alpha oscillations controlled by the FEF route cortical information flow by modulating gamma-band activity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual perception relies on a feedforward flow of information from sensory regions, which is modulated by a feedback drive. We have identified the neuronal dynamics supporting integration of the feedforward and feedback information. Alpha oscillations in early visual regions reflect feedback control when spatial attention is allocated and this control is exercised by the right frontal eye field. Importantly, the alpha-band activity predicted both performance and activity in the gamma band. In particular, gamma activity was modulated by the phase of the alpha oscillations. These findings provide novel insight into how the brain operates as a network and suggest that the integration of feedforward and feedback information is implemented by cross-frequency interactions between slow and fast neuronal oscillations.

  12. Selective modulation of promoter recruitment and transcriptional activity of PPAR{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Dorothy D. Hsiao, Albert; Ofrecio, Jachelle M.; Chapman, Justin; He, Weimin; Olefsky, Jerrold M.

    2007-12-21

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) is a nuclear receptor regulated by the insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinediones (TZDs). We studied selective modulation of endogenous genes by PPAR{gamma} ligands using microarray, RNA expression kinetics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found over 300 genes that were significantly regulated the TZDs pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and troglitazone. TZD-mediated expression profiles were unique but overlapping. Ninety-one genes were commonly regulated by all three ligands. TZD time course and dose-response studies revealed gene- and TZD-specific expression kinetics. PEPCK expression was induced rapidly but PDK4 expression was induced gradually. Troglitazone EC{sub 50} values for PEPCK, PDK4, and RGS2 regulation were greater than those for pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. TZDs differentially induced histone acetylation of and PPAR{gamma} recruitment to target gene promoters. Selective modulation of PPAR{gamma} by TZDs resulted in distinct expression profiles and transcription kinetics which may be due to differential promoter activation and chromatin remodeling of target genes.

  13. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, D.; Halide, H.; Wahab, A. W.; Kurniawan, D.

    2014-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  14. Functional activation of p53 via phosphorylation following DNA damage by UV but not gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, M; Lozano, G

    1998-03-17

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a nuclear phosphoprotein in which DNA-binding activity is increased on exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as UV or gamma radiation by unknown mechanisms. Because phosphorylation of p53 at the casein kinase (CK) II site activates p53 for DNA-binding function in vitro, we sought to determine the in vivo relevance of phosphorylation at this site after UV and gamma radiation. A polyclonal antibody was generated that binds to bacterially expressed p53 only when phosphorylated in vitro by CK II. Using this antibody, we showed that p53 is phosphorylated at the CK II site upon UV treatment of early passage rat embryo fibroblasts and RKO cells. In addition, DNA-binding assays indicated that phosphorylated p53 bound to a p53-responsive element, suggesting functional activation. However, gamma radiation, which also stabilizes p53, did not result in phosphorylation at the CK II site. These results indicate that phosphorylation at the CK II site is one of the post-translational mechanisms through which p53 is activated in response to UV radiation and that different mechanisms activate p53 after DNA damage by gamma radiation.

  15. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, D. Halide, H. Kurniawan, D.; Wahab, A. W.

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  16. Thiazolidinediones repress ob gene expression in rodents via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, P; Lefebvre, A M; Miller, S G; Guerre-Millo, M; Wong, K; Saladin, R; Hamann, L G; Staels, B; Briggs, M R; Auwerx, J

    1996-01-01

    The ob gene product, leptin, is a signaling factor regulating body weight and energy balance. ob gene expression in rodents is increased in obesity and is regulated by feeding patterns and hormones, such as insulin and glucocorticoids. In humans with gross obesity, ob mRNA levels are higher, but other modulators of human ob expression are unknown. In view of the importance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in adipocyte differentiation, we analyzed whether ob gene expression is subject to regulation by factors activating PPARs. Treatment of rats with the PPARalpha activator fenofibrate did not change adipose tissue and body weight and had no significant effect on ob mRNA levels. However, administration of the thiazolidinedione BRL49653, a PPARgamma ligand, increased food intake and adipose tissue weight while reducing ob mRNA levels in rats in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory action of the thiazolidinedione BRL49653 on ob mRNA levels was also observed in vitro. Thiazolidinediones reduced the expression of the human ob promoter in primary adipocytes, however, in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes lacking endogenous PPARgamma, cotransfection of PPARgamma was required to observe the decrease. In conclusion, these data suggest that PPARgamma activators reduce ob mRNA levels through an effect of PPARgamma on the ob promoter. PMID:8770873

  17. The dynamics of EEG gamma responses to unpleasant visual stimuli: from local activity to functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Martini, Nicola; Menicucci, Danilo; Sebastiani, Laura; Bedini, Remo; Pingitore, Alessandro; Vanello, Nicola; Milanesi, Matteo; Landini, Luigi; Gemignani, Angelo

    2012-04-02

    Many electroencephalographic (EEG) studies on the cortical dynamics induced by unpleasant picture viewing demonstrated the modulation of event-related potentials (ERPs) components as a function of valence and the increase of gamma band responses to emotional stimuli; while only a few studies investigated phase synchronization phenomena such as inter-trial or between regions phase locking of gamma responses to emotional stimulation. The aim of this study was to provide a complete description of the cortical dynamics induced by unpleasant and neutral pictures viewing, from the ERP averages to gamma rhythm modulation, and its phase synchronization. Gamma rhythm modulation was estimated by the event-related synchronization (ERS) approach, and phase synchrony between trials and between cortical regions was studied by extending the phase-locking statistics (PLS) approach. Consistent with previous literature, an increase in P300 and late positive potential and an increase in gamma activity during viewing of unpleasant pictures as compared to neutral ones were found. No inter-trial synchronization was evoked by the stimuli, whereas widespread phase locking between sites was identified. In particular, differences in gamma synchronization between unpleasant and neutral stimuli were found. Specifically, at early (0-250 ms) lags from stimulus onset, in the 38-45 Hz gamma interval, stronger inter-site synchronizations for the unpleasant stimuli, even though quite widespread across the scalp, mainly involved the interhemispheric synchronization between temporal and frontal regions. In contrast, in the 30-37 Hz gamma interval, stronger synchronizations for the responses to neutral trials were found in the 500-750 time interval, mainly involving the temporo-parietal regions. These findings suggest that the full elaboration of unpleasant stimuli requires a tight interhemispheric communication between temporal and frontal regions that is realized by means of phase synchronization at

  18. 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates phospholipase C-gamma in rat colonocytes: role of c-Src in PLC-gamma activation.

    PubMed Central

    Khare, S; Bolt, M J; Wali, R K; Skarosi, S F; Roy, H K; Niedziela, S; Scaglione-Sewell, B; Aquino, B; Abraham, C; Sitrin, M D; Brasitus, T A; Bissonnette, M

    1997-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) rapidly stimulated polyphosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis, raised intracellular Ca2+, and activated two Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, PKC-alpha and -betaII in the rat large intestine. We also showed that the direct addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 to isolated colonic membranes failed to stimulate PI hydrolysis, but required secosteroid treatment of intact colonocytes, suggesting the involvement of a soluble factor. Furthermore, this PI hydrolysis was restricted to the basal lateral plasma membrane of these cells. In the present studies, therefore, we examined whether polyphosphoinositide-phospholipase C-gamma (PI-PLC-gamma), a predominantly cytosolic isoform of PI-PLC, was involved in the hydrolysis of colonic membrane PI by 1,25(OH)2D3. This isoform has been shown to be activated and membrane-associated by tyrosine phosphorylation. We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a significant increase in the biochemical activity, particulate association, and the tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma, specifically in the basal lateral membranes. This secosteroid also induced a twofold increase in the activity of Src, a proximate activator of PLC-gamma in other cells, with peaks at 1 and 9 min in association with Src tyrosine dephosphorylation. 1,25(OH)2D3 also increased the physical association of activated c-Src with PLC-gamma. In addition, Src isolated from colonocytes treated with 1,25(OH)2D3, demonstrated an increased ability to phosphorylate exogenous PLC-gamma in vitro. Inhibition of 1,25(OH)2D3-induced Src activation by PP1, a specific Src family protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked the ability of this secosteroid to stimulate the translocation and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma in the basolateral membrane (BLM). Src activation was lost in D deficiency, and was reversibly restored with the in vivo repletion of 1,25(OH)2D3. These studies demonstrate for the first time

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods, Chungkookjang and Doenjang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Son, Jun-Ho; Yook, Hong-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2002-06-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods were investigated. Chungkookjang, the whole cooked soybean product and Doenjang, soybean paste were purchased and irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy of absorbed doses. The physiological activity was evaluated by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, xanthine oxidase inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition and radical scavenging ability and results indicated that at 10 kGy or below did not show any significant change on physiological activities by irradiation.

  20. Results of mobile gamma scanning activities in Tonawanda, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.D.; Witt, D.A.; Rodriguez, R.E.; Carrier, R.F.

    1990-12-01

    During the 1940s, the Linde Air Products Division of Union Carbide operated a plant in Tonawanda, New York, for the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Uranium production and some nickel processing were conducted at the site. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Guidelines for release and use of such sites have become more stringent as research has provided more information since previous cleanups. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established as part of that effort to confirm the closeout status of facilities under contract to agencies preceding DOE during early nuclear energy development. Under the FUSRAP program, the Linde site itself has been previously investigated to determine the extent of on-site radiological contamination. As a precaution to insure that no residual radioactive materials were transported off-site, the Department of Energy requested that ORNL survey the area in the vicinity of the Linde Plant, the waste water treatment facility on Tower Road, the Sheridan Park Fire Station (District 4), and the Tonawanda Landfill to assess whether any residual radioactive material could be detected. The survey was conducted the week of April 3, 1990. Results of analysis of soil samples from the Tonawanda Landfill revealed slightly elevated concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra suggestive of residuals from former Linde Plant operations. Therefore, it is recommended that additional surveying of the landfill property and of Sheridan Creek from south of the Linde property to its confluence with the Niagara River be conducted. The survey should include the measurement of gamma radiation levels and radionuclide analysis of silt samples. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) induces cell death through MAPK-dependent mechanism in osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Hun; Yoo, Chong Il; Kim, Hui Taek; Park, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Chae Hwa; Keun Kim, Yong . E-mail: kim430@pusan.ac.kr

    2006-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) subfamilies in cell death induced by PPAR{gamma} agonists in osteoblastic cells. Ciglitazone and troglitazone, PPAR{gamma} agonists, resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent cell death, which was largely attributed to apoptosis. But a PPAR{alpha} agonist ciprofibrate did not affect the cell death. Ciglitazone caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ciglitazone-induced cell death was prevented by antioxidants, suggesting an important role of ROS generation in the ciglitazone-induced cell death. ROS generation and cell death induced by ciglitazone were inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662. Ciglitazone treatment caused activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38. Activation of ERK was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and that of p38 was independent. Ciglitazone-induced cell death was significantly prevented by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK upstream kinase MEK1/2, and SB203580, a p38 inhibitor. Ciglitazone treatment increased Bax expression and caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and its effect was prevented by N-acetylcysteine, PD98059, and SB203580. Ciglitazone induced caspase activation, which was prevented by PD98059 and SB203580. The general caspase inhibitor z-DEVD-FMK and the specific inhibitor of caspases-3 DEVD-CHO exerted the protective effect against the ciglitazone-induced cell death. The EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and suramin protected against the ciglitazone-induced cell death. Taken together, these findings suggest that the MAPK signaling pathways play an active role in mediating the ciglitazone-induced cell death of osteoblasts and function upstream of a mitochondria-dependent mechanism. These data may provide a novel insight into potential therapeutic strategies for treatment of osteoporosis.

  2. AGILE confirmation of enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Blazar 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Zoli, A.; Piano, G.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Tavani, M.; Donnarumma, I.; Vercellone, S.; Striani, E.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2016-06-01

    Following ATel #9148, reporting multi-wavelength activity from the BL Lac type blazar 1ES 1959+650, AGILE also detects increased gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV from a position compatible with this BL Lac source.

  3. Chemical composition and lipoxygenase activity in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) submitted to gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Érica Amanda de; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Sartori, Maria M. P.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2014-05-01

    Soybeans are an important food due to their functional and nutritional characteristics. However, consumption by western populations is limited by the astringent taste of soybeans and their derivatives which results from the action of lipoxygenase, an enzyme activated during product processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and specific activity of lipoxygenase in different soybean cultivars. Soybeans were stored in plastic bags and irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, lipids, ashes, crude fiber, and carbohydrates) and lipoxygenase specific activity were determined for each sample. Gamma irradiation induced a small increase of protein and lipid content in some soybean cultivars, which did not exceed the highest content of 5% and 26%, respectively, when compared to control. Lipoxygenase specific activity decreased in the three cultivars with increasing gamma irradiation dose. In conclusion, the gamma irradiation doses used are suitable to inactivate part of lipoxygenase while not causing expressive changes in the chemical composition of the cultivars studied.

  4. Measuring the activity of a 51Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 51Cr is presented.

  5. Stability evaluation and correction of a pulsed neutron generator prompt gamma activation analysis system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Source output stability is important for accurate measurement in prompt gamma neutron activation. This is especially true when measuring low-concentration elements such as in vivo nitrogen (~2.5% of body weight). We evaluated the stability of the compact DT neutron generator within an in vivo nitrog...

  6. Effects of selective REM sleep deprivation on prefrontal gamma activity and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Rosales-Lagarde, A; del Río-Portilla, Y; Sifuentes-Ortega, R; Alcántara-Quintero, B

    2015-05-01

    Given that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in executive functions and is deactivated and decoupled from posterior associative regions during REM sleep, that Gamma temporal coupling involved in information processing is enhanced during REM sleep, and that adult humans spend about 90 min of every 24h in REM sleep, it might be expected that REM sleep deprivation would modify Gamma temporal coupling and have a deteriorating effect on executive functions. We analyzed EEG Gamma activity and temporal coupling during implementation of a rule-guided task before and after REM sleep deprivation and its effect on verbal fluency, flexible thinking and selective attention. After two nights in the laboratory for adaptation, on the third night subjects (n=18) were randomly assigned to either selective REM sleep deprivation effectuated by awakening them at each REM sleep onset or, the same number of NREM sleep awakenings as a control for unspecific effects of sleep interruptions. Implementation of abstract rules to guide behavior required greater activation and synchronization of Gamma activity in the frontopolar regions after REM sleep reduction from 20.6% at baseline to just 3.93% of total sleep time. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups showed an overall improvement in executive task performance and no effect on their capacity to sustain selective attention. These results suggest that after one night of selective REM sleep deprivation executive functions can be compensated by increasing frontal activation and they still require the participation of supervisory control by frontopolar regions.

  7. Induced gamma-band activity elicited by visual representation of unattended objects.

    PubMed

    Martinovic, Jasna; Gruber, Thomas; Ohla, Kathrin; Müller, Matthias M

    2009-01-01

    Object recognition is achieved through neural mechanisms reliant on the activity of distributed neural assemblies that are thought to be coordinated by synchronous firing in the gamma-band range (>20 Hz). An outstanding question focuses on the extent to which the role of gamma oscillations in object recognition is dependent on attention. Attentional mechanisms determine the allocation of perceptual resources to objects in complex scenes biasing the outcome of their mutual competitive interactions. Would object-related enhancements in gamma activity also occur for unattended objects when perceptual resources are traded off to the processing of concurrent visual material? The present electroencephalogram study investigated event-related potentials and evoked (time- and phase-locked) and induced (non-time- and phase-locked to stimulus onset) gamma-band activity (GBA) using a visual discrimination task of low or high perceptual load at fixation. The task was performed while task-irrelevant familiar or unfamiliar objects coappeared in the surrounding central area. Attentional focus was kept at fixation by varying perceptual load between trials; in such conditions, only holistic object processing or low-level perceptual processing, requiring little or no attention, are thought to occur. Although evoked GBA remained unmodulated, induced GBA enhancements, specific to familiar object presentations, were observed, thus providing evidence for cortical visual representation of unattended objects. In addition, the effect was mostly driven by object-specific activity under low load, implying that, in cluttered or complex scenes, attentional selection likely plays a more significant role in object representation.

  8. Pedunculopontine Nucleus Gamma Band Activity-Preconscious Awareness, Waking, and REM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Francisco J.; D’Onofrio, Stasia M.; Luster, Brennon R.; Beck, Paige B.; Hyde, James Robert; Bisagno, Veronica; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a major component of the reticular activating system (RAS) that regulates waking and REM sleep, states of high-frequency EEG activity. Recently, we described the presence of high threshold, voltage-dependent N- and P/Q-type calcium channels in RAS nuclei that subserve gamma band oscillations in the mesopontine PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD). Cortical gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. That is, the RAS may play an early permissive role in volition. Our latest results suggest that (1) the manifestation of gamma band activity during waking may employ a separate intracellular pathway compared to that during REM sleep, (2) neuronal calcium sensor (NCS-1) protein, which is over expressed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, modulates gamma band oscillations in the PPN in a concentration-dependent manner, (3) leptin, which undergoes resistance in obesity resulting in sleep dysregulation, decreases sodium currents in PPN neurons, accounting for its normal attenuation of waking, and (4) following our discovery of electrical coupling in the RAS, we hypothesize that there are cell clusters within the PPN that may act in concert. These results provide novel information on the mechanisms controlling high-frequency activity related to waking and REM sleep by elements of the RAS. PMID:25368599

  9. Pedunculopontine Nucleus Gamma Band Activity-Preconscious Awareness, Waking, and REM Sleep.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Francisco J; D'Onofrio, Stasia M; Luster, Brennon R; Beck, Paige B; Hyde, James Robert; Bisagno, Veronica; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a major component of the reticular activating system (RAS) that regulates waking and REM sleep, states of high-frequency EEG activity. Recently, we described the presence of high threshold, voltage-dependent N- and P/Q-type calcium channels in RAS nuclei that subserve gamma band oscillations in the mesopontine PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD). Cortical gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. That is, the RAS may play an early permissive role in volition. Our latest results suggest that (1) the manifestation of gamma band activity during waking may employ a separate intracellular pathway compared to that during REM sleep, (2) neuronal calcium sensor (NCS-1) protein, which is over expressed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, modulates gamma band oscillations in the PPN in a concentration-dependent manner, (3) leptin, which undergoes resistance in obesity resulting in sleep dysregulation, decreases sodium currents in PPN neurons, accounting for its normal attenuation of waking, and (4) following our discovery of electrical coupling in the RAS, we hypothesize that there are cell clusters within the PPN that may act in concert. These results provide novel information on the mechanisms controlling high-frequency activity related to waking and REM sleep by elements of the RAS.

  10. AGILE detection of enhanced gamma-ray activity from BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piano, G.; Pittori, C.; Lucarelli, F.; Verrecchia, F.; Tavani, M.; Minervini, G.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Ursi, A.; Cardillo, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Zoli, A.; Donnarumma, I.; Vercellone, S.; Striani, E.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Paoletti, F.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2017-06-01

    AGILE is revealing enhanced gamma-ray activity above 100 MeV from a source positionally consistent with BL Lacertae (HB89 2200+420, z=0.0686). Integrating between 2017-06-04 UT 04:00:00 and 2017-06-06 UT 04:00:00, a preliminary multi-source likelihood analysis detects a gamma-ray flux F( > 100 MeV) = (3.5 +/- 1.0) x 10^-6 photons/cm^2/s with a significance greater than 5 sigma.

  11. Detection and depth profiling of hazardous elements using N-SCAN prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, F.H.; Congedo, T.V.; Dulloo, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    A low-background method of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) has been developed and demonstrated. This method employs a pulsed electronic neutron generator, a high resolution, high purity germanium detector, and microsecond coordination of neutron pulsing and gamma detection through a computer-controlled acquisition interface module. The system has been used to detect trace amounts of hazardous elements in concretes and soils to provide depth profiles of contaminant burden down to nearly 1 ft in packed soil, and also to perform rapid identification of the contents of munitions bearing simulants of chemical weapons agents.

  12. Fermi LAT detection of a continuing increase of gamma-ray activity of CTA 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orienti, M.; D'Ammando, F.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed gamma-ray flaring activity from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 (also known as 2FGL J2232.4+1143, Nolan et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 31) with radio coordinates R.A.: 338.1517038 deg, Dec: 11.7308067 deg (J2000, Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880) at redshift z=1.037 (Schmidt 1965, ApJ, 141, 1295).

  13. Nondestructive assay of TRU waste using gamma-ray active and passive computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G.P.; Decman, D.; Martz, H.; Keto, E.R.; Johansson, E.M.

    1995-10-04

    The authors have developed an active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) scanner for assaying radioactive waste drums. Here they describe the hardware components of their system and the software used for data acquisition, gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, and image reconstruction. They have measured the performance of the system using ``mock`` waste drums and calibrated radioactive sources. They also describe the results of measurements using this system to assay a real TRU waste drum with relatively low Pu content. The results are compared with X-ray NDE studies of the same TRU waste drum as well as assay results from segmented gamma scanner (SGS) measurements.

  14. Active Neutron and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for In Situ Planetary Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, A.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Nowicki, S.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the development of an instrument capable of detailed in situ bulk geochemical analysis of the surface of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets. This instrument technology uses a pulsed neutron generator to excite the solid materials of a planet and measures the resulting neutron and gamma-ray emission with its detector system. These time-resolved neutron and gamma-ray data provide detailed information about the bulk elemental composition, chemical context, and density distribution of the soil within 50 cm of the surface. While active neutron scattering and neutron-induced gamma-ray techniques have been used extensively for terrestrial nuclear well logging applications, our goal is to apply these techniques to surface instruments for use on any solid solar system body. As described, experiments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center use a prototype neutron-induced gamma-ray instrument and the resulting data presented show the promise of this technique for becoming a versatile, robust, workhorse technology for planetary science, and exploration of any of the solid bodies in the solar system. The detection of neutrons at the surface also provides useful information about the material. This paper focuses on the data provided by the gamma-ray detector.

  15. Active Neutron and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for In Situ Planetary Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, A.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Nowicki, S.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We describe the development of an instrument capable of detailed in situ bulk geochemical analysis of the surface of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets. This instrument technology uses a pulsed neutron generator to excite the solid materials of a planet and measures the resulting neutron and gamma-ray emission with its detector system. These time-resolved neutron and gamma-ray data provide detailed information about the bulk elemental composition, chemical context, and density distribution of the soil within 50 cm of the surface. While active neutron scattering and neutron-induced gamma-ray techniques have been used extensively for terrestrial nuclear well logging applications, our goal is to apply these techniques to surface instruments for use on any solid solar system body. As described, experiments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center use a prototype neutron-induced gamma-ray instrument and the resulting data presented show the promise of this technique for becoming a versatile, robust, workhorse technology for planetary science, and exploration of any of the solid bodies in the solar system. The detection of neutrons at the surface also provides useful information about the material. This paper focuses on the data provided by the gamma-ray detector.

  16. Analysis of Neutron Induced Gamma Activity in Lowbackground Ge - Spectroscopy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovančević, Nikola; Krmar, Midrag

    Neutron interactions with materials of Ge-spectroscopy systems are one of the main sources of background radiation in low-level gamma spectroscopy measurements. Because of that detailed analysis of neutron induced gamma activity in low-background Ge-spectroscopy systems was done. Two HPGe detectors which were located in two different passive shields: one in pre-WW II made iron and the second in commercial low background lead were used in the experiment. Gamma lines emitted after neutron capture, as well as after inelastic scattering on the germanium crystal and shield materials (lead, iron, hydrogen, NaI) were detected and then analyzed. The thermal and fast neutron fluxes were calculated and their values were compared for the two different kinds of detector shield. The relative intensities of several gamma lines emitted after the inelastic scattering of neutrons (created by cosmic muons) in 56Fe were report. These relative intensities of detected gamma lines of 56Fe are compared with the results collected in the same iron shield by the use of the 252Cf neutrons.

  17. THE REMARKABLE {gamma}-RAY ACTIVITY IN THE GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED BLAZAR PKS 1830-211

    SciTech Connect

    Donnarumma, I.; De Rosa, A.; Vittorini, V.; Tavani, M.; Striani, E.; Pacciani, L.; Popovic, L. C.; Simic, S.; Kuulkers, E.; Vercellone, S.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Giommi, P.; Barbiellini, G.; Bulgarelli, A.

    2011-08-01

    We report the extraordinary {gamma}-ray activity (E > 100 MeV) of the gravitationally lensed blazar PKS 1830-211 (z = 2.507) detected by AGILE between 2010 October and November. On October 14, the source experienced a factor of {approx}12 flux increase with respect to its average value and remained brightest at this flux level ({approx}500 x 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) for about four days. The one-month {gamma}-ray light curve across the flare showed a mean flux F(E > 100 MeV) = 200 x 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which resulted in a factor of four enhancement with respect to the average value. Following the {gamma}-ray flare, the source was observed in near-IR (NIR)-optical energy bands at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and in X-Rays by Swift/X-Ray Telescope and INTEGRAL/IBIS. The main result of these multifrequency observations is that the large variability observed in {gamma}-rays does not have a significant counterpart at lower frequencies: no variation greater than a factor of {approx}1.5 appeared in the NIR and X-Ray energy bands. PKS 1830-211 is then a good '{gamma}-ray only flaring' blazar showing substantial variability only above 10-100 MeV. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings.

  18. Fermi-LAT confirmation of enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. C.

    2016-10-01

    Preliminary LAT analysis confirms the recent enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula detected by AGILE (ATel #9586). The daily-averaged gamma-ray fluxes (E > 100 MeV) from the direction of the Crab Nebula were (4.8 +/- 0.5) x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 (Sep 30), (3.3 +/- 0.4) x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 (Oct 1), and (4.5 +/- 0.5) x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 (Oct 2). These are up to a factor of ~1.8 greater than the average gamma-ray flux of (2.71 +/- 0.02) x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 reported in the third Fermi-LAT source catalog (Acero et al. 2015, ApJS, 218, 23). All fluxes given are the sums of the pulsar and nebular emission, and with statistical uncertainties only.

  19. Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA): Technique of choice for nondestructive bulk analysis of returned comet samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, David J.; Lindstrom, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) is a well-developed analytical technique. The technique involves irradiation of samples in an external neutron beam from a nuclear reactor, with simultaneous counting of gamma rays produced in the sample by neutron capture. Capture of neutrons leads to excited nuclei which decay immediately with the emission of energetic gamma rays to the ground state. PGAA has several advantages over other techniques for the analysis of cometary materials: (1) It is nondestructive; (2) It can be used to determine abundances of a wide variety of elements, including most major and minor elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), volatiles (H, C, N, F, Cl, S), and some trace elements (those with high neutron capture cross sections, including B, Cd, Nd, Sm, and Gd); and (3) It is a true bulk analysis technique. Recent developments should improve the technique's sensitivity and accuracy considerably.

  20. AGILE confirmation of gamma-ray activity from the IceCube-170922A error region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Piano, G.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Tavani, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Minervini, G.; Ursi, A.; Vercellone, S.; Donnarumma, I.; Fioretti, V.; Zoli, A.; Striani, E.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Paoletti, F.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2017-09-01

    Following the IceCube observation of a high-energy neutrino candidate event, IceCube-170922A, at T0 = 17/09/22 20:54:30.43 UT (https://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/gcn3/21916.gcn3), and the detection of increased gamma-ray activity from a previously known Fermi-LAT gamma-ray source (3FGL J0509.4+0541) in the IceCube-170922A error region (ATel #10791), we have analysed the AGILE-GRID data acquired in the days before and after the neutrino event T0, searching for significant gamma-ray excess above 100 MeV from a position compatible with the IceCube and Fermi-LAT error regions.

  1. Fc gamma-receptor activity of isolated human placental syncytiotrophoblast plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, P J; Johnson, P M

    1981-01-01

    Fc gamma-receptor activity of isolated human placental syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membrane (StMPM) vesicle preparations has been determined in an immunoradiometric assay using Sepharose-immobilized protein A to separate free 125I-labelled human IgG from membrane-bound 125I-IgG. This receptor assay has been optimalized in terms of buffer pH and molarity, and used to demonstrate that prior 60 min washing of isolated membranes in 3 M KCl to remove extrinsic membrane-bound protein substantially increases the membrane-binding capacity for IgG. Inhibition studies have determined the syncytiotrophoblast Fc gamma-receptor equilibrium constant for association (Ka) as 4.0 x 10(7) M-1 at 37 degrees and the number of available Fc gamma-receptor sites as 1.5 x 10(14) per mg membrane protein. PMID:7461733

  2. Characterization of phospholipases C beta and gamma and their possible roles in Chaetopterus egg activation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xunqin; Eckberg, William R

    2009-05-01

    Intracellular calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum is a hallmark at egg activation of both vertebrates and invertebrates. This fertilization-associated calcium release results from generation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) by one or more phospholipases C (PLC). We characterized Chaetopterus PLCbeta and gamma by reverse transcription/degenerate oligonucleotide primed PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end PCR. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the deduced PLCbeta protein shared the greatest homology with mammalian PLCbeta4; the deduced PLCgamma protein shared the greatest homology with starfish PLCgamma and diverged from mammalian PLCgamma before mammalian the PLCgamma1 and gamma2 isoforms diverged. Western blot analyses with specific anti-PLCbeta and gamma antibodies, respectively, revealed that 135 and 150 kDa proteins were expressed in eggs. The general PLC antagonist U-73122 blocked fertilization-induced egg activation; however, the inactive analog, U-73343, had no effect on egg activation. We further tested whether egg activation was G protein-PLCbeta and/or protein tyrosine kinase-PLCgamma dependent. Cholera and pertussis toxins, well-known effectors of G proteins, had no effect on egg activation; while two antagonists of PTK, genistein and tyrphostin B42, inhibited both fertilization-induced and artificial egg activation. Taken together, our studies suggested that PLC activity from eggs contributes to Chaetopterus egg activation and PLCgamma might play an important role during this biological process.

  3. Secretion of a macrophage-activating factor distinct from interferon-gamma by human T cell clones.

    PubMed

    Andrew, P W; Rees, A D; Scoging, A; Dobson, N; Matthews, R; Whittall, J T; Coates, A R; Lowrie, D B

    1984-10-01

    Supernatants from clones of human T lymphocytes that were responding to a purified Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen were able to activate macrophages and macrophage-like myeloma cells (U937) to release increased amounts of the microbicidal agent hydrogen peroxide. The activity was not neutralized by monoclonal antibody against interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), was greater than could be accounted for by the IFN-gamma activity in the supernatants, and was separated from IFN-gamma by high performance liquid chromatography. It is evident that IFN-gamma is not the only macrophage activator released by T lymphocytes responding to microbial antigen, and may not even be the main one to enhance antimicrobial activity in infections such as tuberculosis.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Relationships of Electrocorticographic Alpha and Gamma Activity During Auditory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Potes, Cristhian; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Knight, Robert T.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging approaches have implicated multiple brain sites in musical perception, including the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus and adjacent perisylvian areas. However, the detailed spatial and temporal relationship of neural signals that support auditory processing is largely unknown. In this study, we applied a novel inter-subject analysis approach to electrophysiological signals recorded from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography (ECoG)) in ten human subjects. This approach allowed us to reliably identify those ECoG features that were related to the processing of a complex auditory stimulus (i.e., continuous piece of music) and to investigate their spatial, temporal, and causal relationships. Our results identified stimulus-related modulations in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and high gamma (70-110 Hz) bands at neuroanatomical locations implicated in auditory processing. Specifically, we identified stimulus-related ECoG modulations in the alpha band in areas adjacent to primary auditory cortex, which are known to receive afferent auditory projections from the thalamus (80 of a total of 15107 tested sites). In contrast, we identified stimulus-related ECoG modulations in the high gamma band not only in areas close to primary auditory cortex but also in other perisylvian areas known to be involved in higher-order auditory processing, and in superior premotor cortex (412/15107 sites). Across all implicated areas, modulations in the high gamma band preceded those in the alpha band by 280 ms, and activity in the high gamma band causally predicted alpha activity, but not vice versa (Granger causality, p < 1e–8). Additionally, detailed analyses using Granger causality identified causal relationships of high gamma activity between distinct locations in early auditory pathways within superior temporal gyrus (STG) and posterior STG, between posterior STG and inferior frontal cortex, and between STG and premotor cortex. Evidence suggests that these

  5. Immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight β-glucan depolymerized by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Yoo, Young-Choon; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    β-glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many microorganisms and cereals which possess immunomodulatory properties and have been used in the food, cosmetic and medical industry. In our previous study, β-glucan was depolymerized by gamma irradiation and leads to improve the solubility and viscosity. This study was carried out to evaluate the functional properties, mainly immune-enhancing activities of low molecular weight β-glucan fragmented by gamma irradiation. The results showed that RAW 264.7 macrophage cell stimulation activities of irradiated β-glucan were higher than that of non-irradiated β-glucan. In addition, the oral administration of gamma-irradiated β-glucan significantly increased the proliferation and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-2) release of spleen and Peyer's patch cells compared with non-irradiated β-glucan. In conclusion, gamma irradiation could be used as an effective method for the production of depolymerized β-glucan improved functional property such as immunomodulatory activity.

  6. To Perceive or Not Perceive: The Role of Gamma-band Activity in Signaling Object Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Castelhano, João; Rebola, José; Leitão, Bruno; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The relation of gamma-band synchrony to holistic perception in which concerns the effects of sensory processing, high level perceptual gestalt formation, motor planning and response is still controversial. To provide a more direct link to emergent perceptual states we have used holistic EEG/ERP paradigms where the moment of perceptual “discovery” of a global pattern was variable. Using a rapid visual presentation of short-lived Mooney objects we found an increase of gamma-band activity locked to perceptual events. Additional experiments using dynamic Mooney stimuli showed that gamma activity increases well before the report of an emergent holistic percept. To confirm these findings in a data driven manner we have further used a support vector machine classification approach to distinguish between perceptual vs. non perceptual states, based on time-frequency features. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were all above 95%. Modulations in the 30–75 Hz range were larger for perception states. Interestingly, phase synchrony was larger for perception states for high frequency bands. By focusing on global gestalt mechanisms instead of local processing we conclude that gamma-band activity and synchrony provide a signature of holistic perceptual states of variable onset, which are separable from sensory and motor processing. PMID:23785494

  7. Gamma band activity and the P3 reflect post-perceptual processes, not visual awareness

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, Michael A.; Padwal, Jennifer; Fennelly, Daniel; Martínez, Antígona; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    A primary goal in cognitive neuroscience is to identify neural correlates of conscious perception (NCC). By contrasting conditions in which subjects are aware versus unaware of identical visual stimuli, a number of candidate NCCs have emerged, among them induced gamma band activity in the EEG and the P3 event-related potential. In most previous studies, however, the critical stimuli were always directly relevant to the subjects’ task, such that aware versus unaware contrasts may well have included differences in post-perceptual processing in addition to differences in conscious perception per se. Here, in a series of EEG experiments, visual awareness and task relevance were manipulated independently. Induced gamma activity and the P3 were absent for task-irrelevant stimuli regardless of whether subjects were aware of such stimuli. For task-relevant stimuli, gamma and the P3 were robust and dissociable, indicating that each reflects distinct post-perceptual processes necessary for carrying-out the task but not for consciously perceiving the stimuli. Overall, this pattern of results challenges a number of previous proposals linking gamma band activity and the P3 to conscious perception. PMID:25063731

  8. Gamma band activity and the P3 reflect post-perceptual processes, not visual awareness.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Michael A; Padwal, Jennifer; Fennelly, Daniel; Martínez, Antígona; Hillyard, Steven A

    2014-11-01

    A primary goal in cognitive neuroscience is to identify neural correlates of conscious perception (NCC). By contrasting conditions in which subjects are aware versus unaware of identical visual stimuli, a number of candidate NCCs have emerged; among them are induced gamma band activity in the EEG and the P3 event-related potential. In most previous studies, however, the critical stimuli were always directly relevant to the subjects' task, such that aware versus unaware contrasts may well have included differences in post-perceptual processing in addition to differences in conscious perception per se. Here, in a series of EEG experiments, visual awareness and task relevance were manipulated independently. Induced gamma activity and the P3 were absent for task-irrelevant stimuli regardless of whether subjects were aware of such stimuli. For task-relevant stimuli, gamma and the P3 were robust and dissociable, indicating that each reflects distinct post-perceptual processes necessary for carrying-out the task but not for consciously perceiving the stimuli. Overall, this pattern of results challenges a number of previous proposals linking gamma band activity and the P3 to conscious perception.

  9. Beta and gamma oscillatory activities associated with olfactory memory tasks: different rhythms for different functional networks?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Claire; Ravel, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory processing in behaving animals, even at early stages, is inextricable from top down influences associated with odor perception. The anatomy of the olfactory network (olfactory bulb, piriform, and entorhinal cortices) and its unique direct access to the limbic system makes it particularly attractive to study how sensory processing could be modulated by learning and memory. Moreover, olfactory structures have been early reported to exhibit oscillatory population activities easy to capture through local field potential recordings. An attractive hypothesis is that neuronal oscillations would serve to “bind” distant structures to reach a unified and coherent perception. In relation to this hypothesis, we will assess the functional relevance of different types of oscillatory activity observed in the olfactory system of behaving animals. This review will focus primarily on two types of oscillatory activities: beta (15–40 Hz) and gamma (60–100 Hz). While gamma oscillations are dominant in the olfactory system in the absence of odorant, both beta and gamma rhythms have been reported to be modulated depending on the nature of the olfactory task. Studies from the authors of the present review and other groups brought evidence for a link between these oscillations and behavioral changes induced by olfactory learning. However, differences in studies led to divergent interpretations concerning the respective role of these oscillations in olfactory processing. Based on a critical reexamination of those data, we propose hypotheses on the functional involvement of beta and gamma oscillations for odor perception and memory. PMID:25002840

  10. Theta-Modulated Gamma-Band Synchronization Among Activated Regions During a Verb Generation Task

    PubMed Central

    Doesburg, Sam M.; Vinette, Sarah A.; Cheung, Michael J.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2012-01-01

    Expressive language is complex and involves processing within a distributed network of cortical regions. Functional MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have identified brain areas critical for expressive language, but how these regions communicate across the network remains poorly understood. It is thought that synchronization of oscillations between neural populations, particularly at a gamma rate (>30 Hz), underlies functional integration within cortical networks. Modulation of gamma rhythms by theta-band oscillations (4–8 Hz) has been proposed as a mechanism for the integration of local cell coalitions into large-scale networks underlying cognition and perception. The present study tested the hypothesis that these oscillatory mechanisms of functional integration were present within the expressive language network. We recorded MEG while subjects performed a covert verb generation task. We localized activated cortical regions using beamformer analysis, calculated inter-regional phase locking between activated areas, and measured modulation of inter-regional gamma synchronization by theta phase. The results show task-dependent gamma-band synchronization among regions activated during the performance of the verb generation task, and we provide evidence that these transient and periodic instances of high-frequency connectivity were modulated by the phase of cortical theta oscillations. These findings suggest that oscillatory synchronization and cross-frequency interactions are mechanisms for functional integration among distributed brain areas supporting expressive language processing. PMID:22707946

  11. Determination of activity of 51Cr on gamma radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A method of determining the activity of intensive distributed -sources on the measurement of the continuous spectrum of radiation, for example the internal bremsstrahlung, is developed. The recurrent formula for reconstructing of a continuous spectrum, registered in a Ge detector, at distorting it in the detector. The method of precise measurements of the spectrum of 51Cr internal bremsstrahlung using two point sources of low activity is described.

  12. The use of an active coded aperture for improved directional measurements in high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, A.; Beron, B. L.; Campbell, L.; Eichler, R.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Wilson, S.; Gorodetsky, P.

    1980-01-01

    The coded aperture, a refinement of the scatter-hole camera, offers a method for the improved measurement of gamma-ray direction in gamma-ray astronomy. Two prototype coded apertures have been built and tested. The more recent of these has 128 active elements of the heavy scintillator BGO. Results of tests for gamma-rays in the range 50-500 MeV are reported and future application in space discussed.

