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Sample records for gamma knife srs

  1. Gamma Knife

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment? How is safety ensured? What is this equipment used for? The Gamma Knife® and its associated ... in size. top of page How does the equipment work? The Gamma Knife® utilizes a technique called ...

  2. SU-F-SPS-10: The Dosimetric Comparison of GammaKnife and Cyberknife Treatment Plans for Brain SRS Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanli, E; Mabhouti, H; Cebe, M

    Purpose: Brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) involves the use of precisely directed, single session radiation to create a desired radiobiologic response within the brain target with acceptable minimal effects on surrounding structures or tissues. In this study, the dosimetric comparison of GammaKnife perfection and Cyberknife M6 treatment plans were made. Methods: Treatment plannings were done for GammaKnife perfection unit using Gammaplan treatment planning system (TPS) on the CT scan of head and neck randophantom simulating the treatment of sterotactic treatments for one brain metastasis. The dose distribution were calculated using TMR 10 algorithm. The treatment planning for the same target weremore » also done for Cyberknife M6 machine using Multiplan (TPS) with Monte Carlo algorithm. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained using both machine by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. Dose distribution were measured using EBT3 film dosimeter. The measured and calculated doses were compared. Results: The dose distribution in the target and 2 cm beyond the target edge were calculated on TPSs and measured using EBT3 film. For cyberknife treatment plans, the gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.2% and 96.7% for target and peripheral region of target respectively. For gammaknife treatment plans, the gamma analysis passing rates were 98.9% and 93.2% for target and peripheral region of target respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that dosimetrically comparable plans are achievable with Cyberknife and GammaKnife. Although TMR 10 algorithm predicts the target dose.« less

  3. SU-E-T-86: A Systematic Method for GammaKnife SRS Fetal Dose Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Geneser, S; Paulsson, A; Sneed, P

    Purpose: Estimating fetal dose is critical to the decision-making process when radiation treatment is indicated during pregnancy. Fetal doses less than 5cGy confer no measurable non-cancer developmental risks but can produce a threefold increase in developing childhood cancer. In this study, we estimate fetal dose for a patient receiving Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) treatment and develop a method to estimate dose directly from plan details. Methods: A patient underwent GKSRS on a Perfexion unit for eight brain metastases (two infratentorial and one brainstem). Dose measurements were performed using a CC13, head phantom, and solid water. Superficial doses to themore » thyroid, sternum, and pelvis were measured using MOSFETs during treatment. Because the fetal dose was too low to accurately measure, we obtained measurements proximally to the isocenter, fitted to an exponential function, and extrapolated dose to the fundus of the uterus, uterine midpoint, and pubic synthesis for both the preliminary and delivered plans. Results: The R-squared fit for the delivered doses was 0.995. The estimated fetal doses for the 72 minute preliminary and 138 minute delivered plans range from 0.0014 to 0.028cGy and 0.07 to 0.38cGy, respectively. MOSFET readings during treatment were just above background for the thyroid and negligible for all inferior positions. The method for estimating fetal dose from plan shot information was within 0.2cGy of the measured values at 14cm cranial to the fetal location. Conclusion: Estimated fetal doses for both the preliminary and delivered plan were well below the 5cGy recommended limit. Due to Pefexion shielding, internal dose is primarily governed by attenuation and drops off exponentially. This is the first work that reports fetal dose for a GK Perfexion unit. Although multiple lesions were treated and the duration of treatment was long, the estimated fetal dose remained very low.« less

  4. SU-D-BRB-04: Plan Quality Comparison of Intracranial Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) for Gamma Knife and VMAT Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, V; Algan, O; Ahmad, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare treatment plan quality of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for VMAT (RapidArc) and Gamma Knife (GK) systems. Methods: Ten patients with 24 tumors (seven with 1–2 and three with 4–6 lesions), previously treated with GK 4C (prescription doses ranging from 14–23 Gy) were re-planned for RapidArc. Identical contour sets were kept on MRI images for both plans with tissues assigned a CT number of zero. RapidArc plans were performed using 6 MV flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams with dose rate of 1400 MU/minute using two to eight arcs with the following combinations: 2 full coplanar arcs and the rest non-coplanarmore » half arcs. Beam selection was based on target depth. Areas that penetrated more than 10 cm of tissue were avoided by creating smaller arcs or using avoidance sectors in optimization. Plans were optimized with jaw tracking and a high weighting to the normal-brain-tissue and Normal-Tissue-Objective without compromising PTV coverage. Plans were calculated on a 1 mm grid size using AAA algorithm and then normalized so that 99% of each target volume received the prescription dose. Plan quality was assessed by target coverage using Paddick Conformity Index (PCI), sparing of normal-brain-tissue through analysis of V4, V8, and V12 Gy, and integral dose. Results: In all cases critical structure dose criteria were met. RapidArc had a higher PCI than GK plans for 23 out of 24 lesions. The average PCI was 0.76±0.21 for RapidArc and 0.46±0.20 for GK plans (p≤0.001), respectively. Integral dose and normal-brain-tissue doses for all criteria were lower for RapidArc in nearly all patients. The average ratio of GK to RapidArc plans was 1.28±0.27 (p=0.018), 1.31±0.25 (p=0.017), 1.81±0.43 (p=0.005), and 1.50±0.61 (p=0.006) for V4, V8, and V12 Gy, and integral dose, respectively. Conclusion: VMAT was capable of producing higher quality treatment plans than GK when using optimal beam geometries and proper optimization techniques.« less

  5. Cost analysis of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Alison; Marinovich, Luke; Barton, Michael B; Lord, Sarah J

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is used to treat intracranial lesions and vascular malformations as an addition or replacement to whole brain radiotherapy and microsurgery. SRS can be delivered by hardware and software appended to standard linear accelerators (Linacs) or by dedicated systems such as Gamma Knife, which has been proposed as a more accurate and user friendly technology. Internationally, dedicated systems have been funded, despite limitations in evidence. However, some countries including Australia have not recommended additional reimbursement for dedicated systems. This study compares the costs of Linac radiosurgery with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Due to limited evidence on comparative effects, the economic analysis was restricted to a cost evaluation. The base-case analysis assumed a modified Linac was used only to treat SRS patients. However, because a modified Linac could be used to treat other radiotherapy patients, a second analysis assumed spare time was used to meet other radiotherapy needs, and Linac capital costs were apportioned according to SRS use. The incremental cost of Gamma Knife versus a modified Linac was estimated as AU$209 per patient. This result is sensitive to variations in assumptions. A second analysis proportioning capital costs according to SRS use showed that Gamma Knife may cost up to AU$1673 more per patient. Gamma Knife may be cost competitive only if demand for SRS services is high enough to fully use equipment working time. However, given low patient demand and competing radiotherapy needs, Gamma Knife appears more costly and further evidence of survival or quality of life advantages may be required to justify reimbursement.

  6. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen, Zhe; Ma, Lijun

    2009-03-01

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C™ and Perfexion™ units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can obtain a family of plans representing a tradeoff between the delivery time and the

  7. SU-E-T-213: Comparison of Treatment Efficiency of Gamma Knife SRS Plans for Brain Metastases with Different Planning Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y; Huang, Z; Lo, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To improve Gamma Knife SRS treatment efficiency for brain metastases and compare the differences of treatment time and radiobiological effects between two different planning methods of automatic filling and manual placement of shots with inverse planning. Methods: T1-weighted MRI images with gadolinium contrast from five patients with a single brain metastatic-lesion were used in this retrospective study. Among them, two were from primary breast cancer, two from primary melanoma cancer and one from primary prostate cancer. For each patient, two plans were generated in Leksell GammaPlan10.1.1 for radiosurgical treatment with a Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion machine: one with automatic filling,more » automatic sector configuration and inverse optimization (Method1); and the other with manual placement of shots, manual setup of collimator sizes, manual setup of sector blocking and inverse optimization (Method2). Dosimetric quality of the plans was evaluated with parameters of Coverage, Selectivity, Gradient-Index and DVH. Beam-on Time, Number-of-Shots and Tumor Control Probability(TCP) were compared for the two plans while keeping their dosimetric quality very similar. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time and Number-of-Shots were calculated as the ratios among the two plans and used for quantitative analysis. Results: With very similar dosimetric and radiobiological plan quality, plans created with Method 2 had significantly reduced treatment time. Relative reduction of Beam-on Time ranged from 20% to 51 % (median:29%,p=0.001), and reduction of Number-of-Shots ranged from 5% to 67% (median:40%,p=0.0002), respectively. Time of plan creation for Method1 and Method2 was similar, approximately 20 minutes, excluding the time for tumor delineation. TCP calculated for the tumors from differential DVHs did not show significant difference between the two plans (p=0.35). Conclusion: The method of manual setup combined with inverse optimization in LGP for treatment of

