Science.gov

Sample records for gamma angular correlations

  1. Gamma Ray Emission Tomography and Angular Correlation Measurements to Study the Distribution and Binding Site of Selenium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahni, Anwar

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The distribution of ^ {75}Se in tissue equivalent materials was investigated employing Gamma ray Emission Topography with a rectilinear scanner utilizing NaI(Tl) and BGO detectors. The reconstructed images, using Filtered Back Projection and Iterative techniques were presented in 2D colour and 3D representations. Using a lead collimator of aperture 1.5 x 20 mm and 70 length, the distribution of selenium with variation of volume and concentration was examined and clearly seen. Several corrections such as background, scattering, attenuation compensation and X-ray characteristic suppression, were performed to improve the quality of the images which was evaluated in terms of the fidelity factor. The possibility of quantifying an image was considered with regard to spatial resolution and least detectable concentration. The spatial resolution was measured using two small vials containing the same concentration of selenium, the value obtained was the same as the width of the collimator aperture. The value of the least detectable concentration of selenium however, was difficult to find, due to the many ambiguous factors involved. The binding site of selenium which is based on quadrupole interaction with the surrounding electric field, was investigated employing Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experiments using NaI(Tl) and BaF_2 detectors. Using NaI(Tl) detectors, it was difficult to observe the perturbation, due to the poor time resolution. The BaF_2 detector according to the literature has a shorter light emission decay time constant (0.6 ns), suggested that a better time resolution than that found with the NaI(Tl) detectors could be obtained. A Perturbed Angular Correlation experiment employing BaF _2 detectors and a fast-slow coincidence system was set up. The time differential PAC of selenium in solution showed an unperturbed angular correlation pattern. The main problem is the very short half life of the

  2. Inhomogeneous Broadening in Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, Austin; Adams, Mike; Hodges, Jeffery; Park, Tyler; Stufflebeam, Michael; Evenson, William; Matheson, Phil; Zacate, Matthew

    2009-10-01

    Our research concerns the effect of a static distribution of defects on the net electric field gradient (EFG) within crystal structures. Defects and vacancies perturb the distribution of gamma rays emitted from radioactive probe nuclei within the crystal. These defects and vacancies produce a net EFG at the site of the probe which causes the magnetic quadrupole moment of the nucleus of the probe to precess about the EFG. The net EFG, which is strongly dependent upon the defect concentration, perturbs the angular correlation (PAC) of the gamma rays, and is seen in the damping of the perturbation function, G2(t), in time and broadening of the spectral peaks in the Fourier transform. We have used computer simulations to study the probability distribution of EFG tensor components in order to uncover the concentration dependence of G2(t). This in turn can be used to analyze experimental PAC data and quantitatively describe properties of the crystal.

  3. Understanding GRETINA using angular correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Madeline

    2015-10-01

    The ability to trace the path of gamma rays through germanium is not only necessary for taking full advantage of GRETINA but also a promising possibility for homeland security defense against nuclear threats. This research tested the current tracking algorithm using the angular correlation method by comparing results from raw and tracked data to the theoretical model for Co-60. It was found that the current tracking method is unsuccessful in reproducing angular correlation. Variations to the tracking algorithm were made in the FM value, tracking angle, number of angles of separation observed, and window of coincidence in attempt to improve correlation results. From these variations it was observed that having a larger FM improved results, reducing the number of observational angles worsened correlation, and that overall larger tracking angles improved with larger windows of coincidence and vice-verse. Future research would be to refine the angle of measurement for raw data and to explore the possibility of an energy dependence by testing other elements. This work is supported by the United States Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357

  4. Measures and models for angular correlation and angular-linear correlation. [correlation of random variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Wehrly, T.

    1976-01-01

    Population models for dependence between two angular measurements and for dependence between an angular and a linear observation are proposed. The method of canonical correlations first leads to new population and sample measures of dependence in this latter situation. An example relating wind direction to the level of a pollutant is given. Next, applied to pairs of angular measurements, the method yields previously proposed sample measures in some special cases and a new sample measure in general.

  5. Angular correlations and high energy evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2011-11-01

    We address the question of to what extent JIMWLK evolution is capable of taking into account angular correlations in a high energy hadronic wave function. Our conclusion is that angular (and indeed other) correlations in the wave function cannot be reliably calculated without taking into account Pomeron loops in the evolution. As an example we study numerically the energy evolution of angular correlations between dipole scattering amplitudes in the framework of the large N{sub c} approximation to JIMWLK evolution (the 'projectile dipole model'). Target correlations are introduced via averaging over an (isotropic) ensemble of anisotropic initial conditions. We find that correlations disappear very quickly with rapidity even inside the saturation radius. This is in accordance with our physical picture of JIMWLK evolution. The actual correlations inside the saturation radius in the target QCD wave function, on the other hand, should remain sizable at any rapidity.

  6. Probing Angular Correlations in Sequential Double Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, A.; Woerner, H. J.; Arissian, L.; Liu, L. R.; Meckel, M.; Rippert, A.; Doerner, R.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Staudte, A.

    2011-09-09

    We study electron correlation in sequential double ionization of noble gas atoms and HCl in intense, femtosecond laser pulses. We measure the photoelectron angular distributions of Ne{sup +} relative to the first electron in a pump-probe experiment with 8 fs, 800 nm, circularly polarized laser pulses at a peak intensity of a few 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Using a linear-linear pump-probe setup, we further study He, Ar, and HCl. We find a clear angular correlation between the two ionization steps in the sequential double ionization intensity regime.

  7. T-odd angular correlations in the emission of prompt gamma rays and neutrons in nuclear fission induced by polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Danilyan, G. V.; Klenke, J.; Krakhotin, V. A.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shatalov, P. B.

    2011-05-15

    Study of the T-odd three-vector correlation in the emission of prompt neutrons from {sup 235}U fission by polarized cold neutrons has been continued at the facility MEPHISTO of the FRM II reactor (Technical University of Munich). The sought correlation was not found within experimental error of 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. The upper limit for the asymmetry coefficient has been set to vertical bar D{sub n} vertical bar < 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} at 99% confidence level, whereas for ternary fission correlation coefficient D{sub {alpha}} = (170{+-}20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. This limit casts doubt on a model that explains the three-vector correlation in ternary fission by the Coriolis mechanism. At the same time, five-vector correlation in the emission of prompt fission neutrons has been measured, which describes the rotation of the fissioning nucleus at the moment it breaks (ROT effect). At the angle 22.5 Degree-Sign to the fission axis, the correlation coefficient was found to be (1.57 {+-} 0.20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, while at the angle of 67.5 Degree-Sign it is zero within the experimental uncertainty. The existence of ROT effect in the emission of prompt fission neutrons can be explained by the anisotropy of neutron emission in the rest frame of the fragment (fission fragments are aligned with respect to the axis of deformation of the fissioning nucleus), similar to the mechanism of ROT effect in the emission of prompt {gamma}-rays.

  8. Angular correlation between proton and neutron rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, N.

    2013-07-01

    A brief review is given on the controversy and its solution about the fact that the angular momentum vector of protons and that of neutrons in well-deformed nuclei at low total angular momenta have a strong correlation that they are oriented in opposite directions. In a simple two-rotor model in 2-dimensional space, this fact is explained as originating from the quantum mechanical uncertainty relation between the angle and the angular momentum for the relative rotation of the two rotors. As the second topic, a more realistic model consisting of two triaxial rotors in 3-dimensional space coupled with a QQ interaction is employed to investigate a possible shears-band-like collective rotation predicted by T. Otsuka, in which the angle at which the angular momentum of protons and that of neutrons intersect changes continuously from 180° at spin zero toward 0° at high spins within the same rotational band. The probability distributions of the angle between the two angular momenta and the angle between the longest principal axes of two rotors are calculated to examine the participation of the scissors mode in the evolution of the ground rotational band versus spin.

  9. (Perturbed angular correlations in zirconia ceramics)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This is the progress report for the first year of the currently-approved three year funding cycle. We have carried on a vigorous program of experimental and theoretical research on microscopic properties of zirconia and ceria using the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experimental technique. The experimental method was described in the original proposal and in a number of references as well as several of the technical reports that accompany this progress report.

  10. Angular correlation studies in noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    There has been a recent revival of interest in the measurement of angular correlation of annihilation photons from the decay of positrons and positronium in gases. This revival has been stimulated by the possibility offered by the technique to shed new light on the apparently low positronium formation fraction in the heavier noble gases and to provide information on positronium quenching processes in gases such as oxygen. There is also the potential for learning about positronium slowing down in gases. This review focuses on experimental noble gas work and considers what new information has been, and may be, gained from these studies.

  11. Angular correlations near the Fermi energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, D.; Cebra, D.A.; Karn, J.; Parks, C.; Pradhan, A.; Vander Molen, A.; van der Plicht, J.; Westfall, G.D.; Wilson, W.K.; Tickle, R.S.; and others

    1988-07-01

    Angular correlations between light particles have been studied to probe the extent to which a thermally equilibrated system is formed in heavy ion collisions near the Fermi energy. Single-light-particle inclusive energy spectra and two-particle large-angle correlations were measured for 40 and 50 MeV/nucleon C+C, Ag, and Au. The single-particle inclusive energy spectra are well fit by a three moving source parametrization. Two-particle large-angle correlations are shown to be consistent with emission from a thermally equilibrated source when the effects of momentum conservation are considered. Single-particle inclusive spectra and light-particle correlations at small relative momentum were measured for 35 MeV/nucleon N+Ag. Source radii were extracted from the two-particle correlation functions and were found to be consistent with previous measurements using two-particle correlations and the coalescence model. The temperature of the emitting source was extracted from the relative populations of states using the quantum statistical model and was found to be 4.8/sub -2.4//sup +2.8/ MeV, compared to the 14 MeV temperature extracted from the slopes of the kinetic energy spectra.

  12. T-odd angular correlations in the emission of prompt gamma rays and neutrons in nuclear fission induced by polarized neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilyan, G. V.; Klenke, J.; Krakhotin, V. A.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shatalov, P. B.

    2011-05-01

    Study of the T-odd three-vector correlation in the emission of prompt neutrons from 235U fission by polarized cold neutrons has been continued at the facility MEPHISTO of the FRM II reactor (Technical University of Munich). The sought correlation was not found within experimental error of 2.3 × 10-5. The upper limit for the asymmetry coefficient has been set to | D n | < 6 × 10-5 at 99% confidence level, whereas for ternary fission correlation coefficient D α = (170±20) × 10-5. This limit casts doubt on a model that explains the three-vector correlation in ternary fission by the Coriolis mechanism. At the same time, five-vector correlation in the emission of prompt fission neutrons has been measured, which describes the rotation of the fissioning nucleus at the moment it breaks (ROT effect). At the angle 22.5° to the fission axis, the correlation coefficient was found to be (1.57 ± 0.20) × 10-4, while at the angle of 67.5° it is zero within the experimental uncertainty. The existence of ROT effect in the emission of prompt fission neutrons can be explained by the anisotropy of neutron emission in the rest frame of the fragment (fission fragments are aligned with respect to the axis of deformation of the fissioning nucleus), similar to the mechanism of ROT effect in the emission of prompt γ-rays.

  13. Angular two-point correlation of NVSS galaxies revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song; Schwarz, Dominik J.

    2016-06-01

    We measure the angular two-point correlation and angular power spectrum from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) of radio galaxies. They are found to be consistent with the best-fit cosmological model from the Planck analysis, and with the redshift distribution obtained from the Combined EIS-NVSS Survey Of Radio Sources (CENSORS). Our analysis is based on an optimal estimation of the two-point correlation function and makes use of a new mask that takes into account direction dependent effects of the observations, sidelobe effects of bright sources and galactic foreground. We also set a flux threshold and take the cosmic radio dipole into account. The latter turns out to be an essential step in the analysis. This improved cosmological analysis of the NVSS emphasizes the importance of a flux calibration that is robust and stable on large angular scales for future radio continuum surveys.

  14. Calculation of fusion product angular correlation coefficients for fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    The angular correlation coefficients for fusion products are calculated in the cases of Maxwellian and beam-target plasmas. Measurement of these coefficients as a localized ion temperature or fast-ion diagnostic is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Angular correlation of the stellar scintillation for large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V.

    2012-09-01

    Stellar scintillation is one of the fundamental limitations to the precision of ground-based photometry. This paper examines the problem of the correlation of the scintillation of two close stars at the focus of a large telescope. The derived correlation functions were applied to data from the long-term study of the optical turbulence (OT) in the Northern Caucasus with the MASS (Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor) instrument in order to predict the angular correlation of the scintillation at the Sternberg institute 2.5-m telescope currently in construction. A median angular radius of the correlation as large as 20 arcsec was found for the case of Kolmogorov OT. On the basis of the obtained relations we also analyse the impact of correlation in ensemble photometry and conjugate plane photometry. It is shown that a reduction of the scintillation noise by up to 8 times can be achieved when using a crowded ensemble of comparison stars. The calculation of the angular correlation can be applied for any large telescope at a site where the OT vertical profiles are known.

  16. Angular correlation in the two-electron continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheifets, A. S.; Bray, I.

    2006-02-01

    Following absorption of a single photon, angles of simultaneous emission of two electrons from a He(nS1) atom become more correlated with increasing n . We find that the strength of this correlation is due to the two-electron continuum of the electron-impact ionization of the He+(ns) ion. The strength is determined by the width of the momentum profile of the ionic ns state but not the strength of the electron correlation in the He initial state. This can explain the increasing (over He) angular correlation strength found in double photoionization of targets such as Be, Ne, and H2 .

  17. Angular correlation in the two-electron continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, A. S.; Bray, I.

    2006-02-15

    Following absorption of a single photon, angles of simultaneous emission of two electrons from a He(n {sup 1}S) atom become more correlated with increasing n. We find that the strength of this correlation is due to the two-electron continuum of the electron-impact ionization of the He{sup +}(ns) ion. The strength is determined by the width of the momentum profile of the ionic ns state but not the strength of the electron correlation in the He initial state. This can explain the increasing (over He) angular correlation strength found in double photoionization of targets such as Be, Ne, and H{sub 2}.

  18. GeV gamma-ray astronomy telescopes with high angular resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbreen, B.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-ray telescopes flown on satellites have poor angular resolution with typical point source error circles of a few square degrees. It is shown that a major improvement in angular resolution for the detection of gamma-rays in the GeV region can be obtained with a single crystal as converter. The electron produced by a gamma ray incident at a small angle to a major crystal axis or plane is captured into channeling and radiates gamma rays. The channeling radiation and the electron-positron pair can be detected and yield point source locations with a precision of 5 arcseconds at 10 GeV. This is an improvement of three orders of magnitude on the angular precision of telescopes sensitive to gamma-rays above 50 MeV flown on Satellites.

  19. Correlation steering in the angularly multimode Raman atomic memory.

    PubMed

    Mazelanik, Mateusz; Dąbrowski, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-09-19

    We present the possibility of steering the direction of correlations between the off-resonant Raman scattered photons from the angularly multimode atomic memory based on warm rubidium vapors. Using acousto-optic deflectors (AOD) driven by different modulation frequencies, we experimentally change the angle of incidence of the laser beams on the atomic ensemble. By performing correlation measurements for various deflection angles, we verify that we can choose the anti-Stokes light propagation direction independently of the correlated Stokes scattered light in a continuous way. As a result we can select the spatial mode of photons retrieved from the memory, which may be important for future development of quantum information processing.

  20. Angular correlations in top quark decays in standard model extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Batebi, S.; Etesami, S. M.; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M.

    2011-03-01

    The CMS Collaboration at the CERN LHC has searched for the t-channel single top quark production using the spin correlation of the t-channel. The signal extraction and cross section measurement rely on the angular distribution of the charged lepton in the top quark decays, the angle between the charged lepton momentum and top spin in the top rest frame. The behavior of the angular distribution is a distinct slope for the t-channel single top (signal) while it is flat for the backgrounds. In this Brief Report, we investigate the contributions which this spin correlation may receive from a two-Higgs doublet model, a top-color assisted technicolor (TC2) and the noncommutative extension of the standard model.

  1. Angular and Energy Characteristics of Gamma Field at the New Safe Confinement Construction Sit

    SciTech Connect

    Batiy, Valeriy; Glebkin, S; Pavlovskiy, L; Pravdyvyi, O; Rudko, Vladimir; Shcherbin, Vladimir; Stojanov, O; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2005-08-08

    To results of measurements of angular y and energy distribution of gamma-radiation at the cites of New Safe Confinement erection. The data analysis permitted to identify the main sources of gamma-radiation and to systematize the obtained results.

  2. Correlation steering in the angularly multimode Raman atomic memory.

    PubMed

    Mazelanik, Mateusz; Dąbrowski, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-09-19

    We present the possibility of steering the direction of correlations between the off-resonant Raman scattered photons from the angularly multimode atomic memory based on warm rubidium vapors. Using acousto-optic deflectors (AOD) driven by different modulation frequencies, we experimentally change the angle of incidence of the laser beams on the atomic ensemble. By performing correlation measurements for various deflection angles, we verify that we can choose the anti-Stokes light propagation direction independently of the correlated Stokes scattered light in a continuous way. As a result we can select the spatial mode of photons retrieved from the memory, which may be important for future development of quantum information processing. PMID:27661934

  3. Concentration dependence of inhomogeneous broadening in perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Carlos; Hodges, Jeffery A.; Park, Tyler; Stufflebeam, Michael; Evenson, W.; Matheson, P.; Zacate, M. O.

    2008-10-01

    Since real crystals always include defects, the effect of the defects on crystal properties depends on how many defects are present, i.e. on defect concentration. In perturbed angular correlation (PAC), these defects produce damping of the correlation signal in time and broadening of the frequency spectrum. This ``inhomogeneous broadening'' depends quantitatively on defect concentration, so the size of the broadening in a PAC spectrum can be a measure of the concentration of defects. Using simulated PAC spectra and independent component analysis to obtain the probability distribution function for electric field gradient (EFG) components, we have found defect concentration-dependent parameters for the probability functions. This allows us to calculate broadened PAC spectra for any selected defect concentration. It also allows us to fit defect concentration from an experimental PAC spectrum. This work will be applied initially to broadened PAC data from β-Mn, Al-doped β-Mn, and Sr2RuO4.

  4. On the Angular Resolution of the AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, S.; Donnarumma, I.; Tavani, M.; Trois, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chen, A.; Del Monte, E.; Fioretti, V.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Morselli, A.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Caraveo, P.

    2015-08-01

    We present a study of the angular resolution of the AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector (GRID) that has been operational in space since 2007 April. The AGILE instrument is made of an array of 12 planes that are each equipped with a tungsten converter and silicon microstrip detectors, and is sensitive in the energy range 50 MeV-10 GeV. Among the space instruments devoted to gamma-ray astrophysics, AGILE uniquely exploit an analog readout system with dedicated electronics coupled with silicon detectors. We show the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out to reproduce the gamma-ray detection by the GRID and we compare them to in-flight data. We use the Crab (pulsar + Nebula) system for discussion of real data performance, since its {E}-2 energy spectrum is representative of the majority of gamma-ray sources. For Crab-like spectrum sources, the GRID angular resolution (FWHM of ˜ 4^\\circ at 100 MeV; ˜ 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 8 at 1 GeV; ˜ 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 9 integrating the full energy band from 100 MeV to tens of GeV) is stable across a large field of view, characterized by a flat response up to 30^\\circ off-axis. A comparison of the angular resolution obtained by the two operational gamma-ray instruments, AGILE/GRID and Fermi/LAT (Large Area Telescope), is interesting in view of future gamma-ray missions, which are currently under study. The two instruments exploit different detector configurations that affect the angular resolution: the former is optimized in the readout and track reconstruction, especially in the low-energy band, the latter is optimized in terms of converter thickness and power consumption. We show that despite these differences, the angular resolution of both instruments is very similar, between 100 MeV and a few GeV.

  5. Studying oxygen vacancies in ceramics by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Han-Tzong; Wang, Ruiping; Fuchs, H.; Gardner, J.A. . Dept. of Physics); Evenson, W.E. . Dept. of Physics); Sommers, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Perturbed angular correlation measurements in tetragonal and cubic zirconia and in ceria are described. A physically reasonable and self-consistent interpretation of these data implies that oxygen vacancies are trapped at a second neighbor position by Cd in tetragonal zirconia and by In in ceria. For Cd in tetragonal zirconia, the vacancy trap energy is found to be 0.44 eV, and the energy barrier between adjacent trap sites is approximately 0.8 eV. The activation energy of an oxygen vacancy hopping between trap sites around {sup 111}Cd in ceria is found to be 0.55 eV. The activation energy for oxygen vacancy hopping in cubic zirconia, as detected by {sup 181}Ta PAC, is about 1.0 eV and independent of the Y concentration. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Generation of gamma-ray beam with orbital angular momentum in the QED regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chen; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Shi, Yin; Ji, Liangliang; Wang, Wenpeng; Yi, Longqing; Zhang, Lingang; Xu, Tongjun; Pei, Zhikun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-09-01

    We propose a scheme to generate high-energy gamma-ray photons with an orbital angular momentum (OAM) from laser-plasma interactions by irradiating a circularly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian laser on a thin plasma target. The spin angular momentum and OAM are first transferred to electrons from the driving laser, and then the OAM is transferred to the gamma-ray photons from the electrons through quantum radiation. This scheme has been demonstrated by using three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics particle-in-cell simulations. The topological charge, chirality, and carrier-envelope phase of the short ultra-intense vortex laser can be revealed according to the energy distribution of gamma-ray emission.

  7. Simulated models of inhomogeneous broadening in perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Jeffery A.; Park, Tyler; Stufflebeam, Michael; Evenson, W.; Matheson, P.; Zacate, M. O.

    2008-10-01

    All real crystals have defects such as impurities and vacancies which affect their properties. In perturbed angular correlation (PAC), these defects produce damping of the correlation signal in time and broadening of the frequency spectrum. This broadening is termed ``inhomogeneous broadening'' since it is due to the inhomogeneities (i.e. defects) in the crystal. We have simulated PAC spectra for various concentrations (0.1% to 15%) of randomly distributed defects with a near-neighbor vacancy in simple cubic and face-centered cubic crystal structures. For every particular set of defects, the randomly distributed defects and the near-neighbor vacancy together produce a net electric field gradient (EFG), from which we obtain the PAC spectrum. We then average PAC spectra to study the effects of defect concentration and crystal structure on inhomogeneous broadening as an aid to analyzing experimental data. This work will be applied initially to broadened PAC data from β-Mn, Al-doped β-Mn, and Sr2RuO4.

  8. Astrophysical interpretation of small-scale neutrino angular correlation searches with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuermann, Martin; Schimp, Michael; Wiebusch, Christopher H.

    2016-10-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has discovered a diffuse all-flavor flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. However, the corresponding astrophysical sources have not yet been identified. Neither significant point sources nor significant angular correlations of event directions have been observed by IceCube or other instruments to date. We present a new method to interpret the non-observation of angular correlations in terms of exclusions on the strength and number of point-like neutrino sources in generic astrophysical scenarios. Additionally, we constrain the presence of these sources taking into account the measurement of the diffuse high-energy neutrino flux by IceCube. We apply the method to two types of astrophysically motivated source count distributions: The first type is obtained by considering the cosmological evolution of the co-moving density of active galaxies, while the second type is directly derived from the gamma ray source count distribution observed by Fermi-LAT. As a result, we constrain the possible parameter space for both types of source count distributions.

  9. Band structure of 146Ce studied through γ-γ angular correlation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, S.; Taniguchi, A.; Okano, K.; Aoki, K.

    The β-decay of 146La was studied using the on-line isotope separator KUR-ISOL. Gamma-gamma angular correlation measurements were performed with a 4-Ge detectors system. Spin assignments of three levels were made: 3+ for the 1576.5 keV level, 4+ for the 1627.1 keV level and 5+ for the 1810.2 keV level. The mixing ratios (E2/M1) were deduced to be δ183.2= 0.25 +/- 0.08, δ638.9= 0.33 +/- 0.05, δ959.0= 1.19+0.16-0.14, δ1015.9= 5.4+3.1-1.5 and δ1318.1= 6.5+1.7-1.1. These were compared to the calculated values obtained in three cases involving different Majorana force parameter values. The band structure of 146Ce is discussed based on the results of calculation using the IBM-2 theory.

  10. A Note on the Ratio of Positively Correlated Gamma Variates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubbs, J. D.; Smith, O. E.

    1983-01-01

    The density function and corresponding moments for the ratio of correlated gamma distributed variates were derived. A class of bivariate gamma distributions was also considered, and additional distributional results which use this class of functions were also derived. Similar results, by using a different class of bivariate gamma distributions, are presented.

  11. New Statistical Results on the Angular Distribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Vavrek, Roland

    2008-05-22

    We presented the results of several statistical tests of the randomness in the angular sky-distribution of gamma-ray bursts in BATSE Catalog. Thirteen different tests were presented based on Voronoi tesselation, Minimal spanning tree and Multifractal spectrum for five classes (short1, short2, intermediate, long1, long2) of gamma-ray bursts, separately. The long1 and long2 classes are distributed randomly. The intermediate subclass, in accordance with the earlier results of the authors, is distributed non-randomly. Concerning the short subclass earlier statistical tests also suggested some departure from the random distribution, but not on a high enough confidence level. The new tests presented in this article suggest also non-randomness here.

  12. Energy and angular correlations in heavy-ion deep inelastic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutinsky, V. M.

    1994-05-01

    Brink-Dietrich theory of energy-angular-momentum correlations is formulated from the viewpoint of the statistical model of macroscopic rotation. Comparison with the available experimental data is given.

  13. Di-jet production and angular correlations in DIS at NLO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

    2016-03-01

    Angular correlations are a sensitive probe of the dynamics of QCD at high energy. In particular azimuthal angular correlations between two hadrons produced in Deeply Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of a virtual photon on a hadron or nucleus offer the best environment in which to investigate high gluon density (gluon saturation) effects expected to arise at small x. Here we give a progress report on our derivation of Next to Leading Order (NLO) corrections to di-jet (di-hadron) production in DIS.

  14. The Angular Power Spectrum of BATSE 3B Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegmark, Max; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Briggs, Michael S.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    We compute the angular power spectrum C(sub l) from the BATSE 3B catalog of 1122 gamma-ray bursts and find no evidence for clustering on any scale. These constraints bridge the entire range from small scales (which probe source clustering and burst repetition) to the largest scales (which constrain possible anisotropics from the Galactic halo or from nearby cosmological large-scale structures). We develop an analysis technique that takes the angular position errors into account. For specific clustering or repetition models, strong upper limits can be obtained down to scales l approx. equal to 30, corresponding to a couple of degrees on the sky. The minimum-variance burst weighting that we employ is visualized graphically as an all-sky map in which each burst is smeared out by an amount corresponding to its position uncertainty. We also present separate bandpass-filtered sky maps for the quadrupole term and for the multipole ranges l = 3-10 and l = 11-30, so that the fluctuations on different angular scales can be inspected separately for visual features such as localized 'hot spots' or structures aligned with the Galactic plane. These filtered maps reveal no apparent deviations from isotropy.

  15. Correction of measured Gamma-Knife output factors for angular dependence of diode detectors and PinPoint ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Hršak, Hrvoje; Majer, Marija; Grego, Timor; Bibić, Juraj; Heinrich, Zdravko

    2014-12-01

    Dosimetry for Gamma-Knife requires detectors with high spatial resolution and minimal angular dependence of response. Angular dependence and end effect time for p-type silicon detectors (PTW Diode P and Diode E) and PTW PinPoint ionization chamber were measured with Gamma-Knife beams. Weighted angular dependence correction factors were calculated for each detector. The Gamma-Knife output factors were corrected for angular dependence and end effect time. For Gamma-Knife beams angle range of 84°-54°. Diode P shows considerable angular dependence of 9% and 8% for the 18 mm and 14, 8, 4 mm collimator, respectively. For Diode E this dependence is about 4% for all collimators. PinPoint ionization chamber shows angular dependence of less than 3% for 18, 14 and 8 mm helmet and 10% for 4 mm collimator due to volumetric averaging effect in a small photon beam. Corrected output factors for 14 mm helmet are in very good agreement (within ±0.3%) with published data and values recommended by vendor (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). For the 8 mm collimator diodes are still in good agreement with recommended values (within ±0.6%), while PinPoint gives 3% less value. For the 4 mm helmet Diodes P and E show over-response of 2.8% and 1.8%, respectively. For PinPoint chamber output factor of 4 mm collimator is 25% lower than Elekta value which is generally not consequence of angular dependence, but of volumetric averaging effect and lack of lateral electronic equilibrium. Diodes P and E represent good choice for Gamma-Knife dosimetry.

  16. Angular Signatures of Dark Matter in the Diffuse Gamma Ray Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2007-02-01

    Dark matter annihilating in our Galaxy's halo and elsewhere in the universe is expected to generate a diffuse flux of gamma rays, potentially observable with next generation satellite-based experiments, such as GLAST. In this article, we study the signatures of dark matter in the angular distribution of this radiation. Pertaining to the extragalactic contribution, we discuss the effect of the motion of the solar system with respect to the cosmological rest frame, and anisotropies due to the structure of our local universe. For the gamma ray flux from dark matter in our own Galactic halo, we discuss the effects of the offset position of the solar system, the Compton-Getting effect, the asphericity of the Milky Way halo, and the signatures of nearby substructure. We explore the prospects for the detection of these features by the GLAST satellite and find that, if {approx} 10% or more of the diffuse gamma ray background observed by EGRET is the result of dark matter annihilations, then GLAST should be sensitive to anisotropies down to the 0.1% level. Such precision would be sufficient to detect many, if not all, of the signatures discussed in this paper.

  17. Angular correlations in gluon production at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2011-02-01

    We present a general, model independent argument demonstrating that gluons produced in high energy hadronic collision are necessarily correlated in rapidity and also in the emission angle. The strength of the correlation depends on the process and on the structure/model of the colliding particles. In particular we argue that it is strongly affected (and underestimated) by factorized approximations frequently used to quantify the effect.

  18. Correlation of radio and gamma emissions in lightning initiation.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, A V; Antonova, V P; Chubenko, A P; Karashtin, A N; Mitko, G G; Ptitsyn, M O; Ryabov, V A; Shepetov, A L; Shlyugaev, Yu V; Thu, W M; Vildanova, L I; Zybin, K P

    2013-10-18

    The results of simultaneous radio and gamma emission measurements during thunderstorms are presented. A gamma detector situated at the height 3840 m and two radio detectors of Tien-Shan Mountain Scientific Station (altitude 3340 m) registered intensive gamma flashes and radio pulses during the time of lightning initiation. The radio-gamma correlation grows abruptly at the initial moment (a few hundred microseconds), and the correlation coefficient reaches 0.9-0.95. The gamma-energy spectrum measured during lightning initiation is close to the characteristic spectrum of runaway breakdown. Radio pulses observed at the same time have highest amplitudes. Combined observation of gamma and radio emissions confirm the conception of lightning initiation due to multiple simultaneous electric discharges at hydrometeors stimulated and synchronized by low-energy electrons generated in the runaway breakdown process. PMID:24182272

  19. ISOTROPY IN THE TWO-POINT ANGULAR CORRELATION FUNCTION OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sophie

    2012-04-01

    We study the directional dependence of the angular two-point correlation function in maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We propose two new statistics: one which measures the correlation of each point in the sky with a ring of points separated an angle {theta} away, and a second one that measures the missing angular correlation above 60 deg as a function of direction. Using these statistics, we find that most of the low power in cut-sky maps measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment comes from unusually low contributions from the directions of the lobes of the quadrupole and the octupole. These findings may aid a future explanation of why the CMB exhibits low power at large angular scales.

  20. Automated and angular time-synchronized directional gamma-ray scintillation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G.J.

    1998-12-31

    The authors` previous research resulted in directional sensors for gamma rays and X rays that have a 4{pi} solid angle of acceptance and, at the same time, a high angular resolution that is limited only by their ability to measure small angles. Angular resolution of {approximately}1 s of arc was achieved. These sensors are capable of operating and accurately detecting high and very low intensity radiation patterns. Such a system can also be used to image broad area sources and their scattering patterns. The principle of operation and design of directional sensors used in this study was described elsewhere; however, for convenience, a part of that text is repeated here. It was shown analytically that the angular distribution of radiation incident on the sensor is proportional to the first derivative of the scan data, that is, of the events` count rate versus orientation of the detector. The previously published results were obtained with a annual operating system. The detector assembly was set at a specific angle, and a pulse rate count was made. This was repeated at numerous other angles of orientation, a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Recently, the authors automated this system, which is based on the detection of scintillations. The detector, which consists of a stack of plates of Lucite, plastic scintillator, and lead foils, rotates by means of a motor in front of a stationary photomultiplier tube (PMT). One revolution per second was chosen for the motor. At time zero, a trigger indicates that a revolution has started. The angle of orientation of the detector in the laboratory system is proportional to the time during one revolution. The process repeats itself a desired number of times. The trigger signal initiates a scan of a multichannel scalar (MCS). The detector assembly is allowed to rotate in the radiation field, and the MCS scans are repeated in an accumulated mode of operation until enough events are collected for the location of the

  1. Vector correlation analysis for inelastic and reactive collisions between partners possessing spin and orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S

    2009-12-31

    A general reactive collision of the type A + B --> C + D is considered where both the collision partners (A and B) or the products (C and D) may possess internal, i.e., spin, orbital or rotational, angular momenta. Compact expressions are derived using a rigorous quantum mechanical analysis for the angular momentum anisotropy of either of the products (C or D) arising from an initially polarized distribution of the reactant angular momentum. The angular momentum distribution of the product is expressed in terms of canonical spherical tensors multiplied by anisotropy-transforming coefficients c(K(i)q(k))(K)(K(r),L). These coefficients act as transformation coefficients between the angular momentum anisotropy of the reactants and that of the product. They are independent of scattering angle but depend on the details of the scattering dynamics. The relationship between the coefficients c(K(i)q(k))(K)(K(r),L) and the body-fixed scattering S matrix is given and the methodology for the quantum mechanical calculation of the anisotropy-transforming coefficients is clearly laid out. The anisotropy-transforming coefficients are amenable to direct experimental measurement in a similar manner to vector correlation and alignment parameters in photodissociation processes. A key aspect of the theory is the use of projections of both reactant and product angular momenta onto the product recoil vector direction. An important new conservation rule is revealed through the analysis, namely that if the state multipole for reactant angular momentum distribution has a projection q(k) onto the product recoil vector the state multipoles for the product angular momentum distribution all have this same projection. Expressions are also presented for the distribution of the product angular momentum when its components are evaluated relative to the space-fixed Z-axis. Notes with detailed derivations of all the formulas are available as Supporting Information.

  2. Vector Correlation Analysis for Inelastic and Reactive Collisions between Partners Possessing Spin and Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G.; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.

    2009-07-01

    A general reactive collision of the type A + B → C + D is considered where both the collision partners (A and B) or the products (C and D) may possess internal, i.e., spin, orbital or rotational, angular momenta. Compact expressions are derived using a rigorous quantum mechanical analysis for the angular momentum anisotropy of either of the products (C or D) arising from an initially polarized distribution of the reactant angular momentum. The angular momentum distribution of the product is expressed in terms of canonical spherical tensors multiplied by anisotropy-transforming coefficients cKiqkK(Kr,L). These coefficients act as transformation coefficients between the angular momentum anisotropy of the reactants and that of the product. They are independent of scattering angle but depend on the details of the scattering dynamics. The relationship between the coefficients cKiqkK(Kr,L) and the body-fixed scattering S matrix is given and the methodology for the quantum mechanical calculation of the anisotropy-transforming coefficients is clearly laid out. The anisotropy-transforming coefficients are amenable to direct experimental measurement in a similar manner to vector correlation and alignment parameters in photodissociation processes. A key aspect of the theory is the use of projections of both reactant and product angular momenta onto the product recoil vector direction. An important new conservation rule is revealed through the analysis, namely that if the state multipole for reactant angular momentum distribution has a projection qk onto the product recoil vector the state multipoles for the product angular momentum distribution all have this same projection. Expressions are also presented for the distribution of the product angular momentum when its components are evaluated relative to the space-fixed Z-axis. Notes with detailed derivations of all the formulas are available as Supporting Information.

  3. Photofragment imaging of HNCO decomposition: Angular anisotropy and correlated distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanov, A.; Droz-Georget, T.; Zyrianov, M.; Reisler, H.

    1997-05-01

    Photodissociation of jet-cooled isocyanic acid has been examined by photofragment ion imaging of H(D) from H(D)NCO and CO from HNCO, and by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of NH(a{sup 1}{Delta}) from HNCO. Only modest recoil anisotropy is observed in the H+NCO channel at 243.1 nm ({beta}={minus}0.13{plus_minus}0.05), while the D+NCO channel at approximately the same wavelength reveals no anisotropy ({beta}=0.00{plus_minus}0.05), confirming that the dissociation of H(D)NCO from the opening of the H(D) channel proceeds via vibrational predissociation on the S{sub 0}({sup 1}A) surface. In contrast, substantial anisotropy ({beta}={minus}0.66{plus_minus}0.08) is observed in the NH(a{sup 1}{Delta})+CO channel at 230.1 nm, but this value can correspond to dissociation on either S{sub 0} or S{sub 1}. The photolysis region between 243 and 230 nm thus appears important in providing clues to the dissociation mechanism and the competition between different potential energy surfaces. At 217.6 nm, product state distributions exhibit clear dynamical biases. CO is produced in both {nu}=0 and {nu}=1, while NH(a{sup 1}{Delta}) distributions correlated with different rovibrational levels of CO, although different in shape, are always cold, consistent with the global NH distribution measured by LIF. The NH distributions indicate dissociation on S{sub 1}({sup 1}A{sup {prime}{prime}}), and can be described by Franck{endash}Condon mapping of transition state wave functions in the HNC bending coordinate without additional torque, implying little anisotropy in the potential along that coordinate. On the other hand, a larger torque is manifest in the CO rotational distribution. Although at 217.6 nm the dissociation is likely to be dominated by decomposition on S{sub 1}, competition with radiationless decay is still manifest. The NH(a{sup 1}{Delta})+CO dissociation threshold is determined at 42765{plus_minus}25cm{sup {minus}1}. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Correlation of angular and lateral distributions of electrons in extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giller, Maria; Śmiałkowski, Andrzej; Legumina, Remigiusz

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain the weak correlation of the angular and lateral deflections of electrons in extensive air showers in the primary energy range 1016-1019 eV, when compared with that in some models of electron propagation. We derive analytical formulae for the correlation coefficient in the multiple scattering model with energy losses and show a strong role of the ionisation in diminishing the correlation. By considering a Heitler-like model of an electromagnetic cascade we show also that the presence of photons, parent to electrons, causes a decrease of the correlation, roughly explaining quantitatively the small correlation in air showers.

  5. Effects of angular correlations on particle-particle propagation in infinite nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Barrientos, J.; Arellano, H. F.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of angular correlations on self-consistent solutions for single-particle (sp) potentials in infinite nuclear matter is investigated. To this end we treat explicitly the angular dependence of the particle-particle (pp) propagator in Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) equation for the g matrix. It is observed that the exact angular dependence of the pp propagator yields highly fluctuating structures, posing stringent difficulties in the actual search of self-consistent solutions for the sp energy. A perturbative approach is presented to evaluate the effect of the angular correlations in the self-consistent solutions. Solutions at Fermi momenta kF in the range 1.20 - 1.75 fm-1 are reported using Argonne v 18 nucleon- nucleon potential. Although the sp potentials are sensitive to the treatment of the angular behaviour of the propagator, such sensitivity appears at momenta well above the Fermi surface. As a result, the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter differ marginally from those calculated using angle-averaged energy denominators in pp propagators.

  6. The impact of angular separation on the performance of biplane correlation imaging for lung nodule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasab, Nariman Majdi; Samei, Ehsan

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of biplane correlation imaging (BCI) using a set of off-angle projections acquired from an anthropomorphic chest phantom. BCI reduces the effect of anatomical noise, which would otherwise impact the detection subtle lesions in planar images. BCI also minimizes the number of false positives (FPs) when used in conjunction with computer aided diagnosis (CAD) applied to a set of coronal chest x-ray projections by eliminating non-correlated nodule candidates. In BCI, two digital images of the chest are acquired within a short time interval from two slightly different posterior projections. The image data are then incorporated into the CAD algorithm in which nodules are detected by examining the geometrical correlation of the detected signals in the two views, thus largely "canceling" the impact of anatomical noise. Seventy-one low exposure posterior projections were acquired of an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing tissue equivalent lesions with small angular separations (0.32 degree) over a range of 20 degrees, [-10°, +10°], along the vertical axis. The data were analyzed to determine the accuracy of the technique as a function of angular separation. The results indicated that the best performance was obtained when the angular separation of the projection pair was greater than 6 degrees. Within the range of optimum angular separation, the number of FPs per image, FPpI, was ~1.1 with average sensitivity around 75% (supported by a grant from the NIH R01CA109074).

  7. Effects of p-wave annihilation on the angular power spectrum of extragalactic gamma-rays from dark matter annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Sheldon; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2011-10-01

    We present a formalism for estimating the angular power spectrum of extragalactic gamma-rays produced by dark matter annihilating with any general velocity-dependent cross section. The relevant density and velocity distribution of dark matter is modeled as an ensemble of smooth, universal, rigid, disjoint, spherical halos with distribution and universal properties constrained by simulation data. We apply this formalism to theories of dark matter with p-wave annihilation, for which the relative-velocity-weighted annihilation cross section is {sigma}v=a+bv{sup 2}. We determine that this significantly increases the gamma-ray power if b/a > or approx. 10{sup 6}. The effect of p-wave annihilation on the angular power spectrum is very similar for the sample of particle physics models we explored, suggesting that the important effect for a given b/a is largely determined by the cosmic dark matter distribution. If the dark matter relic from strong p-wave theories is thermally produced, the intensities of annihilation gamma-rays are strongly p-wave suppressed, making them difficult to observe. If an angular power spectrum consistent with a strong p wave were to be observed, it would likely indicate nonthermal production of dark matter in the early Universe.

  8. Fragment angular correlation in the breakup of 16O ions at 95 MeV/A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Aguer, P.; Bogaert, G.; Coc, A.; Disdier, D.; Ichihara, T.; Kraus, L.; Lefebvre, A.; Linck, I.; Mittig, W.; Motobayashi, T.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Stephan, C.; Thibaud, J. P.

    1998-04-01

    Fragment angular correlations in projectile breakup reactions are very sensitive to interference between different multipolarities entering in the excitation-dissociation process of the projectile. In particular, it was proposed to disentangle L=1 and L=2 contributions in direct breakup reactions of 16O with low relative energy between the α and 12C fragment, which are of astrophysical interest. We studied the experimental aspects of extracting those angular correlations in extreme kinematical conditions usually encountered in breakup experiments of astrophysical interest. The breakup of 95 MeV/A 16O projectiles induced by a 208Pb target was measured using the high-resolution spectrometer SPEG at Ganil for the coincident detection of the fragments. Sequential breakup via the 12.53 MeV level of 16O is analyzed in this framework and it favors an one-step M2 excitation of this level.

  9. Modelling the angular correlation function and its full covariance in photometric galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocce, Martín; Cabré, Anna; Gaztañaga, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    Near-future cosmology will see the advent of wide-area photometric galaxy surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES), that extend to high redshifts (z˜ 1-2) but give poor radial distance resolution. In such cases splitting the data into redshift bins and using the angular correlation function w(θ), or the Cℓ power spectrum, will become the standard approach to extracting cosmological information or to studying the nature of dark energy through the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) probe. In this work we present a detailed model for w(θ) at large scales as a function of redshift and binwidth, including all relevant effects, namely non-linear gravitational clustering, bias, redshift space distortions and photo-z uncertainties. We also present a model for the full covariance matrix, characterizing the angular correlation measurements, that takes into account the same effects as for w(θ) and also the possibility of a shot-noise component and partial sky coverage. Provided with a large-volume N-body simulation from the MICE collaboration, we built several ensembles of mock redshift bins with a sky coverage and depth typical of forthcoming photometric surveys. The model for the angular correlation and the one for the covariance matrix agree remarkably well with the mock measurements in all configurations. The prospects for a full shape analysis of w(θ) at BAO scales in forthcoming photometric surveys such as DES are thus very encouraging.

  10. LACK OF ANGULAR CORRELATION AND ODD-PARITY PREFERENCE IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated the angular correlation in the recent cosmic microwave background data. In addition to the known large-angle correlation anomaly, we find the lack of correlation at small angles with high statistical significance. We have investigated various non-cosmological contamination as well as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team's simulated data. However, we have not found a definite cause. In the angular power spectrum of WMAP data, there exists anomalous odd-parity preference at low multipoles. Noting the equivalence between the power spectrum and the correlation, we have investigated the association between the lack of large-angle correlation and the odd-parity preference. From our investigation, we find that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, a phenomenological origin of the lack of large-angle correlation. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of the anomaly is cosmological or due to unaccounted systematics. The data from the Planck surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will greatly help us to resolve its origin.

  11. The CMBR ISW and HI 21 cm cross-correlation angular power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Tapomoy Guha; Datta, Kanan K.; Bharadwaj, Somnath E-mail: kanan@cts.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2009-08-01

    The late-time growth of large scale structures is imprinted in the CMBR anisotropy through the Integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect. This is perceived to be a very important observational probe of dark energy. Future observations of redshifted 21-cm radiation from the cosmological neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution hold the potential of probing the large scale structure over a large redshift range. We have investigated the possibility of detecting the ISW through cross-correlations between the CMBR anisotropies and redshifted 21-cm observations. Assuming that the HI traces the dark matter, we find that the ISW-HI cross-correlation angular power spectrum at an angular multipole l is proportional to the dark matter power spectrum evaluated at the comoving wave number l/r, where r is the comoving distance to the redshift from which the HI signal originated. The amplitude of the cross-correlation signal depends on parameters related to the HI distribution and the growth of cosmological perturbations. However, the cross-correlation is extremely weak as compared to the CMBR anisotropies and the predicted HI signal. Even in an ideal situation, the cross-correlation signal is smaller than the cosmic variance and a statistically significant detection is not very likely.

  12. Are Abell Clusters Correlated with Gamma-Ray Bursts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, K.; Hartmann, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Laros, J.; Cline, T.; Boer, M.

    1997-01-01

    A recent study has presented marginal statistical evidence that gamma-ray burst (GRB) sources are correlated with Abell clusters, based on analyses of bursts in the BATSE 3B catalog. Using precise localization information from the Third Interplanetary Network, we have reanalyzed this possible correlation. We find that most of the Abell clusters that are in the relatively large 3B error circles are not in the much smaller IPN/BATSE error regions. We believe that this argues strongly against an Abell cluster-GRB correlation.

  13. Angular Correlation of Electrons Emitted by Double Auger Decay of K-Shell Ionized Neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew Philip

    2011-12-01

    We have investigated in detail the 4-body continuum state produced when core-ionized neon undergoes Double-Auger (DA) decay, using COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS ). We conducted the experiment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (LBNL-ALS) beamline 11.0.2. The synchrotron operated in 2-bunch mode and outputted an elliptically polarized, pulsed photon beam (hn=872.9eV), sufficient to K-shell ionize neon just above threshold. Our analysis supports research showing that Auger electrons tend to share energy asymmetrically. We qualitatively compared this result to Photo-Double Ionization (PDI) of helium. Further, we confirm research that shows how Auger electrons that share energy symmetrically can be modeled by the elastic-like knock-out process plus Post-Collision Interaction ( PCI) effects. New observations include the angular correlation between the photo-electron and each respective Auger electron, for specific ranges of energy sharing. We identify a broad feature in the asymmetric case that shows a level of interaction between electrons that until recently, has disagreed with theory. Additionally, we consider the angular correlation between the photo-electron and the momentum sum of the Auger electrons. We observe that the angular correlation between this sum and the photo-electron in the highly asymmetric case is nearly identical to the correlation between just the fast-Auger and the photo-electron - as expected. In the case of symmetric energy sharing, the sum momentum vector appears to be isotropic, particularly for small angles of interaction. Finally, we acknowledge two novel methods of calibration. The first, uses well known line-energies to calibrate the spectrometer. These lines correspond to the decay channels of core-excited neon, Ne(1 s-13p). The second, describes a method to statistically weight list-mode data in order to calibrate it to well known physical features (e.g., isotropic distributions).

  14. Monte-Carlo studies of the angular resolution of a future Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; Hinton, J. A.

    2008-12-24

    The current generation of Imaging Atmospheric telescopes (IACTs) has demonstrated the power of this observational technique, providing high sensitivity and an angular resolution of {approx}0.1 deg. per event above an energy threshold of {approx}100 GeV. Planned future arrays of IACTs such as AGIS or CTA are aiming at significantly improving the angular resolution. Preliminary results have shown that values down to {approx}1' might be achievable. Here we present the results of Monte-Carlo simulations that aim to exploring the limits of angular resolution for next generation IACTs and investigate how the resolution can be optimised by changes to array and telescope parameters such as the number of pixel in the camera, the field of view of the camera, the angular pixel size, the mirror size, and also the telescope separation.

  15. Exploring the z-dependence of the two-point angular correlation function in galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, Alyssa; Bellis, Matthew; Bard, Debbie

    2014-03-01

    The two-point angular correlation function (2ACF) is used to quantify the scales of clustering of galaxies. The 2ACF changes as we look further back in time (higher redshift z) and the clustering evolves. We calculate the exact Landy-Szalay estimator for the 2ACF using GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) and employ novel visualizations to observe the evolution of this function with increasing redshift. We use data from the MICE Grand Challenge dataset, a 70-billion particle n-body simulation that is publicly available, and compare to data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The current status of this project will be presented.

  16. Electric field gradients at indium sites in spinels measured by perturbed angular correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquevich, A. F.

    2005-07-01

    The Electric Field Gradient (EFG) at 111Cd isotope (produced by the Electron Capture (EC) decay of 111In) has been measured using Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in many spinels. In the present work, data arising from such experiments were collected. The experimental EFG values, obtained at room temperature, at the B site of normal spinels are compared with those calculated considering the monopole moment of the ions and the dipole polarization of the anions. This comparison allows the determination of the u-parameter, which gives the anion position in the lattice.

  17. Characterization of nanostructured HfO2 films using Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Gomes, M. R.; Carbonari, A. W.; Pereira, L. F. D.; Rossetto, D. A.; Costa, M. S.; Redondo, L. M.; Mestnik-Filho, J.; Saxena, R. N.; Soares, J. C.

    2010-06-01

    The hyperfine field at 181Ta lattice sites in nanostructured HfO2 thin films was studied by the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique. Thin oxide films were deposited by Electron Beam Evaporation on a silicon substrate. The thickness of the films was ~100 nm and ~250 nm. Radioactive 181Hf nuclei were produced by neutron activation of the film samples in the Brazilian Research Reactor (IPEN IEA-R1) by the reaction 180Hf(n, γ)181Hf. PAC measurements were carried out after annealing at 1473 K. The PAC technique allows the determination of the electric field gradient (EFG) at the probe sites.

  18. Gamma-ray bursts spectral correlations and their cosmological use.

    PubMed

    Ghirlanda, Giancarlo

    2007-05-15

    The correlations involving the long-gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) prompt emission energy represent a new key to understand the GRB physics. These correlations have been proved to be the tool that makes long-GRBs a new class of standard candles. Gamma Ray Bursts, being very powerful cosmological sources detected in the hard X-ray band, represent a new tool to investigate the Universe in a redshift range, which is complementary to that covered by other cosmological probes (SNIa and CMB). A review of the Ep-Eiso, Ep-Egamma, Ep-Eiso-tbreak and Liso-Ep-T0.45 correlations is presented. Open issues related to these correlations (e.g. presence of outliers and selection effects) and to their use for cosmographic purposes (e.g. dependence on model assumptions) are discussed. Finally, the relevance of thermal components in GRB spectra is discussed in the light of some of the models recently proposed for the interpretation of the spectral-energy correlations. PMID:17293334

  19. Angular correlation of cosmic neutrinos with ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and implications for their sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic neutrino events detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory with energy 0∼> 3 TeV have poor angular resolutions to reveal their origin. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with better angular resolutions at 0>6 EeV energies, can be used to check if the same astrophysical sources are responsible for producing both neutrinos and UHECRs. We test this hypothesis, with statistical methods which emphasize invariant quantities, by using data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array and past cosmic-ray experiments. We find that the arrival directions of the cosmic neutrinos are correlated with 0≥ 10 EeV UHECR arrival directions at confidence level ≈ 90%. The strength of the correlation decreases with decreasing UHECR energy and no correlation exists at energy 0∼ 6 EeV . A search in astrophysical databases within 3{sup o} of the arrival directions of UHECRs with energy 0≥ 10 EeV, that are correlated with the IceCube cosmic neutrinos, resulted in 18 sources from the Swift-BAT X-ray catalog with redshift z≤ 0.06. We also found 3 objects in the Kühr catalog of radio sources using the same criteria. The sources are dominantly Seyfert galaxies with Cygnus A being the most prominent member. We calculate the required neutrino and UHECR fluxes to produce the observed correlated events, and estimate the corresponding neutrino luminosity (25 TeV–2.2 PeV) and cosmic-ray luminosity (500 TeV–180 EeV), assuming the sources are the ones we found in the Swift-BAT and Kühr catalogs. We compare these luminosities with the X-ray luminosity of the corresponding sources and discuss possibilities of accelerating protons to 0∼> 10 EeV and produce neutrinos in these sources.

  20. Accurate evaluation of the angular-dependent direct correlation function of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shuangliang; Liu, Honglai; Ramirez, Rosa; Borgis, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The direct correlation function (DCF) plays a pivotal role in addressing the thermodynamic properties with non-mean-field statistical theories of liquid state. This work provides an accurate yet efficient calculation procedure for evaluating the angular-dependent DCF of bulk SPC/E water. The DCF here represented in a discrete angles basis is computed with two typical steps: the first step involves solving the molecular Ornstein-Zernike equation with the input of total correlation function extracted from simulation; the resultant DCF is then polished in second step at small wavelength for all orientations in order to match correct thermodynamic properties. This function is also discussed in terms of its rotational invariant components. In particular, we show that the component c112(r) that accounts for dipolar symmetry reaches already its long-range asymptotic behavior at a short distance of 4 Å. With the knowledge of DCF, the angular-dependent bridge function of bulk water is thereafter computed and discussed in comparison with referenced hard-sphere bridge functions. We conclude that, even though such hard-sphere bridge functions may be relevant to improve the calculation of Helmholtz free energies in integral equations or density functional theory, they are doomed to fail at a structural level.

  1. Simulated models of inhomogeneous broadening in perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stufflebeam, Michael A.; Hodges, Jeffery A.; Evenson, William E.; Matheson, P.; Zacate, M. O.

    2007-10-01

    All real crystals have defects: missing atoms (vacancies), impurities, atoms out of place, etc. In perturbed angular correlation (PAC), these defects produce damping of the correlation signal in time and broadening of the frequency spectrum. This broadening is termed ``inhomogeneous broadening'' since it is due to the inhomogeneities (i.e. defects) in the crystal. We have simulated PAC spectra for various concentrations (0.1% to 5%) of distant randomly distributed defects plus a near-neighbor vacancy in simple cubic and face-centered cubic crystal structures. For every particular set of defects, the randomly distributed defects and the near-neighbor vacancy together produce a net electric field gradient (EFG), from which we obtain the PAC spectrum. We fit average PAC spectra to study the effects of defect concentration and crystal structure on inhomogeneous broadening as an aid to analyzing experimental data.

  2. Finding probability distributions for electric field gradient components with inhomogeneous broadening in perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tyler; Adams, Mike; Bunker, Austin; Hodges, Jeffery; Stufflebeam, Michael; Evenson, William; Matheson, Phil; Zacate, Matthew

    2009-10-01

    Materials contain defects, which affect crystal properties such as damping of the correlation signal,G2(t), in time and broadening of the frequency spectrum in perturbed angular correlation (PAC) experiments. We attribute this inhomogeneous broadening (IHB) to the random static defects that produce a distribution of electric field gradients (EFGs). Our goal is to find a relationship between the amount of broadening and the concentration of defects. After simulating the EFGs from random configurations of defects, we map our results from the Vzz-Vxx plane to a coordinate system optimized for the EFG distribution through a Czjzek transformation, followed by a conformal mapping. From histograms in this space, we can define probability distribution functions with parameters that vary according to defect concentration. This allows us to calculate the broadened G2(t) spectrum for any concentration, and, in reverse, identify concentrations given a broadened G2(t) spectrum.