  13. The use of an active coded aperture for improved directional measurements in high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, A.; Beron, B. L.; Campbell, L.; Eichler, R.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Wilson, S.; Gorodetsky, P.

    1980-01-01

    The coded aperture, a refinement of the scatter-hole camera, offers a method for the improved measurement of gamma-ray direction in gamma-ray astronomy. Two prototype coded apertures have been built and tested. The more recent of these has 128 active elements of the heavy scintillator BGO. Results of tests for gamma-rays in the range 50-500 MeV are reported and future application in space discussed.

  14. [Effect of gamma-radiation and mitochondrial apoptogenic factors on nuclear protease activity].

    PubMed

    Kutsyĭ, M P; Kuznetsova, E A; Gluiaeva, N A; Gaziev, A I

    2002-01-01

    An increase in protease activity was shown in thymus nuclei of rats exposed to gamma-radiation. The activation of histone-specific proteases depended on the duration of postradiation period. Also, it was revealed that incubation of thymus nuclear with the intermembrane fraction of liver mitochondria caused degradation of histones and nonhistone nuclear proteins, as well as internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA. Simultaneously, nuclear proteases tightly bound to histones and specifically cleaving histones were observed to be activated by apoptogenic factors of the mitochondrial intermembrane fraction. Probably, the apoptogenic action of gamma-radiation involves not only a direct DNA damage that induces activation of DNA-dependent proteases but also an indirect component: destructive alterations in mitochondria leading to the exit of apoptogenic factors from the intermembrane space.

  15. Antioxidant activities of fucoidan degraded by gamma irradiation and acidic hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sangyong; Choi, Jong-il; Park, Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Low molecular weight fucoidan, prepared by radical degradation using gamma ray was investigated for its antioxidant activities with different assay methods. As the molecular weight of fucoidan decreased with a higher absorbed dose, ferric-reducing antioxidant power values increased, but β-carotene bleaching inhibition did not change significantly. The antioxidant activity of acid-degraded fucoidan was also examined to investigate the effect of different degradation methods. At the same molecular weight, fucoidan degraded by gamma irradiation showed higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than that observed with the acidic method. This result reveals that in addition to molecular weight, the degradation method affects the antioxidant activity of fucoidan.

  16. Altered polymorphonuclear leukocyte Fc gamma R expression contributes to decreased candicidal activity during intraabdominal sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, H.H.; D'Amico, R.; Monfils, P.; Burchard, K.W. )

    1991-03-01

    We investigated the effects of untreated intraabdominal sepsis on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) candicidal activity. Two groups of swine were studied. Group I (n=6) underwent sham laparotomy, group II (n=7) underwent cecal ligation and incision. Untreated intraabdominal sepsis resulted in a progressive decrease in PMN candicidal activity. Concomitant rosetting and phagocytosis assays demonstrated a decrease in both the attachment and phagocytosis of Candida albicans opsonized with both normal and septic swine serum by PMNs in group II. Iodine 125-labeled swine immunoglobulin G (IgG) and fluorescein isothioalanate (FITC)-labeled swine IgG were used to investigate Fc gamma receptor ligand interactions. Scatchard analyses demonstrated a progressive decline in both the binding affinity constant and number of IgG molecules bound per PMN. Stimulation of the oxidative burst markedly reduced 125I-labeled IgG binding in both group I and group II, with a greater decrement being seen in animals with intraabdominal sepsis. Further, in group II, PMN recycling of the Fc gamma receptor to the cell surface after generation of the oxidative burst was reduced by postoperative day 4. Binding of monoclonal antibodies to Fc gamma receptor II, but not Fc gamma receptor I/III markedly reduced intracellular candicidal activity. Immunofluorescence studies revealed a homogeneous pattern of FITC-IgG uptake by nearly all group I PMNs, whereas by postoperative day 8 a substantial number of PMNs from group II failed to internalize the FITC-IgG. These studies suggest that untreated intraabdominal sepsis reduces PMN candicidal activity and that this is due, in part, to altered PMN Fc gamma receptor ligand interactions.

  17. NOTE: Total body-calcium measurements: comparison of two delayed-gamma neutron activation facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Ellis, K. J.; Yasumura, S.; Shypailo, R. J.; Pierson, R. N., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    This study compares two independently calibrated delayed-gamma neutron activation (DGNA) facilities, one at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, New York, and the other at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), Houston, Texas that measure total body calcium (TBCa). A set of BNL phantoms was sent to CNRC for neutron activation analysis, and a set of CNRC phantoms was measured at BNL. Both facilities showed high precision (<2%), and the results were in good agreement, within 5%.

  18. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Irradiation together with Lipid A on Human Leukocytes Activities In Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakova, E.; Dubnickova, M.; Boreyko, A.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma irradiation and of Lipid A from Escherichia coli on phagocytosis, lyzosyme and peroxidase activities of human leukocytes, in vitro was investigated. Leukocytes samples were irradiated with 1 and 5 Gy, respectively. The number of irradiated leukocytes was decreased in the irradiated samples. Only samples with additive Lipid A were not damaged by irradiation. The Lipid A had positive influence on biological activities of the irradiated leukocytes.

  19. A new ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), GW7845, inhibits rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suh, N; Wang, Y; Williams, C R; Risingsong, R; Gilmer, T; Willson, T M; Sporn, M B

    1999-11-15

    We have tested a new ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, GW7845, as an inhibitor of experimental mammary carcinogenesis, using the classic rat model with nitrosomethylurea as carcinogen. Rats were first treated with a single dose of nitrosomethylurea (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). Starting 1 week later, they were fed GW7845, at either 60 or 30 mg/kg of diet, for 2 months. This agent significantly reduced tumor incidence, tumor number, and tumor weight at both doses. This is the first report of the use of a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma to prevent experimental breast cancer.

  20. Interactions between beta D372 and gamma subunit N-terminus residues gamma K9 and gamma S12 are important to catalytic activity catalyzed by Escherichia coli F1F0-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Lowry, David S; Frasch, Wayne D

    2005-05-17

    Substitution of Escherichia coli F(1)F(0) ATP synthase residues betaD372 or gammaS12 with groups that are unable to form a hydrogen bond at this location decreased ATP synthase-dependent cell growth by 2 orders of magnitude, eliminated the ability of F(1)F(0) to catalyze ATPase-dependent proton pumping in inverted E. coli membranes, caused a 15-20% decrease in the coupling efficiency of the membranes as measured by the extent of succinate-dependent acridine orange fluorescence quenching, but increased soluble F(1)-ATPase activity by about 10%. Substitution of gammaK9 to eliminate the ability to form a salt bridge with betaD372 decreased soluble F(1)-ATPase activity and ATPase-driven proton pumping by 2-fold but had no effect on the proton gradient induced by addition of succinate. Mutations to eliminate the potential to form intersubunit hydrogen bonds and salt bridges between other less highly conserved residues on the gamma subunit N-terminus and the beta subunits had little effect on ATPase or ATP synthase activities. These results suggest that the betaD372-gammaK9 salt bridge contributes significantly to the rate-limiting step in ATP hydrolysis of soluble F(1) while the betaD372-gammaS12 hydrogen bond may serve as a component of an escapement mechanism for ATP synthesis in which alphabetagamma intersubunit interactions provide a means to make substrate binding a prerequisite of proton gradient-driven gamma subunit rotation.

  1. Antifibrotic effect by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in corneal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongwei; Chen, Jiansu; Xu, Jintang; Chen, Miaojiao; Ma, Rong

    2009-11-10

    The transformation of quiescent keratocytes to active phenotypes and the ensuing fibrotic response play important roles in corneal scar formation. This study aims to observe the antifibrotic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist on corneal fibroblasts cultured in vitro, and to explore the potential application of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist to the prevention of corneal opacity following wound repair. Rabbit corneal keratocytes were cultured in a medium containing 10% serum to induce their transformation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, which are similar to those that repair corneas. After incubation with the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone at different concentrations, the effect of pioglitazone on the migration, contractility, and viability of corneal fibroblasts was examined. The secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was determined by gelatin zymography, and the synthesis of collagen I and fibronectin was investigated by western blotting. Treatment with pioglitazone at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mum significantly decreased corneal fibroblast migration, as determined by scrape-wound assay, inhibited corneal fibroblast-induced collagen lattice contraction, and reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion into the supernatant of cell cultures in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of fibronectin was significantly decreased, while the expression of collagen I was only decreased when treated with 10 mum pioglitazone. Cell viability was not evidently changed compared to the control. This in vitro study demonstrated the anti-fibrotic effect of pioglitazone, suggesting that activation of PPARgamma may be a new approach for the treatment of corneal opacity and scar formation in the corneal wound healing process.

  2. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is crucial for antitumoral effects of 6-iodolactone.

    PubMed

    Nava-Villalba, Mario; Nuñez-Anita, Rosa E; Bontempo, Alexander; Aceves, Carmen

    2015-09-17

    Molecular iodine (I2) exhibits antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on in vivo and in vitro cancer models. These effects are thought to be mediated by an iodinated arachidonic acid derivative, 6-iodolactone (6IL), and one of the proposed mechanisms is that 6IL activates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors type gamma (PPARG). These receptors have been implicated in the inhibition of carcinogenic processes, in addition to their classical role in maintaining lipid and glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine whether PPARG participates in the 6IL antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on the mammary cancer cell line MCF-7. The 6IL/PPARG complex was inhibited by the PPARG antagonist GW9662, in both an endogenous and overexpressed (adenoviral vector infection) context, and stable PPARG-knockdown MCF-7 cells (RNA interference, confirmed with hydrolysis probes and Western blot), were used to corroborate the PPARG participation. 6IL effects on proliferation (measured by Trypan Blue exclusion) and apoptosis (phosphatidylserine identification by flow cytometer) were evaluated in conditions of chemical inhibition (GW9662) and silencing (RNA interference). A wound-healing assay was conducted on wild-type and stable PPARG-knockdown MCF-7 cells to evaluate the antimigrational effect of 6IL. Caspase-8 activity was evaluated to determine if the extrinsic pathway is involved in the effects of 6IL and I2 treatment. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic 6IL effects require the activation of PPARG. In addition, wound-healing assays show that 6IL is able to inhibit MCF-7 cell migration and that PPARG plays a role in this phenomenon. Finally, the data exclude the participation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in 6IL- and I2-induced apoptosis. These results support the previously proposed mechanism, in which the I2 effects are mediated by 6IL, and they provide further support for the use of I2 as coadjuvant in breast cancer treatment.

  3. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the antibacterial activity of honey.

    PubMed

    Molan, P C; Allen, K L

    1996-11-01

    There is increasing usage of honey as a dressing on infected wounds, burns and ulcers, but there is some concern that there may be a risk of wound botulism from the clostridial spores sometimes found in honey. It is well-established that the antibacterial activity is heat-labile so would be destroyed if honey were sterilized by autoclaving, but the effect of gamma-irradiation on the antibacterial activity of honey is not known. Therefore an investigation was carried out to assess the effect on the antibacterial activity of honey when the honey was subjected to a commercial sterilization procedure using gamma-irradiation (25 kGy). Two honeys with antibacterial activity due to enzymically-generated hydrogen peroxide and three manuka honeys with non-peroxide antibacterial activity were investigated. The honeys were tested against Staphylococcus aureus in an agar well diffusion assay. There was no significant change found in either type of antibacterial activity resulting from this form of sterilization of honey, even when the radiation was doubled (to 50 kGy). Testing of honey seeded with spores of Clostridium perfringens and C. tetani (10000 and 1000 spores g-1 of honey, respectively) showed that 25 kGy of gamma-irradiation was sufficient to achieve sterility.

  4. Identification of estrogenic activity change in sewage, industrial and livestock effluents by gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byeong-Yong; Kang, Sung-Wook; Yoo, Jisu; Kim, Woong-Ki; Bae, Paek-Hyun; Jung, Jinho

    2012-11-01

    In this study, reduction of estrogenic activity in three different types of effluents from sewage, industrial and livestock wastewater treatment plants by gamma-irradiation was investigated using the yeast two-hybrid assay. After gamma-ray treatment at a dose of 10 kGy, estrogenic activities of sewage, industrial and livestock effluents decreased from 4.4 to 3.0, 1.5 to 1.0 and 16 to 9.9 ng-EEQ L-1, respectively. The substantial reduction of estrogenic activity in livestock effluent was attributable to the degradation of 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Although bisphenol A (BPA) was found at the highest concentration in all effluents, its contribution to the estrogenic activity was not significant due to its low relative estrogenic potency. Meanwhile, the calculated estrogenic activity based on concentrations of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA in the effluents significantly differed from the measured ones. Overestimation may have resulted by dissolved organic matters in effluents inhibiting the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, EE2 and BPA, whereas underestimation was likely due to estrogenic by-products generated by gamma-irradiation.

  5. Results of the survey activities and mobile gamma scanning in Monticello, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.; Berven, B.A.

    1985-11-01

    The town of Monticello, Utah, was once the site of an active mill which processed vanadium ore (1942 to 1948), and uranium ore (1948 to 1960). Properties in the vicinity of that mill have become contaminated with radioactive material from ore processing. The Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested by the Division of Remedial Action Projects (DRAP) in the Department of Energy (DOE) to: (1) identify potentially contaminated properties; (2) assess natural background radiation levels; and (3) rapidly assess the magnitude, extent, and type (i.e. ore, tailings, etc.) of contamination present on these properties (if any). This survey was conducted by RASA during April 1983. In addition to the 114 properties previously identified from historical information, the ORNL mobile gamma scanning van located 36 new properties exhibiting anomalous gamma radiation levels. Onsite surveys were conducted on 145 of the 150 total properties identified either historically or with the gamma scanning van. Of these 145 properties, 122 of them appeared to have some type of contaminated material present on them; however, only 48 appeared to be contaminated to the extent where they were in excess of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria (40 CFR 192). Twenty-one other properties were recommended for additional investigation (indoor gamma scanning and radon daughter measurements); of these, only ten required further analysis. This report provides the detailed data and analyses related to the radiological survey efforts performed by ORNL in Monticello, Utah.

  6. Telmisartan prevented cognitive decline partly due to PPAR-{gamma} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Mogi, Masaki; Li Jianmei; Tsukuda, Kana; Iwanami, Jun; Min, Li-Juan; Sakata, Akiko; Fujita, Teppei; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2008-10-24

    Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma}. Here, we investigated the preventive effect of telmisartan on cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. In ddY mice, intracerebroventricular injection of A{beta} 1-40 significantly attenuated their cognitive function evaluated by shuttle avoidance test. Pretreatment with a non-hypotensive dose of telmisartan significantly inhibited such cognitive decline. Interestingly, co-treatment with GW9662, a PPAR-{gamma} antagonist, partially inhibited this improvement of cognitive decline. Another ARB, losartan, which has less PPAR-{gamma} agonistic effect, also inhibited A{beta}-injection-induced cognitive decline; however the effect was smaller than that of telmisartan and was not affected by GW9662. Immunohistochemical staining for A{beta} showed the reduced A{beta} deposition in telmisartan-treated mice. However, this reduction was not observed in mice co-administered GW9662. These findings suggest that ARB has a preventive effect on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease, and telmisartan, with PPAR-{gamma} activation, could exert a stronger effect.

  7. Active dendrites mediate stratified gamma-range coincidence detection in hippocampal model neurons

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anindita; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal neurons exhibit gamma-phase preference in their spikes, selectively route inputs through gamma frequency multiplexing and are considered part of gamma-bound cell assemblies. How do these neurons exhibit gamma-frequency coincidence detection capabilities, a feature that is essential for the expression of these physiological observations, despite their slow membrane time constant? In this conductance-based modelling study, we developed quantitative metrics for the temporal window of integration/coincidence detection based on the spike-triggered average (STA) of the neuronal compartment. We employed these metrics in conjunction with quantitative measures for spike initiation dynamics to assess the emergence and dependence of coincidence detection and STA spectral selectivity on various ion channel combinations. We found that the presence of resonating conductances (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated or T-type calcium), either independently or synergistically when expressed together, led to the emergence of spectral selectivity in the spike initiation dynamics and a significant reduction in the coincidence detection window (CDW). The presence of A-type potassium channels, along with resonating conductances, reduced the STA characteristic frequency and broadened the CDW, but persistent sodium channels sharpened the CDW by strengthening the spectral selectivity in the STA. Finally, in a morphologically precise model endowed with experimentally constrained channel gradients, we found that somatodendritic compartments expressed functional maps of strong theta-frequency selectivity in spike initiation dynamics and gamma-range CDW. Our results reveal the heavy expression of resonating and spike-generating conductances as the mechanism underlying the robust emergence of stratified gamma-range coincidence detection in the dendrites of hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons. PMID:26018187

  8. Interaction of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation with gamma rays produced by a jet in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zbyszewska, Magda

    1994-01-01

    Recent observations by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory give evidence for the existence of a type of blazar with strong gamma-ray emission. Data obtained by EGRET for the quasar 3C 279 show a spectrum between 100 MeV and 10 GeV. Photons of such energies should interact with the X-rays and produce positron/electron pairs. If the optical depth against pair production for the gamma rays is large (tau(gamma gamma) greater than 1), the gamma-ray spectrum should be affected. The importance of this process has been pointed out by, e.g., Maraschi, Ghisellini, & Celotti (1992). Several works (e.g., Dermer 1993; Zbyszewska 1993; Sikora, Begelman, & Rees 1993) concerning gamma-ray radiation from quasar 3C 279 have proposed a model in which the gamma rays are produced via interaction between a moving cloud of relativistic electrons and external soft photons. The presence of gamma rays in active galactic nuclei spectra gives constraints on the localization and the luminosity of the medium which produces ultraviolet/X-ray photons. We investigate what conditions should be fulfilled in the above model to avoid the absorption of the gamma rays due to pair production.

  9. Tyrosine kinase activity is essential for the association of phospholipase C-gamma with the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, B; Bellot, F; Honegger, A M; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J; Zilberstein, A

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment of NIH 3T3 cells transfected with wild-type EGF receptor induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma). The EGF receptor and PLC-gamma were found to be physically associated such that antibodies directed against PLC-gamma or the EGF receptor coimmunoprecipitated both proteins. The association between PLC-gamma and wild-type EGF receptor was dependent on the concentration of EGF, but EGF did not enhance the association between PLC-gamma and a kinase-negative mutant of the EGF receptor. Oligomerization of the EGF receptor was not sufficient to induce association of the EGF receptor with PLC-gamma, since the kinase-negative mutant receptor underwent normal dimerization in response to EGF yet did not associate with PLC-gamma. The form of PLC-gamma associated with the EGF receptor appeared to be primarily the non-tyrosine-phosphorylated form. It is concluded that the kinase activity of the EGF receptor is essential for association of PLC-gamma with the EGF receptor, possibly by stimulating receptor autophosphorylation. Images PMID:2153914

  10. Fc gamma receptor cross-linking activates p42, p38, and JNK/SAPK mitogen-activated protein kinases in murine macrophages: role for p42MAPK in Fc gamma receptor-stimulated TNF-alpha synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rose, D M; Winston, B W; Chan, E D; Riches, D W; Gerwins, P; Johnson, G L; Henson, P M

    1997-04-01

    Fc gamma R cross-linking on murine macrophages resulted in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members p42MAPK, p38, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). The temporal pattern of activation was distinct for each kinase. p42MAPK activation peaked at 5 min after receptor cross-linking, while peak p38 activity occurred 5 to 10 min later. Maximal JNK/SAPK activation occurred 20 min after Fc gamma R cross-linking. The selective MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (MEK-1) inhibitor PD 098059 inhibited activation of p42MAPK induced by Fc gamma R cross-linking, but not p38 or JNK/SAPK activation. PD 098059 also inhibited the synthesis of TNF-alpha induced by Fc gamma R cross-linking (IC50 approximately 0.1 microM). Together, these results suggest that 1) the activation of MAPKs may play a role in Fc gammaR signal transduction, and 2) the activation of p42MAPK is necessary for Fc gamma R cross-linking-induced TNF-alpha synthesis.

  11. Anti-diabetic action of Punica granatum flower extract: Activation of PPAR-{gamma} and identification of an active component

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tom H.W.; Peng Gang; Kota, Bhavani P.; Li, George Q.; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li Yuhao . E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

    2005-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma} activators are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they improve the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Punica granatum flower (PGF) has been used as an anti-diabetic medicine in Unani medicinal literature. The mechanism of actions is, however, unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 6-week oral administration of methanol extract from PGF (500 mg/kg, daily) inhibited glucose loading-induced increase of plasma glucose levels in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes, whereas it did not inhibit the increase in Zucker lean rats (ZL). The treatment did not lower the plasma glucose levels in fasted ZDF and ZL rats. Furthermore, RT-PCR results demonstrated that the PGF extract treatment in ZDF rats enhanced cardiac PPAR-{gamma} mRNA expression and restored the down-regulated cardiac glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 (the insulin-dependent isoform of GLUTs) mRNA. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic activity of PGF extract may result from improved sensitivity of the insulin receptor. From the in vitro studies, we demonstrated that the PGF extract enhanced PPAR-{gamma} mRNA and protein expression and increased PPAR-{gamma}-dependent mRNA expression and activity of lipoprotein lipase in human THP-1-differentiated macrophage cells. Phytochemical investigation demonstrated that gallic acid in PGF extract is mostly responsible for this activity. Thus, our findings indicate that PPAR-{gamma} is a molecular target for PGF extract and its prominent component gallic acid, and provide a better understanding of the potential mechanism of the anti-diabetic action of PGF.

  12. The pathophysiological function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in lung-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Kota, Bhavani Prasad; Lin, Diana Shu-Hsuan; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2005-09-09

    Research into respiratory diseases has reached a critical stage and the introduction of novel therapies is essential in combating these debilitating conditions. With the discovery of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and its involvement in inflammatory responses of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, attention has turned to lung diseases and whether knowledge of this receptor can be applied to therapy of the human airways. In this article, we explore the prospect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma as a marker and treatment focal point of lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, lung cancer and cystic fibrosis. It is anticipated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands will provide not only useful mechanistic pathway information but also a possible new wave of therapies for sufferers of chronic respiratory diseases.

  13. Induced Gamma-Band Activity During Voluntary Movement: EEG Analysis for Clinical Purposes.

    PubMed

    Amo, Carlos; Del Castillo, Miguel Ortiz; Barea, Rafael; de Santiago, Luis; Martínez-Arribas, Alejandro; Amo-López, Pedro; Boquete, Luciano

    2016-10-01

    Propose a simplified method applicable in routine clinical practice that uses EEG to assess induced gamma-band activity (GBA) in the 30-90 Hz frequency range in cerebral motor areas. EEG recordings (25 healthy subjects) of cerebral activity (at rest, motor task). GBA was obtained as power spectral density (PSD). GBA - defined as the gamma index (Iγ) - was calculated using the basal GBA (γB) and motor GBA (γMOV) PSD values. The mean values of Iγ were (IγR (right hand) = 1.30, IγL (left hand) = 1.22). Manual laterality showed a correlation with Iγ. Iγ may provide a useful way of indirectly assessing operation of activated motor neuronal circuits. It could be applied to diagnosis of motor area pathologies and as follow up in rehabilitation processes. Likewise, Iγ could enable the assessment of motor capacity, physical training and manual laterality in sport medicine.

  14. Analysis of Gamma-Band Activity from Human EEG Using Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Carlos; de Santiago, Luis; Barea, Rafael; López-Dorado, Almudena; Boquete, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine whether gamma-band activity detection is improved when a filter, based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD), is added to the pre-processing block of single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) signals. EMD decomposes the original signal into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). EEGs from 25 control subjects were registered in basal and motor activity (hand movements) using only one EEG channel. Over the basic signal, IMF signals are computed. Gamma-band activity is computed using power spectrum density in the 30–60 Hz range. Event-related synchronization (ERS) was defined as the ratio of motor and basal activity. To evaluate the performance of the new EMD based method, ERS was computed from the basic and IMF signals. The ERS obtained using IMFs improves, from 31.00% to 73.86%, on the original ERS for the right hand, and from 22.17% to 47.69% for the left hand. As EEG processing is improved, the clinical applications of gamma-band activity will expand. PMID:28468250

  15. Analysis of Gamma-Band Activity from Human EEG Using Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Amo, Carlos; de Santiago, Luis; Barea, Rafael; López-Dorado, Almudena; Boquete, Luciano

    2017-04-29

    The purpose of this paper is to determine whether gamma-band activity detection is improved when a filter, based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD), is added to the pre-processing block of single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) signals. EMD decomposes the original signal into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). EEGs from 25 control subjects were registered in basal and motor activity (hand movements) using only one EEG channel. Over the basic signal, IMF signals are computed. Gamma-band activity is computed using power spectrum density in the 30-60 Hz range. Event-related synchronization (ERS) was defined as the ratio of motor and basal activity. To evaluate the performance of the new EMD based method, ERS was computed from the basic and IMF signals. The ERS obtained using IMFs improves, from 31.00% to 73.86%, on the original ERS for the right hand, and from 22.17% to 47.69% for the left hand. As EEG processing is improved, the clinical applications of gamma-band activity will expand.

  16. Activation of PPAR{gamma} negatively regulates O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sung Soo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Ho Seon; Choi, Hye Hun; Lee, Kyeong Won; Cho, Young Min; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Kyong Soo

    2008-08-08

    O-GlcNAcylation is a kind of post-translational modification and many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins are O-GlcNAcylated. In this study, we demonstrated that thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are used as insulin sensitizer, specifically inhibited the O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 but did not affect the O-GlcNAcylation of the total proteins in cell culture systems and mouse models. This effect was mediated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) activation and probably by synthesis of a specific protein induced by PPAR{gamma} activation. In addition, we demonstrated that the O-GlcNAcylation sites in the zinc-finger domain were involved in the transcriptional activation of Sp1 and that rosiglitazone, a member of TZDs, affected Sp1 transcriptional activity partially by regulating the O-GlcNAcylation level of these sites. Considering the role of hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance and Sp1 in the hyperglycemia-induced gene expression, the regulation of Sp1 O-GlcNAcylation by TZDs may help to explain the function of TZDs as a treatment for insulin resistance and diabetes.

  17. Dual role of SLP-76 in mediating T cell receptor-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Beach, Dvora; Gonen, Ronnie; Bogin, Yaron; Reischl, Ilona G; Yablonski, Deborah

    2007-02-02

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) activation depends on a heterotrimeric complex of adaptor proteins composed of LAT, Gads, and SLP-76. Upon T cell receptor stimulation, a portion of PLC-gamma1 is recruited to a detergent-resistant membrane fraction known as the glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (GEMs), or lipid rafts, to which LAT is constitutively localized. In addition to LAT, PLC-gamma1 GEM recruitment depended on SLP-76, and, in particular, required the Gads-binding domain of SLP-76. The N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation sites and P-I region of SLP-76 were not required for PLC-gamma1 GEM recruitment, but were required for PLC-gamma1 phosphorylation at Tyr(783). Thus, GEM recruitment can be insufficient for full activation of PLC-gamma1 in the absence of a second SLP-76-mediated event. Indeed, a GEM-targeted derivative of PLC-gamma1 depended on SLP-76 for T cell receptor-induced phosphorylation at Tyr783 and subsequent NFAT activation. On a biochemical level, SLP-76 inducibly associated with both Vav and catalytically active ITK, which efficiently phosphorylated a PLC-gamma1 fragment at Tyr783 in vitro. Both associations were disrupted upon mutation of the N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation sites of SLP-76. The P-I region deletion disrupted Vav association and reduced SLP-76-associated kinase activity. A smaller deletion within the P-I region, which does not impair PLC-gamma1 activation, did not impair the association with Vav, but reduced SLP-76-associated kinase activity. These results provide new insight into the multiple roles of SLP-76 and the functional importance of its interactions with other signaling proteins.

  18. tDCS Modulates Visual Gamma Oscillations and Basal Alpha Activity in Occipital Cortices: Evidence from MEG.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tony W; McDermott, Timothy J; Mills, Mackenzie S; Coolidge, Nathan M; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth

    2017-03-10

    Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is now a widely used method for modulating the human brain, but the resulting physiological effects are not understood. Recent studies have combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) with simultaneous tDCS to evaluate online changes in occipital alpha and gamma oscillations, but no study to date has quantified the offline (i.e., after tDCS) alterations in these responses. Thirty-five healthy adults received active or sham anodal tDCS to the occipital cortices, and then completed a visual stimulation paradigm during MEG that is known to elicit robust gamma and alpha oscillations. The resulting MEG data were imaged and peak voxel time series were extracted to evaluate tDCS effects. We found that tDCS to the occipital increased the amplitude of local gamma oscillations, and basal alpha levels during the baseline. tDCS was also associated with network-level effects, including increased gamma oscillations in the prefrontal cortex, parietal, and other visual attention regions. Finally, although tDCS did not modulate peak gamma frequency, this variable was inversely correlated with gamma amplitude, which is consistent with a GABA-gamma link. In conclusion, tDCS alters gamma oscillations and basal alpha levels. The net offline effects on gamma activity are consistent with the view that anodal tDCS decreases local GABA.

  19. Gamma-secretase inhibitor activity of a Pterocarpus erinaceus extract.

    PubMed

    Hage, Salim; Marinangeli, Claudia; Stanga, Serena; Octave, Jean-Noël; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and its progressive deposition into amyloid plaques are key events in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, AD treatment is symptomatic and consists of drugs treating the cognitive decline. Identifying molecules specifically targeting Aβ production or aggregation represents a huge challenge in the development of specific AD treatments. Several molecules reported as γ-secretase inhibitors or modulators have been evaluated, but so far none of them have proven to be selective or fully efficient. We have previously investigated the potential interest of plant extracts and we reported that Pterocarpus erinaceus stem-bark extract was active on Aβ release. Our aim here was to characterize the mechanisms by which this extract reduces Aβ levels. We tested P. erinaceus extract at non-toxic concentrations on cells expressing the human amyloid precursor protein (APP695) or its amyloidogenic β-cleaved C-terminal fragment (C99), as well as on neuronal cell lines. P. erinaceus extract was found to inhibit Aβ release. We further showed that this extract inhibited γ-secretase activity in cell-free and in vitro assays, strongly suggesting that P. erinaceus extract is a natural γ-secretase inhibitor. Importantly, this extract did not inhibit γ-secretase-dependent Notch intracellular domain release. P. erinaceus extract appears as a new potent γ-secretase inhibitor selective towards APP processing. 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-02-13

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.

  1. Potential effects of curcumin on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in vitro and in vivo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonists are found in food and may be important for health through their anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin (Cur) is a bright yellow spice, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. It has been shown to have many biologi...

  2. Low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique for delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes.

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Borsaru, M

    2007-06-01

    A low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique is proposed in this paper as a sensitive tool for the delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes. The advantages and superiority of this technique over traditional micro-density non-spectrometric gamma-ray tools are demonstrated.

  3. Degradation of Biochemical Activity in Soil Sterilized by Dry Heat and Gamma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K. L.; Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of soil sterilization by dry heat (0.08% relative humidity), gamma radiation, or both on soil phosphatase, urease, and decarboxylase activity was studied. Soil sterilized by a long exposure to dry heat at relatively low temperatures (eight weeks at 100.5 C) retained higher activities than did soil exposed to a higher temperature (two weeks at 124.5 C), while all activity was destroyed by four days at 148.5 C. Sterilization with 7.5 Mrads destroyed less activity than did heat sterilization. The effect of several individually nonsterizing doses of heat radiation is described.

  4. Degradation of Biochemical Activity in Soil Sterilized by Dry Heat and Gamma Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K. L.; Souza, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of soil sterilization by dry heat (0.08% relative humidity), gamma radiation, or both on soil phosphatase, urease, and decarboxylase activity was studied. Soil sterilized by a long exposure to dry heat at relatively low temperatures (eight weeks at 100.5 C) retained higher activities than did soil exposed to a higher temperature (two weeks at 124.5 C), while all activity was destroyed by four days at 148.5 C. Sterilization with 7.5 Mrads destroyed less activity than did heat sterilization. The effect of several individually nonsterizing doses of heat radiation is described.

  5. Determination of the neutron activation profile of core drill samples by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gurau, D; Boden, S; Sima, O; Stanga, D

    2017-08-04

    This paper provides guidance for determining the neutron activation profile of core drill samples taken from the biological shield of nuclear reactors using gamma spectrometry measurements. Thus, it provides guidance for selecting a model of the right form to fit data and using least squares methods for model fitting. The activity profiles of two core samples taken from the biological shield of a nuclear reactor were determined. The effective activation depth and the total activity of core samples along with their uncertainties were computed by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurements of activation induced by environmental neutrons using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Köhler, M; Johnston, P N

    2000-03-01

    The flux of environmental neutrons is being studied by activation of metal discs of selected elements. Near the earth's surface the total neutron flux is in the order of 10(-2) cm(-2)s(-1), which gives induced activities of a few mBq in the discs. Initial results from this technique, involving activation at ground level for several materials (W, Au, Ta, In, Re, Sm, Dy and Mn) and ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory located at 500 m.w.e., are presented. Diffusion of environmental neutrons in water is also measured by activation of gold at different depths.

  7. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of active suppressor cells against IFN-gamma production in PHA-stimulated cord blood lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, H.; Taga, K.; Matsuda, A.; Uwadana, N.; Hasui, M.; Miyawaki, T.; Taniguchi, N.

    1986-11-15

    Cord blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were defective in their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or recombinant interleukin 2, whereas cord MNC could induce comparable amounts of IFN-gamma with adult controls on stimulation with a streptococcal preparation, OK-432. Moreover, irradiation of cord MNC with 1500 rad before PHA stimulation could restore the IFN-gamma production. Kinetic studies indicated that such augmentation of IFN-gamma production by irradiation was evident when cord MNC were irradiated before or by 12 hr of PHA-stimulated culture. But irradiation after 18 hr or more of PHA stimulation did not exert any significant augmentation on IFN-gamma production by cord MNC. It seemed most likely that the ability of IFN-gamma production is already mature at birth, but radiosensitive suppressor effectors on IFN-gamma production are activated within cord MNC at an early stage of PHA stimulation, resulting in poor IFN-gamma production by cord MNC. PHA-induced IFN-gamma production by OKT3+, OKT4+, and OKT8- cord cells were markedly enhanced by irradiation with 1,500 rad before the culture. Coculture experiments disclosed that cord OKT4+ cells, but not OKT4- cells, when prestimulated with PHA for 24 hr, exerted active suppression on PHA-induced IFN-gamma production by adult MNC in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that radiosensitive suppressor effectors on IFN-gamma production were induced within the OKT4+ T cell subset of cord MNC on PHA stimulation.

  8. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Stumvoll, Michael; Häring, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma is a transcription factor with a key role in adipocyte differentiation. The Ala allele of the common Pro12Ala polymorphism in the isoform PPAR-gamma2 is associated with reduced risk for type 2 diabetes. The effect on the individual is weak, but because of a prevalence of >75% of the high-risk Pro allele, the population-attributable risk is enormous. The in vivo effects of the polymorphism are secondary to alterations in adipose tissue, where PPAR-gamma2 is predominantly expressed. Moderate reduction in transcriptional activity of PPAR-gamma as a result of the polymorphism modulates production and release of adipose-derived factors. Both decreased release of insulin-desensitizing free fatty acids, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and resistin and increased release of the insulin-sensitizing hormone adiponectin result in secondary improvement of insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and suppression of glucose production. The population effect of this polymorphism may be modulated by environmental or genetic factors such as obesity, ethnicity, ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, and genetic background. Once diabetes has developed, the protective effect of the Ala allele may be lost, since increased vascular complications and more pronounced beta-cell dysfunction have been reported. These observations, however, are currently unexplained. In conclusion, the Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR-gamma2 represents the first genetic variant with a broad impact on the risk of common type 2 diabetes. The precise understanding of its mechanism may lead to novel diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic approaches for improving the management of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Active Neutron and Gamma Ray Instrumentation for In Situ Planetary Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Pulsed Neutron Generator-Gamma Ray And Neutron Detectors (PNG-GRAND) experiment is an innovative application of the active neutron-gamma ray technology so successfully used in oil field well logging and mineral exploration on Earth. The objective of our active neutron-gamma ray technology program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC) is to bring the PNG-GRAND instrument to the point where it can be flown on a variety of surface lander or rover missions to the Moon, Mars, Menus, asteroids, comets and the satellites of the outer planets. Gamma-Ray Spectrometers (GRS) have been incorporated into numerous orbital planetary science missions and, especially its the case of the Mars Odyssey GRS, have contributed detailed maps of the elemental composition over the entire surface of Mars. However, orbital gamma ray measurements have low spatial sensitivity (100's of km) due to their low surface emission rates from cosmic rays and subsequent need to be averaged over large surface areas. PNG-GRAND overcomes this impediment by incorporating a powerful neutron excitation source that permits high sensitivity surface and subsurface measurements of bulk elemental compositions. PNG-GRAND combines a pulsed neutron generator (PNG) with gamma ray and neutron detectors to produce a landed instrument to determine subsurface elemental composition without needing to drill into a planet's surface a great advantage in mission design. We are currently testing PNG-GRAND prototypes at a unique outdoor neutron instrumentation test facility recently constructed at NASA/GSFC that consists of a 2 m x 2 in x 1 m granite structure placed outdoors in an empty field. Because an independent trace elemental analysis has been performed on the material, this granite sample is a known standard with which to compare both Monte Carlo simulations and our experimentally measured elemental composition data. We will present data from operating PNG-GRAND in various experimental configurations on a

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on cork wastewater: Antioxidant activity and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Joana; Pimenta, Andreia I; Popescu, Larisa; Besleaga, Alexandra; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos, Pedro M P; Melo, Rita; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Margaça, Fernanda M A

    2017-02-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the toxicity and antioxidant activity of cork boiling wastewater and the effects of gamma radiation on these parameters was performed. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using different methodologies as DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. The results have shown that gamma radiation can induce an increase on the antioxidant activity of cork boiling wastewater. Toxicity tests were performed to access the potential added value of the irradiated wastewaters and/or minimization of the impact for discharge in the environment. Two different methods for toxicity evaluation were followed, bacterial growth inhibition test and cytotoxicity assay, in order to predict the behavior of different cells (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) in the presence of cork wastewater. Non-treated cork boiling wastewater seemed to be non-toxic for prokaryotic cells (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis) but toxic for eukaryotic cells (A549 human cells and RAW264.7 mouse cells). The gamma radiation treatment at doses of 100 kGy appeared to increase the toxicity of cork compounds for all tested cells, which could be related to a toxic effect of radiolytic products of cork compounds in the wastewaters.

  11. Gamma-ray active galactic nucleus type through machine-learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, T.; Mirabal, N.; Contreras, J. L.; Oya, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) is producing the most detailed inventory of the gamma-ray sky to date. Despite tremendous achievements approximately 25 per cent of all Fermi extragalactic sources in the Second Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalogue (2FGL) are listed as active galactic nuclei (AGN) of uncertain type. Typically, these are suspected blazar candidates without a conclusive optical spectrum or lacking spectroscopic observations. Here, we explore the use of machine-learning algorithms - random forests and support vector machines - to predict specific AGN subclass based on observed gamma-ray spectral properties. After training and testing on identified/associated AGN from the 2FGL we find that 235 out of 269 AGN of uncertain type have properties compatible with gamma-ray BL Lacertae and flat-spectrum radio quasars with accuracy rates of 85 per cent. Additionally, direct comparison of our results with class predictions made after following the infrared colour-colour space of Massaro et al. shows that the agreement rate is over four-fifths for 54 overlapping sources, providing independent cross-validation. These results can help tailor follow-up spectroscopic programmes and inform future pointed surveys with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes.