  8. Feasibility Study on Applying Radiophotoluminescent Glass Dosimeters for CyberKnife SRS Dose Verification

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shih-Ming; Hung, Chao-Hsiung; Liao, Yi-Jen; Fu, Hsiao-Mei; Tsai, Jo-Ting

    2017-01-01

    CyberKnife is one of multiple modalities for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Due to the nature of CyberKnife and the characteristics of SRS, dose evaluation of the CyberKnife procedure is critical. A radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter was used to verify the dose accuracy for the CyberKnife procedure and validate a viable dose verification system for CyberKnife treatment. A radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter, thermoluminescent dosimeter, and Kodak EDR2 film were used to measure the lateral dose profile and percent depth dose of CyberKnife. A Monte Carlo simulation for dose verification was performed using BEAMnrc to verify the measured results. This study also used a radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter coupled with an anthropomorphic phantom to evaluate the accuracy of the dose given by CyberKnife. Measurements from the radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter were compared with the results of a thermoluminescent dosimeter and EDR2 film, and the differences found were less than 5%. The radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter has some advantages in terms of dose measurements over CyberKnife, such as repeatability, stability, and small effective size. These advantages make radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters a potential candidate dosimeter for the CyberKnife procedure. This study concludes that radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters are a promising and reliable dosimeter for CyberKnife dose verification with clinically acceptable accuracy within 5%. PMID:28046056

  9. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for hemangioma of the cavernous sinus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Sheehan, Jason P; Kano, Hideyuki; Akpinar, Berkcan; Martinez-Alvarez, Roberto; Martinez-Moreno, Nuria; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Lunsford, L Dade; Liu, Kang-Du

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs) are rare vascular tumors. A direct microsurgical approach usually results in massive hemorrhage and incomplete tumor resection. Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a therapeutic alternative to microsurgery, outcome studies are few. Authors of the present study evaluated the role of SRS for CSH. METHODS An international multicenter study was conducted to review outcome data in 31 patients with CSH. Eleven patients had initial microsurgery before SRS, and the other 20 patients (64.5%) underwent Gamma Knife SRS as the primary management for their CSH. Median age at the time of radiosurgery was 47 years, and 77.4% of patients had cranial nerve dysfunction before SRS. Patients received a median tumor margin dose of 12.6 Gy (range 12-19 Gy) at a median isodose of 55%. RESULTS Tumor regression was confirmed by imaging in all 31 patients, and all patients had greater than 50% reduction in tumor volume at 6 months post-SRS. No patient had delayed tumor growth, new cranial neuropathy, visual function deterioration, adverse radiation effects, or hypopituitarism after SRS. Twenty-four patients had presented with cranial nerve disorders before SRS, and 6 (25%) of them had gradual improvement. Four (66.7%) of the 6 patients with orbital symptoms had symptomatic relief at the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Stereotactic radiosurgery was effective in reducing the volume of CSH and attaining long-term tumor control in all patients at a median of 40 months. The authors' experience suggests that SRS is a reasonable primary and adjuvant treatment modality for patients in whom a CSH is diagnosed.

  10. SU-E-T-453: Optimization of Dose Gradient for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Sheth, N; Chen, Y; Yang, J

    2012-06-01

    The goals of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are the ablation of target tissue and sparing of critical normal tissue. We develop tools to aid in the selection of collimation and prescription (Rx) isodose line to optimize the dose gradient for single isocenter intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with GammaKnife 4C utilizing the updated physics data in GammaPlan v10.1. Single isocenter intracranial SRS plans were created to treat the center of a solid water anthropomorphism head phantom for each GammaKnife collimator (4 mm, 8 mm, 14 mm, and 18 mm). The dose gradient, defined as the difference of effective radii of spheres equal to half and full Rx volumes, and Rx treatment volume was analyzed for isodoses from 99% to 20% of Rx. The dosimetric data on Rx volume and dose gradient vs. Rx isodose for each collimator was compiled into an easy to read nomogram as well as plotted graphically. The 4, 8, 14, and 18 mm collimators have the sharpest dose gradient at the 64%, 70%, 76%, and 77% Rx isodose lines, respectively. This corresponds to treating 4.77 mm, 8.86 mm, 14.78 mm, and 18.77 mm diameter targets with dose gradients radii of 1.06 mm, 1.63 mm, 2.54 mm, and 3.17 mm, respectively. We analyzed the dosimetric data for the most recent version of GammaPlan treatment planning software to develop tools that when applied clinically will aid in the selection of a collimator and Rx isodose line for optimal dose gradient and target coverage for single isocenter intracranial SRS with GammaKnife 4C. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Emerging Indications for Fractionated Gamma Knife Radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    McTyre, Emory; Helis, Corbin A; Farris, Michael; Wilkins, Lisa; Sloan, Darrell; Hinson, William H; Bourland, J Daniel; Dezarn, William A; Munley, Michael T; Watabe, Kounosuke; Xing, Fei; Laxton, Adrian W; Tatter, Stephen B; Chan, Michael D

    2017-02-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) allows for the treatment of intracranial tumors with a high degree of dose conformality and precision. There are, however, certain situations wherein the dose conformality of GKRS is desired, but single session treatment is contraindicated. In these situations, a traditional pin-based GKRS head frame cannot be used, as it precludes fractionated treatment. To report our experience in treating patients with fractionated GKRS using a relocatable, noninvasive immobilization system. Patients were considered candidates for fractionated GKRS if they had one or more of the following indications: a benign tumor >10 cc in volume or abutting the optic pathway, a vestibular schwannoma with the intent of hearing preservation, or a tumor previously irradiated with single fraction GKRS. The immobilization device used for all patients was the Extend system (Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion, Elekta, Kungstensgatan, Stockholm). We identified 34 patients treated with fractionated GKRS between August 2013 and February 2015. There were a total of 37 tumors treated including 15 meningiomas, 11 pituitary adenomas, 6 brain metastases, 4 vestibular schwannomas, and 1 hemangioma. At last follow-up, all 21 patients treated for perioptic tumors had stable or improved vision and all 4 patients treated for vestibular schwannoma maintained serviceable hearing. No severe adverse events were reported. Fractionated GKRS was well-tolerated in the treatment of large meningiomas, perioptic tumors, vestibular schwannomas with intent of hearing preservation, and in reirradiation of previously treated tumors.

  12. Emerging Indications for Fractionated Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    McTyre, Emory; Helis, Corbin A.; Farris, Michael; Wilkins, Lisa; Sloan, Darrell; Hinson, William H.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Dezarn, William. A.; Munley, Michael T.; Watabe, Kounosuke; Xing, Fei; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; Chan, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) allows for the treatment of intracranial tumors with a high degree of dose conformality and precision. There are, however, certain situations wherein the dose conformality of GKRS is desired, but single session treatment is contraindicated. In these situations, a traditional pin-based GKRS head frame cannot be used, as it precludes fractionated treatment. OBJECTIVE To report our experience in treating patients with fractionated GKRS using a relocatable, noninvasive immobilization system. METHODS Patients were considered candidates for fractionated GKRS if they had one or more of the following indications: a benign tumor >10 cc in volume or abutting the optic pathway, a vestibular schwannoma with the intent of hearing preservation, or a tumor previously irradiated with single fraction GKRS. The immobilization device used for all patients was the Extend system (Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion, Elekta, Kungstensgatan, Stockholm). RESULTS We identified 34 patients treated with fractionated GKRS between August 2013 and February 2015. There were a total of 37 tumors treated including 15 meningiomas, 11 pituitary adenomas, 6 brain metastases, 4 vestibular schwannomas, and 1 hemangioma. At last follow-up, all 21 patients treated for perioptic tumors had stable or improved vision and all 4 patients treated for vestibular schwannoma maintained serviceable hearing. No severe adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION Fractionated GKRS was well-tolerated in the treatment of large meningiomas, perioptic tumors, vestibular schwannomas with intent of hearing preservation, and in reirradiation of previously treated tumors. PMID:28536486

  13. The gamma knife in ophthalmology. Part One--Uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wygledowska-Promieńska, Dorota; Jurys, Małgorzata; Wilczyński, Tomasz; Drzyzga, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The Gamma Knife was designed by Lars Leksell in the early 1950's. It gave rise to a new discipline of medicine--stereotactic radiosurgery. Primarily dedicated to neurosurgery, the Gamma Knife has become an alternative, widely used surgery technique. According to Elekta's statistics, approximately 60,000 people are treated with Leksell Gamma Knife every year and it is the most extensively studied stereotactic radiosurgery system in the world. The Leksell Gamma Knife can also be used in ophthalmology. The gamma ray beam concentration enables effective treatment of uveal melanoma, choroidal hemangioma, orbital tumors or even choroidal neovascularization. The virtue of Leksell Gamma Knife is its extreme precision, non-invasiveness and the possibility of outpatient treatment, which significantly reduces costs and diminishes post-operative complications. Innovative solutions shorten a single session to a minimum, which is very comfortable and safe for both staff and patients. Advantages and possible side effects of gamma knife radiosurgery are well-documented in the professional literature. The objective of this review is to present the recognized applications of Leksell Gamma Knife in ophthalmology.