  3. Axial and angular correlations between colloidal particles in narrow cylindrical pores

    PubMed

    Chavez-Paez; Medina-Noyola; Valdez-Covarrubias

    2000-10-01

    In this work we present a study of the local structure of a model colloidal suspension highly confined inside a cylindrical pore. Such a study is based in Monte Carlo computer simulations, using the repulsive part of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential as the pair interaction between particles. The structural properties calculated here are the concentration profile n(rho), the axial pair correlation function g(z), and the axial-angular pair correlation function g(z,straight phi). The behavior of these quantities is analyzed as a function of the density of colloidal particles in the restricted space, and as a function of the size of the pore. PMID:11089080

  4. Angular Correlation between Photoelectrons and Auger Electrons from K-Shell Ionization of Neon

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, A. L.; Robicheaux, F.; Bhandary, A.; Jahnke, T.; Schoeffler, M.; Titze, J.; Akoury, D.; Doerner, R.; Osipov, T.; Lee, S. Y.; Adaniya, H.; Hertlein, M.; Weber, Th.; Prior, M. H.; Belkacem, A.; Ranitovic, P.; Bocharova, I.; Cocke, C. L.

    2009-06-05

    We have used cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy to study the continuum correlation between the photoelectron of core-photoionized neon and the subsequent Auger electron. We observe a strong angular correlation between the two electrons. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations agree quite well with the photoelectron energy distribution that is shifted due to the potential change associated with Auger decay. However, a striking discrepancy results in the distribution of the relative angle between Auger and photoelectron. The classical model predicts a shift in photoelectron flux away from the Auger emission direction, and the data strikingly reveal that the flux is lost rather than diverted, indicating that the two-step interpretation of photoionization followed by Auger emission is insufficient to fully describe the core-photoionization process.

  5. Long-Range Near-Side Angular Correlations in Proton-Proton Interactions in CMS.

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The CMS Collaboration Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles emitted in proton-proton collisions at center of mass energies of 0.9, 2.36 and 7TeV over a broad range of pseudorapidity (?) and azimuthal angle (f) are presented using data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Short-range correlations in ??, which are studied in minimum bias events, are characterized using a simple independent cluster parameterization in order to quantify their strength (cluster size) and their extent in ? (cluster decay width). Long-range azimuthal correlations are studied more differentially as a function of charged particle multiplicity and particle transverse momentum using a 980nb-1 data set at 7TeV. In high multiplicity events, a pronounced structure emerges in the two-dimensional correlation function for particles in intermediate pT’s of 1-3GeV/c, 2.0< |??|<4.8 and ?f˜0. This is the ?rst observation of such a ridge-like feature in two-particle correlation functions in pp or p-pbar collisions. EVO Universe, password "seminar"; Phone Bridge ID: 2330444 Password: 5142

  6. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN HOST GALAXY METALLICITY AND GAMMA-RAY ENERGY RELEASE FOR LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Emily M.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Berger, Edo E-mail: kewley@ifa.hawaii.ed E-mail: eberger@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-12-10

    We compare the redshifts, host galaxy metallicities, and isotropic (E{sub {gamma}},iso) and beaming-corrected (E{sub {gamma}}) gamma-ray energy release of 16 long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) at z < 1. From this comparison, we find no statistically significant correlation between host metallicity and redshift, E{sub {gamma}},iso, or E{sub {gamma}}. These results are at odds with previous theoretical and observational predictions of an inverse correlation between gamma-ray energy release and host metallicity, as well as the standard predictions of metallicity-driven wind effects in stellar evolutionary models. We consider the implications that these results have for LGRB progenitor scenarios, and discuss our current understanding of the role that metallicity plays in the production of LGRBs.

  7. Parameterization of the Angular Distribution of Gamma Rays Produced by P-P Interaction in Astronomical Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Niklas; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-09-24

    We present the angular distribution of gamma rays produced by proton-proton interactions in parameterized formulae to facilitate calculations in astrophysical environments. The parameterization is derived from Monte Carlo simulations of the up-to-date proton-proton interaction model by Kamae et al. (2005) and its extension by Kamae et al. (2006). This model includes the logarithmically rising inelastic cross section, the diffraction dissociation process and Feynman scaling violation. The extension adds two baryon resonance contributions: one representing the {Delta}(1232) and the other representing multiple resonances around 1600 MeV/c{sup 2}. We demonstrate the use of the formulae by calculating the predicted gamma-ray spectrum for two different cases: the first is a pencil beam of protons following a power law and the second is a fanned proton jet with a Gaussian intensity profile impinging on the surrounding material. In both cases we find that the predicted gamma-ray spectrum to be dependent on the viewing angle.

  8. LORENTZ-FACTOR-ISOTROPIC-LUMINOSITY/ENERGY CORRELATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Lue Jing; Zou Yuanchuan; Lei Weihua; Wu Qingwen; Wang Dingxiong; Zhang Bing; Lue Houjun; Liang Enwei E-mail: leiwh@hust.edu.cn

    2012-05-20

    The bulk Lorentz factor of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) ejecta ({Gamma}{sub 0}) is a key parameter to understanding GRB physics. Liang et al. have discovered a correlation between {Gamma}{sub 0} and isotropic {gamma}-ray energy: {Gamma}{sub 0}{proportional_to}E{sup 0.25}{sub {gamma},iso,52}. By including more GRBs with updated data and more methods to derive {Gamma}{sub 0}, we confirm this correlation and obtain {Gamma}{sub 0} {approx_equal} 91E{sup 0.29}{sub {gamma},iso,52}. Evaluating the mean isotropic {gamma}-ray luminosities L{sub {gamma},iso} of the GRBs in the same sample, we discover an even tighter correlation {Gamma}{sub 0} {approx_equal} 249L{sup 0.30}{sub {gamma},iso,52}. We propose an interpretation to this later correlation. Invoking a neutrino-cooled hyperaccretion disk around a stellar mass black hole as the central engine of GRBs, we derive jet luminosity powered by neutrino annihilation and baryon loading from a neutrino-driven wind. Applying beaming correction, we finally derive {Gamma}{sub 0}{proportional_to}L{sup 0.22}{sub {gamma},iso}, which is consistent with the data. This suggests that the central engine of long GRBs is likely a stellar mass black hole surrounded by a hyper-accreting disk.

  9. Angular dependence of recoil proton polarization in high-energy \\gamma d \\to p n

    SciTech Connect

    X. Jiang; J. Arrington; F. Benmokhtar; A. Camsonne; J.P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; F. Cusanno; A. Deur; D. Dutta; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; C. Glashauser; D. Hamilton; O. Hansen; D.W. Higinbotham; R.J. Holt; C.W. de Jager; M.K. Jones; L.J. Kaufman; E.R. Kinney; K. Kramer; L. Lagamba; R. de Leo; J. Lerose; D. Lhuillier; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; K.D. Paschke; C.F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; I.A. Qattan; R.D. Ransome; P.E. Reimer; B. Reitz; A. Saha; E.C. Schulte; R. Sheyor; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; V. Sulkosky; G.M. Urciuoli; E. Voutier; K. Wang; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; L. Zhu

    2007-02-26

    We measured the angular dependence of the three recoil proton polarization components in two-body photodisintegration of the deuteron at a photon energy of 2 GeV. These new data provide a benchmark for calculations based on quantum chromodynamics. Two of the five existing models have made predictions of polarization observables. Both explain the longitudinal polarization transfer satisfactorily.. Transverse polarizations are not well described, but suggest isovector dominance.

  10. Study of nanoconfigurations in Zircon-Mullite composites using perturbed angular correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, Cecilia Y.; Pasquevich, Alberto F.; Rivas, Patricia C.; Martínez, Jorge A.; Caracoche, María C.; Rendtorff, Nicolás M.; Conconi, Maria S.; Aglietti, Esteban F.

    2010-06-01

    It has been already published that, at nanoscopic level, zircon exhibits wide regions of aperiodic material not detected by the ordinary techniques used to analyse the obtained product in the production of ceramic materials. In this paper it is reported how the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique has assisted the interpretation of a mismatch between experiment and theoretical estimation of a mechanical property in some zircon-mullite composites. In fact, it has been proved that the difference observed between the calculated and the experimental value of the elastic modulus in composites of the form (1-x) ZrSiO4 - x 3Al2O3.2SiO2 (with x = 15, 25, 35 and 45 wt.%) behaves very similarly as the relative amount of aperiodic zircon determined by PAC. This result allows to re-interpret the mullite role during the materials preparation.

  11. Perturbed angular correlation study of a nanostructured HfO2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquevich, A. F.; Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Soares, J. C.

    The hyperfine field at 181Ta lattice sites in a nanostructured Hf02 thin film was studied by the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique. The thin oxide film was deposited by pulsed laser ablation on a silicon substrate kept at 673 K. The thickness was about 25 nm. The radioactive 181Hf ions were produced by neutron activation of the very thin film in the Portuguese research reactor by the reaction 180Hf(n,γ)181Hf. PAC measurements were carried out at room temperature after annealing at different temperatures up to 1,473 K in air. The PAC technique allows determining the electric field gradient at the 181Ta probe sites. The 181Ta isotopes appear in the sample as disintegration product of 181 Hf.

  12. Perturbed angular correlation study of a nanostructured HfO2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquevich, A. F.; Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Soares, J. C.

    2007-09-01

    The hyperfine field at 181Ta lattice sites in a nanostructured HfO2 thin film was studied by the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique. The thin oxide film was deposited by pulsed laser ablation on a silicon substrate kept at 673 K. The thickness was about 25 nm. The radioactive 181Hf ions were produced by neutron activation of the very thin film in the Portuguese research reactor by the reaction 180Hf(n, γ)181Hf. PAC measurements were carried out at room temperature after annealing at different temperatures up to 1,473 K in air. The PAC technique allows determining the electric field gradient at the 181Ta probe sites. The 181Ta isotopes appear in the sample as disintegration product of 181Hf.

  13. Simulated models of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy in a 4-state+S system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Jeffery A.; Stufflebeam, Michael A.; Evenson, William E.; Matheson, P.; Zacate, M. O.

    2007-10-01

    Cerium oxide has a cubic crystal structure. A vacancy in CeO2 can be trapped by a probe atom and hop among equivalent 1st or 2nd neighbor sites of the probe, producing a fluctuating electric field gradient (EFG) at the probe nucleus. We have simulated the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectrum due to such a changing EFG (4-state model), as well as the case with an additional static background EFG (4-state+S). We have studied the effect of changing the defect hopping rates on the resulting spectrum and the inferred hyperfine parameters. We have analyzed these data to determine experimental conditions under which nonequilibrium initial probe distributions can be detected by PAC.

  14. Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays from a laser plasma accelerator with quadrant-sectored range filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jong Ho; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Kim, Hyung Taek; Rhee, Yong Joo; Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Shin, Jung Hun; Yoo, Byung Ju; Jo, Sung Ha; Shin, Kang Woo; Hojbota, Calin; Bae, Lee Jin; Jung, Jaehyung; Cho, Min Sang; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Cho, Byoung Ick; Choi, Il Woo; Nam, Chang Hee

    2016-07-01

    Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays radiated by GeV electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) are presented. The angle-resolved spectrum of betatron radiation was deconvolved from the position dependent data measured for a single laser shot with a broadband gamma-ray spectrometer comprising four-quadrant sectored range filters and an unfolding algorithm, based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The unfolded gamma-ray spectra in the photon energy range of 0.1-10 MeV revealed an approximately isotropic angular dependence of the peak photon energy and photon energy-integrated fluence. As expected by the analysis of betatron radiation from LWFAs, the results indicate that unpolarized gamma-rays are emitted by electrons undergoing betatron motion in isotropically distributed orbit planes.

  15. Neural correlates for angular head velocity in the rat dorsal tegmental nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassett, J. P.; Taube, J. S.; Oman, C. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Many neurons in the rat lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) fire selectively in relation to the animal's head direction (HD) in the horizontal plane independent of the rat's location or behavior. One hypothesis of how this representation is generated and updated is via subcortical projections from the dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTN). Here we report the type of activity in DTN neurons. The majority of cells (75%) fired as a function of the rat's angular head velocity (AHV). Cells exhibited one of two types of firing patterns: (1) symmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with AHV during head turns in both directions, and (2) asymmetric, in which the firing rate was positively correlated with head turns in one direction and correlated either negatively or not at all in the opposite direction. In addition to modulation by AHV, some of the AHV cells (40.1%) were weakly modulated by the rat's linear velocity, and a smaller number were modulated by HD (11%) or head pitch (15.9%). Autocorrelation analyses indicated that with the head stationary, AHV cells displayed irregular discharge patterns. Because afferents from the DTN are the major source of information projecting to the LMN, these results suggest that AHV information from the DTN plays a significant role in generating the HD signal in LMN. A model is proposed showing how DTN AHV cells can generate and update the LMN HD cell signal.

  16. Angular Resolution of an EAS Array for Gamma Ray Astronomy at Energies Greater Than 5 x 10 (13) Ev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apte, A. R.; Gopalakrishnan, N. V.; Tonwar, S. C.; Uma, V.

    1985-01-01

    A 24 detector extensive air shower array is being operated at Ootacamund (2300 m altitude, 11.4 deg N latitude) in southern India for a study of arrival directions of showers of energies greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV. Various configurations of the array of detectors have been used to estimate the accuracy in determination of arrival angle of showers with such an array. These studies show that it is possible to achieve an angular resolution of better than 2 deg with the Ooty array for search for point sources of Cosmic gamma rays at energies above 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV.

  17. Precision Measurements of Higher-Order Angular Galaxy. Correlations Using 10 Million SDSS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Ashley J.; Brunner, R. J.; Myers, A. D.

    2006-06-01

    We present estimates of the galaxy, N-point, area-averaged angular correlation functions, ωN(θ),; for N = 2,...,7 from the third data release (DR3) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our sample was constructed from galaxies with r magnitude between 18 and 21, and is currently the largest study of galaxy higher-order correlations. The calculated angular correlation functions are used to measure the projected, sN, and real space, SN, hierarchical amplitudes. Our measurements of the real space amplitudes are remarkably precise over the physical scales 0.2-10 h-1 Mpc, and are consistent with Gaussian primordial density fluctuations. Our measurements also suggest that higher-order galaxy bias is non-negligible. By defining b1 = 1, we find that c2 = -0.26 ± 0.10 and c3 = 1.0 ± 0.9. This is the first reported measurement of a marginally significant third-order bias, and it hints at the importance of even higher-order bias terms. We find early-type galaxies exhibit significantly different clustering than late-types at both small and large scales. At large scales (r > 1 h-1 Mpc), we find the SN for late-type galaxies are lower than for early-types, implying a difference between the higher-order bias of the respective samples. We find b1,early = 1.38 ± 0.10, c2,early = 0.29 ± 0.12, b1,late = 0.81 ± 0.03, and c2,late = -0.68 ± 0.09. This supports recent measurements of the higher-order correlations of infrared-selected galaxies, which found a positive c2, presumably due to the dominance of early-type galaxies in the 2MASS sample (Frith et al. 2005). We have extended our analysis to photometrically-selected quasars in the SDSS DR3, and are planning to leverage future SDSS data releases to make even tighter constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity and non-linear bias components. We acknowledge support from NASA grants NAG5-12578 and NAG5-12580, Microsoft Research, and the NSF PACI Project.

  18. Hybrid optical CDMA-FSO communications network under spatially correlated gamma-gamma scintillation.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Raddo, Thiago R; Garrido-Balsells, José María; Borges, Ben-Hur V; Olmos, Juan José Vegas; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we propose a new hybrid network solution based on asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) and free-space optical (FSO) technologies for last-mile access networks, where fiber deployment is impractical. The architecture of the proposed hybrid OCDMA-FSO network is thoroughly described. The users access the network in a fully asynchronous manner by means of assigned fast frequency hopping (FFH)-based codes. In the FSO receiver, an equal gain-combining technique is employed along with intensity modulation and direct detection. New analytical formalisms for evaluating the average bit error rate (ABER) performance are also proposed. These formalisms, based on the spatially correlated gamma-gamma statistical model, are derived considering three distinct scenarios, namely, uncorrelated, totally correlated, and partially correlated channels. Numerical results show that users can successfully achieve error-free ABER levels for the three scenarios considered as long as forward error correction (FEC) algorithms are employed. Therefore, OCDMA-FSO networks can be a prospective alternative to deliver high-speed communication services to access networks with deficient fiber infrastructure.

  19. Hybrid optical CDMA-FSO communications network under spatially correlated gamma-gamma scintillation.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Raddo, Thiago R; Garrido-Balsells, José María; Borges, Ben-Hur V; Olmos, Juan José Vegas; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we propose a new hybrid network solution based on asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) and free-space optical (FSO) technologies for last-mile access networks, where fiber deployment is impractical. The architecture of the proposed hybrid OCDMA-FSO network is thoroughly described. The users access the network in a fully asynchronous manner by means of assigned fast frequency hopping (FFH)-based codes. In the FSO receiver, an equal gain-combining technique is employed along with intensity modulation and direct detection. New analytical formalisms for evaluating the average bit error rate (ABER) performance are also proposed. These formalisms, based on the spatially correlated gamma-gamma statistical model, are derived considering three distinct scenarios, namely, uncorrelated, totally correlated, and partially correlated channels. Numerical results show that users can successfully achieve error-free ABER levels for the three scenarios considered as long as forward error correction (FEC) algorithms are employed. Therefore, OCDMA-FSO networks can be a prospective alternative to deliver high-speed communication services to access networks with deficient fiber infrastructure. PMID:27464133

  20. RADIAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND MAGNETIC BARRIER FOR SHORT-TYPE GAMMA-RAY-BURST CENTRAL ENGINE ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tong; Gu Weimin; Hou Shujin; Liang Enwei; Lei Weihua; Lin Lin; Zhang Shuangnan; Dai Zigao

    2012-11-20

    Soft extended emission (EE) following initial hard spikes up to 100 s was observed with Swift/BAT for about half of known short-type gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). This challenges the conversional central engine models of SGRBs, i.e., compact star merger models. In the framework of black-hole-neutron-star merger models, we study the roles of radial angular momentum transfer in the disk and the magnetic barrier around the black hole in the activity of SGRB central engines. We show that radial angular momentum transfer may significantly prolong the lifetime of the accretion process, which may be divided into multiple episodes by the magnetic barrier. Our numerical calculations based on models of neutrino-dominated accretion flows suggest that disk mass is critical for producing the observed EE. In the case of the mass being {approx}0.8 M {sub Sun }, our model can reproduce the observed timescale and luminosity of both the main and the EE episodes in a reasonable parameter set. The predicted luminosity of the EE component is lower than the observed EE within about one order of magnitude and the timescale is shorter than 20 s if the disk mass is {approx}0.2 M {sub Sun }. Swift/BAT-like instruments may be not sensitive enough to detect the EE component in this case. We argue that the EE component could be a probe for the merger process and disk formation for compact star mergers.

  1. Directional Stand-off Detection of Fast Neutrons and Gammas Using Angular Scattering Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier P. e.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.; Forman, L.

    2009-10-25

    We have investigated the response of a DoubleScatter Neutron Spectrometer (DSNS) for sources at long distances (gr than 200 meters). We find that an alternative method for analyzing double scatter data avoids some uncertainties introduced by amplitude measurements in plastic scintillators.Time of flight is used to discriminate between gamma and neutron events, and the kinematic distributions of scattering angles are assumed to apply. Non-relativistic neutrons are most likely to scatter at 45°, while gammas with energies greater than 2 MeV are most likely to be forward scattered. The distribution of scattering angles of fission neutrons arriving from a distant point source generates a 45° cone, which can be back-projected to give the source direction. At the same time, the distribution of Compton-scattered gammas has a maximum in the forward direction, and can be made narrower by selecting events that deposit minimal energy in the first scattering event. We have further determined that the shape of spontaneous fission neutron spectra at ranges gr than 110 m is still significantly different from thecosmic ray background.

  2. Herschel-ATLAS: The Angular Correlation Function of Submillimetre Galaxies at High and Low Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddox, S. J.; Dunne, L.; Rigby, E.; Eales, S.; Cooray, A.; Scott, D.; Peacock, J. A.; Negrello, M.; Smith, D. J. B.; Benford, D.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bonfield, D.; Burgarella, D.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D.; Dariush, A.; deZotti, G.; Dye, S.; Frayer, D.; Fritz, J.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Herranz, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the angular correlation function of galaxies selected from the first field of the H-ATLAS survey. Careful removal of the background from galactic cirrus is essential, and currently dominates the uncertainty in our measurements. For our 250 micrometer-selected sample we detect no significant clustering, consistent with the expectation that the 250 pm-selected sources are mostly normal galaxies at z < or equal to 1. For our 350 micrometer and 500 micrometer-selected samples we detect relatively strong clustering with correlation amplitudes A of 0.2 and 1.2 at 1', but with relatively large uncertainties. For samples which preferentially select high redshift galaxies at z approx. 2-3 we detect significant strong clustering, leading to an estimate of r(0) approx. 7-11/h Mpc. The slope of our clustering measurements is very steep. delta approx. 2. The measurements are consistent with the idea that sub-mm sources consist of a low redshift population of normal galaxies and a high redshift population of highly clustered star-bursting galaxies.

  3. Inconsistent [ital K]-[ital L] x-ray angular correlations in uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, T.; Maxwell, J.A.; Teesdale, W.J.; Campbell, J.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Angular correlations between [ital K][alpha][sub 1] x rays and subsequent [ital L][sub 3] x-ray transitions were measured using a [sup 233]Pa radionuclide source and high-resolution x-ray detectors. The results provide separately the values of [ital A][sub 22]([ital K][alpha][sub 1-][ital L][alpha][sub 1]) and [ital A][sub 22]([ital K][alpha][sub 1-][ital L][alpha][sub 2]) as opposed to the compound quantity [ital A][sub 22]([ital K][alpha][sub 1-][ital L][alpha]). For the [ital Ll] and [ital L][alpha][sub 2] transitions, the [ital A][sub 22] values agreed closely with those based upon theoretical (Hartree-Fock) [ital E]1 and [ital M]2 transition rates. For the less intense [ital L][beta][sub 6] and [ital L][beta][sub 2,15] transitions, agreement was also observed, although within larger uncertainties. In contrast, the value of [ital A][sub 22]([ital K][alpha][sub 1-][ital L][alpha][sub 1]) was 0.085[plus minus]0.007, which is somewhat larger than the predicted value of 0.073. Possible causes for this discrepancy are explored.

  4. Independent component analysis of inhomogeneous broadening in perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stufflebeam, Michael; Hodges, Jeffery A.; Park, Tyler; Evenson, W.; Matheson, P.; Zacate, M. O.

    2008-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) of electric field gradient (EFG) tensor components has proven useful in analysis of inhomogeneous broadening in perturbed angular correlation (PAC). We have simulated PAC spectra for various concentrations (0.1% to 15%) of randomly distributed defects with a near- neighbor vacancy in simple cubic and face-centered cubic crystal structures. In analyzing this simulation, we used ICA to transform the Vxx and Vzz EFG components to find a joint probability distribution function for the EFGs. ICA allowed us to separate the components and develop the joint probability function as a product of the probability distributions for two independent coordinates. Then we found the broadened G2(t) by integration over the joint probability distribution function. We have compared these results to simulated G2(t) functions, allowing us to analyze the concentration dependence of the broadened PAC spectrum. This work will be applied initially to broadened PAC data from β-Mn, Al-doped β-Mn, and Sr2RuO4.

  5. Search for magnetic interaction in In doped AlN using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ishita; Kessler, Patrick; Vianden, Reiner

    2013-05-01

    The possible presence of a large magnetic field due to spin polarization of a Cd nucleus (decay product of 111In) at an Al substitutional site in AlN is investigated with perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. The PAC spectra of 111In/111Cd in AlN show two probe environments: a weak quadrupole interaction (quadrupole interaction constant, ν _Q^{ lattice} = 30 MHz) due to 111In probes at a defect free Al substitutional site and an unknown large interaction (ν _Q^{ complex} = 300 MHz) tentatively attributed to a nearest neighbour pair between 111In and a nitrogen vacancy (VN) aligned along the c-axis. Surprisingly, in density functional theory (DFT) calculations, such a large electric field gradient (EFG) could not be reproduced. However, an inclusion of spin polarization in the calculations indicates a strong magnetic field at 50 % of the 111In/111Cd site. An attempt to verify the presence of the strong magnetic field and to explain the origin of the strong interaction is made. Orientation measurements show, the large interaction is not characterised by a magnetic interaction and is predominantly due to the EFG. However, in the presence of an external magnetic field, the strong interaction probe environment becomes more uniform and the EFG increases by 10 %. This definitely hints towards some sort of magnetic interaction at the strong interaction probe site.

  6. Phase identification in the Cu-In-S system by γ-γ perturbed angular correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüssler, M.; Metzner, H.; Husemann, K.-D.; Lewerenz, H. J.

    1988-11-01

    Perturbed angular correlations (PAC's) of γ rays are applied to investigate the Cu-In-S system. The radioactive 111-111Cd tracers are incorporated in the metallic indium used as starting material for crystal growth. Cu1-xIn1+xS2 samples with varying Cu:In ratio (x=0.0, 0.03, 0.07, 0.10) were prepared and characterized by PAC's. The stoichiometric sample (x=0.0) shows cubic symmetry of the In site without tetragonal distortion. For all samples with In excess the signals of metallic In (vQ1=e2qQ/h=18 MHz, η1=0) and InS (vQ2=233 MHz, η2=0.15) appear. Consequently, a new line in the Gibb's phase triangle of the Cu-In-S system is determined. The fractions of the In and InS phases as a function of In excess are analyzed.

  7. The Radio-Gamma Correlation in Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, B.; Becker Tjus, J.

    2016-04-01

    We present a systematic study of non-thermal electron-proton plasma and its emission processes in starburst galaxies in order to explain the correlation between the luminosity in the radio band and the recently observed gamma luminosity. In doing so, a steady state description of the cosmic-ray (CR) electrons and protons within the spatially homogeneous starburst is considered where continuous momentum losses are included as well as catastrophic losses due to diffusion and advection. The primary source of the relativistic CRs, e.g., supernova remnants, provides a quasi-neutral plasma with a power-law spectrum in momentum where we account for rigidity-dependent differences between the electron and proton spectrum. We examine the resulting leptonic and hadronic radiation processes by synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering, Bremsstrahlung, and hadronic pion production. Finally, the observations of NGC 253, M82, NGC 4945, and NGC 1068 in the radio and gamma-ray bands as well as the observed supernova rate are used to constrain a best-fit model. In the case of NGC 253, M82, and NGC 4945 our model is able to accurately describe the data, showing that: (i) supernovae are the dominant particle accelerators for NGC 253, M82, and NGC 4945, but not for NGC 1068; (ii) all considered starburst galaxies are poor proton calorimeters in which for NGC 253 the escape is predominantly driven by the galactic wind, whereas the diffusive escape dominates in NGC 4945 and M82 (at energies >1 TeV); and (iii) secondary electrons from hadronic pion production are important to model the radio flux, but the associated neutrino flux is below the current observation limit.

  8. The Radio–Gamma Correlation in Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, B.; Becker Tjus, J.

    2016-04-01

    We present a systematic study of non-thermal electron–proton plasma and its emission processes in starburst galaxies in order to explain the correlation between the luminosity in the radio band and the recently observed gamma luminosity. In doing so, a steady state description of the cosmic-ray (CR) electrons and protons within the spatially homogeneous starburst is considered where continuous momentum losses are included as well as catastrophic losses due to diffusion and advection. The primary source of the relativistic CRs, e.g., supernova remnants, provides a quasi-neutral plasma with a power-law spectrum in momentum where we account for rigidity-dependent differences between the electron and proton spectrum. We examine the resulting leptonic and hadronic radiation processes by synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering, Bremsstrahlung, and hadronic pion production. Finally, the observations of NGC 253, M82, NGC 4945, and NGC 1068 in the radio and gamma-ray bands as well as the observed supernova rate are used to constrain a best-fit model. In the case of NGC 253, M82, and NGC 4945 our model is able to accurately describe the data, showing that: (i) supernovae are the dominant particle accelerators for NGC 253, M82, and NGC 4945, but not for NGC 1068; (ii) all considered starburst galaxies are poor proton calorimeters in which for NGC 253 the escape is predominantly driven by the galactic wind, whereas the diffusive escape dominates in NGC 4945 and M82 (at energies >1 TeV); and (iii) secondary electrons from hadronic pion production are important to model the radio flux, but the associated neutrino flux is below the current observation limit.

  9. A NOVEL APPROACH IN THE WEAKLY INTERACTING MASSIVE PARTICLE QUEST: CROSS-CORRELATION OF GAMMA-RAY ANISOTROPIES AND COSMIC SHEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Camera, Stefano; Fornasa, Mattia; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco

    2013-07-01

    Both cosmic shear and cosmological gamma-ray emission stem from the presence of dark matter (DM) in the universe: DM structures are responsible for the bending of light in the weak-lensing regime and those same objects can emit gamma rays, either because they host astrophysical sources (active galactic nuclei or star-forming galaxies) or directly by DM annihilations (or decays, depending on the properties of the DM particle). Such gamma rays should therefore exhibit strong correlation with the cosmic shear signal. In this Letter, we compute the cross-correlation angular power spectrum of cosmic shear and gamma rays produced by the annihilation/decay of weakly interacting massive particle DM, as well as by astrophysical sources. We show that this observable provides novel information on the composition of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), since the amplitude and shape of the cross-correlation signal strongly depend on which class of sources is responsible for the gamma-ray emission. If the DM contribution to the EGB is significant (at least in a definite energy range), although compatible with current observational bounds, its strong correlation with the cosmic shear makes such signal potentially detectable by combining Fermi Large Area Telescope data with forthcoming galaxy surveys, like the Dark Energy Survey and Euclid. At the same time, the same signal would demonstrate that the weak-lensing observables are indeed due to particle DM matter and not to possible modifications of general relativity.

  10. A Correlated Optical and Gamma Emission from GRB 081126A

    SciTech Connect

    Gendre, B.; Klotz, A.; Atteia, J. L.; Boeer, M.; Coward, D. M.; Imerito, A. C.

    2010-10-15

    We present an analysis of time-resolved optical emissions observed from the gamma-ray burst GRB 081126 during the prompt phase. The analysis employed time-resolved photometry using optical data obtained by the TAROT telescope, BAT data from the Swift spacecraft and time-resolved spectroscopy at high energies from the GBM instrument onboard the Fermi spacecraft. The optical emission of GRB 081126 is found to be compatible with the second gamma emission pulse shifted by a positive time-lag of 8.4{+-}3.9 sec. This is the first well resolved observation of a time lag between optical and gamma emissions during a gamma-ray burst. Our observations could potentially provide new constraints on the fireball model for gamma ray burst early emissions. Furthermore, observations of time-lags between optical and gamma ray photons provides an exciting opportunity to constrain quantum gravity theories.

  11. Investigations of Zr-Ni intermetallic compounds by perturbed angular correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, C. C.

    2013-09-01

    The hyperfine interactions experienced by 181Ta in ZrNi5 and Zr2Ni7 intermetallic compounds have been investigated by the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique. In ZrNi5, a strong electric quadrupole interaction (∼40%) with ωQ=72.0(1) Mrad/s, η=0.25(1), δ=0 at room temperature has been found due to the presence of Zr2Ni7 contaminating phase produced during sample preparation in the arc furnace. A weak quadrupole interaction of Zr2Ni7 (∼5%) with ωQ=65(1) Mrad/s, η=0.24(6), δ=0 has also been observed. The cubic component of ZrNi5 also has been observed (∼40% at room temperature) in this sample along with associated defect (15%). It is found that at 873 K, the cubic fraction increases to ∼54% at the cost of its defect fraction. No magnetic interaction in ZrNi5 has been observed which supports the earlier PAC results but rules out the result of strong magnetic ordering found from magnetization measurement. In Zr2Ni7, two regular fractions corresponding to two different crystallographic sites of Zr have been clearly identified with the parameters ωQ(1)=70.9(1) Mrad/s, η(1)=0.28(1), δ=1.3(3)% and ωQ(2)=64(1) Mrad/s, η(2)=0.34(8), δ=0 while contradictory results were reported from previous measurements.

  12. Professional tennis players' serve: correlation between segmental angular momentums and ball velocity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caroline; Kulpa, Richard; Delamarche, Paul; Bideau, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships between segmental angular momentum and ball velocity between the following events: ball toss, maximal elbow flexion (MEF), racket lowest point (RLP), maximal shoulder external rotation (MER), and ball impact (BI). Ten tennis players performed serves recorded with a real-time motion capture. Mean angular momentums of the trunk, upper arm, forearm, and the hand-racket were calculated. The anteroposterior axis angular momentum of the trunk was significantly related with ball velocity during the MEF-RLP, RLP-MER, and MER-BI phases. The strongest relationships between the transverse-axis angular momentums and ball velocity followed a proximal-to-distal timing sequence that allows the transfer of angular momentum from the trunk (MEF-RLP and RLP-MER phases) to the upper arm (RLP-MER phase), forearm (RLP-MER and MER-BI phases), and the hand-racket (MER-BI phase). Since sequence is crucial for ball velocity, players should increase angular momentums of the trunk during MEF-MER, upper arm during RLP-MER, forearm during RLP-BI, and the hand-racket during MER-BI.

  13. Normalization of the Matter Power Spectrum via Higher Order Angular Correlations of Luminous Red Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Ashley J.; Brunner, Robert J.; Myers, Adam D.

    2008-08-01

    We present a novel technique with which to measure σ8. It relies on measuring the dependence of the second-order bias of a density field on σ8, using two separate techniques. Each technique employs area-averaged angular correlation functions (bar omegaN), one relying on the shape of bar omega2, the other relying on the amplitude of s3 (s3 = bar omega3/bar omega22). We confirm the validity of this method by testing it on a mock catalog drawn from Millennium Simulation data and finding a value of σ8 - σtrue8 = - 0.002 +/- 0.062. We create a catalog of photometrically selected LRGs from SDSS DR5 and separate it into three distinct data sets by photometric redshift, with median redshifts of 0.47, 0.53, and 0.61. Measurements of c2 and σ8 are made for each data set, with the assumption of a flat geometry and WMAP3 best-fit priors on Ωm, h, and Γ. We find, with increasing redshift, that c2 = 0.09 +/- 0.04, 0.09 +/- 0.05, and 0.09 +/- 0.03, and σ8 = 0.78 +/- 0.08, 0.80 +/- 0.09, and 0.80 +/- 0.09. We combine these three consistent σ8 measurements to produce σ8 = 0.79 +/- 0.05. Allowing the parameters Ωm, h, and Γ to vary within their WMAP3 1 σ error, we find that the best-fit value of σ8 does not change by more than 8%, and we are thus confident that our measurement is accurate to within 10%. We anticipate that future surveys, such as Pan-STARRS, DES, and LSST, will be able to employ this method in order to measure σ8 to great precision, and this will serve as an important check, complementarily, on the values determined via more established methods.

  14. Detailed Study of the Angular Correlations in the Prompt Neutron Emission in Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopatch, Yu.; Chietera, A.; Stuttgé, L.; Gönnenwein, F.; Mutterer, M.; Gagarski, A.; Guseva, I.; Chernysheva, E.; Dorvaux, O.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Hanappe, F.; Mezentseva, Z.; Telezhnikov, S.

    An experiment has been performed at IPHC Strasbourg, aimed at the detailed investigation of angular correlations in the neutron emission from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Fission fragments were measured by the angle-sensitive double ionization chamber CODIS while neutrons were detected by a set of 60 DEMON scintillator counters. The main aim of the experiment is the observation of the correlation between the fragment spins and neutron emission anisotropy. Preliminary results, based on the Monte-Carlo simulations, as well as the preliminary analysis of the experimental data are shown.

  15. Angular correlations in beauty production at the Tevatron at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Wijngaarden, Daniel A

    2005-06-01

    Measurements of the b quark production cross section at the Tevatron and at Hera in the final decades of the 20th century have consistently yielded higher values than predicted by Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) QCD. This discrepancy has led to a large efforts by theorists to improve theoretical calculations of the cross sections and simulations of b quark production. As a result, the difference between theory and experiment has been much reduced. New measurements are needed to test the developments in the calculations and in event simulation. In this thesis, a measurement of angular correlations between b jets produced in the same event is presented. The angular separation between two b jets is directly sensitive to higher order contributions. In addition, the measurement does not depend strongly on fragmentation models or on the experimental luminosity and efficiency, which lead to a large uncertainty in measurements of the inclusive cross section. At the Tevatron, b{bar b} quark pairs are predominantly produced through the strong interaction. In leading order QCD, the b quarks are produced back to back in phase space. Next-to-leading order contributions involving a third particle in the final state allow production of b pairs that are very close together in phase space. The Leading Order and NLO contributions can be separated into three different processes: flavour creation, gluon splitting and flavour excitation. While the separation based on Feynman diagrams is ambiguous and the three processes are not each separately gauge invariant in NLO QCD, the distinction can be made explicitly in terms of event generators using LO matrix elements. Direct production of a b{bar b} quark pair in the hard scatter interaction is known as flavour creation. The quarks emerge nearly back to back in azimuth. In gluon splitting processes, a gluon is produced in the hard scatter interaction. The gluon subsequently splits into a b{bar b} quark pair. The quarks are very close in phase

  16. ON THE RECENTLY DISCOVERED CORRELATIONS BETWEEN GAMMA-RAY AND X-RAY PROPERTIES OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

    2013-09-20

    Recently, many correlations between the prompt {gamma}-ray emission properties and the X-ray afterglow properties of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been inferred from a comprehensive analysis of the X-ray light curves of more than 650 GRBs measured with the Swift X-Ray Telescope (Swift/XRT) during the years 2004-2010. We show that these correlations are predicted by the cannonball (CB) model of GRBs. They result from the dependence of GRB observables on the bulk motion Lorentz factor and viewing angle of the jet of highly relativistic plasmoids (CBs) that produces the observed radiations by interaction with the medium through which it propagates. Moreover, despite their different physical origins, long GRBs (LGRBs) and short-hard bursts (SHBs) in the CB model share similar kinematic correlations, which can be combined into triple correlations satisfied by both LGRBs and SHBs.

  17. Longitudinal correlation properties of an optical field with broad angular and frequency spectra and their manifestation in interference microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lyakin, D V; Ryabukho, V P

    2013-10-31

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies of the longitudinal correlation properties of an optical field with broad angular and frequency spectra and manifestations of these properties in interference microscopy are presented. The joint and competitive influence of the angular and frequency spectra of the object-probing field on the longitudinal resolution and on the amplitude of the interference microscope signals from the interfaces between the media inside a multilayer object is demonstrated. The method of compensating the so-called defocusing effect that arises in the interference microscopy using objectives with a large numerical aperture is experimentally demonstrated, which consists in using as a light source in the interference microscope an illuminating interferometer with a frequency-broadband light source. This method of compensation may be used as the basis of simultaneous determination of geometric thickness and refractive index of media forming a multilayer object. (optical fields)

  18. First search for neutrinos in correlation with gamma-ray bursts with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    A search for neutrino-induced muons in correlation with a selection of 40 gamma-ray bursts that occurred in 2007 has been performed with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. During that period, the detector consisted of 5 detection lines. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is sensitive to TeV–PeV neutrinos that are predicted from gamma-ray bursts. No events were found in correlation with the prompt photon emission of the gamma-ray bursts and upper limits have been placed on the flux and fluence of neutrinos for different models.

  19. SER Analysis of MPPM-Coded MIMO-FSO System over Uncorrelated and Correlated Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khallaf, Haitham S.; Garrido-Balsells, José M.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Sampei, Seiichi

    2015-12-01

    The performance of multiple-input multiple-output free space optical (MIMO-FSO) communication systems, that adopt multipulse pulse position modulation (MPPM) techniques, is analyzed. Both exact and approximate symbol-error rates (SERs) are derived for both cases of uncorrelated and correlated channels. The effects of background noise, receiver shot-noise, and atmospheric turbulence are taken into consideration in our analysis. The random fluctuations of the received optical irradiance, produced by the atmospheric turbulence, is modeled by the widely used gamma-gamma statistical distribution. Uncorrelated MIMO channels are modeled by the α-μ distribution. A closed-form expression for the probability density function of the optical received irradiance is derived for the case of correlated MIMO channels. Using our analytical expressions, the degradation of the system performance with the increment of the correlation coefficients between MIMO channels is corroborated.

  20. CFHTLenS and RCSLenS: Testing Photometric Redshift Distributions Using Angular Cross-Correlations with Spectroscopic Galaxy Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, A.; Heymans, C.; Blake, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Duncan, C. A. J.; Erben, T.; Nakajima, R.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Viola, M.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the accuracy of galaxy redshift distributions as estimated from photometric redshift probability distributions p(z). Our method utilises measurements of the angular cross-correlation between photometric galaxies and an overlapping sample of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We describe the redshift leakage from a galaxy photometric redshift bin j into a spectroscopic redshift bin i using the sum of the p(z) for the galaxies residing in bin j. We can then predict the angular cross-correlation between photometric and spectroscopic galaxies due to intrinsic galaxy clustering when i ≠ j as a function of the measured angular cross-correlation when i = j. We also account for enhanced clustering arising from lensing magnification using a halo model. The comparison of this prediction with the measured signal provides a consistency check on the validity of using the summed p(z) to determine galaxy redshift distributions in cosmological analyses, as advocated by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We present an analysis of the photometric redshifts measured by CFHTLenS, which overlaps the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We also analyse the Red-sequence Cluster Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), which overlaps both BOSS and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We find that the summed p(z) from both surveys are generally biased with respect to the true underlying distributions. If unaccounted for, this bias would lead to errors in cosmological parameter estimation from CFHTLenS by less than ˜4%. For photometric redshift bins which spatially overlap in 3-D with our spectroscopic sample, we determine redshift bias corrections which can be used in future cosmological analyses that rely on accurate galaxy redshift distributions.

  1. Interaction of ethanol with 111In-labelled membranes: evaluation by the perturbed angular correlation-sum peak ratio method.

    PubMed

    Jay, M; Woodward, M A

    1985-08-01

    The interaction of ethanol with erythrocyte ghosts and vesicles composed of brain lipid extracts labelled with indium-111 was studied using the sum peak ratio method of perturbed angular correlation measurements. Membranes from animals that were fed diets containing ethanol for 10 days demonstrated resistance to the decrease in sum peak ratio values observed in control animals. Thus, repeated administration of ethanol induces changes in the properties of biological membranes, possibly by altering phospholipid composition, which is reflected in the anisotropy of membrane-associated 111In-labelled nuclei as measured by sum peak ratios.

  2. Detailed angular correlation analysis with 4{pi} spectrometers: Spin determinations and multipolarity mixing measurements in {sup 128}Ba

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenhoever, I.; Vogel, O.; Klein, H.; Dewald, A.; von Brentano, P.; Gableske, J.; Nicolay, N.; Gelberg, A.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Janssens, R.V.; Carpenter, M.P.; Kruecken, R.; Petkov, P.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Bazzacco, D.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Pavan, P.; de Angelis, G.; Lunardi, S.; Napoli, D.R.; Frauendorf, S.; Doenau, F.

    1998-08-01

    We analyze for the first time the full {gamma}{gamma} directional correlations from oriented states (DCO) in an experiment performed with the GASP detector array. Our analysis is based on a transformation of the directional information into expansion coefficients of an orthogonal basis. With this method, which we call SpeeDCO (spectral expansion of DCO), the complete DCO information is concentrated in 12 {gamma}{gamma} coincidence spectra. The analysis is applicable to all detector arrays which uniformly cover the solid angle. We show that the complete DCO information can be used for a reliable and unique determination of spins and multipolarity mixing ratios in weakly populated bands. We were able to establish the spins and the positive parity of the {Delta}I=1 {open_quotes}M1 band{close_quotes} in {sup 128}Ba and multipolarity mixing ratios of nine M1/E2 in-band transitions were derived as well. The measured values are in good agreement with those expected for a high-K rotational band. thinsp thinsp thinsp {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Multipolarity of the 2-→1- , ground-state transition in 210Bi via multivariable angular correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Szpak, B.; Leoni, S.; Fornal, B.; Bazzacco, D.; Blanc, A.; Bocchi, G.; Bottoni, S.; de France, G.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Simpson, G.; Soldner, T.; Ur, C.; Urban, W.

    2016-07-01

    The multipolarity of the main transition leading to the ground state in 210Bi was investigated using the angular correlations of γ rays. The analyzed γ -coincidence data were obtained from the 209Bi(n ,γ )210Bi experiment performed at Institut Laue-Langevin Grenoble at the PF1B cold-neutron facility. The EXILL (EXOGAM at the ILL) multidetector array, consisting of 16 high-purity germanium detectors, was used to detect γ transitions. The mixing ratio of the 320-keV γ ray was defined by minimizing a multivariable χΣ2 function constructed from the coefficients of angular correlation functions for seven pairs of strong transitions in 210Bi. As a result, the almost pure M 1 multipolarity of the 320-keV γ ray was obtained, with an E 2 admixture of less than 0.6% only (95% confidence limit). Based on this multipolarity the neutron-capture cross section leading to the ground state in 210Bi, that decays in turn to radiotoxic 210Po, was determined to be within the limits 21.3(9) and 21.5(9) mb. This result is important for nuclear reactor applications.

  4. Vitamin E and correlated antioxidants: A gamma radiolysis study

    SciTech Connect

    Jore, D.; Kaouadji, M.N.; Ferradini, C. )

    1990-01-01

    Gamma irradiations of Vit.E-Vit.C aerated ethanolic solutions have been performed for several ratios (Vit.E)/(Vit.C) between 0.1 and 50. The obtained results show that Vit.C is able to regenerate Vit.E from its oxidized radical, this regeneration being total for a ratio (Vit.E)/(Vit.C) greater than or equal to 27 in our conditions of irradiation. The ratio (Vit.E)/(Vit.C) seems to be the main factor of this synergestic effect towards peroxyl radicals scavenging.

  5. Performance evaluation of receive-diversity free-space optical communications over correlated Gamma-Gamma fading channels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guowei; Khalighi, Mohammad-Ali; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Bourennane, Salah

    2013-08-20

    The efficacy of spatial diversity in practical free-space optical communication systems is impaired by the fading correlation among the underlying subchannels. We consider in this paper the generation of correlated Gamma-Gamma random variables in view of evaluating the system outage probability and bit-error-rate under the condition of correlated fading. Considering the case of receive-diversity systems with intensity modulation and direct detection, we propose a set of criteria for setting the correlation coefficients on the small- and large-scale fading components based on scintillation theory. We verify these criteria using wave-optics simulations and further show through Monte Carlo simulations that we can effectively neglect the correlation corresponding to the small-scale turbulence in most practical systems, irrespective of the specific turbulence conditions. This has not been clarified before, to the best of our knowledge. We then present some numerical results to illustrate the effect of fading correlation on the system performance. Our conclusions can be generalized to the cases of multiple-beam and multiple-beam multiple-aperture systems.

  6. Angular correlation functions of X-ray point-like sources in the full exposure XMM-LSS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyiv, A.; Clerc, N.; Plionis, M.; Surdej, J.; Pierre, M.; Basilakos, S.; Chiappetti, L.; Gandhi, P.; Gosset, E.; Melnyk, O.; Pacaud, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to study the large-scale structure of different types of AGN using the medium-deep XMM-LSS survey. Methods: We measure the two-point angular correlation function of 5700 and 2500 X-ray point-like sources over the 11 sq. deg. XMM-LSS field in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) bands. For the conversion from the angular to the spatial correlation function we used the Limber integral equation and the luminosity-dependent density evolution model of the AGN X-ray luminosity function. Results: We have found significant angular correlations with the power-law parameters γ = 1.81 ± 0.02, θ0 = 1.3'' ± 0.2'' for the soft, and γ = 2.00 ± 0.04, θ0 = 7.3'' ± 1.0'' for the hard bands. The amplitude of the correlation function w(θ) is higher in the hard than in the soft band for fx ≲ 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 and lower above this flux limit. We confirm that the clustering strength θ0 grows with the flux limit of the sample, a trend which is also present in the amplitude of the spatial correlation function, but only for the soft band. In the hard band, it remains almost constant with r0 ≃ 10h-1 Mpc, irrespective of the flux limit. Our analysis of AGN subsamples with different hardness ratios shows that the sources with a hard-spectrum are more clustered than soft-spectrum ones. This result may be a hint that the two main types of AGN populate different environments. Finally, we find that our clustering results correspond to an X-ray selected AGN bias factor of 2.5 for the soft band sources (at a median bar{z} ≃ 1.1) and 3.3 for the hard band sources (at a median bar{z} ≃ 1), which translates into a host dark matter halo mass of 1013h-1M⊙ and 1013.7h-1M⊙ for the soft and hard bands, respectively. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Garcet who has initiated the present work just before his sudden death.

  7. Correlation Analysis of Prompt Emission from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothapragada, Sriharsha

    Prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibits very rapid, complicated temporal and spectral evolution. This diverse variability in the light-curves reflects the complicated nature of the underlying physics, in which inter-penetrating relativistic shells in the outflow are believed to generate strong magnetic fields that vary over very small scales. We use the theory of jitter radiation to model the emission from such regions and the resulting overall prompt gamma ray emission from a series of relativistic collisionless shocks. We present simulated GRB light-curves developed as a series of "pulses" corresponding to instantaneously illuminated "thin-shell" regions emitting via the jitter radiation mechanism. The effects of various geometries, viewing angles, and bulk Lorentz factor profiles of the radiating outflow jets on the spectral features and evolution of these light-curves are explored. Our results demonstrate how an anisotropic jitter radiation pattern, in conjunction with relativistic shock kinematics, can produce certain features observed in the GRB prompt emission spectra, such as the occurrence of hard, synchrotron violating spectra, the "tracking" of observed flux with spectral parameters, and spectral softening below peak energy within individual episodes of the light curve. We highlight predictions in the light of recent advances in the observational sphere of GRBs.

  8. TEMPORAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN OPTICAL AND GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Daniel P.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zheng, WeiKang; Li, Weidong; Romani, Roger W.; Cenko, S. Bradley

    2014-12-20

    We have been using the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in gamma-rays being detected with high significance (≥10σ) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a three-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The gamma-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the five-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have >100 optical measurements spanning the last three years. These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and gamma-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find strong optical-gamma-ray correlation in many of these sources at time delays of ∼1 to ∼10 days, ranging between –40 and +30 days. A stacked average DCF of the 40 sources verifies this correlation trend, with a peak above 99% significance indicating a characteristic time delay consistent with 0 days. These findings strongly support the widely accepted leptonic models of blazar emission. However, we also find examples of apparently uncorrelated flares (optical flares with no gamma-ray counterpart and gamma-ray flares with no optical counterpart) that challenge simple, one-zone models of blazar emission. Moreover, we find that flat-spectrum radio quasars tend to have gamma-rays leading the optical, while intermediate- and high-synchrotron peak blazars with the most significant peaks have smaller lags/leads. It is clear that long-term monitoring at high cadence is necessary to reveal the underlying physical correlation.

  9. Damage correlations in semiconductor devices exposed to gamma and high energy swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpa, N.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana

    2015-05-01

    NPN rf power transistors and N-channel depletion MOSFETs are irradiated by different high energy swift heavy ions and 60Co gamma radiation in the dose range of 100 krad to 100 Mrad. The damage created by different heavy ions and 60Co gamma radiation in NPN rf power transistors and N-channel depletion MOSFETs have been correlated and studied in the same dose range. The recoveries in the electrical characteristics of different swift heavy ions and 60Co gamma irradiated devices have been studied after annihilation.

  10. Damage correlations in semiconductor devices exposed to gamma and high energy swift heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pushpa, N.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana

    2015-05-15

    NPN rf power transistors and N-channel depletion MOSFETs are irradiated by different high energy swift heavy ions and {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in the dose range of 100 krad to 100 Mrad. The damage created by different heavy ions and {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in NPN rf power transistors and N-channel depletion MOSFETs have been correlated and studied in the same dose range. The recoveries in the electrical characteristics of different swift heavy ions and {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated devices have been studied after annihilation.

  11. A Case Study Correlating Innovative Gamma Ray Scanning Detection Systems Data to Surface Soil Gamma Spectrometry Results - 13580

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Shannon; Rodriguez, Rene; Billock, Paul; Lit, Peter

    2013-07-01

    HydroGeoLogic (HGL), Inc. completed a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) study to characterize radiological contamination at a site near Canoga Park, California. The characterized area contained 470 acres including the site of a prototype commercial nuclear reactor and other nuclear design, testing, and support operations from the 1950's until 1988 [1]. The site history included radiological releases during operation followed by D and D activities. The characterization was conducted under an accelerated schedule and the results will support the project remediation. The project has a rigorous cleanup to background agenda and does not allow for comparison to risk-based guidelines. To target soil sample locations, multiple lines of evidence were evaluated including a gamma radiation survey, geophysical surveys, historical site assessment, aerial photographs, and former worker interviews. Due to the time since production and decay, the primary gamma emitting radionuclide remaining is cesium-137 (Cs-137). The gamma ray survey covered diverse, rugged terrain using custom designed sodium iodide thallium-activated (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detection systems. The survey goals included attaining 100% ground surface coverage and detecting gamma radiation as sensitively as possible. The effectiveness of innovative gamma ray detection systems was tested by correlating field Cs-137 static count ratios to Cs-137 laboratory gamma spectrometry results. As a case study, the area encompassing the former location of the first nuclear power station in the U. S. was scanned, and second by second global positioning system (GPS)-linked gamma spectral data were evaluated by examining total count rate and nuclide-specific regions of interest. To compensate for Compton scattering from higher energy naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and their progeny, and K-40), count rate ratios of anthropogenic nuclide-specific regions of interest to the total count rate were

  12. Gamma Ray Bursts Spectral-Energy correlations: recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirlanda, Giancarlo

    2011-02-01

    The correlations between the rest frame peak of the νFν spectrum of GRBs (Epeak) and their isotropic energy (Eiso) or luminosity (Liso) could have several implications for the understanding of the GRB prompt emission. These correlations are presently founded on the time-averaged spectral properties of a sample of 95 bursts, with measured redshifts, collected by different instruments in the last 13 years (pre-Fermi). One still open issue is wether these correlations have a physical origin or are due to instrumental selection effects. By studying 10 long and 14 short GRBs detected by Fermi we find that a strong time-resolved correlation between Epeak and the luminosity Liso is present within individual GRBs and that it is consistent with the time-integrated correlation. This result is a direct proof of the existence in both short and long GRBs of a similar physical link between the hardness and the luminosity which is not due to instrumental selection effects. The origin of the Epeak - Liso correlation should be searched in the radiation mechanism of the prompt emission.

  13. E1 and E2 S factors of {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}{sub 0}){sup 16}O from {gamma}-ray angular distributions with a 4 {pi}-detector array

    SciTech Connect

    Assuncao, M.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Kiener, J.; Tatischeff, V.; Boukari-Pelissie, C.; Coc, A.; Correia, J.J.; Grama, C.; Hannachi, F.; Korichi, A.; LeDu, D.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Meunier, R.; Thibaud, J.P.; Beck, C.; Courtin, S.

    2006-05-15

    A new experiment to determine the thermonuclear cross section of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction has been performed in regular kinematics using an intense {alpha}-particle beam of up to 340 {mu}A from the Stuttgart DYNAMITRON. For the first time, a 4{pi}-germanium-detector setup has been used to measure the angular distribution of the {gamma} rays at all angles simultaneously. It consisted of an array of nine EUROGAM high-purity Ge detectors in close geometry, actively shielded individually with bismuth germanate crystals. The {sup 12}C targets were isotopically enriched by magnetic separation during implantation. The depth profiles of the implanted carbon in the {sup 12}C targets were determined by Rutherford backscattering for purposes of cross-section normalization and absolute determination of the E1 and E2 S factors. Angular distributions of the {gamma} decay to the {sup 16}O ground state were measured in the energy range E{sub c.m.}=1.30-2.78 MeV and in the angular range (lab.) 30 deg. -130 deg. . From these distributions, astrophysical E1 and E2 S-factor functions vs energy were calculated, both of which are indispensable to the modeling of this reaction and the extrapolation toward lower energies. The separation of the E1 and E2 capture channels was done both by taking the phase value {phi}{sub 12} as a free parameter and by fixing it using the results of elastic {alpha}-particle scattering on {sup 12}C in the same energy range.