  12. Imaging of heterogeneous materials by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, P.; Prettyman, T.; Lestone, J.

    1998-12-01

    The authors have used a tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) to produce tomographic prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis imaging (PGNAA) of heterogeneous matrices. The TGS was modified by the addition of graphite reflectors that contain isotopic neutron sources for sample interrogation. The authors are in the process of developing the analysis methodology necessary for a quantitative assay of large containers of heterogeneous material. This nondestructive analysis (NDA) technique can be used for material characterization and the determination of neutron assay correction factors. The most difficult question to be answered is the determination of the source-to-sample coupling term. To assist in the determination of the coupling term, the authors have obtained images for a range of sample that are very well characterized, such as, homogenous pseudo one-dimensional samples to three-dimensional heterogeneous samples. They then compare the measurements to MCNP calculations. For an accurate quantitative measurement, it is also necessary to determine the sample gamma-ray self attenuation at higher gamma-ray energies, namely pair production should be incorporated into the analysis codes.

  13. Active galactic nuclei at gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles Dennison; Giebels, Berrie

    2016-06-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei can be copious extragalactic emitters of MeV-GeV-TeV γ rays, a phenomenon linked to the presence of relativistic jets powered by a super-massive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. Most of γ-ray emitting active galactic nuclei, with more than 1500 known at GeV energies, and more than 60 at TeV energies, are called ;blazars;. The standard blazar paradigm features a jet of relativistic magnetized plasma ejected from the neighborhood of a spinning and accreting super-massive black hole, close to the observer direction. Two classes of blazars are distinguished from observations: the flat-spectrum radio-quasar class (FSRQ) is characterized by strong external radiation fields, emission of broad optical lines, and dust tori. The BL Lac class (from the name of one of its members, BL Lacertae) corresponds to weaker advection-dominated flows with γ-ray spectra dominated by the inverse Compton effect on synchrotron photons. This paradigm has been very successful for modeling the broadband spectral energy distributions of blazars. However, many fundamental issues remain, including the role of hadronic processes and the rapid variability of a few FSRQs and several BL Lac objects whose synchrotron spectrum peaks at UV or X-ray frequencies. A class of γ-ray-emitting radio galaxies, which are thought to be the misaligned counterparts of blazars, has emerged from the results of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Soft γ-ray emission has been detected from a few nearby Seyfert galaxies, though it is not clear whether those γ rays originate from the nucleus. Blazars and their misaligned counterparts make up most of the ≳100 MeV extragalactic γ-ray background (EGB), and are suspected of being the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The future ;Cherenkov Telescope Array;, in synergy with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and a wide range of telescopes in space and on the ground, will write the next chapter

  14. Circulating gamma delta T cells are activated and depleted during progression of high-grade gliomas: Implications for gamma delta T cell therapy of GBM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains frustratingly impervious to any existing therapy. We have previously shown that GBM is sensitive to recognition and lysis by ex vivo activated gamma delta T cells, a minor subset of lymphocytes that innately recognize autologous stress-associated target antigens...

  15. Effects of Saussurea lappa roots extract in ethanol on leukocyte phagocytic activity, lymphocyte proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma).

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Anas; Enbergs, H

    2007-07-01

    Effects of Saussurea lappa root extracts prepared in ethanol according to the homeopathic principles were assessed on leukocyte phagocytic activity, lymphocyte transformation and mitogen-induced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of goats (PBMC) in vitro. Leukocyte phagocytic activity was measured by flow cytometry, lymphocyte proliferation by MTT and IFN-gamma level in cell culture supernatants was determined by ELISA. The results obtained demonstrated that all test dilutions (D4, D6, D8) of Saussurea lappa in ethanol have exerted a stimulating effect on leukocyte phagocytic activity in dose-dependent manner. A 10 microl dose of Saussurea lappa of each dilution markedly enhanced phagocytic activity, while other doses tested made only a feeble stimulating effect. The increases with 10 microl dose were found significantly (P<0.01) different between each dilution, maximal stimulation was observed by D8 dilution. Different doses (10 microl, 2 microl, 1 microl, 0.5 microl) of all test dilutions (D4, D6, D8) of Saussurea lappa in sterile 0.9% NaCl solution inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. Maximal inhibitory effect was observed with the 2 microl dose. Similarly, Saussurea lappa suppressed the secretion of IFN-gamma by mitogen-activated (PHA; 2.5 microg/ml) of peripheral mononuclear cells in dose-dependent manner. In conclusion these findings suggest that enhanced leukocyte phagocytic activity may be helpful to clear the soluble immune complexes produced during a sustained immune response against self antigens which causes chronic inflammatory injury of tissue. On the other hand, inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma by Saussurea lappa may contribute to suppress immune-mediated inflammatory reactions possibly through a cell-mediated cytokine pathway. Thus it is concievable that ethanolic extracts of Saussurea lappa roots in homeopathetic dilutions may be considered as a potential candidate for therapeutic

  16. Telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, partially through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma}-dependent activity

    SciTech Connect

    Toyama, Kensuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Kataoka, Keiichiro; Yasuda, Osamu; Fukuda, Masaya; Tokutomi, Yoshiko; Dong, Yi-Fei; Ogawa, Hisao; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. {yields} The protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular injury were associated with attenuation of vascular NF{kappa}B activation and TNF {alpha}. {yields} PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan was involved in the normalization of vascular PPAR{gamma} downregulation in diabetic mice. {yields} We provided the first evidence indicating that PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan contributed to the protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular complication. -- Abstract: Experimental and clinical data support the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) activation is associated with anti-atherosclerosis as well as anti-diabetic effect. Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. We hypothesized that telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications, through PPAR{gamma} activation. We compared the effects of telmisartan, telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPAR{gamma} antagonist), and losartan with no PPAR{gamma} activity on vascular injury in obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Compared to losartan, telmisartan significantly ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction, downregulation of phospho-eNOS, and coronary arterial remodeling in db/db mice. More vascular protective effects of telmisartan than losartan were associated with greater anti-inflammatory effects of telmisartan, as shown by attenuation of vascular nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation and tumor necrosis factor {alpha}. Coadministration of GW9662 with telmisartan abolished the above mentioned greater protective effects of telmisartan against vascular injury than losartan in db/db mice. Thus, PPAR{gamma} activity appears to be involved in the vascular protective effects of telmisartan in db/db mice. Moreover, telmisartan, but not losartan, prevented the downregulation of

  17. Blood and colostrum/milk serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activity as a predictor of passive transfer status in lambs.

    PubMed

    Maden, M; Altunok, V; Birdane, F M; Aslan, V; Nizamlioglu, M

    2003-04-01

    The importance of blood and colostrum/milk serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) enzyme activity was evaluated to assess passive transfer status in healthy lambs. Thirty Akkaraman sheep (3-6 years old) were used which had normal pregnancy period and the same conditions, and the age of the lambs ranged between 0 and 15 days. Blood and colostrum/milk samples were collected from sheep and lambs after birth, before suckling (0) and after on 1st, 3rd, 7th and 15th days. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was determined by the use of Single Radial Immunodiffusion method. Serum gamma-GT activity was measured, using a commercially available kit in blood and colostrum/milk samples. Correlations were carried out between immunoglobulin and gamma-GT levels. Regression models (simple and multiple) were calculated with significant data. Linear correlation was determined between colostrum/milk gamma-GT activity and IgG concentrations and between serum gamma-GT activity and IgG concentrations in lambs on the 0 day. (r: 0.607, P: 0.001), 1st (r: 0.768, P: 0.001) and the 3rd (r: 0.603, P: 0.001) days and on the 1st (r: 0.637, P: 0.001) and 3rd (r: 0.478, P: 0.012) days in the experiment, respectively. Multivariate regression models were developed to estimate sample IgG concentration. Serum and colostrum/milk IgG concentration could be predicted using the formula: lamb serum IgG = 825 + 0.688 (lamb gamma-GT) + 52 (days); colostrum/milk IgG = 832 + 0.505 (colostrum/milk gamma-GT) - 167 (days). The regression models were moderately accurate in predicting serum IgG concentration (R2 = 0.51) and colostrum/milk IgG concentration (R2 = 0.55). Test sensitivity and positive predictive values for serum gamma-GT enzyme activity were found to be 96 and 100% and for colostrum/milk gamma-GT enzyme activity were found to be 100 and 68% to prediction IgG concentration. Serum and colostrum/milk gamma-GT activity can be used to assess passive transfer status of lambs. Along with this

  18. Gamma interferon activates a previously undescribed Ca2+ influx in T lymphocytes from patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Martino, G; Clementi, E; Brambilla, E; Moiola, L; Comi, G; Meldolesi, J; Grimaldi, L M

    1994-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The etiology of the disease is still unknown. Activated T lymphocytes are considered essential in mediating the inflammatory process leading to demyelination in MS. They operate through a complex network of cytokines among which gamma interferon (gamma-IFN) plays a key role. Here we report that exposure to gamma-IFN of T lymphocytes from patients with MS activates, by a protein kinase C-mediated pathway, a previously undescribed gamma-IFN-activated Ca2+ influx, functionally coupled to the gamma-IFN receptor. The influx mainly expressed by CD4+ T lymphocytes, was found in 12 of 15 (80%) patients with clinically active MS and in 14 of 30 (46%) patients with stable MS. The influx was found in only 3 of 24 (12%) control patients and in none of the 15 healthy subjects studied. Our results document the appearance in MS lymphocytes of a gamma-IFN-activated, protein kinase C-dependent, Ca2+ influx that might be due to the expression of a new cation-specific plasmalemma channel. This finding suggests that at least part of gamma-IFN's contribution to the pathogenesis of MS is exerted through a Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of T lymphocyte activity. PMID:8197142

  19. Expression of feline recombinant interferon-gamma in baculovirus and demonstration of biological activity.

    PubMed

    Argyle, D J; Harris, M; Lawrence, C; McBride, K; Barron, R; McGillivray, C; Onions, D E

    1998-07-08

    We have previously reported the cloning of the coding sequence for feline-specific interferon-gamma. Here, we describe the expression of this sequence in a baculovirus system and demonstrate the biological activity of the recombinant protein. The coding sequence for feline interferon was directionally cloned into the baculovirus transfer vector pAcCL29-1. Transfer vector and linearized wild-type AcMNPV (BacPAK6) were used to co-transfect Sf9 cells by calcium phosphate coprecipitation. Subsequently, wild-type and recombinant viruses were separated by plaque assay. Recombinant plaques were expanded and a master stock of virus is produced. Production of biologically active interferon-gamma from infected Sf9 cells was demonstrated using a standard cytopathic effect reduction assay, utilising vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and an MHC class II induction assay.

  20. Almahata Sitta meteorite: gamma -activity measurements at Monte dei Cappuccini Laboratory in Torino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taricco, C.; Bhandari, N.; Colombetti, P.; Romero, A.; Vivaldo, G.; Sinha, N.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.

    The asteroid 2008TC3 was telescopically seen prior to entering Earth's atmosphere and was predicted to fall in Sudan on October 7, 2008, as it actually happened. Subsequently, many fragments were collected from the Nubian desert. At Monte dei Cappuccini Laboratory (IFSI, INAF) in Torino, using a selective gamma spectrometer we measured gamma rays from fragment #15, one of the largest retrieved, a ureilite of mass 75 g. Six cosmogenic radionuclides have been measured (46textrm {Sc}, 57textrm {Co}, 54textrm {Mn}, 22textrm {Na}, 60textrm {Co} and 26textrm {Al}). 60Co and 26Al activities allowed us to deduce that the fragment was located at a depth of 41±14 cm inside the 1.5-2 m radius asteroid. Moreover, 22Na activity is slightly greater than expected on the basis of the average cosmic ray flux and this could be ascribed to the prolonged solar minimum preceding the meteorite fall.

  1. Phenolics from Glycyrrhiza glabra roots and their PPAR-gamma ligand-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Minpei; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Honda, Shinichi; Tanaka, Hozumi; Yokota, Shinichi; Mae, Tatsumasa

    2010-01-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra roots), using a GAL-4-PPAR-gamma chimera assay method, resulted in the isolation of 39 phenolics, including 10 new compounds (1-10). The structures of the new compounds were determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among the isolated compounds, 5'-formylglabridin (5), (2R,3R)-3,4',7-trihydroxy-3'-prenylflavane (7), echinatin, (3R)-2',3',7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavan, kanzonol X, kanzonol W, shinpterocarpin, licoflavanone A, glabrol, shinflavanone, gancaonin L, and glabrone all exhibited significant PPAR-gamma ligand-binding activity. The activity of these compounds at a sample concentration of 10microg/mL was three times more potent than that of 0.5microM troglitazone. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lycopene, quercetin and tyrosol prevent macrophage activation induced by gliadin and IFN-gamma.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Daniela; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Simeon, Vittorio; Grassia, Gianluca; Soscia, Antonio; Cinelli, Maria Pia; Carnuccio, Rosa

    2007-07-02

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in inflammatory process of celiac disease. We have studied the effect of the lycopene, quercetin and tyrosol natural antioxidants on the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by gliadin in association with IFN-gamma. The IFN-gamma plus gliadin combination treatment was capable of enhancing iNOS and COX-2 gene expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1alpha (STAT-1alpha) activation induced by reactive oxygen species generation at 24 h. Lycopene, quercetin and tyrosol inhibited all these effects. The results here reported suggest that these compounds may represent non toxic agents for the control of pro-inflammatory genes involved in celiac disease.

  3. Multiwavelength Observations of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 During Its 2001 April Activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Tennant, A.; Woods, P. M.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Hurley, K.; Fender, R. P.; Garrington, S. T.; Patel, S. K.; Goegues, E.

    2001-01-01

    The soft gamma repeater SGR 1900+14 became active on 2001 April 18 after about two years of quiescence; it had remained at a very low state of activity since the fall of 1998, when it exhibited extraordinary flaring. We have observed the source in the gamma-rays and X-rays with Ulysses and Chandra and in the radio with MERLIN. We report here the confirmation of a two-component X-ray spectrum (power law and blackbody), indicating emission from the neutron star surface. We have determined that there is a dust halo, due to scattering in the interstellar medium, surrounding the source that extends up to approximately 100 arcsec from the center of SGR 1900+14.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone attenuates postincisional pain by regulating macrophage polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; Ohnou, Tetsuya; Godai, Kohei; Kurimoto, Tae; Nakama, Mayo; Kanmura, Yuichi

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone attenuated postincisional pain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone alters macrophage polarization to F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages at the incisional sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transplantation of rosiglitazone-treated macrophages produced analgesic effects. -- Abstract: Acute inflammation triggered by macrophage infiltration to injured tissue promotes wound repair and may induce pain hypersensitivity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR){gamma} signaling is known to regulate heterogeneity of macrophages, which are often referred to as classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages have considerable antimicrobial activity and produce a wide variety of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, M2 macrophages are involved in anti-inflammatory and homeostatic functions linked to wound healing and tissue repair. Although it has been suggested that PPAR{gamma} agonists attenuate pain hypersensitivity, the molecular mechanism of macrophage-mediated effects of PPAR{gamma} signaling on pain development has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the link between the phenotype switching of macrophage polarization induced by PPAR{gamma} signaling and the development of acute pain hypersensitivity. Local administration of rosiglitazone significantly ameliorated hypersensitivity to heat and mechanical stimuli, and paw swelling. Consistent with the down-regulation of nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) phosphorylation by rosiglitazone at the incisional sites, the number of F4/80{sup +}iNOS{sup +} M1 macrophages was decreased whereas numbers of F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages were increased in rosiglitazone-treated incisional sites 24 h after the procedure. In addition, gene induction of anti-inflammatory M2-macrophage-associated markers such as arginase1, FIZZ1 and interleukin (IL)-10 were significantly increased, whereas

  5. Application of gamma-ray active and passive computed tomography to nondestructively assay TRU waste

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.; Decman, D.J.; Roberson, G.P.; Johansson, E.M.; Keto, E.R.

    1996-05-01

    The authors have developed an active and passive computed tomography scanner for assaying radioactive waste drums. They describe the hardware and software components of the system used for data acquisition, gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, and image reconstruction. They have measured the performance of the system using mock waste drums and calibrated radioactive sources. They describe the results of measurements using this system to assay a real TRU waste drum with relatively low Pu content.

  6. Macrophages activated by C-reactive protein through Fc gamma RI transfer suppression of immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Marjon, Kristopher D; Marnell, Lorraine L; Mold, Carolyn; Du Clos, Terry W

    2009-02-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein with therapeutic activity in mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus and other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To determine the mechanism by which CRP suppresses immune complex disease, an adoptive transfer system was developed in a model of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Injection of 200 microg of CRP 24 h before induction of ITP markedly decreased thrombocytopenia induced by anti-CD41. CRP-treated splenocytes also provided protection from ITP in adoptive transfer. Splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice were treated with 200 microg/ml CRP for 30 min, washed, and injected into mice 24 h before induction of ITP. Injection of 10(6) CRP-treated splenocytes protected mice from thrombocytopenia, as did i.v. Ig-treated but not BSA-treated splenocytes. The suppressive cell induced by CRP was found to be a macrophage by depletion, enrichment, and the use of purified bone marrow-derived macrophages. The induction of protection by CRP-treated cells was dependent on FcRgamma-chain and Syk activation, indicating an activating effect of CRP on the donor cell. Suppression of ITP by CRP-treated splenocytes required Fc gamma RI on the donor cell and Fc gamma RIIb in the recipient mice. These findings suggest that CRP generates suppressive macrophages through Fc gamma RI, which then act through an Fc gamma RIIb-dependent pathway in the recipient to decrease platelet clearance. These results provide insight into the mechanism of CRP regulatory activity in autoimmunity and suggest a potential new therapeutic approach to ITP.

  7. Evaluation of two intraoperative gamma detectors for assessment of (177)Lu activity concentration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Viktor; Ståhl, Ingun; Olofsson Bagge, Roger; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2017-12-01

    Patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing neuroendocrine tumours can be treated with intravenously administered (177)Lu-octreotate. Few patients are cured with the present protocol due to the current dose limitation of normal organs at risk, such as the kidneys. By locally administering (177)Lu-octreotate to the liver for the purpose of treating liver metastases, a substantially reduced absorbed dose to organs at risk could be achieved. The development of such a technique requires the capability of measuring the (177)Lu activity concentration in tissues in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate different performance parameters of two commercially available intraoperative gamma detectors in order to investigate whether intraoperative gamma detector measurements could be used to determine (177)Lu activity concentration in vivo. Measurements were made using different sources containing (177)Lu. Response linearity, sensitivity, spatial resolution and its depth dependence, organ thickness dependence of the measured count rate and tumour detectability were assessed for two intraoperative gamma detectors. The two detectors (a scintillation and a semiconductor detector) showed differences in technical performance. For example, the sensitivity was higher for the scintillation detector, while the spatial resolution was better for the semiconductor detector. Regarding organ thickness dependence and tumour detectability, similar results were obtained for both detectors, and even relatively small simulated tumours of low tumour-to-background activity concentration ratios could be detected. Acceptable results were obtained for both detectors, although the semiconductor detector proved more advantageous for our purpose. The measurements demonstrated factors that must be corrected for, such as organ thickness or dead-time effects. Altogether, intraoperative gamma detector measurements could be used to determine (177)Lu activity concentration in vivo.

  8. AGILE detection of renewed gamma-ray activity from the blazar PKS 1502+106

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittori, C.; Bulgarelli, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Verrecchia, F.; Fioretti, V.; Tavani, M.; Vercellone, S.; Piano, G.; Striani, E.; Donnarumma, I.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2016-01-01

    The AGILE satellite detects renewed gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the high-redshift (z=1.8383) blazar PKS 1502+106 (also known as OR 103, S3 1502+10 and 3FGLJ1504.4+1029), with radio coordinates, R.A.: 226.10408 deg, Dec: 10.49422 deg (J2000) (Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880).

  9. Novel Concrete Chemistry Achieved with Low Dose Gamma Radiation Curing and Resistance to Neutron Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Steven Robert

    As much as 50% of ageing-related problems with concrete structures can be attributed to con-struction deficiencies at the time of placement. The most influential time affecting longevity of concrete structures is the curing phase, or commonly the initial 28 days following its placement. A novel advanced atomistic analysis of novel concrete chemistry is presented in this dissertation with the objective to improve concrete structural properties and its longevity. Based on experiments and computational models, this novel concrete chemistry is discussed in two cases: (a) concrete chemistry changes when exposed to low-dose gamma radiation in its early curing stage, thus improving its strength in a shorter period of time then curing for the conventional 28 days; (b) concrete chemistry is controlled by its atomistic components to assure strength is not reduced but that its activation due to long-term exposure to neutron flux in nuclear power plants is negligible. High dose gamma radiation is well documented as a degradation mechanism that decreases concrete's compressive strength; however, the effects of low-dose gamma radiation on the initial curing phase of concrete, having never been studied before, proved its compressive strength increases. Using a 137 Cs source, concrete samples were subjected to gamma radiation during the initial curing phase for seven, 14, and 28 days. The compressive strength after seven days is improved for gamma cured concrete by 24% and after 14 days by 76%. Concrete shows no improvement in compressive strength after 28 days of exposure to gamma radiation, showing that there is a threshold effect. Scanning Electron Microscopy is used to examine the microstructure of low-dose gamma radiation where no damage to its microstructure is found, showing no difference between gamma cured and conventionally cured concrete. Molecular dynamics modeling based on the MOPAC package is used to study how gamma radiation during the curing stage improves

  10. Structural and Biochemical Basis for the Binding Selectivity of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor [gamma] to PGC-1[alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Martynowski, Dariusz; Xu, H. Eric

    2008-07-23

    The functional interaction between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and its coactivator PGC-1{alpha} is crucial for the normal physiology of PPAR{gamma} and its pharmacological response to antidiabetic treatment with rosiglitazone. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand-binding domain bound to rosiglitazone and to a large PGC-1{alpha} fragment that contains two LXXLL-related motifs. The structure reveals critical contacts mediated through the first LXXLL motif of PGC-1{alpha} and the PPAR{gamma} coactivator binding site. Through a combination of biochemical and structural studies, we demonstrate that the first LXXLL motif is the most potent among all nuclear receptor coactivator motifs tested, and only this motif of the two LXXLL-related motifs in PGC-1{alpha} is capable of binding to PPAR{gamma}. Our studies reveal that the strong interaction of PGC-1{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} is mediated through both hydrophobic and specific polar interactions. Mutations within the context of the full-length PGC-1{alpha} indicate that the first PGC-1{alpha} motif is necessary and sufficient for PGC-1{alpha} to coactivate PPAR{gamma} in the presence or absence of rosiglitazone. These results provide a molecular basis for specific recruitment and functional interplay between PPAR{gamma} and PGC-1{alpha} in glucose homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation.

  11. Low level activity determination by means of gamma spectrometry with respect to the natural background fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Dragounová, Lenka; Rulík, Petr

    2013-11-01

    The determination of low level activities of natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series by gamma-spectrometry faces the problem of proper natural background subtraction. Background fluctuation can cause differences in activity determination. Also the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of natural and artificial radionuclides can be influenced by background fluctuation. In this paper, results of the background fluctuation of shielded HPGe detectors with relative efficiency of 50-150% are presented together with the assessment of its influence on the determination of natural and artificial radionuclides. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beta- and gamma-band activity reflect predictive coding in the processing of causal events.

    PubMed

    van Pelt, Stan; Heil, Lieke; Kwisthout, Johan; Ondobaka, Sasha; van Rooij, Iris; Bekkering, Harold

    2016-06-01

    In daily life, complex events are perceived in a causal manner, suggesting that the brain relies on predictive processes to model them. Within predictive coding theory, oscillatory beta-band activity has been linked to top-down predictive signals and gamma-band activity to bottom-up prediction errors. However, neurocognitive evidence for predictive coding outside lower-level sensory areas is scarce. We used magnetoencephalography to investigate neural activity during probability-dependent action perception in three areas pivotal for causal inference, superior temporal sulcus, temporoparietal junction and medial prefrontal cortex, using bowling action animations. Within this network, Granger-causal connectivity in the beta-band was found to be strongest for backward top-down connections and gamma for feed-forward bottom-up connections. Moreover, beta-band power in TPJ increased parametrically with the predictability of the action kinematics-outcome sequences. Conversely, gamma-band power in TPJ and MPFC increased with prediction error. These findings suggest that the brain utilizes predictive-coding-like computations for higher-order cognition such as perception of causal events.

  13. Radiography apparatus using gamma rays emitted by water activated by fusion neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.L.; Ikeda, Yujiro; Uno, Yoshitomo

    1996-11-05

    Radiography apparatus includes an arrangement for circulating pure water continuously between a location adjacent a source of energetic neutrons, such as a tritium target irradiated by a deuteron beam, and a remote location where radiographic analysis is conducted. Oxygen in the pure water is activated via the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction using {sup 14}N-MeV neutrons produced at the neutron source via the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. Essentially monoenergetic gamma rays at 6.129 (predominantly) and 7.115 MeV are produced by the 7.13-second {sup 16}N decay for use in radiographic analysis. The gamma rays have substantial penetrating power and are useful in determining the thickness of materials and elemental compositions, particularly for metals and high-atomic number materials. The characteristic decay half life of 7.13 seconds of the activated oxygen is sufficient to permit gamma ray generation at a remote location where the activated water is transported, while not presenting a chemical or radioactivity hazard because the radioactivity falls to negligible levels after 1--2 minutes. 15 figs.

  14. Radiography apparatus using gamma rays emitted by water activated by fusion neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Donald L.; Ikeda, Yujiro; Uno, Yoshitomo

    1996-01-01

    Radiography apparatus includes an arrangement for circulating pure water continuously between a location adjacent a source of energetic neutrons, such as a tritium target irradiated by a deuteron beam, and a remote location where radiographic analysis is conducted. Oxygen in the pure water is activated via the .sup.16 O(n,p).sup.16 N reaction using .sup.14 -MeV neutrons produced at the neutron source via the .sup.3 H(d,n).sup.4 He reaction. Essentially monoenergetic gamma rays at 6.129 (predominantly) and 7.115 MeV are produced by the 7.13-second .sup.16 N decay for use in radiographic analysis. The gamma rays have substantial penetrating power and are useful in determining the thickness of materials and elemental compositions, particularly for metals and high-atomic number materials. The characteristic decay half life of 7.13 seconds of the activated oxygen is sufficient to permit gamma ray generation at a remote location where the activated water is transported, while not presenting a chemical or radioactivity hazard because the radioactivity falls to negligible levels after 1-2 minutes.

  15. Experienced Mindfulness Meditators Exhibit Higher Parietal-Occipital EEG Gamma Activity during NREM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Ferrarelli, Fabio; Smith, Richard; Dentico, Daniela; Riedner, Brady A.; Zennig, Corinna; Benca, Ruth M.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings in long-term meditators (LTM) of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice) and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25–40 Hz), was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function. PMID:24015304

  16. Experienced mindfulness meditators exhibit higher parietal-occipital EEG gamma activity during NREM sleep.

    PubMed

    Ferrarelli, Fabio; Smith, Richard; Dentico, Daniela; Riedner, Brady A; Zennig, Corinna; Benca, Ruth M; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings in long-term meditators (LTM) of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice) and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25-40 Hz), was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function.

  17. The 124Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, M. C. M.; Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J. U.; Poledna, R.; da Silva, R. L.

    2010-07-01

    This work describes a metrological activity determination of 124Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. 124Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. 124Sb decays by β-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point 124Sb solid sources were obtained from a 166mHo standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of 124Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% ( k=2) were obtained.

  18. Radioprotective activity of betalains from red beets in mice exposed to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Zesheng

    2009-08-01

    We investigated the radioprotective activity of betalains from red beets in mice irradiated by a (60)Co gamma (gamma) ray (6.0 Gy, at a dose of 1.5 Gy min(-1)). Mice were randomly divided into five groups, namely the control group and four experimental groups which were given one of four concentrations of betalains from red beets (0, 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, equivalent to betanin) for 30 days. The four experimental groups of mice were then exposed to the (60)Co gamma-rays and were given betalains from red beets for a further 3 days. The number of white blood cells, karyota of the femur and the number of micronuclei in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of bone marrow in mice were determined. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, spleen index and thymus index were also determined. The results indicate that the administration of betalains from red beets is radioprotective in mice irradiated by (60)Co in vivo. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but appears to be mediated by the antioxidant activity of the betalains from red beets and modulation of the immune system.

  19. Music training leads to the development of timbre-specific gamma band activity

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, Antoine J.; Roberts, Larry E.; Chau, Wilkin; Trainor, Laurel J.; Miller, Lee M.

    2015-01-01

    Oscillatory gamma band activity (GBA, 30–100Hz) has been shown to correlate with perceptual and cognitive phenomena including feature binding, template matching, and learning and memory formation. We hypothesized that if GBA reflects highly learned perceptual template matching, we should observe its development in musicians specific to the timbre of their instrument of practice. EEG was recorded in adult professional violinists and amateur pianists as well as in four- and five-year-old children studying piano in the Suzuki method before they commenced music lessons and one year later. The adult musicians showed robust enhancement of induced (non-time-locked) GBA, specifically to their instrument of practice, with the strongest effect in professional violinists. Consistent with this result, the children receiving piano lessons exhibited increased power of induced GBA for piano tones with one year of training, while children not taking lessons showed no effect. In comparison to induced GBA, evoked (time-locked) gamma band activity (30–90 Hz, ~80 ms latency) was present only in adult groups. Evoked GBA was more pronounced in musicians than non-musicians, with synchronization equally exhibited for violin and piano tones but enhanced for these tones compared to pure tones. Evoked gamma activity may index the physical properties of a sound and is modulated by acoustical training, while induced GBA may reflect higher perceptual learning and is shaped by specific auditory experiences. PMID:18375147

  20. Music training leads to the development of timbre-specific gamma band activity.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Antoine J; Roberts, Larry E; Chau, Wilkin; Trainor, Laurel J; Miller, Lee M

    2008-05-15

    Oscillatory gamma band activity (GBA, 30-100 Hz) has been shown to correlate with perceptual and cognitive phenomena including feature binding, template matching, and learning and memory formation. We hypothesized that if GBA reflects highly learned perceptual template matching, we should observe its development in musicians specific to the timbre of their instrument of practice. EEG was recorded in adult professional violinists and amateur pianists as well as in 4- and 5-year-old children studying piano in the Suzuki method before they commenced music lessons and 1 year later. The adult musicians showed robust enhancement of induced (non-time-locked) GBA, specifically to their instrument of practice, with the strongest effect in professional violinists. Consistent with this result, the children receiving piano lessons exhibited increased power of induced GBA for piano tones with 1 year of training, while children not taking lessons showed no effect. In comparison to induced GBA, evoked (time-locked) gamma band activity (30-90 Hz, approximately 80 ms latency) was present only in adult groups. Evoked GBA was more pronounced in musicians than non-musicians, with synchronization equally exhibited for violin and piano tones but enhanced for these tones compared to pure tones. Evoked gamma activity may index the physical properties of a sound and is modulated by acoustical training, while induced GBA may reflect higher perceptual learning and is shaped by specific auditory experiences.

  1. Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) gene in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Atug, Ozlen; Tahan, Veysel; Eren, Fatih; Tiftikci, Arzu; Imeryuz, Nese; Hamzaoglu, Hulya Over; Tozun, Nurdan

    2008-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has recently been implicated as an endogenous regulator of cellular proliferation and inflammation. Impaired expression of PPAR-gamma in colonic epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis (UC) and increased expression in hypertrophic mesenteric adipose tissue in Crohn's disease (CD) have been reported. Furthermore, PPAR-gamma ligands have been shown to inhibit tissue injury associated with immune activation in UC. Any mutation in PPAR-gamma gene may be responsible for the increase in inflammatory mediators and hence the perpetuation of inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. One common polymorphism in PPAR-gamma gene is proline to alanine substitution (Pro12Ala) which results from a CCA to GCA missense substitution in codon 12 of exon 2 of the PPAR-gamma gene. In this study, we aimed to explore Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR-gamma gene in IBD in Turkish patients. 69 patients with CD, 45 with UC and 100 controls of similar age and sex were studied. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leucocytes and mutagenically separated-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were performed to determine the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene. We observed no significant differences in the frequency of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma gene among subjects with CD, UC and controls (15.9%, 15.5% and 13%, respectively, p>0.05). These results suggest that Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma gene relates neither to the risk of the development of inflammatory bowel disease nor to the clinical subtypes of CD in the Turkish population.

  2. Radioactivity of Potassium Solutions: A Comparison of Calculated Activity to Measured Activity from Gross Beta Counting and Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F

    2005-07-26

    In order to determine if the measured beta activity for a solution containing potassium was exactly as predicted, particularly since the CES gas counter is not calibrated specifically with K-40, an experiment was conducted to compare measured activities from two radioanalytical methods (gamma spectroscopy and gas proportional counting) to calculated activities across a range of potassium concentrations. Potassium, being ubiquitous and naturally radioactive, is a well-known and common interference in gross beta counting methods. By measuring the observed beta activity due to K-40 in potassium-containing solutions across a wide range of concentrations, it was found that the observed beta activity agrees well with the beta activity calculated from the potassium concentration measured by standard inorganic analytical techniques, such as ICP-OES, and that using the measured potassium concentration to calculate the expected beta activity, and comparing this to the observed beta activity to determine if potassium can account for all the observed activity in a sample, is a valid technique. It was also observed that gamma spectroscopy is not an effective means of measuring K-40 activity below approximately 700 pCi/L, which corresponds to a solution with approximately 833 mg/L total potassium. Gas proportional counting for gross beta activity has a much lower detection limit, typically 20-50 picoCi/L for a liquid low in total dissolved solids, which corresponds to a potassium concentration of approximately 30-70 ppm K.

  3. Pre-encoding gamma-band activity during auditory working memory

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Jochen; Rieder, Maria; Abel, Cornelius; Peters, Benjamin; Bledowski, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Previous magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies have revealed gamma-band activity at sensors over parietal and fronto-temporal cortex during the delay phase of auditory spatial and non-spatial match-to-sample tasks, respectively. While this activity was interpreted as reflecting the memory maintenance of sound features, we noted that task-related activation differences might have been present already prior to the onset of the sample stimulus. The present study focused on the interval between a visual cue indicating which sound feature was to be memorized (lateralization or pitch) and sample sound presentation to test for task-related activation differences preceding stimulus encoding. MEG spectral activity was analyzed with cluster randomization tests (N = 15). Whereas there were no differences in frequencies below 40 Hz, gamma-band spectral amplitude (about 50–65 and 90–100 Hz) was higher for the lateralization than the pitch task. This activity was localized at right posterior and central sensors and present for several hundred ms after task cue offset. Activity at 50–65 Hz was also increased throughout the delay phase for the lateralization compared with the pitch task. Apparently cortical networks related to auditory spatial processing were activated after participants had been informed about the task. PMID:28198413

  4. Pre-encoding gamma-band activity during auditory working memory.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jochen; Rieder, Maria; Abel, Cornelius; Peters, Benjamin; Bledowski, Christoph

    2017-02-15

    Previous magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies have revealed gamma-band activity at sensors over parietal and fronto-temporal cortex during the delay phase of auditory spatial and non-spatial match-to-sample tasks, respectively. While this activity was interpreted as reflecting the memory maintenance of sound features, we noted that task-related activation differences might have been present already prior to the onset of the sample stimulus. The present study focused on the interval between a visual cue indicating which sound feature was to be memorized (lateralization or pitch) and sample sound presentation to test for task-related activation differences preceding stimulus encoding. MEG spectral activity was analyzed with cluster randomization tests (N = 15). Whereas there were no differences in frequencies below 40 Hz, gamma-band spectral amplitude (about 50-65 and 90-100 Hz) was higher for the lateralization than the pitch task. This activity was localized at right posterior and central sensors and present for several hundred ms after task cue offset. Activity at 50-65 Hz was also increased throughout the delay phase for the lateralization compared with the pitch task. Apparently cortical networks related to auditory spatial processing were activated after participants had been informed about the task.

  5. Endotoxin activation of endothelium for polymorphonuclear leucocyte transendothelial migration and modulation by interferon-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Issekutz, A C; Lopes, N

    1993-01-01

    Endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] is a potent inflammatory stimulus and can activate human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVE) for leucocyte adhesiveness and transendothelial migration. Here we investigated the role of HUVE-secreted cytokines in this process. When HUVE monolayers were grown on filters and preincubated for 3 hr with LPS, 51Cr-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) migrated across the HUVE in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Maximal PMNL transmigration with LPS (1 ng/ml) was 26 +/- 3% of added PMNL in 75 min. Neutralizing antibodies to interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-8 or recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist had no effect on the activation by LPS of the HUVE for supporting migration of PMNL. The HUVE 'activated state' declined with prolonged (22 hr) exposure to LPS, as reflected by a decrease in PMNL transendothelial migration to 5.5 +/- 1% and in the expression of the endothelial cell adhesion molecule, E-selectin, as compared to stimulation with LPS for 3 hr. However, simultaneous exposure to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) (200 IU/ml) and LPS maintained maximal PMNL transendothelial migration (28 +/- 4%) for at least 24 hr, prolonged E-selectin expression by HUVE and superinduced intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. The PMNL transendothelial migration was blocked by > 90% by monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD18 with either 3 hr of LPS or 22 hr LPS + IFN-gamma stimulation. Migration was partially inhibited by mAb to E-selectin (30-40%) or to ICAM-1 (35-45%) and by a combination of both reagents (50-60%) under both stimulation conditions. Thus, LPS activation of HUVE for PMNL transendothelial migration: (a) does not require secretion of IL-1, TNF-alpha or IL-8 by the endothelium, (b) IFN-gamma enhances and prolongs endothelial activation by LPS and may increase leucocyte infiltration in LPS or bacterial inflammatory reactions, and (c) CD18-dependent mechanisms are

  6. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and -gamma in auricular tissue from heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Garre, Dulcenombre; Herraíz, Marta; González-Rubio, Ma Luisa; Bernal, Rosa; Aragoncillo, Paloma; Carbonell, Amparo; Rufilanchas, Juan José; Fernández-Cruz, Arturo

    2006-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), key transcriptional regulators of lipid and energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes, have recently been proposed to modulate cardiovascular pathophysiological responses in experimental models. However, there is little information about the functional activity of PPARs in human heart failure. To investigate PPAR-alpha and -gamma expression and activity, and the association with ET-1 production and fibrosis, in cardiac biopsies from patients with end-stage heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) in comparison and from non-failing donor hearts. All samples were obtained during cardiac transplantation. Morphological analysis (by Masson trichrome and image analysis) did not detect fibrosis in the left atrium from non-failing donors (NFLA) or from ICM patients (FLA). However, left ventricles from failing hearts (FLV) contained a greater number of fibrotic areas (NFLA: 3.21+/-1.15, FLA: 1.63+/-0.83, FLV: 14.5+/-3.45%; n = 9, P<0.05). By RT-PCR, preproET-1 expression was similar in the non-failing and failing atrium but was significantly higher in the ventricles from failing hearts (NFLA: 1.00+/-0.06, FLA: 1.08+/-0.11, FLV: 1.74+/-0.19; n = 9, P<0.05). PPAR-alpha and PPAP-gamma mRNA (by RT-PCR) and protein (by Western blot) levels were higher in the ventricles from failing hearts compared with the atrium from failing and non-failing hearts. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that PPAR-alpha and PPAP-gamma were not activated in the ventricles (NFLA: 1.00+/-0.11, FLA: 1.89+/-0.24, FLV: 0.95+/-0.07; n = 9, P<0.05). These data suggest that PPAR-alpha and PPAP-gamma are selectively activated in the atria from ICM patients and might be functionally important in the maintenance of atrial morphology.