  14. WE-A-304-02: Strategies and Technologies for Cranial Radiosurgery Planning: Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, D.

    2015-06-15

    The high fractional doses, stringent requirements for accuracy and precision, and surgical perspective characteristic of intracranial radiosurgery create considerations for treatment planning which are distinct from most other radiotherapy procedures. This session will introduce treatment planning techniques specific to two popular intracranial SRS modalities: Gamma Knife and MLC-based Linac. The basic treatment delivery characteristics of each device will be reviewed with a focus on how those characteristics determine the paradigm used for treatment planning. Basic techniques for treatment planning will be discussed, including considerations such as isodose selection, target and organ-at-risk definition, quality indices, and protection of critical structures. Futuremore » directions for SRS treatment planning will also be discussed. Learning Objectives: Introduce the basic physical principles of intracranial radiosurgery and how they are realized in the treatment planning paradigms for Gamma Knife and Linac radiosurgery. Demonstrate basic treatment planning techniques. Discuss metrics for evaluating SRS treatment plan quality. Discuss recent and future advances in SRS treatment planning. D. Schlesinger receives research support from Elekta, AB.« less

  15. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Uveal Metastases: Report of Three Cases and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ares, William J; Tonetti, Daniel; Yu, Jenny Y; Monaco, Edward A; Flickinger, John C; Lunsford, L Dade

    2017-02-01

    Uveal metastases are ophthalmologic tumors that have historically been treated by fractionated external beam radiation therapy or invasive brachytherapy. The need for rapid response and less invasive management options led the authors to explore the use of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for this common problem. Interventional case series. To prevent eye movement during the procedure, all 3 patients underwent a retrobulbar anesthetic block followed by magnetic resonance imaging to detect the target. All tumors were treated in a single procedure using the 4C or Perfexion Gamma Knife. The tumors received a minimal tumor dose of 14-20 Gy. Two patients also underwent SRS for additional intracranial metastases. At follow-up, performed between 4 and 15 months after SRS, all 3 patients demonstrated a reduction in uveal tumor volumes. One patient developed decreased visual acuity secondary to radiation retinopathy. In this early experience, SRS was found to be an effective management option for uveal metastases associated with systemic cancer. Patients can be screened and treated effectively early after diagnosis using a joint approach between ophthalmologists and neurosurgeons. Systemic oncologic care can continue without interruption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Embolization with Gamma Knife Radiosurgery of Giant Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations.

    PubMed

    Chun, Dong Hyun; Kim, Moo Seong; Kim, Sung Tae; Paeng, Sung Hwa; Jeong, Hae Woong; Lee, Won Hee

    2016-01-01

    Giant arteriovenous malformations (i.e., those greater than 6 cm maximum diameter or volume > 33 cc) are difficult to treat and often carry higher treatment morbidity and mortality rates. In our study, we reviewed the angiographic results and clinical outcomes for 11 patients with giant arteriovenous malformations who were treated between 1994 and 2012. The patients selected included 9 males (82%) and 2 females (18%). Their presenting symptoms were hemorrhage (n=2; 18%), seizure (n=7; 64%), and headache (n=2; 12%). Nine patients were Spetzler-Martin Grade III, 2 were Spetzler-Martin Grade IV. The mean arteriovenous malformation volume was 41 cc (33-52 cc). The mean age of the patients was 45.1 years (24-57 years) and the mean radiation dose delivered to the margin of the nidus was 14.2 Gy. Ten patients received pre-Gamma Knife radiosurgery embolization and Gamma Knife radiosurgery, 1 patient received pre-Gamma Knife radiosurgery embolization and Gamma Knife radiosurgery twice and the interval between Gamma Knife radiosurgeries was 3 months. The complete obliteration rate following Gamma Knife radiosurgery was 36%, subtotal obliteration ( > 70% decreased size of nidus) was 36%, and partial obliteration was 28%. One patient experienced a small hemorrhage after embolization. Combined embolization and Gamma Knife radiosurgery showed successful obliteration of the arteriovenous malformation nidus. The use of embolization to initially reduce nidus size followed by Gamma Knife radiosurgery improves the treatment results. Repeated Gamma Knife radiosurgery should be a treatment option when there is a small nidus remnant.

  17. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for facial nerve schwannomas: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Jason P; Kano, Hideyuki; Xu, Zhiyuan; Chiang, Veronica; Mathieu, David; Chao, Samuel; Akpinar, Berkcan; Lee, John Y K; Yu, James B; Hess, Judith; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Chung, Wen-Yuh; Pierce, John; Missios, Symeon; Kondziolka, Douglas; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Barnett, Gene H; Lunsford, L Dade

    2015-08-01

    Facial nerve schwannomas (FNSs) are rare intracranial tumors, and the optimal management of these tumors remains unclear. Resection can be undertaken, but the tumor's intimate association with the facial nerve makes resection with neurological preservation quite challenging. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used to treat FNSs, and this study evaluates the outcome of this approach. At 8 medical centers participating in the North American Gamma Knife Consortium (NAGKC), 42 patients undergoing SRS for an FNS were identified, and clinical and radiographic data were obtained for these cases. Males outnumbered females at a ratio of 1.2:1, and the patients' median age was 48 years (range 11-76 years). Prior resection was performed in 36% of cases. The mean tumor volume was 1.8 cm(3), and a mean margin dose of 12.5 Gy (range 11-15 Gy) was delivered to the tumor. At a median follow-up of 28 months, tumor control was achieved in 36 (90%) of the 40 patients with reliable radiographic follow-up. Actuarial tumor control was 97%, 97%, 97%, and 90% at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years postradiosurgery. Preoperative facial nerve function was preserved in 38 of 42 patients, with 60% of evaluable patients having House-Brackmann scores of 1 or 2 at last follow-up. Treated patients with a House-Brackmann score of 1 to 3 were more likely to demonstrate this level of facial nerve function at last evaluation (OR 6.09, 95% CI 1.7-22.0, p = 0.006). Avoidance of temporary or permanent neurological symptoms was more likely to be achieved in patients who received a tumor margin dose of 12.5 Gy or less (log-rank test, p = 0.024) delivered to a tumor of ≤ 1 cm(3) in volume (log-rank test, p = 0.01). Stereotactic radiosurgery resulted in tumor control and neurological preservation in most FNS patients. When the tumor is smaller and the patient exhibits favorable normal facial nerve function, SRS portends a better result. The authors believe that early, upfront SRS may be the treatment of choice for

  18. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) for Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Andy Yuanguang; Bhatnagar, Jagdish; Bednarz, Greg; Flickinger, John; Arai, Yoshio; Vacsulka, Jonet; Feng, Wenzheng; Monaco, Edward; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade; Huq, M Saiful

    2017-11-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a highly precise and accurate treatment technique for treating brain diseases with low risk of serious error that nevertheless could potentially be reduced. We applied the AAPM Task Group 100 recommended failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) tool to develop a risk-based quality management program for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. A team consisting of medical physicists, radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiation safety officers, nurses, operating room technologists, and schedulers at our institution and an external physicist expert on Gamma Knife was formed for the FMEA study. A process tree and a failure mode table were created for the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedures using the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion and 4C units. Three scores for the probability of occurrence (O), the severity (S), and the probability of no detection for failure mode (D) were assigned to each failure mode by 8 professionals on a scale from 1 to 10. An overall risk priority number (RPN) for each failure mode was then calculated from the averaged O, S, and D scores. The coefficient of variation for each O, S, or D score was also calculated. The failure modes identified were prioritized in terms of both the RPN scores and the severity scores. The established process tree for Gamma Knife radiosurgery consists of 10 subprocesses and 53 steps, including a subprocess for frame placement and 11 steps that are directly related to the frame-based nature of the Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Out of the 86 failure modes identified, 40 Gamma Knife specific failure modes were caused by the potential for inappropriate use of the radiosurgery head frame, the imaging fiducial boxes, the Gamma Knife helmets and plugs, the skull definition tools as well as other features of the GammaPlan treatment planning system. The other 46 failure modes are associated with the registration, imaging, image transfer, contouring processes that are common for all external beam radiation therapy