  14. Theoretical study on the angular correlation of two Lyman-α photons generated by single-photon absorption of a hydrogen molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Haruhide; Ichimura, Atsushi; Kouchi, Noriyuki

    2007-02-01

    The angular correlation of two Lyman-α photons generated by the linearly polarized single-photon absorption of H2(X 1Σg+) followed by the neutral dissociation of the doubly excited Q21Πu(1) state has been theoretically investigated with the second-order correlation function in quantum optics. A strong angular correlation has been obtained even for the molecules randomly oriented in space, due to the complicated entanglement of two H(2p) atoms in the intermediate state. It has been revealed how the symmetry properties in the electronic state are transferred to the two-photon state and how they manifest themselves in the angular correlation function.

  15. Angular correlation function of the hypersatellite-satellite x-ray cascade following K -shell electron capture of 55Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Michel, Thilo; Surzhykov, Andrey; Fritzsche, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    The first measurement of the hypersatellite-satellite two-photon angular correlation function following the electron capture decay of 55Fe was carried out. In particular, two hybrid active pixel detectors were employed to measure the anisotropy parameter β2eff(exp ) =0.097 ±0.053 , which closely agreed with the theoretical value β2eff(theor ) =0.09735 , calculated in the electric-dipole approximation. In addition, we also determined the double K -shell vacancy creation probability in this specific electron capture decay with improved accuracy. We found PK K=(1.388 ±0.037 ) ×10-4 , with a systematic error Δ PK K ,syst=0.042 ×10-4 .

  16. Particle-gamma and particle-particle correlations in nuclear reactions using Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshback model

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick; Watanabe, Takehito; Chadwick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for particle and {gamma}-ray emissions from an excited nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory are performed to obtain correlated information between emitted particles and {gamma}-rays. We calculate neutron induced reactions on {sup 51}V to demonstrate unique advantages of the Monte Carlo method. which are the correlated {gamma}-rays in the neutron radiative capture reaction, the neutron and {gamma}-ray correlation, and the particle-particle correlations at higher energies. It is shown that properties in nuclear reactions that are difficult to study with a deterministic method can be obtained with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. The optical-gamma correlation in BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiteri, Claudia M.; Villata, Massimo; D'Ammando, Filippo; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Mirzaqulov, Davron O.; Smith, Paul S.; Carnerero, Maria Isabel

    2013-12-01

    We present multifrequency light curves of BL Lacertae from February 2008 to October 2012. Lowenergy data (optical and millimetre) were acquired in the framework of a GASP-WEBT project. High-energy data (ultraviolet, X-ray, and γ-ray) come from observations of the Swift, RXTE, and Fermi satellites. After a period of moderate activity, in May 2011 the source suddenly started to flare at γ and optical-UV frequencies. Activity at millimetre wavelengths and X rays began 3-4 months later. This behaviour offered a good opportunity to study the correlation among flux variability in different bands, in particular between the best-sampled optical and γ-ray light curves. However, even in this fortuitous case, we can only define a general correlation with likely no time lag, but with a lag uncertainty of ±1 day. Indeed, the data reveal a complex relationship between the γ and optical fluxes, which cannot be unveiled because of the small gaps in the sampling of this extremely variable source.

  18. A correlation between hard gamma-ray sources and cosmic voids along the line of sight

    SciTech Connect

    Furniss, A.; Sutter, P. M.; Primack, J. R.; Dominguez, A.

    2014-11-25

    We estimate the galaxy density along lines of sight to hard extragalactic gamma-ray sources by correlating source positions on the sky with a void catalog based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Extragalactic gamma-ray sources that are detected at very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) or have been highlighted as VHE-emitting candidates in the Fermi Large Area Telescope hard source catalog (together referred to as “VHE-like” sources) are distributed along underdense lines of sight at the 2.4σ level. There is a less suggestive correlation for the Fermi hard source population (1.7σ). A correlation between 10-500 GeV flux and underdense fraction along the line of sight for VHE-like and Fermi hard sources is found at 2.4σ and 2.6σ, calculated from the Pearson correlation coefficients of r = 0.57 and 0.47, respectively. The preference for underdense sight lines is not displayed by gamma-ray emitting galaxies within the second Fermi catalog, containing sources detected above 100 MeV, or the SDSS DR7 quasar catalog. We investigate whether this marginal correlation might be a result of lower extragalactic background light (EBL) photon density within the underdense regions and find that, even in the most extreme case of a entirely underdense sight line, the EBL photon density is only 2% less than the nominal EBL density. Translating this into gamma-ray attenuation along the line of sight for a highly attenuated source with opacity τ(E, z) ~ 5, we estimate that the attentuation of gamma-rays decreases no more than 10%. This decrease, although non-neglible, is unable to account for the apparent hard source correlation with underdense lines of sight.

  19. A correlation between hard gamma-ray sources and cosmic voids along the line of sight

    DOE PAGES

    Furniss, A.; Sutter, P. M.; Primack, J. R.; Dominguez, A.

    2014-11-25

    We estimate the galaxy density along lines of sight to hard extragalactic gamma-ray sources by correlating source positions on the sky with a void catalog based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Extragalactic gamma-ray sources that are detected at very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) or have been highlighted as VHE-emitting candidates in the Fermi Large Area Telescope hard source catalog (together referred to as “VHE-like” sources) are distributed along underdense lines of sight at the 2.4σ level. There is a less suggestive correlation for the Fermi hard source population (1.7σ). A correlation between 10-500 GeV fluxmore » and underdense fraction along the line of sight for VHE-like and Fermi hard sources is found at 2.4σ and 2.6σ, calculated from the Pearson correlation coefficients of r = 0.57 and 0.47, respectively. The preference for underdense sight lines is not displayed by gamma-ray emitting galaxies within the second Fermi catalog, containing sources detected above 100 MeV, or the SDSS DR7 quasar catalog. We investigate whether this marginal correlation might be a result of lower extragalactic background light (EBL) photon density within the underdense regions and find that, even in the most extreme case of a entirely underdense sight line, the EBL photon density is only 2% less than the nominal EBL density. Translating this into gamma-ray attenuation along the line of sight for a highly attenuated source with opacity τ(E, z) ~ 5, we estimate that the attentuation of gamma-rays decreases no more than 10%. This decrease, although non-neglible, is unable to account for the apparent hard source correlation with underdense lines of sight.« less

  20. Correlation of spectral, spatial, and angular characteristics of an ultrashort laser driven proton source

    SciTech Connect

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Schnuerer, M.; Nickles, P. V.; Sandner, W.; Nakamura, T.; Mima, K.

    2009-04-15

    The laser driven ion source is a highly organized dynamical system. It relies on a well defined interrelation between the spatial and momentum distributions of emitted ions. This correlation is found by a consecutive spectral characterization of distinct proton beamlets emitted from different spatial target positions and under different angles. In case of a flat target and a perfectly round laser focal spot, the proton source is circular symmetric and each source point behaves similarly: the higher the proton energy the smaller the source size and the larger the emission angle for a similar source extension. Only the symmetry axis is unique; here all protons are emitted at 0 deg. to the target normal.

  1. A study of the correlation of EHE cosmic rays with Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1998-06-15

    A study of space angles and temporal spacing was made for extremely-high energy (EHE) cosmic ray events to see if there are any correlation with Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB's) recorded by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The results on the most generic correlation using all the recorded GRB's and EHECR's show no significant correlation. Nevertheless, the highest-energy cosmic ray ''pair'' events observed by the AGASA experiments appear to be correlated with the very high fluence GRB's. Some basis to form a GRB and a fireball is discussed. Empirical analysis of the GRB events strongly implied that the photonic field energy density in the source region should have exceeded the electric energy density of Schwinger field. A possible generation of an initial GRB, its fireball and relativistic shocks therein, is considered in terms of Schwinger field generated by radiation pressure of transient, high luminosity photons provided by collective nuclear collisions of neutron matter. Acceleration of electrons, and some protons, may be possible in the radial electrostatic Schwinger field. Ultra-relativistic shocks might also accelerate particles to certain high energies ({gamma}{<=}10{sup 12{center_dot}}{sup 15}). Neutral secondaries, including gamma rays, neutrinos, ''strangelets,'' and Farrar's SUSY S{sub 0} particles, are discussed as plausible EHECR pair candidates from GRB fireballs. The OWL/AIRWATCH may be able to explore them from 4x10{sup 19} eV to well beyond 10{sup 21} eV.

  2. Methodological problems with gamma-ray burst hardness/intensity correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1993-01-01

    The hardness and intensity are easily measured quantities for all gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and so, many past and current studies have sought correlations between them. This Letter presents many serious methodological problems with the practical definitions for both hardness and intensity. These difficulties are such that significant correlations can be easily introduced as artifacts of the reduction procedure. In particular, cosmological models of GRBs cannot be tested with hardness/intensity correlations with current instrumentation and the time evolution of the hardness in a given burst may be correlated with intensity for reasons that are unrelated to intrinsic change in the spectral shape.

  3. Anomalous correlation between hadron and electromagnetic particles in hadron and gamma-ray families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamada, M.

    1985-01-01

    Correlations between hadrons and electromagnetic particles were studied in the hadron-gamma families observed in the Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiment. It is found that there exist a number of hadrons which associate electromagnetic showers in extraordinarily close vicinity. The probability to have such a large number of hadrons associating electromagnetic showers, expected from background calculation, is found to be negligibly small and it means there exists anomalous correlation between hadrons and electromagnetic particles in the characteristic spread of atmospheric electromagnetic cascade.

  4. Study of Positronium in Low-k Dielectric Films by means of 2D-Angular Correlation Experiments at a High-Intensity Slow-Positron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gessmann, T; Petkov, M P; Weber, M H; Lynn, K G; Rodbell, K P; Asoka-Kumar, P; Stoeffl, W; Howell, R H

    2001-06-20

    Depth-resolved measurements of the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) were performed at the high-intensity slow-positron beam of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We studied the formation of positronium in thin films of methyl-silsesquioxane (MSSQ) spin-on glass containing open-volume defects in the size of voids. Samples with different average void sizes were investigated and positronium formation could be found in all cases. The width of the angular correlation related to the annihilation of parapositronium increased with the void size indicating the annihilation of non-thermalized parapositronium.

  5. Determination of solar flare accelerated ion angular distributions from SMM gamma ray and neutron measurements and determination of the He-3/H ratio in the solar photosphere from SMM gamma ray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) observations of gamma-ray line and neutron emission with theoretical calculation of their expected production by flare accelerated ion interactions in the solar atmosphere have led to significant advances in the understanding of solar flare particle acceleration and interaction, as well as the flare process itself. These comparisons have enabled the determination of, not only the total number and energy spectrum of accelerated ions trapped at the sun, but also the ion angular distribution as they interact in the solar atmosphere. The Monte Carlo program was modified to include in the calculations of ion trajectories the effects of both mirroring in converging magnetic fields and of pitch angle scattering. Comparing the results of these calculations with the SMM observations, not only the angular distribution of the interacting ions can be determined, but also the initial angular distribution of the ions at acceleration. The reliable determination of the solar photospheric He-3 abundance is of great importance for understanding nucleosynthesis in the early universe and its implications for cosmology, as well as for the study of the evolution of the sun. It is also essential for the determinations of the spectrum and total number of flare accelerated ions from the SMM/GRS gamma-ray line measurements. Systematic Monte Carlo calculations of the time dependence were made as a function of the He-3 abundance and other variables. A new series of calculations were compared for the time-dependent flux of 2.223 MeV neutron capture line emission and the ratio of the time-integrated flux in the 2.223 MeV line to that in the 4.1 to 6.4 MeV nuclear deexcitation band.

  6. Gamma oscillations as a neuronal correlate of the attentional effects of pain.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, Laura; Schulz, Enrico; Gross, Joachim; Ploner, Markus

    2010-08-01

    Successful behavior requires the attentional selection and preferred processing of behaviorally relevant sensory information. Painful stimuli are of utmost behavioral relevance and can therefore involuntarily affect attentional resources and interfere with ongoing behavior. However, the neuronal mechanisms which subserve the involuntary attentional effects of pain are largely unknown yet. Here, we therefore investigated the neuronal mechanisms of the attentional effects of pain by using electroencephalography during a visual attention task with the concurrent presentation of painful stimuli. Our results confirm that painful and visual stimuli induce gamma oscillations over central and occipital areas, respectively. Pain-induced gamma oscillations were correlated with pain-induced changes in visual gamma oscillations. Behaviorally, we observed variable effects of pain on visual reaction times, yielding an increase of reaction times for some subjects, as well as a decrease of reaction times for others. Most importantly, however, these changes in visual task performance were significantly related to pain-induced changes of visual gamma oscillations. These findings demonstrate that the variable attentional effects of pain are closely related to changes in neuronal gamma oscillations in the human brain. In the hypervigilant state of chronic pain, maladaptive changes in the attentional effects of pain may be associated with abnormal changes in neuronal gamma oscillations. Our findings may thus contribute to the understanding of the neuronal substrates of pain in health and may open a new window towards the understanding of pathological alterations of the pain experience in chronic pain syndromes.

  7. Gluon correlations from a glasma flux-tube model compared to measured hadron correlations on transverse momentum (pt,pt) and angular differences (ηΔ,φΔ)

    DOE PAGES

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Ray, R. L.

    2011-09-09

    A glasma flux-tube model has been proposed to explain strong elongation on pseudorapidity η of the same-side two-dimensional (2D) peak in minimum-bias angular correlations from √(sNN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. The same-side peak or “soft ridge” is said to arise from coupling of flux tubes to radial flow whereby gluons radiated transversely from flux tubes are boosted by radial flow to form a narrow structure or ridge on azimuth. In this study we test the theory conjecture by comparing measurements to predictions for particle production, spectra, and correlations from the glasma model and from conventional fragmentation processes. We conclude that themore » glasma model is contradicted by measured hadron yields, spectra, and correlations, whereas a two-component model of hadron production, including minimum-bias parton fragmentation, provides a quantitative description of most features of the data, although η elongation of the same-side 2D peak remains undescribed.« less

  8. Angular Cross-correlation of Spitzer IRAC and Herschel Spire Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Cooray, A.; Wang, L.; HerMES Consortium

    2011-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) each provide deep and wide coverage, centered on the Bootes field, at infrared and sub-millimeter wavelengths. The SDWFS covers approximately 8.5 square degrees with sensitivities of galaxies out to z 3. From the public SDWFS source catalog, we remove stars and contaminants by concentration, using selection methods based on IRAC and optical colors; optical photometry is provided by the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Photometric redshifts of detected IRAC sources are then determined using the 1.6 micron spectral feature (or 'bump'). We classify three different kinds of bumps, (bump 1- bump 3), with redshifts ranging approximately from 0-1.3, 1.3-2, and 2-3 respectively. The number of bump 1 sources in the SDWFS catalogs were found to be in excess of 25,000 at the 5 sigma detection limit of the 3.6 micron channel of the IRAC instrument. Bump 2 and bump 3 source identification yielded similar, but slightly fewer counts. We also extract a separate catalog of 2500 or so dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z 2 using 24 micron and r-band fluxes. As part of HerMES observations with SPIRE, the Bootes field contain more than 15,000 clearly detected SPIRE sources at 250 microns, In this paper we report on the cross correlation function of these bump sources with the source catalogs from three bands of the SPIRE instrument onboard Herschel. The aim is to broadly reconstruct the redshift distribution of SPIRE sources using redshift distributions of bump and DOGs in the bootes field and the relative clustering strengths.

  9. Gamma synchrony predicts neuron-neuron correlations and correlations with motor behavior in extrastriate visual area MT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeol; Lisberger, Stephen G

    2013-12-11

    Correlated variability of neuronal responses is an important factor in estimating sensory parameters from a population response. Large correlations among neurons reduce the effective size of a neural population and increase the variation of the estimates. They also allow the activity of one neuron to be informative about impending perceptual decisions or motor actions on single trials. In extrastriate visual area MT of the rhesus macaque, for example, some but not all neurons show nonzero "choice probabilities" for perceptual decisions or non-zero "MT-pursuit" correlations between the trial-by-trial variations in neural activity and smooth pursuit eye movements. To understand the functional implications of zero versus nonzero correlations between neural responses and impending perceptions or actions, we took advantage of prior observations that specific frequencies of local field potentials reflect the correlated activity of neurons. We found that the strength of the spike-field coherence of a neuron in the gamma-band frequency range is related to the size of its MT-pursuit correlations for eye direction, as well as to the size of the neuron-neuron correlations. Spike-field coherence predicts MT-pursuit correlations better for direction than for speed, perhaps because the topographic organization of direction preference in MT is more amenable to creating meaningful local field potentials. We suggest that the relationship between spiking and local-field potentials is stronger for neurons that have larger correlations with their neighbors; larger neuron-neuron correlations create stronger MT-pursuit correlations. Neurons that lack strong correlations with their neighbors also have weaker correlations with pursuit behavior, but still could drive pursuit strongly.

  10. D0 results on three-jet production, multijet cross-section ratios, and minimum bias angular correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Lee; /Louisiana Tech. U.

    2010-01-01

    We report the measurement of the cross-section for three-jet production and the ratio of inclusive three-jet to two-jet cross-sections, as well as a study of angular correlations in minimum bias events, based on data taken with the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The differential inclusive three-jet cross section as a function of the invariant three-jetmass (M{sub 3jet}) is measured in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb{sup -1}. The measurement is performed in three rapidity regions (|y| < 0.8, |y| < 1.6 and |y| < 2.4) and in three regions of the third (ordered in p{sub T}) jet transverse momenta (p{sub T3} > 40 GeV, p{sub T3} > 70 GeV, p{sub T3} > 100 GeV) for events with leading jet transverse momentum larger than 150 GeV and well separated jets. NLO QCD calculations are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the measured cross sections. Based on the same data set, we present the first measurement of ratios of multi-jet cross sections in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The ratio of inclusive trijet and dijet cross sections, R{sub 3/2}, has been measured as a function of the transverse jet momenta. The data are compared to QCD model predictions in different approximations. Finally, we present a new way to describe minimum bias events based on angular distributions in {approx}5 million minimum bias p{bar p} collisions collected between April 2002 and February 2006 with the D0 detector. We demonstrate that the distribution of {Delta}{phi} in the detector transverse plane between the leading track and all other tracks is a robust observable that can be used for tuning of multiple color interaction models. Pseudorapidity correlations of the {Delta}{phi} distributions are also studied.

  11. A search for luminosity - Spectral hardness correlations in SIGNE gamma-ray burst data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargatis, Vincent E.; Liang, Edison P.; Hurley, Kevin C.

    1992-01-01

    We use simple 2-parameter models to fit gamma-ray burst spectra from the SIGNE experiments aboard the Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft in order to estimate burst luminosity and spectral hardness. We then look for correlations between these two parameters. The hardness is characterized by kT and Ec for thermal bremsstrahlung and thermal synchrotron fits, respectively. The spectra are integrated over 1/2 s or longer, depending on photon statistics. We find that generally luminosity increases with spectral hardness. We fit power laws of the form L varies as kT sup gamma to 12 bursts. A wide range of indices with gamma = 0.5-2.5 is found, broader than that reported by Golenetskii et al. (1983).

  12. Time correlations between low and high energy gamma rays from discrete sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Activities covered the following areas: (1) continuing analysis of the Cygnus Experiment data on the shadowing of cosmic rays by the moon and sun, which led to a direct confirmation of the angular resolution of the CYGNUS EAS array; and (2) development of analysis methods for the daily search overlapping with EGRET targets. To date, no steady emission of ultrahigh energy (UHE) gamma rays from any source has been detected by the Cygnus Experiment, but some evidence for sporadic emission had been found. Upper limits on steady fluxes from 49 sources in the northern hemisphere have been published. In addition, a daily search of 51 possible sources over the interval April 1986 to June 1992 found no evidence for emission. From these source lists, four candidates were selected for comparison with EGRET data.

  13. Low temperature structural modification in Rb2ZrF6: Investigations by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, S. K.; Dey, C. C.; Saha, S.

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependent perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements in crystalline compounds Rb2ZrF6 and Cs2HfF6 have been performed in the temperature range 298-753 K. In Rb2ZrF6, four discrete quadrupole interaction frequencies have been observed at room temperature which correspond to four minor structural modifications. From previous measurements, on the other hand, two structural modifications of this compound were known. A displacive phase transition, probably, occurs at low temperature due to rotation of the ZrF62- octahedron and produces different structural modifications. From present measurements in Rb2ZrF6, two quadrupole interaction frequencies [ωQ=26.1(3) Mrad/s, η=0.55(2), δ=5(1)% and ωQ=148.7(3) Mrad/s, η=0.538(5), δ=1.2%] have been found at room temperature which were not found from previous studies. In Cs2HfF6, these new structural modifications have not been observed.

  14. PAC (perturbed angular correlation) analysis of defect motion by Blume's stochastic model for I = 5/2 electric quadrupole interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, W.E. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Gardner, J.A.; Wang, Ruiping . Dept. of Physics); Su, Han-Tzong ); McKale, A.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Using Blume's stochastic model and the approach of Winkler and Gerdau, we have computed-time-dependent effects on perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectra due to defect motion in solids in the case of I = (5/2) electric quadrupole interactions. We report detailed analysis for a family of simple models: XYZ + Z'' models, in which the symmetry axis of an axial efg is allowed to fluctuate among orientations along x, y, and z axes, and a static axial efg oriented along the z axis is added to the fluctuating efgs. When the static efg is zero, this model is termed the XYZ'' model. Approximate forms are given for G{sub 2}(t) in the slow and rapid fluctuation regimes, i.e. suitable for the low and high temperature regions, respectively. Where they adequately reflect the underlying physical processes, these expressions allow one to fit PAC data for a wide range of temperatures and dopant concentrations to a single model, thus increasing the uniqueness of the interpretation of the defect properties. Application of the models are given for zirconia and ceria ceramics. 14 refs.

  15. On The Origin Of High Energy Correlations in Gamma-ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Kocevski, Daniel

    2012-04-03

    I investigate the origin of the observed correlation between a gamma-ray burst's {nu}F{sub {nu}} spectral peak E{sub pk} and its isotropic equivalent energy E{sub iso} through the use of a population synthesis code to model the prompt gamma-ray emission from GRBs. By using prescriptions for the distribution of prompt spectral parameters as well as the population's luminosity function and co-moving rate density, I generate a simulated population of GRBs and examine how bursts of varying spectral properties and redshift would appear to a gamma-ray detector here on Earth. I find that a strong observed correlation can be produced between the source frame Epk and Eiso for the detected population despite the existence of only a weak and broad correlation in the original simulated population. The energy dependance of a gamma-ray detector's flux-limited detection threshold acts to produce a correlation between the source frame E{sub pk} and E{sub iso} for low luminosity GRBs, producing the left boundary of the observed correlation. Conversely, very luminous GRBs are found at higher redshifts than their low luminosity counterparts due to the standard Malquest bias, causing bursts in the low E{sub pk}, high E{sub iso} regime to go undetected because their E{sub pk} values would be redshifted to energies at which most gamma-ray detectors become less sensitive. I argue that it is this previously unexamined effect which produces the right boundary of the observed correlation. Therefore, the origin of the observed correlation is a complex combination of the instrument's detection threshold, the intrinsic cutoff in the GRB luminosity function, and the broad range of redshifts over which GRBs are detected. Although the GRB model presented here is a very simplified representation of the complex nature of GRBs, these simulations serve to demonstrate how selection effects caused by a combination of instrumental sensitivity and the cosmological nature of an astrophysical population

  16. ASSESSING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF APPARENT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR FLUXES

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlidou, V.; Richards, J. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; King, O. G.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Stevenson, M. A.; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Zensus, J. A.; Giroletti, M.; Reimer, A.; Healey, S. E.; Romani, R. W.; Shaw, M. S.

    2012-06-01

    Whether or not a correlation exists between the radio and gamma-ray flux densities of blazars is a long-standing question, and one that is difficult to answer confidently because of various observational biases, which may either dilute or apparently enhance any intrinsic correlation between radio and gamma-ray luminosities. We introduce a novel method of data randomization to evaluate quantitatively the effect of these biases and to assess the intrinsic significance of an apparent correlation between radio and gamma-ray flux densities of blazars. The novelty of the method lies in a combination of data randomization in luminosity space (to ensure that the randomized data are intrinsically, and not just apparently, uncorrelated) and significance assessment in flux space (to explicitly avoid Malmquist bias and automatically account for the limited dynamical range in both frequencies). The method is applicable even to small samples that are not selected with strict statistical criteria. For larger samples we describe a variation of the method in which the sample is split in redshift bins, and the randomization is applied in each bin individually; this variation is designed to yield the equivalent to luminosity-function sampling of the underlying population in the limit of very large, statistically complete samples. We show that for a smaller number of redshift bins, the method yields a worse significance, and in this way it is conservative: although it may fail to confirm an existing intrinsic correlation in a small sample that cannot be split into many redshift bins, it will not assign a stronger, artificially enhanced significance. We demonstrate how our test performs as a function of number of sources, strength of correlation, and number of redshift bins used, and we show that while our test is robust against common-distance biases and associated false positives for uncorrelated data, it retains the power of other methods in rejecting the null hypothesis of no

  17. Correlation analysis of 1 to 30 MeV celestial gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a method of producing celestial sky maps from the data generated by the University of California, Riverside's double Compton scatter gamma ray telescope. The method makes use of a correlation between the telescope's data and theoretical calculated response functions. The results of applying this technique to northern hemisphere data obtained from a 1978 balloon flight from Palestine, Texas are included.

  18. Constant time tensor correlation experiments by non-gamma-encoded recoupling pulse sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Yun; Tsai, Tim W. T.; Chan, Jerry C. C.

    2012-10-01

    Constant-time tensor correlation under magic-angle spinning conditions is an important technique in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the measurements of backbone or side-chain torsion angles of polypeptides and proteins. We introduce a general method for the design of constant-time tensor correlation experiments under magic-angle spinning. Our method requires that the amplitude of the average Hamiltonian must depend on all the three Euler angles bringing the principal axis system to the rotor-fixed frame, which is commonly referred to as non-gamma encoding. We abbreviate this novel approach as COrrelation of Non-Gamma-Encoded Experiment (CONGEE), which exploits the orientation-dependence of non-gamma-encoded sequences with respect to the magic-angle rotation axis. By manipulating the relative orientation of the average Hamiltonians created by two non-gamma-encoded sequences, one can obtain a modulation of the detected signal, from which the structural information can be extracted when the tensor orientations relative to the molecular frame are known. CONGEE has a prominent feature that the number of rf pulses and the total pulse sequence duration can be maintained to be constant so that for torsion angle determination the effects of systematic errors owing to the experimental imperfections and/or T2 effects could be minimized. As a proof of concept, we illustrate the utility of CONGEE in the correlation between the C' chemical shift tensor and the Cα-Hα dipolar tensor for the backbone psi angle determination. In addition to a detailed theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experiments measured for [U-13C, 15N]-L-alanine and N-acetyl-[U-13C, 15N]-D,L-valine are used to validate our approach at a spinning frequency of 20 kHz.

  19. Measurement of $B\\bar{B}$ Angular Correlations based on Secondary Vertex Reconstruction at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2011-03-01

    A measurement of the angular correlations between beauty and anti-beauty hadrons (B B-bar) produced in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the CERN LHC is presented, probing for the first time the region of small angular separation. The B hadrons are identified by the presence of displaced secondary vertices from their decays. The B hadron angular separation is reconstructed from the decay vertices and the primary-interaction vertex. The differential B B-bar production cross section, measured from a data sample collected by CMS and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.1 inverse picobarns, shows that a sizable fraction of the B B-bar pairs are produced with small opening angles. These studies provide a test of QCD and further insight into the dynamics of b b-bar production.

  20. Long Term Correlations between X-rays and Gamma-rays in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilhan, Muhammed Diyaddin; Guver, Tolga

    2016-07-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the brightest continuous objects in the universe. Non-termal radiation is produced by synchrotron radiation that is accelarated by the magnetic fields in the jet. Relativistic electrons interact with photons via inverse-Compton scattering to generate highly energetic photons , which is also called as 'synchrotron self-Compton (SSC)' that the seed photons are generated by relativistic electron particles. According to the SSC models, relativistic electron particles are responsible for production of high energy photons such as hard x-rays and gamma-rays. We here present the results of ZDCF (Z-Transform Discrete Correlation Function) analysis of 19 BL Lac objects and 13 Seyfert 1 galaxies. We aimed to understand the correlation between gamma-rays (0.1-300 GeV obtained with Fermi LAT) and X-rays (MAXI 2-20 keV, Swift/BAT 15-150 keV) in these two different types of objects. Strong Correlation coefficients and time lags were found both for the BL Lac objects and Seyfert 1 galaxies. Our results are consistent with SSC model and Leptonic model in which the x-rays and gamma-rays are produced in same electron population and same physical region.

  1. Initial measurements of the angular velocity of walking humans using an active millimeter-wave correlation interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilevu, Kojo S.; Kammerman, Kelly L.; Nanzer, Jeffrey A.

    2013-05-01

    The design of a 29.5 GHz experimental active interferometer for the measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans is presented in this paper, as well as initial measurements of walking humans. Measurement of the angular motion of moving objects is a desirable function in remote security sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of arrival estimation algorithms. Recently, the authors presented a new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry. The method measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency shift imparted on the signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. The experimental system consists of a transmitter and two separate receivers with two widely spaced antennas. The received signals in each of the two channels are downconverted and digitized, and post-processed offline. Initial results of a walking person passing through the interferometer beam pattern are presented, which verify the expected operation of the receiver derived from the initial theory.

  2. Fermi surface and conduction electrons of Na 0.64WO 3 by two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahane, T.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Chiba, T.; Berko, S.

    1985-06-01

    Two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2-D ACAR) form a Na 0.64WO 3 single crystal has been measured with a 64 detector 2-D ACAR apparatus. The results show that the Fermi surface of this compound has a jungle-gym like structure similar to that of ReO 3 and that the conduction electrons have strong t2g character.

  3. Mapping Correlation of Two Point Sources in the Gamma-Ray Sky

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Alexander

    2015-08-20

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has been taking data on high energy photons or γ rays since June 11th, 2008, and people have been cataloging and profiling point sources of these γ rays ever since. After roughly one year of being in operation over 1400 sources were cataloged. Now, in 2015 we have 3033 sources cataloged. With the increasing amount of sources it’s important to think about the limitations of likelihood analysis for highly correlated sources. In this paper I will present the problems of using likelihood analysis for sources that are highly correlated as well as show under what circumstances sources can be considered highly correlated. Dark matter over densities may show up as a point source, so it is a necessary step to learn how the two signals will interact to allow for a proper search for dark matter.

  4. Fission Multiplicity Detection with Temporal Gamma-Neutron Discrimination from Higher-Order Time Correlation Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R.B.

    2002-11-12

    The current practice of nondestructive assay (NDA) of fissile materials using neutrons is dominated by the {sup 3}He detector. This has been the case since the mid 1980s when Fission Multiplicity Detection (FMD) was replaced with thermal well counters and neutron multiplicity counting (NMC). The thermal well counters detect neutrons by neutron capture in the {sup 3}He detector subsequent to moderation. The process of detection requires from 30 to 60 {micro}s. As will be explained in Section 3.3 the rate of detecting correlated neutrons (signal) from the same fission are independent of this time but the rate of accidental correlations (noise) are proportional to this time. The well counters are at a distinct disadvantage when there is a large source of uncorrelated neutrons present from ({alpha}, n) reactions for example. Plastic scintillating detectors, as were used in FMD, require only about 20 ns to detect neutrons from fission. One thousandth as many accidental coincidences are therefore accumulated. The major problem with the use of fast-plastic scintillation detectors, however, is that both neutrons and gamma rays are detected. The pulses from the two are indistinguishable in these detectors. For this thesis, a new technique was developed to use higher-order time correlation statistics to distinguish combinations of neutron and gamma ray detections in fast-plastic scintillation detectors. A system of analysis to describe these correlations was developed based on simple physical principles. Other sources of correlations from non-fission events are identified and integrated into the analysis developed for fission events. A number of ratios and metric are identified to determine physical properties of the source from the correlations. It is possible to determine both the quantity being measured and detection efficiency from these ratios from a single measurement without a separate calibration. To account for detector dead-time, an alternative analytical technique

  5. ON THE CORRELATION OF LOW-ENERGY SPECTRAL INDICES AND REDSHIFTS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.

    2013-02-10

    It was found by Amati et al. in 2002 that for a small sample of nine gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), more distant events appear to be systematically harder in the soft gamma-ray band. Here, we have collected a larger sample of 65 GRBs, whose time-integrated spectra are well established and can be well fitted with the so-called Band function. It is confirmed that a correlation between the redshifts (z) and the low-energy indices ({alpha}) of the Band function does exist, though it is a bit more scattered than the result of Amati et al. This correlation cannot be simply attributed to the effect of photon reddening. Furthermore, correlations between {alpha} and E {sub peak} (the peak energy in the {nu}F {sub {nu}} spectrum in the rest frame), {alpha} and E {sub iso} (the isotropic energy release), and {alpha} and L {sub iso} (the isotropic luminosity) are also found, which indicate that these parameters are somehow connected. The results may provide useful constraints on the physics of GRBs.

  6. Cluster properties from two-particle angular correlations in p+p collisions at {radical}(s)=200 and 410 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Lozides, C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephens, G. S. F.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wyslouch, B.; Back, B. B.

    2007-05-15

    We present results on two-particle angular correlations in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 200 and 410 GeV. The PHOBOS experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has a uniquely large coverage for charged particles, giving the opportunity to explore the correlations at both short- and long-range scales. At both energies, a complex two-dimensional correlation structure in {delta}{eta} and {delta}{phi} is observed. In the context of an independent cluster model of short-range correlations, the cluster size and its decay width are extracted from the two-particle pseudorapidity correlation function and compared with previous measurements in proton-proton and proton-antiproton collisions, as well as PYTHIA and HIJING predictions.

  7. Correlation between sphere distributions of gamma-ray bursts and CMB fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Sokolov, V. V.; Khabibullina, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    Distribution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from catalogs of the BATSE and BeppoSAX space observatories relative to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data by Planck space mission is studied. Three methods were applied for data analysis: (1) a histogram of CMB signal values in GRB directions, (2) mosaic correlation maps calculated for GRB locations and CMB distribution, (3) calculation of an average response in the area of "average GRB population" on the CMB map. A correlation between GRB locations and CMB fluctuations was detected which can be interpreted as systematic effects in the process of observations. Besides, in the averaged areas of CMB maps, a difference between the distributions of average fluctuations for short and long GRBs was detected which can be caused by different natures of these events.

  8. SIMILAR RADIATION MECHANISM IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND BLAZARS: EVIDENCE FROM TWO LUMINOSITY CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F. Y.; Yi, S. X.; Dai, Z. G.

    2014-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powerful astrophysical events with relativistic jets. In this Letter, the broadband spectral properties of GRBs and well-observed blazars are compared. The distribution of GRBs is consistent with the well-known blazar sequence including the νL {sub ν}(5 GHz) – α{sub RX} and νL {sub ν}(5 GHz) – ν{sub peak} correlations, where α{sub RX} is defined as the broadband spectral slope in radio-to-X-ray bands, and ν{sub peak} is defined as the spectral peak frequency. Moreover, GRBs occupy the low radio luminosity end of these sequences. These two correlations suggest that GRBs could have a radiation process, i.e., synchrotron radiation, similar to blazars both in the prompt emission and afterglow phases.

  9. Near Infrared Activity Close to the Crab Pulsar Correlated with Giant Gamma-ray Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudy, Alexander R.; Max, Claire E.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe activity observed in the near-infrared correlated with a giant gamma-ray flare in the Crab Pulsar. The Crab Pulsar has been observed by the Fermi and AGILE satellites to flare for a period of 3 to 7 days, once every 1-1.5 years, increasing in brightness by a factor of 3-10 between 100MeV and 1GeV. We used Keck NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics imaging to observe the Crab Pulsar and environs before and during the March 2013 flare. We discuss the evidence for the knot as the location of the flares, and the theoretical implications of these observations. Ongoing target-of-opportunity programs hope to confirm this correlation for future flares.

  10. Meson and baryon correlation studies using the PEP-TPC/2. gamma. Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ronan, M.T.

    1991-03-01

    Results on vector meson, and strange and charmed-baryon production are presented for data taken during the period 1982--1986 using the TPC/2{gamma} detector at PEP. Vector mesons ({rho}{sup 0}, K{sup *} and {phi}) with 0, 1 and 2 strange quarks are used to obtain redundant measures of strange-quark suppression and of the vector to pseudoscalar ratio in hadronization. Measurements of the production rates of {Lambda}, {Xi}{sup {minus}}, {Omega} and {Xi}{sup *0} hyperons and for the {Lambda}{sub c} and of rapidity correlations between {Lambda}{bar {Lambda}} pairs provide sensitive tests of baryon production in fragmentation models. In addition, two- and three-particle correlations between like sign pions provide further evidence for the Bose-Einstein effect in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions including the relativistic motion of particle sources. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  11. COSMOLOGY WITH THE Ep,i - Eiso CORRELATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Lorenzo

    2012-03-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the brightest sources in the universe, emit mostly in the hard X-ray energy band and have been detected at redshifts up to about 8.2. Thus, they are in principle very powerful probes for cosmology. I shortly review the researches aimed to use GRBs for the measurement of cosmological parameters, which are mainly based on the correlation between spectral peak photon energy and total radiated energy or luminosity. In particular, based on an enriched sample of 120 GRBs, I will provide an update of the analysis by Amati et al. (2008) aimed at extracting information on ΩM and, to a less extent, on ΩΛ, from the Ep,i - Eiso correlation.

  12. Unified GRB Paradigm: Correlation between Afterglow Beaming Fraction and Gamma-ray Spectral Lag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. P.

    2001-12-01

    Without redshifts, studies of the pulse structures in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) were largely phenomenological. Now that approximately twenty GRBs have associated redshifts, it is clear that cosmological GRBs exhibit a large dynamic range in observed luminosity and total energy. Thus from afterglow measurements, inferences on the physics of GRB spectral/temporal properties become possible. For a subset of bursts where redshifts and BATSE data are available, a correlation between luminosity and spectral lag has been reported (Norris, Marani & Bonnell 2001, ApJ 534, 248). It has also been demonstrated from breaks in GRB afterglow temporal decays (e.g., Frail et al. 2001, ApJL, accepted) that GRBs manifest a wide dynamic range in opening angle, or beaming fraction -- implying more uniform isotropic luminosities and energies for GRBs. Even more exciting, the beaming fraction and average spectral lag appear to be correlated (both being related to luminosity), signaling a profound, but indirect, link between the gamma-ray and afterglow phases. While the sample is still small, and the analysis techniques for beaming fraction and spectral lag are still being refined, it is possible to extend observed BATSE distributions and prognosticate on distributional properties of GRBs, such as luminosity and redshift, that should be observable by Swift.

  13. Selection biases in the gamma-ray burst Eiso - Lopt, X correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coward, D. M.; Howell, E. J.; Wan, L.; Macpherson, D.

    2015-04-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) optical and X-ray afterglow luminosity is expected to correlate with the GRB isotropic equivalent kinetic energy of the outflow in the standard synchrotron model for GRB afterglows. Previous studies, using prompt GRB isotropic equivalent energy (Eiso) as a proxy for isotropic equivalent kinetic energy, have generally confirmed a correlation between X-ray and optical afterglow luminosities. Assuming that GRB afterglow luminosity does not evolve strongly with redshift, we identify a strong Malmquist bias in GRB optical and X-ray afterglow luminosity data. We show that selection effects dominate the observed Eiso-Lopt, X correlations, and have likely been underestimated in other studies. The bias is strongest for a subset of optically faint bursts m > 24 at 24 h with z > 2. After removing this optical selection bias, the Eiso-Lopt, X correlation for long GRBs is not statistically significant, but combining both long and short GRB luminosity data the correlation is significant. Using the median of the Eiso and Lopt, X distributions, we apply the synchrotron model assuming the same power-law index for short and long GRBs, but different microphysical parameter distributions. Comparing the ratio of optical and X-ray luminosities, we find tentative evidence that the fraction of post-shock energy in magnetic fields, ɛB, could be systematically higher in short GRBs compared to long GRBs.

  14. Particle gamma correlations in 12C measured with the CsI(Tl) based detector array CHIMERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardella, G.; Acosta, L.; Amorini, F.; Auditore, L.; Berceanu, I.; Castoldi, A.; De Filippo, E.; Dell`Aquila, D.; Francalanza, L.; Gnoffo, B.; Guazzoni, C.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Minniti, T.; Morgana, E.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Pop, A.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Rosato, E.; Russotto, P.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.

    2015-11-01

    The gamma decay of the first excited 4.44 MeV 2+level of 12C, populated by inelastic scattering of proton and 16O beams at various energies was studied in order to test γ-ray detection efficiency and the quality of angular distribution information given by the CsI(Tl) detectors of the 4π CHIMERA array. The γ-decay was measured in coincidence with ejectile scattered particles in an approximately 4π geometry allowing to extract the angular distribution in the reference frame of recoiling 12C target. The typical sin2 (2θ) behavior of angular distribution was observed in the case of 16O beam. Besides that, for the proton beam, in order to explain the observed distribution, the addition of an incoherent flat contribution was required. This latter is the effect of proton spin flip events allowing the population of M=±1 magnetic substates, that is not possible in reactions induced by 16O beam. A comparison with previously collected data, obtained measuring only in and out of plane proton-γ-ray coincidences, confirms the good quality of the angular distribution information given by the apparatus. Possible applications with radioactive beams are outlined.

  15. Discovery of a tight correlation among the prompt emission properties of long gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmani, C.; Ghisellini, G.; Avila-Reese, V.; Ghirlanda, G.

    2006-07-01

    We report the discovery of a correlation among three prompt emission properties of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). These are the isotropic peak luminosity Liso, the peak energy (in νLν) of the time-integrated prompt emission spectrum Epk, and the `high signal' time-scale T0.45, previously used to characterize the variability behaviour of bursts. In the rest frame of the source, the discovered correlation reads Liso ~ E1.62pkT-0.490.45. We find other strong correlations, but at the cost of increasing the number of variables, involving the variability and the isotropic energy of the prompt emission. With respect to the other tight correlations found in GRBs (i.e. between the collimation corrected energy Eγ and Epk, the so-called Ghirlanda correlation, and the phenomenological correlation among the isotropic emitted energy Eiso,Epk and the jet break time tbreak), the newly found correlation does not require any information from the afterglow phase of the bursts, nor any model-dependent assumption. In the popular scenario in which we are receiving beamed radiation originating in a fireball pointing at us, the discovered correlation preserves its form in the comoving frame. This helps to explain the small scatter of the correlation and underlines the role of the local brightness (i.e. the brightness of the visible fraction of the fireball surface). This correlation has been found with a relatively small number of objects and it is hard to establish if any selection bias affects it. Its connection with the prompt local brightness is promising, but a solid physical understanding is still to be found. Despite all that, we find that some properties of the correlation, which we discuss, support its true existence, and this has important implications for the GRB physics. Furthermore, it is possible to use such correlation as an accurate redshift estimator, and, more importantly, its tightness will allow us to use it as a tool to constrain the cosmological parameters.

  16. Comprehensive glacial sediment characterization and correlation with natural gamma log response to identify hydrostratigraphic units in a rotosonic well core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, A. L.; Lemke, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Common borehole geophysical methods use electrical, acoustic, and nuclear measurements to determine physical and chemical characteristics of soils and rocks encountered while drilling. In texturally and mineralogically mature detrital sediments, natural gamma logs are frequently used to differentiate coarse and fine textures that exert primary control on fluid flow in reservoir and aquifer units. Interpretation of natural gamma log response in immature sediments can be complicated by the presence of clays in the fine fraction of poorly sorted units and further confounded in heterogeneous glacial sediments which characteristically display a high degree of vertical and lateral lithologic variability. This study examined natural gamma log response to textural and mineralogical variability in a continuous 70m (230ft) rotosonic borehole drilled through Pleistocene glacial sediments west of Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. The objective of the investigation is to establish a statistical linkage between natural gamma radiation and glacial sediment texture that can be extrapolated to a set of more than 120 monitoring wells and used as soft conditioning information for stochastic simulations of aquifer characteristics across a 10 km2 area impacted by groundwater contamination. The core was sampled at 0.3m (1ft) intervals and sieved to quantify sediment texture at 225 points. 150 grain mount thin sections from samples selected to correspond to a distribution of low, moderate, and high natural gamma log readings.were point counted to quantify mineralogy of the sand size fraction. 30 samples of clay-sized particles taken from the decanted fine fraction of the sieved material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction for clay component analysis. Weak correlations of gamma response to measured characteristics were observed over the entire dataset. As expected, positive relationships with gamma response were observed in samples with higher K-feldspar content and greater proportions of fine

  17. From alpha to gamma: electrophysiological correlates of meditation-related states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Fell, Juergen; Axmacher, Nikolai; Haupt, Sven

    2010-08-01

    Meditation practice is difficult to access because of its countless forms of appearances originating from the complexity of cultures it has to serve. This makes a suitable categorization for scientific use almost impossible. However, empirical data suggest that different forms of meditation show similar steps of development in terms of their neurophysiological correlates. Some electrophysiological alterations can be observed on the beginner/student level, which are closely related to non-meditative processes. Others seem to correspond to an advanced/expert level, and seem to be unique for meditation-related states of consciousness. Meditation is one possibility to specialize brain/mind functions using the brain's immanent neural plasticity. This plasticity is probably recruited by certain EEG patterns observed during or as a result of meditation, for instance, synchronized gamma oscillations. While meditation formerly has been understood to comprise mainly passive relaxation states, recent EEG findings suggest that meditation is associated with active states which involve cognitive restructuring and learning.

  18. Measurement of Long-Range Near-Side Two-Particle Angular Correlations in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knünz, V; König, A; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; 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    2016-04-29

    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270  nb^{-1}. The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η|<2.4) and over the full azimuth (ϕ) as a function of charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum (p_{T}). In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (|Δη|>2.0), near-side (Δϕ≈0) structure emerges in the two-particle Δη-Δϕ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0correlation strength similar to that found in earlier pp data at sqrt[s]=7  TeV. The present measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities N_{ch}∼180, a region so far unexplored in pp collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies. PMID:27176516

  19. Measurement of Long-Range Near-Side Two-Particle Angular Correlations in p p Collisions at √{s }=13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. 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M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. 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M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gonella, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'Imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. 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D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon de La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; McLean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; MacNeill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Kumar, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Woods, N.; Cms Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in p p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270 nb-1 . The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η | <2.4 ) and over the full azimuth (ϕ ) as a function of charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum (pT ). In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (|Δ η | >2.0 ), near-side (Δ ϕ ≈0 ) structure emerges in the two-particle Δ η -Δ ϕ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0 correlation strength similar to that found in earlier p p data at √{s }=7 TeV . The present measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities Nch˜180 , a region so far unexplored in p p collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in p p , p Pb , and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies.

  20. Measurement of Long-Range Near-Side Two-Particle Angular Correlations in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV.

    PubMed

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Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Ricci-Tam, F; Shalhout, S; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stolp, D; Tripathi, M; Wilbur, S; Yohay, R; Cousins, R; Everaerts, P; Florent, A; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Saltzberg, D; Takasugi, E; Valuev, V; Weber, M; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Ivova Paneva, M; Jandir, P; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Luthra, A; Malberti, M; Olmedo Negrete, M; Shrinivas, A; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; D'Agnolo, R T; Derdzinski, M; Holzner, A; Kelley, R; Klein, D; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tadel, M; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Welke, C; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Flowers, K; Franco Sevilla, M; Geffert, P; George, C; Golf, F; Gouskos, L; Gran, J; Incandela, J; Mccoll, N; Mullin, S D; Richman, J; Stuart, D; Suarez, I; West, C; Yoo, J; Anderson, D; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chen, Y; Duarte, J; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Spiropulu, M; Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Azzolini, V; Calamba, A; Carlson, B; Ferguson, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Mulholland, T; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chatterjee, A; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Eggert, N; Mirman, N; Nicolas Kaufman, G; Patterson, J R; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Sun, W; Tan, S M; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Thompson, J; Tucker, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Apollinari, G; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hanlon, J; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jayatilaka, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Lammel, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Gleyzer, S V; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Milenovic, P; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Rossin, R; Shchutska, L; Snowball, M; Sperka, D; Terentyev, N; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Hewamanage, S; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, J R; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bein, S; Bochenek, J; Diamond, B; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Khatiwada, A; Prosper, H; Weinberg, M; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Kurt, P; O'Brien, C; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Wu, Z; Zakaria, M; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Anderson, I; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Osherson, M; Roskes, J; Sady, A; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; You, C; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Kenny, R P; Majumder, D; Malek, M; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Demiragli, Z; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Evans, A; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Ratnikov, F; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Bhattacharya, S; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Low, J F; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Brinkerhoff, A; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Ling, T Y; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Zuranski, A; Malik, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Jung, K; Kumar, A; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Sun, J; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Arora, S; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Lath, A; Nash, K; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Verwilligen, P; Woods, N

    2016-04-29

    Results on two-particle angular correlations for charged particles produced in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are presented. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 270  nb^{-1}. The correlations are studied over a broad range of pseudorapidity (|η|<2.4) and over the full azimuth (ϕ) as a function of charged particle multiplicity and transverse momentum (p_{T}). In high-multiplicity events, a long-range (|Δη|>2.0), near-side (Δϕ≈0) structure emerges in the two-particle Δη-Δϕ correlation functions. The magnitude of the correlation exhibits a pronounced maximum in the range 1.0correlation strength similar to that found in earlier pp data at sqrt[s]=7  TeV. The present measurement extends the study of near-side long-range correlations up to charged particle multiplicities N_{ch}∼180, a region so far unexplored in pp collisions. The observed long-range correlations are compared to those seen in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at lower collision energies.

  1. Correlations of the deformation variables {beta} and {gamma} in even-even Hf, W, Os, Pt, and Hg nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Esser, L.; Neuneyer, U.; Casten, R.F.; von Brentano, P.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the triaxial rotor model of Davydov and Filippov, deformation parameters {beta} and {gamma} are extracted from both level energies and E2 transition rates in even-even Hf-Hg nuclei. Three results emerge: the two sets of {beta} and {gamma} values{emdash}energy-based and transition-rate-based{emdash}are in good agreement, with only a few exceptions, thus giving confidence in the extracted values; both {beta} and {gamma} follow smooth trajectories against N{sub p}N{sub n}; and the {beta} and {gamma} values themselves are correlated, pointing to the possibility of a simpler description of structural evolution. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Effects of momentum conservation and flow on angular correlations observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Scott; Schlichting, Soeren; Gavin, Sean

    2011-08-15

    Correlations of azimuthal angles observed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have gained great attention due to the prospect of identifying fluctuations of parity-odd regions in the field sector of QCD. Whereas the observable of interest related to parity fluctuations involves subtracting opposite-sign from same-sign correlations, the STAR collaboration reported the same-sign and opposite-sign correlations separately. It is shown here how momentum conservation combined with collective elliptic flow contributes significantly to this class of correlations, although not to the difference between the opposite- and same-sign observables. The effects are modeled with a crude simulation of a pion gas. Although the simulation reproduces the scale of the correlation, the centrality dependence is found to be sufficiently different in character to suggest additional considerations beyond those present in the pion gas simulation presented here.

  3. Determination of Cosmological Parameters from GRB Correlation between E_iso (gamma) and Afterglow Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, Zitouni; Guessoum, Nidhal; Azzam, Walid

    2016-07-01

    Context: We use the correlation relations between the energy emitted by the GRBs in their prompt phases and the X-ray afterglow fluxes, in an effort to constrain cosmological parameters and construct a Hubble diagram at high redshifts, i.e. beyond those found in Type Ia supernovae. Methods: We use a sample of 128 Swift GRBs, which we have selected among more than 800 ones observed until July 2015. The selection is based on a few observational constraints: GRB flux higher than 0.4 photons/cm^2/s in the band 15-150 keV; spectrum fitted with simple power law; redshift accurately known and given; and X-ray afterglow observed and flux measured. The statistical method of maximum likelihood is then used to determine the best cosmological parameters (Ω_M, Ω_L) that give the best correlation between the isotropic gamma energies E_{iso} and the afterglow fluxes at the break time t_{b}. The χ^2 statistical test is also used as a way to compare results from two methods. Results & Conclusions: Although the number of GRBs with high redshifts is rather small, and despite the notable dispersion found in the data, the results we have obtained are quite encouraging and promising. The values of the cosmological parameters obtained here are close to those currently used.

  4. DISCOVERY OF A TIGHT CORRELATION FOR GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS WITH 'CANONICAL' LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Ostrowski, Michal; Willingale, Richard; Capozziello, Salvatore; Cardone, Vincenzo Fabrizio E-mail: mio@oa.uj.edu.p E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.i

    2010-10-20

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed up to redshifts z>8 are fascinating objects to study due to their still unexplained relativistic outburst mechanisms and their possible use to test cosmological models. Our analysis of 77 GRB afterglows with known redshifts revealed a physical subsample of long GRBs with the canonical plateau breaking to power-law light curves with a significant luminosity L*{sub X}-break time T*{sub a} correlation in the GRB rest frame. This subsample forms approximately the upper envelope of the studied distribution. We have also found a similar relation for a small sample of GRB afterglows that belong to the intermediate class between the short and the long ones. It proves that within the full sample of afterglows there exist physical subclasses revealed here by tight correlations of their afterglow properties. The afterglows with regular ('canonical') light curves obey not only the mentioned tight physical scaling, but-for a given T*{sub a}-the more regular progenitor explosions lead to preferentially brighter afterglows.

  5. GAMMA-RAY BURST SPECTRA AND SPECTRAL CORRELATIONS FROM SUB-PHOTOSPHERIC COMPTONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chhotray, Atul; Lazzati, Davide

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important unresolved issues in gamma-ray burst (GRB) physics is the origin of the prompt gamma-ray spectrum. Its general non-thermal character and the softness in the X-ray band remain unexplained. We tackle these issues by performing Monte Carlo simulations of radiation–matter interactions in a scattering dominated photon–lepton plasma. The plasma—initially in equilibrium—is driven to non-equilibrium conditions by a sudden energy injection in the lepton population, mimicking the effect of a shock wave or the dissipation of magnetic energy. Equilibrium restoration occurs due to an energy exchange between the photons and leptons. While the initial and final equilibrium spectra are thermal, the transitional photon spectra are characterized by non-thermal features such as power-law tails, high energy bumps, and multiple components. Such non-thermal features are observed at infinity if the dissipation occurs at small to moderate optical depths, and the spectrum is released before thermalization is complete. We model the synthetic spectra with a Band function and show that the resulting spectral parameters are similar to observations for a frequency range of 2–3 orders of magnitude around the peak. In addition, our model predicts correlations between the low-frequency photon index and the peak frequency as well as between the low- and high-frequency indices. We explore baryon and pair-dominated fireballs and reach the conclusion that baryonic fireballs are a better model for explaining the observed features of GRB spectra.

  6. Exact calculations of nuclear-recoil energies from prompt gamma decays resulting from neutron capture

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, J.H.

    1981-07-20

    The results of an accurate determination of the recoil spectrum from (n, ..gamma..) reactions in molybdenum are presented. The recoil spectrum has been calculated from nuclear level structure data and measured branching ratios. Angular correlations between successive gammas have been accounted for using the standard theoretical techniques of Racah algebra and the density matrix formalism.

  7. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  8. Reaction ({gamma},2e) and (e,3e) as probe of electron correlation in atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Amusia, M.Y.