  7. Gamma irradiation: a method to produce an abiotic control for biological activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Stoquart, C; Vázquez-Rodríguez, G A; Servais, P; Barbeau, B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the feasibility of using gamma irradiation to inhibit the microbial activity of biological powder activated carbon (PAC) without impacting its adsorptive properties. First of all, the range of dose of gamma rays required to produce abiotic PAC was selected on the basis of heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) inactivation and methylene blue (MB) adsorption kinetics. Doses inferior to 10 kGy were not sufficient to inhibit the culture of heterotrophic bacteria. On the other hand, doses superior to 15 kGy were demonstrated to affect the adsorption rate of MB. Consequently, a dose comprised between 10 and 15 kGy was selected for further investigation. In order to validate the adequacy of the range of dose (i.e. 10-15 kGy), adsorption characteristics were tested by monitoring the removal kinetics of refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC). No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non-irradiated biological PAC for the adsorption of RDOC. Irradiated, non-irradiated and virgin PAC were also evaluated in terms of abundance of viable (using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight method) bacteria and in terms of heterotrophic biomass activity. The results of the BacLight method demonstrated that attachment of the biofilm on the PAC was not impacted by the irradiation and heterotrophic activity measurements demonstrated that the latter could be radically reduced in the range of dose selected. In conclusion, when using a proper dose, the gamma irradiation of colonized activated carbon drastically reduced the heterotrophic activity on activated carbon without significantly impacting its adsorptive behaviour.

  8. A redundant role of the CD3 gamma-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in mature T cell function.

    PubMed

    Haks, M C; Cordaro, T A; van den Brakel, J H; Haanen, J B; de Vries, E F; Borst, J; Krimpenfort, P; Kruisbeek, A M

    2001-02-15

    At least four different CD3 polypeptide chains are contained within the mature TCR complex, each encompassing one (CD3gamma, CD3delta, and CD3epsilon) or three (CD3zeta) immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) within their cytoplasmic domains. Why so many ITAMs are required is unresolved: it has been speculated that the different ITAMs function in signal specification, but they may also serve in signal amplification. Because the CD3zeta chains do not contribute unique signaling functions to the TCR, and because the ITAMs of the CD3-gammadeltaepsilon module alone can endow the TCR with normal signaling capacity, it thus becomes important to examine how the CD3gamma-, delta-, and epsilon-ITAMs regulate TCR signaling. We here report on the role of the CD3gamma chain and the CD3gamma-ITAM in peripheral T cell activation and differentiation to effector function. All T cell responses were reduced or abrogated in T cells derived from CD3gamma null-mutant mice, probably because of decreased expression levels of the mature TCR complex lacking CD3gamma. Consistent with this explanation, T cell responses proceed undisturbed in the absence of a functional CD3gamma-ITAM. Loss of integrity of the CD3gamma-ITAM only slightly impaired the regulation of expression of activation markers, suggesting a quantitative contribution of the CD3gamma-ITAM in this process. Nevertheless, the induction of an in vivo T cell response in influenza A virus-infected CD3gamma-ITAM-deficient mice proceeds normally. Therefore, if ITAMs can function in signal specification, it is likely that either the CD3delta and/or the CD3epsilon chains endow the TCR with qualitatively unique signaling functions.

  9. [Baseline gamma activity EEG and induced responses to facial stimuli of the visual cognitive set].

    PubMed

    Dumenko, V N; Kozlov, M K

    2011-01-01

    Power spectra of cortical potentials of baseline activity during interstimuli intervals (4 s; Fourier transform in the frequency band of 1-60 Hz) and short-term (0.8 s) induced responses to facial stimuli (wavelet transform in the 15-60 Hz band) were assessed in the study of the visual cognitive set to facial expression. Significant differences between groups of subjects with different set rigidity were observed only at the set-testing stage. Estimation of the short-term (0.8 s) induced responses of the wavelet spectra in the group with plastic set revealed an increase in the power (in comparison with the power of background activity) of the gamma2 band (41-60 Hz) in the left hemisphere of the temporal, central and occipital areas, whereas in the group with rigid set these power spectra decreased. At the same time the power in the gamma1 band (21-40 Hz) was significantly lower (at the same level with the rigid form), indicating a discrete nature and functional selectivity in the gamma frequency band.

  10. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis of toxic elements in radioactive waste packages.

    PubMed

    Ma, J-L; Carasco, C; Perot, B; Mauerhofer, E; Kettler, J; Havenith, A

    2012-07-01

    The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) are conducting an R&D program to improve the characterization of long-lived and medium activity (LL-MA) radioactive waste packages. In particular, the amount of toxic elements present in radioactive waste packages must be assessed before they can be accepted in repository facilities in order to avoid pollution of underground water reserves. To this aim, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA-Cadarache has started to study the performances of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for elements showing large capture cross sections such as mercury, cadmium, boron, and chromium. This paper reports a comparison between Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX computer code using the ENDF/B-VII.0 library and experimental gamma rays measured in the REGAIN PGNAA cell with small samples of nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, antimony, chromium, magnesium, zinc, boron, and lithium to verify the validity of a numerical model and gamma-ray production data. The measurement of a ∼20kg test sample of concrete containing toxic elements has also been performed, in collaboration with Forschungszentrum Jülich, to validate the model in view of future performance studies for dense and large LL-MA waste packages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in response to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Shabana, Effat Fahmy; Gabr, Mahmoud Ali; Moussa, Helal Ragab; El-Shaer, Enas Ali; Ismaiel, Mostafa M S

    2017-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a blue-green alga, rich with bioactive components and nutrients. To evaluate effect of gamma irradiation, A. platensis was exposed to different doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5kGy. The data showed that the phenolic and proline contents significantly increased with the increase of gamma irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy, above which a reduction was observed. The soluble proteins and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated by all tested irradiation doses. Furthermore, the vitamins (A, K and B group) and mineral contents (N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) were stimulated by the irradiation doses compared with the control. The activities of some N-assimilating and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased with the irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy. This study suggests the possible use of gamma irradiation as a stimulatory agent to raise the nutritive value and antioxidant activity of A. platensis.

  12. Stabilization of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) spectra from NaI detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwally, W. A.; Gardner, R. P.

    2004-06-01

    NaI detectors are still used frequently in industrial Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis applications such as in bulk material analysis. They have the advantages of being efficient for high-energy gamma rays, being relatively rugged, and being able to be used without cooling. When using NaI detectors, and consequently photomultiplier tubes, the quality of the data can drastically deteriorate through gain and zero shifts that result in spectral smearing due to temperature and/or counting rate changes. A new offline approach is presented to stabilize the NaI spectral drift. The approach is not sensitive to the cause of the drift and takes into account the NaI and ADC non-linearities. Peak resolution is improved substantially when this approach is used in the presence of spectral drift.

  13. Determination of boron in materials by cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rick L

    2005-01-01

    An instrument for cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), located at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR), has proven useful for the measurement of boron in a variety of materials. Neutrons, moderated by passage through liquid hydrogen at 20 K, pass through a (58)Ni coated guide to the PGAA station in the cold neutron guide hall of the NCNR. The thermal equivalent neutron fluence rate at the sample position is 9 x 10(8) cm(-2) s(-1). Prompt gamma rays are measured by a cadmium- and lead-shielded high-purity germanium detector. The instrument has been used to measure boron mass fractions in minerals, in NIST SRM 2175 (Refractory Alloy MP-35-N) for certification of boron, and most recently in semiconductor-grade silicon. The limit of detection for boron in many materials is <10 ng g(-1).

  14. Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis facility for in vivo body composition studies in small animals.

    PubMed

    Stamatelatos, I E; Kasviki, K; Green, S; Gainey, M; Kalef-Ezra, J; Beddoe, A

    2004-05-01

    The design, calibration, dosimetry and performance evaluation of a prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis facility for in vivo body composition studies in small animals (i.e. rats or rabbits) is discussed. The system design was guided by Monte Carlo transport calculations using MCNP-4C code. A system was built and performance evaluation was made using a 185-GBq Pu-Be neutron source. Prompt-gamma rays produced by neutron capture reactions were detected by a combination of a NaI(Tl) scintillation and a HPGe semiconductor detectors. Nitrogen and chlorine were quantified by analysis of the 10.83-MeV and 6.11-MeV peaks, respectively. Appropriate corrections for the animal body size were determined. The facility described allows the in vivo determination of protein and extracellular space in sets of experimental animals.

  15. Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, John

    2016-08-01

    VERITAS is an array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-ray astronomy that has been in full scientific operation since 2007. The VERITAS collaboration is conducting several key science projects, one of which is the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN). So far, VERITAS has invested more than 3000 hours in observations of AGN, with approximately 150 objects observed. The program has resulted in the successful detection of 34 AGN as VHE gamma-ray sources, with the majority belonging to the blazar AGN subclass. Significant effort is made to acquire multiwavelength data coincident with the VERITAS observations. An overview of the VERITAS AGN program and its key results will be presented.

  16. Simultaneous activation of gamma and theta network oscillations in rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Yacov; Wittner, Lucia; Freund, Tamas F; Gähwiler, Beat H

    2002-03-15

    Hippocampal activity in vivo is characterized by concurrent oscillations at theta (4-15 Hz) and gamma (20-80 Hz) frequencies. Here we show that cholinergic receptor activation (methacholine 10-20 nm) in hippocampal slice cultures induces an oscillatory mode of activity, in which the intrinsic network oscillator (located in the CA3 area) expresses simultaneous theta and gamma network oscillations. Pyramidal cells display synaptic theta oscillations, characterized by cycles consisting of population EPSP-IPSP sequences that are dominated by population IPSPs. These rhythmic IPSPs most probably result from theta-modulated spiking activity of several interneurons. At the same time, the majority of interneurons consistently display synaptic gamma oscillations. These oscillatory cycles consist of fast depolarizing rhythmic events that are likely to reflect excitatory input from CA3 pyramidal cells. Interneurons comprising this functional group were identified morphologically. They include four known types of interneurons (basket, O-LM, bistratified and str. lucidum-specific cells) and one new type of CA3 interneuron (multi-subfield cell). The oscillatory activity of these interneurons is only weakly correlated between neighbouring cells, and in about half of these (44 %) is modulated by depolarizing theta rhythmicity. The overall characteristics of acetylcholine-induced oscillations in slice cultures closely resemble the rhythmicity observed in hippocampal field and single cell recordings in vivo. Both rhythmicities depend on intrinsic synaptic interactions, and are expressed by different cell types. The fact that these oscillations persist in a network lacking extra-hippocampal connections emphasizes the importance of intrinsic mechanisms in determining this form of hippocampal activity.

  17. Dynamics of gamma-band activity during an audiospatial working memory task in humans.

    PubMed

    Lutzenberger, Werner; Ripper, Barbara; Busse, Laura; Birbaumer, Niels; Kaiser, Jochen

    2002-07-01

    The representation of visual objects in short-term memory has been shown to be related to increased gamma-band activity in the electroencephalogram. Using a similar paradigm, we investigated oscillatory magnetoencephalographic activity in human subjects during a delayed matching-to-sample task requiring working memory of auditory spatial information. The memory task involved same-different judgments about the lateralization angle of pairs of filtered noise stimuli (S1 and S2) separated by 800 msec delays of background noise. This was compared with a control condition requiring the detection of a possible change in the background noise volume appearing instead of S2 (volume task). Statistical probability mapping revealed increased spectral activity at 59 Hz over left parietal cortex during the delay phase of the memory condition. In addition, 59 Hz coherence was enhanced between left parietal and right frontal sensors. During the end of the delay and during the presentation of S2, enhanced gamma-band activity at 67 Hz was observed over right frontal and later over midline parietal areas. In contrast, the volume task was characterized by increased left inferior frontotemporal 59 Hz spectral amplitude after S1. Apparently representation of the spatial position of a sound source is associated both with synchronization of networks in parietal areas involved in the auditory dorsal stream and with increased coupling between networks serving representation of audiospatial information and frontal executive systems. The comparison with S2 seemed to activate frontal and parietal neuronal ensembles. Gamma-band activity during the volume task may reflect auditory pattern encoding in auditory ventral stream areas.

  18. Swift detection of increased X-ray activity from gamma-ray flaring blazar PKS 1424-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano; Cutini, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Following enduring gamma-ray flaring activity of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1424-41 (also known as 2FGL J1428.0-4206, Nolan et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 31) detected by Fermi LAT during January 2013, two Swift target of opportunity observations were performed on January 24 and 27, 2013. Recent gamma-ray and X-ray flaring activity from the source was observed on January 6 and January 7 (ATel#4714 and ATel #4717).

  19. Search for gamma-ray-emitting active galactic nuclei in the Fermi-LAT unassociated sample using machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Doert, M.; Errando, M. E-mail: errando@astro.columbia.edu

    2014-02-10

    The second Fermi-LAT source catalog (2FGL) is the deepest all-sky survey available in the gamma-ray band. It contains 1873 sources, of which 576 remain unassociated. Machine-learning algorithms can be trained on the gamma-ray properties of known active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to find objects with AGN-like properties in the unassociated sample. This analysis finds 231 high-confidence AGN candidates, with increased robustness provided by intersecting two complementary algorithms. A method to estimate the performance of the classification algorithm is also presented, that takes into account the differences between associated and unassociated gamma-ray sources. Follow-up observations targeting AGN candidates, or studies of multiwavelength archival data, will reduce the number of unassociated gamma-ray sources and contribute to a more complete characterization of the population of gamma-ray emitting AGNs.

  20. Search for Gamma-ray-emitting Active Galactic Nuclei in the Fermi-LAT Unassociated Sample Using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doert, M.; Errando, M.

    2014-02-01

    The second Fermi-LAT source catalog (2FGL) is the deepest all-sky survey available in the gamma-ray band. It contains 1873 sources, of which 576 remain unassociated. Machine-learning algorithms can be trained on the gamma-ray properties of known active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to find objects with AGN-like properties in the unassociated sample. This analysis finds 231 high-confidence AGN candidates, with increased robustness provided by intersecting two complementary algorithms. A method to estimate the performance of the classification algorithm is also presented, that takes into account the differences between associated and unassociated gamma-ray sources. Follow-up observations targeting AGN candidates, or studies of multiwavelength archival data, will reduce the number of unassociated gamma-ray sources and contribute to a more complete characterization of the population of gamma-ray emitting AGNs.

  1. Activation of mutant protein kinase C{gamma} leads to aberrant sequestration and impairment of its cellular function

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, Graeme; Davies, Kay E.; Talbot, Kevin

    2008-08-01

    Mutations in protein kinase C{gamma} (PKC{gamma}) cause the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14). In this study, expression of an extensive panel of known SCA14-associated PKC{gamma} mutations as fusion proteins in cell culture led to the consistent formation of cytoplasmic aggregates in response to purinoceptor stimulation. Aggregates co-stained with antibodies to phosphorylated PKC{gamma} and the early endosome marker EEA1 but failed to redistribute to the cell membrane under conditions of oxidative stress. These studies suggest that Purkinje cell damage in SCA14 may result from a reduction of PKC{gamma} activity due its aberrant sequestration in the early endosome compartment.

  2. Optical, X, Gamma-ray activity of the FSRQ PKS 1313-333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacciani, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    We asked a Swift ToO campaign on the FSRQ PKS 1313-333 (z=1.21), triggered by prolonged High Energy activity detected with FERMI-LAT. The trigger method detected activity at E > 20GeV/(1+z) with TS ~79 from 2015-12-10 to 2015-12-30, following the prescription of Pacciani et al. 2014, ApJ, 790, 45. FERMI-LAT detected Two Gamma-ray photons of about 50 GeV within the last week.

  3. Spectral evolution of active galactic nuclei: A unified description of the X-ray and gamma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiter, D.; Boldt, E.

    1982-01-01

    A model for spectral evolution is presented whereby active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the type observed individually emerge from an earlier stage at z approx = 4 in which they are the thermal X-ray sources responsible for most of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB). The conjecture is pursued that these precursor objects are initially supermassive Schwarzschild black holes with accretion disks radiating near the Eddington luminosity limit. It is noted that after approx. 10 to the 8th power years these central black holes are spun-up to a canonical Kerr equilibrium state (A/M = 0.998; Thorne 1974) and shown how they then can lead to spectral evolution involving non-thermal emission extending to gamma rays, at the expense of reduced thermal disk radiation. That major portion of the CXB remaining after the contribution of usual AGN are considered, while a superposition of AGN sources at z 1 can account for the gamma ray background. Extensive X-ray measurements carried out with the HEAO 1 and 2 missions as well as gamma ray and optical data are shown to compare favorably with principal features of this model.

  4. Corrections for volume hydrogen content in coal analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, J.; Oliveira, C.

    1992-05-01

    Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, PGNAA, is a useful technique to determine the elemental composition of bulk samples in on-line measurements. Monte Carlo simulation studies performed in bulk coals of different compositions for given sample size and geometry have shown that both the gamma count rate for hydrogen and the gamma count rate per percent by weight for an arbitrary element due to (n, γ) reactions depend on the volume hydrogen content, being independent of coal composition. Experimental results using a 252Cf neutron source surrounded by a lead cylinder were obtained for nine different coal types. These show that the γ-peak originated by (n, n' γ) reactions in the lead shield depends on the sample density. Assuming that the source intensity is constant, this result enables the measurement of the coal bulk density. Taking into account the results just described, the present paper shows how the γ-peak intensities can be corrected for volume hydrogen content in order to obtain the percent by weight contents of the coal. The density is necessary to convert the volume hydrogen in percent by weight content and to calculate the bulk sample weight.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis using MCNP code.

    PubMed

    Evans, C J; Ryde, S J; Hancock, D A; al-Agel, F

    1998-01-01

    Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is the most direct method of measuring total-body nitrogen. In combination with internal hydrogen standardisation, it is possible to reduce the dependence on body habitus. The uniformity of activation and detection, however, cannot be optimised sufficiently to eliminate the dependence entirely, and so further corrections are essential. The availability of the powerful Monte Carlo code MCNP(4A) has allowed a more accurate analysis of the activation facility, and yields corrections for body habitus and superficial fat layers. The accuracy of the correction is retained as the source-to-skin distance is reduced, although the activation uniformity is thereby degraded. This allows the use of a 252Cf source with lower activity and hence reduces the running cost of the facility.

  6. Active damping of the camera support mast of a Cherenkov Gamma-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrz, M.; Bastaits, R.; Preumont, A.

    2011-04-01

    This paper explores the possibility of damping actively the camera support mast of Gamma-ray telescopes with a configuration similar to the MAGIC telescope, where the camera is supported by a curved mast and an array of cables. This is achieved by replacing a set of passive cables by a set of active ones, controlled by active tendons. Each active tendon consists of a displacement actuator collocated to a force sensor with independent force feedback control loops. The paper outlines the theory of decentralized active damping of cable-structures, points out the main design parameters, and evaluates the amount of damping that the control system can provide. The effect of the control on the wind response and on the transient response of the telescope is estimated.

  7. Measured Activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni) and gamma'-(Ni)3Al in the Ni-Al-Pt System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    Adding Pt to Ni-Al coatings is critical to achieving the required oxidation protection of Ni-based superalloys, but the nature of the Pt effect remains unresolved. This research provides a fundamental part of the answer by measuring the influence of Pt on the activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni), gamma prime-(Ni)3Al and liquid in the Ni-Al-Pt system. Measurements have been made at 25 compositions in the Ni-rich corner over the temperature range, T = 1400-1750 K, by the vapor pressure technique with a multiple effusion-cell mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). These measurements clearly show adding Pt (for X(sub Pt) less than 0.25) decreases a(Al) while increasing a(Ni). This solution behavior supports the idea that Pt increases Al transport to an alloy / Al2O3 interface and also limits the interaction between the coating and substrate alloys in the gamma-(Ni) + gamma prime-(Ni)3Al region. This presentation will review the progress of this study.

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} is expressed in hippocampal neurons and its activation prevents {beta}-amyloid neurodegeneration: role of Wnt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Inestrosa, Nibaldo C. . E-mail: ninestr@genes.bio.puc.cl; Godoy, Juan A.; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Koenig, Cecilia S.; Bronfman, Miguel

    2005-03-10

    The molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the participation of the amyloid-{beta}-peptide (A{beta}), which plays a critical role in the neurodegeneration that triggers the disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors, which are members of the nuclear receptor family. We report here that (1) PPAR{gamma} is present in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. (2) Activation of PPAR{gamma} by troglitazone and rosiglitazone protects rat hippocampal neurons against A{beta}-induced neurodegeneration, as shown by the 3-[4,5 -2yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay, immunofluorescence using an anti-heavy neurofilament antibody, and quantitative electron microscopy. (3) Hippocampal neurons treated with several PPAR{gamma} agonists, including troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone, prevent the excitotoxic A{beta}-induced rise in bulk-free Ca{sup 2+}. (4) PPAR{gamma} activation results in the modulation of Wnt signaling components, including the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and an increase of the cytoplasmic and nuclear {beta}-catenin levels. We conclude that the activation of PPAR{gamma} prevents A{beta}-induced neurodegeneration by a mechanism that may involve a cross talk between neuronal PPAR{gamma} and the Wnt signaling pathway. More important, the fact that the activation of PPAR{gamma} attenuated A{beta}-dependent neurodegeneration opens the possibility to fight AD from a new therapeutic perspective.

  9. Novel approach to activity evaluation for release-active forms of anti-interferon-gamma antibodies based on enzyme-linked immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Elena S; Bobrovnik, Sergey A; Sherriff, Gordon; Myslivets, Andrey A; Tarasov, Sergey A; Epstein, Oleg I

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a suitable assay to measure the activity of drug agents based on release-active forms of anti-interferon-gamma antibodies (RA forms of Abs) is an important step forward in the investigation of such agents. In this study, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was utilized to examine the effect of RA forms of Abs specific for human interferon gamma on the interaction between monoclonal anti-interferon gamma antibodies and recombinant human interferon gamma. The experimental data and the results obtained by using relevant mathematical analysis showed that such RA forms of Abs are able to modulate the monoclonal antibody interaction with both soluble and immobilized (to the assay plate well) interferon gamma. These data demonstrated the importance of using relatively low concentrations of both soluble and plate-immobilized interferon gamma to detect the effects of RA forms of Abs to interferon gamma on the binding of monoclonal antibodies to interferon gamma. It has been suggested that the observed influence of RA forms of Abs on 'antibody-antigen' interaction could be used to detect and analyze the activity of drugs containing RA forms of Abs.

  10. Neutron activation analysis via nuclear decay kinetics using gamma-ray spectroscopy at SFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Thomas; Chester, Aaron; Starosta, Krzysztof; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool used in a variety of fields including nuclear and analytical chemistry, environmental science, and health risk management. At SFU, the Germanium detector for Elemental Analysis and Radiation Studies (GEARS), a low-background shielded high-purity germanium gamma-ray detector, has been used recently in all of the above fields. The current project aims to expand upon the number of applications for which GEARS can be used while enhancing its current functionality. A recent addition to the SFU Nuclear Science laboratory is the Thermo Scientific P 385 neutron generator. This device provides a nominal yield of 3 ×108 neutrons/s providing the capacity for neutron activation analysis, opening a major avenue of research at SFU which was previously unavailable. The isotopes created via neutron activation have a wide range of half-lives. To measure and study isotopes with half-lives above a second, a new analogue data acquisition system has been installed on GEARS allowing accurate measurements of decay kinetics. This new functionality enables identification and quantification of the products of neutron activation. Results from the neutron activation analysis of pure metals will be presented.

  11. Parieto-frontal gamma band activity during the perceptual emergence of speech forms.

    PubMed

    Basirat, Anahita; Sato, Marc; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2008-08-01

    The multistable perception of speech refers to the perceptual changes experienced while listening to a speech form cycled in rapid and continuous repetition, the so-called Verbal Transformation Effect. Because distinct interpretations of the same repeated stimulus alternate spontaneously, this effect provides an invaluable tool to examine how speech percepts are formed in the listener's mind. In order to track the temporal dynamics of brain activity specifically linked to perceptual changes, intracerebral EEG activity was recorded from two implanted epileptic patients while performing a verbal transformation task. To this aim, they were asked to carefully listen to a speech sequence played repeatedly and to press a button whenever they perceived a change in the repeated utterance. For both patients, 300-800 ms prior to the reported perceptual transitions, high frequency activity in the gamma band range (>40 Hz) was observed within the left inferior frontal and supramarginal gyri. An additional auditory decision task was used to rule out the possibility that the increased gamma band activity was due to the patients' motor responses. These results suggest that articulatory-based representations play a key part in the endogenously driven emergence of auditory speech percepts. The findings are interpreted in relation to theories assuming a link between perception and action in the human speech processing system.

  12. Preparation of low molecular weight fucoidan by gamma-irradiation and its anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2013-09-12

    Fucoidan is a marine sulfated polysaccharide with a wide variety of biological activities. Recently, it has been reported that low molecular weight fucoidan has the enhanced antioxidant and anticoagulative activities. However, degradation techniques such as enzymolysis and acid hydrolysis for obtaining low molecular weight fucoidan, have the disadvantages such as narrow substrate specificity and unfavorable hydrolysis of side groups, respectively. In this study, low molecular weight fucoidan was prepared by gamma-irradiation. When fucoidan was gamma-irradiated, the molecular weight rapidly dropped to 38 kDa when the sample was irradiated at 10 kGy, then gradually dropped to 7 kDa without the significant elimination of the sulfate groups. Low molecular weight fucoidan had higher cytotoxicity than native fucoidan in cancer cells, such as AGS, MCF-7, and HepG-2. In addition, low molecular weight fucoidan showed higher inhibitory activity of cell transformation, which resulted in higher anticarcinogenicity. This result suggests that low molecular weight fucoidan with enhanced biological activities can be produced by a simple irradiation method without changing the functional groups.

  13. Matrix effects in compositional analysis of bulk materials by PGNAA (prompt gamma/neutron activation analysis). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.; Merrell, G.B.; Gozani, T.

    1984-08-01

    This feasibility study has identified and evaluated the influence of important matrix effects which arise in the commercial application of prompt gamma/neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) methods to bulk-coal analysis as follows: neutron moderation and absorption changes; gamma-ray attenuation in the sample; sample density and volume changes. The neutron-induced capture gamma spectra were found to vary in a similar, predictable manner for all neutron absorbers found in coal such as hydrogen, boron, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur. Three different models have been proposed from this study to analyze coal by PGNAA methods and account for the significant matrix effects arising from hydrogen variation and other system perturbations.

  14. Fermi LAT observations of gamma-ray activity from the binary system PSR B1259-63

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, A. K. H.; Huang, R. H. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Hui, C. Y.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the recent gamma-ray activity of the binary system PSR B1259-63 by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The source was detected by the LAT when the pulsar crossed the disk of the Be star in mid-Nov (Tam et al. ATel #3046; Abdo et al. ATel #3085). After the periastron in mid-Dec, the gamma-ray emission has decreased significantly. By using the LAT data taking between 2010-12-22 and 2011-01-14 UT, the source was not detected with a likelihood test statistic (TS) of 4.

  15. Production of interferon-gamma by in vivo tumor-sensitized T cells: Association with active antitumor immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Bursuker, I.; Pearce, M.T. )

    1990-02-01

    The state of active immunity to Meth A fibrosarcoma in mice immunized with an admixture of Meth A cells and Propionibacterium acnes is associated with possession by the host of spleen cells capable of producing interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) upon in vitro restimulation with irradiated tumor cells. The ability of spleen cells from immunized mice to produce IFN-gamma in response to irradiated Meth A cells decays as active antitumor immunity is replaced by a state of immunological memory. The IFN-producing cells are L3T4+Ly2+, cyclophosphamide-sensitive and radiosensitive T cells, as determined by their sensitivity to corresponding monoclonal antibodies and complement. The induction of IFN-gamma production by in vivo tumor-sensitized T cells is tumor specific, in that spleen cells from mice immunized against Meth A fibrosarcoma can produce IFN in response to irradiated Meth A cells but not in response to another syngeneic tumor M109 lung carcinoma.

  16. Fission yield measurements from deuterium-tritium fusion produced neutrons using cyclic neutron activation analysis and gamma-gamma coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Bruce D.

    The work described in this dissertation used cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA) coupled with gamma-gamma coincidence counting with high-purity germanium detectors to measure the independent and cumulative fission yields of short-lived fission products from thorium-232, uranium-235, and uranium-238. Fission yields of short-lived fission products are needed to enhance the precision and expediency of pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics. The measurements presented in this work illustrate the large differences in the delayed gamma-ray response following a nuclear detonation. The work performed in this dissertation applied non-destructive CNAA using deuterium-tritium fusion produced neutrons to induce fission. Irradiated targets were shuttled from the irradiation position at the face of the neutron generator to a radiation detection system in less than 0.3 seconds using a pneumatic transfer system. Delayed gamma-rays emitted by fission progeny with half-lives on the order of seconds to several minutes were acquired using three high-purity germanium detectors operating in coincidence. Gamma emissions from this timescale exhibit the largest differences in intensity between individual actinides because of order-of-magnitude variations in independent fission yields for fission products at the wings and valley of the fission product distribution curve. Fission product decay data from the listed targets were evaluated to measure the fission yields of arsenic-84, selenium-86, bromine-88, krypton-90 and -92, rubidium-94, strontium-94, -95, and -96, yttrium-96m, zirconium-99, barium-143, and lanthanum-146. Time-dependent gamma-ray spectra were used to measure the fission yields of the listed radioisotopes along with: bromine-86 and -87, krypton-89, yttrium-97m and -99, tellurium-136, iodine-136 metastable and ground states, xenon-138, -139, and -140, cesium-140 and -142, and barium and lanthanum-144. All of the measured fission yields have yet to be experimentally

  17. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of RCRA surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Propp, W.A.

    1997-11-01

    A performance evaluation to determine the feasibility of using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for noninvasive, quantitative assay of mixed waste containers was sponsored by DOE`s Office of Technology Development (OTD), the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The evaluation was conducted using a surrogate waste, based on Portland cement, that was spiked with three RCRA metals, mercury, cadmium, and lead. The results indicate that PGNAA has potential as a process monitor. However, further development is required to improve its sensitivity to meet regulatory requirements for determination of these RCRA metals.

  18. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munive, Marco; Solís, José L.; Revilla, Ángel

    2007-10-01

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO3 was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl2Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

  19. Gamma-ray-spectroscopy following high-flux 14-MeV neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E.

    1981-10-12

    The Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-I), a high-intensity source of 14-MeV neutrons at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has been used for applications in activation analysis, inertial-confinement-fusion diagnostic development, and fission decay-heat studies. The fast-neutron flux from the RTNS-I is at least 50 times the maximum fluxes available from typical neutron generators, making these applications possible. Facilities and procedures necessary for gamma-ray spectroscopy of samples irradiated at the RTNS-I were developed.

  20. Functions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) in Gynecologic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ping; Zhang, Yuquan; Huang, Yan; Yang, Yingli; Jiang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of a class of nuclear hormone receptors intimately involved in the regulation of expression of myriad genes that regulate energy metabolism, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. Although originally discovered as a pivotal regulator of adipocyte differentiation, the roles that PPARγ plays in gynecological disorders are still unknown. There are a number of studies on the functions of PPARγ and its agonists in gynecological disorders. In this mini-review, we provide a brief summary of the advances in recent years. PMID:25987855

  1. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-10-26

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

  2. Calcium ionophore and phorbol ester activation of proliferation and. gamma. -IFN production by neonatal mononuclear cells (MNCs)

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, Y.J.; Kuhls, T.L.; Pineda, E.

    1986-03-01

    Human neonatal MNCs have a dissociation between prolif. and ..gamma..-IFN prod. Although cord MNCs display normal-high prolif. following lectin stim., ..gamma..-IFN prod. is greatly diminished compared to adult MNCs. Increasing data support a 2-stimuli requirement for human T-cell activation as noted in the T-cell line Jurkat as well as in peripheral T-cells. They have compared prolif. and ..gamma..-IFN responses of cord and adult MNCs to the calcium ionophore A23187, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), PHA and their combinations. Cord and adult MNCs had similar prolif. responses to A23187, PMA and PHA. PMA alone acted as a weak mitogen compared to PHA. Optimal A23187 alone caused very low amts of prolif. Either PMA or A23187 suppressed PHA-stim. prolif. while A23187 augmented PMA-induced prolif. A23187, PMA or PHA alone prod. ..gamma..-IFN in adult but not cord MNCs. The addition of PMA or A23187 augmented the PHA-induced ..gamma..-IFN prod. in both cord and adult MNCs (6..-->..80 IU vs 240..-->..480 IU resp). When combined, A23187 and PMA stim. optimal and comparable amts of ..gamma..-IFN in adult and cord MNCs (480 IU). From these findings they conclude that although the stimuli for ..gamma..-IFN and prolif. may be similar, there is an absolute requirement for 2 stimuli (PMA/A23187) for ..gamma..-IFN prod. by cord cells and optimal prod. in adult MNCs. The defect of ..gamma..-IFN prod. observed in PHA stim. neonatal MNCs can be corrected using a calcium ionophore and protein kinase C activator.

  3. Radioprotective influence of Mentha piperita (Linn) against gamma irradiation in mice: Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Panwar, Meenakshi; Kumar, Madhu; Kumar, Ashok

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the radiomodulatory influence of a leaf extract of Mentha piperita (Linn) on hepatic antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in Swiss albino mice. Animals were given either double distilled water or leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g/kg bwt/day) once a day for three consecutive days. Thirty min after the last treatment mice were exposed to 8 Gy of gamma radiation. Mice were autopsied at 30 min post-irradiation. Biochemical parameters were studied to assess the radioprotective effect of leaf extract of M. piperita. Animals pretreated with leaf extract of M. piperita and exposed to 8.0 Gy gamma radiation showed a significant increase in the activities of reduced glutathione content (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.005), glutathione reductase (p < 0.001), glutathione S-transferase (p < 0.005), superoxide dismutase (p < 0.005), and catalase (p < 0.005). Irradiated group pretreated with leaf extract of M. piperita showed significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in liver. The leaf extract of M. piperita showed strong radical scavenging activity in both the 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH*) and 2, 2 azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS*+) assays. The results of the present investigation suggest the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of leaf extract of M. piperita are the likely mechanism of radiation protection.

  4. Study on antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by gamma irradiation method using different stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Phu, Dang; Quoc, Le Anh; Duy, Nguyen Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Thi Kim; Du, Bui Duy; Luan, Le Quang; Hien, Nguyen Quoc

    2014-04-01

    Colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation using different stabilizers, namely polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), alginate, and sericin. The particle size measured from TEM images was 4.3, 6.1, 7.6, and 10.2 nm for AgNPs/PVP, AgNPs/PVA, AgNPs/alginate, and AgNPs/sericin, respectively. The influence of different stabilizers on the antibacterial activity of AgNPs was investigated. Results showed that AgNPs/alginate exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ( E. coli) among the as-synthesized AgNPs. Handwash solution has been prepared using Na lauryl sulfate as surfactant, hydroxyethyl cellulose as binder, and 15 mg/L of AgNPs/alginate as antimicrobial agent. The obtained results on the antibacterial test of handwash for the dilution to 3 mg AgNPs/L showed that the antibacterial efficiency against E. coli was of 74.6%, 89.8%, and 99.0% for the contacted time of 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Thus, due to the biocompatibility of alginate extracted from seaweed and highly antimicrobial activity of AgNPs synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation, AgNPs/alginate is promising to use as an antimicrobial agent in biomedicine, cosmetic, and in other fields.

  5. Measurement of total body chlorine by prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Beddoe, A H; Streat, S J; Hill, G L

    1987-02-01

    A method of measuring total body chlorine (TBCl) by prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis is described which depends on the same NaI(Tl) spectra used for determinations of total body nitrogen. From these spectra counts ratios of chlorine to hydrogen are derived and TBCl is determined using a model of body composition which depends on measured body weight, total body water (by tritium dilution) and protein (6.25 X nitrogen) as well as estimated body minerals and glycogen. The precision of the method based on scanning an anthropomorphic phantom is at present only approximately 9% (SD), for a patient dose equivalent of less than 0.30 mSv. Spectra collected from 67 normal volunteers (32 male, 35 female) yielded mean values of TBCl of 72 +/- 19 (SD) g in males and 53.6 +/- 15 g in females, in broad agreement with values reported by workers using delayed gamma methods. Results are also presented for two human cadavers analysed both by neutron activation and by conventional chemical analysis; the ratios of TBCl (neutron activation) to TBCl (chemical) were 0.980 +/- 0.028 (SEM) and 0.91 +/- 0.09. Finally, it is suggested that an improvement in precision will be achieved by increasing the scanning time (thereby increasing the radiation dose equivalent) and by adding two more detectors.

  6. A multiparametric HPGe-NaI acquisition system for low gamma activity measurements of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taricco, C.; Bhandari, N.; Colombetti, P.; Mariani, I.; Verma, N.; Vivaldo, G.

    The study of long-term solar activity variations in the past requires the use of radioisotopic data planetary reservoirs. At the Laboratory of Monte dei Cappuccini in Torino (IFSI-Torino, INAF) for many years we have been studying radioisotopes in meteorites, because their production, which is related to galactic cosmic ray flux in the heliosphere, is anticorrelated with the heliospheric magnetic field variations. We have developed very sensitive gamma detection techniques, in particular to measure 44Ti activity in meteorites; due to its half-life (t1/2=59.2 years), this radioisotope is an ideal index to reveal the imprint of solar activity variations on the centennial scale. Recently we have improved the spectrometer by a new multiparametric acquisition system, which allows to extract efficiently the 44Ti peak from the natural background.

  7. Gamma irradiation induced disintegration of waste activated sludge for biological hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, gamma irradiation was applied for the disintegration and dissolution of waste activated sludge produced during the biological wastewater treatment, and the solubilized sludge was used as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. The experimental results showed that the solubilization of waste activated sludge was 53.7% at 20 kGy and pH=12, and the SCOD, polysaccharides, protein, TN and TP contents in the irradiated sludge solutions was 3789.6 mg/L, 268.3 mg/L, 1881.5 mg/L, 132.3 mg/L and 80.4 mg/L, respectively. The irradiated sludge was used for fermentative hydrogen production, and the hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCODconsumed. It can be concluded that the irradiated waste activated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for fermentative hydrogen production.

  8. Taurine activates glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Kohno, Tatsuro; Georgiev, Stefan K; Ikoma, Miho; Ishii, Hideaki; Petrenko, Andrey B; Baba, Hiroshi

    2008-02-12

    Taurine has been suggested to modulate nociceptive information at the spinal cord level. In this study, the pharmacological properties of taurine were investigated in adult rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp method. We found that taurine seemed to have higher efficacy than glycine on glycine receptors in SG neurons. An increase in chloride conductance was responsible for taurine-induced currents. Taurine at 0.3 mM activated glycine receptors, whereas at 3 mM activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors. The currents activated by coapplication of taurine and glycine are cross inhibitive. Altogether these results show that taurine might represent another important neurotransmitter or modulator in SG neurons, which may be involved in antinociception.

  9. Limits on MeV Gamma-Ray Emission from Active Galaxies and Other Unidentified High-Latitude Gamma-Ray Sources Observed with COMPTEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, J. G.; Collmar, W.; Strong, A.; Schonfelder, V.; Carraminana, A.

    We have established cumulative flux limits in the COMPTEL energy range (0.75-30 MeV) for a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) of general interest. Our target list consists of both known and unidentified gamma-ray sources at high Galactic latitudes. Limits to the time-averaged MeV-emission measured with COMPTEL are derived from all-sky maximum-likelihood and flux maps produced using the full COMPTEL dataset spanning the entire nine-year period of the CGRO mission (April 1991-June 2000). The flux limits described here will be used to assess the contribution of AGN to the diffuse gamma-ray background measured in the MeV regime, and may serve to constrain the emission processes operative in high-energy cosmic sources.