  19. Treatment of epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery: Case series.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Javier A Jacobo; Fonnegra, Julio R; Diez, Juan C; Fonnegra, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors (ETs) are benign lesions that are treated mainly by means of surgical resection, with overall good results. External beam radiotherapy is an alternative treatment for those recurrent tumors, in which a second surgery might not be the best choice for the patient. A little information exists about the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery for the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent ETs. We present three cases of ETs treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case 1 is a 21-year-old female with an ET located in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) with symptoms related to VIII cranial nerve dysfunction. Symptom control was achieved and maintained after single session radiosurgery with gamma knife. Case 2 is a 59-year-old female patient with the history of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to a recurrent ET located in the left CPA. Significant pain improvement was achieved after treatment with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case 3 is a 29-year-old male patient with a CPA ET causing long lasting trigeminal neuralgia, pain relief was achieved in this patient after gamma knife radiosurgery. Long-term symptom relief was achieved in all three cases proving that gamma knife radiosurgery is a good and safe alternative for patients with recurrent or nonsurgically treated ETs.

  20. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for intracranial hemangioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Silva, Danilo; Grabowski, Mathew M; Juthani, Rupa; Sharma, Mayur; Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Chao, Samuel; Suh, John; Mohammadi, Alireza; Barnett, Gene H

    2016-09-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has become a treatment option for intracranial hemangioblastomas, especially in patients with poor clinical status and also high-risk surgical candidates. The objective of this study was to analyze clinical outcome and tumor control rates. Retrospective chart review revealed 12 patients with a total of 20 intracranial hemangioblastomas treated with GKRS from May 1998 until December 2014. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to calculate the actuarial local tumor control rates and rate of recurrence following GKRS. Univariate analysis, including log rank test and Wilcoxon test were used on the Kaplan-Meier plots to evaluate the predictors of tumor progression. Two-tailed p value of <0.05 was considered as significant. Median follow-up was 64months (2-184). Median tumor volume pre-GKRS was 946mm(3) (79-15970), while median tumor volume post-GKRS was 356mm(3) (30-5404). Complications were seen in two patients. Tumor control rates were 100% at 1year, 90% at 3years, and 85% at 5years, using the Kaplan-Meier method. There were no statistically significant univariate predictors of progression identified, although there was a trend towards successful tumor control in solid tumors (p=0.07). GKRS is an effective and safe option for treating intracranial hemangioblastoma with favorable tumor control rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gamma Knife Treatment of Brainstem Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Halloran E.; Larson, Erik W.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; MacKay, Alexander R.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Call, Jason A.; Carlson, Jonathan D.; Ling, Benjamin C.; Demakas, John J.; Cooke, Barton S.; Peressini, Ben; Lee, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The management of brainstem metastases is challenging. Surgical treatment is usually not an option, and chemotherapy is of limited utility. Stereotactic radiosurgery has emerged as a promising palliative treatment modality in these cases. The goal of this study is to assess our single institution experience treating brainstem metastases with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). This retrospective chart review studied 41 patients with brainstem metastases treated with GKRS. The most common primary tumors were lung, breast, renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Median age at initial treatment was 59 years. Nineteen (46%) of the patients received whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) prior to or concurrent with GKRS treatment. Thirty (73%) of the patients had a single brainstem metastasis. The average GKRS dose was 17 Gy. Post-GKRS overall survival at six months was 42%, at 12 months was 22%, and at 24 months was 13%. Local tumor control was achieved in 91% of patients, and there was one patient who had a fatal brain hemorrhage after treatment. Karnofsky performance score (KPS) >80 and the absence of prior WBRT were predictors for improved survival on multivariate analysis (HR 0.60 (p = 0.02), and HR 0.28 (p = 0.02), respectively). GKRS was an effective treatment for brainstem metastases, with excellent local tumor control. PMID:24886816

  2. Gamma knife surgery for brainstem arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chun-Po; Steiner, Ladislau

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term imaging and clinical outcomes of patients with brainstem arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). The study included 85 patients with brainstem AVMs undergoing GKS during the period 1989-2007. The locations of the nidi were the midbrain in 42 patients, pons in 31 patients, and medulla oblongata in 12 patients. The volume of the nidi ranged from 0.1-8.9 mL (median 1.4 mL, mean 1.9 mL), and the prescription dose ranged from 5-32 Gy (median 20 Gy, mean 19.9 Gy). After the initial Gamma procedure, 18 patients had repeat GKS for AVM residuals that were still patent. Two patients had a third GKS 7 years and 16 years after a failed repeat GKS. Clinical follow-up ranged from 24-252 months with a mean of 100 months (median 102 months) after the initial GKS. GKS yielded a total angiographic obliteration in 50 (58.8%) patients and subtotal obliteration in 4 (4.7%) patients. In 22 (25.9%) patients, the AVMs remained patent. In 9 patients (10.6%), no flow voids were observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but angiographic confirmation was unavailable. A small nidus volume and a high prescription dose were significantly associated with increased AVM obliteration rate. Radiation-induced changes developed in 34 patients (40%); 24 were asymptomatic, 1 patient had only headache, and 9 patients developed neurologic deficits. One patient developed a large cyst 6 years after GKS. Given the poor surgical outcome of brainstem AVMs, the results of 59% nidus obliteration and 6% permanent neurologic deficits make GKS a reasonable management of these difficult lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgery or gamma -knife for the treatment of arteriovenous malformations?

    PubMed

    Shigeno, T; Atsuchi, M; Tanaka, J; Goto, K; Ogata, N

    2000-09-01

    Decision making for either surgery or gamma-knife for the treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) cannot be uniform. The skill of the neurosurgeon in operating on AVMs is now being compared with that of the gamma-knife. The decision varies from case to case and is to be taken by the neurosurgeon. This report presents three cases in which such decision making was not easy. Case 1 was a non-ruptured cingulate AVM of 2.5 cm diameter in the cingulate cortex. The operative field was anticipated to be very narrow between the parietal bridging veins. Case 2 was a tiny ruptured AVM in the speech-motor area which was buried underneath the cortex. Case 3 was a large ruptured thalamo-stiriate-capsular AVM with feeders from the anterior and posterior choroidal arteries. All cases were operated without serious morbidity. A combination of pre-operative intravascular surgery (cases 1 and 3) or postoperative gamma-knife (case 3) was adopted. In conclusion, there is no unitary rule to decide on surgery or gamma-knife for the treatment of AVMs. It depends on what good or harm the responsible surgeon or the gamma-knife does.

  4. Gamma knife radiosurgery in movement disorders: Indications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Shinji; Serizawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Functional radiosurgery has advanced steadily during the past half century since the development of the gamma knife technique for treating intractable cancer pain. Applications of radiosurgery for intracranial diseases have increased with a focus on understanding radiobiology. Currently, the use of gamma knife radiosurgery to ablate deep brain structures is not widespread because visualization of the functional targets remains difficult despite the increased availability of advanced neuroimaging technology. Moreover, most existing reports have a small sample size or are retrospective. However, increased experience with intraoperative neurophysiological evaluations in radiofrequency thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation supports anatomical and neurophysiological approaches to the ventralis intermedius nucleus. Two recent prospective studies have promoted the clinical application of functional radiosurgery for movement disorders. For example, unilateral gamma knife thalamotomy is a potential alternative to radiofrequency thalamotomy and deep brain stimulation techniques for intractable tremor patients with contraindications for surgery. Despite the promising efficacy of gamma knife thalamotomy, however, these studies did not include sufficient follow-up to confirm long-term effects. Herein, we review the radiobiology literature, various techniques, and the treatment efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery for patients with movement disorders. Future research should focus on randomized controlled studies and long-term effects. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors.