    1995-08-01

    Cross sections of the ({gamma},2e) and (e,3e) reactions contain information about the two vacancy-energy spectrum and electron-pair correlations in initial and final states of the target atom. Physical pictures of these processes are presented for two- and many-electron atoms. The simplest mechanisms are discussed, demonstrating some features which await experimental confirmation. Attention is given to high photon energy and the relativistic energy region of these reactions. The energy distribution of outgoing relativistic electrons is qualitatively different from the nonrelativistic case. The origin and types of corrections to the simplest mechanisms, and possible means of their detection, are discussed. In addition, the role of different resonances: shape, giant, autoionizational, and Feshbach-type are considered. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data, mainly on double photoionization cross sections. Different possible objects as targets for the reactions are considered, including negative ions, excited atoms, molecules, and clusters. The modification of these reactions due to photon emission is discussed. The future of the domain is outlined.

  9. Notes on interval estimation of the gamma correlation under stratified random sampling.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2012-07-01

    We have developed four asymptotic interval estimators in closed forms for the gamma correlation under stratified random sampling, including the confidence interval based on the most commonly used weighted-least-squares (WLS) approach (CIWLS), the confidence interval calculated from the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) type estimator with the Fisher-type transformation (CIMHT), the confidence interval using the fundamental idea of Fieller's Theorem (CIFT) and the confidence interval derived from a monotonic function of the WLS estimator of Agresti's α with the logarithmic transformation (MWLSLR). To evaluate the finite-sample performance of these four interval estimators and note the possible loss of accuracy in application of both Wald's confidence interval and MWLSLR using pooled data without accounting for stratification, we employ Monte Carlo simulation. We use the data taken from a general social survey studying the association between the income level and job satisfaction with strata formed by genders in black Americans published elsewhere to illustrate the practical use of these interval estimators. PMID:22622622

  10. Measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation at 0.5 deg angular scales near the star gamma ursae minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, M. J.; Clapp, A. C.; Gundersen, J. O.; Hagmann, C. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Lange, A. E.; Lim, M. A.; Lubin, P. M.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Meinhold, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    We present results from a four-frequency observation of a 6 deg x 0.6 deg strip of the sky centered near the star Gamma Ursae Minoris (GUM) during the fourth flight of the Millimeter-wave Anistropy experiment(MAX). The observation was made with a 1.4 deg peak-to-peak sinusoidal chop in all bands. The FWHM beam sizes were 0.55 deg +/- 0.05 deg at 3.5 per cm and 0.75 deg +/- 0.05 deg at 6, 9, and 14 per cm. During this observation significant correlated structure was observed at 3.5, 6 and 9 per cm with amplitudes similar to those observed in the GUM region during the second and third fligts of MAX. The frequency spectrum is consistent with cosmic microwave background (CMB) and inconsistent with thermal emission from interstellar dust. The extrapolated amplitudes of synchrotron and free-free emission are too small to account for the amplitude of the observed structure, If all of the structure is attributed to CMB anisotropy with a Gaussian autocorrelation function and a coherence angle of 25 min, then the most probable values of delta T/T(sub CMB) in the 3.5, 6 and 9 per cm bads are (4.3 +2.7/-1.6) x 10(exp -5), 2.8 (+4.3/-1/1) x 10(exp -5), and 3.5 (+3.0/-1.6) x 10(exp -5) (95% confidence upper and lower limits), respectively.

  11. Proposed experiment to measure the neutron spin-electron angular correlation in polarized neutron beta decay with ultra-cold neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Seestrom, S.J.; UCN A Collaboration

    1998-12-01

    One area in which the Standard Model can be probed is neutron beta decay. In particular, measurements of angular correlations in neutron beta decay can place constraints on the existence of right-handed currents, the presence of scalar and tensor terms in the weak interaction, and for evidence of Time Reversal Violation, which is expected from the observed violation of CP invariance in kaon decay. A measurement of A, the correlation between the neutron spin and the direction of emission of the electron in neutron decay, can be combined with the neutron lifetime to determine the fundamental vector and axial vector weak coupling constants G{sub A} and G{sub V}. The authors have presented the essential elements of their plans to carry out an A correlation measurement using the UCN source they have constructed at the Manuel Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (MLNSC). Their goal is an initial measurement with an accuracy of about 0.2% of A (which has a value of about {minus}0.114). The count rate expected in the experiment will allow a determination at this statistical accuracy level in a running time of about four months.

  12. Correlation between peak energy and Fourier power density spectrum slope in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Margutti, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission still defies explanation, in spite of recent progress made, for example, on the occasional presence of a thermal component in the spectrum along with the ubiquitous non-thermal component that is modelled with a Band function. The combination of finite duration and aperiodic modulations make GRBs hard to characterise temporally. Although correlations between GRB luminosity and spectral hardness on one side and time variability on the other side have long been known, the loose and often arbitrary definition of the latter makes the interpretation uncertain. Aims: We characterise the temporal variability in an objective way and search for a connection with rest-frame spectral properties for a number of well-observed GRBs. Methods: We studied the individual power density spectra (PDS) of 123 long GRBs with measured redshift, rest-frame peak energy Ep,i of the time-averaged ν Fν spectrum, and well-constrained PDS slope α detected with Swift, Fermi and past spacecraft. The PDS were modelled with a power law either with or without a break adopting a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Results: We find a highly significant Ep,i-α anti-correlation. The null hypothesis probability is ~10-9. Conclusions: In the framework of the internal shock synchrotron model, the Ep,i-α anti-correlation can hardly be reconciled with the predicted Ep,i ∝ Γ-2, unless either variable microphysical parameters of the shocks or continual electron acceleration are assumed. Alternatively, in the context of models based on magnetic reconnection, the PDS slope and Ep,i are linked to the ejecta magnetisation at the dissipation site, so that more magnetised outflows would produce more variable GRB light curves at short timescales (≲1 s), shallower PDS, and higher values of Ep,i. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  13. On the moment of inertia in deformed Ba-Xe nuclei as deduced from gamma-gamma energy correlation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblad, Th.; Hildingsson, L.; Jerrestam, D.; Källberg, A.; Johnson, A.; Herrlander, C. J.; Klamra, W.; Kerek, A.; Lindén, C. G.; Kownacki, J.; kowski, J. Bial; Vertse, T.

    1982-04-01

    The γ-rays following reactions induced by bombarding targets of 114, 116, 118, 120, 122Sn with 118 MeV 12C ions were investigated using six NaI(Tl) detectors in a two-dimensional coincidence arrangement. Experimental energy-correlation spectra were extracted from the original coincidence matrices. The energy-correlation spectra exhibit the features expected for rotational nuclei and were used to deduce information on the moment of inertia I(2) = ΔI/Δω . The gross properties of the behaviour of I(2) in the Ba-Xe region are discussed together with their interpretation within the cranked shell model (CSM).

  14. Luminosity Correlations for Gamma-Ray Bursts and Implications for Their Prompt and Afterglow Emission Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, J.; Kazanas, D.; Fukumura, K.

    2012-10-01

    We present the relation between the (z- and k-corrected) spectral lags, τ, for the standard Swift energy bands 50-100 keV and 100-200 keV and the peak isotropic luminosity, L iso (a relation reported first by Norris et al.), for a subset of 12 long Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) taken from a recent study of this relation by Ukwatta et al. The chosen GRBs are also a subset of the Dainotti et al. sample, a set of Swift GRBs of known redshift, employed in establishing a relation between the (GRB frame) luminosity, LX , of the shallow (or constant) flux portion of the typical X-Ray Telescope GRB-afterglow light curve and the (GRB frame) time of transition to the normal decay rate, T brk. We also present the LX -T brk relation using only the bursts common in the two samples. The two relations exhibit a significant degree of correlation (ρ = -0.65 for the L iso-τ and ρ = -0.88 for the LX -T brk relation) and have surprisingly similar best-fit power-law indices (-1.19 ± 0.17 for L iso-τ and -1.10 ± 0.03 for LX -T brk). Even more surprisingly, we noted that although τ and T brk represent different GRB time variables, it appears that the first relation (L iso-τ) extrapolates into the second one for timescales τ ~= T brk. This fact suggests that these two relations have a common origin, which we conjecture to be kinematic. This relation adds to the recently discovered relations between properties of the prompt and afterglow GRB phases, indicating a much more intimate relation between these two phases than hitherto considered.

  15. Stratigraphy of the Devonian Chattanooga and Ohio shales and equivalents in the Appalachian basin: an example of long-range subsurface correlation using gamma-ray logs

    SciTech Connect

    Roen, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The correlations discussed demonstrate the utility of the gamma-ray log for regional, basinwide stratigraphic studies. Through the use of these logs, suggested correlations based on paleontologic evidence (Hass, 1956) were confirmed and new correlations were established in the Appalachian basin across at least 700 miles. These logs used in conjunction with a few lithologic logs and gamma-ray profiles of surface sections (Ettensohn and others, 1979) have proven to be a useful tool for long-range stratigraphic studies.

  16. Long-range angular correlations of π, K and p in p-Pb collisions at √{sNN}=5.02 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. A.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bornschein, J.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, K.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deppman, A.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; D Erasmo, G.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goerlich, L.; Gomez, R.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, S. A.; Khan, P.; Khan, M. M.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, S.; Kim, B.; Kim, T.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kurepin, A.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Jacobs, P. M.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mazer, J.; Mazumder, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S. K.; Oh, S.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Planinic, M.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauch, W.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, P.; Roy, C.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Scott, P. A.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Spacek, M.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymański, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Ter Minasyan, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vannucci, L.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, S.; Voloshin, K.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wagner, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Xiang, C.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, H.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-10-01

    Angular correlations between unidentified charged trigger particles and various species of charged associated particles (unidentified particles, pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons) are measured by the ALICE detector in p-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV in the transverse-momentum range 0.3correlations expressed as associated yield per trigger particle are obtained in the pseudorapidity range |ηlab|<0.8. Fourier coefficients are extracted from the long-range correlations projected onto the azimuthal angle difference and studied as a function of pT and in intervals of event multiplicity. In high-multiplicity events, the second-order coefficient for protons, v2p, is observed to be smaller than that for pions, v2π, up to about pT=2 GeV/c. To reduce correlations due to jets, the per-trigger yield measured in low-multiplicity events is subtracted from that in high-multiplicity events. A two-ridge structure is obtained for all particle species. The Fourier decomposition of this structure shows that the second-order coefficients for pions and kaons are similar. The v2p is found to be smaller at low pT and larger at higher pT than v2π, with a crossing occurring at about 2 GeV/c. This is qualitatively similar to the elliptic-flow pattern observed in heavy-ion collisions. A mass ordering effect at low transverse momenta is consistent with expectations from hydrodynamic model calculations assuming a collectively expanding system.

  17. Long-range angular correlations on the near and away side in p-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, Betty; Adam, Jaroslav; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ahn, Sang Un; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando Baltasar; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Francesco; Blanco, F.; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boccioli, Marco; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Zinhle Buthelezi, Edith; Caballero Orduna, Diego; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Romeo, Giovanni Cara; Carena, Wisla; Carena, Francesco; Filho, Nelson Carlin; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castillo Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiaio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Maldonado, Ismael Cortes; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crescio, Elisabetta; Crochet, Philippe; Alaniz, Emilia Cruz; Albino, Rigoberto Cruz; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Hjersing Dalsgaard, Hans; Danu, Andrea; Das, Indranil; Das, Debasish; Das, Supriya; Das, Kushal; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; de, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; de Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; de Falco, Alessandro; de Gruttola, Daniele; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; De Marco, Nora; Denes, Ervin; de Pasquale, Salvatore; Deppman, Airton; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; di Bari, Domenico; Dietel, Thomas; di Giglio, Carmelo; di Liberto, Sergio; di Mauro, Antonio; di Nezza, Pasquale; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara; Austrheim Erdal, Hege; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Worsley Fearick, Roger; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Tellez, Arturo Fernandez; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanuel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Mihaela; Geae Gheata, Andrei; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Ferreiro, Elena Gonzalez; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Gros, Philippe; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Herlache Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Han, Byounghee; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Harton, Austin; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Fanebust Hetland, Kristin; Hicks, Bernard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hori, Yasuto; Zahariev Hristov, Peter; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Giaio Innocenti, Pier; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Geae Ivan, Cristian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter; Jin Jang, Haeng; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Janik, Rudolf; Jayarathna, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jha, Deeptanshu Manu; Tonatiuh Jimenez Bustamante, Raul; Jones, Peter Graham; Taik Jung, Hyung; Jusko, Anton; Kaidalov, Alexei; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Hwan Kang, Ju; Kaplin, Vladimir; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Khan, Palash; Ahmad Khan, Shuaib; Mohammed Khan, Mohisin; Khan, Kamal Hussain; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kliemant, Michael; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kohler, Markus; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kompaniets, Mikhail; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krawutschke, Tobias; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kvaerno, Henning; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; de Guevara, Pedro Ladron; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon, Hermes; Monzon, Ildefonso Leon; Vargas, Hermes Leon; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jaen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Loenne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Rongrong; Ma, Ke; Minthaka Madagodahettige-Don, Dilan; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Ludmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Mangotra, Lalit Kumar; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Garcia, Gines Martinez; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jae; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Nath Mishra, Aditya; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mizuno, Sanshiro; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Zetina, Luis Manuel Montano; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Aparecida Moreira de Godoy, Denise; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Bae Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Stormo Nilsson, Mads; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Ochirov, Alexander; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Kun Oh, Sun; Oleniacz, Janusz; da Silva, Antonio Carlos Oliveira; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Ostrowski, Piotr Krystian; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Jin Park, Woo; Passfeld, Annika; Pastircak, Blahoslav; Ivanovich Patalakha, Dmitri; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira de Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perini, Diego; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Planinic, Mirko; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pocheptsov, Timur; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polak, Karel; Polichtchouk, Boris; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Kumar Prasad, Sidharth; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Punin, Valery; Putis, Marian; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Quercigh, Emanuele; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Raiha, Tomi Samuli; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Reyes, Abdiel Ramirez; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Ur Rehman, Attiq; Reichelt, Patrick; Reicher, Martijn; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovsky, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado, Carlos Albert; Salzwedel, Jai; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkamo, Juho Jaako; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schuster, Tim; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Scott, Rebecca; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senyukov, Serhiy; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Sharma, Rohini; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer, Katherin; Sibiriak, Yury; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Sogaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Sputowska, Iwona; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto de Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szostak, Artur Krzysztof; Szymanski, Maciej; Takahashi, Jun; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thader, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony; Tlusty, David; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Toscano, Luca; Trubnikov, Victor; Truesdale, David Christopher; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Spedstad Tveter, Trine; Glyndwr Ulery, Jason; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urban, Jozef; Urciuoli, Guido Marie; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Vyvre, Pierre Vande; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vannucci, Luigi; Diozcora Vargas, Aurora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Yury; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Voloshin, Sergey; Voloshin, Kirill; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Dong; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilk, Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yaldo, Chris G.; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Shiming; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jongik; Yu, Weilin; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhou, Daicui; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym; Alice Collaboration

    2013-02-01

    Angular correlations between charged trigger and associated particles are measured by the ALICE detector in p-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV for transverse momentum ranges within 0.5 correlations are measured over two units of pseudorapidity and full azimuthal angle in different intervals of event multiplicity, and expressed as associated yield per trigger particle. Two long-range ridge-like structures, one on the near side and one on the away side, are observed when the per-trigger yield obtained in low-multiplicity events is subtracted from the one in high-multiplicity events. The excess on the near-side is qualitatively similar to that recently reported by the CMS Collaboration, while the excess on the away-side is reported for the first time. The two-ridge structure projected onto azimuthal angle is quantified with the second and third Fourier coefficients as well as by near-side and away-side yields and widths. The yields on the near side and on the away side are equal within the uncertainties for all studied event multiplicity and pT bins, and the widths show no significant evolution with event multiplicity or pT. These findings suggest that the near-side ridge is accompanied by an essentially identical away-side ridge.

  18. Angular distribution of the longitudinal p(vector sign)p(vector sign) spin correlation parameter A{sub zz} at 197.4 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Lorentz, B.; Haeberli, W.; Rathmann, F.; Wise, T.; Doskow, J.; Dzemidzic, M.; Meyer, H. O.; Pollock, R. E.; Przewoski, B. von; Rinckel, T.

    2000-05-01

    A polarized proton beam with a large longitudinal polarization component of 0.545{+-}0.005 (96% of the total polarization) was prepared in a storage ring (IUCF-Cooler). This was achieved by means of spin precession solenoids in two of the six straight sections of the ring. A polarized hydrogen storage cell target internal to the ring was used to measure the longitudinal spin correlation coefficient A{sub zz} in pp elastic scattering over the laboratory angular range 5.5 degree sign -43.5 degree sign ({theta}{sub c.m.}=11.5 degree sign -90 degree sign ) with statistical errors of typically 0.025. The absolute normalization was determined to an accuracy of 2.0% by use of the identity A{sub yy}-A{sub xx}-A{sub zz}{identical_to}1 at {theta}{sub c.m.}=90 degree sign . The identity also allows a reduction of the scale factor uncertainty of the previously published analyzing powers and spin correlation coefficients. The results are compared to recent pp partial wave analyses and NN potential models. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  19. Day-Scale Variability of 3C 279 and Searches for Correlations in Gamma-Ray, X-Ray and Optical Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Villata, M.; Balonek, T. J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Bock, H.; Boettcher, M.; Carini, M. T.; Collmar, W.; DeFrancesco, G.; Ferrera, E. C.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Light curves of 3C 279 are presented in optical (R-band), X-rays (RXTE/PCA), and gamma rays (CGRO/EGRET) for 1999 Jan-Feb and 2000 Jan-Mar. During both of those epochs the gamma-ray levels were high, and all three observed bands demonstrated substantial variation, on time scales as short as one day. Correlation analyses provided no consistent pattern, although a rather significant optical/gamma-ray correlation was seen in 1999, with a gamma-ray lag of approximately 2.5 days, and there are other suggestions of correlations in the light curves. For comparison, correlation analysis is also presented for the gamma-ray and X-ray light curves during the large gamma-ray flare in 1996 Feb and the two gamma-bright weeks leading up to it; the correlation at that time was strong, with a gamma-ray/X-ray offset of no more than one day.

  20. Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…

  1. Search for a Correlation Between Very-High-Energy Gamma Rays and Giant Radio Pulses in the Crab Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Perkins, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a joint observational campaign between the Green Bank radio telescope and the VERITAS gamma-ray telescope, which searched for a correlation between the emission of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays ( E(sub Gamma) > 150 GeV) and giant radio pulses (GRPs) from the Crab pulsar at 8.9 GHz. A total of 15,366 GRPs were recorded during 11.6 hr of simultaneous observations, which were made across four nights in 2008 December and in 2009 November and December. We searched for an enhancement of the pulsed gamma-ray emission within time windows placed around the arrival time of the GRP events. In total, eight different time windows with durations ranging from 0.033 ms to 72 s were positioned at three different locations relative to the GRP to search for enhanced gamma-ray emission which lagged, led, or was concurrent with, the GRP event. Furthermore, we performed separate searches on main pulse GRPs and interpulse GRPs and on the most energetic GRPs in our data sample. No significant enhancement of pulsed VHE emission was found in any of the preformed searches. We set upper limits of 5-10 times the average VHE flux of the Crab pulsar on the flux simultaneous with interpulse GRPs on single-rotation-period timescales. On approx. 8 s timescales around interpulse GRPs, we set an upper limit of 2-3 times the average VHE flux. Within the framework of recent models for pulsed VHE emission from the Crab pulsar, the expected VHE-GRP emission correlations are below the derived limits.

  2. SEARCH FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN VERY-HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA RAYS AND GIANT RADIO PULSES IN THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S. E-mail: mccann@kicp.uchicago.edu; and others

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of a joint observational campaign between the Green Bank radio telescope and the VERITAS gamma-ray telescope, which searched for a correlation between the emission of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays (E {sub {gamma}} > 150 GeV) and giant radio pulses (GRPs) from the Crab pulsar at 8.9 GHz. A total of 15,366 GRPs were recorded during 11.6 hr of simultaneous observations, which were made across four nights in 2008 December and in 2009 November and December. We searched for an enhancement of the pulsed gamma-ray emission within time windows placed around the arrival time of the GRP events. In total, eight different time windows with durations ranging from 0.033 ms to 72 s were positioned at three different locations relative to the GRP to search for enhanced gamma-ray emission which lagged, led, or was concurrent with, the GRP event. Furthermore, we performed separate searches on main pulse GRPs and interpulse GRPs and on the most energetic GRPs in our data sample. No significant enhancement of pulsed VHE emission was found in any of the preformed searches. We set upper limits of 5-10 times the average VHE flux of the Crab pulsar on the flux simultaneous with interpulse GRPs on single-rotation-period timescales. On {approx}8 s timescales around interpulse GRPs, we set an upper limit of 2-3 times the average VHE flux. Within the framework of recent models for pulsed VHE emission from the Crab pulsar, the expected VHE-GRP emission correlations are below the derived limits.

  3. LUMINOSITY CORRELATIONS FOR GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR PROMPT AND AFTERGLOW EMISSION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sultana, J.; Kazanas, D.; Fukumura, K.

    2012-10-10

    We present the relation between the (z- and k-corrected) spectral lags, {tau}, for the standard Swift energy bands 50-100 keV and 100-200 keV and the peak isotropic luminosity, L{sub iso} (a relation reported first by Norris et al.), for a subset of 12 long Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) taken from a recent study of this relation by Ukwatta et al. The chosen GRBs are also a subset of the Dainotti et al. sample, a set of Swift GRBs of known redshift, employed in establishing a relation between the (GRB frame) luminosity, L{sub X} , of the shallow (or constant) flux portion of the typical X-Ray Telescope GRB-afterglow light curve and the (GRB frame) time of transition to the normal decay rate, T{sub brk}. We also present the L{sub X} -T{sub brk} relation using only the bursts common in the two samples. The two relations exhibit a significant degree of correlation ({rho} = -0.65 for the L{sub iso}-{tau} and {rho} = -0.88 for the L{sub X} -T{sub brk} relation) and have surprisingly similar best-fit power-law indices (-1.19 {+-} 0.17 for L{sub iso}-{tau} and -1.10 {+-} 0.03 for L{sub X} -T{sub brk}). Even more surprisingly, we noted that although {tau} and T{sub brk} represent different GRB time variables, it appears that the first relation (L{sub iso}-{tau}) extrapolates into the second one for timescales {tau} {approx_equal} T{sub brk}. This fact suggests that these two relations have a common origin, which we conjecture to be kinematic. This relation adds to the recently discovered relations between properties of the prompt and afterglow GRB phases, indicating a much more intimate relation between these two phases than hitherto considered.

  4. Cd hyperfine interactions in DNA bases and DNA of mouse strains infected with Trypanosoma cruzi investigated by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Philippe A D; Silva, Andreia S; Gonçalves, Marcos B; Lapolli, André L; Ferreira, Ana Maria C; Carbonari, Artur W; Petrilli, Helena M

    2014-06-01

    In this work, perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy is used to study differences in the nuclear quadrupole interactions of Cd probes in DNA molecules of mice infected with the Y-strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. The possibility of investigating the local genetic alterations in DNA, which occur along generations of mice infected with T. cruzi, using hyperfine interactions obtained from PAC measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations in DNA bases is discussed. A comparison of DFT calculations with PAC measurements could determine the type of Cd coordination in the studied molecules. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use DFT calculations and PAC measurements to investigate the local environment of Cd ions bound to DNA bases in mice infected with Chagas disease. The obtained results also allowed the detection of local changes occurring in the DNA molecules of different generations of mice infected with T. cruzi, opening the possibility of using this technique as a complementary tool in the characterization of complicated biological systems.

  5. Magnetic hyperfine field in antiferromagnetic RGa2 (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) studied by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy using 111Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Pereira, L. F. D.; Cavalcante, J. T.; Saitovitch, H.; Carbonari, A. W.; Saxena, R. N.; Forker, M.

    2013-05-01

    The magnetic and electric hyperfine interactions of the nuclear probe Cd111 in the hexagonal antiferromagnetic rare earth-gallium RGa2 (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er) intermetallic compounds have been investigated by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy as a function of temperature. With the exception of R = Nd and Ho, the magnetic hyperfine field Bhf is roughly proportional to the spin projection (g - 1)J of the R constituent. However, in the group of the light rare earths, the variation of Bhf with (g - 1)J is much weaker than that for the heavy R constituents, in contrast to the trend reported for all rare earth intermetallics investigated up to now as well as to the trend of the magnetic ordering temperatures of RGa2. The orientation of the 4f spins relative to the c axis of RGa2 deduced from the angle between Bhf and the symmetry axis of the electric field gradient was found to be temperature independent and in agreement with the results of previous magnetization measurements. Except for SmGa2 where the hyperfine field shows an abrupt decrease near TN, the temperature dependence of Bhf(T) is consistent with second order phase transitions. The magnetic ordering temperatures deduced from Bhf(T) agree with magnetization and neutron diffraction results.

  6. Electric field gradients at 181Ta probe in ZrNi: Results from perturbed angular correlation and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, C. C.; Das, Rakesh; Srivastava, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Results of temperature dependent perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements in the equiatomic ZrNi alloy have been reported for the first time using 181Hf probe. At room temperature, values of quadrupole frequency and asymmetry parameter for the major component (~80%) are found to be ωQ=26.8(4) Mrad/s, and η=0.413(7). The resulting electric field gradient comes out to be Vzz=2.99 ×1017 V/cm2 and this corresponds to the probe nuclei occupying the regular substitutional Zr sites. In ZrNi system, no magnetic interaction is observed down to 77 K indicating absence of any magnetism in this material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies on an inactive but similarly prepared sample confirm the dominant presence of the orthorhombic ZrNi phase in the sample. A complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculation results in Vzz=-2.35×1017 V/cm2, η=0.46 at the 181Ta probe impurity site and zero magnetic moment on each atomic site, in close agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, it is found that electric field gradient for the regular component follows a T3/2 temperature dependence between 77 and 353 K, beyond which it varies linearly with temperature.

  7. Magnetic behavior of La-doped Fe3O4 studied by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy with 111Cd and 140Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, I. T.; Bosch-Santos, B.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Carbonari, A. W.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the local magnetic properties of La-doped Fe3O4 (5% and 10%) bulk and Nanoparticles (NPs) samples were studied by measuring hyperfine interactions in a wide range of temperature from 10 to 900 K with perturbed γ-γ angular correlation spectroscopy using 111In(111Cd) and 140La(140Ce) as probe nuclei. Results for the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field (Bhf) for bulk and NP samples, pure and doped with La show that its behavior follows a second order Brillouin-like transition from which the Curie temperature (TC) was determined (TC ˜ 855 K). Results also show two different regions in NP samples: the core where a minor fraction of probe nuclei with well defined magnetic dipole frequency was observed and the shell where a major fraction with broad distributed electric quadrupolar frequency (surface effect in NP) was observed. The Verwey transition TV ˜ 120 K, due the order disorder phase, was also observed in all samples. The results are discussed in terms of the magnetic exchange interaction between Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions in the two regions of NP.

  8. Magnetic behavior of La-doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} studied by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy with {sup 111}Cd and {sup 140}Ce

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, I. T. Bosch-Santos, B.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Carbonari, A. W.

    2015-05-07

    In this paper, the local magnetic properties of La-doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (5% and 10%) bulk and Nanoparticles (NPs) samples were studied by measuring hyperfine interactions in a wide range of temperature from 10 to 900 K with perturbed γ-γ angular correlation spectroscopy using {sup 111}In({sup 111}Cd) and {sup 140}La({sup 140}Ce) as probe nuclei. Results for the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) for bulk and NP samples, pure and doped with La show that its behavior follows a second order Brillouin-like transition from which the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) was determined (T{sub C} ∼ 855 K). Results also show two different regions in NP samples: the core where a minor fraction of probe nuclei with well defined magnetic dipole frequency was observed and the shell where a major fraction with broad distributed electric quadrupolar frequency (surface effect in NP) was observed. The Verwey transition T{sub V} ∼ 120 K, due the order disorder phase, was also observed in all samples. The results are discussed in terms of the magnetic exchange interaction between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions in the two regions of NP.

  9. Ground-based observations of thunderstorm-correlated fluxes of high-energy electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Chilingarian, A.; Daryan, A.; Arakelyan, K.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Mailyan, B.; Melkumyan, L.; Hovsepyan, G.; Chilingaryan, S.; Reymers, A.; Vanyan, L.

    2010-08-15

    The Aragats Space Environmental Center facilities continuously measure fluxes of neutral and charged secondary cosmic ray incidents on the Earth's surface. Since 2003 in the 1-minute time series we have detected more than 100 enhancements in the electron, gamma ray, and neutron fluxes correlated with thunderstorm activities. During the periods of the count rate enhancements, lasting tens of minutes, millions of additional particles were detected. Based on the largest particle event of September 19, 2009, we show that our measurements support the existence of long-lasting particle multiplication and acceleration mechanisms in the thunderstorm atmosphere. For the first time we present the energy spectra of electrons and gamma rays from the particle avalanches produced in the thunderstorm atmosphere, reaching the Earth's surface.

  10. Search for a Correlation between Very-high-energy Gamma Rays and Giant Radio Pulses in the Crab Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Lee, K.; Lyutikov, M.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nelson, T.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; Kondratiev, V.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of a joint observational campaign between the Green Bank radio telescope and the VERITAS gamma-ray telescope, which searched for a correlation between the emission of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays (E γ > 150 GeV) and giant radio pulses (GRPs) from the Crab pulsar at 8.9 GHz. A total of 15,366 GRPs were recorded during 11.6 hr of simultaneous observations, which were made across four nights in 2008 December and in 2009 November and December. We searched for an enhancement of the pulsed gamma-ray emission within time windows placed around the arrival time of the GRP events. In total, eight different time windows with durations ranging from 0.033 ms to 72 s were positioned at three different locations relative to the GRP to search for enhanced gamma-ray emission which lagged, led, or was concurrent with, the GRP event. Furthermore, we performed separate searches on main pulse GRPs and interpulse GRPs and on the most energetic GRPs in our data sample. No significant enhancement of pulsed VHE emission was found in any of the preformed searches. We set upper limits of 5-10 times the average VHE flux of the Crab pulsar on the flux simultaneous with interpulse GRPs on single-rotation-period timescales. On ~8 s timescales around interpulse GRPs, we set an upper limit of 2-3 times the average VHE flux. Within the framework of recent models for pulsed VHE emission from the Crab pulsar, the expected VHE-GRP emission correlations are below the derived limits.

  11. Small-scale fluctuations and angular correlations of the X-ray background in the HEAO 1 A-2 energy band - Constraints on clustering of X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Mirones, J. M.; De Zotti, G.; Franceschini, A.; Boldt, E. A.; Marshall, F. E.; Danese, L.; Persic, M.

    1991-01-01

    HEAO 1 A-2 all-sky survey data have been used to determine the amplitude of intensity fluctuations of the extragalactic 2-10 keV X-ray background (XRB) over an effective solid angle of 1.84 sq deg and their angular correlation function on angular scales of less than 3 deg. A good empirical fit to the data is obtained assuming that the integral counts in the A-2 band have a slope of 1.65 + 0.06 or - 0.07. Alternatively, the data may imply a significant clustering of extragalactic X-ray sources.

  12. Gluon correlations from a glasma flux-tube model compared to measured hadron correlations on transverse momentum (pt,pt) and angular differences (ηΔΔ)

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Ray, R. L.

    2011-09-09

    A glasma flux-tube model has been proposed to explain strong elongation on pseudorapidity η of the same-side two-dimensional (2D) peak in minimum-bias angular correlations from √(sNN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. The same-side peak or “soft ridge” is said to arise from coupling of flux tubes to radial flow whereby gluons radiated transversely from flux tubes are boosted by radial flow to form a narrow structure or ridge on azimuth. In this study we test the theory conjecture by comparing measurements to predictions for particle production, spectra, and correlations from the glasma model and from conventional fragmentation processes. We conclude that the glasma model is contradicted by measured hadron yields, spectra, and correlations, whereas a two-component model of hadron production, including minimum-bias parton fragmentation, provides a quantitative description of most features of the data, although η elongation of the same-side 2D peak remains undescribed.

  13. Spectral evolution of gamma-ray bursts detected by the SIGNE experiment. 1: Correlation between intensity and spectral hardness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargatis, Vincent E.; Liang, Edison P.; Hurley, Kevin C.; Barat, C.; Eveno, E.; Niel, M.

    1994-01-01

    We study the continuum spectral evolution of 16 gamma-ray bursts detected by the Franco-Soviet SIGNE experiment in 1981-1982 by fitting time resolved (0.5 s) spectra in count space with simple thermal bremsstrahlung and synchrotron models. We find that there is no single characteristic of spectral evolution: we see hard-to-soft, soft-to-hard, luminosity-hardness tracking, and chaotic evolution. We perform correlation studies between instantaneous burst intensity and spectral temperature for seven bursts. While we basically confirm the existence of a correlation between these variables as originally claimed by Golenetskii et al. (1983) we find higher values and a broader range of correlation indices.

  14. Do gamma-ray burst sources repeat?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, C. A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Blumenthal, G.; Brock, M.

    1994-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic ad the two-point angular correlation function. We find the data to be consistent with the hypothesis that burst sources do not repeat; however, a repeater fraction of up to about 20% of the bursts cannot be excluded.

  15. Angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-12-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in the physics laboratory. Many traditional physics experiments can now be performed very conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment while simultaneously reducing the laboratory budget substantially by using student-owned smartphones.

  16. Mapping correlation of a simulated dark matter source and a point source in the gamma-ray sky - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Alexander

    2015-08-23

    In my research, I analyzed how two gamma-ray source models interact with one another when optimizing to fit data. This is important because it becomes hard to distinguish between the two point sources when they are close together or looking at low energy photons. The reason for the first is obvious, the reason why they become harder to distinguish at lower photon energies is the resolving power of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope gets worse at lower energies. When the two point sources are highly correlated (hard to distinguish between), we need to change our method of statistical analysis. What I did was show that highly correlated sources have larger uncertainties associated with them, caused by an optimizer not knowing which point source’s parameters to optimize. I also mapped out where their is high correlation for 2 different theoretical mass dark matter point sources so that people analyzing them in the future knew where they had to use more sophisticated statistical analysis.

  17. Measurement of Z/gamma*+jet+X angular distributions in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96.TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Abolins, Maris A.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Aguilo, Ernest; Ahsan, Mahsana; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls /Northeastern U.

    2009-07-01

    We present the first measurements at a hadron collider of differential cross sections for Z/{gamma}* + jet + X production in {Delta}{phi}(Z, jet), |{Delta}y(Z, jet)| and |y{sub boost}(Z + jet)|. Vector boson production in association with jets is an excellent probe of QCD and constitutes the main background to many small cross section processes, such as associated Higgs production. These measurements are crucial tests of the predictions of perturbative QCD and current event generators, which have varied success in describing the data. Using these measurements as inputs in tuning event generators will increase the experimental sensitivity to rare signals.

  18. SELECTION EFFECTS IN GAMMA-RAY BURST CORRELATIONS: CONSEQUENCES ON THE RATIO BETWEEN GAMMA-RAY BURST AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Dainotti, M. G.; Shigehiro, N.; Vecchio, R. Del; Capozziello, S. E-mail: mdainott@stanford.edu E-mail: dainotti@oa.uj.edu.pl E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it

    2015-02-10

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) visible up to very high redshift have become attractive targets as potential new distance indicators. It is still not clear whether the relations proposed so far originate from an unknown GRB physics or result from selection effects. We investigate this issue in the case of the L{sub X} -T{sub a}{sup ∗} (hereafter LT) correlation between the X-ray luminosity L{sub X} (T{sub a} ) at the end of the plateau phase, T{sub a} , and the rest-frame time T{sub a}{sup ∗}. We devise a general method to build mock data sets starting from a GRB world model and taking into account selection effects on both time and luminosity. This method shows how not knowing the efficiency function could influence the evaluation of the intrinsic slope of any correlation and the GRB density rate. We investigate biases (small offsets in slope or normalization) that would occur in the LT relation as a result of truncations, possibly present in the intrinsic distributions of L{sub X} and T{sub a}{sup ∗}. We compare these results with the ones in Dainotti et al. showing that in both cases the intrinsic slope of the LT correlation is ≈ – 1.0. This method is general and therefore relevant for investigating whether or not any other GRB correlation is generated by the biases themselves. Moreover, because the farthest GRBs and star-forming galaxies probe the reionization epoch, we evaluate the redshift-dependent ratio Ψ(z) = (1 + z){sup α} of the GRB rate to the star formation rate. We found a modest evolution –0.2 ≤ α ≤ 0.5 consistent with a Swift GRB afterglow plateau in the redshift range 0.99 < z < 9.4.

  19. Correlative studies of astrophysical sources of very high and ultra high energy gamma-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akerlof, Carl W.

    1993-01-01

    During the period of this contract, June 1, 1991 to November 14, 1992, the major results of our research effort have come from the Whipple air shower experiment in Tucson, AZ. The most notable development has been the discovery of TeV photons from the BL Lac object, Markarian 421. This result depended critically on the identification of Mrk 421 by the EGRET team as a source of GeV gamma rays.

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE INTRINSIC LUMINOSITY TIME CORRELATION IN THE X-RAY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Petrosian, Vahe'; Singal, Jack; Ostrowski, Michal E-mail: vahep@stanford.edu E-mail: dainotti@oa.uj.edu.pl

    2013-09-10

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which have been observed up to redshifts z Almost-Equal-To 9.5, can be good probes of the early universe and have the potential to test cosmological models. Dainotti's analysis of GRB Swift afterglow light curves with known redshifts and a definite X-ray plateau shows an anti-correlation between the rest-frame time when the plateau ends (the plateau end time) and the calculated luminosity at that time (or approximately an anti-correlation between plateau duration and luminosity). Here, we present an update of this correlation with a larger data sample of 101 GRBs with good light curves. Since some of this correlation could result from the redshift dependences of these intrinsic parameters, namely, their cosmological evolution, we use the Efron-Petrosian method to reveal the intrinsic nature of this correlation. We find that a substantial part of the correlation is intrinsic and describe how we recover it and how this can be used to constrain physical models of the plateau emission, the origin of which is still unknown. The present result could help to clarify the debated nature of the plateau emission.

  1. Galactic neutron stars and gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dieter; Woosley, S. E.; Epstein, Richard I.

    1990-01-01

    The association of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon with Galactic neutron stars is investigated statistically, and the distance to presently observable gamma-ray bursts is constrained. This is done by calculating the spatial distribution and kinematic properties of a sample of Population I neutron stars and comparing their properties to those of observed gamma-ray bursts. Both brightness distribution and angular distribution on the celestial sphere are employed. Current observations suggest negligible correlation on small angular scales, large-scale isotropy, and a radial distribution that is approximately uniform to the distances currently observed. It is concluded that the distribution of Population I neutron stars is consistent with current observations if gamma-ray bursts occur continuously throughout the neutron star lifetime and if the current sampling depth is at least about 150 pc but not more than roughly 2 kpc.

  2. Perturbed Angular Correlation Study of the Static and Dynamic Aspects of Cadmium and Mercury Atoms Inside and Attached to a C60 Fullerene Cage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Satyendra K.; Guin, Rashmohan; Banerjee, Debasish; Johnston, Karl; Das, Parnika; Butz, Tilman; Amaral, Vitor S.; Correia, Joao G.; Barbosa, Marcelo B.

    2014-11-01

    30 keV 111mCd and 50 keV 199mHg beams from ISOLDE were used to implant on preformed targets of C60 with a thickness of 1 mg cm-2. Endofullerene compounds, viz. 111mCd@C60 and 199mHg@C60 formed during implantation were separated by filtration through micropore filter paper followed by solvent extraction. Dried samples of the endofullerene compounds were counted for the time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurement using the coincidence of the 151 - 245 keV cascade of 111mCd and the 374 - 158 keV cascade of 199mHg on a six LaBr3(Ce) detector system coupled with digital electronics. The results for 111mCd@C60 indicate a single static component (27%) and a fast relaxing component (73%), the latter implying that the cadmium atom moves rapidly inside the cage at room temperature. The quadrupole interaction frequency and asymmetry parameter of the cadmium atom occupying the static site in C60 are wQ=8.21(36) Mrad s-1 and η = 0.41(9), respectively. The fast relaxation constant is 0.0031(4) ns-1. Similarly, mercury atoms also exhibit a single static and a fast component. The static site has a quadrupole frequency wQ=283.0(12.4) Mrad s-1 and η =0 with a fraction of 30%. The fast relaxation constant is 0.045(8) ns-1 with a fraction of 70%, very similar to that of cadmium.

  3. Observational Evidence for a Correlation between Peak Luminosities and Beaming in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.; Regimbau, Tania

    2003-08-01

    We calculate the unseen-but-true gamma-ray burst (GRB) event rate from a current flux-limited sample of 33 GRBs with individually measured redshifts. We consider a GRB event rate that is proportional to the star formation rate, in view of the GRB-supernovae association in SN 1998bw and GRB 030329. By fitting a lognormal distribution of GRB peak luminosities, we find a ratio 1/fr~=450 for the true-to-observed GRB event rates. This provides an independent derivation of the GRB beaming factor 1/fb~=500 obtained by Frail et al. from sources with standard GRB energies. We discuss applications to GRB 980425.

  4. The XMM-Newton survey of the ELAIS-S1 field. I. Number counts, angular correlation function and X-ray spectral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; D'Elia, V.; Pillitteri, I.; Feruglio, C.; Grazian, A.; Brusa, M.; Ciliegi, P.; Comastri, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Mignoli, M.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; La Franca, F.; Sacchi, N.; Franceschini, A.; Berta, S.; Buttery, H.; Dias, J. E.

    2006-10-01

    Aims.The formation and evolution of cosmic structures can be probed by studying the evolution of the luminosity function of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), galaxies and clusters of galaxies and of the clustering of the X-ray active Universe, compared to the IR-UV active Universe. Methods: .To this purpose, we have surveyed with XMM-Newton the central ~0.6 deg2 region of the ELAIS-S1 field down to flux limits of ~5.5 × 10-16 erg~cm-2~s-1 (0.5-2 keV, soft band, S), ~2 × 10-15 erg~cm-2~s-1 (2-10 keV, hard band, H), and ~4 × 10-15 erg~cm-2~s-1 (5-10 keV, ultra hard band, HH). We present here the analysis of the XMM-Newton observations, the number counts in different energy bands and the clustering properties of the X-ray sources. Results: .We detect a total of 478 sources, 395 and 205 of which detected in the S and H bands respectively. We identified 7 clearly extended sources and estimated their redshift through X-ray spectral fits with thermal models. In four cases the redshift is consistent with z=0.4, so we may have detected a large scale structure formed by groups and clusters of galaxies through their hot intra-cluster gas emission. We have computed the angular correlation function of the sources in the S and H bands finding best fit correlation angles θ_0=5.2 ± 3.8 arcsec and θ_0=12.8 ± 7.8 arcsec in the two bands respectively. The correlation angle of H band sources is therefore formally ~2.5 times that of the S band sources, although the difference is at only ~1σ confidence level. A rough estimate of the present-day correlation length r0 can be obtained inverting the Limber equation and assuming an appropriate redshift distribution dN/dz. The results range between 12.8 and 9.8 h-1 Mpc in the S band and between 17.9 and 13.4 h-1 Mpc in the H band, with 30-40% statistical errors, assuming either smooth redshift distributions or redshift distributions with spikes accounting for the presence of significant structure at z=0.4. The relative density of the

  5. EEG gamma coherence and other correlates of subjective reports during ayahuasca experiences.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, David E; Lawson, Robert; Luna, Luis Eduardo

    2005-06-01

    The current study examined QEEG power and coherence of ayahuasca experiences with two experienced participants in a Brazilian jungle setting. An exploratory case series design was adopted for naturalistic field research. EEGs recorded during visual imagery was compared to eyes-closed baselines. The most important findings were increases in global EEG coherence in the 36-44 Hz and 50-64 Hz frequency bands for both subjects. Widely distributed cortical hyper-coherence seems reasonable given the intense synesthesia during ayahuasca experiences. Other findings include increased modal EEG alpha frequency and global power decreases across the cortex in most frequency bands, which concur with the EEG of psychedelics literature. Exploratory analysis revealed the usefulness of analyzing single Hz bins over the standard wide-band analysis. The discovery-oriented naturalistic approach developed for this study resulted in potentially important findings. We believe that finding increases in global gamma coherence during peak psychedelic experiences might contribute to the discussion of binding theory. Also, in light of recent research with gamma coherence during advanced meditative conditions, our findings might further the comparison of shamanic psychedelic practices with meditation.

  6. DARK MATTER SEARCHES IN THE GAMMA-RAY EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND VIA CROSS-CORRELATIONS WITH GALAXY CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Cuoco, Alessandro; Regis, Marco; Fornengo, Nicolao; Xia, Jun-Qing; Branchini, Enzo; Viel, Matteo E-mail: regis@to.infn.it E-mail: xiajq@bnu.edu.cn E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it

    2015-12-15

    We compare the measured angular cross-correlation between the Fermi-Large Area Telescope γ-ray sky and catalogs of extragalactic objects with the expected signal induced by weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter (DM). We include a detailed description of the contribution of astrophysical γ-ray emitters such as blazars, misaligned active galactic nucleus (AGN), and star-forming galaxies, and perform a global fit to the measured cross-correlation. Five catalogs are considered: Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-DR6 quasars, Two Micron All Sky Survey galaxies, NRAO VLA Sky Survey radio galaxies, SDSS-DR8 Luminous Red Galaxies, and the SDSS-DR8 main galaxy sample. To model the cross-correlation signal, we use the halo occupation distribution formalism to estimate the number of galaxies of a given catalog in DM halos and their spatial correlation properties. We discuss uncertainties in the predicted cross-correlation signal arising from the DM clustering and WIMP microscopic properties, which set the DM γ-ray emission. The use of different catalogs probing objects at different redshifts significantly reduces, though not completely, the degeneracy among the different γ-ray components. We find that the presence of a significant WIMP DM signal is allowed by the data but not significantly preferred by the fit, although this is mainly due to a degeneracy with the misaligned AGN component. With modest substructure boost, the sensitivity of this method excludes thermal annihilation cross sections at 95% level for WIMP masses up to few tens of GeV. Constraining the low-redshift properties of astrophysical populations with future data will further improve the sensitivity to DM.

  7. Effects of overburden, biomass and atmospheric inversions on energy and angular distributions of gamma rays from U, K, Th, and airborne radon sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, R.M.; Leggett, D.; Wells, M.B.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a set of radiation transport calculations that were run with the AHISN S/sub n/ discrete ordinates code and a point kernel code to determine the energy, polar angle and height in air distributions of the total and direct gamma-ray flux densities from: (1) uranium sources of 3.2, 200 and 800 ppM in a sandstone orebody covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (2) thorium sources of 12, 25 and 80 ppM in a sandstone ore body covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (3) potassium source (2.5 wt %) in a sandstone ore body covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (4) constant airborne source with height for no inversion and for inversion layer heights of 65.22, 260.32 and 458.43 m; (5) exponentially decreasing airborne source for no inversion and inversion layer heights of 65.22, 260.32 and 458.43 m; (6) 3.2 ppM uranium source in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm thick; (7) 12 ppM thorium source in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm; (8) 2.5 wt % of potassium in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm thick; and (9) 3.2 ppM, 200 ppM, and 800 ppM uranium source in sandstone orebody covered with overburden thicknesses of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm. Gamma-ray emission from the decay of natural uranium, thorium, radon, and potassium are given in a 45-energy group structure applicable to the energy windows used to map the potential uranium ore reserves.

  8. Correlation Between Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Plasma Levels in Autistic Children.

    PubMed

    Russo, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    There is much support for the role of Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the etiology of autism. Recent research has shown that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) modulates GABAergic inhibition and seizure susceptibility. This study was designed to determine and correlate plasma levels of HGF, GABA, as well as symptom severity, in autistic children and neurotypical controls. Plasma from 48 autistic children and 29 neurotypical controls was assessed for HGF and GABA concentration using ELISAs. Symptom severity was assessed in these autistic individuals and compared to HGF and GABA concentrations. We previously reported that autistic children had significantly decreased levels of HGF. In this study, the same autistic children had significantly increased plasma levels of GABA (P = 0.002) and decreased HGF levels correlated with these increased GABA levels (r = 0.3; P = 0.05). High GABA levels correlated with increasing hyperactivity (r = 0.6; P = 0.0007) and impulsivity severity (r = 0.5; P = 0.007), tip toeing severity (r = 0.35; P = 0.03), light sensitivity (r = 0.4; P = 0.02), and tactile sensitivity (r = 0.4; P = 0.01). HGF levels did not correlate significantly with any symptom severity. These results suggest an association between HGF and GABA levels and suggest that plasma GABA levels are related to symptom severity in autistic children.

  9. STUDY OF POSSIBLE SYSTEMATICS IN THE L*{sub X}-T*{sub a} CORRELATION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Ostrowski, Michal; Cardone, Vincenzo Fabrizio; Capozziello, Salvatore; Willingale, Richard E-mail: mio@oa.uj.edu.pl E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it

    2011-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic sources in the universe and among the farthest known astrophysical sources. These features make them appealing candidates as standard candles for cosmological applications such that studying the physical mechanisms for the origin of the emission and correlations among their observable properties is an interesting task. We consider here the luminosity L*{sub X} and break time T*{sub a} (hereafter LT) correlation and investigate whether there are systematics induced by selection effects or redshift-dependent calibration. We perform this analysis both for the full sample of 77 Swift GRBs with known redshift and for the subsample of GRBs having canonical X-ray light curves, hereafter called the U0095 sample. We do not find any systematic bias, thus confirming the existence of physical GRB subclasses revealed by tight correlations of their afterglow properties. Furthermore, we study the possibility of applying the LT correlation as a redshift estimator both for the full distribution and for the canonical light curves. The large uncertainties and the non-negligible intrinsic scatter make the results not so encouraging, but there are nevertheless some hints motivating a further analysis with an increased U0095 sample.

  10. Electric field gradients of CeMIn5 (M= Co, Rh, Ir) heavy-fermion systems studied by perturbed angular correlations and ab initio electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forker, M.; Silva, P. R. J.; Cavalcante, J. T. P. D.; Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Ramos, S. M.; Saitovitch, H.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Alonso, R.; Taylor, M.; Errico, L. A.

    2013-04-01

    The electric field gradient (EFG) at the highly dilute nuclear probe 111Cd in the heavy fermion systems CeMIn5, M= Co, Rh, and Ir and YCoIn5 has been investigated by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements of the nuclear electric quadrupole interaction (QI) of 111Cd on In sites. Pure and Sn-doped single crystals prepared by In-flux synthesis and polycrystalline samples prepared by arc melting have been studied. The samples were doped with the PAC probe 111Cd by diffusion of the mother isotope 111In. In all samples, several fractions of 111Cd probe nuclei subject to different QI's have been observed, among them a large fraction of 111Cd in unreacted In metal. Detailed calculations of the EFG at In nuclei and at Cd probes on In sites of pure and Sn-doped CeMIn5 were preformed, using the full-potential augmented plane wave+local orbital (APW+lo) formalism and taking into account different variables such as the electronic structure of the hyperfine probes, probe induced structural distortions, and impurity doping. The excellent agreement between the predicted EFG's and the experimental results allows us to assign two of the observed EFG components to the lattice sites 1c and 4i of the CeMIn5 compounds and to explain the pronounced difference of the EFG at In and Cd probes on the same lattice position. Structural distortions induced by the Cd probe and Sn-doping were found to have little effect on the EFG at the Cd probes. We also show that the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and LDA+U calculations predict very similar equilibrium structures and EFG's at the In/Cd sites. The extension of the experiments and the calculations from CeMIn5 to YCoIn5 and LaCoIn5 have established that the influence of the 4f electrons on the EFG's at impurity sites is negligibly small.

  11. GAMMA DETECTOR RESPONSE/SOIL CONCENTRATION CORRELATION STUDY AT THE AAR MANUFACTURING, INC. SITE, LIVONIA, MICHIGAN

    SciTech Connect

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2013-03-22

    At the NRC's request, ORAU conducted surveys of the AAR Manufacturing site during the period of September 25 through September 27, 2012. The survey activities included walkover surveys and sampling activities. Once the survey team was onsite, the NRC personnel decided to forgo survey activities in the New Addition and the pickling area. Areas of the planned study boundary were inaccessible due to overgrowth/large pieces of concrete covering the soil surface; therefore, the study boundary was redefined. Gamma walkover scans of the site boundary and front yard identified multiple areas of elevated gamma radiation. As a result, two judgmental samples were collected. Sample results were above thorium background levels The answer to the PSQ relating to the relationship between thorium concentration in soil and NaI instrument response is Yes. NaI instrument response can be used as a predictor of Th-232 concentration in the 0 to 1 m layer. An R2 value of 0.79 was determined for the surface soil relationship, thus satisfying the DQOs. Moreover, the regression was cross-checked by comparing the predicted Th-232 soil core concentration to the average Th-232 concentration (Section 5.3.2). Based on the cross-check, the regression equation provides a reasonable estimate for the Th-232 concentration at the judgmental locations. Consideration must be given when applying this equation to other soil areas of the site. If the contamination was heterogeneously distributed, and not distributed in a discrete layer as it was in the study area, then using the regression equation to predict Th-232 concentration would not be applicable.

  12. The association of alcohol intake with gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels: evidence for correlated genetic effects

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Jenny H.D.A.; de Moor, Marleen H.M.; Geels, Lot M.; Sinke, Michel R.T.; de Geus, Eco. J.C.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Kluft, Cornelis; Neuteboom, Jacoline; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) are used as a marker for (heavy) alcohol use. The role of GGT in the anti-oxidant defense mechanism that is part of normal metabolism supposes a causal effect of alcohol intake on GGT. However, there is variability in the response of GGT to alcohol use, which may result from genetic differences between individuals. This study aimed to determine whether the epidemiological association between alcohol intake and GGT at the population level is necessarily a causal one or may also reflect effects of genetic pleiotropy (genes influencing multiple traits). Methods Data on alcohol intake (grams alcohol/day) and GGT, originating from twins, their siblings and parents (N=6,465), were analyzed with structural equation models. Bivariate genetic models tested whether genetic and environmental factors influencing alcohol intake and GGT correlated significantly. Significant genetic and environmental correlations are consistent with a causal model. If only the genetic correlation is significant, this is evidence for genetic pleiotropy. Results Phenotypic correlations between alcohol intake and GGT were significant in men (r=.17) and women (r=.09). The genetic factors underlying alcohol intake correlated significantly with those for GGT, whereas the environmental factors were weakly correlated (explaining 4-7% vs. 1-2% of the variance in GGT respectively). Conclusions In this healthy population sample, the epidemiological association of alcohol intake with GGT is at least partly explained by genetic pleiotropy. Future longitudinal twin studies should determine whether a causal mechanism underlying this association might be confined to heavy drinking populations. PMID:24120856

  13. A serach for moderate- and high-energy neturino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Bratton, C. B.; Breault, J.; Casper, D.; Dye, S. T.; Gajewski, W.; Goldhaber, M.; Haines, T. J.; Halverson, P. G.; Kielczewska, D.

    1995-01-01

    A temporal correlation analysis between moderate- (60 Mev less than or equal to E(sub nu)greater than or equal to 2500 MeV) and high-energy (E(sub nu) greater than or equal to 2000 MeV) neutrino interactions consist of two types: the moderate-energy interactions that are contained within the volume of IMB-3 and the upward-going muons produced by high-energy nu(sub mu) interactions in the rock around the detector. No evidence is found for moderate- or high-energy neutrino emission from GRBs nor for any neutrino/neutrino correlation. The nonobservation of nu/GRB correlations allows upper limits to be placed on the neutrino flux associated with GRBs.