  10. Fc gamma receptors regulate immune activation and susceptibility during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Paul J; Xu, Jiayong; Casadevall, Arturo; Chan, John

    2008-03-01

    The critical role of cellular immunity during tuberculosis (TB) has been extensively studied, but the impact of Abs upon this infection remains poorly defined. Previously, we demonstrated that B cells are required for optimal protection in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice. FcgammaR modulate immunity by engaging Igs produced by B cells. We report that C57BL/6 mice deficient in inhibitory FcgammaRIIB (RIIB-/-) manifested enhanced mycobacterial containment and diminished immunopathology compared with wild-type controls. These findings corresponded with enhanced pulmonary Th1 responses, evidenced by increased IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells, and elevated expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 in the lungs. Upon M. tuberculosis infection and immune complex engagement, RIIB-/- macrophages produced more of the p40 component of the Th1-promoting cytokine IL-12. These data strongly suggest that FcgammaRIIB engagement can dampen the TB Th1 response by attenuating IL-12p40 production or activation of APCs. Conversely, C57BL/6 mice lacking the gamma-chain shared by activating FcgammaR had enhanced susceptibility and exacerbated immunopathology upon M. tuberculosis challenge, associated with increased production of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. Thus, engagement of distinct FcgammaR can divergently affect cytokine production and susceptibility during M. tuberculosis infection.

  11. Gamma-radiation-induced degradation of actively pumped single-mode ytterbium-doped optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.; Petrosky, J.; Pochet, M.; Usechak, N. G.; Francis, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    The integration of optical components into the digital processing units of satellite subsystems has the potential to remove interconnect bottlenecks inherent to the volume, mass, complexity, reliability and crosstalk issues of copper-based interconnects. Assuming on-board high-bandwidth communications will utilize passive optical fibers as a communication channel, this work investigates the impact of gamma irradiation from a Co-60 source on both passive optical fibers and ytterbium-doped single-mode fibers operated as amplifiers for a 1060-nm light source. Standard optical patch cables were evaluated along with active Yb-doped double-clad fibers. Varied exposure times and signal transmission wavelengths were used to investigate the degradation of the fibers exposed to total doses above 100 krad (Si). The effect on the amplified signal gain was studied for the Yb-doped fibers. The increased attenuation in the fibers across a broad wavelength range in response to multiple levels of gamma radiation exposure along with the effect that the increased attenuation has on the actively pumped Yb-doped fiber amplifier performance, is discussed.

  12. Contralateral parahippocampal gamma-band activity determines noise-like tinnitus laterality: a region of interest analysis.

    PubMed

    Vanneste, S; Heyning, P Van de; Ridder, D De

    2011-12-29

    Tinnitus is described as an auditory perception in the absence of any external sound source. Tinnitus loudness has been correlated to sustained high frequency gamma-band activity in auditory cortex. It remains unknown whether unilateral tinnitus is always generated in the left auditory cortex, irrespective of the side on which the tinnitus is perceived, or in the contralateral auditory cortex. In order to solve this enigma source localized electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of a homogenous group of unilateral left and right-sided tinnitus patients presenting with noise-like tinnitus was analyzed. Based on a region of interest analysis, the most important result of this study is that tinnitus lateralization depended on the gamma-band activity of the contralateral parahippocampal area. As for the auditory cortex no differences were found between left-sided and right-sided tinnitus patients. However, in comparison to a control group both left and right-sided tinnitus patients had an increased gamma-band activity in both the left and right primary and secondary auditory cortex. Thus whereas in tinnitus the primary and secondary auditory cortices of both sides are characterized by increased gamma-band activity, the side on which the tinnitus is perceived relates to gamma-band activity in the contralateral parahippocampal area.

  13. Honokiol inhibits gastric tumourigenesis by activation of 15-lipoxygenase-1 and consequent inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and COX-2-dependent signals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shing Hwa; Shen, Chin Chang; Yi, Yu Chiao; Tsai, Jaw Ji; Wang, Chih Chien; Chueh, Ju Ting; Lin, Keh Liang; Lee, Tso Ching; Pan, Hung Chuan; Sheu, Meei Ling

    2010-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), COX-2 and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX)-1 have been shown to be involved in tumour growth. However, the roles of PPAR-gamma, COX-2 or 15-LOX-1 in gastric tumourigenesis remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of 15-LOX-1 induction by honokiol, a small-molecular weight natural product, in PPAR-gamma and COX-2 signalling during gastric tumourigenesis. Human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, MKN45, N87 and SCM-1) were cultured with or without honokiol. Gene and protein expressions were analysed by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for COX-2, PPAR-gamma and 15-LOX-1 were used to interfere with the expressions of these genes. A xenograft gastric tumour model in mouse was used for in vivo study. PPAR-gamma and COX-2 proteins were highly expressed in gastric cancer cells. Inhibitors, or siRNA for COX-2 or PPAR-gamma, significantly decreased cell viability. Honokiol markedly inhibited PPAR-gamma and COX-2 expressions in gastric cancer cells and tumours of xenograft mice, and induced apoptosis and cell death. Honokiol markedly activated cellular 15-LOX-1 expression and 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (a primary product of 15-LOX-1 metabolism of linoleic acid) production. 15-LOX-1 siRNA could reverse the honokiol-induced down-regulation of PPAR-gamma and COX-2, and cell apoptosis. 15-LOX-1 was markedly induced in tumours of xenograft mice treated with honokiol. These findings suggest that induction of 15-LOX-1-mediated down-regulation of a PPAR-gamma and COX-2 pathway by honokiol may be a promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zantar, Said; Haouzi, Rachid; Chabbi, Mohamed; Laglaoui, Amin; Mouhib, Mohammed; Mohammed Boujnah; Bakkali, Mohammed; Zerrouk, Mounir Hassani

    2015-10-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation doses (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris and Mentha pulegium essential oils (EOs) have been studied. The chromatographic analysis showed that the studied EOs were constituted mainly by carvacrol for T. vulgaris and pulegone for M. pulegium. Gamma irradiation on the studied doses, affects quantitatively and not qualitatively some components of the investigated oils. This effect was dose dependent. While the antioxidant activity remains stable at any dose applied for the plants studied, the antimicrobial activity increased in the irradiated samples for gram negative bacteria and did not change for gram+bacteria. This study supports that gamma irradiation employed at sterilizing doses did not compromise the biological activities of medicinal and aromatic plants.

  15. Spectral evolution of active galactic nuclei Penrose Compton scattering processes and gamma ray emission from Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiter, Darryl; Boldt, Elihu

    1990-01-01

    In black hole spectral evolution models for active galactic nuclei (AGN), present epoch Seyfert galaxies evolve from an earlier precursor active galaxy (PAG) stage at redshift z is approximately 7 where they acted as the thermal sources responsible for the residual cosmic x ray background (RCXB). The Seyfert galaxies which emerge in this context emit Penrose Compton Scattering (PCS) gamma ray transients on the order of hours with a kinematic cutoff in the spectrum less than or equal to 3 MeV. The EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope/ OSSE (Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment/ COMPTEL (Compton Telescope)/ BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) instruments on the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) are appropriate instruments to carry out further tests of this model by studying: PCS gamma ray transient emission from individual galaxies and, the possibility that present epoch PCS gamma ray emitting Seyfert galaxies contribute observable temporal variability to the excess diffuse gamma ray background component less than or equal to 3 MeV.

  16. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} agonists inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines from RSV-infected epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Ralf . E-mail: ralf.arnold@medizin.uni-magdeburg.de; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2006-03-15

    The epithelial cells of the airways are the target cells for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and the site of the majority of the inflammation associated with the disease. Recently, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the role of PPAR{gamma} agonists (15d-PGJ{sub 2}, ciglitazone and troglitazone) on the synthesis of RSV-induced cytokine release from RSV-infected human lung epithelial cells (A549). We observed that all PPAR{gamma} ligands inhibited dose-dependently the release of TNF-{alpha}, GM-CSF, IL-1{alpha}, IL-6 and the chemokines CXCL8 (IL-8) and CCL5 (RANTES) from RSV-infected A549 cells. Concomitantly, the PPAR{gamma} ligands diminished the cellular amount of mRNA encoding for IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL5 and the RSV-induced binding activity of the transcription factors NF-{kappa}B (p65/p50) and AP-1 (c-fos), respectively. Our data presented herein suggest a potential application of PPAR{gamma} ligands in the anti-inflammatory treatment of RSV infection.

  17. Structural basis of the oxidative activation of the carboxysomal [gamma]-carbonic anhydrase, CcmM

    SciTech Connect

    Peña, Kerry L.; Castel, Stephane E.; de Araujo, Charlotte; Espie, George S.; Kimber, Matthew S.

    2010-04-26

    Cyanobacterial RuBisCO is sequestered in large, icosahedral, protein-bounded microcompartments called carboxysomes. Bicarbonate is pumped into the cytosol, diffuses into the carboxysome through small pores in its shell, and is then converted to CO{sub 2} by carbonic anhydrase (CA) prior to fixation. Paradoxically, many {beta}-cyanobacteria, including Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1, lack the conventional carboxysomal {beta}-CA, ccaA. The N-terminal domain of the carboxysomal protein CcmM is homologous to {gamma}-CA from Methanosarcina thermophila (Cam) but recombinant CcmM derived from ccaA-containing cyanobacteria show no CA activity. We demonstrate here that either full length CcmM from T. elongatus, or a construct truncated after 209 residues (CcmM209), is active as a CA - the first catalytically active bacterial {gamma}-CA reported. The 2.0 {angstrom} structure of CcmM209 reveals a trimeric, left-handed {beta}-helix structure that closely resembles Cam, except that residues 198-207 form a third {alpha}-helix stabilized by an essential Cys194-Cys200 disulfide bond. Deleting residues 194-209 (CcmM193) results in an inactive protein whose 1.1 {angstrom} structure shows disordering of the N- and C-termini, and reorganization of the trimeric interface and active site. Under reducing conditions, CcmM209 is similarly partially disordered and inactive as a CA. CcmM protein in fresh E. coli cell extracts is inactive, implying that the cellular reducing machinery can reduce and inactivate CcmM, while diamide, a thiol oxidizing agent, activates the enzyme. Thus, like membrane-bound eukaryotic cellular compartments, the {beta}-carboxysome appears to be able to maintain an oxidizing interior by precluding the entry of thioredoxin and other endogenous reducing agents.

  18. Multiscale Aspects of Generation of High-Gamma Activity during Seizures in Human Neocortex123

    PubMed Central

    Marcuccilli, Charles J.; Ben-Mabrouk, Faiza; Lew, Sean M.; Goodman, Robert R.; McKhann, Guy M.; Frim, David M.; Kohrman, Michael H.; Schevon, Catherine A.; van Drongelen, Wim

    2016-01-01

    High-gamma (HG; 80-150 Hz) activity in macroscopic clinical records is considered a marker for critical brain regions involved in seizure initiation; it is correlated with pathological multiunit firing during neocortical seizures in the seizure core, an area identified by correlated multiunit spiking and low frequency seizure activity. However, the effects of the spatiotemporal dynamics of seizure on HG power generation are not well understood. Here, we studied HG generation and propagation, using a three-step, multiscale signal analysis and modeling approach. First, we analyzed concurrent neuronal and microscopic network HG activity in neocortical slices from seven intractable epilepsy patients. We found HG activity in these networks, especially when neurons displayed paroxysmal depolarization shifts and network activity was highly synchronized. Second, we examined HG activity acquired with microelectrode arrays recorded during human seizures (n = 8). We confirmed the presence of synchronized HG power across microelectrode records and the macroscale, both specifically associated with the core region of the seizure. Third, we used volume conduction-based modeling to relate HG activity and network synchrony at different network scales. We showed that local HG oscillations require high levels of synchrony to cross scales, and that this requirement is met at the microscopic scale, but not within macroscopic networks. Instead, we present evidence that HG power at the macroscale may result from harmonics of ongoing seizure activity. Ictal HG power marks the seizure core, but the generating mechanism can differ across spatial scales. PMID:27257623

  19. Neutron activation and prompt gamma intensity in Ar/CO2-filled neutron detectors at the European Spallation Source.

    PubMed

    Dian, E; Kanaki, K; Hall-Wilton, R J; Zagyvai, P; Czifrus, Sz

    2017-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP6.1 were performed to study the effect of neutron activation in Ar/CO2 neutron detector counting gas. A general MCNP model was built and validated with simple analytical calculations. Simulations and calculations agree that only the (40)Ar activation can have a considerable effect. It was shown that neither the prompt gamma intensity from the (40)Ar neutron capture nor the produced (41)Ar activity have an impact in terms of gamma dose rate around the detector and background level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility at ICN—Pitesti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bǎrbos, D.; Pǎunoiu, C.; Mladin, M.; Cosma, C.

    2008-08-01

    PGNAA is a very widely applicable technique for determining the presence and amount of many elements simultaneously in samples ranging in size from micrograms to many grams. PGNAA is characterized by its capability for nondestructive multi-elemental analysis and its ability to analyse elements that cannot be determined by INAA. By means of this PGNAA method we are able to increase the performace of INAA method. A facility has been developed at Institute for Nuclear Research—Piteşti so that the unique features of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis can be used to measure trace and major elements in samples. The facility is linked at the radial neutron beam tube at ACPR-TRIGA reactor. During the PGNAA—facility is in use the ACPR reactor will be operated in steady-state mode at 250 KW maximum power. The facility consists of a radial beam-port, external sample position with shielding, and induced prompt gamma-ray counting system. Thermal neutron flux with energy lower than cadmium cut-off at the sample position was measured using thin gold foil is: φscd = 1.106 n/cm2/s with a cadmium ratio of:80. The gamma-ray detection system consist of an HpGe detector of 16% efficiency (detector model GC1518) with 1.85 keV resolution capability. The HpGe is mounted with its axis at 90° with respect to the incident neutron beam at distance about 200mm from the sample position. To establish the performance capabilities of the facility, irradiation of pure element or sample compound standards were performed to identify the gama-ray energies from each element and their count rates.

  1. The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility at ICN-Pitesti

    SciTech Connect

    Barbos, D.; Paunoiu, C.; Mladin, M.; Cosma, C.

    2008-08-14

    PGNAA is a very widely applicable technique for determining the presence and amount of many elements simultaneously in samples ranging in size from micrograms to many grams. PGNAA is characterized by its capability for nondestructive multi-elemental analysis and its ability to analyse elements that cannot be determined by INAA. By means of this PGNAA method we are able to increase the performance of INAA method. A facility has been developed at Institute for Nuclear Research-Pitesti so that the unique features of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis can be used to measure trace and major elements in samples. The facility is linked at the radial neutron beam tube at ACPR-TRIGA reactor. During the PGNAA-facility is in use the ACPR reactor will be operated in steady-state mode at 250 KW maximum power. The facility consists of a radial beam-port, external sample position with shielding, and induced prompt gamma-ray counting system.Thermal neutron flux with energy lower than cadmium cut-off at the sample position was measured using thin gold foil is: {phi}{sub scd} = 1.10{sup 6} n/cm{sup 2}/s with a cadmium ratio of:80.The gamma-ray detection system consist of an HpGe detector of 16% efficiency (detector model GC1518) with 1.85 keV resolution capability. The HpGe is mounted with its axis at 90 deg. with respect to the incident neutron beam at distance about 200mm from the sample position. To establish the performance capabilities of the facility, irradiation of pure element or sample compound standards were performed to identify the gama-ray energies from each element and their count rates.

  2. Evaluation of spontaneous dense array gamma oscillatory activity and minor physical anomalies as a composite neurodevelopmental endophenotype in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Sai Krishna; Nizamie, S Haque; Goyal, Nishant; Pradhan, N; Tikka, Deyashini Lahiri; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq

    2015-02-01

    Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) and gamma oscillatory activity have been proposed as associated endophenotypes in schizophrenia. Combining these endophenotypes to create a composite endophenotype may help identify those at risk for schizophrenia better. The present study aims to investigate MPAs and gamma oscillatory activity in schizophrenia patients, their unaffected first degree relatives and healthy controls and appreciate whether they can be used together as a composite endophenotype. This was a cross sectional family study conducted at a tertiary care mental health setup. Ninety participants including schizophrenia patients, their first degree relatives and controls (thirty each) were assessed for MPAs on the Extended Waldrop Scale. All participants underwent an awake, resting 192-channel EEG recording. Spectral power and coherence in 30-100Hz gamma bands were estimated using Welch's averaged periodogram method. One-way ANOVA, chi square test were used for comparing socio-demographic-clinical variables. MANOVA supplemented by one-way ANOVAs (post hoc Tukey HSD) were done for comparison of spectral measures. Pearson's correlation, step-by-step linear discriminant functional and intra-familial correlation analysis were subsequently performed. An endophenotype pattern of finding was found for MPAs in the craniofacial region, the total number of MPAs, spectral power in right temporal region on all bands and in the right parietal region in 50-70Hz and 70-100Hz gamma bands. The three groups were most accurately classified when MPA total score, right temporal 30-50Hz gamma power and right occipital 'intra hemispheric' 50-70Hz gamma coherence were considered together than when considered independently. Significant intra familial correlation was seen for MPA total score and right temporal gamma 30-50Hz power. Composite evaluation of two developmentally linked markers i.e. MPAs and gamma spectral measures may prove useful in categorizing schizophrenia and identifying

  3. Regulation of retinoic acid receptor beta expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    James, Sharon Y; Lin, Feng; Kolluri, Siva Kumar; Dawson, Marcia I; Zhang, Xiao-kun

    2003-07-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor family member that can form a heterodimeric complex with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and initiate transcription of target genes. In this study, we have examined the effects of the PPAR gamma ligand ciglitazone and the RXR ligand SR11237 on growth and induction of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) beta expression in breast and lung cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that ciglitazone and SR11237 cooperatively inhibited the growth of ZR-75-1 and T-47D breast cancer and Calu-6 lung cancer cells. Gel shift analysis indicated that PPAR gamma, in the presence of RXR, formed a strong complex with a retinoic acid response element (beta retinoic acid response element) in the RAR beta promoter. In reporter gene assays, RXR ligands and ciglitazone, but not the PPAR gamma ligand 15d-PGJ(2), cooperatively promoted the transcriptional activity of the beta retinoic acid response element. Ciglitazone, but not 15d-PGJ(2), strongly induced RAR beta expression in human breast and lung cancer cell lines when used together with SR11237. The induction of RAR beta expression by the ciglitazone and SR11237 combination was diminished by a PPAR gamma-selective antagonist, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. All-trans-retinoic acid or the combination of ciglitazone and SR11237 was able to induce RAR beta in all-trans-retinoic acid-resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells only when the orphan receptor chick ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor was expressed, or in the presence of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. These studies indicate the existence of a novel RAR beta-mediated signaling pathway of PPAR gamma action, which may provide a molecular basis for developing novel therapies involving RXR and PPAR gamma ligands in potentiating antitumor responses.

  4. A Spherical Active Coded Aperture for 4π Gamma-ray Imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Hellfeld, Daniel; Barton, Paul; Gunter, Donald; ...

    2017-09-22

    Gamma-ray imaging facilitates the efficient detection, characterization, and localization of compact radioactive sources in cluttered environments. Fieldable detector systems employing active planar coded apertures have demonstrated broad energy sensitivity via both coded aperture and Compton imaging modalities. But, planar configurations suffer from a limited field-of-view, especially in the coded aperture mode. In order to improve upon this limitation, we introduce a novel design by rearranging the detectors into an active coded spherical configuration, resulting in a 4pi isotropic field-of-view for both coded aperture and Compton imaging. This work focuses on the low- energy coded aperture modality and the optimization techniquesmore » used to determine the optimal number and configuration of 1 cm3 CdZnTe coplanar grid detectors on a 14 cm diameter sphere with 192 available detector locations.« less

  5. PI3K{gamma} activation by CXCL12 regulates tumor cell adhesion and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Monterrubio, Maria; Mellado, Mario; Carrera, Ana C.

    2009-10-16

    Tumor dissemination is a complex process, in which certain steps resemble those in leukocyte homing. Specific chemokine/chemokine receptor pairs have important roles in both processes. CXCL12/CXCR4 is the most commonly expressed chemokine/chemokine receptor pair in human cancers, in which it regulates cell adhesion, extravasation, metastatic colonization, angiogenesis, and proliferation. All of these processes require activation of signaling pathways that include G proteins, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), JAK kinases, Rho GTPases, and focal adhesion-associated proteins. We analyzed these pathways in a human melanoma cell line in response to CXCL12 stimulation, and found that PI3K{gamma} regulates tumor cell adhesion through mechanisms different from those involved in cell invasion. Our data indicate that, following CXCR4 activation after CXCL12 binding, the invasion and adhesion processes are regulated differently by distinct downstream events in these signaling cascades.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling in human sperm physiology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Li; Xian, Hua; Cao, Jing-Chen; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Miao-Miao; Qian, Yi; Jiang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the PPARs, which are transcription factors of the steroid receptor superfamily. PPARγ acts as an important molecule for regulating energy homeostasis, modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and is reciprocally regulated by HPG. In the human, PPARγ protein is highly expressed in ejaculated spermatozoa, implying a possible role of PPARγ signaling in regulating sperm energy dissipation. PPARγ protein is also expressed in Sertoli cells and germ cells (spermatocytes). Its activation can be induced during capacitation and the acrosome reaction. This mini-review will focus on how PPARγ signaling may affect fertility and sperm quality and the potential reversibility of these adverse effects. PMID:25851655

  7. Novel time-dependent vascular actions of {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse E. . E-mail: Saoirse.o'sullivan@nottingham.ac.uk; Tarling, Elizabeth J.; Bennett, Andrew J.; Kendall, David A.; Randall, Michael D.

    2005-11-25

    Cannabinoids have widespread effects on the cardiovascular system, only some of which are mediated via G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. The active ingredient of cannabis, {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes acute vasorelaxation in various arteries. Here we show for the first time that THC also causes slowly developing vasorelaxation through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR{gamma}). In vitro, THC (10 {mu}M) caused time-dependent vasorelaxation of rat isolated arteries. Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC was similar to that produced by the PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone and was inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 (1 {mu}M), but not the cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor antagonist AM251 (1 {mu}M). Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC requires an intact endothelium, nitric oxide, production of hydrogen peroxide, and de novo protein synthesis. In transactivation assays in cultured HEK293 cells, THC-activated PPAR{gamma}, transiently expressed in combination with retinoid X receptor {alpha} and a luciferase reporter gene, in a concentration-dependent manner (100 nM-10 {mu}M). In vitro incubation with THC (1 or 10 {mu}M, 8 days) stimulated adipocyte differentiation in cultured 3T3L1 cells, a well-accepted property of PPAR{gamma} ligands. The present results provide strong evidence that THC is a PPAR{gamma} ligand, stimulation of which causes time-dependent vasorelaxation, implying some of the pleiotropic effects of cannabis may be mediated by nuclear receptors.

  8. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis for determination of boron in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baechler, S.; Kudejova, P.; Jolie, J.; Schenker, J.-L.; Stritt, N.

    2002-08-01

    Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) is a nuclear analytical technique for the determination of trace and other elements in solid, liquid or gaseous samples. The method consists in observing gamma rays emitted by a sample during neutron irradiation. Of particular importance for PGAA is the measurement of boron. Indeed, this technique gives the opportunity to detect boron concentration down to the ppm or ppb level depending on the sample matrix. Furthermore, boron cannot be easily measured by other methods without risks of contamination. Trace analysis of boron in liquids has been performed and characterized at the PGA facility of the neutron spallation source SINQ (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). First, a calibration curve was determined with standard boron solutions. Then, the PGAA was applied for the determination of boron in geological water samples. The results were compared with ICP-MS measurements. Finally, the method yielded promising results to measure the concentration of boron taken up by cells in a new treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Monte Carlo investigation and optimization of coincidence prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaxin; Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Ai, Xianyun; Gardner, Robin P.

    2011-10-01

    Normal Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) suffers from a large inherent noise or background. The coincidence PGNAA approach is being investigated for eliminating almost all of the interfering backgrounds and thereby significantly improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This can be done since almost all of the prompt gamma rays from elements of interest are emitted in coincidence except hydrogen. However, it has been found previously that while the use of two normal NaI detectors greatly reduces the background, the signal is also greatly reduced so that very little improvement in standard deviation is obtained. With the help of MCNP5, the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code, and CEARCPG, the specific purpose Monte Carlo code for Coincidence PGNAA, further optimization of the proposed coincidence system is being accomplished. The idea pursued here is the use of a large area plastic scintillation detector as the trigger for coincidence events together with a normal large NaI detector. In this approach the detection solid angle is increased greatly, which directly increases the probability of coincidence detection. The 2D-coincidence spectrum obtained can then be projected to the axis representing the NaI detector to overcome the drawback of low energy resolution and photopeak intensity of the plastic scintillation detector and utilize the overall higher coincidence counting rate. To reach the best coincidence detection, the placement of detectors, sample, and the moderator of the neutron source have been optimized through Monte Carlo simulation.

  10. Ovary-specific novel peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-gamma transcripts in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Isha; Monga, Rachna; Singh, Natwar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2012-08-10

    In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of the transcripts encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ1 and PPARγ2) in buffalo ovary. 5' RACE experiments and sequence analysis showed that these transcripts (PPARγ1a, PPARγ1b and PPARγ2) were transcribed by the different promoter usage and alternative splicing of terminal 5'-exon. The distribution of these isoforms of PPARγ transcripts in different tissues (ovary, mammary gland, spleen, liver, lung, adipose tissue) was investigated using quantitative real time analysis. Tissue- and transcript-specific expression analyses showed that a transcript, transcribed from distal promoter, not only expressed preferentially in ovary but contributes predominantly to PPAR gamma expression in ovary. Western blot analysis of both, in vivo and in vitro, experiments also supported that PPARγ1 predominantly expressed in ovary. In buffalo granulosa cells culture, the isolated transcripts were found to be up-regulated by both natural (CLA) and synthetic (Rosiglitazone) ligands and effect was reversed by PPARγ antagonist GW9662. In conclusion, the present study identified an ovary-specific novel transcript, transcribed by distal promoter, predominantly expressed in ovary which could have functional relevance in buffalo ovary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. OBLIQUE SHOCKS AS THE ORIGIN OF RADIO TO GAMMA-RAY VARIABILITY IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Philip A.; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D. E-mail: mfa@umich.edu

    2011-07-10

    The 'shock in jet' model for centimeter-waveband blazar variability is revisited, allowing for arbitrary shock orientation with respect to the jet flow direction, and both random and ordered magnetic field. It is shown that oblique shocks can explain events with swings in polarization position angle much less than the 90{sup 0} associated with transverse structures, while retaining the general characteristics of outbursts, including spectral behavior and level of peak percentage polarization. Models dominated by a force-free, minimum energy magnetic field configuration (essentially helical) display a shallow rise in percentage polarization and frequency-dependent swing in polarization position angle not in agreement with the results of single-dish monitoring observations, implying that the field is predominantly random in the quiescent state. Outbursts well explained by the 'shock in jet' model are present during {gamma}-ray flaring in several sources, supporting the idea that shock events are responsible for activity from the radio to {gamma}-ray bands.

  12. Clonal expansions of activated gamma/delta T cells in recent-onset multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Shimonkevitz, R; Colburn, C; Burnham, J A; Murray, R S; Kotzin, B L

    1993-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease characterized by focal demyelination of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. Central nervous system damage appears to be mediated by infiltrating T lymphocytes and macrophages, and a central role for autoreactive CD4+ T cells has been proposed. However, the initial immune events that lead to the chronic process of MS remain unidentified. We now present evidence that a subset of T lymphocytes bearing gamma/delta T-cell antigen receptors has been activated in patients with recent-onset disease. Cells recovered from the cerebrospinal fluid of subjects with MS were cultured for short periods of time in medium supplemented with T-cell growth factors. Expansions of V delta 1 and V delta 2 T-cell receptor-bearing lymphocytes were found only in cell populations obtained from subjects with recent-onset disease. Similar populations were not expanded in subjects with chronic MS or other neurological diseases. Junctional region sequencing showed the expanded gamma/delta T cells to be oligoclonal in nature, suggestive of specific stimulation by antigen. These results reveal a fundamental difference in the immunopathogenesis of acute vs. chronic disease and provide additional insight into the autoimmune nature of MS. PMID:8430106

  13. Gamma-band activity as a signature for cross-modal priming of auditory object recognition by active haptic exploration.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Till R; Lorenz, Simone; Senkowski, Daniel; Engel, Andreas K

    2011-02-16

    When visual sensory information is restricted, we often rely on haptic and auditory information to recognize objects. Here we examined how haptic exploration of familiar objects affects neural processing of subsequently presented sounds of objects. Recent studies indicated that oscillatory responses, in particular in the gamma band (30-100 Hz), reflect cross-modal processing, but it is not clear which cortical networks are involved. In this high-density EEG study, we measured gamma-band activity (GBA) in humans performing a haptic-to-auditory priming paradigm. Haptic stimuli served as primes, and sounds of objects as targets. Haptic and auditory stimuli were either semantically congruent or incongruent, and participants were asked to categorize the objects represented by the sounds. Response times were shorter for semantically congruent compared with semantically incongruent inputs. This haptic-to-auditory priming effect was associated with enhanced total power GBA (250-350 ms) for semantically congruent inputs and additional effects of semantic congruency on evoked GBA (50-100 ms). Source reconstruction of total GBA using linear beamforming revealed effects of semantic congruency in the left lateral temporal lobe, possibly reflecting matching of information across modalities. For semantically incongruent inputs, total GBA was enhanced in middle frontal cortices, possibly indicating the processing or detection of conflicting information. Our findings demonstrate that semantic priming by haptic object exploration affects processing of auditory inputs in the lateral temporal lobe and suggest an important role of oscillatory activity for multisensory processing.

  14. Investigation of a Cu(II)-poly(gamma-glutamic acid) complex in aqueous solution and its insulin-mimetic activity.

    PubMed

    Karmaker, Subarna; Saha, Tapan K; Sakurai, Hiromu

    2007-04-10

    The complexation between cupric ions (Cu(II)) and poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) in aqueous solutions (pH 3-11) has been studied by UV-visible absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques. Formation of the Cu(II)-gamma-PGA complex is confirmed by the observation of the blue shift of the absorption band in the visible region, anisotropic line shapes in the ESR spectrum at room temperature, and a computer simulation of the visible absorption spectrum of the complex. The structure of the Cu(II)-gamma-PGA complex, depending on the pH, has been determined. The in vitro insulin-mimetic activity of the Cu(II)-gamma-PGA complex is examined by determining both inhibition of free fatty acid release and glucose uptake in isolated rat adipocytes treated with epinephrine, in which the concentration of the Cu(II)-gamma-PGA complex for 50% inhibition of free fatty acid release is very similar to that of CuSO4. However, it is significantly lower than that of a previously reported insulin-mimetic bis(3-hydroxypicolinato)copper(II), [Cu(3hpic)2], complex.

  15. Gamma Interferon Loaded onto Albumin Nanoparticles: In Vitro and In Vivo Activities against Brucella abortus▿

    PubMed Central

    Segura, S.; Gamazo, C.; Irache, J. M.; Espuelas, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) when it was either adsorbed onto or loaded into albumin nanoparticles. Brucella abortus-infected macrophages and infected BALB/c mice were selected as the models for testing of the therapeutic potentials of these cytokine delivery systems, in view of the well-established role of IFN-γ-activated macrophages for the control of Brucella sp. infections. Whereas the encapsulation of IFN-γ inside the matrix of nanoparticles completely abrogated its activity, adsorbed IFN-γ increased by 0.75 log unit the bactericidal effect induced by RAW macrophages activated with free IFN-γ, along with a higher level of production of nitric oxide. In infected BALB/c-mice, IFN-γ adsorbed onto nanoparticles was also more active than free cytokine in reducing the number of bacteria in the spleens, and the effect was mediated by an increased ratio of IFN-γ-secreting (Th1) to interleukin-4-secreting (Th2) cells. Overall, albumin nanoparticles would be suitable as carriers that target IFN-γ to macrophages and, thus, potentiate their therapeutic activity. PMID:17220401

  16. Modulation of serum phosphatases activity in Swiss albino mice against gamma irradiation by Mentha piperita Linn.

    PubMed

    Samarth, R M; Goyal, P K; Kumar, Ashok

    2002-09-01

    The modulatory influence of mentha oil (Mentha piperita Linn.) against a lethal dose (8.0 Gy) of gamma irradiation on the activities of serum phosphatases in Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 h and 30 days. Mentha oil (40 microL/animal/day) given orally for 3 consecutive days prior to whole-body irradiation (8.0 Gy) showed a modulation of activity of serum phosphatases. The values of acid phosphatase activities were significantly higher in the irradiated groups throughout the experiment compared with the mentha treated unirradiated animals. However, the acid phosphatase activity of mentha treated irradiated animals showed a significant decline over untreated irradiated animals at all autopsy intervals, which attained the normal value on day 5. On the contrary, a marked decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity was noted in both irradiated groups but in the mentha treated irradiated group the values of alkaline phosphatase activity were found to be significantly higher than the respective control during the period of study being normal at day 5 post-irradiation and onwards. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Interaction between a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene polymorphism and dietary fat intake in relation to body mass.

    PubMed

    Memisoglu, Asli; Hu, Frank B; Hankinson, Susan E; Manson, JoAnn E; De Vivo, Immaculata; Willett, Walter C; Hunter, David J

    2003-11-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a critical regulator of adipogenesis. PPAR gamma+/- mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity and thus PPAR gamma may mediate physiological responses to dietary fat in other mammals. The aim of this study was to determine whether the human PPAR gamma proline to alanine substitution polymorphism (Pro12Ala) modifies the association between dietary fat and adiposity and plasma lipids. Subjects (n=2141) were controls selected for three case-control studies nested within the Nurses' Health Study, a large ongoing prospective cohort study. Associations between intake of total fat, fat subtypes and BMI were different in PPAR gamma 12Ala variant allele-carriers compared with non-carriers. Among homozygous wild-type Pro/Pro individuals, those in the highest quintile of total fat intake, had significantly higher mean body mass index (BMI) compared with those in the lowest quintile (27.3 versus 25.4 kg/m2, respectively; P-trend<0.0001) whereas among 12Ala variant allele-carriers there was no significant trend observed between dietary fat intake and BMI (P-trend=0.99; P-interaction=0.003). In contrast, intake of monounsaturated fat was not associated with BMI among homozygous wild-type women but was inversely associated with BMI among 12Ala variant allele-carriers (mean in lowest quintile=27.6 versus mean in highest quintile=25.5 kg/m2; P-trend=0.006; P-interaction=0.003). The relationship between dietary fat intake and plasma lipid concentrations also differed according to PPAR gamma genotype. These data suggest that PPAR gamma genotype is an important factor in physiological responses to dietary fat in humans.

  18. Enhanced phospholipase C-gamma1 activity produced by association of independently expressed X and Y domain polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Horstman, D A; DeStefano, K; Carpenter, G

    1996-01-01

    The X and Y domains of phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma1, which are conserved in all mammalian phosphoinositide-specific PLC isoforms and are proposed to interact to form the catalytic site, have been expressed as individual hexahistidine-tagged fusion proteins in the baculovirus system. Following coinfection of insect cells with recombinant viruses, association of X and Y polypeptides was demonstrated in coprecipitation assays. When enzyme activity was examined, neither domain possessed catalytic activity when expressed alone; however, coexpression of the X and Y polypeptides produced a functional enzyme. This reconstituted phospholipase activity remained completely dependent on the presence of free Ca2+. The specific activity of the X:Y complex was significantly greater (20- to 100-fold) than that of holoPLC-gamma1 and was only moderately influenced by varying the concentration of substrate. The enzyme activities of holoPLC-gamma1 and the X:Y complex exhibited distinct pH optima. For holoPLC-gamma1 maximal activity was detected at pH 5.0, while activity of the X:Y complex was maximal at pH 7.2. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8755506

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  20. Association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene polymorphisms with the development of asthma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun-Hee; Park, Se-Min; Lee, Yoo Hoon; Cha, Ji Yeon; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Shin, Eun Kyong; Park, Jong-Sook; Park, Byeong-Lae; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Park, Choon-Sik

    2009-07-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcriptional factors. PPAR-gamma (PPARG) activation downregulates production of Th2 type cytokines and eosinophil function. Additionally, treatment with a synthetic PPARG ligand can reduce lung inflammation and IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-2 production in experimental allergic asthma. In patients with asthma, PPARG gene expression is known to be associated with the airway inflammatory and remodeling responses. Thus, genetic variants of PPARG may be associated with the development of asthma. We genotyped two single nucleotide polymorphisms on the PPARG gene, +34C>G (Pro12Ala) and +82466C>T (His449His), in Korean subjects (839 subjects with asthma and 449 normal controls). Association analysis using logistic regression analysis showed that +82466C>T and haplotypes 1(CC) and 2(CT) were associated with the development of asthma (p=0.01-0.04). The frequency of PPARG-ht2 was significantly lower in the patients with asthma compared to the normal controls in codominant and dominant models (p=0.01, p(corr)=0.03 and p=0.02, p(corr)=0.03, respectively). Conversely, the frequency of PPARG-ht1 was significantly higher in the patients with asthma compared to the normal controls in the codominant model [p=0.04, OR: 1.27 (1.01-1.6)]. In addition, the rare allele frequency of +82466C>T was significantly lower in patients with asthma in comparison to normal controls in the codominant model (OR: 0.78, p=0.04). Thus, polymorphism of the PPARG gene may be linked to an increased risk of asthma development.

  1. Risperidone significantly inhibits interferon-gamma-induced microglial activation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiro; Monji, Akira; Hashioka, Sadayuki; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2007-05-01

    Microglia has recently been regarded to be a mediator of neuroinflammation via the release of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia has thus been reported to play an important role in the pathology of neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia remain unclear while some recent neuroimaging studies suggest even schizophrenia may be a kind of neurodegenerative disease. Risperidone has been reported to decrease the reduction of MRI volume during the clinical course of schizophrenia. Many recent studies have demonstrated that immunological mechanisms via such as interferon (IFN)-gamma and cytokines might be relevant to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we thus investigated the effects of risperidone on the generation of nitric oxide, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and inflammatory cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by IFN-gamma-activated microglia by using Griess assay, Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. In comparison with haloperidol, risperidone significantly inhibited the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines by activated microglia. The iNOS levels of risperidone-treated cells were much lower than those of the haloperidol-treated cells. Antipsychotics, especially risperidone may have an anti-inflammatory effect via the inhibition of microglial activation, which is not only directly toxic to neurons but also has an inhibitory effect on neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis, both of which have been reported to play a crucial role in the pathology of schizophrenia.

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activators affect the maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Gosset, P; Charbonnier, A S; Delerive, P; Fontaine, J; Staels, B; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B; Trottein, F

    2001-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, has recently been described as a modulator of macrophage functions and as an inhibitor of T cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the role of PPARgamma in dendritic cells (DC), the most potent antigen-presenting cells. We showed that PPARgamma is highly expressed in immature human monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) and that it may affect the immunostimulatory function of MDDC stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or via CD40 ligand (CD40L). We found that the synthetic PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone (as well as pioglitazone and troglitazone) significantly increases on LPS- and CD40L-activated MDDC, the surface expression of CD36 (by 184% and 104%, respectively) and CD86 (by 54% and 48%), whereas it reduces the synthesis of CD80 (by 42% and 42%). Moreover, activation of PPARgamma resulted in a dramatic decreased secretion of the Th1-promoting factor IL-12 in LPS- and CD40L-stimulated cells (by 47% and 62%), while the production of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 was unaffected. Finally, PPARgamma ligands down-modulate the synthesis of IFN-gamma -inducible protein-10 (recently termed as CXCL10) and RANTES (CCL5), both chemokines involved in the recruitment of Th1 lymphocytes (by 49% and 30%), but not the levels of the Th2 cell-attracting chemokines,macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (CCL17), in mature MDDC. Taken together, our data suggest that activation of PPARgamma in human DC may have an impact in the orientation of primary and secondary immune responses by favoring type 2 responses.