    PubMed

    El-Shehaby, Amr M N; Reda, Wael A; Abdel Karim, Khaled M; Emad Eldin, Reem M; Nabeel, Ahmed M

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial epidermoid tumors are commonly found in the cerebellopontine angle where they usually present with either trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm. Radiosurgery for these tumors has rarely been reported. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and clinical outcome of the treatment of cerebellopontine epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery. This is a retrospective study involving 12 patients harboring cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors who underwent 15 sessions of gamma knife radiosurgery. Trigeminal pain was present in 8 patients and hemifacial spasm in 3 patients. All cases with trigeminal pain were receiving medication and still uncontrolled. One patient with hemifacial spasm was medically controlled before gamma knife and the other two were not. Two patients had undergone surgical resection prior to gamma knife treatment. The median prescription dose was 11 Gy (10-11 Gy). The tumor volumes ranged from 3.7 to 23.9 cc (median 10.5 cc). The median radiological follow up was 2 years (1-5 years). All tumors were controlled and one tumor shrank. The median clinical follow-up was 5 years. The trigeminal pain improved or disappeared in 5 patients, and of these, 4 cases stopped their medication and one decreased it. The hemifacial spasm resolved in 2 patients who were able to stop their medication. Facial palsy developed in 1 patient and improved with conservative treatment. Transient diplopia was also reported in 2 cases. Gamma knife radiosurgery provides good clinical control for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors.

  6. Gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors

    PubMed Central

    El-Shehaby, Amr M. N.; Reda, Wael A.; Abdel Karim, Khaled M.; Emad Eldin, Reem M.; Nabeel, Ahmed M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intracranial epidermoid tumors are commonly found in the cerebellopontine angle where they usually present with either trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm. Radiosurgery for these tumors has rarely been reported. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and clinical outcome of the treatment of cerebellopontine epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery. Methods: This is a retrospective study involving 12 patients harboring cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors who underwent 15 sessions of gamma knife radiosurgery. Trigeminal pain was present in 8 patients and hemifacial spasm in 3 patients. All cases with trigeminal pain were receiving medication and still uncontrolled. One patient with hemifacial spasm was medically controlled before gamma knife and the other two were not. Two patients had undergone surgical resection prior to gamma knife treatment. The median prescription dose was 11 Gy (10–11 Gy). The tumor volumes ranged from 3.7 to 23.9 cc (median 10.5 cc). Results: The median radiological follow up was 2 years (1–5 years). All tumors were controlled and one tumor shrank. The median clinical follow-up was 5 years. The trigeminal pain improved or disappeared in 5 patients, and of these, 4 cases stopped their medication and one decreased it. The hemifacial spasm resolved in 2 patients who were able to stop their medication. Facial palsy developed in 1 patient and improved with conservative treatment. Transient diplopia was also reported in 2 cases. Conclusion: Gamma knife radiosurgery provides good clinical control for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors. PMID:29184709

  7. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90).more » The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.« less

  8. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Renier, Cécile; Devriendt, Daniel; Massager, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods: A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The median margin dose used for the first, second, and third GK treatments was 12 Gy, 12 Gy, and 14 Gy, respectively. Six patients (4 patients for the second irradiation and 2 patients for the third irradiation) with partial tumor regrowth were treated only on the growing part of the tumor using a median margin dose of 13 Gy. The median tumor volume was 0.9, 2.3, and 0.7 cc for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively. Stereotactic positron emission tomography (PET) guidance was used for dose planning in 6 cases. Results: Mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range 24–110). At the last follow-up, 85% of schwannomas were controlled. The tumor volume decreased, remained unchanged, or increased after retreatment in 15, 8, and 4 cases, respectively. Four patients had PET during follow-up, and all showed a significant metabolic decrease of the tumor. Hearing was not preserved after retreatment in any patients. New facial or trigeminal palsy did not occur after retreatment. Conclusions: Our results support the long-term efficacy and low morbidity of repeat GK treatment for selected patients with tumor growth after initial treatment. PMID:26500799

  9. Comparison of full width at half maximum and penumbra of different Gamma Knife models.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Sepideh; Banaee, Nooshin; Nedaie, Hassan Ali

    2018-01-01

    As a radiosurgical tool, Gamma Knife has the best and widespread name recognition. Gamma Knife is a noninvasive intracranial technique invented and developed by Swedish neurosurgeon Lars Leksell. The first commercial Leksell Gamma Knife entered the therapeutic armamentarium at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States on August 1987. Since that time, different generation of Gamma Knife developed. In this study, the technical points and dosimetric parameters including full width at half maximum and penumbra on different generation of Gamma Knife will be reviewed and compared. The results of this review study show that the rotating gamma system provides a better dose conformity.

  10. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery as a Therapeutic Strategy for Intracranial Sarcomatous Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Flannery, Thomas; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Hospitals Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the indication and outcomes for Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) in the care of patients with intracranial sarcomatous metastases. Methods and Materials: Data from 21 patients who underwent radiosurgery for 60 sarcomatous intracranial metastases (54 parenchymal and 6 dural-based) were studied. Nine patients had radiosurgery for solitary tumors and 12 for multiple tumors. The primary pathology was metastatic leiomyosarcoma (4 patients), osteosarcoma (3 patients), soft-tissue sarcoma (5 patients), chondrosarcoma (2 patients), alveolar soft part sarcoma (2 patients), and rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, liposarcoma, neurofibrosarcoma, and synovial sarcoma (1 patient each). Twenty patients received multimodality management for their primarymore » tumor, and 1 patient had no evidence of systemic disease. The mean tumor volume was 6.2 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.07-40.9 cm{sup 3}), and a median margin dose of 16 Gy was administered. Three patients had progressive intracranial disease despite fractionated whole-brain radiotherapy before SRS. Results: A local tumor control rate of 88% was achieved (including patients receiving boost, up-front, and salvage SRS). New remote brain metastases developed in 7 patients (33%). The median survival after diagnosis of intracranial metastasis was 16 months, and the 1-year survival rate was 61%. Conclusions: Gamma Knife radiosurgery was a well-tolerated and initially effective therapy in the management of patients with sarcomatous intracranial metastases. However, many patients, including those who also received fractionated whole-brain radiotherapy, developed progressive new brain disease.« less

  11. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for the Treatment of Cystic Cerebral Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinu, Julius O.; Lwu, Shelly; Monsalves, Eric

    Purpose: To assess the role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in the treatment of nonsurgical cystic brain metastasis, and to determine predictors of response to GKRS. Methods: We reviewed a prospectively maintained database of brain metastases patients treated at our institution between 2006 and 2010. All lesions with a cystic component were identified, and volumetric analysis was done to measure percentage of cystic volume on day of treatment and consecutive follow-up MRI scans. Clinical, radiologic, and dosimetry parameters were reviewed to establish the overall response of cystic metastases to GKRS as well as identify potential predictive factors of response. Results:more » A total of 111 lesions in 73 patients were analyzed; 57% of lesions received prior whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Lung carcinoma was the primary cancer in 51% of patients, 10% breast, 10% colorectal, 4% melanoma, and 26% other. Fifty-seven percent of the patients were recursive partitioning analysis class 1, the remainder class 2. Mean target volume was 3.3 mL (range, 0.1-23 mL). Median prescription dose was 21 Gy (range, 15-24 Gy). Local control rates were 91%, 63%, and 37% at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Local control was improved in lung primary and worse in patients with prior WBRT (univariate). Only lung primary predicted local control in multivariate analysis, whereas age and tumor volume did not. Lesions with a large cystic component did not show a poorer response compared with those with a small cystic component. Conclusions: This study supports the use of GKRS in the management of nonsurgical cystic metastases, despite a traditionally perceived poorer response. Our local control rates are comparable to a matched cohort of noncystic brain metastases, and therefore the presence of a large cystic component should not deter the use of GKRS. Predictors of response included tumor subtype. Prior WBRT decreased effectiveness of SRS for local control rates.« less

  12. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for posterior fossa meningiomas: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Jason P; Starke, Robert M; Kano, Hideyuki; Barnett, Gene H; Mathieu, David; Chiang, Veronica; Yu, James B; Hess, Judith; McBride, Heyoung L; Honea, Norissa; Nakaji, Peter; Lee, John Y K; Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Evanoff, Wendi A; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Lunsford, L Dade