  14. CORRELATED X-RAY AND VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION IN THE GAMMA-RAY BINARY LS I +61 303

    SciTech Connect

    Anderhub, H.; Biland, A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Backes, M.; Becker, J. K.; Baixeras, C.; Bastieri, D.; Bock, R. K.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Bigas, O. Blanch; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Tridon, D. Borla E-mail: jogler@mppmu.mpg.d

    2009-11-20

    The discovery of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitting X-ray binaries has triggered an intense effort to better understand the particle acceleration, absorption, and emission mechanisms in compact binary systems, which provide variable conditions along eccentric orbits. Despite this, the nature of some of these systems, and of the accelerated particles producing the VHE emission, is unclear. To answer some of these open questions, we conducted a multiwavelength campaign of the VHE gamma-ray emitting X-ray binary LS I +61 303 including the MAGIC telescope, XMM-Newton, and Swift during 60% of an orbit in 2007 September. We detect a simultaneous outburst at X-ray and VHE bands, with the peak at phase 0.62 and a similar shape at both wavelengths. A linear fit to the simultaneous X-ray/VHE pairs obtained during the outburst yields a correlation coefficient of r = 0.97, while a linear fit to all simultaneous pairs provides r = 0.81. Since a variable absorption of the VHE emission towards the observer is not expected for the data reported here, the correlation found indicates a simultaneity in the emission processes. Assuming that they are dominated by a single particle population, either hadronic or leptonic, the X-ray/VHE flux ratio favors leptonic models. This fact, together with the detected photon indices, suggests that in LS I +61 303 the X-rays are the result of synchrotron radiation of the same electrons that produce VHE emission as a result of inverse Compton scattering of stellar photons.

  15. Correlated X-Ray and Very High Energy Emission in the Gamma-Ray Binary LS I +61 303

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderhub, H.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Britzger, D.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; de Cea del Pozo, E.; De los Reyes, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Godinovic, N.; Goebel, F.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hsu, C. C.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Robert, A.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sidro, N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Stark, L. S.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.; MAGIC Collaboration; Falcone, A.; Vetere, L.; Gehrels, N.; Trushkin, S.; Dhawan, V.; Reig, P.

    2009-11-01

    The discovery of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitting X-ray binaries has triggered an intense effort to better understand the particle acceleration, absorption, and emission mechanisms in compact binary systems, which provide variable conditions along eccentric orbits. Despite this, the nature of some of these systems, and of the accelerated particles producing the VHE emission, is unclear. To answer some of these open questions, we conducted a multiwavelength campaign of the VHE gamma-ray emitting X-ray binary LS I +61 303 including the MAGIC telescope, XMM-Newton, and Swift during 60% of an orbit in 2007 September. We detect a simultaneous outburst at X-ray and VHE bands, with the peak at phase 0.62 and a similar shape at both wavelengths. A linear fit to the simultaneous X-ray/VHE pairs obtained during the outburst yields a correlation coefficient of r = 0.97, while a linear fit to all simultaneous pairs provides r = 0.81. Since a variable absorption of the VHE emission towards the observer is not expected for the data reported here, the correlation found indicates a simultaneity in the emission processes. Assuming that they are dominated by a single particle population, either hadronic or leptonic, the X-ray/VHE flux ratio favors leptonic models. This fact, together with the detected photon indices, suggests that in LS I +61 303 the X-rays are the result of synchrotron radiation of the same electrons that produce VHE emission as a result of inverse Compton scattering of stellar photons.

  16. Effect of gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra on the empirical luminosity correlations and the GRB Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai-Nan; Li, Xin; Chang, Zhe

    2016-07-01

    The spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in a wide energy range can usually be well described by the Band function, which is a two smoothly jointed power laws cutting at a breaking energy. Below the breaking energy, the Band function reduces to a cut-off power law, while above the breaking energy it is a simple power law. However, for some detectors [such as the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT)] whose working energy is well below or just near the breaking energy, the observed spectra can be fitted to cut-off power law with enough precision. Besides, since the energy band of Swift-BAT is very narrow, the spectra of most GRBs can be fitted well even using a simple power law. In this paper, with the most up-to-date sample of Swift-BAT GRBs, we study the effect of different spectral models on the empirical luminosity correlations, and further investigate the effect on the reconstruction of GRB Hubble diagram. We mainly focus on two luminosity correlations, i.e. the Amati relation and Yonetoku relation. We calculate these two luminosity correlations in both cases that the GRB spectra are modelled by Band function and cut-off power law. It is found that both luminosity correlations only moderately depend on the choice of GRB spectra. Monte Carlo simulations show that Amati relation is insensitive to the high-energy power-law index of the Band function. As a result, the GRB Hubble diagram calibrated using luminosity correlations is almost independent on the GRB spectra.

  17. CORRELATED SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL BEHAVIOR OF LATE-TIME AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

    2012-12-20

    The cannonball (CB) model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) predicts that the asymptotic behavior of the spectral energy density of GRB afterglows is a power law in time and in frequency, and the difference between the temporal and spectral power-law indices, {alpha}{sub X} - {beta}{sub X}, is restricted to the values 0, 1/2, and 1. Here we report the distributions of the values {alpha}{sub X} and {beta}{sub X}, and their difference for a sample of 315 Swift GRBs. This sample includes all Swift GRBs that were detected before 2012 August 1, whose X-ray afterglow extended well beyond 1 day and the estimated error in {alpha}{sub X} - {beta}{sub X} was {<=}0.25. The values of {alpha}{sub X} were extracted from the CB-model fits to the entire light curves of their X-ray afterglow while the spectral index was extracted by the Swift team from the time-integrated X-ray afterglow of these GRBs. We found that the distribution of the difference {alpha}{sub X} - {beta}{sub X} for these 315 Swift GRBs has three narrow peaks around 0, 1/2, and 1 whose widths are consistent with being due to the measurement errors, in agreement with the CB-model prediction.

  18. New method for estimation of fluence complexity in IMRT fields and correlation with gamma analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanušová, T.; Vondráček, V.; Badraoui-Čuprová, K.; Horáková, I.; Koniarová, I.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for estimation of fluence complexity in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) fields is proposed. Unlike other previously published works, it is based on portal images calculated by the Portal Dose Calculation algorithm in Eclipse (version 8.6, Varian Medical Systems) in the plane of the EPID aS500 detector (Varian Medical Systems). Fluence complexity is given by the number and the amplitudes of dose gradients in these matrices. Our method is validated using a set of clinical plans where fluence has been smoothed manually so that each plan has a different level of complexity. Fluence complexity calculated with our tool is in accordance with the different levels of smoothing as well as results of gamma analysis, when calculated and measured dose matrices are compared. Thus, it is possible to estimate plan complexity before carrying out the measurement. If appropriate thresholds are determined which would distinguish between acceptably and overly modulated plans, this might save time in the re-planning and re-measuring process.

  19. The expression of IFN-gamma, IL-4, Foxp3 and perforin genes are not correlated with DNA methylation status in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haifeng; Du, Weiting; Wang, Donghai; Gu, Dongsheng; Xue, Feng; Ge, Jing; Sui, Tao; Yang, Renchi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the expression of IFN-gamma, IL-4, Foxp3 and perforin gene and the methylation status of their promoters in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients. Gene expression and DNA methylation were determined by quantitative PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing, respectively. The expression of IFN-gamma was higher, while the expression of IL-4 was notably lower in ITP patients when compared with the controls. Most importantly, the Th1/Th2 (IFN-gamma/IL-4) was remarkably higher in ITP patients, showing that the ITP patients were mainly in the Th1 polarization response. Although the methylation rate of CpGs located at -409 of perforin was higher (p = 0.0376) and that of IFN-gamma were relatively higher (p = 0.0582) in ITP, we did not find the negative correlation between the expression of those genes and the methylation of their promoters. PMID:20100010

  20. Proposed experiment to measure {gamma}-rays from the thermal neutron capture of gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Takatomi; Ou, I.; Izumi, T.; Yamaguchi, R.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.

    2012-11-12

    Gadolinium-157 ({sup 157}Gd) has the largest thermal neutron capture cross section among any stable nuclei. The thermal neutron capture yields {gamma}-ray cascade with total energy of about 8 MeV. Because of these characteristics, Gd is applied for the recent neutrino detectors. Here, we propose an experiment to measure the multiplicity and the angular correlation of {gamma}-rays from the Gd neutron capture. With these information, we expect the improved identification of the Gd neutron capture.

  1. Galactic angular momenta and angular momentum couplings in the large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Björn Malte; Merkel, Philipp M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we revisit the acquisition of angular momentum of galaxies by tidal shearing and compute the angular momentum variance ? as well as the angular momentum correlation function CL(r), using tidal torquing in the Zel'dovich approximation as the model for angular momentum build-up. Under the assumption that haloes form at peaks in the density field we determine the protohalo's inertia from the peak shape and embed it in a tidal field. Inertia and shear are drawn from a random process and we compute the angular momentum variance and correlation function by sampling from a Gaussian distribution which shows the correct covariances between all relevant quantities. We describe the way in which the correlations in angular momentum result from an interplay of long-ranged correlations in the tidal shear and short-ranged correlations in the inertia field. Our description takes care of the relative orientation of the eigensystems of these two symmetric tensors. We propose a new form of the angular momentum correlation function which is able to distinguish between parallel and antiparallel alignment of angular momentum vectors, and comment on implications of intrinsic alignments for weak lensing measurements. We confirm the scaling L/M ∝ M2/3 and find the angular momentum distribution of Milky Way sized haloes to be correlated on scales of ˜1 Mpc h-1. The correlation function can be well fitted by an empirical relation of the form CL(r) ∝ exp(-[r/r0]β).

  2. Measuring dark energy with the Eiso - Ep correlation of gamma-ray bursts using model-independent methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Wang, F. Y.; Cheng, K. S.; Dai, Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    We use two model-independent methods to standardize long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the Eiso - Ep correlation (log Eiso = a + blog Ep), where Eiso is the isotropic-equivalent gamma-ray energy and Ep is the spectral peak energy. We update 42 long GRBs and attempt to constrain the cosmological parameters. The full sample contains 151 long GRBs with redshifts from 0.0331 to 8.2. The first method is the simultaneous fitting method. We take the extrinsic scatter σext into account and assign it to the parameter Eiso. The best-fitting values are a = 49.15 ± 0.26, b = 1.42 ± 0.11, σext = 0.34 ± 0.03 and Ωm = 0.79 in the flat ΛCDM model. The constraint on Ωm is 0.55 < Ωm< 1 at the 1σ confidence level. If reduced χ2 method is used, the best-fit results are a = 48.96 ± 0.18, b = 1.52 ± 0.08, and Ωm = 0.50 ± 0.12. The second method uses type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to calibrate the Eiso - Ep correlation. We calibrate 90 high-redshift GRBs in the redshift range from 1.44 to 8.1. The cosmological constraints from these 90 GRBs are Ωm = 0.23+0.06-0.04 for flat ΛCDM and Ωm = 0.18 ± 0.11 and ΩΛ = 0.46 ± 0.51 for non-flat ΛCDM. For the combination of GRB and SNe Ia sample, we obtain Ωm = 0.271 ± 0.019 and h = 0.701 ± 0.002 for the flat ΛCDM and the non-flat ΛCDM, and the results are Ωm = 0.225 ± 0.044, ΩΛ = 0.640 ± 0.082, and h = 0.698 ± 0.004. These results from calibrated GRBs are consistent with that of SNe Ia. Meanwhile, the combined data can improve cosmological constraints significantly, compared to SNe Ia alone. Our results show that the Eiso - Ep correlation is promising to probe the high-redshift Universe.

  3. Gamma radiation affects active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum. II. Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter-Smith, P.J.

    1989-03-01

    The response of ileal segments isolated from rabbits to an actively transported amino acid and a secretagogue was evaluated following exposure to 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The ability of ileal segments to respond to the actively transported amino acid, alanine, was not significantly diminished until 96 h postexposure. Decreased responsiveness to the secretagogue, theophylline, occurred earlier at 72 h. These effects did not appear to be accounted for by decreased food intake of irradiated animals alone. Examination of intestinal morphological changes with respect to these changes in electrolyte transport revealed that decreased amino acid transport coincides with loss of intestinal villi. Although a morphological correlate of decreased secretory response was not as striking as that for absorption, the theophylline response appeared to decline concomitant with the appearance of increased mitotic activity in the intestinal crypts. The results of this study indicate that, following a dose of 10 Gy, the inability of these tissues to respond to amino acids is due to a loss of mature villus absorptive cells subsequent to denudation of the intestinal mucosa. There appeared to be little impairment of cell membrane transport processes for alanine. In contrast, the decreased secretory response could not be correlated with the disappearance of any one cell type and perhaps results from increased proliferation in the crypts at the expense of differentiation.

  4. Gamma-radiation affects active electrolyte transport by rabbit ileum. 2. Correlation of alanine and theophylline response with morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter-Smith, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The response of ileal segments isolated from rabbits to an actively transported amino acid and a secretagogue was evaluated following exposure to 10-Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The ability of ileal segments to respond to the actively transported amino acid, alanine, was not significantly diminished until 96 h postexposure. Decreased responsiveness to the secretagogue, theophylline, occurred earlier at 72 h. These effects did not appear to be accounted for by decreased food intake of irradiated animals alone. Examination of intestinal morphological changes with respect to these changes in electrolyte transport revealed that decreased amino acid transport coincides with loss of intestinal villi. Although a morphological correlate of decreased secretory response was not as striking as that for absorption, the theophylline response appeared to decline concomitant with the appearance of increased mitotic activity in the intestinal crypts. The result of this study indicate that, following a dose of 10 Gy, the inability of these tissues to respond to amino acids is due to a loss of mature villus absorptive cells subsequent to denudation of the intestinal mucosa. There appeared to be little impairment of cell membrane transport processes for alanine. In contrast, the decreased secretory response could not be correlated with the disappearance of any one cell type and perhaps results from increased proliferation in the crypts at the expense of differentiation.

  5. A THEORETICAL COLOR-VELOCITY CORRELATION FOR SUPERNOVAE ASSOCIATED WITH GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, Sharon; Sim, Stuart A.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Kromer, Markus

    2012-11-01

    We carry out the first multi-dimensional radiative transfer calculations to simultaneously compute synthetic spectra and light curves for models of supernovae driven by fast bipolar outflows. These allow us to make self-consistent predictions for the orientation dependence of both color evolution and spectral features. We compare models with different degrees of asphericity and metallicity and find significant observable consequences of both. In aspherical models, we find spectral and light curve features that vary systematically with observer orientation. In particular, we find that the early-phase light curves are brighter and bluer when viewed close to the polar axis but that the peak flux is highest for equatorial (off-axis) inclinations. Spectral line features also depend systematically on observer orientation, including the velocity of the Si II 6355 A line. Consequently, our models predict a correlation between line velocity and color that could assist the identification of supernovae associated with off-axis jet-driven explosions. The amplitude and range of this correlation depends on the degree of asphericity, the metallicity, and the epoch of observation but we find that it is always present and acts in the same direction.

  6. Surface gamma-ray logs as a correlation tool between outcrop and subsurface: Application to the Silurian-Devonian of west Texas and southern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Colleary, W.M. ); Crafton, J.W. Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL )

    1992-04-01

    Outcrop gamma-ray logs are an excellent tool for correlation between surface measured sections and subsurface well logs. The work presented here illustrates the utility of constructing such profiles and the applicability of this technique to carbonate sequences such as those of the Permian basin. Outcrop sections with gamma-ray profiles have been measured over the Silurian-Devonian section in three separate areas. These sections are located in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico, and the northern Franklin Mountains and Hueco Mountains of west Texas. A hand-held Scintrex Model BGS-4 Digital Scintillometer was used to measure surface gamma radiation while detailed stratigraphic sections were being measured and described. Data were collected at regularly spaced intervals along the section. The scintillometer detects natural radiation emitted by radioactive elements that occur in most clay minerals and generally are more abundant in shales than in sandstones or carbonates. The lithology of poorly exposed or covered units also may be inferred from surface gamma-ray profiles. Organic-rich black shales are particularly radioactive, as are condensed sections. The strength of this method does not lie in the absolute reading of gamma radiation. The value of this tool lies in recognizing patterns within each profile, directly relating these patterns to their associated facies, and correlating them with subsurface profiles.

  7. In vitro gamma-secretase cleavage of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein correlates to a subset of presenilin complexes and is inhibited by zinc.

    PubMed

    Hoke, David E; Tan, Jiang-Li; Ilaya, Nancy T; Culvenor, Janetta G; Smith, Stephanie J; White, Anthony R; Masters, Colin L; Evin, Geneviève M

    2005-11-01

    The gamma-secretase complex mediates the final proteolytic event in Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta biogenesis. This membrane complex of presenilin, anterior pharynx defective, nicastrin, and presenilin enhancer-2 cleaves the C-terminal 99-amino acid fragment of the amyloid precursor protein intramembranously at gamma-sites to form C-terminally heterogeneous amyloid-beta and cleaves at an epsilon-site to release the intracellular domain or epsilon-C-terminal fragment. In this work, two novel in vitro gamma-secretase assays are developed to further explore the biochemical characteristics of gamma-secretase activity. During development of a bacterial expression system for a substrate based on the amyloid precursor protein C-terminal 99-amino acid sequence, fragments similar to amyloid-beta and an epsilon-C-terminal fragment were observed. Upon purification this substrate was used in parallel with a transfected source of substrate to measure gamma-secretase activity from detergent extracted membranes. With these systems, it was determined that recovery of size-fractionated cellular and tissue-derived gamma-secretase activity is dependent upon detergent concentration and that activity correlates to a subset of high molecular mass presenilin complexes. We also show that by changing the solvent environment with dimethyl sulfoxide, detection of epsilon-C-terminal fragments can be elevated. Lastly, we show that zinc causes an increase in the apparent molecular mass of an amyloid precursor protein gamma-secretase substrate and inhibits its cleavage. These studies further refine our knowledge of the complexes and biochemical factors needed for gamma-secretase activity and suggest a mechanism by which zinc dysregulation may contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

  8. An Investigation of 154Eu as a High-Precision Multi-{gamma}-Ray Intensity Calibration Standard for Detector Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, W.D.; Wood, J.L.; Krane, K. S.; Loats, J.; Schmelzenbach, P.D.; Stapels, C.J.; Norman, E.B.

    2005-05-24

    The decay of 154Eu has been studied using {gamma}-ray singles and {gamma} - {gamma} coincidence spectroscopy with an array of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. Particular attention to coincidence summing in the analysis, with consideration of detailed decay cascades and angular correlation effects, suggests that previous studies have overlooked necessary corrections. It is concluded that 154Eu provides 26 {gamma} rays that can be used for relative efficiency calibrations from 120 to 1600 keV at the 0.7% precision level and that this precision could be improved in the future.

  9. Evaluating Signal-Correlated Noise as a Control Task with Language-Related Gamma Activity on Electrocorticography

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Erik C.; Muzik, Otto; Rothermel, Robert; Juhász, Csaba; Shah, Aashit K.; Fuerst, Darren; Mittal, Sandeep; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our recent electrocorticography (ECoG) study suggested reverse speech, a widely used control task, to be a poor control for non-language-related auditory activity. We hypothesized that this may be due to retained perception as a human voice. We report a follow-up ECoG study in which we contrast forward and reverse speech with a signal-correlated noise (SCN) control task that cannot be perceived as a human voice. Methods Ten patients were presented 90 audible stimuli, including 30 each of corresponding forward speech, reverse speech, and SCN trials, during ECoG recording with evaluation of gamma activity between 50–150 Hz. Results Sites of the lateral temporal gyri activated throughout speech stimuli were generally less activated by SCN, while some temporal sites seemed to process both human and non-human sounds. Reverse speech trials were associated with activities across the temporal lobe similar to those associated with forward speech. Conclusions Findings herein externally validate functional neuroimaging studies utilizing SCN as a control for non-language-specific auditory function. Our findings are consistent with the notion that stimuli perceived as originating from a human voice are poor controls for non-language auditory function. Significance Our findings have implications in functional neuroimaging research as well as improved clinical mapping of auditory functions. PMID:24412331

  10. BROADBAND TIME-RESOLVED E{sub p,i}-L{sub iso} CORRELATION IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Frontera, F.; Guidorzi, C.; Amati, L.; Landi, R.; In't Zand, J.

    2012-08-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of the broadband (2-2000 keV) time-resolved prompt emission spectra of a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with both Wide Field Cameras on board the BeppoSAX satellite and the BATSE experiment on board CGRO. In this first paper, we study the time-resolved dependence of the intrinsic peak energy E{sub p,i} of the E F(E) spectrum on the corresponding isotropic bolometric luminosity L{sub iso}. The E{sub p,i}-L{sub iso} relation or the equivalent relation between E{sub p,i} and the bolometric released energy E{sub iso}, derived using the time-averaged spectra of long GRBs with known redshift, is well established, but its physical origin is still a subject of discussion. In addition, some authors maintain that these relations are the result of instrumental selection effects. We find that not only a relation between the measured peak energy E{sub p} and the corresponding energy flux, but also a strong E{sub p,i} versus L{sub iso} correlation are found not only within each burst, but also are merging together the time-resolved data points from different GRBs. We do not expect significant instrumental selection effects that can affect the results obtained, apart from the fact that the GRBs in our sample are sufficiently bright to perform a time-resolved spectroscopy and that they have known redshift. If the fundamental physical process that gives rise to the GRB phenomenon does not depend on its brightness, we conclude that the E{sub p,i} versus L{sub iso} correlation found within each GRB is intrinsic to the emission process and that the correlations discovered by Amati et al. and Yonetoku et al. are likely not the result of selection effects. We also discuss the properties of the correlations found.

  11. Measurement of Long-Range Angular Correlation and Quadrupole Anisotropy of Pions and (Anti)Protons in Central d +Au Collisions at √{sN N }=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'Ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Bhom, J. H.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gal, C.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Harper, C.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Issah, M.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kamin, J.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotov, D.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyachi, Y.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Sodre, T.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We present azimuthal angular correlations between charged hadrons and energy deposited in calorimeter towers in central d +Au and minimum bias p +p collisions at √{sN N }=200 GeV . The charged hadron is measured at midrapidity |η |<0.35 , and the energy is measured at large rapidity (-3.7 <η <-3.1 , Au-going direction). An enhanced near-side angular correlation across |Δ η |>2.75 is observed in d +Au collisions. Using the event plane method applied to the Au-going energy distribution, we extract the anisotropy strength v2 for inclusive charged hadrons at midrapidity up to pT=4.5 GeV /c . We also present the measurement of v2 for identified π± and (anti)protons in central d +Au collisions, and observe a mass-ordering pattern similar to that seen in heavy-ion collisions. These results are compared with viscous hydrodynamic calculations and measurements from p +Pb at √{sN N }=5.02 TeV . The magnitude of the mass ordering in d +Au is found to be smaller than that in p +Pb collisions, which may indicate smaller radial flow in lower energy d +Au collisions.

  12. Measurement of long-range angular correlation and quadrupole anisotropy of pions and (anti)protons in central d+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta’ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; et al

    2015-05-12

    In this study, we present azimuthal angular correlations between charged hadrons and energy deposited in calorimeter towers in central d+Au and aluminum bias p+p collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV. The charged hadron is measured at midrapidity lηl < 0.35, and the energy us measured at large rapidity (–3.7 < η < –3.1, Au-going direction). An enhanced near-side angular correlation across lΔηl > 2.75 is observed in d+Au collisions. Using the event plane method applied to the Au-going energy distribution, we extract the anisotropy strength v₂ for inclusive charged hadrons at midrapidity up to pT = 4.5 GeV/c. We alsomore » present the measurement of v₂ for identified π± and (anti)protons in central d+Au collisions, and observe a mass-ordering pattern similar to that seen in heavy ion collisions. These results are compared with viscous hydrodynamic calculations and measurements from p+Pb at √sNN = 5.02 TeV. The magnitude of the mass-ordering in d+Au is found to be smaller than that in p+Pb collisions, which may indicate smaller radial flow in lower energy d+Au collisions.« less

  13. Measurement of Long-Range Angular Correlation and Quadrupole Anisotropy of Pions and (Anti)Protons in Central d+Au Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Ta'ani, H; Alexander, J; Andrews, K R; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Appelt, E; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Ben-Benjamin, J; Bennett, R; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Broxmeyer, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Castera, P; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harper, C; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E-J; Kim, Y-J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Sodre, T; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S

    2015-05-15

    We present azimuthal angular correlations between charged hadrons and energy deposited in calorimeter towers in central d+Au and minimum bias p+p collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200 GeV. The charged hadron is measured at midrapidity |η|<0.35, and the energy is measured at large rapidity (-3.7<η<-3.1, Au-going direction). An enhanced near-side angular correlation across |Δη|>2.75 is observed in d+Au collisions. Using the event plane method applied to the Au-going energy distribution, we extract the anisotropy strength v_{2} for inclusive charged hadrons at midrapidity up to p_{T}=4.5 GeV/c. We also present the measurement of v_{2} for identified π^{±} and (anti)protons in central d+Au collisions, and observe a mass-ordering pattern similar to that seen in heavy-ion collisions. These results are compared with viscous hydrodynamic calculations and measurements from p+Pb at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02 TeV. The magnitude of the mass ordering in d+Au is found to be smaller than that in p+Pb collisions, which may indicate smaller radial flow in lower energy d+Au collisions.

  14. Measurement of Long-Range Angular Correlation and Quadrupole Anisotropy of Pions and (Anti)Protons in Central d+Au Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Ta'ani, H; Alexander, J; Andrews, K R; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Appelt, E; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Ben-Benjamin, J; Bennett, R; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Broxmeyer, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Castera, P; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harper, C; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E-J; Kim, Y-J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Sodre, T; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S

    2015-05-15

    We present azimuthal angular correlations between charged hadrons and energy deposited in calorimeter towers in central d+Au and minimum bias p+p collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200 GeV. The charged hadron is measured at midrapidity |η|<0.35, and the energy is measured at large rapidity (-3.7<η<-3.1, Au-going direction). An enhanced near-side angular correlation across |Δη|>2.75 is observed in d+Au collisions. Using the event plane method applied to the Au-going energy distribution, we extract the anisotropy strength v_{2} for inclusive charged hadrons at midrapidity up to p_{T}=4.5 GeV/c. We also present the measurement of v_{2} for identified π^{±} and (anti)protons in central d+Au collisions, and observe a mass-ordering pattern similar to that seen in heavy-ion collisions. These results are compared with viscous hydrodynamic calculations and measurements from p+Pb at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02 TeV. The magnitude of the mass ordering in d+Au is found to be smaller than that in p+Pb collisions, which may indicate smaller radial flow in lower energy d+Au collisions. PMID:26024164

  15. System size dependence of cluster properties from two-particle angular correlations in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sq root(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wyslouch, B.; Back, B. B.

    2010-02-15

    We present results on two-particle angular correlations in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 200 GeV over a broad range of pseudorapidity (eta) and azimuthal angle (phi) values as a function of collision centrality. The PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has a uniquely large angular coverage for inclusive charged particles, which allows for the study of correlations on both long- and short-range scales. A complex two-dimensional correlation structure in {Delta}{eta} and {Delta}{phi} emerges, which is interpreted in the context of a cluster model. The effective cluster size and decay width are extracted from the two-particle pseudorapidity correlation functions. The effective cluster size found in semicentral Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions is comparable to that found in proton-proton collisions but a nontrivial decrease in size with increasing centrality is observed. Moreover, a comparison of results from Cu+Cu versus Au+Au collisions shows an interesting scaling of the effective cluster size with the measured fraction of total cross section (which is related to the ratio of the impact parameter to the nuclear radius, b/2R), suggesting a geometric origin. Further analysis for pairs from restricted azimuthal regions shows that the effective cluster size at {Delta}{phi}{approx}180 deg. drops more rapidly toward central collisions than the size at {Delta}{phi}{approx}0 deg. The effect of limited {eta} acceptance on the cluster parameters is also addressed, and a correction is applied to present cluster parameters for full {eta} coverage, leading to much larger effective cluster sizes and widths than previously noted in the literature. These results should provide insight into the hot and dense medium created in heavy ion collisions.

  16. Radial and angular correlations of two excited electrons. IV. Comparison of configuration-interaction wave functions with the group-theoretical basis functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. D.; Macek, J. H.

    1984-05-01

    Doubly-excited-state basis (DESB) functions of Herrick and Sinanoǧlu are compared with the large-scale configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions of Lipsky et al., and with the adiabatic channel functions in hyperspherical coordinates. It is shown that DESB functions will represent those states where the mean value of θ12 is large. Owing to the absence of intershell correlations, and a consequent underestimation of radial correlations, the DESB functions give excessive concentrations near θ12=0 for other, less sharply correlated in angle, states.

  17. High energy gamma ray results from the second small astronomy satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. F.; Tuemer, T.

    1974-01-01

    A high energy (35 MeV) gamma ray telescope employing a thirty-two level magnetic core spark chamber system was flown on SAS 2. The high energy galactic gamma radiation is observed to dominate over the general diffuse radiation along the entire galactic plane, and when examined in detail, the longitudinal and latitudinal distribution seem generally correlated with galactic structural features, particularly with arm segments. The general high energy gamma radiation from the galactic plane, explained on the basis of its angular distribution and magnitude, probably results primarily from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar matter.

  18. Angular correlation measurements for {sup 12}C{sup 12}C,{sup 12}C{sup 12}C 3{sup -} scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A.H.; Betts, R.R.; Freer, M.

    1995-08-01

    Previous studies of inelastic {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C scattering to a variety of final states identified significant resonance behavior in a number of different reaction channels. These resonances can be interpreted as either potential scattering resonances, or as population of cluster structures in the compound nucleus {sup 24}Mg, or as some interplay between the two mechanisms. Currently, for many of these resonances the situation remains unclear. One example is a large peak observed in the excitation function for the 3{sup -} - g.s. excitation, identified in previous work performed at the Daresbury Laboratory in England. This peak is observed at the same center-of-mass energy as one observed in the O{sub 2}{sup +}-O{sub 2}{sup +} inelastic scattering channel. That structure was suggested to correspond to exotic deformed configurations in the compound nucleus {sup 24}Mg. As the peak in the 3{sup -} + g.s. exit channel occurs at precisely the same energy as the purported resonance, it is tempting to associate the two. Before such an association can be confirmed or ruled out, further information must be obtained about the 3{sup -} + g.s. structure. In particular, it is important to determine the angular momenta that dominate the 3{sup -} + g.s. structure.

  19. Measurement of the energy, multiplicity and angular correlation of γ-rays from the thermal neutron capture reaction Gd(n, γ) using JPARC-ANNRI

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Iwa; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Takatomi; Mori, Takaaki; Kayano, Tsubasa; Sakuda, Makoto; Kimura, Atsushi; Harada, Hideo

    2014-05-02

    We conducted an experiment using the JPARC-ANNRI spectrometer to measure the energy, multiplicity and correlation of γ-rays from the neutron capture of natural gadolinium. We incorporated the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulation into the detector, and compared the data with the results of the MC simulation. We report our data analysis and compare our data with those obtained by the MC simulation.

  20. Microstructure/Oxidation/Microhardness Correlations in Gamma-Based and Tau-Based Al-Ti-Cr Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P.; Smialek, J. L.; Humphrey, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The relationships between alloy microstructure and air oxidation kinetics and alloy microstructure and microhardness in the Al-Ti-Cr system for exposures at 800 C and 1000 C were investigated. The relevant phases were identified as tau (Ll2), gamma (LIO), r-Al2Ti, TiCrAl (laves), and Cr2AI. Protective alumina formation was associated with tau, Al-rich TiCrAl, and gamma/TiCrAl mixtures. Brittleness was associated with the TiCrAl phase and tau decomposition to A12Ti + Cr2AI. It was concluded that two-phase gamma + TiCrAl alloys offer the greatest potential for oxidation resistance and room temperature ductility in the Al-Ti-Cr system.

  1. Do gamma-ray burst sources repeat?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb, 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter, 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al., 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and the two-point angular correlation function. We find the data to be consistent with the hypothesis that burst sources do not repeat; however, a repeater fraction of up to about 20% of the observed bursts cannot be excluded.

  2. Functional correlates of brain aging: beta and gamma frequency band responses to age-related cortical changes.

    PubMed

    Christov, Mario; Dushanova, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    The brain as a system with gradually declined resources by age maximizes its performance by neural network reorganization for greater efficiency of neuronal oscillations in a given frequency band. Whether event-related high-frequency band responses are related to plasticity in neural recruitment contributed to the stability of sensory/cognitive mechanisms accompanying aging or are underlined pathological changes seen in aging brain remains unknown. Aged effect on brain electrical activity was studied in auditory discrimination task (low-frequency and high-frequency tone) at particular cortical locations in beta (β1: 12.5-20; β2: 20.5-30 Hz) and gamma frequency bands (γ1: 30.5-49; γ2: 52-69 Hz) during sensory (post-stimulus interval 0-250 ms) and cognitive processing (250-600 ms). Beta1 activity less affected by age during sensory processing. Reduced beta1 activity was more widespread during cognitive processing. This difference increased in fronto-parietal direction more expressed after high-frequency tone stimulation. Beta2 and gamma activity were more pronounced with progressive age during sensory processing. Reducing regional-process specificity with progressing age characterized age-related and tone-dependent beta2 changes during sensory, but not during cognitive processing. Beta2 and gamma activity diminished with age on cognitive processes, except the higher frontal tone-dependent gamma activity during cognitive processing. With increasing age, larger gamma2 activity was more expressed over the frontal brain areas to high tone discrimination and hand reaction choice. These gamma2 differences were shifted from posterior to anterior brain regions with advancing age. The aged influence was higher on cognitive processes than on perceptual ones. PMID:27373947

  3. On Angular Momentum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schwinger, J.

    1952-01-26

    The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties of angular momentum eigenvectors. In this paper many known theorems are derived in this way, and some new results obtained. Among the topics treated are the properties of the rotation matrices; the addition of two, three, and four angular momenta; and the theory of tensor operators.

  4. High-Resolution Mapping of Lunar Crustal Magnetic Fields: Correlations with Albedo Markings of the Reiner Gamma Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Yingst, A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M.; Binder, A.

    1999-01-01

    During the last eight months of the Lunar Prospector mission (December 1999-July 1999), the spacecraft was placed in a relatively low-altitude (15-30-km perapsis), near-polar orbit that allowed high-resolution mapping of crustal magnetic fields. We report here initial studies of the correlation of locally strong magnetic anomalies with unusual, swirl-like albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class. Based on this correlation, which is known from earlier studies of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data, it has been proposed that the swirls represent regions whose higher albedos have been preserved via deflection of the solar-wind ion bombardment by strong crustal fields. This model in turn depends on the hypothesis that solar-wind implanted H is at least one component of the process that optically matures exposed silicate surfaces in the inner solar system . Specifically, it is hypothesized that implanted H acts as an effective reducing agent to enhance the rate of production of nanophase metallic Fe particles from preexisting silicates during micrometeoroid impacts. According to the model, the curvilinear shapes of these albedo markings are caused, at least in part, by the geometry of ion deflections in a magnetic field. The improved resolution and coverage of the Prospector data allow more detailed mapping of the fields, especially on the lunar farside. This permits a more quantitative test of whether all albedo markings of this class are associated with strong local magnetic fields.Only if the latter condition is met can the solar-wind deflection hypothesis he valid. The basic procedure for mapping crustal magnetic fields using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data follows that developed for analysis of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data. The specific mapping steps are (1) selection of mission time intervals suitable for mapping crustal fields; these are limited essentially either to times when the Moon is in a lobe of the geomagnetic tail or to times when the Moon

  5. IFN-{gamma} gene expression in pancreatic islet-infiltrating mononuclear cells correlates with autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, A.; Suarez-Pinzon, W.L.; Sorensen, O.

    1995-05-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice results from selective destruction of pancreatic islet {beta}-cells following islet filtration by mononuclear leukocytes. Cytokines produced by islet-infiltrating mononuclear cells may be involved in {beta}-cell destruction. Therefore, we analyzed cytokine mRNA expression, by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay, in mononuclear leukocytes isolated from pancreatic islets of four groups of mice: diabetes-prone female NOD mice; female NOD mice protected from diabetes by injection of CFA at an early age; male NOD mice with a low diabetes incidence; and female BALB/c mice that do not develop diabetes. We found that mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-{gamma} in mononuclear cells from islets of diabetes-prone female NOD mice increased progressively as these cells infiltrated the islets from age 5 wk to diabetes onset (>13 wk). However, only IFN-{gamma} mRNA levels were significantly higher in islet mononuclear cells from 12-wk-old diabetes-prone female NOD mice than from less diabetes-prone NOD mice (CFA-treated females, and males) and normal mice (BALB/c). In contrast, IL-4 mRNA levels were lower in islet mononuclear cells from diabetes-prone female NOD mice than from NOD mice with low diabetes incidence (CFA-treated females and males). Splenic cell mRNA levels of IFN-{gamma} and IL-4 were not different in the four groups of mice. These results suggest that islet {beta}-cell destruction and diabetes in female NOD mice are dependent upon intra-islet IFN-{gamma} production by mononuclear cells, and that CFA-treated female NOD mice and male NOD mice may be protected from diabetes development by down-regulation of IFN-{gamma} production in the islets. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Gamma-gamma colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Sessler, A.

    1996-06-01

    Gamma-gamma colliders make intense beams of gamma rays and have them collide so as to make elementary particles. The authors show, in this article, that constructing a gamma-gamma collider as an add-on to an electron-positron linear collider is possible with present technology and that it does not require much additional cost. Furthermore, they show that the resulting capability is very interesting from a particle physics point of view. An overview of a linear collider, with a second interaction region devoted to {gamma}{gamma} collisions is shown.

  7. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  8. The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope for precision gamma-ray emission investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topchiev, N. P.; Galper, A. M.; Bonvicini, V.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Bergstrom, L.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bobkov, S. G.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cumani, P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Dedenko, G. L.; De Donato, C.; Dogiel, V. A.; Finetti, N.; Gascon, D.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kaplun, A. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Korepanov, V. E.; Larsson, J.; Leonov, A. A.; Loginov, V. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Martinez, M.; Men'shenin, A. L.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu; Papini, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Runtso, M. F.; Ryde, F.; Serdin, O. V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Taraskin, A. A.; Tavani, M.; Tiberio, A.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Ward, J. E.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Zampa, N.; Zirakashvili, V. N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope with excellent angular and energy resolutions is designed to search for signatures of dark matter in the fluxes of gamma-ray emission and electrons + positrons. Precision investigations of gamma-ray emission from Galactic Center, Crab, Vela, Cygnus, Geminga, and other regions will be performed, as well as diffuse gamma-ray emission, along with measurements of high-energy electron + positron and nuclei fluxes. Furthermore, it will study gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun during periods of solar activity. The GAMMA-400 energy range is expected to be from ∼20 MeV up to TeV energies for gamma rays, up to 10 TeV for electrons + positrons, and up to 1015 eV for cosmic-ray nuclei. For 100-GeV gamma rays, the GAMMA-400 angular resolution is ∼0.01° and energy resolution is ∼1% the proton rejection factor is ∼5x105. GAMMA-400 will be installed onboard the Russian space observatory.

  9. A Correlation between the Intrinsic Brightness and Average Decay Rate of Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Afterglow Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racusin, J. L.; Oates, S. R.; de Pasquale, M.; Kocevski, D.

    2016-07-01

    We present a correlation between the average temporal decay ({α }{{X},{avg},\\gt 200{{s}}}) and early-time luminosity ({L}{{X},200{{s}}}) of X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts as observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. Both quantities are measured relative to a rest-frame time of 200 s after the γ-ray trigger. The luminosity-average decay correlation does not depend on specific temporal behavior and contains one scale-independent quantity minimizing the role of selection effects. This is a complementary correlation to that discovered by Oates et al. in the optical light curves observed by the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope. The correlation indicates that, on average, more luminous X-ray afterglows decay faster than less luminous ones, indicating some relative mechanism for energy dissipation. The X-ray and optical correlations are entirely consistent once corrections are applied and contamination is removed. We explore the possible biases introduced by different light-curve morphologies and observational selection effects, and how either geometrical effects or intrinsic properties of the central engine and jet could explain the observed correlation.

  10. Effects of the rest mass of the neutrino (antineutrino) on the scattering of /gamma/ (/sup /approx///gamma/) by /sub 6/C/sup 12/

    SciTech Connect

    Samsonenko, N.V.; Katkhat, C.L.; El-Gavkhari, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Expressions are obtained for the differential cross sections of the processes /gamma/ + /sub 6/C/sup 12/ /yields/ /sub 7/N/sup 12/ + e/sup /minus// and /sup /approx///gamma/ + /sub 6/C/sup 12/ /yields/ /sub 5/B/sup 12/ + e/sup +/ for the shell model of the nucleus and the harmonic oscillator model. The authors analyze the effect of the rest mass of the neutrino (antineutrino) on the degree of longitudinal polarization of the electrons (positrons), the angular electron-neutrino (positron-antineutrino) correlation coefficient, and the charge symmetry.

  11. Future directions in experimental gamma ray astronomy. [technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymes, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Better vehicles and instruments are needed if gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics and cosmology is to advance. A gamma ray observatory will (1) permit long-term observations of selected sources to measure their variability and to achieve high sensitivity; (2) measure periods in days or weeks; and (3) assess the entire sky to observe various predicted sources, to measure the energy spectrum, and to map the isotropy of the cosmic ray background over larger collecting areas (of the order of a square meter). Conventional and unconventional instruments must cover the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 20 MeV with improved sensitivity. Angular resolution must be improved one degree or more to study discrete X-ray sources in the galactic center. Actively collimated detectors, improved double Compton instruments, and gamma ray correlators to actively synthesize the absolute energy spectrum of the sky protons are discussed as well as the need for scientific balloons.

  12. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  13. Effect of Ge substitution for Si on the magnetic hyperfine field in LaMn2Si2 compound measured by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy with 140Ce as probe nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Santos, B.; Carbonari, A. W.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Costa, M. S.; Saxena, R. N.

    2013-05-01

    The effect of substitution of Ge for Si in LaMn2Si2 compound on the magnetic hyperfine field (Bhf) has been investigated by perturbed γ -γ angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using 140La(140Ce) as probe nuclei. This compound exhibits antiferromagnetism followed by a ferromagnetic ordering when temperature decreases. The behavior of the ferromagnetic transition when Ge gradually replaces Si, with concentrations of 20%, 40%, 80%, and 100% is discussed. PAC measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 15 K to 325 K. Results for LaMn2Si2 compound showed that the dependence of Bhf with temperature follows the expected behavior for the host magnetization and could be fitted by a Brillouin function for JMn = 5/2. However, the temperature dependence of Bhf for compounds when Si is gradually replaced by Ge showed a deviation from such a behavior, which gradually increases up to a strong deviation observed for LaMn2Ge2. This striking behavior was ascribed to the hybridization of d band of the host and f band of the Ce impurities, which is stronger when the unit cell volume increase as Si ions are substituted by Ge atoms.

  14. Complete angular distribution measurements of pp spin correlation parameters A{sub xx}, A{sub yy}, and A{sub xz} and analyzing power A{sub y} at 197.4 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmann, F.; Haeberli, W.; Lorentz, B.; Wise, T.; von Przewoski, B.; Dezarn, W.A.; Doskow, J.; Dzemidzic, M.; Hardie, J.G.; Rinckel, T.; Sperisen, F.; Meyer, H.O.; Pollock, R.E.; Pancella, P.V.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of pp spin correlation coefficients A{sub xx}, A{sub yy}, and A{sub xz} and analyzing power A{sub y} for pp elastic scattering at 197.4 MeV over the laboratory angular range 3.5thinsp{degree}{endash}43.5thinsp{degree} ({theta}{sub c.m.}=7{degree}{endash}90{degree}) have been carried out. The typical statistical accuracy per 1{degree} angle bin is better than 0.02 for the A{sub mn} and better than 0.005 for A{sub y}. Systematic errors are negligible except for an overall normalization uncertainty of 2.5{percent} for A{sub mn} and 1.3{percent} for A{sub y}. The experiment makes use of a polarized hydrogen gas target internal to a proton storage ring (IUCF Cooler) and a circulating beam of polarized protons. The target polarization is switched in sign and direction (x,thinspy,thinspz) every 2 s by reversing a weak guide field ({approx}0.3 mT). Scattered and recoil protons are detected in coincidence by two sets of wire chambers, by scintillators, and by silicon-strip recoil detectors placed 5 cm from the proton beam. Analysis methods and comparison to recent pp partial-wave analyses and NN potential models are described. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. A UNIFORM CORRELATION BETWEEN SYNCHROTRON LUMINOSITY AND DOPPLER FACTOR IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND BLAZARS: A HINT OF SIMILAR INTRINSIC LUMINOSITIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qingwen; Zou Yuanchuan; Wang Dingxiong; Cao Xinwu; Chen Liang E-mail: zouyc@hust.edu.cn E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2011-10-10

    We compile 23 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and 21 blazars with estimated Doppler factors, and the Doppler factors of GRBs are estimated from their Lorentz factors by assuming their jet viewing angles {theta} {yields} 0{sup 0}. Using the conventional assumption that the prompt emission of GRBs is dominated by the synchrotron radiation, we calculate the synchrotron luminosity of GRBs from their total isotropic energy and burst duration. Intriguingly, we discover a uniform correlation between the synchrotron luminosity and Doppler factor, L{sub syn}{proportional_to}D{sup 3.1}, for GRBs and blazars, which suggests that they may share some similar jet physics. One possible reason is that GRBs and blazars have, more or less, similar intrinsic synchrotron luminosities and both of them are strongly enhanced by the beaming effect. After Doppler and redshift correction, we find that the intrinsic peak energy of the GRBs ranges from 0.1 to 3 keV with a typical value of 1 keV. We further correct the beaming effect for the observed luminosity of GRBs and find that a positive correlation exists between the intrinsic synchrotron luminosity and peak energy for GRBs, which is similar to that of blazars. Our results suggest that both the intrinsic positive correlation and the beaming effect may be responsible for the observed tight correlation between the isotropic energy and the peak energy in GRBs (the so-called Amati relation).

  16. Whole-body angular momentum in incline and decline walking.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Anne K; Wilken, Jason M; Sinitski, Emily H; Neptune, Richard R

    2012-04-01

    Angular momentum is highly regulated over the gait cycle and is important for maintaining dynamic stability and control of movement. However, little is known regarding how angular momentum is regulated on irregular surfaces, such as slopes, when the risk of falling is higher. This study examined the three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum patterns of 30 healthy subjects walking over a range of incline and decline angles. The range of angular momentum was either similar or reduced on decline surfaces and increased on incline surfaces relative to level ground, with the greatest differences occurring in the frontal and sagittal planes. These results suggest that angular momentum is more tightly controlled during decline walking when the risk of falling is greater. In the frontal plane, the range of angular momentum was strongly correlated with the peak hip and knee abduction moments in early stance. In the transverse plane, the strongest correlation occurred with the knee external rotation peak in late stance. In the sagittal plane, all external moment peaks were correlated with the range of angular momentum. The peak ankle plantarflexion, knee flexion and hip extension moments were also strongly correlated with the sagittal-plane angular momentum. These results highlight how able-bodied subjects control angular momentum differently on sloped surfaces relative to level walking and provide a baseline for comparison with pathological populations that are more susceptible to falling. PMID:22325978

  17. Whole-body angular momentum in incline and decline walking.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Anne K; Wilken, Jason M; Sinitski, Emily H; Neptune, Richard R

    2012-04-01

    Angular momentum is highly regulated over the gait cycle and is important for maintaining dynamic stability and control of movement. However, little is known regarding how angular momentum is regulated on irregular surfaces, such as slopes, when the risk of falling is higher. This study examined the three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum patterns of 30 healthy subjects walking over a range of incline and decline angles. The range of angular momentum was either similar or reduced on decline surfaces and increased on incline surfaces relative to level ground, with the greatest differences occurring in the frontal and sagittal planes. These results suggest that angular momentum is more tightly controlled during decline walking when the risk of falling is greater. In the frontal plane, the range of angular momentum was strongly correlated with the peak hip and knee abduction moments in early stance. In the transverse plane, the strongest correlation occurred with the knee external rotation peak in late stance. In the sagittal plane, all external moment peaks were correlated with the range of angular momentum. The peak ankle plantarflexion, knee flexion and hip extension moments were also strongly correlated with the sagittal-plane angular momentum. These results highlight how able-bodied subjects control angular momentum differently on sloped surfaces relative to level walking and provide a baseline for comparison with pathological populations that are more susceptible to falling.

  18. Unveiling Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Angular momentum is a notoriously difficult concept to grasp. Visualization often requires three-dimensional pictures of vectors pointing in seemingly arbitrary directions. A simple student-run laboratory experiment coupled with intuitive explanations by an instructor can clear up some of the inherent ambiguity of rotational motion. Specifically, the precessional period of a suspended spinning bicycle wheel can be related to the spinning frequency through a simple algebraic expression. An explanation of this precession apart from the concept of angular momentum will be given.

  19. Angular shear plate

    SciTech Connect

    Ruda, Mitchell C.; Greynolds, Alan W.; Stuhlinger, Tilman W.

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  20. Inclusion of angular momentum in FREYA

    DOE PAGES

    Randrup, Jørgen; Vogt, Ramona

    2015-05-18

    The event-by-event fission model FREYA generates large samples of complete fission events from which any observable can extracted, including fluctuations of the observables and the correlations between them. We describe here how FREYA was recently refined to include angular momentum throughout. Subsequently we present some recent results for both neutron and photon observables.

  1. Correlating Petrophysical Well Logs Using Fractal-based Analysis to Identify Changes in the Signal Complexity Across Neutron, Density, Dipole Sonic, and Gamma Ray Tool Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, L.; Gurrola, H.

    2015-12-01

    Typical petrophysical well log correlation is accomplished by manual pattern recognition leading to subjective correlations. The change in character in a well log is dependent upon the change in the response of the tool to lithology. The petrophysical interpreter looks for a change in one log type that would correspond to the way a different tool responds to the same lithology. To develop an objective way to pick changes in well log characteristics, we adapt a method of first arrival picking used in seismic data to analyze changes in the character of well logs. We chose to use the fractal method developed by Boschetti et al[1] (1996). This method worked better than we expected and we found similar changes in the fractal dimension across very different tool types (sonic vs density vs gamma ray). We reason the fractal response of the log is not dependent on the physics of the tool response but rather the change in the complexity of the log data. When a formation changes physical character in time or space the recorded magnitude in tool data changes complexity at the same time even if the original tool response is very different. The relative complexity of the data regardless of the tool used is dependent upon the complexity of the medium relative to tool measurement. The relative complexity of the recorded magnitude data changes as a tool transitions from one character type to another. The character we are measuring is the roughness or complexity of the petrophysical curve. Our method provides a way to directly compare different log types based on a quantitative change in signal complexity. For example, using changes in data complexity allow us to correlate gamma ray suites with sonic logs within a well and then across to an adjacent well with similar signatures. Our method creates reliable and automatic correlations to be made in data sets beyond the reasonable cognitive limits of geoscientists in both speed and consistent pattern recognition. [1] Fabio Boschetti

  2. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons (+) positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approximately 0.01deg (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 GeV), the energy resolution approximately 1% (E(sub gamma) greater than 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approximately 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  3. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galper, A.M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A.I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Longo, F.; Mazets, E. P.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mereminskiy, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mocchiutti, E.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.; Picozza, P.; Rodin, V. G.; Runtso, M. F.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Suchkov, S. I.; Tavani, M.; Topchiev, N. P.; Vacchi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons + positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approx. 0.01 deg (E(sub gamma) > 100 GeV), the energy resolution approx. 1% (E(sub gamma) > 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approx 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  4. Tolerance to Gamma Radiation in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini from Embryo to Adult Correlate Inversely with Cellular Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Pardo, Eliana; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Haghdoost, Siamak; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are highly tolerant to desiccation and ionizing radiation but the mechanisms of this tolerance are not well understood. In this paper, we report studies on dose responses of adults and eggs of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini exposed to gamma radiation. In adults the LD50/48h for survival was estimated at ~ 4200 Gy, and doses higher than 100 Gy reduced both fertility and hatchability of laid eggs drastically. We also evaluated the effect of radiation (doses 50 Gy, 200 Gy, 500 Gy) on eggs in the early and late embryonic stage of development, and observed a reduced hatchability in the early stage, while no effect was found in the late stage of development. Survival of juveniles from irradiated eggs was highly affected by a 500 Gy dose, both in the early and the late stage. Juveniles hatched from eggs irradiated at 50 Gy and 200 Gy developed into adults and produced offspring, but their fertility was reduced compared to the controls. Finally we measured the effect of low temperature during irradiation at 4000 Gy and 4500 Gy on survival in adult tardigrades, and observed a slight delay in the expressed mortality when tardigrades were irradiated on ice. Since H. dujardini is a freshwater tardigrade with lower tolerance to desiccation compared to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the high radiation tolerance in adults, similar to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, is unexpected and seems to challenge the idea that desiccation and radiation tolerance rely on the same molecular mechanisms. We suggest that the higher radiation tolerance in adults and late stage embryos of H. dujardini (and in other studied tardigrades) compared to early stage embryos may partly be due to limited mitotic activity, since tardigrades have a low degree of somatic cell division (eutely), and dividing cells are known to be more sensitive to radiation.

  5. Tolerance to Gamma Radiation in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini from Embryo to Adult Correlate Inversely with Cellular Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Pardo, Eliana; Jönsson, K. Ingemar; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Haghdoost, Siamak; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are highly tolerant to desiccation and ionizing radiation but the mechanisms of this tolerance are not well understood. In this paper, we report studies on dose responses of adults and eggs of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini exposed to gamma radiation. In adults the LD50/48h for survival was estimated at ~ 4200 Gy, and doses higher than 100 Gy reduced both fertility and hatchability of laid eggs drastically. We also evaluated the effect of radiation (doses 50 Gy, 200 Gy, 500 Gy) on eggs in the early and late embryonic stage of development, and observed a reduced hatchability in the early stage, while no effect was found in the late stage of development. Survival of juveniles from irradiated eggs was highly affected by a 500 Gy dose, both in the early and the late stage. Juveniles hatched from eggs irradiated at 50 Gy and 200 Gy developed into adults and produced offspring, but their fertility was reduced compared to the controls. Finally we measured the effect of low temperature during irradiation at 4000 Gy and 4500 Gy on survival in adult tardigrades, and observed a slight delay in the expressed mortality when tardigrades were irradiated on ice. Since H. dujardini is a freshwater tardigrade with lower tolerance to desiccation compared to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the high radiation tolerance in adults, similar to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, is unexpected and seems to challenge the idea that desiccation and radiation tolerance rely on the same molecular mechanisms. We suggest that the higher radiation tolerance in adults and late stage embryos of H. dujardini (and in other studied tardigrades) compared to early stage embryos may partly be due to limited mitotic activity, since tardigrades have a low degree of somatic cell division (eutely), and dividing cells are known to be more sensitive to radiation. PMID:26208275

  6. Tolerance to Gamma Radiation in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini from Embryo to Adult Correlate Inversely with Cellular Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Pardo, Eliana; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Haghdoost, Siamak; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are highly tolerant to desiccation and ionizing radiation but the mechanisms of this tolerance are not well understood. In this paper, we report studies on dose responses of adults and eggs of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini exposed to gamma radiation. In adults the LD50/48h for survival was estimated at ~ 4200 Gy, and doses higher than 100 Gy reduced both fertility and hatchability of laid eggs drastically. We also evaluated the effect of radiation (doses 50 Gy, 200 Gy, 500 Gy) on eggs in the early and late embryonic stage of development, and observed a reduced hatchability in the early stage, while no effect was found in the late stage of development. Survival of juveniles from irradiated eggs was highly affected by a 500 Gy dose, both in the early and the late stage. Juveniles hatched from eggs irradiated at 50 Gy and 200 Gy developed into adults and produced offspring, but their fertility was reduced compared to the controls. Finally we measured the effect of low temperature during irradiation at 4000 Gy and 4500 Gy on survival in adult tardigrades, and observed a slight delay in the expressed mortality when tardigrades were irradiated on ice. Since H. dujardini is a freshwater tardigrade with lower tolerance to desiccation compared to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the high radiation tolerance in adults, similar to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, is unexpected and seems to challenge the idea that desiccation and radiation tolerance rely on the same molecular mechanisms. We suggest that the higher radiation tolerance in adults and late stage embryos of H. dujardini (and in other studied tardigrades) compared to early stage embryos may partly be due to limited mitotic activity, since tardigrades have a low degree of somatic cell division (eutely), and dividing cells are known to be more sensitive to radiation. PMID:26208275

  7. Induced Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)

  8. Systematical Analysis on Angular Distribution of Bremsstrahlung Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Otgooloi, B.; Enkhbat, N.

    2009-03-31

    The systematic analysis has been made the measurement results of the relative angular distribution of gamma quantium with 11 divide 16 MeV energy using experimental data of Ta, W, Cu, Mo and Ti targets with various radiating lengths thicknesses.