  3. Detection of interleukin-2 in addition to interferon-gamma discriminates active tuberculosis patients, latently infected individuals, and controls.

    PubMed

    Biselli, R; Mariotti, S; Sargentini, V; Sauzullo, I; Lastilla, M; Mengoni, F; Vanini, V; Girardi, E; Goletti, D; D' Amelio, R; Nisini, R

    2010-08-01

    Effective control of tuberculosis (TB) includes discrimination of subjects with active TB from individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI). As distinct interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 profiles of antigen-specific T-cells have been associated with different clinical stages and antigen loads in several viral and bacterial diseases, we analysed these cytokines in TB using a modified QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube test. Detection of IL-2 in addition to IFN-gamma distinguishes not only Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected subjects from healthy controls, but also individuals with LTBI from active TB patients. This may help to improve diagnostic tests for TB.

  4. Characterization of HPGe gamma spectrometric detectors systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at the Colombian Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, O.; Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Peña, M.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the progress made by the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC in its Spanish acronym), towards the characterization of its gamma spectrometric systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), with the aim of introducing corrections to the measurements by variations in sample geometry. Characterization includes the empirical determination of the interaction point of gamma radiation inside the Germanium crystal, through the application of a linear model and the use of a fast Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software to estimate correction factors for differences in counting efficiency that arise from variations in sample density between samples and standards.

  5. Characterization of HPGe gamma spectrometric detectors systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at the Colombian Geological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, O. Parrado, G. Cañón, Y.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Peña, M. Orozco, J.

    2016-07-07

    This paper presents the progress made by the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC in its Spanish acronym), towards the characterization of its gamma spectrometric systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), with the aim of introducing corrections to the measurements by variations in sample geometry. Characterization includes the empirical determination of the interaction point of gamma radiation inside the Germanium crystal, through the application of a linear model and the use of a fast Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software to estimate correction factors for differences in counting efficiency that arise from variations in sample density between samples and standards.

  6. Reduction of toxicity of antimicrobial compounds by degradation processes using activated sludge, gamma radiation, and UV.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Young; Jeon, Junho; Yu, Seungho; Lee, Myunjoo; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kim, Sang D

    2013-11-01

    The occurrence and persistence of pharmacologically active compounds in the environment has been an increasingly important issue. The objectives of this study were to investigate the decomposition of aqueous antimicrobial compounds using activated sludge, γ-irradiation, and UV treatment, and to evaluate the toxicity towards green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, before and after treatment. Tetracycline (TCN), lincomycin (LMC) and sulfamethazine (SMZ) were used as target compounds. Gamma (γ)-irradiation showed the highest removal efficiency for all target compounds, while UV and activated sludge treatment showed compound-dependent removal efficiencies. TCN and SMZ were well degraded by all three treatment methods. However, LMC showed extremely low removal efficiency for UV and activated sludge treatments. Overall, the algal toxicity after degradation processes was significantly decreased, and was closely correlated to removal efficiency. However, in the case of γ-irradiated TCN, UV and activated sludge treated LMC as well as sludge treated SMZ, the observed toxicity was higher than expected, which indicates the substantial generation of byproducts or transformed compounds of a greater toxicity in the treated sample. Consequently, γ-radiation treatment could be an effective method for removal of recalcitrant compounds such as antibiotics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma as modulator of inflammation in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Pejcić, Tatjana; Stanković, Ivana; Petković, Tatjana Radjenović; Borovac, Desa Nastasijević; Djordjević, Ivanka; Jeftović-Stoimenov, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) includes the family of ligand-activated transcription factors which belong to the group of nuclear hormone receptors and are connected to retinoid, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. There are three subtypes of PPARs: PPARalpha (also known as NR1C3), PPARgamma (known as NR1C1) and PPARdelta (known as PPARbeta or NR1C2). All of them take part in the metabolism, cell proliferation and immune response. PPARgamma and PPARalpha are identified as important immunomodulators and potentially represent an anti-inflammatory target for respiratory diseases. PPARgamma deficiency in the lungs has been observed in the inflammatory diseases such as asthma, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, fibrosis and sarcoidosis, as well as in the animal models of the lung inflammation. A small number of papers concerned with PPARgamma in sarcoidosis pointto the lowered activity of this factor in the alveolar macrophages and a lowered gene expression for the PPARgamma, while the activity is preserved in healthy individuals. At the same time, an increased activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in the bronchoalveolar lavage has been recorded in patients with sarcoidosis. The reason for the decrease in the production of PPARgamma in sarcoidosis remains unknown. Several possible mechanisms are mentioned: genetic defect with lowered production, down-regulation due to the increased values of IFN-gamma or an increased decomposition of PPARgamma. Further investigation will explain the mechanisms regarding the decreased production of PPARgamma in sarcoidosis.

  8. Use of cells expressing gamma subunit variants to identify diverse mechanisms of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Simon A; Ross, Fiona A; Chevtzoff, Cyrille; Green, Kevin A; Evans, Ashleigh; Fogarty, Sarah; Towler, Mhairi C; Brown, Laura J; Ogunbayo, Oluseye A; Evans, A Mark; Hardie, D Grahame

    2010-06-09

    A wide variety of agents activate AMPK, but in many cases the mechanisms remain unclear. We generated isogenic cell lines stably expressing AMPK complexes containing AMP-sensitive (wild-type, WT) or AMP-insensitive (R531G) gamma2 variants. Mitochondrial poisons such as oligomycin and dinitrophenol only activated AMPK in WT cells, as did AICAR, 2-deoxyglucose, hydrogen peroxide, metformin, phenformin, galegine, troglitazone, phenobarbital, resveratrol, and berberine. Excluding AICAR, all of these also inhibited cellular energy metabolism, shown by increases in ADP:ATP ratio and/or by decreases in cellular oxygen uptake measured using an extracellular flux analyzer. By contrast, A769662, the Ca(2+) ionophore, A23187, osmotic stress, and quercetin activated both variants to varying extents. A23187 and osmotic stress also increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and their effects were inhibited by STO609, a CaMKK inhibitor. Our approaches distinguish at least six different mechanisms for AMPK activation and confirm that the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin activates AMPK by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration.

  9. Investigation of activation rate uniformity in a prompt-gamma rays IVNAA facility.

    PubMed

    Hakimabad, Hashem Miri; Motavalli, Lalle Rafat

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design studies for developing a prompt-gamma rays in vivo neutron activation analysis facility are in construction at Neutron Activation Research Centre of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this work, activation rate distribution is studied in different bilateral configurations in order to reduce the CV of activation rate distribution throughout the body to less than 10%. It means that the maximum RMS deviation from the mean value of distribution must be smaller than 0.5%. The best case includes two pairs of (241)Am-Be neutron sources. Each pair (with 70 cm distance between two sources) is positioned within up and down 40 x 110 cm(2) area graphite collimators. Also, four moderator/reflector objects are added to transversal body surfaces with 5 cm thick water and 3 cm thick graphite. The proper thickness of polyethylene pre-moderators is chosen 8 mm. The RMS deviation of distribution is 0.3% with the mean activation rate of 1.85 x 10(-6) cm(-3).

  10. Layer-specific optogenetic activation of pyramidal neurons causes beta–gamma entrainment of neonatal networks

    PubMed Central

    Bitzenhofer, Sebastian H; Ahlbeck, Joachim; Wolff, Amy; Wiegert, J. Simon; Gee, Christine E.; Oertner, Thomas G.; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.

    2017-01-01

    Coordinated activity patterns in the developing brain may contribute to the wiring of neuronal circuits underlying future behavioural requirements. However, causal evidence for this hypothesis has been difficult to obtain owing to the absence of tools for selective manipulation of oscillations during early development. We established a protocol that combines optogenetics with electrophysiological recordings from neonatal mice in vivo to elucidate the substrate of early network oscillations in the prefrontal cortex. We show that light-induced activation of layer II/III pyramidal neurons that are transfected by in utero electroporation with a high-efficiency channelrhodopsin drives frequency-specific spiking and boosts network oscillations within beta–gamma frequency range. By contrast, activation of layer V/VI pyramidal neurons causes nonspecific network activation. Thus, entrainment of neonatal prefrontal networks in fast rhythms relies on the activation of layer II/III pyramidal neurons. This approach used here may be useful for further interrogation of developing circuits, and their behavioural readout. PMID:28216627

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in bladder cancer: a promising therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Mansure, Jose J; Nassim, Roland; Kassouf, Wassim

    2009-04-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated intracellular transcription factors, members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The PPAR subfamily consist of three subtypes encoded by distinct genes denoted PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta, and PPARgamma. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is the most extensively studied subtype of the PPARs. Over the last decade, research on PPARgamma unveiled its role in important biological processes, including lipid biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, anti-inflammatory response, and atherosclerosis. Recently, PPARgamma has been shown to be expressed in many cancers including, lung, prostate, bladder, colon, breast, duodenal, thyroid, and has been demonstrated to potentially play an important role in carcinogenesis. In bladder cancer, PPARgamma ligands such as troglitazone and 15d-PGJ2 have shown to inhibit tumor growth. We have recently published the first report to show that a new class of PPARgamma agonists, PPARgamma-active C-DIMs, which are more potent than the previous generation of drugs, exhibit anti-tumorigenic activity against bladder cancer cells in vitro and bladder tumors in vivo. The following review will discuss the molecular structure of PPARgamma, its function and its role in cancer biology and how it is emerging as a promising therapeutic target in bladder cancer.

  12. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the dewaterability of waste activated sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuqi; Jiang, Yinghe; Ke, Guojun; Liu, Yingjiu

    2017-01-01

    The effect of gamma-ray irradiation on waste activated sludge (WAS) dewaterability was investigated with irradiation doses of 0-15 kGy. Time to filter (TTF50), specific resistance of filtration (SRF) and water content of sludge cake were measured to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentration and sludge particle size were determined to explain changes in sludge dewaterability. The optimal irradiation dose to obtain the maximum dewaterability characteristics was 1-4 kGy, which generated sludge with optimal disintegration (1.5-4.0%), soluble EPS concentration (590-750 mg/L) and particle size distribution (100-115 μm diameter). The combination of irradiation and cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) addition exhibited minimal synergistic effect on increasing sludge dewatering rate compared with CPAM conditioning alone.

  13. A possible relation between flare activity in super-luminous supernovae and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yun-Wei; Li, Shao-Ze

    2017-09-01

    Significant undulations appear in the light curve of a recently discovered super-luminous supernova (SLSN) SN 2015bn after the first peak, while the underlying profile of the light curve can be explained well by a continuous energy supply from a central engine, possibly the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar. We propose that these undulations are caused by an intermittent pulsed energy supply, indicating the energetic flare activity of the central engine of the SLSN. Many post-burst flares were discovered during X-ray afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We find that the SLSN flares described here approximately obey the empirical correlation between the luminosity and time-scale of GRB flares, extrapolated to the relevant longer time-scales of SLSN flares. This somewhat confirms the possible connection between these two different phenomena, as recently suggested by Yu et al.

  14. Determination of Copper by Neutron Activation Analysis in Conjunction with Compton Suppression Gamma Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    W. H. Zhang; A. Chatt

    2000-06-04

    Copper is considered to be an essential element. Its accurate determination in tissues, foods, and other biological materials is needed to study the effect of copper on human nutrition and health. Using and Advance Prediction Computer Program, it has been shown that short-lived {sup 66}Cu (half-life = 5.09 min) can be used to determine copper in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). However, it is seldom done in practice-in particular, for low copper content in high-salt biological materials-because of the Compton background interference from nuclides such as {sup 28}Al, {sup 38}Cl, and {sup 24}Na. To eliminate the Compton interference, a preconcentration NAA method has recently been developed in our laboratory using reversed-phase extraction chromatography of copper followed by short irradiation and conventional gamma-spectrometric counting of {sup 66}Cu; the detection limit is {approx}5 ppb.

  15. Detection of contaminants in concrete surfaces using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dulloo, A.R.; Congedo, T.V.; Ruddy, F.H.; Seidel, J.G.; Williams, R.P.; Weigle, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    The characterization of contaminants located at or near the surface of floors and walls is an important step in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is an attractive method for the characterization of contaminants with suitable nuclear characteristics (e.g., mercury and cadmium) because PGNAA is noninvasive, does not generate secondary waste, and is capable of providing results in real time. Previous PGNAA work in this area has been limited by a lack of sensitivity due to the high background levels typically encountered during measurements. However, a low-background PGNAA system (N-SCAN), developed by the Westinghouse Science & Technology Center and Scientific Ecology Group, Inc., has been able to detect small amounts of contaminants in the near-surface region of concrete (0 to 3 in. deep).

  16. On the accuracy of protein determination in large biological samples by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasviki, K.; Stamatelatos, I. E.; Yannakopoulou, E.; Papadopoulou, P.; Kalef-Ezra, J.

    2007-10-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility has been developed for the determination of nitrogen and thus total protein in large volume biological samples or the whole body of small animals. In the present work, the accuracy of nitrogen determination by PGNAA in phantoms of known composition as well as in four raw ground meat samples of about 1 kg mass was examined. Dumas combustion and Kjeldahl techniques were also used for the assessment of nitrogen concentration in the meat samples. No statistically significant differences were found between the concentrations assessed by the three techniques. The results of this work demonstrate the applicability of PGNAA for the assessment of total protein in biological samples of 0.25-1.5 kg mass, such as a meat sample or the body of small animal even in vivo with an equivalent radiation dose of about 40 mSv.

  17. Near Infrared Activity Close to the Crab Pulsar Correlated with Giant Gamma-ray Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudy, Alexander R.; Max, Claire E.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe activity observed in the near-infrared correlated with a giant gamma-ray flare in the Crab Pulsar. The Crab Pulsar has been observed by the Fermi and AGILE satellites to flare for a period of 3 to 7 days, once every 1-1.5 years, increasing in brightness by a factor of 3-10 between 100MeV and 1GeV. We used Keck NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics imaging to observe the Crab Pulsar and environs before and during the March 2013 flare. We discuss the evidence for the knot as the location of the flares, and the theoretical implications of these observations. Ongoing target-of-opportunity programs hope to confirm this correlation for future flares.

  18. Delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy combined with active neutron interrogation for nuclear security and safeguards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Mitsuo; Rossi, Fabiana; Rodriguez, Douglas C.; Takamine, Jun; Seya, Michio; Bogucarska, Tatjana; Crochemore, Jean-Michel; Varasano, Giovanni; Abbas, Kamel; Pederson, Bent; Kureta, Masatoshi; Heyse, Jan; Paradela, Carlos; Mondelaers, Willy; Schillebeeckx, Peter

    2017-09-01

    For the purpose of nuclear security and safeguards, an active neutron interrogation non-destructive assay technique, Delayed Gamma-ray Spectroscopy (DGS), is under development. The technique of DGS uses the detection of decay γ rays from fission products to determine ratios of fissile nuclides in a sample. A proper evaluation of such γ-ray spectra requires integration of nuclear data such as fission cross-sections, fission yields, half-lives, decay-chain patterns, and decay γ-ray yields. Preliminary DGS experiments with the Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly, named PUNITA, of the European Commissions' Joint Research Center have been performed. Signals of delayed γ ray from nuclear materials were successfully observed.

  19. Wakayama Symposium: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jester, James V.; Brown, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently we have shown that mouse and human meibomian glands undergo specific age-related changes, including decreased acinar cell proliferation, acinar atrophy, and altered peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) localization from cytoplasmic-vesicular/nuclear in young mice and humans to nuclear in old mice and humans. Since PPARγ is a lipid-sensitive, nuclear receptor implicated in regulating adipocyte and sebocyte differentiation and lipogenesis, our findings suggest that PPARγ may be involved in modulating meibomian gland differentiation during aging. Based on these findings, we propose that aging of the meibomian gland results in downregulation of PPARγ, leading to decreased meibocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis, gland atrophy, and a hyposecretory meibomian gland dysfunction. PMID:23084144

  20. Optical measurements during increased gamma-ray activity in 3C 454.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul S.; Wehrle, Ann E.

    2010-04-01

    Observations obtained with the Steward Observatory 2.3m Bok Telescope show 3C 454.3 to be optically bright and highly linear polarized during a period of increased gamma-ray activity (ATel #2534). Differential spectrophotometry yield a V-band magnitude of 15.02 ± 0.02 and an R-band (Kron-Cousins bandpass) magnitude of 14.53 ± 0.01 on 2010 April 5, 12:10 UT. Spectropolarimetry of 3C 454.3 with the SPOL instrument find an average linear polarization of 9.85 ± 0.17% at a position angle of 23.0 ± 0.5 degrees over a 5000-7000 Angstrom spectral bin.

  1. Radioprotectant Activity of 5-Diethylsulfonamoylsalicylatocopper(II) in Gamma Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuykendall, III, John A.; Simmons, III, Hugh; Irving, Henry J.; Wear, Mark A.; Sorenson, Paul G.; Tipton, Linda G.; Maddox, Kenchasha M.; Williams, Elsie L.; Pham-Tran, Van Anh; Credit, Chassie; Chowdhury, Israt L.; Khan, Shaheen; Tipton, J. Brooks; Willingham, William M.

    1999-01-01

    Survival and changes in mean body mass of whole-body irradiated mice were determined to examine the radioprotectant activity of 5-diethylsulfonamoylsalicylatocopper(II) [Cu(II) (5-DESS)]. One of four groups of 25 female C57BL/6 mice were treated subcutaneously (sc)with 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, or 120 μmol Cu(II)(5- DESS)/kg of body mass 3 hours before exposure to 8.0 Gy, gamma irradiation. In this paradigm, doses of Cu(II)(5- DESS) increased survival up to 92% above vehicle-treated control mice (P = 0.008). Mean body mass determinations revealed that mice treated with 80 to 120 μmol Cu(II)(5-DESS)/kg of body mass exhibited a smaller decrease in body mass than other complex-treated groups. These results support the hypothesis that Cu(II)(5-DESS) is an effective radioprotectant. PMID:18475892

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and receptor-gamma activators prevent cardiac fibrosis in mineralocorticoid-dependent hypertension.

    PubMed

    Iglarz, Marc; Touyz, Rhian M; Viel, Emilie C; Paradis, Pierre; Amiri, Farhad; Diep, Quy N; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2003-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activation may prevent cardiac hypertrophy and inhibit production of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a hypertrophic agent. The aim of this in vivo study was to investigate the effects of PPAR activators on cardiac remodeling in DOCA-salt rats, a model overexpressing ET-1. Unilaterally nephrectomized 16-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (Uni-Nx) were randomly divided into 4 groups: control rats, DOCA-salt, DOCA-salt+rosiglitazone (PPAR-gamma activator, 5 mg/kg per day), and DOCA-salt+fenofibrate (PPAR-alpha activator, 100 mg/kg per day). After 3 weeks of treatment, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly increased in DOCA-salt by 36 mm Hg. Mean arterial blood pressure was normalized by coadministration of rosiglitazone but not by fenofibrate. Both PPAR activators prevented cardiac fibrosis and abrogated the increase in prepro-ET-1 mRNA content in the left ventricle of DOCA-salt rats. Coadministration of rosiglitazone or fenofibrate failed to prevent thickening of left ventricle (LV) walls as measured by echocardiography and the increase in atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA levels. However, rosiglitazone and fenofibrate prevented the decrease in LV internal diameter and thus concentric remodeling of the LV found in DOCA-salt rats. Taken together, these data indicate a modulatory role of PPAR activators on cardiac remodeling in mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension, in part associated with decreased ET-1 production.

  3. Role of interferon gamma release assay in active TB diagnosis among HIV infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Syed Ahamed Kabeer, Basirudeen; Sikhamani, Rajasekaran; Swaminathan, Sowmya; Perumal, Venkatesan; Paramasivam, Paulkumaran; Raja, Alamelu

    2009-05-28

    A rapid and specific test is urgently needed for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis especially among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity of Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) in active tuberculosis patients who were positive for HIV infection and compared it with that of tuberculin skin test (TST). A total of 105 HIV-TB patients who were naïve for anti tuberculosis and anti retroviral therapy were included for this study out of which 53 (50%) were culture positive. Of 105 tested, QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-G) was positive in 65% (95% CI: 56% to 74%), negative in 18% (95% CI: 11% to 25%) and indeterminate in 17% (95% CI: 10% to 24%) of patients. The sensitivity of QFT-G remained similar in pulmonary TB and extra-pulmonary TB patients. The QFT-G positivity was not affected by low CD4 count, but it often gave indeterminate results especially in individuals with CD4 count < 200 cells/microl. All of the QFT-G indeterminate patients whose sputum culture were positive, showed < or = 0.25 IU/ml of IFN-gamma response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). TST was performed in all the 105 patients and yielded the sensitivity of 31% (95% CI: 40% to 22%). All the TST positives were QFT-G positives. The sensitivity of TST was decreased, when CD4 cell counts declined. Our study shows neither QFT-G alone or in combination with TST can be used to exclude the suspicion of active TB disease. However, unlike TST, QFT-G yielded fewer false negative results even in individuals with low CD4 count. The low PHA cut-off point for indeterminate results suggested in this study (< or = 0.25 IU/ml) may improve the proportion of valid QFT-G results.

  4. Murine erythroleukemia cell line GM979 contains factors that can activate silent chromosomal human. gamma. -globin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Zitnik, G.; Hines, P.; Stamatoyannopoulos, G.; Papayannopoulou, T. )

    1991-03-15

    The authors introduced a normal chromosome 11 into GM979 murine erythroleukemia cells by fusing them with Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes from a normal individual. In contrast to precious data obtained with other murine erythroleukemia cells, they detected activation of human chromosomal {gamma}-globin genes in GM979 cells. GM979, unlike previously used murine erythroleukemia cell lines, expresses murine embryonic globin in addition to adult globin. While all the hybrids expressed {gamma}- and {beta}-globin, they displayed a wide range of {gamma}-globin expression in relation to that of {beta}-globin. No correlation, however, was found in quantitative expression between murine embryonic globin and human {gamma}-globin in these hybrids, suggesting that the two globins are regulated independently, at least in this cell line. These data indicate that {gamma}-globin genes from normal, nonerythroid chromosomes are not irreversibly silenced, and they can be activated by a positive trans factor(s) present in GM979 cells.

  5. HSP72 depletion suppresses gammaH2AX activation by genotoxic stresses via p53/p21 signaling.

    PubMed

    Gabai, V L; Sherman, M Y; Yaglom, J A

    2010-04-01

    Knockout of heat shock protein Hsp72 was shown to promote chromosomal instability and increase radiation sensitivity of mouse fibroblasts. Here, we report that downregulation of Hsp72 in human tumor cells leads to suppression of a specific branch of the DNA damage response (DDR) that facilitates DNA repair following genotoxic insults, that is, reduced accumulation of the phosphorylated form of histone H2AX (gammaH2AX). This inhibition was due to decreased expression of H2AX as well as higher rate of gammaH2AX dephosphorylation. Formation of gammaH2AX and MDC1 radiation-induced foci was impaired in Hsp72-depleted cells, which in turn enhanced DNA damage, resulting in sensitization of cells to gamma-radiation and doxorubicin. These effects of Hsp72 knockdown were dependent on activation of the p53/p21-signaling pathway. Overall, permanent activation of the p53/p21 signaling in Hsp72-depleted cells specifically impaired the gammaH2AX pathway of the DDR, enhanced DNA damage following genotoxic insults, and led to further stimulation of the p53/p21 pathway, thus creating a positive feedback loop. The resulting strong induction of p21 precipitated senescence following exposure to DNA-damaging agents, thus accounting for higher sensitivity of cells to genotoxic stresses.

  6. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- gamma expression in human malignant and normal brain, breast and prostate-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, J O; Robbins, M E

    2001-01-01

    The constitutive and gamma -linolenic acid (GLA)-induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) immunoreactive protein in a panel of human malignant brain (U87MG, T98G); breast (MCF-7, MB MDA-231, MB MDA 435) and prostate (ALVA, DU-145, LNCaP, PC3) cell lines have been compared with those for their normal cell counterparts, the human normal astrocyte (NHA), mammary epithelial (HMEC) and prostate epithelial (PrEC) cells, respectively. Constitutive levels of expression for PPAR gamma protein were significantly higher in the malignant cell lines relative to their normal cells. GLA supplementation did not affect the protein expression in malignant cells but caused 6- and 3-fold increases in normal breast and prostate cells, respectively. Since activation of PPAR gamma protein in some human malignant cell lines has been demonstrated to induce tumour cell death, these findings signal the need to exploit the significantly elevated expression of this protein in the therapy of human cancer. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  8. Histamine induces KCNQ channel-dependent gamma oscillations in rat hippocampus via activation of the H1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Richard; Galter, Dagmar; Papadia, Daniela; Fisahn, André

    2017-05-15

    Histamine is an aminergic neurotransmitter, which regulates wakefulness, arousal and attention in the central nervous system. Histamine receptors have been the target of efforts to develop pro-cognitive drugs to treat disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Cognitive functions including attention are closely associated with gamma oscillations, a rhythmical electrical activity pattern in the 30-80 Hz range, which depends on the synchronized activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory fast-spiking interneurons. We set out to explore whether histamine has a role in promoting gamma oscillations in the hippocampus. Using in-situ hybridization we demonstrate that histamine receptor subtypes 1, 2 and 3 are expressed in stratum pyramidale of area CA3 in rats. We show that both pyramidal cells and fast-spiking interneurons depolarize and increase action potential firing in response to histamine in vitro. The activation of histamine receptors generates dose-dependent, transient gamma oscillations in area CA3 of the hippocampus - the locus of the gamma rhythm generator. We also demonstrate that this histamine effect is independent of muscarinic receptors. Using specific antagonists we provide evidence that histamine gamma rhythmogenesis specifically depends on the H1 receptor. Histamine also depolarized both pyramidal cells and fast-spiking interneurons and increased membrane resistance in pyramidal cells. The increased membrane resistance is potentially mediated by the inhibition of potassium channels because application of the KCNQ channel opener ICA110381 abolished the oscillations. Taken together our data demonstrate a novel and physiological mechanism for generating gamma oscillations in hippocampus and suggest a role for KCNQ channels in this cognition-relevant brain activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists using molecular modeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Veronica M. W.; Wong, Fiona S. L.; Ramachandran, Lalitha; Sethi, Gautam; Kumar, Alan Prem; Yap, Chun Wei

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) plays a critical role in lipid and glucose homeostasis. It is the target of many drug discovery studies, because of its role in various disease states including diabetes and cancer. Thiazolidinediones, a synthetic class of agents that work by activation of PPARγ, have been used extensively as insulin-sensitizers for the management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, a combination of QSAR and docking methods were utilised to perform virtual screening of more than 25 million compounds in the ZINC library. The QSAR model was developed using 1,517 compounds and it identified 42,378 potential PPARγ agonists from the ZINC library, and 10,000 of these were selected for docking with PPARγ based on their diversity. Several steps were used to refine the docking results, and finally 30 potentially highly active ligands were identified. Four compounds were subsequently tested for their in vitro activity, and one compound was found to have a K i values of <5 μM.

  10. MOLECULAR CLONING, SEQUENCING, EXPRESSION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF GIANT PANDA (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) INTERFERON-GAMMA.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Bao-Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Fu; Wu, Xu-Jin; Ma, Qing-Yi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-29

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species and indigenous to China. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is the only member of type □ IFN and is vital for the regulation of host adapted immunity and inflammatory response. Little is known aboutthe FN-γ gene and its roles in giant panda.In this study, IFN-γ gene of Qinling giant panda was amplified from total blood RNA by RT-CPR, cloned, sequenced and analysed. The open reading frame (ORF) of Qinling giant panda IFN-γ encodes 152 amino acidsand is highly similar to Sichuan giant panda with an identity of 99.3% in cDNA sequence. The IFN-γ cDNA sequence was ligated to the pET32a vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 competent cells. Expression of recombinant IFN-γ protein of Qinling giant panda in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Biological activity assay indicated that the recombinant IFN-γ protein at the concentration of 4-10 µg/ml activated the giant panda peripheral blood lymphocytes,while at 12 µg/mlinhibited. the activation of the lymphocytes.These findings provide insights into the evolution of giant panda IFN-γ and information regarding amino acid residues essential for their biological activity.

  11. Identification of novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists using molecular modeling method.

    PubMed

    Gee, Veronica M W; Wong, Fiona S L; Ramachandran, Lalitha; Sethi, Gautam; Kumar, Alan Prem; Yap, Chun Wei

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) plays a critical role in lipid and glucose homeostasis. It is the target of many drug discovery studies, because of its role in various disease states including diabetes and cancer. Thiazolidinediones, a synthetic class of agents that work by activation of PPARγ, have been used extensively as insulin-sensitizers for the management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, a combination of QSAR and docking methods were utilised to perform virtual screening of more than 25 million compounds in the ZINC library. The QSAR model was developed using 1,517 compounds and it identified 42,378 potential PPARγ agonists from the ZINC library, and 10,000 of these were selected for docking with PPARγ based on their diversity. Several steps were used to refine the docking results, and finally 30 potentially highly active ligands were identified. Four compounds were subsequently tested for their in vitro activity, and one compound was found to have a K i values of <5 μM.

  12. Effect of. gamma. -irradiated DNA on the activity of DNA polymerase. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Leadon, S.A.; Ward, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    A cell-free assay was developed to measure the effect of ..gamma..-irradiated DNA template on the ability of DNA polymerase to copy unirradiated template. Doses as low as 1 krad were able to decrease (approx. 15%) the activity of both bacterial and mammalian DNA polymerases in the assay. The percentage of polymerase activity decreased as the dose received by the template increased. The reduction in DNA polymerase activity was shown to be due to an inhibition of the enzyme by the irradiated DNA. Irradiated poly(dA-dT) was more effective in reducing polymerase activity than calf thymus DNA. Thus the polymerase-inhibition site(s) appears to be associated with base damage, specifically adenine or thymine. Using a free-radical scavenger, OH radicals were found to be involved in producing the damage sites. The interaction between irradiated DNA and DNA polymerase was found to be specific for the enzyme and not for other proteins present in the assay. The inhibition of DNA polymerase occurred prior to or during the initiation of DNA synthesis rather than after initiation of synthesis, i.e., during elongation.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima Khattak, Khanzadi; James Simpson, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of gamma irradiation as a method of decontamination for food and herbal materials is well established. In the present study, Glycyrrhiza glabra roots were irradiated at doses 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. The irradiated and un-irradiated control samples were evaluated for phenolic contents, antimicrobial activities and DPPH scavenging properties. The result of the present study showed that radiation treatment up to 20 kGy does not affect the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the plant. While sample irradiated at 25 kGy does showed changes in the antibacterial activity against some selected pathogens. No significant differences in the phenolic contents were observed for control and samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 15 kGy radiation doses. However, phenolic contents increased in samples treated with 20 and 25 kGy doses. The DPPH scavenging activity significantly ( p<0.05) increased in all irradiated samples of the plant.

  14. Review of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPAR alpha), beta (PPAR beta), and gamma (PPAR gamma) in rodent and human development.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Barbara D

    2009-06-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and there are three primary subtypes, PPARalpha, beta, and gamma. These receptors regulate important physiological processes that impact lipid homeostasis, inflammation, adipogenesis, reproduction, wound healing, and carcinogenesis. These nuclear receptors have important roles in reproduction and development and their expression may influence the responses of an embryo exposed to PPAR agonists. PPARs are relevant to the study of the biological effects of the perfluorinated alkyl acids as these compounds, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), activate PPARalpha. Exposure of the rodent to PFOA or PFOS during gestation results in neonatal deaths, developmental delay and growth deficits. Studies in PPARalpha knockout mice demonstrate that the developmental effects of PFOA, but not PFOS, depend on expression of PPARalpha. This review provides an overview of PPARalpha, beta, and gamma protein and mRNA expression during mouse, rat, and human development. The review presents the results from many published studies and the information is organized by organ system and collated to show patterns of expression at comparable developmental stages for human, mouse, and rat. The features of the PPAR nuclear receptor family are introduced and what is known or inferred about their roles in development is discussed relative to insights from genetically modified mice and studies in the adult.

  15. Assessment of the associated particle prompt gamma neutron activation technique for total body nitrogen measurement in vivo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Total Body Nitrogen (TBN) can be used to estimate Total Body Protein (TBP), an important body composition component at the molecular level. A system using the associated particle technique in conjunction with prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been developed for the measurement of TBN in ...

  16. Differential effect of gamma-radiation-induced heme oxygenase-1 activity in female and male C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Youngsoo; Platonov, Alexander; Akhalaia, Medea; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young

    2005-08-01

    Ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species, which exert diverse biological effects on cells and animals. We investigated alterations of heme oxygenase (HO) and non-protein thiols (NPSH), which are known as two major anti-oxidant enzymes, in female and male C57BL/6 mice in the lung, liver, and brain after whole-body gamma-irradiation with 10 Gy (1-7 days) as well as in the lung after whole-thorax gamma-irradiation (WTI) with 12.5 Gy (1-26 weeks). Most significant alteration of HO activity was observed in the liver, which elevated 250% in males. NPSH level in female liver was increased on the 5th-7th days but decreased in males on the 3rd day. In the lung, the elevation of HO activity in both sexes and the pattern of NPSH change were similar to that of the liver. On the other hand, the increase of HO activity on the 16th week and the decrease of NPSH level on the 2nd week were observed only in male lung after WTI. This study shows that the liver is the most sensitive tissue to gamma-irradiation-induced alterations of HO activity in both female and male mice. In addition, there exists significant differential effect of gamma-irradiation on anti-oxidant system in female and male mice.

  17. Measuring the activity of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, V. V. Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-15

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of {sup 51}Cr is presented.

  18. Produced water characterization by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meric, Ilker; Johansen, Geir A.; Holstad, Marie B.; Wang, Jiaxin; Gardner, Robin P.

    2011-12-01

    Multiphase gas/oil/water measurement has been and still is a challenging task within the petroleum industry. The requirements of measurement efficiency and accuracy have been continuously increasing at the same time as the trend is to use subsea installations. As a response, the design of the SOFA (Subsea Online Fluid Analyser) concept was initiated by Christian Michelsen Research in cooperation with the University of Bergen. The final design of the analyser is yet to be completed. The ultimate goal of this design is the development of a permanently installed subsea metering station which is capable of characterizing all of the components that can be found in multiphase flow. One of the key challenges in this design is the detailed characterization of produced water samples which includes the identification of salt ions in the sample and their weight percentages. In this work, use of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) in conjunction with the so-called Monte Carlo library least-squares (MCLLS) approach is considered for characterization of the produced water component. A relatively simple produced water sample was prepared and the prompt gamma-ray spectrum of the sample was recorded using a large 6" × 6" NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. A specific purpose Monte Carlo code named CEARCPG was used to generate the pertinent elemental libraries that are required in the MCLLS approach. The results of this feasibility study have shown that the PGNAA in conjunction with the MCLLS approach would be feasible for determining the amounts of salt ions that can be found in produced water samples.

  19. Gamma Irradiation of Active Self-healing PLGA Microspheres for Efficient Aqueous Encapsulation of Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Kadous, Samer; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of γ-irradiation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/Al(OH)3/0 or 5 wt% diethyl phthalate (DEP) microspheres for active self-healing encapsulation of vaccine antigens. Methods Microspheres were irradiated with 60Co at 2.5 and 1.8 MRad and 0.37 and 0.20 MRad/h. Encapsulation of tetanus toxoid (TT) was achieved by mixing Al(OH)3-PLGA microspheres with TT solution at 10-38°C. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to examine free radical formation. Glass transition temperature (Tg) and molecular weight of PLGA was measured by differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography, respectively. Loading and release of TT were examined by modified Bradford, amino acid analysis, and ELISA assays. Results EPR spectroscopy results indicated absence of free radicals in PLGA microspheres after γ-irradiation. Antigen-sorbing capacity, encapsulation efficiency, and Tg of the polymer were also not adversely affected. When DEP-loaded microspheres were irradiated at 0.2 MRad/h, some PLGA pores healed during irradiation and PLGA healing during encapsulation was suppressed. The molecular weight of PLGA was slightly reduced when DEP-loaded microspheres were irradiated at the same dose rate. These trends were not observed at 0.37 MRad/h. Gamma irradiation slightly increased TT initial burst release. Apart from the slightly higher polymer molecular weight decline caused by higher irradiation dose in case of DEP-loaded microspheres, the small increase in total irradiation dose from 1.8 to 2.5 MRad had insignificant effect on the polymer and microspheres properties analyzed. Conclusion Gamma irradiation is a plausible approach to provide a terminally sterilized, self-healing encapsulation PLGA excipient for vaccine delivery. PMID:23515830

  20. Anticlastogenic activity of morin against whole body gamma irradiation in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Vipan Kumar; Prabhakar, Koiram Rajanna; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabhakar; Priyadarsini, Kavirayani Indira; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikajuna

    2007-02-14

    Anticlastogenic activity of morin was explored against whole body gamma radiation, at a dose rate of 1.66 Gy/min in Swiss albino mice pretreated intraperitoneal or orally. Pretreatment with morin 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mg/kg, i.p. delayed and reduced percentage mortality and increased mean survival times in mice irradiated with 10 Gy gamma radiation. Intraperitoneal route was found superior to oral route. An i.p. dose of 100 mg/kg was found to be the most effective dose in preventing radiation-induced weight loss, increasing the mean survival times and reducing percentage mortality. Morin (100 mg/kg) pretreatment effectively maintained spleen index (spleen weight/body weight x 100) and stimulated endogenous spleen colony forming units. Pretreatment with morin (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced dead, inflammatory, and mitotic cells in irradiated mice jejunum along with a significant increase in goblet cells and rapidly multiplying crypt cells. Morin (100 mg/kg) also maintained the villus height close to normal, prevented mucosal erosion and basement membrane damage in irradiated jejunum. Nuclear enlargement in epithelial cells of jejunum was lower in morin treated mice compared to radiation control. Morin (100 mg/kg) also significantly elevated the endogenous antioxidant enzymes viz. glutathione S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), in normal mice at 2, 4 and 8 h post treatment. Drastic decrease in endogenous enzymes (GSH, GST, catalase and SOD) and total thiols was observed in irradiated mice at 2, 4 and 8 h post irradiation, while pretreatment with morin (100 mg/kg) prevented this decrease. Morin (100 mg/kg) also elevated radiation LD(50) from 9.2 to 10.1 Gy, indicating a dose modifying factor (DMF) of 1.11.

  1. Dynamics of gamma-band activity in human magnetoencephalogram during auditory pattern working memory.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Jochen; Ripper, Barbara; Birbaumer, Niels; Lutzenberger, Werner

    2003-10-01

    Both electrophysiological research in animals and human brain imaging studies have suggested that, similar to the visual system, separate cortical ventral "what" and dorsal "where" processing streams may also exist in the auditory domain. Recently we have shown enhanced gamma-band activity (GBA) over posterior parietal cortex belonging to the putative auditory dorsal pathway during a sound location working memory task. Using a similar methodological approach, the present study assessed whether GBA would be increased over auditory ventral stream areas during an auditory pattern memory task. Whole-head magnetoencephalogram was recorded from N = 12 subjects while they performed a working memory task requiring same-different judgments about pairs of syllables S1 and S2 presented with 0.8-s delays. S1 and S2 could differ either in voice onset time or in formant structure. This was compared with a control task involving the detection of possible spatial displacements in the background sound presented instead of S2. Under the memory condition, induced GBA was enhanced over left inferior frontal/anterior temporal regions during the delay phase and in response to S2 and over prefrontal cortex at the end of the delay period. gamma-Band coherence between left frontotemporal and prefrontal sensors was increased throughout the delay period of the memory task. In summary, the memorization of syllables was associated with synchronously oscillating networks both in frontotemporal cortex, supporting a role of these areas as parts of the putative auditory ventral stream, and in prefrontal, possible executive regions. Moreover, corticocortical connectivity was increased between these structures.