    2015-06-01

    Posterior fossa meningiomas represent a common yet challenging clinical entity. They are often associated with neurovascular structures and adjacent to the brainstem. Resection can be undertaken for posterior fossa meningiomas, but residual or recurrent tumor is frequent. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used to treat meningiomas, and this study evaluates the outcome of this approach for those located in the posterior fossa. At 7 medical centers participating in the North American Gamma Knife Consortium, 675 patients undergoing SRS for a posterior fossa meningioma were identified, and clinical and radiological data were obtained for these cases. Females outnumbered males at a ratio of 3.8 to 1, and the median patient age was 57.6 years (range 12-89 years). Prior resection was performed in 43.3% of the patient sample. The mean tumor volume was 6.5 cm(3), and a median margin dose of 13.6 Gy (range 8-40 Gy) was delivered to the tumor. At a mean follow-up of 60.1 months, tumor control was achieved in 91.2% of cases. Actuarial tumor control was 95%, 92%, and 81% at 3, 5, and 10 years after radiosurgery. Factors predictive of tumor progression included age greater than 65 years (hazard ratio [HR] 2.36, 95% CI 1.30-4.29, p = 0.005), prior history of radiotherapy (HR 5.19, 95% CI 1.69-15.94, p = 0.004), and increasing tumor volume (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, p = 0.005). Clinical stability or improvement was achieved in 92.3% of patients. Increasing tumor volume (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.10, p = 0.009) and clival, petrous, or cerebellopontine angle location as compared with petroclival, tentorial, and foramen magnum location (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.05-3.65, p = 0.036) were predictive of neurological decline after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, resection, and radiation therapy were performed in 1.6%, 3.6%, and 1.5%, respectively. Stereotactic radiosurgery affords a high rate of tumor control and neurological preservation

  13. A new Gamma Knife radiosurgery paradigm: Tomosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoliang

    The Leksell (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) Gamma Knife(TM) (LGK) is the worldwide standard-of-care for the radiosurgical treatment of a wide variety of intracranial lesions. The current LGK utilizes a step-and-shoot dose delivery mechanism where the centroid of each conformal radiation dose (i.e., the shot isocenter) requires repositioning the patient outside of the irradiation field. Perhaps the greatest challenge the LGK treatment team faces is planning the treatment of large and/or complexly shaped lesions that may be in close proximity to critical neural or vascular structures. The standard manual treatment planning approach is a time consuming procedure where additional time spent does not guarantee the identification of an increasingly optimal treatment plan. I propose a new radiosurgery paradigm which I refer to as "Tomosurgery". The Tomosurgery paradigm begins with the division of the target volume into a series of adjacent treatment slices, each with a carefully determined optimal thickness. The use of a continuously moving disk-shaped radiation shot that moves through the lesion in a raster-scanning pattern is expected to improve overall radiation dose conformality and homogeneity. The Tomosurgery treatment planning algorithm recruits a two-stage optimization strategy, which first plans each treatment slice as a simplified 2D problem and secondly optimally assembles the 2D treatment plans into the final 3D treatment plan. Tested on 11 clinical LGK cases, the automated inversely-generated Tomosurgery treatment plans performed as well or better than the neurosurgeon's manually created treatment plans across all criteria: (a) dose volume histograms, (b) dose homogeneity, (c) dose conformality, and (d) critical structure damage, where applicable. LGK Tomosurgery inverse treatment planning required much less time than standard of care, manual (i.e., forward) LGK treatment planning procedures. These results suggest that Tomosurgery might provide an improvement

  14. Relapsed or refractory primary central nervous system lymphoma radiosurgery: Report of the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Samuel M; Silverman, Joshua S; Bowden, Greg; Mathieu, David; Yang, Huai-Che; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Tam, Moses; Szelemej, Paul; Kaufmann, Anthony M; Cohen-Inbar, Or; Sheehan, Jason; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) can be used as part of multimodality management for patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). The objective of this study is to evaluate outcomes of SRS for this disease. The International Gamma Knife Research Foundation identified 23 PCNSL patients who underwent SRS for either relapsed (intracerebral in-field or out-of-field tumor recurrences) or refractory disease from 1995-2014. All 23 patients presented with RPA Class I or II PCNSL, and were initially treated with a median of 7 cycles of methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens (range, 3-26 cycles). Ten received prior whole brain radiation (WBRT) to a median dose of 43 Gy (range, 24-55 Gy). Sixteen presented with relapsed PCNSL, and seven presented with refractory disease. Twenty-three received 26 procedures of SRS. The median tumor volume was 4 cm 3 (range, 0.1-26 cm 3 ), and the median margin dose was 15 Gy (range, 8-20 Gy). Median follow-up from SRS was 11 months (interquartile range, 5.7-33.2 months). Twenty presented with treatment response to twenty-three tumors (12 complete, 11 partial). Fourteen patients relapsed or were refractory to salvage SRS, and local control was 95%, 91%, and 75% at 3, 6, and 12 months post SRS. Intracranial (in-field and out-of-field) and distant (systemic) PFS was 86%, 81%, and 55% at 3, 6, and 12 months post SRS. Toxicity of SRS was low, with one developing an adverse radiation effect requiring no additional intervention. Although methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens with or without WBRT is the first-line management option for PCNSL, SRS may be used as an alternative option in properly selected patients with smaller relapsed or refractory PCNSL tumors.

  15. Multistage stereotactic radiosurgery for large cerebral arteriovenous malformations using the Gamma Knife platform.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chuxiong; Hrycushko, Brian; Whitworth, Louis; Li, Xiang; Nedzi, Lucien; Weprin, Bradley; Abdulrahman, Ramzi; Welch, Babu; Jiang, Steve B; Wardak, Zabi; Timmerman, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    Radiosurgery is an established technique to treat cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Obliteration of larger AVMs (> 10-15 cm 3 or diameter > 3 cm) in a single session is challenging with current radiosurgery platforms due to toxicity. We present a novel technique of multistage stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for large intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) using the Gamma Knife system. Eighteen patients with large (> 10-15 cm 3 or diameter > 3 cm) AVMs, which were previously treated using a staged SRS technique on the Cyberknife platform, were retrospectively selected for this study. The AVMs were contoured and divided into 3-8 subtargets to be treated sequentially in a staged approach at half to 4 week intervals. The prescription dose ranged from 15 Gy to 20 Gy, depending on the subtarget number, volume, and location. Gamma Knife plans using multiple collimator settings were generated and optimized. The coordinates of each shot from the initial plan covering the total AVM target were extracted based on their relative positions within the frame system. The shots were regrouped based on their location with respect to the subtarget contours to generate subplans for each stage. The delivery time of each shot for a subtarget was decay corrected with 60 Co for staging the treatment course to generate the same dose distribution as that planned for the total AVM target. Conformality indices and dose-volume analysis were performed to evaluate treatment plans. With the shot redistribution technique, the composite dose for the multistaged treatment of multiple subtargets is equivalent to the initial plan for total AVM target. Gamma Knife plans resulted in an average PTV coverage of 96.3 ± 0.9% and a PITV of 1.23 ± 0.1. The resulting Conformality indices, V 12Gy and R 50 dose spillage values were 0.76 ± 0.05, 3.4 ± 1.8, and 3.1 ± 0.5 respectively. The Gamma Knife system can deliver a multistaged conformal dose to treat large AVMs when correcting for

  16. Gamma Knife treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

    PubMed

    Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Yılmaz, Baran; Akakın, Akın; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Kaur, Ahmet Cemil; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Kılıç, Türker

    2015-11-01

    Low-grade gliomas have good overall survival rates in pediatric patients compared to adults. There are some case series that reported the effectiveness and safety of Gamma Knife radiosurgery, yet they are limited in number of patients. We aimed to review the relevant literature for pediatric low-grade glial tumors treated with stereotactic radiosurgery, specifically Gamma Knife radiosurgery, and to present an exemplary case. A 6-year-old boy was admitted to clinic due to head trauma. He was alert, cooperative, and had no obvious motor or sensorial deficit. A head CT scan depicted a hypodense zone at the right caudate nucleus. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted a mass lesion at the same location. A stereotactic biopsy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was low-grade astrocytoma (grade II, World Health Organization (WHO) classification, 2007). Gamma Knife radiosurgery was applied to the tumor bed. Tumor volume was 21.85 cm(3). Fourteen gray was given to 50% isodose segment of the lesion (maximal dose of 28 Gy). The tumor has disappeared totally in 4 months, and the patient was tumor-free 21 months after the initial treatment. The presented literature review represents mostly single-center experiences with different patient and treatment characteristics. Accordingly, a mean/median margin dose of 11.3-15 Gy with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is successful in treatment of pediatric and adult low-grade glial tumor patients. However, prospective studies with a large cohort of pediatric patients should be conducted to make a more comprehensive conclusion for effectiveness and safety of GKRS in pediatric low-grade glial tumors.