  9. Systematical Analysis on Angular Distribution of Bremsstrahlung Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otgooloi, B.; Enkhbat, N.

    2009-03-01

    The systematic analysis has been made the measurement results of the relative angular distribution of gamma quantium with 11÷16 MeV energy using experimental data of Ta, W, Cu, Mo and Ti targets with various radiating lengths thicknesses.

  10. Constraining Gamma-ray Burst Initial Lorentz Factor with the Afterglow Onset Feature and Discovery of a Tight Γ0-E γ,iso Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, En-Wei; Yi, Shuang-Xi; Zhang, Jin; Lü, Hou-Jun; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Bing

    2010-12-01

    The onset of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow is characterized by a smooth bump in the early afterglow light curve as the GRB fireball is decelerated by the circumburst medium. We extensively search for GRBs with such an onset feature in their optical and X-ray light curves from the literature and from the catalog established with the Swift/XRT. Twenty optically selected GRBs and 12 X-ray-selected GRBs are obtained, among which 17 optically selected and 2 X-ray-selected GRBs have redshift measurements. We fit these light curves with a smooth broken power law and measure the width (w), rising timescale (t r), and decaying timescale (t d) at full width at half-maximum. Strong mutual correlations among these timescales and with the peak time (t p) are found. The ratio t r/t d is almost universal among bursts, but the ratio t r/t p varies from 0.3 to ~1. The optical peak luminosity in the R band (L R,p) is anti-correlated with t p and w in the burst frame, indicating a dimmer and broader bump peaking at a later time. The isotropic prompt gamma-ray energy (E γ,iso) is also tightly correlated with L R,p and t p in the burst frame. Assuming that the bumps signal the deceleration of the GRB fireballs in a constant density medium, we calculate the initial Lorentz factor (Γ0) and the deceleration radius (R d) of the GRBs with redshift measurements. The derived Γ0 is typically a few hundreds, and the deceleration radius is R dec ~ 2 × 1017 cm. More intriguingly, a tight correlation between Γ0 and E γ,iso is found, namely Γ0 ~= 182(E γ,iso/1052 erg)0.25. This correlation also applies to the small sample of GRBs which show the signature of the afterglow onset in their X-ray afterglow, and to two bursts (GRBs 990123 and 080319B) whose early optical emission is dominated by a reverse shock. The lower limits of Γ0 derived from a sample of optical afterglow light curves showing a decaying feature from the beginning of the observation are also generally consistent with such

  11. Breast-specific gamma imaging as an adjunct modality for the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer with correlation to tumour size and grade

    PubMed Central

    Tadwalkar, R V; Rapelyea, J A; Torrente, J; Rechtman, L R; Teal, C B; Mcswain, A P; Donnelly, C; Kidwell, A B; Coffey, C M; Brem, R F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in the detection of invasive breast cancers and to characterise the sensitivity of BSGI based on tumour size and pathological grade. Methods 139 females with invasive carcinoma who underwent BSGI were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were injected in the antecubital vein with 20–30 mCi (925–1110 MBq) of 99mTc-sestamibi. Images were obtained with a high-resolution, breast-specific gamma camera (Dilon 6800; Dilon Technologies, Newport News, VA) and were categorised based on radiotracer uptake as normal, normal with heterogeneous uptake, probably abnormal and abnormal. For a positive examination, the region of the area of increased uptake had to correlate with the laterality and location of the biopsy-proven cancer. Results 149 invasive cancers in 139 patients with a mean size of 1.8 cm (0.2–8.5 cm) were included. 146 were identified with BSGI (98.0%). All cancers which measured ≥0.7 cm (n=123) as well as all cancers grade 2 or higher (n=102), regardless of tumour size, were identified with BSGI (100%). There were 6 cancers that were pathological grade 1 and measured <7 mm, of which 50% (3/6) were identified with BSGI. The overall sensitivity of BSGI for the detection of invasive breast cancer is 98.0%. The sensitivity for subcentimetre cancers is 88.5% (23/26). Conclusion BSGI has a high sensitivity for the detection of invasive breast cancer. Our results demonstrate that BSGI detected all invasive breast cancers pathological grade 2 and higher regardless of size and all cancers which measured ≥7 mm regardless of grade. BSGI can reliably detect invasive breast cancers and is a useful adjunct imaging modality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:21712429

  12. Angular momentum and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strittmatter, P. A.

    The present investigation is mainly concerned with the importance of high angular resolution observations in studies of star formation and, in particular, with elucidating the role which angular momentum plays in the process. A brief report is included on recent high angular resolution observations made with the Steward Observatory speckle camera system. A consideration of the angular momentum in interstellar clouds indicates that rotation precludes quasi-spherical contraction. A number of solutions to this angular momentum problem are examined, taking into account questions concerning the help provided by high angular resolution observations for an elucidation of the various possible scenarios of star formation. Technical aspects involved in obtaining suitable data are investigated. It is concluded that high angular resolution observations hold considerable promise for solving at least some of the problems associated with the role of angular momentum in star formation.

  13. Quantum Heuristics of Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Leblond, Jean-Marc

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the quantization of angular momentum components, Heisenberg-type inequalities for their spectral dispersions, and the quantization of the angular momentum modulus, without using operators or commutation relations. (MLH)

  14. Chemical composition of scales generated from oil industry and correlation to radionuclide contents and gamma-ray measurements of (210)Pb.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam; Abdul Ghani, Basem

    2016-03-01

    Scale generated from the maintenance of equipment contaminated by naturally occurring radioactive materials may contain also chemical components that cause hazardous pollution to human health and the environment. This study spotlights the characterisation of chemical pollutants in scales in relation to home-made comparison samples as no reference material for such waste exists. Analysis by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, with accuracy and precision better than 90%, revealed that barium was the most abundant element in scale samples, ranging from 1.4 to 38.2%. The concentrations of the toxic elements such as lead and chromium were as high as 2.5 and 1.2% respectively. Statistically, high correlation was observed between the concentration of Ba and Sr, sample density, radionuclide contents ((210)Pb and (226)Ra) and self-attenuation factor used for the radio-measurements. However, iron showed a reverse correlation. Interpretation of data with regards to the mineralogical components indicated that (226)Ra and (210)Pb co-precipitated with the insoluble salt Ba0.75Sr0.25SO4. Since both Ba and Sr have high Z, samples of high density (ρ) were accompanied with high values of self-attenuation correction factors (Cf) for the emitted radiation; correlation matrix of Pearson reached 0.935 between ρ and Cf. An attempt to eliminate the effect of the elemental composition and improve gamma measurements of (210)Pb activity concentration in scale samples was made, which showed no correction for self-attenuation was needed when sample densities were in the range 1.0-1.4 g cm(-3). For denser samples, a mathematical model was developed. Accurate determinations of radionuclide and chemical contents of scale would facilitate future Environmental Impact Assessment for the petroleum industry. PMID:26741561

  15. Chemical composition of scales generated from oil industry and correlation to radionuclide contents and gamma-ray measurements of (210)Pb.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam; Abdul Ghani, Basem

    2016-03-01

    Scale generated from the maintenance of equipment contaminated by naturally occurring radioactive materials may contain also chemical components that cause hazardous pollution to human health and the environment. This study spotlights the characterisation of chemical pollutants in scales in relation to home-made comparison samples as no reference material for such waste exists. Analysis by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, with accuracy and precision better than 90%, revealed that barium was the most abundant element in scale samples, ranging from 1.4 to 38.2%. The concentrations of the toxic elements such as lead and chromium were as high as 2.5 and 1.2% respectively. Statistically, high correlation was observed between the concentration of Ba and Sr, sample density, radionuclide contents ((210)Pb and (226)Ra) and self-attenuation factor used for the radio-measurements. However, iron showed a reverse correlation. Interpretation of data with regards to the mineralogical components indicated that (226)Ra and (210)Pb co-precipitated with the insoluble salt Ba0.75Sr0.25SO4. Since both Ba and Sr have high Z, samples of high density (ρ) were accompanied with high values of self-attenuation correction factors (Cf) for the emitted radiation; correlation matrix of Pearson reached 0.935 between ρ and Cf. An attempt to eliminate the effect of the elemental composition and improve gamma measurements of (210)Pb activity concentration in scale samples was made, which showed no correction for self-attenuation was needed when sample densities were in the range 1.0-1.4 g cm(-3). For denser samples, a mathematical model was developed. Accurate determinations of radionuclide and chemical contents of scale would facilitate future Environmental Impact Assessment for the petroleum industry.

  16. Angular-planar CMB power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Thiago S.; Abramo, L. Raul

    2009-09-15

    Gaussianity and statistical isotropy of the Universe are modern cosmology's minimal set of hypotheses. In this work we introduce a new statistical test to detect observational deviations from this minimal set. By defining the temperature correlation function over the whole celestial sphere, we are able to independently quantify both angular and planar dependence (modulations) of the CMB temperature power spectrum over different slices of this sphere. Given that planar dependence leads to further modulations of the usual angular power spectrum C{sub l}, this test can potentially reveal richer structures in the morphology of the primordial temperature field. We have also constructed an unbiased estimator for this angular-planar power spectrum which naturally generalizes the estimator for the usual C{sub l}'s. With the help of a chi-square analysis, we have used this estimator to search for observational deviations of statistical isotropy in WMAP's 5 year release data set (ILC5), where we found only slight anomalies on the angular scales l=7 and l=8. Since this angular-planar statistic is model-independent, it is ideal to employ in searches of statistical anisotropy (e.g., contaminations from the galactic plane) and to characterize non-Gaussianities.

  17. A Device for Search of Gamma-Radiation Intensive Sources at the Radiation Accident Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Batiy, Valeriy; Klyuchnykov, A; Kochnev, N; Rudko, Vladimir; shcherbin, vladimir; Yegorov, V; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2005-08-08

    The procedure designed for measuring angular distributions of gamma radiation and for search of gamma radiation intensive sources is described. It is based on application of the original multidetector device ShD-1, for measuring an angular distribution in a complete solid angle (4 pi). The calibration results and data on the angular distributions of intensity of gamma radiation at the roof of Chornobyl NPP ''Shelter'' are presented.

  18. Strong nondipole effect created by multielectron correlation in 5s photoionization of xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Ricz, S.; Koever, A.; Varga, D.; Ricsoka, T.; Sankari, R.; Jurvansuu, M.; Nikkinen, J.; Aksela, H.; Aksela, S.

    2003-01-01

    The angular distribution of the Xe 5s photoelectrons was measured in the 90-225 eV photon energy range using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation. The experimentally determined angular distribution parameters were compared with theoretical values obtained from calculations based on the random-phase approximation and the time-dependent density-functional theory. Experiment shows that the dipole ({beta}) and nondipole ({gamma}) parameters vary strongly as a function of the photon energy, in accordance with calculations that account for the interchannel coupling. Nondipole effects observed clearly in experiment confirm the role of multielectron correlation in describing the 5s photoionization of Xe far from the ionization threshold.

  19. Variable Spin-Down in the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 and Correlations with Burst Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; VanParadijs, Jan; Finger, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.; Hurley, Kevin; Strohmayer, Tod; Swank, Jean; Murakami, Toshio

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations of the pulsed emission from SGR 1900+ 14 during 1996 September, 1998 June-October, and early 1999. Using these measurements and results reported elsewhere, we construct a period history of this source for 2.5 yr. We find significant deviations from a steady spin-down trend during quiescence and the burst active interval. Burst and Transient Source Experiment observations of the burst emission are presented and correlations between the burst activity and spin-down rate of SGR 1900+14 are discussed. We find an 80 day interval during the summer of 1998 when the average spin-down rate is larger than the rate elsewhere by a factor approximately 2.3. This enhanced spin-down may be the result of a discontinuous spin-down event or "braking glitch" at the time of the giant flare on 1998 August 27. Furthermore, we find a large discrepancy between the pulsar period and average spin-down rate in X-rays as compared to radio observations for 1998 December and 1999 January.

  20. Variable Spin-Down in the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 and Correlations with Burst Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadijs, Jan; Finger, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.; Hurley, Kevin; Swank, Jean; Murakami, Toshio

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observation of the pulsed emission from SGR 1900+14 during September 1996, June-October 1998, and early 1999. Using these measurements and results reported elsewhere. we construct a period history of this source for 2.5 years. We find significant deviations from a steady spin-down trend during quiescence and the burst active interval. Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) observations of the burst emission are presented and correlations between the burst activity and spin-down rate of SGR 1900 + 14 are discussed. We find an 80 day interval during the summer of 1998 when the average spin-down rate is larger than the rate elsewhere by a factor of about 2.3. This enhanced spin-down may, be the result of a discontinuous spin-down event or "braking glitch" at the time of the giant flare on 27 August 1998. Furthermore find a large discrepancy between the pulsar period and average spin-down rate in X-rays as compared to radio observation for December 1998 and January 1999.

  1. Motion and energy dissipation of secondary electrons, positrons and hadrons correlated with terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, Christoph; Ebert, Ute

    2015-04-01

    Thunderstorms can emit high-energy particles, photons with energies of up to at least 40 MeV, leptons (electrons, positrons) and hadrons (neutrons and protons) with energies of tens of MeV. Some of these events have been correlated with negative lightning leaders propagating upwards in the cloud. For particular lightning events we show that photons, leptons and hadrons can reach ground altitude as well as satellite altitude, and we present the number as well as the spatial and energy distribution of photons, leptons and hadrons. We have reviewed the latest literature on cross sections for collisions of photons, leptons and hadrons with air molecules and have implemented them in our Monte Carlo code. We initialize a photon beam with the characteristic energy distribution of a TGF at thunderstorm altitude and we use the Monte Carlo model to trace these photons; we include the production of secondary electrons through photoionization, Compton scattering and pair production, the production of positrons through pair production as well as the production of neutrons and protons through photonuclear processes. Subsequently we calculate the motion and energy dissipation of these leptons and hadrons with the feedback of electrons and positrons producing new photons through Bremsstrahlung and through positron annihilation at shell electrons. Additionally we provide analytic estimates for the energy losses of photons, leptons and hadrons in the energy range between 0.03 eV and 100 MeV based on the relevant cross sections. We provide the spectral analysis of how many photons, leptons and hadrons will reach ground or satellite altitude and what their energies are, depending on the initial photon energy. This is of particular interest because of campaigns measuring fluxes of all these species at 0 and 500 km altitude without knowing the actual energies of initial electrons converting into photons within a thundercloud.

  2. THE ORIGIN OF GAMMA RAYS FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K. S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-11-10

    Fermi has detected gamma-ray emission from eight globular clusters (GCs). It is commonly believed that the energy sources of these gamma rays are millisecond pulsars (MSPs) inside GCs. Also it has been standard to explain the spectra of most Fermi Large Area Telescope pulsars including MSPs resulting from the curvature radiation (CR) of relativistic electrons/positrons inside the pulsar magnetosphere. Therefore, gamma rays from GCs are expected to be the collection of CR from all MSPs inside the clusters. However, the angular resolution is not high enough to pinpoint the nature of the emission. In this paper, we calculate the gamma rays produced by the inverse Compton (IC) scattering between relativistic electrons/positrons in the pulsar wind of MSPs in the GCs and background soft photons including cosmic microwave/relic photons, background star lights in the clusters, the galactic infrared photons, and the galactic star lights. We show that the gamma-ray spectrum from 47 Tucanae can be explained equally well by upward scattering of either the relic photons, the galactic infrared photons, or the galactic star lights, whereas the gamma-ray spectra from the other seven GCs are best fitted by the upward scattering of either the galactic infrared photons or the galactic star lights. We also find that the observed gamma-ray luminosity is correlated better with the combined factor of the encounter rate and the background soft photon energy density. Therefore, the IC scattering may also contribute to the observed gamma-ray emission from GCs detected by Fermi in addition to the standard CR process. Furthermore, we find that the emission region of high-energy photons from GCs produced by the IC scattering is substantially larger than the cores of GCs with a radius >10 pc. The diffuse radio and X-rays emitted from GCs can also be produced by the synchrotron radiation and IC scattering, respectively. We suggest that future observations including radio, X-rays, and gamma rays

  3. Solar gamma rays powered by secluded dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Batell, Brian; Shang Yanwen; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam

    2010-04-01

    Secluded dark matter models, in which weakly interacting massive particles annihilate first into metastable mediators, can present novel indirect detection signatures in the form of gamma rays and fluxes of charged particles arriving from directions correlated with the centers of large astrophysical bodies within the Solar System, such as the Sun and larger planets. This naturally occurs if the mean free path of the mediator is in excess of the solar (or planetary) radius. We show that existing constraints from water Cerenkov detectors already provide a novel probe of the parameter space of these models, complementary to other sources, with significant scope for future improvement from high angular resolution gamma-ray telescopes such as Fermi-LAT. Fluxes of charged particles produced in mediator decays are also capable of contributing a significant solar system component to the spectrum of energetic electrons and positrons, a possibility which can be tested with the directional and timing information of PAMELA and Fermi.

  4. Correlation of cytotoxic activity in lungs to recovery of normal and gamma-irradiated cotton rats from respiratory syncytial virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.S.; Wyde, P.R.; Knight, V.

    1983-10-01

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) that were exposed to 300, 600, or 900 rads of gamma irradiation and inoculated intranasally 2 days later with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) exhibited prolonged virus shedding and delayed humoral and cytotoxic immune responses compared with comparably inoculated nonirradiated control rats. In nonirradiated animals and in animals exposed to 300 and 600 rads, levels of virus declined and then disappeared from the lungs during the period in which cytotoxic activity was maximal in the lungs of these animals. In contrast, in the group of cotton rats exposed to 900 rads of irradiation, local cytotoxic activity remained low throughout the 11-day observation period, and virus was not eliminated from the lungs. Although virus-neutralizing antibodies in serum and lavage fluids from these animals may have been involved, correlation of antibody concentrations with virus clearance from lungs was not as evident. These data suggest that cytotoxic effector cells have a positive role in eliminating RSV from the lungs of unprimed cotton rats.

  5. Ultrafast coherent control of angular momentum during a one-photon excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, D. A.; Eppink, A. T. J. B.; Meerts, W. L.; Kimel, A. V.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, Th.; Zande, W. J. van der

    2011-10-15

    The subpicosecond dynamics of angular momentum transfer in the excited rubidium 5p state is studied in real time by observing photoelectron angular distributions with velocity map imaging. Retrieving the populations of the degenerate Zeeman levels and reconstructing the angular momentum, we show that in the case of resonant excitation the angular momentum does not follow the momentary helicity of the electric field of the pulse. This is in contrast with off-resonant excitation where the angular momentum and pulse helicity are fully correlated. Our study shows how to generate and shape ultrashort pulses of orbital and spin angular momentum in a controllable way.

  6. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkardt, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Generalized parton distributions provide information on the distribution of quarks in impact parameter space. For transversely polarized nucleons, these impact parameter distributions are transversely distorted and this deviation from axial symmetry leads on average to a net transverse force from the spectators on the active quark in a DIS experiment. This force when acting along the whole trajectory of the active quark leads to transverse single-spin asymmetries. For a longitudinally polarized nucleon target, the transverse force implies a torque acting on the quark orbital angular momentum (OAM). The resulting change in OAM as the quark leaves the target equals the difference between the Jaffe-Manohar and Ji OAMs.

  7. The Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}*, Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* triangle diagrams and the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}, Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays

    SciTech Connect

    Achasov, N. N.

    2011-03-15

    The approach to the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decay study is presented in detail, based on the sum rules for the Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* and Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* amplitudes and their derivatives. The branching ratios of the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are calculated for different hypotheses on saturation of the sum rules. The lower bounds of {Sigma}{sub {psi}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}) = 1.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and {Sigma}{sub {upsilon}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y) = 7.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} are found. Deviations from the lower bounds are discussed, including the possibility of BR(Z {yields} {gamma}J/{psi}(1S)) {approx} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y(1S)) {approx} 10{sup -6}, that could be probably measured in LHC. The angular distributions in the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are also calculated.

  8. Angular Momentum Sharing in Dissipative Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, G.; Poggi, G.; Bini, M.; Calamai, S.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Taccetti, N.; Steckmeyer, J. C.; Laforest, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    1999-09-01

    Light charged particles emitted by the projectilelike fragment were measured in the direct and reverse collision of 93Nb and 116Sn at 25A MeV. The experimental multiplicities of hydrogen and helium particles as a function of the primary mass of the emitting fragment show evidence for a correlation with net mass transfer. The ratio of hydrogen and helium multiplicities points to a dependence of the angular momentum sharing on the net mass transfer.

  9. Gamma-400 Science Objectives Built on the Current HE Gamma-Ray and CR Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander; Mitchell, John; Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    The main scientific interest of the Russian Gamma-400 team: Observe gamma-rays above approximately 50 GeV with excellent energy and angular resolution with the goals of: (1) Studying the fine spectral structure of the isotropic high-energy gamma-radiation, (2) Attempting to identify the many still-unidentified Fermi-LAT gamma-ray sources. Gamma-400 will likely be the only space-based gamma-ray observatory operating at the end of the decade. In our proposed Gamma-400-LE version, it will substantially improve upon the capabilities of Fermi LAT and AGILE in both LE and HE energy range. Measuring gamma-rays from approx 20 MeV to approx 1 TeV for at least 7 years, Gamma-400-LE will address the topics of dark matter, cosmic ray origin and propagation, neutron stars, flaring pulsars, black holes, AGNs, GRBs, and actively participate in multiwavelength campaigns.

  10. Directional gamma sensing from covariance processing of inter-detector Compton crosstalk energy asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Trainham, R. Tinsley, J.

    2014-06-15

    Energy asymmetry of inter-detector crosstalk from Compton scattering can be exploited to infer the direction to a gamma source. A covariance approach extracts the correlated crosstalk from data streams to estimate matched signals from Compton gammas split over two detectors. On a covariance map the signal appears as an asymmetric cross diagonal band with axes intercepts at the full photo-peak energy of the original gamma. The asymmetry of the crosstalk band can be processed to determine the direction to the radiation source. The technique does not require detector shadowing, masking, or coded apertures, thus sensitivity is not sacrificed to obtain the directional information. An angular precision of better than 1° of arc is possible, and processing of data streams can be done in real time with very modest computing hardware.

  11. Angular momentum evolution for galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa, S. E.; Tissera, P. B.

    2015-08-01

    Using cosmological hydrodinamics simulations we study the angular momentum content of the simulated galaxies in relation with their morphological type. We found that not only the angular momentum of the disk component follow the expected theoretical relation (Mo, Mao White model), but also the spheroidal one, with a gap due to its lost of angular momentum. We also found that the galaxy size can plot in one general relation, despite the morphological type,, in agreement with recent findings.

  12. Orbital angular momentum microlaser.

    PubMed

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-29

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.

  13. Orbital angular momentum microlaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.

  14. Observation of a {chi}{sub c2}{sup '} Candidate in {gamma}{gamma}{yields}DD Production at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, S.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Dragic, J.; Gershon, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Nishida, S.; Sakai, Y.; Stamen, R.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tanaka, M.; Tsukamoto, T.

    2006-03-03

    We report on a search for new resonant states in the process {gamma}{gamma}{yields}DD. A candidate C-even charmonium state is observed in the vicinity of 3.93 GeV/c{sup 2}. The production rate and the angular distribution in the {gamma}{gamma} center-of-mass frame suggest that this state is the previously unobserved {chi}{sub c2}{sup '}, the 2{sup 3}P{sub 2} charmonium state.

  15. The production of interferon-gamma in response to a major peanut allergy, Ara h II correlates with serum levels of IgE anti-Ara h II.

    PubMed

    Dorion, B J; Burks, A W; Harbeck, R; Williams, L W; Trumble, A; Helm, R M; Leung, D Y

    1994-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to examine the potential role of T cells in the pathogenesis of peanut allergy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with peanut allergy, patients with asthma, and nonatopic normal control subjects were assessed for proliferation after stimulation with a 17 kd major peanut allergen (Ara h II), ovalbumin, casein, soy, and Candida albicans. We found that Ara h II and C. albicans induced significantly higher levels of proliferation than ovalbumin, casein, and soy. Because interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) play critical roles in IgE regulation, we assessed the production of these cytokines after stimulation with C. albicans and Ara h II. C. albicans stimulated similar levels of IFN-gamma in all three study groups. In contrast, after stimulation with Ara h II, culture supernatants from PBMCs of subjects with peanut allergy contained significantly lower levels of IFN-gamma than did the PBMCs of the two control groups (p = 0.02). More important, there was a significant (p = 0.05) inverse correlation between the serum IgE anti-Ara h II levels and IFN-gamma production by PBMCs from the respective peanut-allergic patients. IL-4 protein was not detected in culture supernatants of PBMCs stimulated with Ara h II. However, amplification of cytokine gene transcripts by polymerase chain reaction did demonstrate IL-4 expression in Ara h II-stimulated PBMCs from both patients with peanut allergy and control subjects. These data suggest that the level of IFN-gamma production in response to Ara h II may be an important factor in determining the development of peanut-specific IgE responses.

  16. Status of the GAMMA-400 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Farber, M. O.; Fradkin, M. I.; Kachanov, V. A.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Leoniv, A. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P.; Mazets, E. P.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Papini, P.

    2013-01-01

    The preliminary design of the new space gamma-ray telescope GAMMA-400 for the energy range 100 MeV-3 TeV is presented. The angular resolution of the instrument, 1-2 deg at E(gamma) approximately 100 MeV and approximately 0.01 at E(gamma) greater than 100 GeV, its energy resolution is approximately 1% at E(gamma) greater than 100 GeV, and the proton rejection factor is approximately 10(exp 6) are optimized to address a broad range of science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, studies of Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, gamma-ray bursts, as well as high-precision measurements of spectra of cosmic-ray electrons, positrons, and nuclei.

  17. Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santarelli, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)

  18. Angular momentum effects in subbarrier fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Halbert, M.L.; Beene, J.R.; Hensley, D.C.; Honkanen, K.; Semkow, T.M.; Abenante, V.; Sarantites, D.G.; Li, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Angular-momentum distributions sigma/sub L/ for the compound nucleus /sup 164/Yb were deduced from measurements of ..gamma..-ray multiplicity for all significant evaporation residues from fusion of /sup 64/Ni and /sup 100/Mo at and below the Coulomb barrier. The excitation functions can be reproduced with coupled-channels calculations only if additional coupling beyond the known inelastic strengths is included. Even with this augmented coupling, however, at the lowest bombarding energies the experimental sigma/sub L/ extend to higher L values than the predictions. Single-barrier penetration models for a potential with an energy-dependent depth and shape fitted to the excitation function likewise underestimate the role of high-L partial waves. Somewhat better success is achieved with models in which fission is allowed to occur at distances comparable with or even larger than the Coulomb barrier radius. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Angular signal radiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Panyun; Zhang, Kai; Bao, Yuan; Ren, Yuqi; Ju, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yan; He, Qili; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Zhu, Peiping

    2016-03-21

    Microscopy techniques using visible photons, x-rays, neutrons, and electrons have made remarkable impact in many scientific disciplines. The microscopic data can often be expressed as the convolution of the spatial distribution of certain properties of the specimens and the inherent response function of the imaging system. The x-ray grating interferometer (XGI), which is sensitive to the deviation angle of the incoming x-rays, has attracted significant attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the comprehensive and analytical theoretical framework is yet to be presented. Herein, we propose a theoretical framework termed angular signal radiography (ASR) to describe the imaging process of the XGI system in a classical, comprehensive and analytical manner. We demonstrated, by means of theoretical deduction and synchrotron based experiments, that the spatial distribution of specimens' physical properties, including absorption, refraction and scattering, can be extracted by ASR in XGI. Implementation of ASR in XGI offers advantages such as simplified phase retrieval algorithm, reduced overall radiation dose, and improved image acquisition speed. These advantages, as well as the limitations of the proposed method, are systematically investigated in this paper. PMID:27136780

  20. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johar, Saffuwan Mohamed; Embong, Zaidi; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h-1 and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg-1 (226Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg-1 (232Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg-1 (40K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h-1 and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg-1 (226Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg-1 (232Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg-1 (40K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (Req) and the mean external (Hext) and internal hazard index (Hint) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg-1, Hext = 0.78 and 1.01, and Hint = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, 232Th and 40K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson's, r = -0.30, -0.90 and +0.14, respectively.

  1. Lack of correlation between mycoplasma induced IFN-gamma production in vitro and natural killer cell activity against FLD-3 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, V.; Lust, J.; Gifaldi, A.; Bennett, M.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1983-01-01

    The role of interferon (IFN) in the normal-killer-cell (NK) mediated lysis of tumor cells in vitro is investigated experimentally. Normal mouse spleen cells and spleen cells treated with anti-Thy-1.2 serum are cultured for 24 h with Friend erythroleukemia (FLD-3) cells in RPMI 1640 medium; supernatant fluid from cultures with FLD-3 lysis are assayed for IFN-gamma, and it is found that pretreatment with anti-Thy-1.2 suppresses IFN-gamma generation without affecting the ability of NK to mediate the lysis of FLD-3. Further tests indicate that the generation of IFN-gamma is stimulated by the presence of Mycoplasma arginini in the FLD-3 cells.

  2. Exploitation of Geometric Occlusion and Covariance Spectroscopy in a Gamma Sensor Array

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul; Trainham, Clifford

    2013-09-01

    The National Security Technologies, LLC, Remote Sensing Laboratory has recently used an array of six small-footprint (1-inch diameter by 3-inch long) cylindrical crystals of thallium-doped sodium iodide scintillators to obtain angular information from discrete gamma ray–emitting point sources. Obtaining angular information in a near-field measurement for a field-deployed gamma sensor is a requirement for radiological emergency work. Three of the sensors sit at the vertices of a 2-inch isosceles triangle, while the other three sit on the circumference of a 3-inch-radius circle centered in this triangle. This configuration exploits occlusion of sensors, correlation from Compton scattering within a detector array, and covariance spectroscopy, a spectral coincidence technique. Careful placement and orientation of individual detectors with reference to other detectors in an array can provide improved angular resolution for determining the source position by occlusion mechanism. By evaluating the values of, and the uncertainties in, the photopeak areas, efficiencies, branching ratio, peak area correction factors, and the correlations between these quantities, one can determine the precise activity of a particular radioisotope from a mixture of radioisotopes that have overlapping photopeaks that are ordinarily hard to deconvolve. The spectral coincidence technique, often known as covariance spectroscopy, examines the correlations and fluctuations in data that contain valuable information about radiation sources, transport media, and detection systems. Covariance spectroscopy enhances radionuclide identification techniques, provides directional information, and makes weaker gamma-ray emission—normally undetectable by common spectroscopic analysis—detectable. A series of experimental results using the concept of covariance spectroscopy are presented.

  3. Yet another model of soft gamma repeaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.; Toole, H. A.; Unruh, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a model of soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) in which a supernova leaves planets orbiting a neutron star in intersecting orbits. These planets will collide in approximately 10(exp 4) yr if their orbits are coplanar. Some fragments of debris lose their angular momentum in the collision and fall onto the neutron star, producing a SGR. The initial accretion of matter left by the collision with essntially no angular momentum may produce a superburst like that of 1979 March 5, while debris fragments which later lose their angular momentum produce an irregular but non-Poissonian pattern of smaller bursts resembling those observed in spectrum and duration.

  4. Interferometric measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanzer, Jeffrey A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the measurement of the angular velocity of walking humans using a millimeter-wave correlation interferometer. Measurement of the angular velocity of moving objects is a desirable function in remote sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques, however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of-arrival estimation algorithms. A new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry has recently been developed which measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency of the interferometer signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. In this paper, the theory of the interferometric measurement of angular velocity is covered and simulations of the response of a walking human are presented. Simulations are produced using a model of a walking human to show the significant features associated with the interferometer response, which may be used in classification algorithms.

  5. Transverse angular momentum of photons

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, Andrea

    2010-05-15

    We develop the quantum theory of transverse angular momentum of light beams. The theory applies to paraxial and quasiparaxial photon beams in vacuum and reproduces the known results for classical beams when applied to coherent states of the field. Both the Poynting vector, alias the linear momentum, and the angular-momentum quantum operators of a light beam are calculated including contributions from first-order transverse derivatives. This permits a correct description of the energy flow in the beam and the natural emergence of both the spin and the angular momentum of the photons. We show that for collimated beams of light, orbital angular-momentum operators do not satisfy the standard commutation rules. Finally, we discuss the application of our theory to some concrete cases.

  6. Angular Clustering of Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Garcet, O.; Disseau, L.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Gueguen, A.; Alloin, D.; Chiappetti, L.; Gosset, E.; Maccagni, D.; Surdej, J.; Valtchanov, I.

    2006-09-01

    We describe the properties of X-ray point-like sources detected over 4.2 sq. degs. of the largest contiguous survey with XMM-Newton to date (the XMM-LSS survey) to fluxes of F2-10 keV 8x10-15 erg/s/cm2 and F0.5-2 keV 2x10-15 erg/s/cm2 respectively. For 1200 sources in the soft band, we find a two-point angular correlation function (ACF) signal similar to previous work, but no correlation for 400 sources in the hard band. A sample of 200 faint sources with hard X-ray spectra does show a 2-3 sigma positive signal with a power-law normalization theta0>40 arcsec. We discuss implications, including the fact that a large correlation length for obscured AGN is inconsistent with simple AGN Unification based on orientation only.

  7. A nonimmunogenic sarcoma transduced with the cDNA for interferon gamma elicits CD8+ T cells against the wild-type tumor: correlation with antigen presentation capability

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    To be recognized by CD8+ T lymphocytes, target cells must process and present peptide antigens in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The nonimmunogenic, low class I- expressing, methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced murine sarcoma cell line, MCA 101, is a poor presenter of endogenously generated viral antigens to specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and cannot be used to generate tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Since interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) has been shown to upregulate three sets of molecules important for antigen processing and presentation, we retrovirally transduced wild-type MCA 101 (101.WT) tumor with the mIFN-gamma cDNA to create the 101.NAT cell line. Unlike 101.WT, some clones of retrovirally transduced 101.NAT tumor expressed high levels of class I, and could be used to generate CD8+ TIL. More importantly, these TIL were therapeutic in vivo against established pulmonary metastases from the wild-type tumor. Although not uniformly cytotoxic amongst several separate cultures, these TIL did specifically release cytokines (IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor- alpha) in response to 101.WT targets. 101.WT's antigen presentation deficit was also reversed by gene modification with mIFN-gamma cDNA. 101.NAT had a greatly improved capacity to present viral antigens to CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These findings show that a nonimmunogenic tumor, incapable of generating a CD8+ T cell immune response, could be gene-modified to generate a therapeutically useful immune response against the wild-type tumor. This strategy may be useful in developing treatments for tumor histologies not thought to be susceptible to T cell-based immunotherapy. PMID:1588273

  8. The blazar gamma-ray luminosity function and the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salamon, M. H.; Stecker, F. W.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the data from the new EGRET catalog on 'grazars' (blazers which are observed to be high-energy gamma-ray sources), together with radio data, to construct a new relation between radio and gamma-ray luminosity for these sources. Using this relation to construct a grazar gamma-ray luminosity function, we then calculate the contribution of unresolved grazars to the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation. We derive the energy spectrum of this background component above 100 MeV and the angular fluctuations in this background implied by our model.

  9. Searches for T-odd correlations in the emission of prompt neutrons in the polarized-neutron-induced fission of 235U nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilyan, G. V.; Klenke, J.; Krakhotin, V. A.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shatalov, P. B.

    2010-07-01

    The results of an experiment aimed at searches for formally T-odd correlations in the angular distribution of prompt neutrons from the fission of 235U nuclei are presented. The experiment was performed in the MEPHISTO polarized cold-neutron beam from the Munich FRMII reactor. The correlation coefficient proved to be (-3.5 ± 3.4) × 10-5 for a three-vector correlation (TRI effect) and (-5.0 ± 3.4) × 10-5 for a five-vector correlation (ROT effect). This means that no significant effects were discovered within the measurement errors. A comparison with the analogous effects in the ternary fission of 235U nuclei was performed. The values of the corresponding correlations in the angular distribution of prompt fission gamma rays were refined.

  10. Characteristics of the Telescope for High Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy Selected for Definition Studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Johansson, A.; Rolfe, J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  11. Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  12. Gamma-Ray Localization of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    SciTech Connect

    Marisaldi, M.; Labanti, C.; Fuschino, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Gianotti, F.; Argan, A.; De Paris, G.; Trois, A.; Del Monte, E.; Costa, E.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Rubini, A.; Sabatini, S.

    2010-09-17

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are very short bursts of high-energy photons and electrons originating in Earth's atmosphere. We present here a localization study of TGFs carried out at gamma-ray energies above 20 MeV based on an innovative event selection method. We use the AGILE satellite Silicon Tracker data that for the first time have been correlated with TGFs detected by the AGILE Mini-Calorimeter. We detect 8 TGFs with gamma-ray photons of energies above 20 MeV localized by the AGILE gamma-ray imager with an accuracy of {approx}5-10 deg. at 50 MeV. Remarkably, all TGF-associated gamma rays are compatible with a terrestrial production site closer to the subsatellite point than 400 km. Considering that our gamma rays reach the AGILE satellite at 540 km altitude with limited scattering or attenuation, our measurements provide the first precise direct localization of TGFs from space.

  13. Top pair production in e+e- and {gamma}{gamma} processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, M.; Kiyo, Y.; Kodaira, J.; Nasuno, T.; Parke, S.

    1998-02-01

    We analyze spin correlations between top quark and anti-top quark produced at polarized e{sup +} e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} colliders. We consider a generic spin basis to find a strong spin correlation. Optimal spin decompositions for top quark pair are presented for e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} colliders. We show the cross- section in these bases and discuss the characteristics of results.

  14. Long-range and short-range dihadron angular correlations in central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2011-07-01

    First measurements of dihadron correlations for charged particles are presented for central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity, Delta(eta), and the full range of relative azimuthal angle, Delta(phi). The data were collected with the CMS detector, at the LHC. A broadening of the away-side (Delta(phi) approximately pi) azimuthal correlation is observed at all Delta(eta), as compared to the measurements in pp collisions. Furthermore, long-range dihadron correlations in Delta(eta) are observed for particles with similar phi values. This phenomenon, also known as the "ridge", persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. For particles with transverse momenta (pt) of 2-4 GeV/c, the ridge is found to be most prominent when these particles are correlated with particles of pt = 2-6 GeV/c, and to be much reduced when paired with particles of pt = 10-12 GeV/c.

  15. Phenomenology of preequilibrium angular distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Kalbach, C.; Mann, F.M.

    1980-05-01

    The systematics of continuum angular distributions from a wide variety of light ion nuclear reactions have been studied. To first order, the shape of the angular distributions have been found to depend only on the energy of the outgoing particle and on the division of the cross section into multi-step direct and multi-step compound parts. The angular distributions can be described in terms of Legendre polynomials with the reduced polynomial coefficients exhibiting a simple dependence on the outgoing particle energy. Two integer and four continuous parameters with universal values are needed to describe the coefficients for outgoing energies of 2 to 60 MeV in all the reaction types studied. This parameterization combined with a modified Griffin model computer code permits the calculation of double differential cross sections for light ion continuum reactions where no data is available.

  16. Interferometric measurement of angular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Arellano, Fabián Erasmo; Panjwani, Hasnain; Carbone, Ludovico; Speake, Clive C.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the design and realization of a homodyne polarization interferometer for measuring angular motion. The optical layout incorporates carefully designed cat's eye retroreflectors that maximize the measurable range of angular motion and facilitate initial alignment. The retroreflectors are optimized and numerically characterized in terms of defocus and spherical aberrations using Zemax software for optical design. The linearity of the measurement is then calculated in terms of the aberrations. The actual physical interferometer is realized as a compact device with optical components from stock and without relying on adjustable holders. Evaluation of its performance using a commercial autocollimator confirmed a reproducibility within 0.1%, a non-linearity of less than 1 ppm with respect to the autocollimator, an upper limit to its sensitivity of about 5 × 10-11 rad/sqrt{textrm {Hz}} from audioband down to 100 mHz and an angular measurement range of more than ±1°.

  17. Interferometric measurement of angular motion.

    PubMed

    Peña Arellano, Fabián Erasmo; Panjwani, Hasnain; Carbone, Ludovico; Speake, Clive C

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes the design and realization of a homodyne polarization interferometer for measuring angular motion. The optical layout incorporates carefully designed cat's eye retroreflectors that maximize the measurable range of angular motion and facilitate initial alignment. The retroreflectors are optimized and numerically characterized in terms of defocus and spherical aberrations using Zemax software for optical design. The linearity of the measurement is then calculated in terms of the aberrations. The actual physical interferometer is realized as a compact device with optical components from stock and without relying on adjustable holders. Evaluation of its performance using a commercial autocollimator confirmed a reproducibility within 0.1%, a non-linearity of less than 1 ppm with respect to the autocollimator, an upper limit to its sensitivity of about 5 × 10(-11) rad/Hz from audioband down to 100 mHz and an angular measurement range of more than ±1°.

  18. Gamma Oscillations and Visual Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Peter A.; Kim, Jong Won

    2006-03-01

    At the root of visual perception is the mechanism the brain uses to analyze features in a scene and bind related ones together. Experiments show this process is linked to oscillations of brain activity in the 30-100 Hz gamma band. Oscillations at different sites have correlation functions (CFs) that often peak at zero lag, implying simultaneous firing, even when conduction delays are large. CFs are strongest between cells stimulated by related features. Gamma oscillations are studied here by modeling mm-scale patchy interconnections in the visual cortex. Resulting predictions for gamma responses to stimuli account for numerous experimental findings, including why oscillations and zero-lag synchrony are associated, observed connections with feature preferences, the shape of the zero-lag peak, and variations of CFs with attention. Gamma waves are found to obey the Schroedinger equation, opening the possibility of cortical analogs of quantum phenomena. Gamma instabilities are tied to observations of gamma activity linked to seizures and hallucinations.

  19. Angular momentum in human walking.

    PubMed

    Herr, Hugh; Popovic, Marko

    2008-02-01

    Angular momentum is a conserved physical quantity for isolated systems where no external moments act about a body's center of mass (CM). However, in the case of legged locomotion, where the body interacts with the environment (ground reaction forces), there is no a priori reason for this relationship to hold. A key hypothesis in this paper is that angular momentum is highly regulated throughout the walking cycle about all three spatial directions [|Lt| approximately 0], and therefore horizontal ground reaction forces and the center of pressure trajectory can be explained predominantly through an analysis that assumes zero net moment about the body's CM. Using a 16-segment human model and gait data for 10 study participants, we found that calculated zero-moment forces closely match experimental values (Rx2=0.91; Ry2=0.90). Additionally, the centroidal moment pivot (point where a line parallel to the ground reaction force, passing through the CM, intersects the ground) never leaves the ground support base, highlighting how closely the body regulates angular momentum. Principal component analysis was used to examine segmental contributions to whole-body angular momentum. We found that whole-body angular momentum is small, despite substantial segmental momenta, indicating large segment-to-segment cancellations ( approximately 95% medio-lateral, approximately 70% anterior-posterior and approximately 80% vertical). Specifically, we show that adjacent leg-segment momenta are balanced in the medio-lateral direction (left foot momentum cancels right foot momentum, etc.). Further, pelvis and abdomen momenta are balanced by leg, chest and head momenta in the anterior-posterior direction, and leg momentum is balanced by upper-body momentum in the vertical direction. Finally, we discuss the determinants of gait in the context of these segment-to-segment cancellations of angular momentum.

  20. Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)

  1. Solar cell angular position transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Gray, D. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An angular position transducer utilizing photocells and a light source is disclosed. The device uses a fully rotatable baffle which is connected via an actuator shaft to the body whose rotational displacement is to be measured. The baffle blocks the light path between the light source and the photocells so that a constant semicircular beam of light reaches the photocells. The current produced by the photocells is fed through a resistor, a differential amplifier measures the voltage drop across the resistor which indicates the angular position of the actuator shaft and hence of the object.

  2. Automated Angular Momentum Recoupling Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. T.; Silbar, Richard R.

    1992-04-01

    We present a set of heuristic rules for algebraic solution of angular momentum recoupling problems. The general problem reduces to that of finding an optimal path from one binary tree (representing the angular momentum coupling scheme for the reduced matrix element) to another (representing the sub-integrals and spin sums to be done). The method lends itself to implementation on a microcomputer, and we have developed such an implementation using a dialect of LISP. We describe both how our code, called RACAH, works and how it appears to the user. We illustrate the use of RACAH for several transition and scattering amplitude matrix elements occurring in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics.

  3. Relaxation of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules in simple liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, A.; Perez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The relaxation processes of rotational angular momentum of polar diatomic molecules diluted in simple liquids are analyzed by applying a non-Markovian relaxation theory to the study of the binary time autocorrelation function of the angular momentum. This non-Markovian theory was previously applied to the study of the infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and also to the analysis of the rotational energy relaxation processes. We have obtained non-Markovian evolution equations for the two-time j-level angular momentum correlation components involved in the angular momentum correlation function. In these equations, the time-dependent angular momentum transfer rates and the pure orientational angular transfer rates are given in terms of the binary time autocorrelation function of the diatomic-solvent anisotropic interaction. The non-Markovian evolution equations converge to Markovian ones in the long time limit, reaching the angular momentum transfer rates in the usual time-independent form. Alternative time scales for the angular relaxation processes, relative to the individual rotational processes as well as to the global decay correlations, are introduced and analyzed. The theory is applied to the study of the angular momentum relaxation processes of HCl diluted in liquid SF{sub 6}, a system for which rotational energy relaxation and infrared and Raman spectroscopy was previously analyzed in the scope of the same theory.

  4. Eliminating spatial distortions in Anger-type gamma cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Michael; Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef-Andreas

    2012-12-01

    A procedure to quantify and correct the spatial distortions inherent to Anger-type gamma cameras is presented. It consists in imaging a pattern of regularly spaced holes, assigning to each pair of lattice indices the actual position on the detector and generating a look-up matrix describing the inverse mapping. This allows one to correct the position of the distinct events either during or after the measurement with minimal computational effort. The corrected spectrum is indistinguishable from a spectrum taken with an ideal detector in a statistical sense. The effect of the increased resolution on measurements of angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation is demonstrated. The presented scheme is applicable for all types of area detectors.

  5. Noncontact measurement of angular deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring instantaneous angular deflection of object requires no physical contact. Technique utilizes two flat refractors, converging lens, and different photocell. Distinction of method is its combination of optical and electromechanical components into feedback system in which measurement error is made to approach zero. Application is foreseen in measurement of torsional strain.

  6. Olympic Wrestling and Angular Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark

    1988-01-01

    Reported is the use of a wrestling photograph in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The photograph presents a maneuver that could serve as an example for a discussion on equilibrium, forces, torque, and angular motion. Provided are some qualitative thoughts as well as quantitative calculations. (YP)

  7. Perspectives of the GAMMA-400 space observatory for high-energy gamma rays and cosmic rays measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topchiev, N. P.; Galper, A. M.; Bonvicini, V.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Bergstrom, L.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bobkov, S. G.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cumani, P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Dedenko, G. L.; De Donato, C.; Dogiel, V. A.; Finetti, N.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kaplun, A. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Korepanov, V. E.; Larsson, J.; Leonov, A. A.; Loginov, V. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Men'shenin, A. L.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Runtso, M. F.; Ryde, F.; Serdin, O. V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Taraskin, A. A.; Tavani, M.; Tiberio, A.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Zampa, N.; Zirakashvili, V. N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is intended to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to several TeV. Such measurements concern the following scientific tasks: investigation of point sources of gamma-rays, studies of the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, studies of gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun, as well as high precision measurements of spectra of high-energy electrons and positrons. Also the GAMMA- 400 instrument provides the possibility for protons and nuclei measurements up to knee. But the main goal for the GAMMA-400 mission is to perform a sensitive search for signatures of dark matter particles in high-energy gamma-ray emission. To fulfill these measurements the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope possesses unique physical characteristics in comparison with previous and present experiments. The major advantage of the GAMMA-400 instrument is excellent angular and energy resolution for gamma-rays above 10 GeV. The GAMMA-400 experiment will be installed onboard of the Navigator space platform, manufactured by the NPO Lavochkin Association. The expected orbit will be a highly elliptical orbit (with apogee 300.000 km and perigee 500 km) with 7 days orbital period. An important profit of such an orbit is the fact that the full sky coverage will always be available for gamma ray astronomy.

  8. Probing the Cosmic X-Ray and MeV Gamma-Ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Kohta; Madejski, Grzegorz M.; Uchiyama, Yasunobu

    2013-09-24

    While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to originate from individual Seyfert galaxies, the origin of the cosmic hard X-ray and MeV gamma-ray background is not fully understood. It is expected that Seyferts including Compton thick population may explain the cosmic hard X-ray background. At MeV energy range, Seyferts having non-thermal electrons in coronae above accretion disks or MeV blazars may explain the background radiation. We propose that future measurements of the angular power spectra of anisotropy of the cosmic X-ray and MeV gamma-ray backgrounds will be key to deciphering these backgrounds and the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). As AGNs trace the cosmic large-scale structure, spatial clustering of AGNs exists. We show that e-ROSITA will clearly detect the correlation signal of unresolved Seyferts at 0.5-2 keV and 2-10 keV bands and will be able to measure the bias parameter of AGNs at both bands. Once the future hard X-ray all sky satellites achieve the sensitivity better than 10-12 erg/cm2/s-1 at 10-30 keV or 30-50 keV - although this is beyond the sensitivities of current hard X-ray all sky monitors - angular power spectra will allow us to independently investigate the fraction of Compton-thick AGNs in all Seyferts. We also find that the expected angular power spectra of Seyferts and blazars in the MeV range are different by about an order of magnitude, where the Poisson term, so-called shot noise, is dominant. Current and future MeV instruments will clearly disentangle the origin of the MeV gamma-ray background through the angular power spectrum.

  9. Tolerance induction during ontogeny. I. Presence of active suppression in mice rendered tolerant to human gamma-globulin in utero correlates with the breakdown of the tolerant state

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    A specific state of T- and B-cell tolerance to human gamma-globulin (HGG) was induced in utero by intravenous administration of the deaggregated antigen to pregnant BALB/cCr mice. Tolerance persisted in the offspring until the 12th-wk of age and then began to gradually disappear. Suppressor cells could only be found when responsiveness to HGG ultimately appeared in the in utero-treated animals but not when they were completely unresponsives. In contrast, HGG-specific suppressors found in animals made unresponsive to HGG as adults appear to be associated with either the establishment and/or maintenance of the unresponsive state. To the extent that these experiments are consistent with natural self-tolerance to a serum protein, we conclude that active suppression is not a prerequisite from maintenance of unresponsiveness to self. PMID:87485

  10. Fractional angular momentum in cold-atom systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuhe; Sreejith, G J; Gemelke, N D; Jain, J K

    2014-10-17

    The quantum statistics of bosons or fermions are manifest through the even or odd relative angular momentum of a pair. We show theoretically that, under certain conditions, a pair of certain test particles immersed in a fractional quantum Hall state possesses, effectively, a fractional relative angular momentum, which can be interpreted in terms of fractional braid statistics. We propose that the fractionalization of the angular momentum can be detected directly through the measurement of the pair correlation function in rotating ultracold atomic systems in the fractional quantum Hall regime. Such a measurement will also provide direct evidence for the effective magnetic field resulting from Berry phases arising from attached vortices, and of excitations with a fractional particle number, analogous to the fractional charge of the electron fractional quantum Hall effect.

  11. Phonons with orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.

    2011-10-15

    Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.

  12. Studies on important radionuclides for the safety of a radioactive waste disposal site: Correlation between easily measurable gamma emitters and long-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, A.; Lagarde, B.; Pitiot, A.

    1996-08-01

    To comply with the regulations laid down by the French safety authorities for a national surface disposal site, one must obtain a good evaluation of the activity of the long-lived nuclides in each individual package. Because this cannot be done on a routine basis by direct nondestructive measurements, experiments are being conducted in France to calculate the activity of long-lived nuclides from the measured activity of key nuclides ({sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs). This is achieved through the use of scaling factors and correlation functions that are calculated from the analysis of a limited number of representative waste samples. The first results obtained for some typical French pressurized water reactor radioactive wastes, including ion-exchange resins, evaporator concentrates, and filter cartridges, are presented. Significant correlations are observed for the {sup 63}Ni/{sup 60}Co and {sup 94}Nb/{sup 60}Co nuclide pairs, while {sup 14}C does not seem to correlate with {sup 60}Co. A good correlation between {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr is established for resins, while in the case of filters, only a tendency to correlation appears. This evaluation work is only at a preliminary stage, and much improvement of the results presented here is expected from research programs being carried out in this field by Electricite de France, commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, and the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities.

  13. Frequencies of region of difference 1 antigen-specific but not purified protein derivative-specific gamma interferon-secreting T cells correlate with the presence of tuberculosis disease but do not distinguish recent from remote latent infections.

    PubMed

    Hinks, Timothy S C; Dosanjh, Davinder P S; Innes, John A; Pasvol, Geoffrey; Hackforth, Sarah; Varia, Hansa; Millington, Kerry A; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Bakir, Mustafa; Soysal, Ahmet; Davidson, Robert N; Gunatheesan, Rubamalar; Lalvani, Ajit

    2009-12-01

    tuberculin skin test results (>or=15-mm induration; P gamma-secreting T-cell frequencies correlate with the presence of disease rather than with protective immunity in M. tuberculosis-infected individuals and do not distinguish recently acquired asymptomatic infection from remotely acquired latent infection. PMID:19752037

  14. Bell's measure and implementing quantum Fourier transform with orbital angular momentum of classical light.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-09-15

    We perform Bell's measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell's inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally.

  15. Theoretical study of the radiative capture reactions {sup 2}H(n,{gamma}){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H(p,{gamma}){sup 3}He at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    M. Viviani; R. Schiavilla; A. Kievsky

    1996-02-01

    Correlated Hyperspherical Harmonics wave functions with {Delta}-isobar admixtures obtained from realistic interactions are used to study the thermal neutron radiative capture on deuterium, and the {sup 2}H({rvec p},{gamma}){sup 3}He and p({rvec d},{gamma}){sup 3}He reactions in the center of mass energy range 0-100 keV. The nuclear electromagnetic current includes one and two-body components. Results for the {sup 2}H({rvec d},{gamma}){sup 3}H cross section and photon polarization parameter, as well as for the energy dependence of the astrophysical factor and angular distributions of the differential cross section, vector and tensor analyzing powers, and photon linear polarization coefficient of the {sup 2}H({rvec p},{gamma}){sup 3}He and p({rvec d},{gamma}){sup 3}He reactions are reported. Large effects due to two-body currents, in particular the long-range ones associated with the tensor component of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, are observed in the photon polarization parameter and vector analyzing power. Good, quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is found for all observables, with the exception of the vector analyzing power for which the calculated values underestimate the data by about 30%.

  16. Measurement of the Angular Distributions of Drell-Yan Dimuons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Brandon; Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The angular differential cross section for the Drell-Yan (DY) process can be parametrized by dσ/dΩ ~ 1 + λcos2 θ + μsin 2 θcosφ +ν/2sin2 θcos 2 φ , where λ, μ, and ν are the angular distribution parameters vs pT. θ and φ denote the polar and azimuthal angles, respectively for the positive lepton produced. The Lam-Tung relation, 1 - λ = 2 ν , was validated by Fermilab E-866 for proton induced Drell-Yan scattering; However pion induced DY shows a much stronger cos2 θ angular dependence and a violation of the Lam-Tung relation. In pion induced DY the antiquark is a valance quark, whereas in proton induced DY (in a forward acceptance spectrometer) it is a sea quark, so E-866 probed the antiquark sea of the nucleon. The SeaQuest experiment, also using proton induced DY, will improve on the measurement of the angular dependencies at a lower energy (120 GeV), taking advantage lower backgrounds and an increase in Drell-Yan cross section at lower energies. The Boer-Mulders correlates the quark correlates between the quark transverse spin and momentum. Improved data from SeaQuest will help determine the Boer-Mulders function. Funding for this work was provided in part by the U.S. DOE Office of Science.