  2. A universal scaling law of black hole activity including gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.

    2017-09-01

    Previous works showed a correlation among radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity and black hole (BH) mass from stellar-mass BHs in X-ray binaries to supermassive BHs in active galactic nuclei, which leads to the so-called Fundamental Plane of BH activity. However, there are two competing explanations for this Fundamental Plane, including the jet-dominated model and the disc-jet model. Thus, the physical origin of this Fundamental Plane remains unknown. In this paper, we show that the X-ray luminosities, radio luminosities and BH masses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and M82 X-1 also show a similar distribution. The universal scaling law among stellar-mass, intermediate and supermassive BH systems, together with the fact that the radio and X-ray emission of GRBs originates from relativistic jets, reveals that the Fundamental Plane of BH activity is controlled by a jet, i.e. the radio and X-ray emission is mainly from the jet. Our work also suggests that the jets are scale-invariant with respect to the BH mass.

  3. Ultrastructure of macrophages of carrageenan granuloma in the rat with data on gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Monis, B; Valentich, M A

    1986-02-01

    The present study is an electron-microscopic investigation of granuloma induced in the rat by the subcutaneous injection of 1% lambda-carrageenan in 0.8% sodium chloride. We report on the presence of desmosome-like structures connecting neighbouring macrophages. They consisted of electron-dense plaques, which are closely applied to the cytoplasmic surfaces of the junction. Usually, no bundles of cytoplasmic filaments attached to the plaques were seen. At the intercellular space at the level of the junction, a dense material was observed that was sometimes arranged in a cross-bridge fashion. The lysosomal system was markedly developed and consisted mainly of secondary lysosomes containing a filamentous material that showed intense acid phosphatase activity, which was also demonstrated in Golgi cisternae. A membrane preparation obtained from rat carrageenan granuloma contained gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity (GGTP), which is a cell and lysosomal membrane-bound enzyme. The GGTP activity of a similar membrane preparation of guinea pig carrageenan granuloma was six times higher than that of the rat.

  4. Gamma activity of stream sediment feldspars as ceramic raw materials and their environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Aboelkhair, Hatem; Ibrahim, Tarek; Saad, Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    In situ gamma spectrometric measurements have been performed to characterise the natural radiation that emitted from the stream sediment feldspars in Wadi El Missikat and Wadi Homret El Gergab, Eastern Desert, Egypt. The measurements of potassium (K, %), equivalent uranium (eU, ppm) and equivalent thorium (eTh, ppm) were converted into specific activities and equivalent dose rate. The average specific activities were 1402 Bq kg(-1) for K, 113 Bq kg(-1) for eU and 108 Bq kg(-1) for eTh in Wadi El Missikat, while they were 1240, 104 and 185 Bq kg(-1) in Wadi Homret El Gergab. The calculated outdoor average effective dose rates was 1.1 mSv y(-1) in wadi El Missikat and 1.3 mSv y(-1) in Wadi Homret El Gergab. The terrestrial-specific activities and effective dose rate levels of the natural radioactivity in the two areas lie within the international recommended limits for occupational feldspar quarry workers. On the other hand, these results indicated that irradiation is higher than the allowable level for members of the public. Therefore, quarrying the feldspar sediments from these locations as ceramic raw materials may yield an undesired impact on the environment, especially through the indoor applications.

  5. Fermi LAT observation of renewed and strong GeV gamma-ray activity from blazar CTA 102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed a new phase of strong gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar CTA 102 (also known as 4C +11.69, PKS 2230+11, 3FGL J2232.5+1143) with VLBI coordinates, (J2000.0), R.A.: 338.151704 deg, Dec.: 11.730807 deg (Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880).

  6. Fermi LAT detection of an increase of gamma-ray activity of S5 1044+71

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed gamma-ray flaring activity from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar S5 1044+71 (also known as 2FGL J1048.3+7144, Nolan et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 31) with radio coordinates R.A.: 162.1150829 deg, Dec: 71.7266494 deg (J2000; Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880) at redshift z=1.15 (Polatidis et al.

  7. Fermi LAT detection of renewed gamma-ray flaring activity from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 (Perseus A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed GeV gamma-ray flaring activity from a source positionally consistent with NGC 1275 (also known as 2FGL J0319.8+4130, Nolan et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 31, as Perseus A and 3C 84) a radio galaxy located at the center of the Perseus galaxy cluster (see also Abdo et al. 2009, ApJ, 699, 31).

  8. Rapid and transient activation of gamma/delta T cells to interferon gamma production, NK cell-like killing and antigen processing during acute virus infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gamma/delta T cells are the majority peripheral blood T cells in young cattle. The role of gamma/delta T cells in innate responses against infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was analyzed on 5 consecutive days following infection. Before infection, bovine gamma/delta T cells expressed...

  9. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta signaling and profibrotic responses in normal skin fibroblasts by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Asish K; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Lakos, Gabriella; Chen, Shu-Jen; Mori, Yasuji; Varga, John

    2004-04-01

    In fibroblasts, transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) stimulates collagen synthesis and myofibroblast transdifferentiation through the Smad intracellular signal transduction pathway. TGF beta-mediated fibroblast activation is the hallmark of scleroderma and related fibrotic conditions, and disrupting the intracellular TGF beta/Smad signaling may provide a novel approach to controlling fibrosis. Because of its potential role in modulating inflammatory and fibrotic responses, we examined the expression of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) in normal skin fibroblasts and its effect on TGF beta-induced cellular responses. The expression and activity of PPAR gamma in normal dermal fibroblasts were examined by Northern and Western blot analyses, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and transient transfections with reporter constructs. The same approaches were used to evaluate the effects of PPAR gamma activation by naturally occurring and synthetic ligands on collagen synthesis and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression. Modulation of Smad-mediated transcriptional responses was examined by transient transfection assays using wild-type and dominant-negative PPAR gamma expression constructs. The PPAR gamma receptor was expressed and fully functional in quiescent normal skin fibroblasts. Whereas ligand activation of cellular PPAR gamma resulted in modest suppression of basal collagen gene expression, it abrogated TGF beta-induced stimulation in a concentration-dependent manner. This response was mimicked by overexpressing PPAR gamma in fibroblasts, and was blocked by a selective antagonist of PPAR gamma signaling or by transfection of fibroblasts with dominant-negative PPAR gamma constructs. Furthermore, PPAR gamma ligands abrogated TGF beta-induced expression of alpha-SMA, a marker of myofibroblasts. Stimulation of Smad-dependent transcriptional responses by TGF beta was suppressed by PPAR gamma despite

  10. Non-Destructive Bulk Soil Analysis for a Chlorinated Compound using Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.A.

    1999-04-19

    A prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system was evaluated for the quantification of chlorinated compounds in soil. The system evaluation was divided into two phases. In phase one, the response of an n-type HPGe detector (20 percent relative efficiency) to point sources of 60Co and 152Eu was determined experimentally and used to calibrate an MCNP4a model of the detector. The refined MCNP4a detector model can predict the absolute peak detection efficiency within 7 percent in the energy range of 120 - 1400 keV. In phase two, a PGNAA system consisting of a light-water moderated 252Cf (1.06 mg) neutron source, and the shielded and collimated HPGe detector was used to collect prompt gamma-ray spectra from Savannah River Site (SRS) soil spiked with chlorine. The experimental system response was used to calculate the minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the SRS soil for a 1800 sec. irradiation as 2200 mg/g based on the analysis of the 788 keV gamma-ray. MCNP4a was used to predict the PGNAA system response, which was accomplished by analyzing the neutron and gamma ray transport components separately. In the energy range of 788 to 6110 keV, the MCNP4a predictions were generally within 60 percent of the calculated probability of detection of a prompt gamma ray based on the experimental data.

  11. Evidence for Gamma-ray Halos Around Active Galactic Nuclei and the First Measurement of Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Kusenko, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs) can cause the appearance of halos around the gamma-ray images of distant objects because an electromagnetic cascade initiated by a high-energy gamma-ray interaction with the photon background is broadened by magnetic deflections. We report evidence of such gamma-ray halos in the stacked images of the 170 brightest active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 11 month source catalog of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Excess over the point-spread function in the surface brightness profile is statistically significant at 3.5σ (99.95% confidence level), for the nearby, hard population of AGNs. The halo size and brightness are consistent with IGMF, B IGMF ≈ 10-15 G. The knowledge of IGMF will facilitate the future gamma-ray and charged-particle astronomy. Furthermore, since IGMFs are likely to originate from the primordial seed fields created shortly after the big bang, this potentially opens a new window on the origin of cosmological magnetic fields, inflation, and the phase transitions in the early universe.

  12. Fluorine concentrations in bone biopsy samples determined by proton-induced gamma-ray emission and cyclic neutron activation.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, N M; Altaf, W J; Gill, B S; Jeynes, C; Nicolaou, G; Pietra, R; Sabbioni, E; Surian, M

    1990-01-01

    Fluorine concentrations in bone biopsy samples taken from the iliac crest of subjects, divided into four groups depending on the length of dialysis treatment, and aluminium levels in blood and bone pathology, in terms of osteoporosis, were determined by two instrumental methods. Proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE), making use of the resonance reaction of 19F(p, alpha gamma)16O at 872 keV, and cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), using the 19F(n, gamma)20F reaction in a reactor irradiation facility, were employed. Rutherford backscattering (RBS) was used to calculate the volume, and, hence, mass of the sample excited in PIGE by determining the major element composition of the samples in order to express results in terms of concentration. From this preliminary investigation, a relationship is suggested between fluorine concentrations in bone and aluminium levels in the system.

  13. SOLIDIFICATION TESTING FOR A HIGH ACTIVITY WASTESTREAM FROM THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE USING GROUT AND GAMMA RADIATION SHEILDING MATERIALS - 10017

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H.

    2009-11-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating grouts that include gamma radiation shielding materials to solidify surrogates of liquid aqueous radioactive wastes from across the DOE Complex. The Savannah River Site (SRS) identified a High Activity Waste (HAW) that will be treated and solidified at the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for surrogate grout testing. The HAW, which is produced at the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), is an acidic aqueous wastestream generated by the alkaline treatment process and the aqueous purification process. The HAW surrogate was solidified using Portland cement with and without the inclusion of different gamma radiation shielding materials to determine the shielding material that is the most effective to attenuate gamma radiation for this application.

  14. Constitutive Smad signaling and Smad-dependent collagen gene expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Asish K Wei, Jun; Wu, Minghua; Varga, John

    2008-09-19

    Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}), a potent inducer of collagen synthesis, is implicated in pathological fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates adipogenesis and numerous other biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that collagen gene expression was markedly elevated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking PPAR-{gamma} compared to heterozygous control MEFs. Treatment with the PPAR-{gamma} ligand 15d-PGJ{sub 2} failed to down-regulate collagen gene expression in PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs, whereas reconstitution of these cells with ectopic PPAR-{gamma} resulted in their normalization. Compared to control MEFs, PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs displayed elevated levels of the Type I TGF-{beta} receptor (T{beta}RI), and secreted more TGF-{beta}1 into the media. Furthermore, PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs showed constitutive phosphorylation of cellular Smad2 and Smad3, even in the absence of exogenous TGF-{beta}, which was abrogated by the ALK5 inhibitor SB431542. Constitutive Smad2/3 phosphorylation in PPAR-{gamma} null MEFs was associated with Smad3 binding to its cognate DNA recognition sequences, and interaction with coactivator p300 previously implicated in TGF-{beta} responses. Taken together, these results indicate that loss of PPAR-{gamma} in MEFs is associated with upregulation of collagen synthesis, and activation of intracellular Smad signal transduction, due, at least in part, to autocrine TGF-{beta} stimulation.

  15. Gamma rays as an effective tool for removing undesirable color without adverse changes in biological activities of red beet extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, In Chul; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The ethanolic extracts of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy root were used to investigate the removal of color and improvement of biological activity for enhanced industrial applications. The extracts were exposed to gamma rays ranging from 2.5 to 30 kGy. The red beet hairy root is composed of two major red-colorants, betanin and isobetanin. Gamma ray radiation at 5 kGy remarkably reduced the levels of the major colorants by 94% and the reddish color was eliminated by doses greater than 10 kGy. Color removal was likely due to the gamma ray radiolysis of ethanol. Although details on the mechanism responsible for the decay of the chromophore have not been entirely determined, our results suggest that the free radicals that are produced during this process are capable of destroying the chromophore group in isobetanin, thus bleaching the substrate solution. In spite of the degradation of the major colorants, the biological activities of constituents of the extract such as DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition were negligibly affected by the gamma ray radiation up to 20 kGy. The antioxidant activity was 92.7% in control samples and 90.0-92.0% in irradiated samples (2.5-20 kGy), and a slight decrease to 87.5% was observed for gamma ray radiation at 30 kGy. In addition, tyrosinase inhibition activity has also the same pattern; the activity is slightly increased from 50.7% of control to 49.1-52.8% of irradiated samples (2.5-20 kGy) with a 46.8% at 30 kGy.

  16. Impact of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and delta on adiposity in toddlers and preschoolers in the GENESIS Study.

    PubMed

    Lagou, Vasiliki; Scott, Robert A; Manios, Yannis; Chen, Tun-Li Joshua; Wang, Guan; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Kortsalioudaki, Christine; Liarigkovinos, Thodoris; Moschonis, George; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2008-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) are promising candidate genes for obesity. Associations between adiposity-related phenotypes and genetic variation in PPAR gamma (Pro12Ala and C1431T), as well as PPAR delta (T+294C) were assessed in 2,102 Greek children aged 1-6 years, as part of a large-scale epidemiological study (Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study In preSchoolers). In girls aged 3-4 years, the Ala12 allele was associated with higher mid-upper arm (P = 0.010) and hip (P = 0.005) circumferences, as well as subscapular (P = 0.008) and total skinfolds (P = 0.011) that explained 2.0, 3.7, 2.1, and 1.9% of the phenotypic variance, respectively, while the T1431 allele was associated with higher mean values for waist circumference (P = 0.018) and suprailiac skinfold (P = 0.017), genotype accounting for 1.6% of the variance in both phenotypes. No significant effects of PPAR delta T+294C polymorphism or the interaction of the PPAR delta and PPAR gamma variants on adiposity-related phenotypes were observed in any age group or gender. Haplotype-based analysis including both PPAR gamma polymorphisms revealed that in girls aged 3-4 years, the Ala-T haplotype was associated with higher waist (P = 0.014) and hip (P = 0.007) circumferences compared to the common Pro-C haplotype. The PPAR gamma Pro12Ala and C1431T polymorphisms are associated with increased adiposity during early childhood in a gender- and age-specific manner and independently of the PPAR delta T+294C polymorphism.

  17. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 7815 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Gamma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...; Gamma Radiation Surveys ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the Mine... Radiation Surveys,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for continued use... requires a covered mine operator to maintain a record of cumulative individual gamma radiation exposure to...

  19. First multi-wavelength campaign on the gamma-ray-loud active galaxy IC 310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Ishio, K.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Nöthe, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres-Albà, N.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Krauß, F.; Schulz, R.; Kadler, M.; Wilms, J.; Ros, E.; Bach, U.; Beuchert, T.; Langejahn, M.; Wendel, C.; Gehrels, N.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Markwardt, C. B.; Müller, C.; Grinberg, V.; Hovatta, T.; Magill, J.

    2017-07-01

    Context. The extragalactic very-high-energy gamma-ray sky is rich in blazars. These are jetted active galactic nuclei that are viewed at a small angle to the line-of-sight. Only a handful of objects viewed at a larger angle are so far known to emit above 100 GeV. Multi-wavelength studies of such objects up to the highest energies provide new insights into the particle and radiation processes of active galactic nuclei. Aims: We aim to report the results from the first multi-wavelength campaign observing the TeV detected nucleus of the active galaxy IC 310, whose jet is observed at a moderate viewing angle of 10°-20°. Methods: The multi-instrument campaign was conducted between 2012 November and 2013 January, and involved observations with MAGIC, Fermi, INTEGRAL, Swift, OVRO, MOJAVE and EVN. These observations were complemented with archival data from the AllWISE and 2MASS catalogs. A one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was applied to describe the broadband spectral energy distribution. Results: IC 310 showed an extraordinary TeV flare at the beginning of the campaign, followed by a low, but still detectable TeV flux. Compared to previous measurements in this energy range, the spectral shape was found to be steeper during the low emission state. Simultaneous observations in the soft X-ray band showed an enhanced energy flux state and a harder-when-brighter spectral shape behavior. No strong correlated flux variability was found in other frequency regimes. The broadband spectral energy distribution obtained from these observations supports the hypothesis of a double-hump structure. Conclusions: The harder-when-brighter trend in the X-ray and VHE emission, observed for the first time during this campaign, is consistent with the behavior expected from a synchrotron self-Compton scenario. The contemporaneous broadband spectral energy distribution is well described with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model using parameters that are comparable to those found for

  20. Effect of heterodimer partner RXR{alpha} on PPAR{gamma} activation function-2 helix in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Jianyun Chen Minghe; Stanley, Susan E.; Li, Ellen

    2008-01-04

    The structural mechanism of allosteric communication between retinoid X receptor (RXR) and its heterodimer partners remains controversial. As a first step towards addressing this question, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the GW1929-bound peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) ligand-binding domain (LBD) with and without the 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA)-bound RXR{alpha} LBD. Sequence-specific {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}, {sup 13}C{sup {beta}}, and {sup 13}CO resonance assignments have been established for over 95% of the 275 residues in the PPAR{gamma} LBD monomer. The {sup 1}HN, {sup 15}N, and {sup 13}CO chemical shift perturbations induced by the RXR{alpha} LBD binding are located at not only the heterodimer interface that includes the C-terminal residue Y477 but also residues Y473 and K474 in the activation function-2 (AF-2) helix. This result suggests that 9cRA-bound RXR{alpha} can affect the PPAR{gamma} AF-2 helix in solution and demonstrates that NMR is a powerful new tool for studying the mechanism of allosteric ligand activation in RXR heterodimers.

  1. Stimulus intensity affects early sensory processing: visual contrast modulates evoked gamma-band activity in human EEG.

    PubMed

    Schadow, Jeanette; Lenz, Daniel; Thaerig, Stefanie; Busch, Niko A; Fründ, Ingo; Rieger, Jochem W; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2007-10-01

    We studied the effect of different contrast levels on the visual evoked gamma-band response (GBR) in order to investigate whether the GBR is modulated in a similar manner as previously reported for visual evoked potentials. Previous studies showed that the GBR can be modulated by individual characteristics (age) and experimental conditions (task difficulty, attention). However, stimulus properties, such as size and spatial frequency, also have a large impact on the GBR, which necessitates identification and control of relevant stimulus properties for optimal experimental setups. Twenty-one healthy participants were investigated during a forced-choice discrimination task. Sinusoidal gratings were presented at three contrast levels with a constant spatial frequency of 5 cycles per degree visual arc (cpd). The present data replicate the results reported for visual evoked potentials and exhibit a contrast dependent modulation of the GBR. Gamma activity is increased for higher contrast levels. These results demonstrate the importance of stimulus contrast for evoked gamma activity. Thus, it appears meaningful to control the contrast of stimuli in experiments investigating the role of gamma activity in perception and information processing.

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma can inhibit chronic renal allograft damage.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Eva; Popovic, Zoran V; Bedke, Jens; Adams, Judith; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Babelova, Andrea; Schmidt, Claudia; Edenhofer, Frank; Zschiedrich, Inka; Domhan, Sophie; Abdollahi, Amir; Schäfer, Liliana; Gretz, Norbert; Porubsky, Stefan; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2010-05-01

    Chronic inflammation and fibrosis are the leading causes of chronic allograft failure. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma is a transcription factor known to have antidiabetogenic and immune effects, and PPARgamma forms obligate heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). We have reported that a retinoic acid (RAR)/RXR-agonist can potently influence the course of renal chronic allograft dysfunction. In this study, in a Fischer to Lewis rat renal transplantation model, administration of the PPARgamma-agonist, rosiglitazone, independent of dose (3 or 30 mg/kgBW/day), lowered serum creatinine, albuminuria, and chronic allograft damage with a chronic vascular damage score as follows: 35.0 +/- 5.8 (controls) vs. 8.1 +/- 2.4 (low dose-Rosi; P < 0.05); chronic tubulointerstitial damage score: 13.6 +/- 1.8 (controls) vs. 2.6 +/- 0.4 (low dose-Rosi; P < 0.01). The deposition of extracellular matrix proteins (collagen, fibronectin, decorin) was strikingly lower. The expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 was inhibited, whereas that of bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7) was increased. Intragraft mononuclear cells and activated fibroblast numbers were reduced by 50%. In addition, the migratory and proliferative activity of these cells was significantly inhibited in vitro. PPARgamma activation diminished the number of cells expressing the proinflammatory and fibrogenic proteoglycan biglycan. In macrophages its secretion was blocked by rosiglitazone in a predominantly PPARgamma-dependent manner. The combination of PPARgamma- and RAR/RXR-agonists resulted in additive effects in the inhibition of fibrosis. In summary, PPARgamma activation was potently immunosuppressive and antifibrotic in kidney allografts, and these effects were enhanced by a RAR/RXR-agonist.

  3. Common polymorphisms of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (Pro12Ala) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (Gly482Ser) and the response to pioglitazone in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Lin, Kun-Der; Tien, Kai-Jen; Tu, Shih-Te; Hsiao, Jeng-Yueh; Chang, Shun-Jen; Lin, Shiu-Ru; Shing, Shih-Jang; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the effects of the common polymorphisms in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma; Pro12Ala) and in PPAR-gamma coactivator-1(PGC-1; Gly482Ser) genes on the response to pioglitazone in Chinese with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 250 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were treated with pioglitazone (30 mg/d) for 24 weeks without a change in previous medications. All patients were genotyped for the PPAR-gamma Pro12Ala and PGC-1 Gly482Ser polymorphisms. The Ala12Ala and Pro12Ala genotypes (26.0% vs 13.5%, P = .025) and Ala allele (15.6% vs 7.3%, P = .008) were significantly more frequent in pioglitazone responders than in nonresponders. The distribution of PGC-1 genotypes and alleles was not significantly different between responders and nonresponders. The decrease in fasting glucose (50.4 +/- 52.2 vs 43.3 +/- 51.7 mg/dL, P < .001) and hemoglobin A(1c) (0.57% +/- 1.44% vs 0.35% +/- 1.10%, P = .004) levels was significantly greater in subjects with the Ala12 carriers (Pro12Ala and Ala12Ala) than in those without the allele (Pro12Pro). Baseline fasting glucose and triglyceride levels were related to the response of pioglitazone. Only the PPAR-gamma Pro12Ala polymorphism was found to be associated with the response of pioglitazone by multiple logistic regression analysis. The PPAR-gamma Pro12Ala gene polymorphism is associated with the response to pioglitazone in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings may be helpful for targeted treatment of diabetes by identifying patients who are likely to respond to pioglitazone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential interaction of Crkl with Cbl or C3G, Hef-1, and gamma subunit immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif in signaling of myeloid high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (Fc gamma RI).

    PubMed

    Kyono, W T; de Jong, R; Park, R K; Liu, Y; Heisterkamp, N; Groffen, J; Durden, D L

    1998-11-15

    Cbl-Crkl and Crkl-C3G interactions have been implicated in T cell and B cell receptor signaling and in the regulation of the small GTPase, Rap1. Recent evidence suggests that Rap1 plays a prominent role in the regulation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling. To gain insight into the role of Crkl in myeloid ITAM signaling, we investigated Cbl-Crkl and Crkl-C3G interactions following Fc gamma RI aggregation in U937IF cells. Fc gamma RI cross-linking of U937IF cells results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl, Crkl, and Hef-1, an increase in the association of Crkl with Cbl via direct SH2 domain interaction and increased Crkl-Hef-1 binding. Crkl constitutively binds to the guanine nucleotide-releasing protein, C3G, via direct SH3 domain binding. Our data show that distinct Cbl-Crkl and Crkl-C3G complexes exist in myeloid cells, suggesting that these complexes may modulate distinct signaling events. Anti-Crkl immunoprecipitations demonstrate that the ITAM-containing gamma subunit of Fc gamma RI is induced to form a complex with the Crkl protein, and Crkl binds to the cytoskeletal protein, Hef-1. The induced association of Crkl with Cbl, Hef-1, and Fc gamma RI gamma after Fc gamma RI activation and the constitutive association between C3G and Crkl provide the first evidence that a Fc gamma RI gamma-Crkl-C3G complex may link ITAM receptors to the activation of Rap1 in myeloid cells.

  5. Synthesis of gamma-hydroxybutenolides applying crossed aldol condensation in the presence of a bulky lewis acid and their anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Yumiko; Fujita, Yumi; Mizuguchi, Yukari; Nakagawa, Kimie; Okano, Toshio; Ito, Masayoshi; Wada, Akimori

    2007-09-01

    An improved synthesis of gamma-hydroxybutenolides 1a-d was achieved via crossed aldol condensation between aldehydes 2a-d and the protected gamma-hydroxy-beta-methylbutenolides 3 or 4 using the bulky Lewis acid, aluminum tris(2,6-diphenylphenoxide) (ATPH). Using this same methodology, the gamma-hydroxybutenolides 17a-d having various heteroaromatic rings were synthesized and their anti-tumor activities were evaluated.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene: a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Mu, Y; Li, H; Ding, N; Wang, Q; Wang, Y; Wang, S; Wang, N

    2008-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma is regarded as a "master regulator" of adipocyte differentiation in mammals. The current study was designed to investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of PPARgamma in chicken adipogenesis by RNA interference. Preadipocytes were isolated from the abdominal fat tissue of 12-d-old chickens and cultured. Small-interference PPARgamma RNA (siPPARgamma) was synthesized by in vitro transcription and transfected into chicken preadipocytes by using liposomes. The suppressive effect of siPPARgamma was detected by real-time reverse-transcription PCR and reverse-transcription PCR. The results showed that transient transfection with siPPARgamma significantly inhibited differentiation and enhanced proliferation of chicken preadipocytes (P < 0.05). The adipogenesis-associated adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene was down-regulated when PPARgamma was silenced. The current work indicates that PPARgamma is a key regulator of chicken preadipocyte differentiation.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists as therapy for chronic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Belvisi, Maria G; Hele, David J; Birrell, Mark A

    2006-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPARgamma regulates several metabolic pathways by binding to sequence-specific PPAR response elements in the promoter region of target genes, including lipid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism. Synthetic PPARgamma agonists have been developed, such as the thiazolidinediones rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. These act as insulin sensitizers and are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recently however, PPARgamma ligands have been implicated as regulators of cellular inflammatory and immune responses. They are thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by negatively regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Several studies have demonstrated that PPARgamma ligands possess anti-inflammatory properties and that these properties may prove helpful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the airways. This review will outline the anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic and endogenous PPARgamma ligands and discuss their potential therapeutic effects in animal models of inflammatory airway disease.

  8. Synchronous and Asynchronous Theta and Gamma Activity during Episodic Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John F.; Zaghloul, Kareem A.; Jacobs, Joshua; Williams, Ryan B.; Sperling, Michael R.; Sharan, Ashwini D.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that neural oscillations synchronize to mediate memory encoding, we analyzed electrocorticographic recordings taken as 68 human neurosurgical patients studied and subsequently recalled lists of common words. To the extent that changes in spectral power reflect synchronous oscillations, we would expect those power changes to be accompanied by increases in phase synchrony between the region of interest and neighboring brain areas. Contrary to the hypothesized role of synchronous gamma oscillations in memory formation, we found that many key regions that showed power increases during successful memory encoding also exhibited decreases in global synchrony. Similarly, cortical theta activity that decreases during memory encoding exhibits both increased and decreased global synchrony depending on region and stage of encoding. We suggest that network synchrony analyses, as used here, can help to distinguish between two major types of spectral modulations: (1) those that reflect synchronous engagement of regional neurons with neighboring brain areas, and (2) those that reflect either asynchronous modulations of neural activity or local synchrony accompanied by global disengagement from neighboring regions. We show that these two kinds of spectral modulations have distinct spatiotemporal profiles during memory encoding. PMID:23283342

  9. Design and purification of active truncated phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma protein constructs for structural studies.

    PubMed

    Vujičić Žagar, A; Scapozza, L; Vadas, O

    2017-07-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ) is a lipid kinase that plays a crucial role in cell migration, chemotaxis, oxidative burst and myocardial contractility. It is activated downstream of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and small GTPases of Ras superfamily. PI3Kγ is a heterodimer composed of a catalytic and a regulatory subunit that is expressed mostly in hematopoietic cells and in the heart. Although it has attracted a lot of attention because of its link with tumor inflammation and heart diseases, its regulation is still not fully understood. This can be attributed to the absence of high-resolution structural details of the PI3Kγ heterodimer. Here we describe the design and purification of PI3Kγ constructs where flexible loops in the regulatory subunit have been removed based on structural information obtained by hydrogen/deuterium exchange - mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). The soluble constructs retain both basal activity and sensitivity to GPCR stimulation, and are thus an optimal tool to further explore their regulation using a structure-based approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Complexes of 2-acetyl-gamma-butyrolactone and 2-furancarbaldehyde thiosemicarbazones: antibacterial and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Argüelles, María C; Tourón-Touceda, Patricia; Cao, Roberto; García-Deibe, Ana M; Pelagatti, Paolo; Pelizzi, Corrado; Zani, Franca

    2009-01-01

    Cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc coordination compounds of two thiosemicarbazones with general composition ML(2) (L: monodeprotonated ligand corresponding to 2-acetyl-gamma-butyrolactone thiosemicarbazone, HL(1), and 2-furancarbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, HL(2)) and also complexes with general composition MCl(2)(HL(2)) were synthesized (except [NiCl(2)(HL(2))] and [Co(L(2))(2)]). The interaction of CuCl(2) with HL(2) gave [CuCl(HL(2))], a copper(I) complex. The ligands and metal complexes were characterized by IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The crystal structure of [Ni(L(2))(2)]x 2dmso was determined and a trans-square planar coordination of the two kappa(2)-N,S chelate rings forming polymeric strips through H-bonds with dmso was observed. Actually, in all the reported complexes both ligands behaved as kappa(2)-N,S chelates, except in the case of [Co(L(1))(2)] in which HL(1) is tridentate kappa(3)-N,S,O. The antimicrobial properties of all compounds were studied using a wide spectrum of bacterial and fungal strains. The copper complexes of HL(2) were the most active against all strains, including dermatophytes and phytopathogenic fungi. Most of the studied compounds, especially [Cu(L(1))(2)], presented good activity against Haemophilus influenzae, a very harmful bacterium to humans.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the pigments and the biological activities of methanolic extracts from leaves of centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides Munro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Cho, Jae-Young; Kim, Tae Hoon; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2013-10-01

    Extracts from centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides Munro) have been previously identified as having beneficial effects medically and cosmetically. In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on pigment removal and biological activities of centipedegrass extracts to promote industrial application were investigated. The methanolic extracts were exposed to gamma irradiation at dose ranging from 2 to 20 kGy. The major pigments of centipedegrass extracts, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-(6″-malonyl-)glucoside, were found to be effectively removed by gamma irradiation above 10 kGy. Although the reddish-orange color of the cyanidins was markedly decreased by gamma irradiation, the biological activities were relatively unaffected. The biological activities such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, inhibition of tyrosinase activity, and inhibition of elastase activity in methanolic extracts were modulated from 50.5% to 70.2%, from 50.9% to 65.8% and from 65.6% to 94.0%, respectively. Surprisingly, the biological activities have the highest activities after 6-8 kGy of gamma irradiation. These results indicate that despite pigment degradation, biological activities were maintained or increased by gamma irradiation. Based on these results, gamma irradiation may be a useful tool to remove the undesirable reddish-orange color present in centipedegrass without any loss of biological activities, thereby promoting its utility in industrial applications such as manufacturing of cosmetic products.

  12. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction stimulates Rac1 signaling and PKN gamma kinase activation leading to cytoskeleton function and cell migration in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Lilly Y W; Gilad, Eli; Peyrollier, Karine; Brightman, Amy; Swanson, Raymond A

    2007-05-01

    Both hyaluronan [HA, the major glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix (ECM)] and CD44 (a primary HA receptor) are associated with astrocyte activation and tissue repair following central nervous system (CNS) injury. In this study we investigated the question of whether HA-CD44 interaction influences astrocyte signaling and migration. Our data indicated that HA binding to the cultured astrocytes stimulated Rac1 signaling and cytoskeleton-mediated migration. To determine the cellular and molecular basis of these events, we focused on PKN gamma, a Rac1-activated serine/threonine kinase in astrocytes. We determined that HA binding to astrocytes stimulated Rac1-dependent PKN gamma kinase activity which, in turn, up-regulated the phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal protein, cortactin, and attenuated the ability of cortactin to cross-link F-actin. Further analyses indicated that the N-terminal antiparallel coiled-coil (ACC) domains of PKN gamma interacted with Rac1, and transfection of astrocytes with PKN gamma-ACCcDNA inhibited PKN gamma activity. Over-expression of the PKN gamma-ACC domain also functions as a dominant-negative mutant to block HA/CD44-mediated PKN gamma activation of cortactin and astrocyte migration. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that hyaluronan/CD44 interaction with Rac1-PKN gamma plays a pivotal role in cytoskeleton activation and astrocyte migration. These newly discovered HA/CD44-induced astrocyte function may provide important insight into novel therapeutic treatments for tissue repair following CNS injury.

  13. The interaction of gamma delta T cells with activated macrophages is a property of the V gamma 1 subset.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Jane E; Pearson, Jayne; Scott, Phillip; Carding, Simon R

    2003-12-15

    Immunoregulation is an emerging paradigm of gammadelta T cell function. The mechanisms by which gammadelta T cells mediate this function, however, are not clear. Studies have identified a direct role for gammadelta T cells in resolving the host immune response to infection, by eliminating populations of activated macrophages. The aim of this study was to identify macrophage-reactive gammadelta T cells and establish the requirements/outcomes of macrophage-gammadelta T cell interactions during the immune response to the intracellular bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Using a macrophage-T cell coculture system in which peritoneal macrophages from naive or Lm-infected TCRdelta(-/-) mice were incubated with splenocytes from naive and Lm-infected alphabeta/gammadelta T cell-deficient and wild-type mice, the ability to bind macrophages was shown to be restricted to gammadelta T cells and the GV5S1 (Vgamma1) subset of gammadelta T cells. Macrophage adherence resulted in a 4- to 10-fold enrichment of Vgamma1(+) T cells. Enrichment of Vgamma1 T cells was dependent upon the activation status of macrophages, but independent of the activation status of gammadelta T cells. Vgamma1 T cells were cytotoxic for activated macrophages with both the binding to and killing of macrophages being TCR dependent because anti-TCRgammadelta Abs inhibited both Vgamma1 binding and killing activities. These studies establish the identity of macrophage cytotoxic gammadelta T cells, the conditions under which this interaction occurs, and the outcome of this interaction. These findings are concordant with the involvement of Vgamma1 T cells in macrophage homeostasis during the resolution of pathogen-mediated immune responses.

  14. Activation of A-type gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons.

    PubMed

    DeFazio, R Anthony; Heger, Sabine; Ojeda, Sergio R; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2002-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R), is hypothesized to suppress reproduction by inhibiting GnRH secretion, but GABA actions directly on GnRH neurons are not well established. In green fluorescent protein-identified adult mouse GnRH neurons in brain slices, gramicidin-perforated-patch-clamp experiments revealed the reversal potential (E(GABA)) for current through GABA(A)Rs was depolarized relative to the resting potential. Furthermore, rapid GABA application elicited action potentials in GnRH neurons but not controls. The consequence of GABA(A)R activation depends on intracellular chloride levels, which are maintained by homeostatic mechanisms. Membrane proteins that typically extrude chloride (KCC-2 cotransporter, CLC-2 channel) were absent from the GT1-7 immortalized GnRH cell line and GnRH neurons in situ or were not localized to the proper cell compartment for function. In contrast, GT1-7 cells and some GnRH neurons expressed the chloride-accumulating cotransporter, NKCC-1. Patch-clamp experiments showed that blockade of NKCC hyperpolarized E(GABA) by lowering intracellular chloride. Regardless of reproductive state, rapid GABA application excited GnRH neurons. In contrast, bath application of the GABA(A)R agonist muscimol transiently increased then suppressed firing; suppression persisted 4-15 min. Rapid activation of GABA(A)R thus excites GnRH neurons whereas prolonged activation reduces excitability, suggesting the physiological consequence of synaptic activation of GABA(A)R in GnRH neurons is excitation.

  15. Controversial role of gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Fliedl, Lukas; Wieser, Matthias; Manhart, Gabriele; Gerstl, Matthias P; Khan, Abdulhameed; Grillari, Johannes; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity of chemotherapeutics is a major hindrance in the treatment of various tumors. Therefore, test systems that reflect mechanisms of human kidney toxicity are necessary, and to reduce animal testing cell culture based systems have to be developed. One cell type that is of specific interest in this regard are renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, as they reabsorb substances from human primary urine filtrates and thus are exposed to urinary excreted xenobiotics and are a major target of cisplatin toxicity. While animal studies using gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) knock-out mice or GGT inhibitors show that GGT activity increases kidney toxicity of cisplatin, the use of various cell models gives contradictory results. We therefore used a cell panel of immortalized human renal proximal tubular epithelial (RPTECs) cell lines differing in GGT activity. Low GGT activity resulted in high cisplatin sensitivity, as observed in RPTEC-SV40 cells or after siRNA mediated knock-down of GGT in RPTEC/TERT1 cells that have high GGT activity. However, the addition of GGT did not rescue, but also increased cisplatin sensitivity and adding GGT inhibitor as well as substrate (glutathione) or product (cysteinyl-glycine) of GGT resulted in decreased sensitivity. While our data suggest that the use of cell panels are of value in toxicology and toxicogenomics, they also emphasize on the complex interplay of toxins with the intracellular and extracellular microenvironment. In addition, we hypothesize that especially epithelial barrier formation and polarity of RPTECs need to be considered in toxicity models to validly predict the in vivo situation.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) regulates lactase expression and activity in the gut.

    PubMed

    Fumery, Mathurin; Speca, Silvia; Langlois, Audrey; Davila, Anne-Marie; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Grauso, Marta; Martin Mena, Anthony; Figeac, Martin; Metzger, Daniel; Rousseaux, Christel; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Bertin, Benjamin

    2017-09-25

    Lactase (LCT) deficiency affects approximately 75% of the world's adult population and may lead to lactose malabsorption and intolerance. Currently, the regulation of LCT gene expression remains poorly known. Peroxisome proliferator activator receptorγ (PPARγ) is a key player in carbohydrate metabolism. While the intestine is essential for carbohydrate digestion and absorption, the role of PPARγ in enterocyte metabolic functions has been poorly investigated. This study aims at characterizing PPARγ target genes involved in intestinal metabolic functions. In microarray analysis, the LCT gene was the most upregulated by PPARγ agonists in Caco-2 cells. We confirmed that PPARγ agonists were able to increase the expression and activity of LCT both in vitro and in vivo in the proximal small bowel of rodents. The functional response element activated by PPARγ was identified in the promoter of the human LCT gene. PPARγ modulation was able to improve symptoms induced by lactose-enriched diet in weaned rats. Our results demonstrate that PPARγ regulates LCT expression, and suggest that modulating intestinal PPARγ activity might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for lactose malabsorption. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. Directional sensing requires G beta gamma-mediated PAK1 and PIX alpha-dependent activation of Cdc42.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Hannigan, Michael; Mo, Zhicheng; Liu, Bo; Lu, Wei; Wu, Yue; Smrcka, Alan V; Wu, Guanqing; Li, Lin; Liu, Mingyao; Huang, Chi-Kuang; Wu, Dianqing

    2003-07-25

    Efficient chemotaxis requires directional sensing and cell polarization. We describe a signaling mechanism involving G beta gamma, PAK-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor (PIX alpha), Cdc42, and p21-activated kinase (PAK) 1. This pathway is utilized by chemoattractants to regulate directional sensing and directional migration of myeloid cells. Our results suggest that G beta gamma binds PAK1 and, via PAK-associated PIX alpha, activates Cdc42, which in turn activates PAK1. Thus, in this pathway, PAK1 is not only an effector for Cdc42, but it also functions as a scaffold protein required for Cdc42 activation. This G beta gamma-PAK1/PIX alpha/Cdc42 pathway is essential for the localization of F-actin formation to the leading edge, the exclusion of PTEN from the leading edge, directional sensing, and the persistent directional migration of chemotactic leukocytes. Although ligand-induced production of PIP(3) is not required for activation of this pathway, PIP(3) appears to localize the activation of Cdc42 by the pathway.