  17. Worldwide variance in the potential utilization of Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Travis; Dade Lunsford, L

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has expanded worldwide during the past 3 decades. The authors sought to evaluate whether experienced users vary in their estimate of its potential use. METHODS Sixty-six current Gamma Knife users from 24 countries responded to an electronic survey. They estimated the potential role of GKRS for benign and malignant tumors, vascular malformations, and functional disorders. These estimates were compared with published disease epidemiological statistics and the 2014 use reports provided by the Leksell Gamma Knife Society (16,750 cases). RESULTS Respondents reported no significant variation in the estimated use in many conditions for which GKRS is performed: meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, and arteriovenous malformations. Significant variance in the estimated use of GKRS was noted for pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, and cavernous malformations. For many current indications, the authors found significant variance in GKRS users based in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. Experts estimated that GKRS was used in only 8.5% of the 196,000 eligible cases in 2014. CONCLUSIONS Although there was a general worldwide consensus regarding many major indications for GKRS, significant variability was noted for several more controversial roles. This expert opinion survey also suggested that GKRS is significantly underutilized for many current diagnoses, especially in the Americas. Future studies should be conducted to investigate health care barriers to GKRS for many patients.

  18. MCNP-based computational model for the Leksell gamma knife.

    PubMed

    Trnka, Jiri; Novotny, Josef; Kluson, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    We have focused on the usage of MCNP code for calculation of Gamma Knife radiation field parameters with a homogenous polystyrene phantom. We have investigated several parameters of the Leksell Gamma Knife radiation field and compared the results with other studies based on EGS4 and PENELOPE code as well as the Leksell Gamma Knife treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan (LGP). The current model describes all 201 radiation beams together and simulates all the sources in the same time. Within each beam, it considers the technical construction of the source, the source holder, collimator system, the spherical phantom, and surrounding material. We have calculated output factors for various sizes of scoring volumes, relative dose distributions along basic planes including linear dose profiles, integral doses in various volumes, and differential dose volume histograms. All the parameters have been calculated for each collimator size and for the isocentric configuration of the phantom. We have found the calculated output factors to be in agreement with other authors' works except the case of 4 mm collimator size, where averaging over the scoring volume and statistical uncertainties strongly influences the calculated results. In general, all the results are dependent on the choice of the scoring volume. The calculated linear dose profiles and relative dose distributions also match independent studies and the Leksell GammaPlan, but care must be taken about the fluctuations within the plateau, which can influence the normalization, and accuracy in determining the isocenter position, which is important for comparing different dose profiles. The calculated differential dose volume histograms and integral doses have been compared with data provided by the Leksell GammaPlan. The dose volume histograms are in good agreement as well as integral doses calculated in small calculation matrix volumes. However, deviations in integral doses up to 50% can be observed for large

  19. Gamma Knife radiosurgery of olfactory groove meningiomas provides a method to preserve subjective olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Gande, Abhiram; Kano, Hideyuki; Bowden, Gregory; Mousavi, Seyed H; Niranjan, Ajay; Flickinger, John C; Lunsford, L Dade

    2014-02-01

    Anosmia is a common outcome after resection of olfactory groove meningioma(s) (OGM) and for some patients represents a significant disability. To evaluate long term tumor control rates and preservation of subjective olfaction after Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of OGM. We performed a retrospective chart review and telephone assessments of 41 patients who underwent GK SRS between 1987 and 2008. Clinical outcomes were stratified by full, partial or no subjective olfaction, whereas tumor control was assessed by changes in volume greater or lesser than 25%. The median clinical and imaging follow-up were 76 and 65 months, respectively. Prior to SRS, 19 (46%) patients had surgical resections and two (5%) had received fractionated radiation therapy. Twenty four patients (59%) reported a normal sense of smell, 12 (29%) reported a reduced sense of smell and five (12%) had complete anosmia. The median tumor volume was 8.5 cm(3) (range 0.6-56.1), the mean radiation dose at the tumor margin was 13 Gy (range 10-20) and the median estimated dose to the olfactory nerve was 5.1 Gy (range 1.1-18.1). At follow-up, 27 patients (66%) reported intact olfaction (three (7%) described return to a normal sense of smell), nine (22%) described partial anosmia, and five (12%) had complete anosmia. No patient reported deterioration in olfaction after SRS. Thirteen patients (32%) showed significant tumor regression, 26 (63%) had no further growth and two (5%) had progressed. The progression free tumor control rates were 97% at 1 year and 95% at 2, 10 and 20 years. Symptomatic adverse radiation effects occurred in three (7%) patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery provided both long term tumor control and preservation of olfaction.

  20. Angiomatous lesion and delayed cyst formation after gamma knife surgery for intracranial meningioma: case report and review of literatures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; He, Min; Chen, Hongxu; Liu, Yi; Li, Qiang; Li, Lin; Li, Jin; Chen, Haifeng; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Gamma Knife has become a major therapeutic method for intracranial meningiomas, vascular malformations and schwannomas with exact effect. In recent years an increasing number of delayed complications after Gamma Knife surgery have been reported, such as secondary tumors, cystic changes or cyst formation. But angiomatous lesion and delayed cyst formation after Gamma Knife for intracranial lesion has rarely been reported. Here we report the first case of angiomatous lesion and delayed cyst formation following Gamma Knife for intracranial meningioma and discuss its pathogenesis.

  1. The journey from proton to gamma knife.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2014-01-01

    It was generally accepted by the early 1960s that proton beam radiosurgery was too complex and impractical. The need was seen for a new machine. The beam design had to be as good as a proton beam. It was also decided that a static design was preferable even if the evolution of that notion is no longer clear. Complex collimators were designed that using sources of cobalt-60 could produce beams with characteristics adequately close to those of proton beams. The geometry of the machine was determined including the distance of the sources from the patient the optimal distance between the sources. The first gamma unit was built with private money with no contribution from the Swedish state, which nonetheless required detailed design information in order to ensure radiation safety. This original machine was built with rectangular collimators to produce lesions for thalamotomy for functional work. However, with the introduction of dopamine analogs, this indication virtually disappeared overnight.

  2. Long-Term Results for Trigeminal Schwannomas Treated With Gamma Knife Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Toshinori, E-mail: h-toshi@komakihp.gr.jp; Kato, Takenori; Iizuka, Hiroshi

    Purpose: Surgical resection is considered the desirable curative treatment for trigeminal schwannomas. However, complete resection without any complications remains challenging. During the last several decades, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a minimally invasive treatment modality. Information regarding long-term outcomes of SRS for patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas is limited because of the rarity of this tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term tumor control and functional outcomes in patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas treated with SRS, specifically with gamma knife surgery (GKS). Methods and Materials: Fifty-three patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas treated with GKS were evaluated. Of these, 2more » patients (4%) had partial irradiation of the tumor, and 34 patients (64%) underwent GKS as the initial treatment. The median tumor volume was 6.0 cm{sup 3}. The median maximum and marginal doses were 28 Gy and 14 Gy, respectively. Results: The median follow-up period was 98 months. On the last follow-up image, 7 patients (13%) had tumor enlargement, including the 2 patients who had partial treatment. Excluding the 2 patients who had partial treatment, the actuarial 5- and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 90% and 82%, respectively. Patients with tumors compressing the brainstem with deviation of the fourth ventricle had significantly lower PFS rates. If those patients with tumors compressing the brainstem with deviation of the fourth ventricle are excluded, the actuarial 5- and 10-year PFS rates increased to 95% and 90%, respectively. Ten percent of patients had worsened facial numbness or pain in spite of no tumor progression, indicating adverse radiation effect. Conclusions: GKS can be an acceptable alternative to surgical resection in patients with trigeminal schwannomas. However, large tumors that compress the brainstem with deviation of the fourth ventricle should be surgically removed first

  3. GammaKnife surgery: safety and the identity of users.

    PubMed

    Dinka, David; Nyce, James M; Timpka, Toomas

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigated safety-related usability issues of an advanced medical technology, a radiosurgery system. We were interested in which criteria are important for users when a system's usability and safety is to be improved. The data collection was based on interviews and observations at three different sites where the Leksell GammaKnife is used. The analysis was qualitative. The main finding was that the user's identity or professional background has a significant impact both on how he or she views his or her role in the clinical setting, and on how he or she defines what improvements are necessary and general safety issues. In fact, the opinion even of users experienced in safety-related problems was highly influenced by how they related to the technology and its development. None of the users actually considered Leksell GammaKnife as lacking in safety, instead, their assessment was directed towards potential future system improvements. Our findings suggest that the importance of user identity or professional background cannot be neglected during the development of advanced technology. They also suggest that the user feedback should always be related to user background and identity in order to understand how important different issues are for particular users.