  17. Neutron-Rich Nuclei Beyond {sup 132}Sn: Spherical Shapes and Octupole Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Shaohua; Hamilton, Joseph H.; Ramayya, Akunuri V.; Goodin, Christopher T.; Hwang, Jae-Kwang; Luo Yixiao; Rasmussen, John O.; Covello, Aldo; Gargano, Angel; Stone, Nick J.; Daniel, Andrey V.; Ter-Akopian, Gurgen M.; Oganessian, Yuri Ts.; Zhu Shengjiang

    2010-04-30

    Nuclear properties of nuclei with a few valence nucleons outside the doubly-magic {sup 132}Sn core and located in the octupole correlation region have been investigated via gamma-gamma-gamma coincidence measurements of prompt gamma-ray emitted in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf with Gammasphere. The high spin level scheme of {sup 134}I has been identified for the first time. Shell model calculations reproduce the level scheme quite well. The level schemes of {sup 137}I and {sup 139}Cs have been reinvestigated and extended. Their nuclear structure is well described by realistic shell model calculations. The g-factors of the 4{sup +} state in {sup 134}Te, 15/2{sup +} state in {sup 135}I, and 15/2{sup -} state in {sup 137}Xe were determined using a newly developed program for angular correlation analysis. The measured g-factors compared favorably with shell model calculations. Octupole correlations are proposed in {sup 141}Cs and {sup 142}Cs. The variations of D{sub 0} in the Cs isotopes exhibit a pronounced drop of dipole moment with increasing neutron number.

  18. The neutron-gamma Feynman variance to mean approach: Gamma detection and total neutron-gamma detection (theory and practice)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernikova, Dina; Axell, Kåre; Avdic, Senada; Pázsit, Imre; Nordlund, Anders; Allard, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Two versions of the neutron-gamma variance to mean (Feynman-alpha method or Feynman-Y function) formula for either gamma detection only or total neutron-gamma detection, respectively, are derived and compared in this paper. The new formulas have particular importance for detectors of either gamma photons or detectors sensitive to both neutron and gamma radiation. If applied to a plastic or liquid scintillation detector, the total neutron-gamma detection Feynman-Y expression corresponds to a situation where no discrimination is made between neutrons and gamma particles. The gamma variance to mean formulas are useful when a detector of only gamma radiation is used or when working with a combined neutron-gamma detector at high count rates. The theoretical derivation is based on the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation with the inclusion of general reactions and corresponding intensities for neutrons and gammas, but with the inclusion of prompt reactions only. A one energy group approximation is considered. The comparison of the two different theories is made by using reaction intensities obtained in MCNPX simulations with a simplified geometry for two scintillation detectors and a 252Cf-source. In addition, the variance to mean ratios, neutron, gamma and total neutron-gamma are evaluated experimentally for a weak 252Cf neutron-gamma source, a 137Cs random gamma source and a 22Na correlated gamma source. Due to the focus being on the possibility of using neutron-gamma variance to mean theories for both reactor and safeguards applications, we limited the present study to the general analytical expressions for Feynman-alpha formulas.

  19. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  20. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  1. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  2. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  3. Investigation of {gamma} radiation from {sup 178}Hf in the respective (n, n Prime {gamma}) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Govor, L. I.; Demidov, A. M.; Kurkin, V. A. Mikhailov, I. V.

    2012-12-15

    The spectra and angular distributions of gamma rays were measured in the reaction {sup 178}Hf(n, n Prime {gamma}) induced by a beam of fast reactor neutrons. Data onmultipole mixtures in gamma transitions and a lot of new information about gamma transitions of energy 1.5 to 3.0 MeV were obtained. A comparison of these results with information known from the respective (n, {gamma}) reaction made it possible to refine the schemes of deexcitation of {sup 178}Hf levels at energies above 1.5 MeV, to determine more precisely features of these levels, and to introduce new levels and rotation bands at excitation energies of about 2MeV.

  4. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-06-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  5. High energy gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    High energy gamma ray astronomy has evolved with the space age. Nonexistent twenty-five years ago, there is now a general sketch of the gamma ray sky which should develop into a detailed picture with the results expected to be forthcoming over the next decade. The galactic plane is the dominant feature of the gamma ray sky, the longitude and latitude distribution being generally correlated with galactic structural features including the spiral arms. Two molecular clouds were already seen. Two of the three strongest gamma ray sources are pulsars. The highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 was seen at one time, but not another in the 100 MeV region, and it was also observed at very high energies. Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy, there is seen a diffuse radiation, whose origin remains uncertain, as well as at least one quasar, 3C 273. Looking to the future, the satellite opportunities for high energy gamma ray astronomy in the near term are the GAMMA-I planned to be launched in late 1987 and the Gamma Ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1990. The Gamma Ray Observatory will carry a total of four instruments covering the entire energy range from 30,000 eV to 3 x 10 to the 10th eV with over an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity relative to previous satellite instruments.

  6. Cyclic oxidation behavior of beta+gamma overlay coatings on gamma and gamma+gamma-prime alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Pilsner, B. H.; Carol, L. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed experimental studies of the cyclic oxidation behavior of low-pressure plasma sprayed beta+gamma coasting on gamma-phase Ni-Cr-Al alloys have shown the correlation of weight change, oxide type, and Cr and Al concentration-distance profiles as a function of oxidation time. Of special interest was the transition to breakway oxidation due to the loss of the Al flux to the oxide and the failure of the coated alloy to form an Al2O3-rich oxide scale. The experimental results on beta+gamma/gamma coating systems were used as the basis of a numerical model (ternary, semi-infinite, finite-difference analysis) which accurately predicted changes in Cr and Al concentration-distance profiles. The model was used to study parameters critical to enhancing the life of coatings which fail by a combination of Al loss in forming the oxide scale and Al loss via interdiffusion with the substrate alloy. Comparisons of beta+gamma/gamma coating behavior are made to the oxidation of coated gamma+gamma-prime substrates, both ternary Ni-Cr-Al alloys and Mar-M 247-type alloys.

  7. Genotype Phenotype Correlation of Genetic Polymorphism of PPAR Gamma Gene and Therapeutic Response to Pioglitazone in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus- A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Ramalingam; Ramalingam, Sudha; Sairam, Thiagarajan; Somasundaram, LS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pro12Ala polymorphism is a missense mutation at codon 12 in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ gene (PPARG). This polymorphism is known to be associated with increased insulin sensitivity. Pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, is an anti-diabetic drug which acts as an agonist at PPAR γ receptor. Aim To determine the association between Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARG and variation in therapeutic response to the PPARγ agonist, pioglitazone. Materials and Methods The study was done as a hospital based pilot project in 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, on treatment with sulfonylurea or metformin but without adequate glycaemic control. They were started on pioglitazone as add on therapy for a period of 12 weeks. The participants were categorized as responders and non-responders based on the change in HbA1C level after 12 weeks. Pro12Ala polymorphism was analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Statistical Analysis Logistic regression analysis was done to evaluate the associations between age, baseline body weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and Pro12Ala variants with the response to pioglitazone. The p-value< 0.05 was considered significant. Results The frequency distributions of PPAR gamma genotypes were 80% for Pro/Pro and 20% for Pro/Ala in the study population. Among the study participants, 30% were non-responders and 70% responders to pioglitazone. A significantly higher frequency of the polymorphism was detected in the responders (p=0.005) compared to non-responders group. Conclusion Our study suggests that there is a potential association between Pro12Ala polymorphism and glycaemic response to pioglitazone. PMID:27042481

  8. Future prospects for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C.

    1981-01-01

    As gamma-ray astronomy moves from the discovery to the exploratory phase, the promise of gamma-ray astrophysics noted by theorists in the late 1940s and 1950s is beginning to be realized. In the future, satellites should carry instruments that will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far, and, for at least some portions of the gamma-ray energy range, these detectors will also have substantially improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance our knowledge of several astrophysical phenomena including the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects, astrophysical nucleosynthesis, solar particle acceleration, the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the solar system, the structure of our galaxy, the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays, high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies especially active ones, and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The gamma-ray results of the forthcoming programs such as Gamma-I, the Gamma Ray Observatory, the gamma-ray burst network, Solar Polar, and very high energy gamma-ray telescopes on the ground will almost certainly provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the Space Platform currently under study by N.A.S.A.

  9. Plate tectonics conserves angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowin, C.

    2010-03-01

    A new combined understanding of plate tectonics, Earth internal structure, and the role of impulse in deformation of the Earth's crust is presented. Plate accelerations and decelerations have been revealed by iterative filtering of the quaternion history for the Euler poles that define absolute plate motion history for the past 68 million years, and provide an unprecedented precision for plate angular rotation variations with time at 2-million year intervals. Stage poles represent the angular rotation of a plate's motion between adjacent Euler poles, and from which the maximum velocity vector for a plate can be determined. The consistent maximum velocity variations, in turn, yield consistent estimates of plate accelerations and decelerations. The fact that the Pacific plate was shown to accelerate and decelerate, implied that conservation of plate tectonic angular momentum must be globally conserved, and that is confirmed by the results shown here (total angular momentum ~1.4+27 kg m2 s-1). Accordingly, if a plate decelerates, other plates must increase their angular momentums to compensate. In addition, the azimuth of the maximum velocity vectors yields clues as to why the "bend" in the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount trend occurred near 46 Myr. This report summarizes processing results for 12 of the 14 major tectonic plates of the Earth (except for the Juan de Fuca and Philippine plates). Plate accelerations support the contention that plate tectonics is a product of torques that most likely are sustained by the sinking of positive density anomalies revealed by geoid anomalies of the degree 4-10 packet of the Earth's spherical harmonic coefficients. These linear positive geoid anomalies underlie plate subduction zones and are presumed due to phase changes in subducted gabbroic lithosphere at depth in the upper lower mantle (above 1200 km depth). The tectonic plates are pulled along by the sinking of these positive mass anomalies, rather than moving at near constant

  10. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies With GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2011-11-23

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  11. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies with GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D. J.

    2008-02-27

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  12. Two-axis angular effector

    DOEpatents

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.; Phelan, John R.; Van Zuiden, Don M.

    1997-01-21

    A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.

  13. Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.

  14. Gut Microbiota in Type 2 Diabetes Individuals and Correlation with Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein1 and Interferon Gamma from Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Centre in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanathan, Premalatha; Srikanth, Padma; Seshadri, Krishna G.; Selvarajan, Sribal; Pitani, Ravi Shankar; Kumar, Thomas David; Janarthanan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are associated with changes in gut microbiota and characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) are proinflammatory cytokines which play an important role in the development of T2DM. We undertook this study to analyze the gut microbiota of T2DM and nondiabetic subjects and to determine the profile of MCP 1 and IFNγ in the same subjects attending a tertiary care center in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: The study included 30 subjects with clinical details. Stool and blood samples were collected from all the subjects. DNA was extracted from fecal samples and polymerase chain reaction was done using fusion primers. Metagenomic analysis was performed using ion torrent sequencing. The reads obtained were in FASTA format and reported as operational taxonomic units. Human MCP 1 and IFNγ enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed for 23 serum samples. Results: The study consisted of 30 subjects; 17 were T2DM and 13 were nondiabetics. The gut microbiota among T2DM consisted predominantly of Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia and Prevotella, when compared with the nondiabetic group with predominantly Gram positive organisms suchas Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, and Bifidobacterium. The mean MCP-1 values in the diabetic group were 232.8 pg/ml and in the nondiabetic group 170.84 pg/ml. IFNγ (mean 385.5 pg/ml) was raised in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) group of 6.5–7.5% which was statistically significant. Association of Escherichia with T2DM and association of Bifidobacteria in the nondiabetics were also statistically significant. Conclusion: Escherichia counts were elevated in T2DM with HbA1c of 6.5–8.5% which was statistically significant suggesting that lipopolysaccharides present in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria may be responsible for low-grade inflammation as evidenced by elevated MCP-1 and IFNγ levels in T

  15. The large area high resolution gamma ray astrophysics facility - HR-GRAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenyves, E. J.; Chaney, R. C.; Hoffman, J. H.; Cline, D. B.; Atac, M.; Park, J.; White, S. R.; Zych, A. D.; Tumer, Q. T.; Hughes, E. B.

    1990-03-01

    The long-term program is described in terms of its equipment, scientific objectives, and long-range scientific studies. A prototype of a space-based large-area high-resolution gamma-ray facility (HR-GRAF) is being developed to examine pointlike and diffuse gamma-ray sources in the range 1 MeV-100 GeV. The instrument for the facility is proposed to have high angular and energy resolution and very high sensitivity to permit the study of the proposed objects. The primary research targets include the mapping of galactic gamma radiation, observing the angular variations of diffuse gamma rays, and studying the Galactic center with particular emphasis on the hypothetical black hole. Also included in the research plans are obtaining data on gamma-ray bursters, investigating the transmission of gamma rays from cold dark matter, and studying nuclear gamma-ray lines.

  16. Gamma Knife

    MedlinePlus

    ... results are sent to the Gamma Knife®'s planning computer system. Together, physicians ( radiation oncologists and neurosurgeons) and medical physicists delineate targets and normal anatomical structures. They use a planning computer program to determine the exact spatial relationship between ...

  17. Gamma watermarking

    DOEpatents

    Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Lougheed, Ronald W.; Moody, Kenton J.; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2004-05-25

    A covert, gamma-ray "signature" is used as a "watermark" for property identification. This new watermarking technology is based on a unique steganographic or "hidden writing" digital signature, implemented in tiny quantities of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopic material combinations, generally covertly emplaced on or within an object. This digital signature may be readily recovered at distant future times, by placing a sensitive, high energy-resolution gamma-ray detecting instrument reasonably precisely over the location of the watermark, which location may be known only to the object's owner; however, the signature is concealed from all ordinary detection means because its exceedingly low level of activity is obscured by the natural radiation background (including the gamma radiation naturally emanating from the object itself, from cosmic radiation and material surroundings, from human bodies, etc.). The "watermark" is used in object-tagging for establishing object identity, history or ownership. It thus may serve as an aid to law enforcement officials in identifying stolen property and prosecuting theft thereof. Highly effective, potentially very low cost identification-on demand of items of most all types is thus made possible.

  18. Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A

    2015-09-24

    The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies.

  19. Haptic underestimation of angular extent.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, S; Marks, L E

    1998-01-01

    To what extent can individuals accurately estimate the angle between two surfaces through touch alone, and how does tactile judgment compare to visual judgment? Subjects' ability to estimate angle size for a variety of haptic and visual stimuli was examined in a series of nine experiments. Triangular wooden blocks and raised contour outlines comprising different angles and radii of curvature at the apex were used in experiments 1-4 and it was found that subjects consistently underestimated angular extent relative to visual baselines and that the degree of underestimation was inversely related to the actual size of the angle. Angle estimates also increased with increasing radius of curvature when actual angle size was held constant. In contrast, experiments 5-8 showed that subjects did not underestimate angular extent when asked to perform a haptic-visual match to a computerized visual image; this outcome suggests that visual input may 'recalibrate' the haptic system's internal metric for estimating angle. The basis of this cross-modal interaction was investigated in experiment 9 by varying the nature and extent of visual cues available in haptic estimation tasks. The addition of visual-spatial cues did not significantly reduce the magnitude of haptic underestimation. The experiments as a whole indicate that haptic underestimations of angle occur in a number of different stimulus contexts, but leave open the question of exactly what type of visual information may serve to recalibrate touch in this regard. PMID:10197190

  20. Helicity-dependent angular distributions in double-charged-pion photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen Strauch

    2003-05-01

    Two-pion photoproduction in the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} has been studied at Jefferson Lab Hall B using a circularly-polarized tagged photon beam in the energy range between 0.6 GeV and 2.3 GeV. Owing to the large angular acceptance of the CLAS detector, complete beam-helicity-dependent angular distributions of the final-state particles were measured. The large cross-section asymmetries exhibit strong sensitivity to the kinematics of the reaction and provide valuable information on the reaction dynamics. Preliminary results are presented.

  1. The Locations of Gamma-Ray Bursts Measured by Comptel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kippen, R. Marc; Ryan, James M.; Connors, Alanna; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Winkler, Christoph; Kuiper, Lucien; Varendorff, Martin; McConnell, Mark L.; Hurley, Kevin; Hermsen, Wim; Schoenfelder, Volker

    1998-01-01

    The COMPTEL instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is used to measure the locations of gamma-ray bursts through direct imaging of MeV photons. In a comprehensive search, we have detected and localized 29 bursts observed between 1991 April 19 and 1995 May 31. The average location accuracy of these events is 1.25 deg (1 sigma), including a systematic error of approx. 0.5 deg, which is verified through comparison with Interplanetary Network (IPN) timing annuli. The combination of COMPTEL and IPN measurements results in locations for 26 of the bursts with an average "error box" area of only approx. 0.3 deg (1 sigma). We find that the angular distribution of COMPTEL burst locations is consistent with large-scale isotropy and that there is no statistically significant evidence of small-angle autocorrelations. We conclude that there is no compelling evidence for burst repetition since no more than two of the events (or approx. 7% of the 29 bursts) could possibly have come from the same source. We also find that there is no significant correlation between the burst locations and either Abell clusters of galaxies or radio-quiet quasars. Agreement between individual COMPTEL locations and IPN annuli places a lower limit of approx. 100 AU (95% confidence) on the distance to the stronger bursts.

  2. A study of nuclear effects using forward-rapidity hadron production and di-hadron angular correlations in square root of S(NN) = 200 GeV deuteron-gold and proton-proton collisions with the PHENIX detector at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Beau Anthony

    Measurements using the PHENIX forward detectors at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in high-energy deuteron-gold (d+Au) collisions enable us to study cold nuclear matter effects in nucleon structure at small parton-momentum fraction, or Bjorken-x. The large gluon densities in Lorentz-contracted gold nuclei enable us to search for the yet-unobserved saturation of the gluon distribution at small x, which is caused by a balance between gluon fusion and splitting. Gluon saturation is described by the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) theory [1], which predicts a suppression of inclusive particle production in heavy-ion collisions, in particular at forward rapidity, because of a decreased gluon density. In addition, it has been suggested that forward rapidity di-hadron correlations may elucidate CGC effects with two signatures that are specific predictions from CGC: awayside-yield suppression and angular broadening [2]. This thesis describes the first experimental measurements of these forward di-hadron correlations in PHENIX. Previously, RHIC experiments have shown a suppression in the single-particle nuclear modification factors (RdA, R cp) for sNN = 200 GeV d+Au collisions in the forward (deuteron) direction [3, 4]. Multiple theories can explain the observed suppression (including CGC), but a conclusive measurement discriminating amongst the models has yet to be carried out. Two new forward-rapidity electromagnetic calorimeters (Muon Piston Calorimeters or MPCs, --3.7 < eta < --3.1, 3.1 < eta < 3.9) enable the PHENIX experiment to measure the single-particle nuclear modification factors in addition to further understanding forward particle production with the forward di-hadron correlation measurements. Azimuthal correlations of di-hadron pairs at different pseudorapidities allow us to scan the x-dependence of correlated di-hadron production, which can then be used to discriminate amongst the models that compete to explain the observed levels of forward particle

  3. Dynamics of electron-phonon scattering: crystal- and angular-momentum transfer probed by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Beye, M; Hennies, F; Deppe, M; Suljoti, E; Nagasono, M; Wurth, W; Föhlisch, A

    2009-12-01

    Experimentally, we observe angular-momentum transfer in electron-phonon scattering, although it is commonly agreed that phonons transfer mostly linear momentum. Therefore, the incorporation of angular momentum to describe phonons is necessary already for simple semiconductors and bears significant implications for the formation of new quasiparticles in correlated functional materials. Separation of linear and angular-momentum transfer in electron-phonon scattering is achieved by highly selective excitations on the femtosecond time scale of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

  4. Performance of the EGRET astronomical gamma ray telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, P.L.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E.B.; Lin, Y.C.; Michelson, P.F. ); Bertsch, D.L.; Fichtel, C.E.; Hartman, R.C.; Hunter, S.D.; Mattox, J.R.; Sreekumar, P.; Thompson, D.J. . Goddard Space Flight Center)

    1992-08-01

    On April 5, 1991, the Space Shuttle Atlantis carried the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) into orbit, deploying the satellite on April 7. This paper reports on the EGRET instrument which was activated on April 15, and the first month of operations was devoted to verification of the instrument performance. Measurements made during that month and in the subsequent sky survey phase have verified that the instrument time resolution, angular resolution, and gamma ray detection efficiency are all within nominal limits.

  5. Measurement of long-range angular correlation and quadrupole anisotropy of pions and (anti)protons in central d+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta’ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Bhom, J. H.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chen, C. -H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; D’Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En’yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gal, C.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Gustafsson, H. -Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Harper, C.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Issah, M.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kamin, J.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E. -J.; Kim, Y. -J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotov, D.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyachi, Y.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O’Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Pei, H.; Peng, J. -C.; Pereira, H.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T. -A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Sodre, T.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.

    2015-05-12

    In this study, we present azimuthal angular correlations between charged hadrons and energy deposited in calorimeter towers in central d+Au and aluminum bias p+p collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV. The charged hadron is measured at midrapidity lηl < 0.35, and the energy us measured at large rapidity (–3.7 < η < –3.1, Au-going direction). An enhanced near-side angular correlation across lΔηl > 2.75 is observed in d+Au collisions. Using the event plane method applied to the Au-going energy distribution, we extract the anisotropy strength v₂ for inclusive charged hadrons at midrapidity up to pT = 4.5 GeV/c. We also present the measurement of v₂ for identified π± and (anti)protons in central d+Au collisions, and observe a mass-ordering pattern similar to that seen in heavy ion collisions. These results are compared with viscous hydrodynamic calculations and measurements from p+Pb at √sNN = 5.02 TeV. The magnitude of the mass-ordering in d+Au is found to be smaller than that in p+Pb collisions, which may indicate smaller radial flow in lower energy d+Au collisions.

  6. Gamma-ray Astronomy and GLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2007-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray (30 MeV to 100 GeV) sky has been relatively poorly studied. Most of our current knowledge comes from observations made by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) detector on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), which revealed that the GeV gamma-ray sky is rich and vibrant. Studies of astrophysical objects at GeV energies are interesting for several reasons: The high energy gamma-rays are often produced by a different physical process than the better studied X-ray and optical emission, thus providing a unique information for understanding these sources. Production of such high-energy photons requires that charged particles are accelerated to equally high energies, or much greater. Thus gamma-ray astronomy is the study of extreme environments, with natural and fundamental connections to cosmic-ray and neutrino astrophysics. The launch of GLAST in 2008 will herald a watershed in our understanding of the high energy gamma-ray sky, providing dramatic improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution and energy range. GLAST will open a new avenue to study our Universe as well as to answer scientific questions EGRET observations have raised. In this talk, I will describe the GLAST instruments and capabilities and highlight some of the science we expect to address.

  7. Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.

  8. The Angular Momentum of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cang, Rongquin; Guo, Jianpo; Hu, Juanxiu; He, Chaoquiong

    2016-05-01

    The angular momentum of the Solar System is a very important physical quantity to the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Previously, the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets were only taken into consideration, when researchers calculated the angular momentum of the Solar System. Nowadays, it seems narrow and conservative. Using Eggleton's code, we calculate the rotational inertia of the Sun. Furthermore, we obtain that the spin angular momentum of the Sun is 1.8838 x 10^41 kg m^2 s^-1. Besides the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets, we also account for the orbital angular momentum of the Asteroid Belt, the Kuiper Belt, the Oort Cloud, the Ninth Giant Planet and the Solar Companion. We obtain that the angular momentum of the whole Solar System is 3.3212 x 10^45 kg m^2 s^-1.

  9. Energy and angular momentum sharing in dissipative collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, G.; Bini, M.; Calamai, S.; Laforest, R.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Poggi, G.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Steckmeyer, J. C.; Stefanini, A. A.; Taccetti, N.

    Primary and secondary masses of heavy reaction products have been deduced from kinematics and E-ToF measurements, respectively, for the direct and reverse collisions of 93Nb and 116Sn at 25 AMeV. Light charged particles have also been measured in coincidence with the heavy fragments. Direct experimental evidence of the correlation of energy-sharing with net mass transfer has been found using information from both the heavy fragments and the light charged particles. The ratio of hydrogen and helium multiplicities points to a further correlation of angular momentum sharing with net mass transfer.

  10. Angular distributions in J/{psi}({rho}{sup 0},{omega}) states near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2004-11-01

    A resonance X(3872), first observed in the decays B{yields}KX, has been seen to decay to J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mass spectrum peaks near its kinematic upper limit, prompting speculation that the dipion system may be in a {rho}{sup 0}. The decay X(3872){yields}J/{psi}{omega} also has been observed. The reaction {gamma}{gamma}{yields}J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} has been studied. Consequently, angular distributions in decays of J/{psi}({rho}{sup 0},{omega}) states near threshold are of interest, and results are presented.

  11. Mediolateral angular momentum changes in persons with amputation during perturbed walking.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Riley C; Beltran, Eduardo J; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Wilken, Jason M

    2015-03-01

    Over 50% of individuals with lower limb amputation fall at least once each year. These individuals also exhibit reduced ability to effectively respond to challenges to frontal plane stability. The range of whole body angular momentum has been correlated with stability and fall risk. This study determined how lateral walking surface perturbations affected the regulation of whole body and individual leg angular momentum in able-bodied controls and individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation. Participants walked at fixed speed in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment with no perturbations and continuous, pseudo-random, mediolateral platform oscillations. Both the ranges and variability of angular momentum for both the whole body and both legs were significantly greater (p<0.001) during platform oscillations. There were no significant differences between groups in whole body angular momentum range or variability during unperturbed walking. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was significantly greater for those with amputation than for controls for all segments (p<0.05). For the whole body and intact leg, angular momentum ranges were greater for patients with amputation. However, for the prosthetic leg, angular momentum ranges were less for patients than controls. Patients with amputation were significantly more affected by the perturbations. Though patients with amputation were able to maintain similar patterns of whole body angular momentum during unperturbed walking, they were more highly destabilized by the walking surface perturbations. Individuals with transtibial amputation appear to predominantly use altered motion of the intact limb to maintain mediolateral stability. PMID:25797789

  12. Mediolateral angular momentum changes in persons with amputation during perturbed walking.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Riley C; Beltran, Eduardo J; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Wilken, Jason M

    2015-03-01

    Over 50% of individuals with lower limb amputation fall at least once each year. These individuals also exhibit reduced ability to effectively respond to challenges to frontal plane stability. The range of whole body angular momentum has been correlated with stability and fall risk. This study determined how lateral walking surface perturbations affected the regulation of whole body and individual leg angular momentum in able-bodied controls and individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation. Participants walked at fixed speed in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment with no perturbations and continuous, pseudo-random, mediolateral platform oscillations. Both the ranges and variability of angular momentum for both the whole body and both legs were significantly greater (p<0.001) during platform oscillations. There were no significant differences between groups in whole body angular momentum range or variability during unperturbed walking. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was significantly greater for those with amputation than for controls for all segments (p<0.05). For the whole body and intact leg, angular momentum ranges were greater for patients with amputation. However, for the prosthetic leg, angular momentum ranges were less for patients than controls. Patients with amputation were significantly more affected by the perturbations. Though patients with amputation were able to maintain similar patterns of whole body angular momentum during unperturbed walking, they were more highly destabilized by the walking surface perturbations. Individuals with transtibial amputation appear to predominantly use altered motion of the intact limb to maintain mediolateral stability.

  13. Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Nori, Franco

    2015-08-01

    We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin-direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.

  14. Observation of the competitive double-gamma nuclear decay.

    PubMed

    Walz, C; Scheit, H; Pietralla, N; Aumann, T; Lefol, R; Ponomarev, V Yu

    2015-10-15

    The double-gamma (γγ)-decay of a quantum system in an excited state is a fundamental second-order process of quantum electrodynamics. In contrast to the well-known single-gamma (γ)-decay, the γγ-decay is characterized by the simultaneous emission of two γ quanta, each with a continuous energy spectrum. In nuclear physics, this exotic decay mode has only been observed for transitions between states with spin-parity quantum numbers J(π) = 0(+) (refs 1-3). Single-gamma decays-the main experimental obstacle to observing the γγ-decay-are strictly forbidden for these 0(+) → 0(+) transitions. Here we report the observation of the γγ-decay of an excited nuclear state (J(π) = 11/2(-)) that is directly competing with an allowed γ-decay (to ground state J(π) = 3/2(+)). The branching ratio of the competitive γγ-decay of the 11/2(-) isomer of (137)Ba to the ground state relative to its single γ-decay was determined to be (2.05 ± 0.37) × 10(-6). From the measured angular correlation and the shape of the energy spectra of the individual γ-rays, the contributing combinations of multipolarities of the γ radiation were determined. Transition matrix elements calculated using the quasiparticle-phonon model reproduce our measurements well. The γγ-decay rate gives access to so far unexplored important nuclear structure information, such as the generalized (off-diagonal) nuclear electric polarizabilities and magnetic susceptibilities.

  15. Observation of the competitive double-gamma nuclear decay.

    PubMed

    Walz, C; Scheit, H; Pietralla, N; Aumann, T; Lefol, R; Ponomarev, V Yu

    2015-10-15

    The double-gamma (γγ)-decay of a quantum system in an excited state is a fundamental second-order process of quantum electrodynamics. In contrast to the well-known single-gamma (γ)-decay, the γγ-decay is characterized by the simultaneous emission of two γ quanta, each with a continuous energy spectrum. In nuclear physics, this exotic decay mode has only been observed for transitions between states with spin-parity quantum numbers J(π) = 0(+) (refs 1-3). Single-gamma decays-the main experimental obstacle to observing the γγ-decay-are strictly forbidden for these 0(+) → 0(+) transitions. Here we report the observation of the γγ-decay of an excited nuclear state (J(π) = 11/2(-)) that is directly competing with an allowed γ-decay (to ground state J(π) = 3/2(+)). The branching ratio of the competitive γγ-decay of the 11/2(-) isomer of (137)Ba to the ground state relative to its single γ-decay was determined to be (2.05 ± 0.37) × 10(-6). From the measured angular correlation and the shape of the energy spectra of the individual γ-rays, the contributing combinations of multipolarities of the γ radiation were determined. Transition matrix elements calculated using the quasiparticle-phonon model reproduce our measurements well. The γγ-decay rate gives access to so far unexplored important nuclear structure information, such as the generalized (off-diagonal) nuclear electric polarizabilities and magnetic susceptibilities. PMID:26469051

  16. Amplitude and Width Correlations in COBALT-57 and VANADIUM-49.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Prabha K.

    Angular distributions of the inelastically scattered protons and of the deexcitation (gamma)-rays in the ('56)Fe(p,p'(gamma)) reaction were measured for d-wave resonances in the proton energy range 3.10 to 4.01 MeV. The experiment was performed with an overall energy resolution of 350 to 400 eV (FWHM) at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory KN Van de Graaff accelerator and associated high resolution system. Results were obtained for 141 resonances; 83 resonances were assigned J('(pi)) = 5/2('+), while 58 resonances were assigned J('(pi)) = 3/2('+). Mixing parameters for the inelastic decay amplitudes were uniquely determined for the 5/2('+) resonances. For the 3/2('+) resonances sufficient information is not available from this experiment to extract a unique solution for the mixing parameters. Magnitudes and relative signs of three inelastic decay amplitudes were determined for the 5/2('+) resonances in ('57)Co. The angular distributions for the deexcitation (gamma)-rays were measured in coincidence with the inelastically scattered protons for 30 3/2('+) resonances in ('49)V in the proton energy region 2.2 to 3.1 MeV. The singles measurements from a previous experiment were combined with these coincidence measurements to eliminate the ambiguity in the solutions for the mixing parameters. Amplitude and width measurements were determined for the three decay channels for 30 3/2('+) resonances. Statistical analyses were performed on the set of 83 5/2('+) resonances in ('57)Co and on the set of 30 3/2('+) resonances in ('49)V. In both cases, large amplitude and width correlations are observed. These results are interpreted as evidence for direct reactions between the inelastic channels.

  17. Graphical analysis of angular momentum for collision products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danos, Michael; Fano, Ugo

    1998-10-01

    The complexity of atomic and nuclear structures and their collision processes involves conservation laws, bearing mainly on angular momenta; indeed angular momentum treatments prove most laborious. The analytic treatments, preferably carried out in Racah’s calculus, combine initially independent elements stepwise into structures branching out into resulting products. Graphical procedures that ensure phase and amplitude control of their manifold elements, illustrate these sequential steps and provide their results. The present report should familiarize readers with these procedures through examples of reactions of increasing complexity, bearing of course on structure calculations as well. The report has thus two aims: (i) computing correlation functions for reactions yielding several emitted particles (hence of arbitrary complexity) in terms of a novel method of computation, and (ii), describing the mathematical techniques relevant to solve high-complexity angular momentum problems, including the computation of many-body systems’ bound states. The complexity reflects the symmetries of the reaction products, and, more generally, of many-body system. The basic mathematical tool for such treatments is the Racah calculus which employs recoupling transformations, thus avoiding the many summations required by expansions in terms of vector coupling coefficients. The application of the Racah calculus is greatly aided by appropriate definitions and graphical procedures ensuring phase and amplitude control of their manifold elements, as well as illustrating the physical content. Beginning with photon absorption by discrete states, our examples progress to an Auger process yielding a correlation function with seven direction and polarization parameters.

  18. High Purity Germanium Detectors and Angular Distribution of 2Al(p,g)28Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Andre

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to study high purity germanium detector systems, and to calculate and compare absorption ratios of 27Al(p,g)28Si. Work with the germanium detector online array for gamma ray spectroscopy in nuclear astrophysics in the Nuclear Science Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame, also known as Georgina, including energy calibrations and work with software and hardware logic, provided the necessary background and experience with high purity germanium detectors and angular distribution of gamma rays. The knowledge taken from work with the Georgina detectors was then applied to the analysis of 27Al(p,g)28Si. Previous experimental data of 27Al(p,g)28Si was analyzed using the Ep = 1778.9 keV resonance. The data used was taken from a 2010 experiment completed in the Nuclear Science Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame using the 4MV KN particle accelerator. A 1977 paper by A. Anttila and J. Keinonen with analysis of the same reaction using the Ep = 992 keV resonance was used for the energy calibration and gamma energies. Peak fitting and background reduction of the spectra were completed using analysis software, jtek. Angular distribution ratios from a 56Co source were used for the normalization of the 27Al data. Angular dependent absorption factors were used to analyze the angular distribution of γ-rays from the 27Al beam target. With these absorption factors, relative gamma intensity measurements of 27Al(p,g)28Si were calculated.

  19. Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)

  20. Angular-Rate Estimation Using Quaternion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.

    1998-01-01

    In most spacecraft (SC) there is a need to know the SC angular rate. Precise angular rate is required for attitude determination, and a coarse rate is needed for attitude control damping. Classically, angular rate information is obtained from gyro measurements. These days, there is a tendency to build smaller, lighter and cheaper SC, therefore the inclination now is to do away with gyros and use other means and methods to determine the angular rate. The latter is also needed even in gyro equipped satellites when performing high rate maneuvers whose angular-rate is out of range of the on board gyros or in case of gyro failure. There are several ways to obtain the angular rate in a gyro-less SC. When the attitude is known, one can differentiate the attitude in whatever parameters it is given and use the kinematics equation that connects the derivative of the attitude with the satellite angular-rate and compute the latter. Since SC usually utilize vector measurements for attitude determination, the differentiation of the attitude introduces a considerable noise component in the computed angular-rate vector.

  1. Anisotropies in the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Background Measured by the Fermi LAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, E. C.; McEnery, J. E.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of unresolved sources to the diffuse gamma-ray background could induce anisotropies in this emission on small angular scales. We analyze the angular power spectrum of the diffuse emission measured by the Fermi LAT at Galactic latitudes absolute value of b > 30 deg in four energy bins spanning 1 to 50 GeV. At multipoles l >= 155, corresponding to angular scales approx < 2 deg, angular power above the photon noise level is detected at > 99.99% CL in the 1-2 GeV, 2- 5 GeV, and 5- 10 GeV energy bins, and at > 99% CL at 10-50 GeV. Within each energy bin the measured angular power takes approximately the same value at all multipoles l >= 155, suggesting that it originates from the contribution of one or more unclustered source populations. The amplitude of the angular power normalized to the mean intensity in each energy bin is consistent with a constant value at all energies, C(sub p) / (I)(exp 2) = 9.05 +/- 0.84 x 10(exp -6) sr, while the energy dependence of C(sub p) is consistent with the anisotropy arising from one or more source populations with power-law photon spectra with spectral index Gamma (sub s) = 2.40 +/- 0.07. We discuss the implications of the measured angular power for gamma-ray source populations that may provide a contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray background.

  2. Interannual variation of global atmospheric angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Tribbia, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    The relative atmospheric angular momentum (RAM) integrated over the globe is an explicit variable representing the state of the atmospheric general circulation. After removing the annual, semiannual, and higher-frequency components, the filtered global RAM time series for the past 14 years (1979-92) is highly correlated with both the Southern Oscillation index and the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature averaged over Area NINO-3 (5{degrees}S-5{degrees}N, 150{degrees}W-90{degrees}W). The interannual variation of global RAM is coherent with the poleward propagation of RAM anomalies. The global RAM anomalies reach their minimum values when westerly anomalies emerge in the Tropics and higher latitudes during a cold El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. On the other hand, global RAM anomalies attain their maximum values when westerly anomalies arrive at the subtropics of both hemispheres during a warm ENSO event. It is demonstrated that the poleward propagation of RAM anomalies results from the flip-flop oscillation of the anomalous circulation between cold and warm ENSO events. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Gamma-ray localization of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes.

    PubMed

    Marisaldi, M; Argan, A; Trois, A; Giuliani, A; Tavani, M; Labanti, C; Fuschino, F; Bulgarelli, A; Longo, F; Barbiellini, G; Del Monte, E; Moretti, E; Trifoglio, M; Costa, E; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A; D'Ammando, F; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Froysland, T; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Mereghetti, S; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Piano, G; Pilia, M; Prest, M; Pucella, G; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Vittorini, V; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Antonelli, L A; Colafrancesco, S; Cutini, S; Giommi, P; Lucarelli, F; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Verrecchia, F; Salotti, L

    2010-09-17

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are very short bursts of high-energy photons and electrons originating in Earth's atmosphere. We present here a localization study of TGFs carried out at gamma-ray energies above 20 MeV based on an innovative event selection method. We use the AGILE satellite Silicon Tracker data that for the first time have been correlated with TGFs detected by the AGILE Mini-Calorimeter. We detect 8 TGFs with gamma-ray photons of energies above 20 MeV localized by the AGILE gamma-ray imager with an accuracy of ∼5-10° at 50 MeV. Remarkably, all TGF-associated gamma rays are compatible with a terrestrial production site closer to the subsatellite point than 400 km. Considering that our gamma rays reach the AGILE satellite at 540 km altitude with limited scattering or attenuation, our measurements provide the first precise direct localization of TGFs from space. PMID:20867680

  4. The angular momentum of the Oort cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the work of Marochnik et al. (1988), which estimated that the angular momentum of the Oort cloud is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the planetary system's total angular momentum. It is noted that most of the angular momentum in the currently observed Oort cloud is the result of the effects of external perturbers over the solar system's history, and it is demonstrated that the total current angular momentum is probably in the 6.0 x 10 to the 50th to 1.1 x 10 to the 51st g sq cm/sec range; original angular momentum was probably a factor of 5 below such values.

  5. The angular momentum of the Oort cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, P.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the work of Marochnik et al. (1988), which estimated that the angular momentum of the Oort cloud is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the planetary system's total angular momentum. It is noted that most of the angular momentum in the currently observed Oort cloud is the result of the effects of external perturbers over the solar system's history, and it is demonstrated that the total current angular momentum is probably in the 6.0 x 10 to the 50th to 1.1 x 10 to the 51st g sq cm/sec range; original angular momentum was probably a factor of 5 below such values. 21 refs.

  6. Parton transverse momentum and orbital angular momentum distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Abha; Courtoy, Aurore; Engelhardt, Michael; Liuti, Simonetta

    2016-08-01

    The quark orbital angular momentum component of proton spin, Lq, can be defined in QCD as the integral of a Wigner phase space distribution weighting the cross product of the quark's transverse position and momentum. It can also be independently defined from the operator product expansion for the off-forward Compton amplitude in terms of a twist-three generalized parton distribution. We provide an explicit link between the two definitions, connecting them through their dependence on partonic intrinsic transverse momentum. Connecting the definitions provides the key for correlating direct experimental determinations of Lq and evaluations through lattice QCD calculations. The direct observation of quark orbital angular momentum does not require transverse spin polarization but can occur using longitudinally polarized targets.

  7. Angular distribution and atomic effects in condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.F.

    1981-11-01

    A general concept of condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy is that angular distribution and atomic effects in the photoemission intensity are determined by different mechanisms, the former being determined largely by ordering phenomena such as crystal momentum conservation and photoelectron diffraction while the latter are manifested in the total (angle-integrated) cross section. In this work, the physics of the photoemission process is investigated in several very different experiments to elucidate the mechanisms of, and correlation between, atomic and angular distribution effects. Theoretical models are discussed and the connection betweeen the two effects is clearly established. The remainder of this thesis, which describes experiments utilizing both angle-resolved and angle-integrated photoemission in conjunction with synchrotron radiation in the energy range 6 eV less than or equal to h ..nu.. less than or equal to 360 eV and laboratory sources, is divided into three parts.

  8. Method of incident low-energy gamma-ray direction reconstruction in the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheymits, M. D.; Leonov, A. A.; Zverev, V. G.; Galper, A. M.; Arkhangelskaya, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Dalkarov, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray space-based telescope has as its main goals to measure cosmic γ-ray fluxes and the electron-positron cosmic-ray component produced, theoretically, in dark-matter-particles decay or annihilation processes, to search for discrete γ-ray sources and study them in detail, to examine the energy spectra of diffuse γ-rays — both galactic and extragalactic — and to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and γ-rays from the active Sun. Scientific goals of GAMMA-400 telescope require fine angular resolution. The telescope is of a pair-production type. In the converter-tracker, the incident gamma-ray photon converts into electron-positron pair in the tungsten layer and then the tracks are detected by silicon- strip position-sensitive detectors. Multiple scattering processes become a significant obstacle in the incident-gamma direction reconstruction for energies below several gigaelectronvolts. The method of utilising this process to improve the resolution is proposed in the presented work.

  9. Giant dipole resonance width in nuclei near Sn at low temperature and high angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Srijit; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, Deepak; Pal, Surajit; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T. K.; Dey, A.; Mukherjee, G.; Ghosh, T.; Gupta, D.; Banerjee, S. R.

    2008-02-15

    High energy {gamma} rays in coincidence with low energy yrast {gamma} rays have been measured from {sup 113}Sb, at excitation energies of 109 and 122 MeV, formed by bombarding {sup 20}Ne on {sup 93}Nb at projectile energies of 145 and 160 MeV, respectively, to study the role of angular momentum (J) and temperature (T) over giant dipole resonance (GDR) width ({gamma}). The maximum populated angular momenta for fusion were 67({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and 73({Dirac_h}/2{pi}), respectively, for the above-mentioned beam energies. The high energy photons were detected using a Large Area Modular BaF{sub 2} Detector Array (LAMBDA) along with a 24-element multiplicity filter. After pre-equilibrium corrections, the excitation energy E* was averaged over the decay steps of the compound nucleus (CN). The average values of temperature, angular momentum, CN mass, etc., have been calculated using the statistical model code CASCADE. Using those average values, results show the systematic increase of GDR width with T, which is consistent with Kusnezov parametrization and the thermal shape fluctuation model (TSFM). The rise of GDR width with temperature also supports the assumptions of adiabatic coupling in the TSFM. But the GDR widths and corresponding reduced plots with J are not consistent with those of the theoretical model at high spins.

  10. The validity of an assessment of maximum angular velocity of knee extension (KE) using a gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Obuchi, Shuichi; Shiba, Yoshitaka; Omuro, Kazuya; Inaba, Yasuko; Kojima, Motonaga

    2012-01-01

    Although it is more important to assess the muscular power of the lower extremities than the strength, no simplified method for doing so has been found. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the assessment of the angular velocity of KE using a gyroscope. Participants included 105 community-dwelling older people (55 women, 50 men, age ± standard deviation (SD) 75±5.3). Pearson correlation coefficients and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between the angular velocity of KE and functional performance measurements, a self-efficacy scale and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The data from the gyroscope were significantly correlated with some physical functions such as muscle strength (r=0.304, p<0.01), and walking velocity (r=0.543, p<0.001). In addition, the joint angular velocity was significantly correlated with self-efficacy (r=0.219-0.329, p<0.01-0.05) and HRQOL (r=0.207-0.359, p<0.01-0.05). The absolute value of the correlation coefficient of angular velocity tended to be greater than that of the muscle strength for mobility functions such as walking velocity and the timed-up-and-go (TUG) test. In conclusion, it was found that the assessment of the angular velocity of the knee joint using a gyroscope could be a feasible and meaningful measurement in the geriatrics field.

  11. Arcsec source location measurements in gamma-ray astronomy from a lunar observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David G.; Hughes, E. B.

    1990-01-01

    The physical processes typically used in the detection of high energy gamma-rays do not permit good angular resolution, which makes difficult the unambiguous association of discrete gamma-ray sources with objects emitting at other wavelengths. This problem can be overcome by placing gamma-ray detectors on the moon and using the horizon as an occulting edge to achieve arcsec resolution. For the purpose of discussion, this concept is examined for gamma rays above about 20 MeV for which pair production dominates the detection process and locally-generated nuclear gamma rays do not contribute to the background.

  12. CARTOGAM: a portable gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, O.; Izac, C.; Lainé, F.; Nguyen, A.

    1997-02-01

    The gamma camera is devised to establish the cartography of radioactive sources against a visible background in quasi real time. This device is designed to spot sources from a distance during the preparation of interventions on active areas of nuclear installations. This implement will permit to optimize interventions especially on the dosimetric level. The camera consists of a double cone collimator, a scintillator and an intensified CCD camera. This chain of detection provides the formation of both gamma images and visible images. Even though it is wrapped in a denal shield, the camera is still portable (mass < 15 kg) and compact (external diameter = 8 cm). The angular resolution is of the order of one degree for gamma rays of 1 MeV. In a few minutes, the device is able to measure a dose rate of 10 μGy/h delivered for instance by a source of 60Co of 90 mCi located at 10 m from the detector. The first images recorded in the laboratory will be presented and will illustrate the performances obtained with this camera.

  13. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Simulation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.; Vassiliev, V.V.; /UCLA

    2011-06-14

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory being planned in the U.S. The anticipated sensitivity of AGIS is about one order of magnitude better than the sensitivity of current observatories, allowing it to measure gamma-ray emission from a large number of Galactic and extra-galactic sources. We present here results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance - collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity - are discussed.

  14. Partial Photoionization Cross Sections and Angular Distributions for Double Excitation of Helium up to the N=13 Threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Czasch, A.; Schoeffler, M.; Hattass, M.; Schoessler, S.; Jahnke, T.; Weber, Th.; Staudte, A.; Titze, J.; Wimmer, C.; Kammer, S.; Weckenbrock, M.; Voss, S.; Grisenti, R.E.; Jagutzki, O.; Schmidt, L.Ph.H.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.; Rost, J.M.; Schneider, T.; Liu, C.-N.

    2005-12-09

    Partial photoionization cross sections {sigma}{sub N}(E{sub {gamma}}) and photoelectron angular distributions {beta}{sub N}(E{sub {gamma}}) were measured for the final ionic states He{sup +}(N>4) in the region between the N=8 and N=13 thresholds (E{sub {gamma}}>78.155 eV) using the cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy technique (COLTRIMS). Comparison of the experimental data with two independent sets of theoretical predictions reveals disagreement for the branching ratios to the various He{sub N}{sup +} states. The angular distributions just below the double ionization threshold suggest an excitation process for highly excited N states similar to the Wannier mechanism for double ionization.

  15. Stereotactic radiosurgery - Gamma Knife

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gamma Knife; Gamma Knife radiosurgery; Non-invasive neurosugery; Epilepsy - Gamma Knife ... problems ( arteriovenous malformation , arteriovenous fistula ) Some types of epilepsy Trigeminal neuralgia (severe nerve pain of the face) ...

  16. Simultaneous optical/gamma-ray observations of GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, J.; Wenzel, W.; Hudec, R.; Moskalenko, E. I.; Metlov, V.; Chernych, N. S.; Getman, V. S.; Ziener, Rainer; Birkle, K.; Bade, N.

    1994-01-01

    Details on the project to search for serendipitous time correlated optical photographic observations of Gamma Ray Bursters (GRB's) are presented. The ongoing photographic observations at nine observatories are used to look for plates which were exposed simultaneously with a gamma ray burst detected by the gamma ray instrument team (BATSE) and contain the burst position. The results for the first two years of the gamma ray instrument team operation are presented.

  17. Developments in Space-based Gamma-ray Astronomy and the connection with CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morselli, Aldo

    2016-07-01

    The energy range between 300 KeV and 100 MeV is an experimentally very difficult range and remained uncovered since the time of COMPTEL. Future instruments like e-ASTROGAM can address all astrophysics issues left open by the current generation of instruments. In particular, a better angular resolution in the energy range 10 MeV - 1 GeV is crucial to resolve patchy and complex features of diffuse sources in the Galaxy and in the Galactic Centre as well as increasing the point source sensitivity. This instrument addresses scientific topics of great interest to the community, as matter evolution, dark matter search, antimatter generation, very energetic phenomena in compact objects and massive black holes with particular emphasis on multifrequency correlation studies involving radio, optical, IR, X-ray, soft gamma-ray and TeV emission.

  18. Angular momentum in the Local Group

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, A.; Laflamme, R.

    1994-04-01

    We briefly review models for the Local Group and the acquisition of its angular momentum. We describe early attempts to understand the origin of the spin of the galaxies discussing the hypothesis that the Local Group has little angular momentum. Finally we show that using Peebles` least action principle there should be a rather large amount of orbital angular momentum compared to the magnitude of the spin of its galaxies. Therefore the Local Group cannot be thought as tidally isolated. Using Peebles` trajectories we give a possible set of trajectories for Local Group galaxies which would predict their spin.

  19. Angular momentum role in the hypercritical accretion of binary-driven hypernovae

    DOE PAGES

    Becerra, L.; Cipolletta, F.; Fryer, Chris L.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2015-10-12

    Here, the induced gravitational collapse paradigm explains a class of energetic,more » $${E}_{{\\rm{iso}}}\\gtrsim {10}^{52}$$ erg, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with Ic supernovae, recently named binary-driven hypernovae. The progenitor is a tight binary system formed of a carbon–oxygen (CO) core and a neutron star (NS) companion. The supernova ejecta of the exploding CO core trigger a hypercritical accretion process onto the NS, which reaches the critical mass in a few seconds, and gravitationally collapses to a black hole, emitting a GRB. In our previous simulations of this process, we adopted a spherically symmetric approximation to compute the features of the hypercritical accretion process. We here present the first estimates of the angular momentum transported by the supernova ejecta, $${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}},$$ and perform numerical simulations of the angular momentum transfer to the NS during the hyperaccretion process in full general relativity. We show that the NS (1) reaches either the mass-shedding limit or the secular axisymmetric instability in a few seconds depending on its initial mass, (2) reaches a maximum dimensionless angular momentum value, $${[{cJ}/({{GM}}^{2})]}_{{\\rm{max}}}\\approx 0.7$$, and (3) can support less angular momentum than the one transported by supernova ejecta, $${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}}\\gt {J}_{{\\rm{NS,max}}},$$ hence there is an angular momentum excess that necessarily leads to jetted emission.« less

  20. THE ANGULAR MOMENTA OF NEUTRON STARS AND BLACK HOLES AS A WINDOW ON SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.; Miller, M. C.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2011-04-10

    It is now clear that a subset of supernovae displays evidence for jets and is observed as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The angular momentum distribution of massive stellar endpoints provides a rare means of constraining the nature of the central engine in core-collapse explosions. Unlike supermassive black holes, the spin of stellar-mass black holes in X-ray binary systems is little affected by accretion and accurately reflects the spin set at birth. A modest number of stellar-mass black hole angular momenta have now been measured using two independent X-ray spectroscopic techniques. In contrast, rotation-powered pulsars spin down over time, via magnetic braking, but a modest number of natal spin periods have now been estimated. For both canonical and extreme neutron star parameters, statistical tests strongly suggest that the angular momentum distributions of black holes and neutron stars are markedly different. Within the context of prevalent models for core-collapse supernovae, the angular momentum distributions are consistent with black holes typically being produced in GRB-like supernovae with jets and with neutron stars typically being produced in supernovae with too little angular momentum to produce jets via magnetohydrodynamic processes. It is possible that neutron stars are with high spin initially and rapidly spun down shortly after the supernova event, but the available mechanisms may be inconsistent with some observed pulsar properties.

  1. Angular momentum role in the hypercritical accretion of binary-driven hypernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Becerra, L.; Cipolletta, F.; Fryer, Chris L.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2015-10-12

    Here, the induced gravitational collapse paradigm explains a class of energetic, ${E}_{{\\rm{iso}}}\\gtrsim {10}^{52}$ erg, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with Ic supernovae, recently named binary-driven hypernovae. The progenitor is a tight binary system formed of a carbon–oxygen (CO) core and a neutron star (NS) companion. The supernova ejecta of the exploding CO core trigger a hypercritical accretion process onto the NS, which reaches the critical mass in a few seconds, and gravitationally collapses to a black hole, emitting a GRB. In our previous simulations of this process, we adopted a spherically symmetric approximation to compute the features of the hypercritical accretion process. We here present the first estimates of the angular momentum transported by the supernova ejecta, ${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}},$ and perform numerical simulations of the angular momentum transfer to the NS during the hyperaccretion process in full general relativity. We show that the NS (1) reaches either the mass-shedding limit or the secular axisymmetric instability in a few seconds depending on its initial mass, (2) reaches a maximum dimensionless angular momentum value, ${[{cJ}/({{GM}}^{2})]}_{{\\rm{max}}}\\approx 0.7$, and (3) can support less angular momentum than the one transported by supernova ejecta, ${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}}\\gt {J}_{{\\rm{NS,max}}},$ hence there is an angular momentum excess that necessarily leads to jetted emission.