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and alpha agonists stimulate cardiac glucose uptake via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaoyan; Su, Guohai; Brown, Stacey N; Chen, Li; Ren, Jianmin; Zhao, Peng

    2010-07-01

    Myocardial energy and glucose homeostasis are crucial for normal cardiac structure and function. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play an important role in controlling transcriptional expression of key enzymes that are involved in glucose metabolism, and they have been demonstrated to significantly reduce tissue injury in cardiovascular diseases. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor that maintains intracellular energy homeostasis and mediates a number of physiological signals. It has been reported that AMPK promotes glucose uptake. We hypothesize that PPAR gamma and alpha agonists may play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism through AMPK. We tested this hypothesis by using isolated papillary muscles of rat hearts treated with PPAR gamma and alpha agonists, troglitazone and GW7647, respectively. Our results demonstrated that both troglitazone and GW7647 significantly stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake of cardiac muscles. Interestingly, both agonists stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream protein target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was also activated by both agonists. In addition, AMPK activator 5-amino-4-imidazole-1-beta-D-carboxamide ribofuranoside increased glucose uptake, while AMPK inhibitor compound C and NOS inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine, significantly blocked troglitazone- and GW7647-stimulated glucose uptake in cardiac muscles. There was also a reduction of glucose uptake with a marked decrease in AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation. In conclusion, both PPAR gamma and alpha activation play a role in the regulation of glucose uptake in cardiac muscles and this regulation is mediated by the AMPK and eNOS signaling pathways. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Elemental Composition of the Venus Surface using Active 14-MeV Neutron Source and Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Sierra, L. M.; Jun, I.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear instrumentations based on neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy methods were often used by different planetary missions to derive the bulk elemental abundances of surface materials. Here, we propose an instrument concept that consists of an artificially pulsed (3 μs pulse width at 10 Hz) 14 MeV neutron generator (PNG) combined with a gamma ray spectrometer (GRS). The 14 MeV neutrons will interact with the surface materials and generate gamma rays, characteristic of specific elements, whose energy spectrum will be measured by GRS. These characteristic gamma rays are produced mainly through 3 different neutron interaction mechanisms: capture, inelastic, and activation reactions. Each reaction type has a different neutron energy dependency and different time scale for gamma ray production and transport. Certain elements are more easily identified through one reaction type over the others. Thus, careful analysis of the gamma ray spectra during and after the neutron pulse provides a comprehensive understanding of the surface elemental composition. In this paper, we use a well-tested neutron/gamma transport code, called Monte Carlo N-Particles (MCNP), to investigate the measurement capability of a PNG-GRS detection system through the neutron activation reactions: short half-life (e.g., a few minute or less) radioactive products using the time window in-between individual pulses and long half-life (e.g., a few hours) radioactive products using the time window after the pulse. An activation analysis was performed for a representative soil composition of Venus with a notional operational scenario (i.e., 1 hour pulsing) of PNG and GRS to demonstrate potential measurement capability for a future Venus lander mission. The analysis shows that the proposed instrument concept can identify a few geologically important elements at Venus with sufficient accuracy through the aforementioned activation modes. Specifically, Si, A, Fe, Na, Mg could be measured within 10% accuracy

  20. Enhancement of gamma activity after selective activation of dopamine D4 receptors in freely moving rats and in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Bernat; Lee, Peia; Deth, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) mechanisms have been implicated in several psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism, which are characterized by cognitive deficits. The cellular mechanisms are poorly understood but impaired neuronal synchronization within cortical networks in the gamma frequency band has been proposed to contribute to these deficits. A D4R polymorphism was recently linked to variations in gamma power in both normal and ADHD subjects, and D4R activation was shown to enhance kainate-induced gamma oscillations in brain slices in vitro. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of D4R activation on gamma oscillations in freely moving rats during natural behavior. Field potentials were recorded in the frontal, prefrontal, parietal, and occipital cortex and hippocampus. Gamma power was assessed before and after subcutaneous injection of a D4R agonist, A-412997, in several doses between 0.3 and 10.0 mg/kg. The experiments were also repeated in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, in which rats are prenatally treated with methylazoxymethanol (MAM). We found that the D4R agonist increased gamma power in all regions at short latency and lasted for ~2 h, both in normal and MAM-treated rats. The effect was dose dependent indicated by the significant difference between the effects after 3 and 10 mg/kg in pair-wise comparison, whereas 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg injections were ineffective. This study demonstrates the involvement of D4R in cortical gamma oscillations in vivo and identifies this receptor as potential target for pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits.

  1. Expression of single-chain Fv gene specific for gamma-seminoprotein by RTS and its biological activity identification.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuedong; Haun, Yi; Deng, Jinlan; Gao, Feng; Pan, Bifeng; Cui, Daxiang

    2006-01-01

    Fabricating a single-chain variable fragment specific for human seminoprotein is very important in antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy and NMR imaging for prostate cancer. Here a single-chain Fv specific for gamma-seminoprotein was expressed by RTS. Its activity and the efficiency of entry into prostate cancer cells are investigated by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining, as well as entry of conjugated magnetic beads into cells. Results showed that ScFv peptides specific for gamma-seminoprotein were successfully prepared, which can bind with the prostate cells specifically and can bring magnetic beads into prostate cancer cells within 15 min, the amount of magnetic beads inside prostate cancer cells increased as the culture time prolonged. ScFv-conjugated magnetic beads did not enter into control cells. In conclusion, the ScFv peptide against human gamma-seminoprotein with biological activity was successfully fabricated, which can take magnetic beads to prostate cancer cells specifically and not to the control cells. This ScFv peptide against human gamma-seminoprotein should be useful in improving the detection and therapy of prostate cancer at early stages and NMR imaging.

  2. Stimulus intensity affects early sensory processing: sound intensity modulates auditory evoked gamma-band activity in human EEG.

    PubMed

    Schadow, Jeanette; Lenz, Daniel; Thaerig, Stefanie; Busch, Niko A; Fründ, Ingo; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2007-08-01

    We studied the effect of different sound intensities on the auditory evoked gamma-band response (GBR). Previous studies observed oscillatory gamma activity in the auditory cortex of animals and humans. For the visual modality, it has been demonstrated that the GBR can be modulated by top-down (attention, memory) as well as bottom-up factors (stimulus properties). Therefore, we expected to find a sound intensity modulation for the auditory GBR. 21 healthy participants without hearing deficits were investigated in a forced-choice discrimination task. Sinusoidal tones were presented at three systematically varied sound intensities (30, 45, 60 dB hearing level). The results of the auditory evoked potentials were predominantly consistent with previous studies. Furthermore, we observed an augmentation of the evoked GBR with increasing sound intensity. The analysis indicated that this intensity difference in the GBR amplitude most likely arises from increased phase-locking. The results demonstrate a distinct dependency between sound intensity and gamma-band oscillations. Future experiments that investigate the relationship between auditory evoked GBRs and higher cognitive processes should therefore select stimuli with an adequate sound intensity and control this variable to avoid confounding effects. In addition, it seems that gamma-band activity is more sensitive to exogenous stimulus parameters than evoked potentials.

  3. [Induction of glutathione and activation of immune functions by low-dose, whole-body irradiation with gamma-rays].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Shuji

    2006-10-01

    We first examined the relation between the induction of glutathione and immune functions in mice after low-dose gamma-ray irradiation. Thereafter, inhibition of tumor growth by radiation was confirmed in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST)-bearing mice. The total glutathione level of the splenocytes transiently increased soon after irradiation and reached a maximum at around 4 h postirradiation. Thereafter, the level reverted to the 0 h value by 24 h postirradiation. A significantly high splenocyte proliferative response was also recognized 4 h postirradiation. Natural killer (NK) activity was also increased significantly in a similar manner. The time at which the response reached the maximum coincided well with that of maximum total glutathione levels of the splenocytes in the gamma-ray-irradiated mice. Reduced glutathione exogenously added to splenocytes obtained from normal mice enhanced the proliferative response and NK activity in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of radiation on tumor growth was then examined in EST-bearing mice. Repeated low-dose irradiation (0.5 Gy, four times, before and within an early time after inoculation) significantly delayed the tumor growth. Finally, the effect of single low-dose (0.5 Gy), whole-body gamma-ray irradiation on immune balance was examined to elucidate the mechanism underlying the antitumor immunity. The percentage of B cells in blood lymphocytes was selectively decreased after radiation, concomitant with an increase in that of the helper T cell population. The IFN-gamma level in splenocyte culture prepared from EST-bearing mice was significantly increased 48 h after radiation, although the level of IL-4 was unchanged. IL-12 secretion from macrophages was also enhanced by radiation. These results suggest that low-dose gamma-rays induce Th1 polarization and enhance the activities of tumoricidal effector cells, leading to an inhibition of tumor growth.

  4. Oleamide activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Mauro; Alexander, Stephen P H; Bennett, Andrew J

    2012-05-14

    Oleamide (ODA) is a fatty acid primary amide first identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, which exerts effects on vascular and neuronal tissues, with a variety of molecular targets including cannabinoid receptors and gap junctions. It has recently been reported to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Here, we have investigated the nuclear receptor family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as potential targets for ODA action. Activation of PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ was assessed using recombinant expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells with a luciferase reporter gene assay. Direct binding of ODA to the ligand binding domain of each of the three PPARs was monitored in a cell-free fluorescent ligand competition assay. A well-established assay of PPARγ activity, the differentiation of 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts into adipocytes, was assessed using an Oil Red O uptake-based assay. ODA, at 10 and 50 μM, was able to transactivate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors. ODA bound to the ligand binding domain of all three PPARs, although complete displacement of fluorescent ligand was only evident for PPARγ, at which an IC50 value of 38 μM was estimated. In 3T3-L1 cells, ODA, at 10 and 20 μM, induced adipogenesis. We have, therefore, identified a novel site of action of ODA through PPAR nuclear receptors and shown how ODA should be considered as a weak PPARγ ligand in vitro.

  5. How gamma-rays and electron-beam irradiation would affect the antimicrobial activity of differently processed wild mushroom extracts?

    PubMed

    Alves, M J; Fernandes, Â; Barreira, J C M; Lourenço, I; Fernandes, D; Moura, A; Ribeiro, A R; Salgado, J; Antonio, A; Ferreira, I C F R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of irradiation (gamma-rays and electron-beams), up to 10 kGy, in the antimicrobial activity of mushroom species (Boletus edulis, Hydnum repandum, Macrolepiota procera and Russula delica) differently processed (fresh, dried, freeze) were evaluated. Clinical isolates with different resistance profiles from hospitalized patients in Local Health Unit of Mirandela, Northeast of Portugal, were used as target micro-organisms. The mushrooms antimicrobial activity did not suffer significant changes that might compromise applying irradiation as a possible mushroom conservation technology. Two kGy dose (independently of using gamma-rays or electron-beams) seemed to be the most suitable choice to irradiate mushrooms. This study provides important results in antimicrobial activity of extracts prepared from irradiated mushroom species. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in Iranian healthy blood donor men.

    PubMed

    Khedmat, Hossein; Fallahian, Farahnaz; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Attarchi, Zohre; Alaeddini, Farshid; Holisaz, Mohammad Taghi; Pourali, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Shahin; Zarei, Nasrin

    2007-02-14

    To determine serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and to assess their correlation with demographic and clinical findings in healthy blood donors. This cross-sectional study was performed in 934 male blood donors, aged 18 to 68 years, who consecutively attended Tehran blood transfusion service in 2006. All participants were seronegative for HBV or HCV infections, non alcohol users, and all underwent a standard interview and anthropometric tests. Clinical and biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, and GGT activities were determined. Patients taking drugs known to cause hepatic fat deposition were excluded. For AST, ALT, and GGT variables, we used 33.33 and 66.66 percentiles, so that each of them was divided into three tertiles. Mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities were 25.26 +/- 12.58 U/L (normal range 5-35 U/L), 33.13 +/- 22.98 (normal range 5-35 U/L), and 25.11 +/- 18.32 (normal range 6-37 U/L), respectively. By univariate analyses, there were significant associations between increasing AST, ALT, or GGT tertiles and age, body weight, body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences (P<0.05). By multiple linear regression analyses, ALT was found to be positively correlated with dyslipidemia (B=6.988, P=0.038), whereas ALT and AST were negatively correlated with age. AST, ALT, and GGT levels had positive correlation with family history of liver disease (B=15.763, P<0.001), (B=32.345, P<0.001), (B=24.415, P<0.001), respectively. Although we did not determine the cutoffs of the upper normal limits for AST, ALT, and GGT levels, we would suggest screening asymptomatic patients with dyslipidemia and also subjects with a family history of liver disease.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in cystic fibrosis lung epithelium.

    PubMed

    Perez, Aura; van Heeckeren, Anna M; Nichols, David; Gupta, Sanhita; Eastman, Jean F; Davis, Pamela B

    2008-08-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) inflammatory lung disease is not well understood. CF airway epithelial cells respond to inflammatory stimuli with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines as a result of increased NF-kappaB activation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) inhibits NF-kappaB activity and is reported to be reduced in CF. If PPARgamma participates in regulatory dysfunction in the CF lung, perhaps PPARgamma ligands might be useful therapeutically. Cell models of CF airway epithelium were used to evaluate PPARgamma expression and binding to NF-kappaB at basal and under conditions of inflammatory stimulation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or TNFalpha/IL-1beta. An animal model of CF was used to evaluate the potential of PPARgamma agonists as therapeutic agents in vivo. In vitro, PPARgamma agonists reduced IL-8 and MMP-9 release from airway epithelial cells in response to PAO1 or TNFalpha/IL-1beta stimulation. Less NF-kappaB bound to PPARgamma in CF than normal cells, in two different assays; PPARgamma agonists abrogated this reduction. PPARgamma bound less to its target DNA sequence in CF cells. To test the importance of the reported PPARgamma inactivation by phosphorylation, we observed that inhibitors of ERK, but not JNK, were synergistic with PPARgamma agonists in reducing IL-8 secretion. In vivo, administration of PPARgamma agonists reduced airway inflammation in response to acute infection with P. aeruginosa in CF, but not wild-type, mice. In summary, PPARgamma inhibits the inflammatory response in CF, at least in part by interaction with NF-kappaB in airway epithelial cells. PPARgamma agonists may be therapeutic in CF.

  8. Crosstalk between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in human breast cancer cells: PPAR{gamma} binds to VDR and inhibits 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} mediated transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Alimirah, Fatouma; Peng, Xinjian; Yuan, Liang; Mehta, Rajeshwari R.; Knethen, Andreas von; Choubey, Divaker; Mehta, Rajendra G.

    2012-11-15

    Heterodimerization and cross-talk between nuclear hormone receptors often occurs. For example, estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) physically binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and inhibits its transcriptional activity. The interaction between PPAR{gamma} and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) however, is unknown. Here, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms linking PPAR{gamma} and VDR signaling, and for the first time we show that PPAR{gamma} physically associates with VDR in human breast cancer cells. We found that overexpression of PPAR{gamma} decreased 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) mediated transcriptional activity of the vitamin D target gene, CYP24A1, by 49% and the activity of VDRE-luc, a vitamin D responsive reporter, by 75% in T47D human breast cancer cells. Deletion mutation experiments illustrated that helices 1 and 4 of PPAR{gamma}'s hinge and ligand binding domains, respectively, governed this suppressive function. Additionally, abrogation of PPAR{gamma}'s AF2 domain attenuated its repressive action on 1,25D{sub 3} transactivation, indicating that this domain is integral in inhibiting VDR signaling. PPAR{gamma} was also found to compete with VDR for their binding partner retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR{alpha}). Overexpression of RXR{alpha} blocked PPAR{gamma}'s suppressive effect on 1,25D{sub 3} action, enhancing VDR signaling. In conclusion, these observations uncover molecular mechanisms connecting the PPAR{gamma} and VDR pathways. -- Highlights: PPAR{gamma}'s role on 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} transcriptional activity is examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} physically binds to VDR and inhibits 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} action. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma}'s hinge and ligand binding domains are important for this inhibitory effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} competes with VDR for the availability of their binding partner, RXR{alpha}.

  9. Neutron activation analysis, gamma ray spectrometry and radiation environment monitoring instrument concept: GEORAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosi, R. M.; Talboys, D. L.; Sims, M. R.; Bannister, N. P.; Makarewicz, M.; Stevenson, T.; Hutchinson, I. B.; Watterson, J. I. W.; Lanza, R. C.; Richter, L.; Mills, A.; Fraser, G. W.

    2005-02-01

    Geological processes on Earth can be related to those that may have occurred in past epochs on Mars, if analytical methods used on Earth can be operated remotely on the surface of the Red Planet. Nuclear analytical techniques commonly used in terrestrial geology are neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS), which determine the elemental composition, elemental concentration and stratigraphical distribution of water in rocks and soils. We describe a detector concept called GEORAD (GEOlogical and RADiation environment package) for the proposed ExoMars rover within the ESA's Aurora Programme for the exploration of the Solar System. GEORAD consists of a compact neutron source for the NAA of rocks and soils and a GRS. The GRS has a dual role since it can be used for natural radioactivity studies and NAA. A fully depleted silicon detector coupled to neutron sensitive converters measures the solar particle and neutron flux interacting with the Martian surface. We describe how the GEORAD detector suite could contribute to the geological and biological characterisation of Mars both for the detection of extinct or extant life and to evaluate potential hazards facing future manned missions. We show how GEORAD measurements complement the astrobiological objectives of the Aurora programme.

  10. Association of Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Khadija; Malik, Saira Bano; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Maqsood, Sundas Ejaz; Azam, Aisha; Muslim, Irfan; Khan, Muhammad Shakil; Azam, Maleeha; Waheed, Nadia Khalida

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The association of non-synonymous substitution polymorphism rs1801282 (c.34C>G, p.Pro12Ala) in exon 4 of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma gene with diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been reported inconsistently. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to understand the population-specific role of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in DR susceptibility in Pakistani subjects. Methods A total of 180 subjects with DR, 193 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with no diabetic retinopathy, and 200 healthy normoglycemic non-retinopathic Pakistani individuals were genotyped for the rs1801282 (c.34C>G) polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results We found the individuals with T2DM carrying 12Ala were at a reduced risk of developing DR (odds ratio [OR]=0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.33–0.87). Upon stratified analysis regarding disease severity, we observed this protective effect was confined to proliferative DR (OR=0.4; 95% CI=0.2–0.8) with non-significant effects on the susceptibility of non-proliferative DR (OR=0.67; 95% CI=0.37–1.19). Conclusions We report a protective role of the 12Ala polymorphism against proliferative DR in individuals with T2DM in Pakistan. PMID:23559865

  11. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for multi-element measurement with series samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. B.; Yang, Y. G.; Li, Y. J.; Tuo, X. G.; Li, Z.; Cheng, Y.; Mou, Y. F.; Huang, W. Q.

    2013-05-01

    The on-line prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system is used to measure a series of prepared experimental samples to obtain the prompt characteristic γ-rays of the elements Ca, Fe, Si, Al, Mg and S in the examples of SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, CaO (powder), CaO (block), CaCO3, Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and S. The γ-ray energies are: Si, 3.54 or 4.93 MeV Ca, 4.42 or 6.42 MeV S, 5.42 MeV Fe, 5.92 or 7.63 MeV. Meanwhile, the prompt γ-rays of the main elements are measured in an experiment in which SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, CaO (powder), CaO (block), CaCO3, Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and S are blended to constitute a cement sample. The prompt γ-rays of S will contribute more with increase in S mass, as known from the experiment concerning the prompt γ-ray spectrum for different masses of S.

  12. Boron-10 analyses using prompt gamma neutron activation and ICP-AES

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, K.J.; Harling, O.K.

    1996-12-31

    Boron-10 quantification is a vital part of the phase I clinical trials that are in progress under the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)/New England Deaconess Hospital (NEDH) joint BNCT project. Accurate knowledge of the {sup 10}B content of blood as a function of time and immediately prior to irradiation is needed to calculate the total dose delivered to healthy tissue. The MIT/NEDH group continually seeks to improve and refine quantification methods to achieve greater sensitivity and faster analysis time. Rapid analysis is desirable so that irradiation can be initiated quickly, while high sensitivity will be needed to analyze very small samples. Brain tumor biopsies may be quite small, especially in cases where the tumor is not resectable. An upgraded version of the MIT prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility and an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) machine with a high-efficiency nebulizer (HEN) have been used to analygze {sup 10}B content in small samples down to the size range of needle biopsies ({approx} 0.03 ml).

  13. An improved prompt gamma neutron activation analysis facility using a focused diffracted neutron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Kent J.; Harling, Otto K.

    1998-09-01

    The performance of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility at the MIT Research Reactor has been improved by a series of modifications. These modifications have increased the flux by a factor of three at the sample position to 1.7 × 10 7 n/cm 2 s, and have increased the sensitivity, on average, by a factor of 2.5. The background for many samples of interest is dominated by unavoidable neutron interactions that occur in or near the sample. Other background components comprise only 20% of the total background count rate. The implementation of fast electronics has helped to keep dead time reasonable, in spite of the increased count rates. The PGNAA facility at the MIT Research Reactor continues to serve as a major analytical tool for quantifying 10B in biological samples for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) research. The sensitivity for boron-10 in water is 18 750 cps/mg. The sensitivity for pure elements suitable for PGNAA analysis is reported. Possible further improvements are discussed.

  14. Treatability study using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technology, Phase I. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Congedo, T.V.; Dulloo, A.R.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1995-06-01

    This report reviews the progress accomplished during Phase I of a two-phase project intended to demonstrate the use of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) as a technology for the characterization of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in concrete floors. A comprehensive experimental program was undertaken using the N-SCAN{trademark} PGNAA system, which was initially developed by Westinghouse for soil characterization, to determine the sensitivity of PGNAA for several contaminants in concrete. The experiments were performed in a test facility specially designed and constructed for this project. The lower limits of detection derived from the experimental data were encouraging for mercury, cadmium, uranium-238, thorium-232, technetium-99, chlorine, uranium-235 and chromium. These limits were achieved after modifications made to the original N-SCAN system significantly improved its sensitivity for elements located at or near the surface of concrete. With the implementation of additional performance-enhancing modifications scheduled in Phase II, the detection sensitivity of N-SCAN at the end of this project is expected to be at least one order of magnitude higher, allowing N-SCAN to become an effective characterization tool. N-SCAN has several important advantages over current characterization methods and technologies.

  15. Extraction of polychromatic thermal neutrons by Bragg diffraction to use for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, S. H.; Choi, H. D.; Jun, B. J.; Kim, M. S.

    2000-07-01

    Extraction method of thermal neutron beam by Bragg diffraction is investigated. A thermal neutron beam is used for the Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis system at HANARO, a 30 MW research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Polychromatic beam including all orders of diffraction is obtained by setting a pair of pyrolytic graphite crystals with a Bragg angle of 45° on a horizontal white beam line. Diffracted neutron flux at the sample position is calculated by considering the integrated reflectivity and mosaic spread of crystals. Due to the divergence effect, the mosaic spread of crystals is optimized to give the maximum and flat flux at the sample position. An experiment has been performed to verify the reflectivities for high order diffractions from pyrolytic graphite. When the focusing technique of bending the crystals is adopted, a design value of 1.0×108n/cm2s is expected at the sample position. Hence Bragg diffraction is a promising method of extracting thermal neutrons for PGNAA.

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone down-regulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Kazuo; Ishizuka, Tatsuo; Mune, Tomoatsu; Miura, Atsushi; Ishizawa, Masayoshi; Kanoh, Yoshinori; Kawai, Yasunori; Natsume, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2003-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is expected to have a weight-reducing effect. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DHEA on genetically obese Otsuka Long Evans Fatty rats (OLETF) compared with Long-Evans Tokushima rats (LETO) as control. Feeding with 0.4% DHEA-containing food for 2 wk reduced the weight of sc, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissue in association with decreased plasma leptin levels in OLETF. Adipose tissue from OLETF showed increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) protein, which was prevented by DHEA treatment. Further, we examined the effect of DHEA on PPARgamma in primary cultured adipocytes and monolayer adipocytes differentiated from rat preadipocytes. PPARgamma protein level was decreased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and DHEA significantly reduced mRNA levels of PPARgamma, adipocyte lipid-binding protein, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein, but not CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. DHEA-sulfate also reduced the PPARgamma protein, but dexamethasone, testosterone, or androstenedione did not alter its expression. In addition, treatment with DHEA for 5 d reduced the triglyceride content in monolayer adipocytes. These results suggest that DHEA down-regulates adiposity through the reduction of PPARgamma in adipocytes.

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma in Obesity and Colorectal Cancer: the Role of Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Motawi, T K; Shaker, O G; Ismail, M F; Sayed, N H

    2017-09-06

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor that is deregulated in obesity. PPARγ exerts diverse antineoplastic effects. Attempting to determine the clinical relevance of the epigenetic mechanisms controlling the expression PPARγ and susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC) in obese subjects, this study investigated the role of some microRNAs and DNA methylation on the deregulation of PPARγ. Seventy CRC patients (34 obese and 36 lean), 22 obese and 24 lean healthy controls were included. MicroRNA levels were measured in serum. PPARγ promoter methylation was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PPARγ level was evaluated by measuring mRNA level in PBMC and protein level in serum. The tested microRNAs (miR-27b, 130b and 138) were significantly upregulated in obese and CRC patients. Obese and CRC patients had significantly low levels of PPARγ. A significant negative correlation was found between PPARγ levels and the studied microRNAs. There was a significant PPARγ promoter hypermethylation in CRC patients that correlated to low PPARγ levels. Our results suggest that upregulation of microRNAs 27b, 130b and 138 is associated with susceptibility to CRC in obese subjects through PPARγ downregulation. Hypermethylation of PPARγ gene promoter is associated with CRC through suppression of PPARγ regardless of BMI.

  18. Galactic Center gamma-ray ''excess'' from an active past of the Galactic Centre?

    SciTech Connect

    Petrović, Jovana; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Zaharijaš, Gabrijela E-mail: serpico@lapth.cnrs.fr

    2014-10-01

    Several groups have recently claimed evidence for an unaccounted gamma-ray excess over the diffuse backgrounds at few GeV in the Fermi-LAT data in a region around the Galactic Center, consistent with a dark matter annihilation origin. We demonstrate that the main spectral and angular features of this excess can be reproduced if they are mostly due to inverse Compton emission from high-energy electrons injected in a burst event of ∼ 10{sup 52}÷10{sup 53} erg roughly O(10{sup 6}) years ago. We consider this example as a proof of principle that time-dependent phenomena need to be understood and accounted for—together with detailed diffuse foregrounds and unaccounted ''steady state'' astrophysical sources—before any robust inference can be made about dark matter signals at the Galactic Center. In addition, we point out that the timescale suggested by our study, which controls both the energy cutoff and the angular extension of the signal, intriguingly matches (together with the energy budget) what is indirectly inferred by other evidences suggesting a very active Galactic Center in the past, for instance related to intense star formation and accretion phenomena.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of {gamma}-thionin-like soybean SE60 in E. coli and tobacco plants

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yeonhee Choi, Yang Do; Lee, Jong Seob

    2008-10-17

    The SE60, a low molecular weight, sulfur-rich protein in soybean, is known to be homologous to wheat {gamma}-purothionin. To elucidate the functional role of SE60, we expressed SE60 cDNA in Escherichia coli and in tobacco plants. A single protein band was detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after anti-FLAG affinity purification of the protein from transformed E. coli. While the control E. coli cells harboring pFLAG-1 showed standard growth with Isopropyl {beta}-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, E. coli cells expressing the SE60 fusion protein did not grow at all, suggesting that SE60 has toxic effects on E. coli growth. Genomic integration and the expression of transgene in the transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants demonstrated enhanced resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that SE60 has antimicrobial activity and play a role in the defense mechanism in soybean plants.

  20. Gamma-ray blazars and active galactic nuclei seen by the Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, B.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ciprini, S.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.

    2015-03-01

    The third catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Fermi-LAT (3LAC) is presented. It is based on the third Fermi-LAT catalog (3FGL) of sources detected with a test statistic (TS) greater than 25 using the first 4 years of data. The 3LAC includes 1591 AGNs located at high Galactic latitudes, |b| > 10 (with 28 duplicate associations, thus corresponding to 1563 gamma-ray sources among 2192 sources in the 3FGL catalog), a 71% increase over the second catalog based on 2 years of data. A very large majority of these AGNs (98%) are blazars. About half of the newly detected blazars are of unknown type, i.e., they lack spectroscopic information of sufficient quality to determine the strength of their emission lines. The general properties of the 3LAC sample confirm previous findings from earlier catalogs, but some new subclasses (e.g., intermediate- and high-synchrotron-peaked FSRQs) have now been significantly detected.

  1. Galactic Center gamma-ray ``excess'' from an active past of the Galactic Centre?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Jovana; Dario Serpico, Pasquale; Zaharijaš, Gabrijela

    2014-10-01

    Several groups have recently claimed evidence for an unaccounted gamma-ray excess over the diffuse backgrounds at few GeV in the Fermi-LAT data in a region around the Galactic Center, consistent with a dark matter annihilation origin. We demonstrate that the main spectral and angular features of this excess can be reproduced if they are mostly due to inverse Compton emission from high-energy electrons injected in a burst event of ~ 1052÷1053 erg roughly Script O(106) years ago. We consider this example as a proof of principle that time-dependent phenomena need to be understood and accounted for—together with detailed diffuse foregrounds and unaccounted ``steady state'' astrophysical sources—before any robust inference can be made about dark matter signals at the Galactic Center. In addition, we point out that the timescale suggested by our study, which controls both the energy cutoff and the angular extension of the signal, intriguingly matches (together with the energy budget) what is indirectly inferred by other evidences suggesting a very active Galactic Center in the past, for instance related to intense star formation and accretion phenomena.

  2. Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R. A.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Grissom, C.; Aloiz, E.; Paul, R.

    2014-02-18

    The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 10–20. The H count rates were roughly 1–3 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field.

  3. Interferon-gamma response to the treatment of active pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, L; Shi, R; Liu, X; Yuan, X; Zheng, S; Zhang, G; Wang, W; Wang, J; England, K; Via, L E; Cai, Y; Goldfeder, L C; Dodd, L E; Barry, C E; Chen, R Y

    2017-10-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) but not to measure treatment response. To measure IFN-γ response to active anti-tuberculosis treatment. Patients from the Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Henan, China, with TB symptoms and/or signs were enrolled into this prospective, observational cohort study and followed for 6 months of treatment, with blood and sputum samples collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 weeks. The QuantiFERON® TB-Gold assay was run on collected blood samples. Participants received a follow-up telephone call at 24 months to determine relapse status. Of the 152 TB patients enrolled, 135 were eligible for this analysis: 118 pulmonary (PTB) and 17 extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) patients. IFN-γ levels declined significantly over time among all patients (P = 0.002), with this decline driven by PTB patients (P = 0.001), largely during the initial 8 weeks of treatment (P = 0.019). IFN-γ levels did not change among EPTB patients over time or against baseline culture or drug resistance status. After 6 months of effective anti-tuberculosis treatment, IFN-γ levels decreased significantly in PTB patients, largely over the initial 8 weeks of treatment. IFN-γ concentrations may offer some value for monitoring anti-tuberculosis treatment response among PTB patients.

  4. Proteasome activator PA28{gamma} stimulates degradation of GSK3-phosphorylated insulin transcription activator MAFA.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Kenichi; Aramata, Shinsaku; Katakami, Sayo; Yasuda, Kunio; Kataoka, Kohsuke

    2011-01-01

    MAFA is a member of the MAF family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors and is a critical regulator of insulin gene expression and islet β-cell function. To be degraded by the proteasome, MAFA must be phosphorylated by GSK3 and MAP kinases at multiple serine and threonine residues (Ser49, Thr53, Thr57, Ser61, and Ser65) within its amino-terminal domain. In this study, we report that MAFA degradation is stimulated by PA28γ (REGγ and PSME3), a member of a family of proteasome activators that bind and activate the 20S proteasome. To date, only a few PA28γ-proteasome pathway substrates have been identified, including steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC3) and the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CIP1). PA28γ binds to MAFA, induces its proteasomal degradation, and thereby attenuates MAFA-driven transcriptional activation of the insulin promoter. Co-expression of GSK3 enhanced the PA28γ-mediated degradation of MAFA, but mutants that contained alanine substitutions at the MAFA phosphorylation sites did not bind PA28γ and were resistant to degradation. We also found that a PA28γ mutant (N151Y) that did not stimulate p21 degradation enhanced MAFA degradation, and another mutant (K188D) that promoted greater p21 degradation did not enhance MAFA degradation. These results suggest that PA28γ stimulates MAFA degradation through a novel molecular mechanism that is distinct from that for the degradation of p21.

  5. Oleamide activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oleamide (ODA) is a fatty acid primary amide first identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, which exerts effects on vascular and neuronal tissues, with a variety of molecular targets including cannabinoid receptors and gap junctions. It has recently been reported to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Here, we have investigated the nuclear receptor family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as potential targets for ODA action. Results Activation of PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ was assessed using recombinant expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells with a luciferase reporter gene assay. Direct binding of ODA to the ligand binding domain of each of the three PPARs was monitored in a cell-free fluorescent ligand competition assay. A well-established assay of PPARγ activity, the differentiation of 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts into adipocytes, was assessed using an Oil Red O uptake-based assay. ODA, at 10 and 50 μM, was able to transactivate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors. ODA bound to the ligand binding domain of all three PPARs, although complete displacement of fluorescent ligand was only evident for PPARγ, at which an IC50 value of 38 μM was estimated. In 3T3-L1 cells, ODA, at 10 and 20 μM, induced adipogenesis. Conclusions We have, therefore, identified a novel site of action of ODA through PPAR nuclear receptors and shown how ODA should be considered as a weak PPARγ ligand in vitro. PMID:22584002

  6. Roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the regulation of protein kinase C-alpha activation in interferon-gamma-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Pierre-Olivier; Diallo, Tamsir O; Matte, Christine; Descoteaux, Albert

    2009-09-01

    Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family are activated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and modulate IFN-gamma-induced cellular responses by regulating the activity of transcription factors. We previously reported that PKC-alpha enhances the ability of IFN regulatory factor-1 to transactivate the class II transactivator (CIITA) promoter IV in IFN-gamma-stimulated macrophages. In addition, we showed that IFN-gamma induces the nuclear translocation of PKC-alpha but the mechanisms for this remain to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to identify signalling pathways involved in IFN-gamma-induced activation of PKC-alpha and to characterize their potential roles in modulating IFN-gamma-induced responses in macrophages. IFN-gamma-mediated nuclear translocation of PKC-alpha was a Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2)-independent process, which required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, PKC-alpha phosphorylation was independent of PI3K and p38 MAPK, indicating that IFN-gamma-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of PKC-alpha are mediated by distinct mechanisms. In addition, inhibition of PI3K, but not of p38 MAPK, strongly impaired IFN-gamma-induced CIITA and MHC II gene expression. Finally, PKC-alpha associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and was required for the phosphorylation of STAT1 on serine 727 in IFN-gamma-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, our data indicate that PI3K and p38 MAPK modulate IFN-gamma-stimulated PKC-alpha nuclear translocation independently of JAK2 activity and that both PI3K and PKC-alpha are required for type IV CIITA and MHC II gene expression in IFN-gamma-stimulated macrophages.

  7. Antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} induces cerebellar amyloid-{beta} levels and motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Jing; Sun, Bing; Chen, Kui; Fan, Li; Wang, Zhao

    2009-07-03

    Recent evidences show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) is involved in the modulation of the amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) cascade causing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and treatment with PPAR{gamma} agonists protects against AD pathology. However, the function of PPAR{gamma} steady-state activity in A{beta} cascade and AD pathology remains unclear. In this study, an antagonist of PPAR{gamma}, GW9662, was injected into the fourth ventricle of APP/PS1 transgenic mice to inhibit PPAR{gamma} activity in cerebellum. The results show that inhibition of PPAR{gamma} significantly induced A{beta} levels in cerebellum and caused cerebellar motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, GW9662 treatment markedly decreased the cerebellar levels of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), which is responsible for the cellular degradation of A{beta}. Since cerebellum is spared from significant A{beta} accumulation and neurotoxicity in AD patients and animal models, these findings suggest a crucial role of PPAR{gamma} steady-state activity in protection of cerebellum against AD pathology.

  8. TEMPORAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN OPTICAL AND GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Daniel P.; Romani, Roger W.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Zheng, WeiKang; Li, Weidong

    2014-12-08

    For this research, we have been using the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in gamma-rays being detected with high significance (≥10σ) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a three-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The gamma-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the five-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have >100 optical measurements spanning the last three years. These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and gamma-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find strong optical-gamma-ray correlation in many of these sources at time delays of ~1 to ~10 days, ranging between –40 and +30 days. A stacked average DCF of the 40 sources verifies this correlation trend, with a peak above 99% significance indicating a characteristic time delay consistent with 0 days. These findings strongly support the widely accepted leptonic models of blazar emission. However, we also find examples of apparently uncorrelated flares (optical flares with no gamma-ray counterpart and gamma-ray flares with no optical counterpart) that challenge simple, one-zone models of blazar emission. Moreover, we find that flat-spectrum radio quasars tend to have gamma-rays leading the optical, while intermediate- and high-synchrotron peak blazars with the most significant peaks have smaller lags/leads. In conclusion, it is clear that long-term monitoring at high cadence is necessary to reveal the underlying physical correlation.

  9. TEMPORAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN OPTICAL AND GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Daniel P.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zheng, WeiKang; Li, Weidong; Romani, Roger W.; Cenko, S. Bradley

    2014-12-20

    We have been using the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in gamma-rays being detected with high significance (≥10σ) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a three-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The gamma-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the five-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have >100 optical measurements spanning the last three years. These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and gamma-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find strong optical-gamma-ray correlation in many of these sources at time delays of ∼1 to ∼10 days, ranging between –40 and +30 days. A stacked average DCF of the 40 sources verifies this correlation trend, with a peak above 99% significance indicating a characteristic time delay consistent with 0 days. These findings strongly support the widely accepted leptonic models of blazar emission. However, we also find examples of apparently uncorrelated flares (optical flares with no gamma-ray counterpart and gamma-ray flares with no optical counterpart) that challenge simple, one-zone models of blazar emission. Moreover, we find that flat-spectrum radio quasars tend to have gamma-rays leading the optical, while intermediate- and high-synchrotron peak blazars with the most significant peaks have smaller lags/leads. It is clear that long-term monitoring at high cadence is necessary to reveal the underlying physical correlation.

  10. Gamma (γ) tocopherol upregulates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma (γ) expression in SW 480 human colon cancer cell lines