  2. Hyperfine Magnetic Field Measurements in the Heusler Alloys COBALT(2)-TITANIUM-Z, COBALT(2)-MAGNESIUM-Z (z = Silicon, Germanium, and Tin) and COBALT(2)-MAGNESIUM- Gallium Using the Moessbauer Effect (me) and the Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation (tdpac) Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahamer, Amer Said

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the hyperfine magnetic field in a series of Heusler alloys were performed. The probes were in (^{119}Sn) and cadmium (^{111}Cd). These measurements were performed at the University of Cincinnati in Cincinnati, Ohio. Two techniques were used. The first technique was the Mossbauer effect, which was used to measure the hyperfine magnetic field on ^{119 }Sn in Co_2TiZ (Z = Si, Ge, and Sn), and the second technique was the Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation which was used to measure the hyperfine magnetic field on ^ {111}Cd in the Co_2MnZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn, and Ga). The probes are expected to go to the Z sites of the alloys. The hyperfine magnetic field measurements on ^{119}Sn in Co _2TiZ (Z = Si, Ge, and Sn) alloys were done at room, dry ice and liquid nitrogen temperatures by using the Mossbauer effect technique. The data were fitted by using a least squares fit from which three parameters were extracted. These parameters are the isomer shift, the quadrupole splitting and the hyperfine magnetic field. Temperature variation measurements of the hyperfine magnetic field were performed on ^{111 }Cd in Co_2MnZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn, and Ga) alloys. The data were fitted again by using a least squares fit from which the Larmor frequency which is related to the hyperfine magnetic field was extracted. Also the Fourier Transforms were taken of the data, on the one hand to confirm the results of the least squares fit and on the other hand to look for more frequencies. Results of the Fourier Transforms show that some of the probe, ^{111}In, did go to the Co site in the Co_2MnZ (Z = Ga, Si, and Ge) alloys. The hmf on ^{111 }Cd in the Co site of these alloys is found to be 68 kOe which is consistent with the value found in the literature. Two theoretical models were examined for the trends of hyperfine magnetic field on ^{119 }Sn and ^{111}Cd in Co_2MnZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn, and Ga) alloys. These are the Campbell and Blandin model and the Stearns' overlap model

  3. A Comparative Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation Study of the Nuclear Quadrupole Interaction in HfF4·HF·2H2O Using 180mHf and 181Hf(β-)181Ta as Nuclear Probes: Is Ta an Innocent Spy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Tilman; Das, Satyendra K.; Manzhur, Yurij

    2009-02-01

    We report on a comparative study of the nuclear quadrupole interaction of the nuclear probes 180mHf and 181Hf(β -)181Ta in HfF4・HF・2H2O using time differential perturbed angular correlations (TDPAC) at 300 K. For the first probe, assuming a Lorentzian frequency distribution, we obtained ωQ= 103(4) Mrad/s, an asymmetry parameter η = 0.68(3), a linewidth δ = 7.3(3.9)%, and full anisotropy within experimental accuracy. For the second probe, assuming a Lorentzian frequency distribution, we obtained three fractions: (1) with 56.5(7)%, ωQ= 126.64(4) Mrad/s and η = 0.9241(4) with a rather small distribution δ = 0.40(8)% which is attributed to HfF4・HF・2H2O; (2) with 4.6(4)%, ωQ = 161.7(3) Mrad/s and η = 0.761(4) assuming no line broadening which is tentatively attributed to a small admixture of Hf2OF6・H2O; (3) the remainder of 39.0(7)% accounts for a rapid loss of anisotropy and is modelled by a perturbation function with a sharp frequency multiplied by an exponential factor exp(-λ t) with λ = 0.55(2) ns-1. Whereas the small admixture of Hf2OF6・H2O escapes detection by the 180mHf probe, there is no rapid loss of roughly half the anisotropy as is the case with 181Hf(β -)181Ta. This loss could in principle be due to fluctuating electric field gradients originating from movements of nearest neighbour HF adducts and/or H2O molecules after nuclear transmutation to the foreign atom Ta which are absent for the isomeric probe. Alternatively, paramagnetic Ta ions could lead to fluctuating magnetic dipole fields which, when combined with fluctuating electric field gradients, could also lead to a rapid loss of anisotropy. In any case, Ta is not an "innocent spy" in this compound. Although 180mHf is not a convenient probe for conventional spectrometers, the use of fast digitizers and software coincidences would allow to use all γ -quanta in the stretched cascade which would greatly improve the efficiency of the spectrometer. 180mHf could also serve as a Pu

  4. Using CHIMERA detector at LNS for gamma-particle coincidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardella, G.; Acosta, L.; Auditore, L.; Chatterjiee, M. B.; Castoldi, A.; De Filippo, E.; Dell'Aquila, D.; De Luca, S.; Gnoffo, B.; Guazzoni, C.; Francalanza, L.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Martorana, N.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have recently evaluated the quality of γ-ray angular distributions that can be extracted in particle-gamma coincidence measurements using the CHIMERA detector at LNS. γ-rays have been detected using the CsI(Tl) detectors of the spherical part of the CHIMERA array. Very clean γ-rays angular distributions were extracted in reactions induced by different stable beams impinging on 12C thin targets. The results evidenced an effect of projectile spin flip on the γ-rays angular distributions. γ-particle coincidence measurements were also performed in reactions induced by neutron rich exotic beams produced through in-flight fragmentation at LNS. In recent experiments also the Farcos array was used to improve energy and angular resolution measurements of the detected charged particles. Results obtained with both stable and radioactive beams are reported.

  5. Angular dependence of primordial trispectra and CMB spectral distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Bartolo, Nicola; Liguori, Michele

    2016-10-01

    Under the presence of anisotropic sources in the inflationary era, the trispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation has a very specific angular dependence between each wavevector that is distinguishable from the one encountered when only scalar fields are present, characterized by an angular dependence described by Legendre polynomials. We examine the imprints left by curvature trispectra on the TTμ bispectrum, generated by the correlation between temperature anisotropies (T) and chemical potential spectral distortions (μ) of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Due to the angular dependence of the primordial signal, the corresponding TTμ bispectrum strongly differs in shape from TTμ sourced by the usual gNL or τNL local trispectra, enabling us to obtain an unbiased estimation. From a Fisher matrix analysis, we find that, in a cosmic-variance-limited (CVL) survey of TTμ, a minimum detectable value of the quadrupolar Legendre coefficient is d2 ~ 0.01, which is 4 orders of magnitude better than the best value attainable from the TTTT CMB trispectrum. In the case of an anisotropic inflationary model with a f(phi)F2 interaction (coupling the inflaton field phi with a vector kinetic term F2), the size of the curvature trispectrum is related to that of quadrupolar power spectrum asymmetry, g*. In this case, a CVL measurement of TTμ makes it possible to measure g* down to 10‑3.

  6. Short gamma-ray burst formation rate from BATSE data using E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation and the minimum gravitational-wave event rate of a coalescing compact binary

    SciTech Connect

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Toyanago, Asuka; Nakamura, Takashi; Takahashi, Keitaro E-mail: takashi@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2014-07-01

    Using 72 short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and luminosity by applying the E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation for SGRBs found by Tsutsui et al. For 53 SGRBs with an observed flux brighter than 4 × 10{sup –6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, the cumulative redshift distribution up to z = 1 agrees well with that of 22 Swift SGRBs. This suggests that the redshift determination by the E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation for SGRBs works well. The minimum event rate at z = 0 is estimated as R{sub on−axis}{sup min}=6.3{sub −3.9}{sup +3.1}× 10{sup −10} events Mpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1}, so that the minimum beaming angle is 0.°6-7.°8 assuming a merging rate of 10{sup –7}- 4 × 10{sup –6} events Mpc{sup –3} yr{sup –1} suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB 130603B of ∼4°-8°. On the other hand, if we assume a beaming angle of ∼6° suggested from four SGRBs with the observed beaming angle value, then the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as R{sub all}{sup min}=1.15{sub −0.66}{sup +0.56} × 10{sup −7} events Mpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1}. If SGRBs are induced by the coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), then this event rate leads to a minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of 3.8{sub −2.2}{sup +1.8} (146{sub −83}{sup +71}) events yr{sup −1} for an NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by a worldwide network with KAGRA, advanced-LIGO, advanced-VIRGO, and GEO.

  7. Calculates Angular Quadrature Weights and Cosines.

    1988-02-18

    DSNQUAD calculates the angular quadrature weights and cosines for use in CCC-254/ANISN-ORNL. The subroutines in DSNQUAD were lifted from the XSDRN-PM code, which is supplied with the CCC-475/ SCALIAS-77 package.

  8. Angular velocity-based structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yizheng; Kiremidjian, Anne S.; Rajagopal, Ram; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2016-04-01

    Damage detection is an important application of structural health monitoring. With the recent development of sensing technology, additional information about structures, angular velocity, has become available. In this paper, the angular velocity signals obtained from gyroscopes are modeled as an autoregressive (AR) model. The damage sensitive features (DSFs) are defined as a function of the AR coefficients. It is found that the mean values of the DSF for the damaged and undamaged signals are different. Also, we show that the angular velocity- based AR model has a linear relationship with the acceleration-based AR model. To test the proposed damage detection method, the algorithm has been tested with the experimental data from a recent shake table test where the damage is introduced systemically. The results indicate that the change of DSF means is statistically significant, and the angular velocity-based DSFs are sensitive to damage.

  9. A demonstration of the conservation of the orbital angular momentum of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizza, Leonardo J.; Mayochi, Mariano G.; Ciocci Brazzano, Ligia; Pedrosa, Susana E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a simple but quantitative experiment to demonstrate the conservation of angular momentum. We measure the correlation of the apparent radius and angular velocity of the Sun with respect to the stars, due to the conservation of the angular momentum of Earth in its orbit. We also determine the direction of Earth's angular momentum vector and show that it is conserved. The experiment can be performed using a small telescope and a digital camera. It is conceptually simple, allowing students to get direct physical insight from the data. The observations are performed near the resolution limit imposed by the atmosphere, and in the presence of strong competing effects. These effects necessitate a careful experimental setup and allow students to improve their skills in experimentation.

  10. Angular performance measure for tighter uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Hradil, Z.; Rehacek, J.; Klimov, A. B.; Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.

    2010-01-15

    The uncertainty principle places a fundamental limit on the accuracy with which we can measure conjugate quantities. However, the fluctuations of these variables can be assessed in terms of different estimators. We propose an angular performance that allows for tighter uncertainty relations for angle and angular momentum. The differences with previous bounds can be significant for particular states and indeed may be amenable to experimental measurement with the present technology.

  11. Correlation Plenoptic Imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging. PMID:27314718

  12. Correlation Plenoptic Imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging.

  13. Magnetic moments and angular momenta of stars and planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arge, C. N.; Mullan, D. J.; Dolginov, A. Z.

    1995-01-01

    Using published data on magnetic fields, radii, masses, and rotation, we have compiled a data set of magnetic moments mu and angular momenta L for stars and planets. In our subsample of hotter stars (classes A, B, and O), there are 171 objects. In the subsample of cooler stars (classes F, G, K, and M), there are 54 objects. We include 33 white dwarfs, of which 19 are in cataclysmic variables. The pulsar subsample contains 32 pulsars in binaries and 429 isolated pulsars. Som subsamples exhibit significant empirical correlations between log mu and log L. For the hot and cool stars, the correlations are positive. However, the hot-star correlation is significantly shallower than for the cool stars. In the solar system subsample, the correlation has essentially the same slope as for the cool stars, although the magnetic moments are two to three orders of magnitude smaller for the solar system objects at a given L value. For isolated white dwarfs, the correlations are weak or absent. Pulsars and white dwarfs in close binaries show strong negative correlations: the results are quantitatively consistent with magnetically enforced synchronism with the orbital period. When we consider the centers of gravity of the different subsamples of objects, a significant positive correlation appears between log mu and log L.

  14. Gamma ray generator

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  15. Characteristics of gamma-ray line flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.; Dennis, B.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of solar gamma rays by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) demonstrate that energetic protons and ions are rapidly accelerated during the impulsive phase. To understand the acceleration mechanisms for these particles, the characteristics of the gamma ray line flares observed by SMM were studied. Some very intense hard X-ray flares without detectable gamma ray lines were also investigated. Gamma ray line flares are distinguished from other flares by: (1) intense hard X-ray and microwave emissions; (2) delay of high energy hard X-rays; (3) emission of type 2 and/or type 4 radio bursts; and (4) flat hard X-ray spectra (average power law index: 3.1). The majority of the gamma ray line flares shared all these characteristics, and the remainder shared at least three of them. Positive correlations were found between durations of spike bursts and spatial sizes of flare loops as well as between delay times and durations of spike bursts.

  16. Diffuse gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Simpson, G. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An examination of the intensity, energy spectrum, and spatial distribution of the diffuse gamma-radiation observed by SAS-2 satellite away from the galactic plane in the energy range above 35 MeV has shown that it consists of two components. One component is generally correlated with galactic latitudes, the atomic hydrogen column density was deduced from 21 cm measurements, and the continuum radio emission, believed to be synchrotron emission. It has an energy spectrum similar to that in the plane and joins smoothly to the intense radiation from the plane. It is therefore presumed to be of galactic origin. The other component is apparently isotropic, at least on a coarse scale, and has a steep energy spectrum. No evidence is found for a cosmic ray halo surrounding the galaxy in the shape of a sphere or oblate spheroid with galactic dimensions. Constraints for a halo model with significantly larger dimensions are set on the basis of an upper limit to the gamma-ray anisotropy.

  17. Ultrafast angular momentum transfer in multisublattice ferrimagnets.

    PubMed

    Bergeard, N; López-Flores, V; Halté, V; Hehn, M; Stamm, C; Pontius, N; Beaurepaire, E; Boeglin, C

    2014-01-01

    Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to induce ultrafast changes of the magnetization in magnetic materials. However, one of the unsolved questions is that of conservation of the total angular momentum during the ultrafast demagnetization. Here we report the ultrafast transfer of angular momentum during the first hundred femtoseconds in ferrimagnetic Co0.8Gd0.2 and Co0.74Tb0.26 films. Using time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism allowed for time-resolved determination of spin and orbital momenta for each element. We report an ultrafast quenching of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and show that at early times the demagnetization in ferrimagnetic alloys is driven by the local transfer of angular momenta between the two exchange-coupled sublattices while the total angular momentum stays constant. In Co0.74Tb0.26 we have observed a transfer of the total angular momentum to an external bath, which is delayed by ~150 fs. PMID:24614016

  18. Angular momentum conservation for dynamical black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2006-11-15

    Angular momentum can be defined by rearranging the Komar surface integral in terms of a twist form, encoding the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass, and an axial vector. If the axial vector is a coordinate vector and has vanishing transverse divergence, it can be uniquely specified under certain generic conditions. Along a trapping horizon, a conservation law expresses the rate of change of angular momentum of a general black hole in terms of angular momentum densities of matter and gravitational radiation. This identifies the transverse-normal block of an effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor, whose normal-normal block was recently identified in a corresponding energy conservation law. Angular momentum and energy are dual, respectively, to the axial vector and a previously identified vector, the conservation equations taking the same form. Including charge conservation, the three conserved quantities yield definitions of an effective energy, electric potential, angular velocity and surface gravity, satisfying a dynamical version of the so-called first law of black-hole mechanics. A corresponding zeroth law holds for null trapping horizons, resolving an ambiguity in taking the null limit.

  19. Ultrafast angular momentum transfer in multisublattice ferrimagnets.

    PubMed

    Bergeard, N; López-Flores, V; Halté, V; Hehn, M; Stamm, C; Pontius, N; Beaurepaire, E; Boeglin, C

    2014-03-11

    Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to induce ultrafast changes of the magnetization in magnetic materials. However, one of the unsolved questions is that of conservation of the total angular momentum during the ultrafast demagnetization. Here we report the ultrafast transfer of angular momentum during the first hundred femtoseconds in ferrimagnetic Co0.8Gd0.2 and Co0.74Tb0.26 films. Using time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism allowed for time-resolved determination of spin and orbital momenta for each element. We report an ultrafast quenching of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and show that at early times the demagnetization in ferrimagnetic alloys is driven by the local transfer of angular momenta between the two exchange-coupled sublattices while the total angular momentum stays constant. In Co0.74Tb0.26 we have observed a transfer of the total angular momentum to an external bath, which is delayed by ~150 fs.

  20. An orbital angular momentum spectrometer for electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Tyler; Grillo, Vincenzo; McMorran, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of techniques for preparation of free-electron and neutron orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, a basic follow-up question emerges: how do we measure the orbital angular momentum state distribution in matter waves? Control of both the energy and helicity of light has produced a range of spectroscopic applications, including molecular fingerprinting and magnetization mapping. Realization of an analogous dual energy-OAM spectroscopy with matter waves demands control of both initial and final energy and orbital angular momentum states: unlike for photons, final state post-selection is necessary for particles that cannot be annihilated. We propose a magnetic field-based mechanism for quantum non-demolition measurement of electron OAM. We show that OAM-dependent lensing is produced by an operator of form U =exp iLzρ2/ℏb2 where ρ =√{x2 +y2 } is the radial position operator, Lz is the orbital angular momentum operator along z, and b is the OAM dispersion length. We can physically realize this operator as a term in the time evolution of an electron in magnetic round lens. We discuss prospects and practical challenges for implementation of a lensing orbital angular momentum measurement. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under the Early Career Research Program Award # DE-SC0010466.

  1. Neutron and Gamma-ray Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Krasilnikov, Anatoly V.; Sasao, Mamiko; Kaschuck, Yuri A.; Kiptily, Vasily G.; Popovichev, Sergey V.; Nishitani, Takeo; Bertalot, Luciano

    2008-03-12

    Due to high neutron and gamma-ray yields and large size plasmas many future fusion reactor plasma parameters such as fusion power, fusion power density, ion temperature, fuel mixture, fast ion energy and spatial distributions can be well measured by various fusion product diagnostics. Neutron diagnostics provide information on fusion reaction rate, which indicates how close is the plasma to the ultimate goal of nuclear fusion and fusion power distribution in the plasma core, which is crucial for optimization of plasma breakeven and burn. Depending on the plasma conditions neutron and gamma-ray diagnostics can provide important information, namely about dynamics of fast ion energy and spatial distributions during neutral beam injection, ion cyclotron heating and generated by fast ions MHD instabilities. The influence of the fast particle population on the 2-D neutron source profile was clearly demonstrated in JET experiments. 2-D neutron and gamma-ray source measurements could be important for driven plasma heating profile optimization in fusion reactors. To meat the measurement requirements in ITER the planned set of neutron and gamma ray diagnostics includes radial and vertical neutron and gamma cameras, neutron flux monitors, neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The necessity of using massive radiation shielding strongly influences the diagnostic designs in fusion reactor, determines angular fields of view of neutron and gamma-ray cameras and spectrometers and gives rise to unavoidable difficulties in the absolute calibration. The development, testing in existing tokomaks and a possible engineering integration of neuron and gamma-ray diagnostic systems into ITER are presented.

  2. Neutron and Gamma-ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilnikov, Anatoly V.; Sasao, Mamiko; Kaschuck, Yuri A.; Kiptily, Vasily G.; Nishitani, Takeo; Popovichev, Sergey V.; Bertalot, Luciano

    2008-03-01

    Due to high neutron and gamma-ray yields and large size plasmas many future fusion reactor plasma parameters such as fusion power, fusion power density, ion temperature, fuel mixture, fast ion energy and spatial distributions can be well measured by various fusion product diagnostics. Neutron diagnostics provide information on fusion reaction rate, which indicates how close is the plasma to the ultimate goal of nuclear fusion and fusion power distribution in the plasma core, which is crucial for optimization of plasma breakeven and burn. Depending on the plasma conditions neutron and gamma-ray diagnostics can provide important information, namely about dynamics of fast ion energy and spatial distributions during neutral beam injection, ion cyclotron heating and generated by fast ions MHD instabilities. The influence of the fast particle population on the 2-D neutron source profile was clearly demonstrated in JET experiments. 2-D neutron and gamma-ray source measurements could be important for driven plasma heating profile optimization in fusion reactors. To meat the measurement requirements in ITER the planned set of neutron and gamma ray diagnostics includes radial and vertical neutron and gamma cameras, neutron flux monitors, neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The necessity of using massive radiation shielding strongly influences the diagnostic designs in fusion reactor, determines angular fields of view of neutron and gamma-ray cameras and spectrometers and gives rise to unavoidable difficulties in the absolute calibration. The development, testing in existing tokomaks and a possible engineering integration of neuron and gamma-ray diagnostic systems into ITER are presented.

  3. Variation in Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration of a Particle in Rectilinear Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashood, K. K.; Singh, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the angular velocity ([image omitted]) and angular acceleration ([image omitted]) associated with a particle in rectilinear motion with constant acceleration. The discussion was motivated by an observation that students and even teachers have difficulty in ascribing rotational motion concepts to a particle when the trajectory is a…

  4. Robust identification of isotropic diffuse gamma rays from galactic dark matter.

    PubMed

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M; Pavlidou, Vasiliki

    2009-06-19

    Dark matter annihilation in Galactic substructure will produce diffuse gamma-ray emission of remarkably constant intensity across the sky, making it difficult to disentangle this Galactic dark matter signal from the extragalactic gamma-ray background. We show that if Galactic dark matter contributes a modest fraction of the measured emission in an energy range accessible to the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, the energy dependence of the angular power spectrum of the total measured emission could be used to confidently identify gamma rays from Galactic dark matter substructure.

  5. Inequalities for angular derivatives and boundary interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotnikov, Vladimir; Elin, Mark; Shoikhet, David

    2013-03-01

    The classical Julia-Wolff-Carathéodory theorem asserts that the angular derivative of a holomorphic self-mapping of the open unit disk (Schur function) at its boundary fixed point is a positive number. Cowen and Pommerenke (J Lond Math Soc 26:271-289, 1982) proved that if a Schur function has several boundary regular fixed (or mutual contact) points, then the angular derivatives at these points are subject to certain inequalities. We develop a unified approach to establish relations between angular derivatives of Schur functions with a prescribed (possibly, infinite) collection of either mutual contact points or boundary fixed points. This approach yields diverse inequalities improving both classical and more recent results. We apply them to study the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem with boundary data. Our methods lead to fairly explicit formulas describing the set of solutions.

  6. Surface angular momentum of light beams.

    PubMed

    Ornigotti, Marco; Aiello, Andrea

    2014-03-24

    Traditionally, the angular momentum of light is calculated for "bullet-like" electromagnetic wave packets, although in actual optical experiments "pencil-like" beams of light are more commonly used. The fact that a wave packet is bounded transversely and longitudinally while a beam has, in principle, an infinite extent along the direction of propagation, renders incomplete the textbook calculation of the spin/orbital separation of the angular momentum of a light beam. In this work we demonstrate that a novel, extra surface part must be added in order to preserve the gauge invariance of the optical angular momentum per unit length. The impact of this extra term is quantified by means of two examples: a Laguerre-Gaussian and a Bessel beam, both circularly polarized.

  7. Improved numerical projection of angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mara, Kevin; Johnson, Calvin

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear many-body states have good angular momenta, but many theoretical building blocks such as deformed Slater determinants do not. Hence one must numerically project out states of good angular momenta, usually through a computationally taxing three-dimensional integral. We took an existing code for angular-momentum projected Hartree-Fock and improved its performance, partly through judicious ordering of the loops, precomputing arrays of important combinatorics, and careful application of parallelization. We also investigated a novel inversion scheme. This work is potentially applicable to multiple approaches in many-body calculations, and should also be generalizable to particle number projection. Supported by SDSU Summer Undergraduate Research Program and by DOE Award Number DE-FG02-96ER40985.

  8. Gamma-ray detected radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, Volker; Soldi, Simona; De Jong, Sandra; Kretschmer, Karsten; Savchenko, Volodymyr

    2016-07-01

    So far 15 radio galaxies have been detected in the gamma-ray domain by CGRO/EGRET and Fermi/LAT, with a few detections also in the VHE range. We search for distinguishing parameters and estimate the total number of gamma-ray emitting radio galaxies that are potentially detectable by Fermi/LAT. We use Fermi/LAT data in comparison with X-ray and hard X-ray data in order to constrain basic parameters such as the total power of the inverse Compton branch and the position of its peak. We search for possible correlations between the radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray domain and derive the number counts distribution. We then compare their properties with those of the radio galaxies in the 3CRR and SMS4 catalogues. The data show no correlation between the peak of the inverse Compton emission and its luminosity. For the gamma-ray detected radio galaxies the luminosities in the various bands are correlated, except for the UV band, but there is no indication of a correlation of peak frequency or luminosity with the spectral slopes in the X-ray or gamma-ray band. The comparison with other bright radio galaxies shows that the gamma-ray detected objects are among those that have the largest X-ray but rather moderate radio fluxes. Their UV and X-ray luminosities are similar, but gamma-ray detected radio galaxies are predominantly of type FR-I, while the 3CRR sample contains mainly FR-II objects. The number counts of the so far gamma-ray detected radio galaxies shows a very shallow slope, indicating that potentially a fraction of radio galaxies has been missed so far or has not been identified as such, although the predicted number of 22 ± 7 is consistent with the observed 15 objects.

  9. Asymmetries in gamma scattering by Fe-57.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. Y.; Goodman, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with a setup in which a Co-57 single-line source was driven by a constant-acceleration motor. The 14.4-keV gamma rays emitted from the iron foil scatterer were detected by a proportional counter filled with krypton and carbon dioxide. The interference for individual Zeeman hyperfine transitions in a magnetic field was calculated. It was found that beside the cos phi angular dependence of line shape asymmetry, there exists a sin phi intensity dependence for some of the hyperfine transitions.

  10. X-ray astronomy with ultra-high-angular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braig, Christoph; Predehl, Peter

    2004-10-01

    We present new schemes for a next-generation X-ray telescope for the energy range between approximately 1 and 10 keV providing an angular resolution of at least 1 milli-arcsec. Its technology will be based on diffractive transmission optics, e.g. Fresnel zone plates and their derivatives. Beside near-diffraction limited imaging, these devices hold the potential of a large collecting area well beyond 10 square meters at a simple and lightweight construction, compared to conventional mirror telescopes. However, there are drawbacks. Firstly the intrinsically long focal lengths do require separation and precise formation flight of lens and detector spacecraft. Accordingly, techniques will be discussed for relative stabilization on the one hand and possibilities to reduce focal length and thus lever arm on the other hand. For this purpose, large arrays of small, independent lenses might offer a notable perspective. Secondly, diffractive optics feature severe focal length dispersion which has to be accepted using narrow-band spectral selection or-better-should be corrected over a practicable wide energy range. In the hard X-ray regime, hybrid lens devices made of beryllium, lithium or plastics like polycarbonate will be an appropriate solution for a fixed energy, while tunable systems with variable correction lenses possess-in principle-the capability for dispersion compensation in the soft X-ray region, too. An overview on the science case of milli-arcsec X-ray imaging will conclude the contribution. We show that significant new insights in astrophysical processes are expected just at and beyond this angular scale and give examples from X-ray binaries over AGN's up to gamma-ray bursts.

  11. Level structures of {sup 96,97,98}Ru at high angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Kharraja, B.; Ghugre, S.S.; Garg, U.; Janssens, R.V.; Carpenter, M.P.; Crowell, B.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Nisius, D.; Reviol, W.; Mueller, W.F.; Riedinger, L.L.; Kaczarowski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The high-spin level structures of {sup 96,97,98}Ru (Z=44) have been investigated using the {sup 65}Cu({sup 36}S,pxn){sup 96,97,98}Ru (x=4,3,2) reactions. About 130 new transitions have been observed and unambiguously placed in the decay schemes of these nuclei. The level schemes have been extended up to spin J{approx}22{endash} 34{h_bar}, and excitation energies E{sub x}{approx}20{minus}24 MeV. Spherical shell model calculations have been performed and theoretical level energies compared with experimental values. Calculations using {sup 88}Sr as the core give a reasonable agreement for the observed energy levels up to J{le}16{h_bar} (the maximum angular momentum possible within this restricted model space). The higher angular momentum states are dominated by the {nu}(g{sub 9/2}){sup {minus}1} configuration, associated with breaking of the N=50 core. The experimental indications for this `core breaking` are (i) the observation of {gamma} rays with energies E{sub {gamma}}{approx} 2 MeV at intermediate spins and (ii) the fragmentation of {gamma}-ray intensity into a number of branches. A cascade of E2 transitions of nearly equal transition energies has been observed in {sup 98}Ru after the core breaking (J{ge}16{h_bar}), possibly manifesting vibrational behavior. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Differences in whole-body angular momentum between below-knee amputees and non-amputees across walking speeds.

    PubMed

    Silverman, A K; Neptune, R R

    2011-02-01

    Unilateral, below-knee amputees have an increased risk of falling compared to non-amputees. The regulation of whole-body angular momentum is important for preventing falls, but little is known about how amputees regulate angular momentum during walking. This study analyzed three-dimensional, whole-body angular momentum at four walking speeds in 12 amputees and 10 non-amputees. The range of angular momentum in all planes significantly decreased with increasing walking speed for both groups. However, the range of frontal-plane angular momentum was greater in amputees compared to non-amputees at the first three walking speeds. This range was correlated with a reduced second vertical ground reaction force peak in both the intact and residual legs. In the sagittal plane, the amputee range of angular momentum in the first half of the residual leg gait cycle was significantly larger than in the non-amputees at the three highest speeds. In the second half of the gait cycle, the range of sagittal-plane angular momentum was significantly smaller in amputees compared to the non-amputees at all speeds. Correlation analyses suggested that the greater range of angular momentum in the first half of the amputee gait cycle is associated with reduced residual leg braking and that the smaller range of angular momentum in the second half of the gait cycle is associated with reduced residual leg propulsion. Thus, reducing residual leg braking appears to be a compensatory mechanism to help regulate sagittal-plane angular momentum over the gait cycle, but may lead to an increased risk of falling.

  13. On the vector model of angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Peeter

    2016-09-01

    Instead of (or in addition to) the common vector diagram with cones, we propose to visualize the peculiarities of quantum mechanical angular momentum by a completely quantized 3D model. It spotlights the discrete eigenvalues and noncommutativity of components of angular momentum and corresponds to outcomes of measurements—real or computer-simulated. The latter can be easily realized by an interactive worksheet of a suitable program package of algebraic calculations. The proposed complementary method of visualization helps undergraduate students to better understand the counterintuitive properties of this quantum mechanical observable.

  14. Time-resolved orbital angular momentum spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Noyan, Mehmet A.; Kikkawa, James M.

    2015-07-20

    We introduce pump-probe magneto-orbital spectroscopy, wherein Laguerre-Gauss optical pump pulses impart orbital angular momentum to the electronic states of a material and subsequent dynamics are studied with 100 fs time resolution. The excitation uses vortex modes that distribute angular momentum over a macroscopic area determined by the spot size, and the optical probe studies the chiral imbalance of vortex modes reflected off the sample. First observations in bulk GaAs yield transients that evolve on time scales distinctly different from population and spin relaxation, as expected, but with surprisingly large lifetimes.

  15. Inner engine shutdown from transitions in the angular momentum distribution in collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batta, Aldo; Lee, William H.

    2016-06-01

    For the collapsar scenario to be effective in the production of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), the infalling star's angular momentum J(r) must be larger than the critical angular momentum needed to form an accretion disc around a black hole (BH), namely Jcrit = 2rgc for a Schwarzschild BH. By means of 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, here we study the collapse and accretion on to BHs of spherical rotating envelopes, whose angular momentum distribution has transitions between supercritical (J > Jcrit) and subcritical (J < Jcrit) values. Contrary to results obtained in previous 2D hydrodynamical simulations, we find that a substantial amount of subcritical material fed to the accretion disc, lingers around long enough to contribute significantly to the energy loss rate. Increasing the amount of angular momentum in the subcritical material increases the time spent at the accretion disc, and only when the bulk of this subcritical material is accreted before it is replenished by a massive outermost supercritical shell, the inner engine experiences a shutdown. Once the muffled accretion disc is provided again with enough supercritical material, the shutdown will be over and a quiescent time in the long GRB produced afterwards could be observed.

  16. Polarization of molecular angular momentum in the chemical reactions Li + HF and F + HD.

    PubMed

    Krasilnikov, Mikhail B; Popov, Ruslan S; Roncero, Octavio; De Fazio, Dario; Cavalli, Simonetta; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S

    2013-06-28

    The quantum mechanical approach to vector correlation of angular momentum orientation and alignment in chemical reactions [G. Balint-Kurti and O. S. Vasyutinskii, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 14281 (2009)] is applied to the molecular reagents and products of the Li + HF [L. Gonzalez-Sanchez, O. S. Vasyutinskii, A. Zanchet, C. Sanz-Sanz, and O. Roncero, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 13656 (2011)] and F + HD [D. De Fazio, J. Lucas, V. Aquilanti, and S. Cavalli, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 8571 (2011)] reactions for which accurate scattering information has become recently available through time-dependent and time-independent approaches. Application of the theory to two important particular cases of the reactive collisions has been considered: (i) the influence of the angular momentum polarization of reactants in the entrance channel on the spatial distribution of the products in the exit channel and (ii) angular momentum polarization of the products of the reaction between unpolarized reactants. In the former case, the role of the angular momentum alignment of the reactants is shown to be large, particularly when the angular momentum is perpendicular to the reaction scattering plane. In the latter case, the orientation and alignment of the product angular momentum was found to be significant and strongly dependent on the scattering angle. The calculation also reveals significant differences between the vector correlation properties of the two reactions under study which are due to difference in the reaction mechanisms. In the case of F + HD reaction, the branching ratio between HF and DF production points out interest in the insight gained into the detailed dynamics, when information is available either from exact quantum mechanical calculations or from especially designed experiments. Also, the geometrical arrangement for the experimental determination of the product angular momentum orientation and alignment based on a compact and convenient spherical tensor expression for

  17. SuperAGILE and Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Pacciani, Luigi; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Frutti, Massimo; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Lapshov, Igor; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Tavani, Marco; Barbiellini, Guido; Mastropietro, Marcello; Morelli, Ennio; Rapisarda, Massimo

    2006-05-19

    The solid-state hard X-ray imager of AGILE gamma-ray mission -- SuperAGILE -- has a six arcmin on-axis angular resolution in the 15-45 keV range, a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. The instrument is very light: 5 kg only. It is equipped with an on-board self triggering logic, image deconvolution, and it is able to transmit the coordinates of a GRB to the ground in real-time through the ORBCOMM constellation of satellites. Photon by photon Scientific Data are sent to the Malindi ground station at every contact. In this paper we review the performance of the SuperAGILE experiment (scheduled for a launch in the middle of 2006), after its first onground calibrations, and show the perspectives for Gamma Ray Bursts.

  18. Wavelet-based techniques for the gamma-ray sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Samuel D.; Fox, Patrick J.; Cholis, Ilias; Lee, Samuel K.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate how the image analysis technique of wavelet decomposition can be applied to the gamma-ray sky to separate emission on different angular scales. New structures on scales that differ from the scales of the conventional astrophysical foreground and background uncertainties can be robustly extracted, allowing a model-independent characterization with no presumption of exact signal morphology. As a test case, we generate mock gamma-ray data to demonstrate our ability to extract extended signals without assuming a fixed spatial template. For some point source luminosity functions, our technique also allows us to differentiate a diffuse signal in gamma-rays from dark matter annihilation and extended gamma-ray point source populations in a data-driven way.

  19. Analysis of atmospheric gamma-ray flashes detected in near space with allowance for the transport of photons in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, L. P. Donskoy, E. N.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2008-07-15

    Monte Carlo simulations of transport of the bremsstrahlung produced by relativistic runaway electron avalanches are performed for altitudes up to the orbit altitudes where terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) have been detected aboard satellites. The photon flux per runaway electron and angular distribution of photons on a hemisphere of radius similar to that of the satellite orbits are calculated as functions of the source altitude z. The calculations yield general results, which are recommended for use in TGF data analysis. The altitude z and polar angle are determined for which the calculated bremsstrahlung spectra and mean photon energies agree with TGF measurements. The correlation of TGFs with variations of the vertical dipole moment of a thundercloud is analyzed. We show that, in agreement with observations, the detected TGFs can be produced in the fields of thunderclouds with charges much smaller than 100 C and that TGFs are not necessarily correlated with the occurrence of blue jets and red sprites.

  20. gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    gamma - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( gamma - HCH ) ; CASRN 58 - 89 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asse

  1. ANGULAR MOMENTUM ACQUISITION IN GALAXY HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Bullock, James S.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Diemand, Juerg; Wadsley, James; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2013-05-20

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky-Way-sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with {approx}70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by {lambda} {approx} 0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms ''cold flow disks.'' We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.

  2. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-07-03

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s(-2)). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability.

  3. A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s−2). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217

  4. Heteromodal conceptual processing in the angular gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Michael F.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Cook, Philip A.; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Concepts bind together the features commonly associated with objects and events to form networks in long-term semantic memory. These conceptual networks are the basis of human knowledge and underlie perception, imagination, and the ability to communicate about experiences and the contents of the environment. Although it is often assumed that this distributed semantic information is integrated in higher-level heteromodal association cortices, open questions remain about the role and anatomic basis of heteromodal representations in semantic memory. Here we used combined neuroimaging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the cortical networks underlying concept representation. Using a lexical decision task, we examined the processing of concepts in four semantic categories that varied on their sensory-motor feature associations (sight, sound, manipulation, and abstract). We found that the angular gyrus was activated across all categories regardless of their modality-specific feature associations, consistent with a heteromodal account for the angular gyrus. Exploratory analyses suggested that categories with weighted sensory-motor features additionally recruited modality-specific association cortices. Furthermore, DTI tractography identified white matter tracts connecting these regions of modality-specific functional activation with the angular gyrus. These findings are consistent with a distributed semantic network that includes a heteromodal, integrative component in the angular gyrus in combination with sensory-motor feature representations in modality-specific association cortices. PMID:23333416

  5. Critical gravitational collapse with angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, Carsten; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2016-10-01

    We derive a theoretical model of mass and angular momentum scaling in type-II critical collapse with rotation. We focus on the case where the critical solution has precisely one, spherically symmetric, unstable mode. We demonstrate agreement with numerical results for critical collapse of a rotating radiation fluid, which falls into this case.

  6. Cosmological gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    The distribution in angle and flux of gamma-ray bursts indicates that the majority of gamma-ray bursters are at cosmological distances, i.e., at z of about 1. The rate is then about 10 exp -8/yr in a galaxy like the Milky Way, i.e., orders of magnitude lower than the estimated rate for collisions between neutron stars in close binary systems. The energy per burst is about 10 exp 51 ergs, assuming isotropic emission. The events appear to be less energetic and more frequent if their emission is strongly beamed. Some tests for the distance scale are discussed: a correlation between the burst's strength and its spectrum; the absorption by the Galactic gas below about 2 keV; the X-ray tails caused by forward scattering by the Galactic dust; about 1 month recurrence of some bursts caused by gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies; and a search for gamma-ray bursts in M31. The bursts appear to be a manifestation of something exotic, but conventional compact objects can provide an explanation. The best possibility is offered by a decay of a bindary composed of a spinning-stellar-mass black-hole primary and a neutron or a strange-quark star secondary. In the final phase the secondary is tidally disrupted, forms an accretion disk, and up to 10 exp 54 ergs are released. A very small fraction of this energy powers the gamma-ray burst.

  7. Angular momenta, dynamical masses, and mergers of brightest cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy; Brough, Sarah; Gebhardt, Karl; Von der Linden, Anja; Couch, Warrick J.; Sharp, Rob

    2013-12-01

    Using the VIMOS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, we have spatially mapped the kinematic properties of 10 nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and 4 BCG companion galaxies located within a redshift of z = 0.1. In the hierarchical formation model, these massive galaxies (10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉} < M {sub dyn} < 10{sup 11.9} M {sub ☉}) are expected to undergo more mergers than lower mass galaxies, and simulations show that dry minor mergers can remove angular momentum. We test whether BCGs have low angular momenta by using the λ {sub Re} parameter developed by the SAURON and ATLAS{sup 3D} teams and combine our kinematics with Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry to analyze the BCGs' merger status. We find that 30% (3/10) of the BCGs and 100% of the companion galaxies (4/4) are fast rotators as defined by the ATLAS{sup 3D} criteria. Our fastest rotating BCG has a λ {sub Re} = 0.35 ± 0.05. We increase the number of BCGs analyzed from 1 in the combined SAURON and ATLAS{sup 3D} surveys to 11 BCGs total and find that above M {sub dyn} ∼ 11.5 M {sub ☉}, virtually all galaxies, regardless of environment, are slow rotators. To search for signs of recent merging, we analyze the photometry of each system and use the G – M {sub 20} selection criteria to identify mergers. We find that 40% ± 20% of our BCGs are currently undergoing or have recently undergone a merger (within 0.2 Gyr). Surprisingly, we find no correlation between galaxies with high angular momentum and morphological signatures of merging.

  8. Angular Momenta, Dynamical Masses, and Mergers of Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy; Brough, Sarah; Gebhardt, Karl; von der Linden, Anja; Couch, Warrick J.; Sharp, Rob

    2013-12-01

    Using the VIMOS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, we have spatially mapped the kinematic properties of 10 nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and 4 BCG companion galaxies located within a redshift of z = 0.1. In the hierarchical formation model, these massive galaxies (1010.5 M ⊙ < M dyn < 1011.9 M ⊙) are expected to undergo more mergers than lower mass galaxies, and simulations show that dry minor mergers can remove angular momentum. We test whether BCGs have low angular momenta by using the λ Re parameter developed by the SAURON and ATLAS3D teams and combine our kinematics with Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry to analyze the BCGs' merger status. We find that 30% (3/10) of the BCGs and 100% of the companion galaxies (4/4) are fast rotators as defined by the ATLAS3D criteria. Our fastest rotating BCG has a λ Re = 0.35 ± 0.05. We increase the number of BCGs analyzed from 1 in the combined SAURON and ATLAS3D surveys to 11 BCGs total and find that above M dyn ~ 11.5 M ⊙, virtually all galaxies, regardless of environment, are slow rotators. To search for signs of recent merging, we analyze the photometry of each system and use the G - M 20 selection criteria to identify mergers. We find that 40% ± 20% of our BCGs are currently undergoing or have recently undergone a merger (within 0.2 Gyr). Surprisingly, we find no correlation between galaxies with high angular momentum and morphological signatures of merging. Based on Very Large Telescope (VLT) service mode observations (Programs 381.B-0728 and 087.B-0366) gathered at the European Southern Observatory, Chile.

  9. A NEW MODEL FOR GAMMA-RAY CASCADES IN EXTRAGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Huan, H.; Weisgarber, T.; Wakely, S. P.; Arlen, T.

    2011-07-10

    Very high energy (VHE, E {approx}> 100 GeV) gamma rays emitted by extragalactic sources, such as blazars, initiate electromagnetic cascades in the intergalactic medium. The cascade photons arrive at the Earth with angular and temporal distributions correlated with the extragalactic magnetic field (EGMF). We have developed a new semi-analytical model of the cascade properties which is more accurate than previous analytic approaches and faster than full Monte Carlo simulations. Within its range of applicability, our model can quickly generate cascade spectra for a variety of source emission models, EGMF strengths, and assumptions about the source livetime. In this Letter, we describe the properties of the model and demonstrate its utility by exploring the gamma-ray emission from the blazar RGB J0710+591. In particular, we predict, under various scenarios, the VHE and high-energy (100 MeV {approx}< E {approx}< 300 GeV) fluxes detectable with the VERITAS and Fermi Large Area Telescope observatories. We then develop a systematic framework for comparing the predictions to published results, obtaining constraints on the EGMF strength. At a confidence level of 95%, we find the lower limit on the EGMF strength to be {approx}2 x 10{sup -16} G if no limit is placed on the livetime of the source or {approx}3 x 10{sup -18} G if the source livetime is limited to the past {approx}3 years during which Fermi observations have taken place.

  10. Gamma ray detector shield

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

    1985-08-26

    A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

  11. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) - Simulation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, G.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Fegan, S.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Funk, S.; Konopelko, A.

    2008-12-24

    The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS) is a US-led concept for a next-generation instrument in ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The most important design requirement for AGIS is a sensitivity of about 10 times greater than current observatories like Veritas, H.E.S.S or MAGIC. We present results of simulation studies of various possible designs for AGIS. The primary characteristics of the array performance, collecting area, angular resolution, background rejection, and sensitivity are discussed.

  12. The Prototype of GAMMA-400 Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Kheymits, M. D.; Runtso, M. F.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.; Yurkin, Yu. T.

    Scientific project GAMMA-400 (Gamma-Astronomy Multifunction Modules Apparatus) relates to the new generation of space observatories for investigation of cosmic γ-emission in the energy band from ∼20 MeV up to several TeV, electron/positron fluxes from ∼1 GeV up to ∼10 TeV and cosmic-ray nuclei fluxes with energies up to ∼1015 eV by means of GAMMA-400 gamma-telescope represents the core of the scientific complex. The investigation of gamma ray bursts in the energy band of 10 keV-15 MeV are possible too by means of KONUS-FG apparatus included in the complex. For γ-rays in the energy region from 10 to 100 GeV expected energy resolution changes from ∼3% to ∼1% and angular resolution from ∼0.1% to ∼ 0.01% respectively, γ/protons rejection factor is ∼5·105. The GAMMA-400 satellite will be launched at the beginning of the next decade on the high apogee orbit with following initial parameters: apogee altitude ∼300000 km, perigee altitude ∼500 km, rotation period ∼7 days, inclination to the equator plane 51.4°. The active functioning interval will be 7-10 years. The scientific complex will have next main technical parameters: total weight ∼4100 kg, power consumption ∼2000 W, information quote 100 GByte/day. During the project development, the prototype of apparatus was created for working-off of the main apparatus construction units in laboratory conditions. The main distinctive features of the prototype are presented.

  13. Spatio-temporal light springs: extended encoding of orbital angular momentum in ultrashort pulses.

    PubMed

    Pariente, G; Quéré, F

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a new class of spatio-temporally coupled ultrashort laser beams, which are obtained by superimposing Laguerre-Gauss beams whose azimuthal mode index is correlated to their frequency. These beams are characterized by helical structures for their phase and intensity profiles, which both encode the orbital angular momentum carried by the light. They can easily be engineered in the optical range, and are naturally produced at shorter wavelengths when attosecond pulses are generated by intense femtosecond Laguerre-Gauss laser beams. These spatio-temporal "light springs" will allow for the transfer of the orbital angular momentum to matter by stimulated Raman scattering.

  14. Entanglement and conservation of orbital angular momentum in spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Walborn, S.P.; Oliveira, A.N. de; Thebaldi, R.S.; Monken, C.H.

    2004-02-01

    We show that the transfer of the plane-wave spectrum of the pump beam to the fourth-order transverse spatial correlation function of the two-photon field generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion leads to the conservation and entanglement of orbital angular momentum of light. By means of a simple experimental setup based on fourth-order (or two-photon) interferometry, we show that our theoretical model provides a good description for down-converted fields carrying orbital angular momentum.

  15. Angular-overlap calculation of the Jahn-Teller stabilization energie for f-orbital degeneracies

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, K.D.

    1980-03-01

    The angular-overlap model is applied to the calculation of the linear Jahn-Teller coupling constants for f-orbital degeneracies. The MX/sub 6/, O/sub h/, chromophore is treated as representative of the highest symmetry commonly occurring in the lanthanide and actinide series, and it is shown that, even when spin-orbit effects are taken into account, 5f orbital degeneracies may lead to significant Jahn-Teller stabilization energies. The operation of this effect for F/sup 1/ GAMMA/sub 8/ states is considered. 2 tables.

  16. Properties of Hot Nuclei at Extreme Angular Momenta Studied by the GDR

    SciTech Connect

    Maj, Adam; Kmiecik, Maria; Schunck, Nicolas; Styczen, Jan

    2005-11-21

    Hot nuclei, from both heavy and light mass regions, were investigated at extreme angular momenta by means of the gamma decay of Giant Dipole Resonance. It was found that the 216Rn nucleus possesses an almost spherical equilibrium shape up to the fission limit, while 46Ti undergoes a Jacobi shape transition. Preferential feeding of the highly deformed band in 42Ca by the low energy GDR component in 46Ti is found. The experimental results are interpreted within the newest liquid drop model LSD.

  17. Neutron-induced gamma-ray production from carbon and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections and angular distributions were measured with five 7.6 cm diameter {times} 7.6 cm long BGO detectors at the high-energy white neutron source of the WNR facility at Los Alamos for targets of C {sup 14}NH{sub 3} and {sup 15}NH{sub 3}. Gamma rays were measured in the energy range from 1.4 to 25 MeV. The incident neutron energies spanned the range from 2 to over 100 MeV. The detectors were positioned at angles of 39{degree}, 55{degree}, 90{degree}, 125{degree}, and 144{degree} with respect to the neutron beam. We have extracted angular distributions and cross sections for the 4.44 and 15.1 MeV {gamma} rays from inelastic excitation of C for 4 < E{sub n} < 150 MeV. In ENDF-B/VI these {gamma}-rays are treated as being isotropic. Our angular distributions show that this is not the case. For the nitrogen isotopes we have extracted angular distributions and cross sections for several {gamma} rays in the neutron energy range, 2 < E{sub n} < 20 MeV.

  18. BAYESIAN ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF INTERFEROMETRIC DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, P. M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Malu, Siddarth S.

    2012-09-15

    We present a Bayesian angular power spectrum and signal map inference engine which can be adapted to interferometric observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 21 cm emission line mapping of galactic brightness fluctuations, or 21 cm absorption line mapping of neutral hydrogen in the dark ages. The method uses Gibbs sampling to generate a sampled representation of the angular power spectrum posterior and the posterior of signal maps given a set of measured visibilities in the uv-plane. We use a mock interferometric CMB observation to demonstrate the validity of this method in the flat-sky approximation when adapted to take into account arbitrary coverage of the uv-plane, mode-mode correlations due to observations on a finite patch, and heteroschedastic visibility errors. The computational requirements scale as O(n{sub p} log n{sub p}) where n{sub p} measures the ratio of the size of the detector array to the inter-detector spacing, meaning that Gibbs sampling is a promising technique for meeting the data analysis requirements of future cosmology missions.

  19. Neutron angular distribution in plutonium-240 spontaneous fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcath, Matthew J.; Shin, Tony H.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Peerani, Paolo; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear safeguards applications require accurate fission models that exhibit prompt neutron anisotropy. In the laboratory reference frame, an anisotropic neutron angular distribution is observed because prompt fission neutrons carry momentum from fully accelerated fission fragments. A liquid organic scintillation detector array was used with pulse shape discrimination techniques to produce neutron-neutron cross-correlation time distributions and angular distributions from spontaneous fission in a 252Cf, a 0.84 g 240Pueff metal, and a 1.63 g 240Pueff metal sample. The effect of cross-talk, estimated with MCNPX-PoliMi simulations, is removed from neutron-neutron coincidences as a function of the angle between detector pairs. Fewer coincidences were observed at detector angles near 90°, relative to higher and lower detector angles. As light output threshold increases, the observed anisotropy increases due to spectral effects arising from fission fragment momentum transfer to emitted neutrons. Stronger anisotropy was observed in Cf-252 spontaneous fission prompt neutrons than in Pu-240 neutrons.

  20. Rehabilitation of gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poynton, Charles A.

    1998-07-01

    Gamma characterizes the reproduction of tone scale in an imaging system. Gamma summarizes, in a single numerical parameter, the nonlinear relationship between code value--in an 8-bit system, from 0 through 255--and physical intensity. Nearly all image coding systems are nonlinear, and so involve values of gamma different from unity. Owing to poor understanding of tone scale reproduction, and to misconceptions about nonlinear coding, gamma has acquired a terrible reputation in computer graphics and image processing. In addition, the world-wide web suffers from poor reproduction of grayscale and color images, due to poor handling of nonlinear image coding. This paper aims to make gamma respectable again.

  1. The erbB-2 mitogenic signaling pathway: tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma and GTPase-activating protein does not correlate with erbB-2 mitogenic potency.

    PubMed Central

    Fazioli, F; Kim, U H; Rhee, S G; Molloy, C J; Segatto, O; Di Fiore, P P

    1991-01-01

    The erbB-2 gene product, gp185erbB-2, unlike the structurally related epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), exhibits constitutive kinase and transforming activity. We used a chimeric EGFR/erbB-2 expression vector to compare the mitogenic signaling pathway of the erbB-2 kinase with that of the EGFR, at similar levels of expression, in response to EGF stimulation. The EGFR/erbB-2 chimera was significantly more active in inducing DNA synthesis than the EGFR when either was expressed in NIH 3T3 cells. Analysis of biochemical pathways implicated in signal transduction by growth factor receptors indicated that both phospholipase C type gamma (PLC-gamma) and the p21ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP) are substrates for the erbB-2 kinase in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. However, under conditions in which activation of the erbB-2 kinase induced DNA synthesis at least fivefold more efficiently than the EGFR, the levels of erbB-2- or EGFR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma and GAP were comparable. In addition, the stoichiometry of tyrosine phosphorylation of these putative substrates by erbB-2 appeared to be at least an order of magnitude lower than that induced by platelet-derived growth factor receptors at comparable levels of mitogenic potency. Thus, our results indicate that differences in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma and GAP do not account for the differences in mitogenic activity of the erbB-2 kinase compared with either the EGFR or platelet-derived growth factor receptor in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Images PMID:1672440

  2. Ultra-sensitive and super-resolving angular rotation measurement based on photon orbital angular momentum using parity measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijing; Qiao, Tianyuan; Ma, Kun; Cen, Longzhu; Zhang, Jiandong; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-08-15

    Photon orbital angular momentum has led to many novel insights and applications in quantum measurement. Photon orbital angular momentum can increase the resolution and sensitivity of angular rotation measurement. However, quantum measurement strategy can further surpass this limit and improve the resolution of angular rotation measurement. This Letter proposes and demonstrates a parity measurement method in angular rotation measurement scheme for the first time. Parity measurement can make the resolution superior to the limit of the existing method. The sensitivity can be improved with higher orbital angular momentum photons. Moreover, this Letter gives a detailed discussion of the change of resolution and sensitivity in the presence of photon loss. PMID:27519107

  3. Ultra-sensitive and super-resolving angular rotation measurement based on photon orbital angular momentum using parity measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijing; Qiao, Tianyuan; Ma, Kun; Cen, Longzhu; Zhang, Jiandong; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-08-15

    Photon orbital angular momentum has led to many novel insights and applications in quantum measurement. Photon orbital angular momentum can increase the resolution and sensitivity of angular rotation measurement. However, quantum measurement strategy can further surpass this limit and improve the resolution of angular rotation measurement. This Letter proposes and demonstrates a parity measurement method in angular rotation measurement scheme for the first time. Parity measurement can make the resolution superior to the limit of the existing method. The sensitivity can be improved with higher orbital angular momentum photons. Moreover, this Letter gives a detailed discussion of the change of resolution and sensitivity in the presence of photon loss.

  4. Gamma Radiation Doses In Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Almgren, Sara; Isaksson, Mats; Barregaard, Lars

    2008-08-07

    Gamma dose rate measurements were performed in one urban and one rural area using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) worn by 46 participants and placed in their dwellings. The personal effective dose rates were 0.096{+-}0.019(1 SD) and 0.092{+-}0.016(1 SD){mu}Sv/h in the urban and rural area, respectively. The corresponding dose rates in the dwellings were 0.11{+-}0.042(1 SD) and 0.091{+-}0.026(1 SD){mu}Sv/h. However, the differences between the areas were not significant. The values were higher in buildings made of concrete than of wood and higher in apartments than in detached houses. Also, {sup 222}Rn measurements were performed in each dwelling, which showed no correlation with the gamma dose rates in the dwellings.

  5. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  6. Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta.

    PubMed

    Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Plick, William N; Krenn, Mario; Schaeff, Christoph; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2012-11-01

    Single photons with helical phase structures may carry a quantized amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM), and their entanglement is important for quantum information science and fundamental tests of quantum theory. Because there is no theoretical upper limit on how many quanta of OAM a single photon can carry, it is possible to create entanglement between two particles with an arbitrarily high difference in quantum number. By transferring polarization entanglement to OAM with an interferometric scheme, we generate and verify entanglement between two photons differing by 600 in quantum number. The only restrictive factors toward higher numbers are current technical limitations. We also experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement of very high OAM can improve the sensitivity of angular resolution in remote sensing.

  7. Performance criteria for dosimeter angular response

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, P.L.; Fox, R. A.; Cummings, F. M.; McDonald, J. C.; Jones, K.L.

    1988-06-01

    This report provides criteria for evaluating the response of personnel dosimeters to radiation at nonperpendicular incidence. The US Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) ensures that dosimetry systems at DOE facilities meet acceptable standards for precision and accuracy. In the past, these standards were limited to tests for system variability, energy dependence, and level of detection. The proposed criteria will broaden the scope of DOELAP to include the angular response of personnel dosimeters. Because occupational exposures in the workplace are rarely due to radiation from only one direction, dosimeters must accurately assign individual dose equivalent from irradiation at any forward angle of incidence. Including an angular response criterion in DOELAP would improve the quality of personnel monitoring provided that the criterion is developed from appropriate dose quantities. This report provides guidance for assigning individual dose equivalents for radiation fields at nonperpendicular incidence to the dosimeter. 21 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Phenomenological Determination of the Orbital Angular Momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Gordon P.

    2009-08-04

    Measurements involving the gluon spin, {delta}G(x, t) and the corresponding asymmetry, A(x,t) = {delta}G(x,t)/G(x,t) play an important role in quantitative understanding of proton structure. We have modeled the asymmetry perturbatively and calculated model corrections to obtain information about non-perturbative spin-orbit effects. These models are consistent with existing COMPASS and HERMES data on the gluon asymmetry. The J{sub z} = (1/2) sum rule is used to generate values of orbital angular momentum at LO and NLO. For models consistent with data, the orbital angular momentum is small. Our studies specify accuracy that future measurements should achieve to constrain theoretical models for nucleon structure.

  9. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriage, Tobias; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most compelling inflation models predict a background of primordial gravitational waves (PGW) detectable by their imprint of a curl-like "B-mode" pattern in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a novel array of telescopes to measure the B-mode signature of the PGW. By targeting the largest angular scales (>2°) with a multifrequency array, novel polarization modulation and detectors optimized for both control of systematics and sensitivity, CLASS sets itself apart in the field of CMB polarization surveys and opens an exciting new discovery space for the PGW and inflation