  4. Initial experience with gamma knife surgery for endocrine ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Antico, Julio C; Crovetto, Luis; Tenca, Eduardo; Artes, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate both the effectiveness and safety of the treatment of endocrine ophthalmopathy with gamma knife surgery (GKS). Five patients were included in a prospective study designed to assess the results of GKS of endocrine ophthalmopathy secondary to Graves disease. All the patients completed a 2-year follow-up period. During this period, the patients were evaluated both clinically and by means of additional methods, including computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies. The minimum dose delivered to the 50% isodose line was 6.5 Gy in all the patients. In all cases, a clinical improvement was observed. The best effect was seen in symptom regression related to soft-tissue involvement. No treatment-related side effects were detected. In light of the results obtained the authors consider that GKS may be a safe and effective way to treat endocrine ophthalmopathy.

  5. P13.17STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY WITH GAMMA KNIFE FOR NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2-ASSOCIATED VESTIBULAR SCHWANNOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Presti, A. Lo; De Andrés, P.; Kusak, M.E.; De Campos, J.M.; Martínez, N.; Martínez, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is though that Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) is less effective in achieving local tumor control in Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2)-related vestibular schwannomas (VSs) compared with sporadic tumors. There is scarce literature on optimal dosing, clinical outcomes and eventual increased risk for malignant transformation among these patients. It is also possible that radiation induced tumors, in patients bearing an abnormality in a tumor suppressor gene, are misinterpreted as part of the natural history of NF2, where new tumors are expected to develop. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of Gamma Knife (GK) Radiosurgery in the management of NF2-related VSs versus the sporadic VSs group treated at the same Center. METHOD: A prospectively maintained clinical database including all patients who underwent SRS for VSs was reviewed, and all subjects fulfilling the Manchester diagnostic criteria for NF2 were identified. Between 1994 and 2012, 35 patients with NF2 underwent SRS for 55 presumed VSs at our institution. The mean age at time of treatment was 30.8 years and the mean follow-up period was 4.3 years (1-14.75 years). The median margin dose used was 12 Gy and a total of 62 treatments were performed. Outcome measures, including imaging progression, hearing preservation, trigeminal and facial nerve function, were analyzed. RESULTS: Regarding tumor control 53.4% remained unchanged in size, 22.4% were smaller and 22.4% showed progression requiring further microsurgical resection or SRS. Hearing worsening occurred in 37% of tumors; 2 patients developed facial neuropathy, one of them bilateral and the other transient; trigeminal neuropathy occurred in 4 patients, one of them with previous mild impairment. No cases of malignant transformation were reported. Compared to the sporadic VSs group, NF2 patients showed lower local tumor control and higher incidence of facial and trigeminal neuropathy. CONCLUSION: NF2-related VSs treated with GK show worse clinical and

  6. Gamma knife surgery-induced ependymoma after the treatment of meningioma - a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Pan, Li; Che, Xiaoming; Lou, Meiqing

    2012-01-01

    Gamma knife surgery is widely used for a number of neurological disorders. However, little is known about its long-term complications such as carcinogenic risks. Here, we present a case of a radiosurgery-induced ependymoma by gamma knife surgery for the treatment of a spinal meningioma in a 7-year-old patient. In light of reviewing the previous reports, we advocate high caution in making young patients receive this treatment.

  7. Predictive Nomogram for the Durability of Pain Relief From Gamma Knife Radiation Surgery in the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, John T., E-mail: johnthomas75@gmail.com; Nida, Adrian M.; Isom, Scott

    Purpose: To determine factors associated with the durability of stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2008, 446 of 777 patients with TN underwent SRS and had evaluable follow-up in our electronic medical records and phone interview records. The median follow-up was 21.2 months. The Barrow Neurologic Institute (BNI) pain scale was used to determine pre- and post-SRS pain. Dose-volume anatomical measurements, Burchiel pain subtype, pain quality, prior procedures, and medication usage were included in this retrospective cohort to identify factors impacting the time to BNI 4-5 pain relapse by using Cox proportionalmore » hazard regression. An internet-based nomogram was constructed based on predictive factors of durable relief pre- and posttreatment at 6-month intervals. Results: Rates of freedom from BNI 4-5 failure at 1, 3, and 5 years were 84.5%, 70.4%, and 46.9%, respectively. Pain relief was BNI 1-3 at 1, 3, and 5 years in 86.1%, 74.3%, and 51.3% of type 1 patients; 79.3%, 46.2%, and 29.3% of type 2 patients; and 62.7%, 50.2%, and 25% of atypical facial pain patients. BNI type 1 pain score was achieved at 1, 3, and 5 years in 62.9%, 43.5%, and 22.0% of patients with type 1 pain and in 47.5%, 25.2%, and 9.2% of type 2 patients, respectively. Only 13% of patients with atypical facial pain achieved BNI 1 response; 42% of patients developed post-Gamma Knife radiation surgery (GKRS) trigeminal dysfunction. Multivariate analysis revealed that post-SRS numbness (hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; P<.0001), type 1 (vs type 2) TN (HR, 0.6; P=.02), and improved post-SRS BNI score at 6 months (HR, 0.009; P<.0001) were predictive of a durable pain response. Conclusions: The durability of SRS for TN depends on the presenting Burchiel pain type, the post-SRS BNI score, and the presence of post-SRS facial numbness. The durability of pain relief can be estimated pre- and posttreatment by using

  8. Current gamma knife treatment for ophthalmic branch of primary trigeminal neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guo-Yong; Liang, Hao-Fang; Zhang, Jian-Hua

    2011-01-01

    AIM To probe into problems existing in gamma knife treatment of ophthalmic branch of primary trigeminal neuralgia (TN), and propose a safe and effective solution to the problem. METHODS Through sorting the literature reporting gamma knife treatment of refractory TN in recent years, this article analyzed the advantages and problems of gamma knife treatment of primary TN, and proposed reasonable assessment for existing problems and the possible solution. RESULTS Gamma knife treatment of TN has drawn increasing attention of clinicians due to its unique non-invasion, safety and effectiveness, but there are three related issues to be considered. The first one is the uncertainty of the optimal dose (70-90GY); the second one is the difference in radiotherapy target selection (using a single isocenter or two isocenters); and the third one is the big difference of recurrent pains (specific treatment methods need to be summarized and improved). CONCLUSION For patients with refractory TN, gamma knife treatment can be selected when the medical treatment fails or drug side effects emerge. The analysis of a large number of TN patients receiving gamma knife treatment has shown that this is a safe and effective treatment method. PMID:22553625

  9. Long-Term Results of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Intracranial Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Chang Ki; Jung, Hyun Ho; Chang, Jong Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Park, Yong Gou

    2015-01-01

    Background The predominant treatment modality for meningioma is surgical resection. However, gamma knife radiosurgery is also an important treatment modality for meningioma that is small or cannot be completely removed because of its location. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and long-term results of radiosurgical treatment for meningioma in our institution. Methods We studied 628 patients (130 men and 498 women) who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery for intracranial meningioma, which is radiologically diagnosed, from Jan 2008 to Nov 2012. We included patients with single lesion meningioma, and followed up after 6 months with imaging, and then at 24 months with a clinical examination. Patients with high-grade meningioma or multiple meningiomas were excluded. We analyzed each of the factors associated with progression free survival. The median patient's age was 56.8 years. Maximal dosage was 27.8 Gy and marginal dosage was 13.9 Gy. Results The overall tumor control rate was 95%. Twenty-eight patients (4.4%) showed evidence of tumor recurrence. Ninety-eight patients (15%) developed peritumoral edema (PTE) after gamma-knife surgery; two of them (2%) underwent surgical resections due to PTE. Nine patients had craniotomy and tumor removal after gamma knife surgery. Conclusion Gamma knife surgery for intracranial meningioma has proven to be a safe and effective treatment tool with successful long-term outcomes. Gamma knife radiosurgery can be especially effective in cases of remnant meningioma after surgical resection or where PTE is not present. PMID:26605265

  10. Long-Term Results of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Intracranial Meningioma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Chang Ki; Jung, Hyun Ho; Chang, Jong Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Park, Yong Gou; Chang, Won Seok

    2015-10-01

    The predominant treatment modality for meningioma is surgical resection. However, gamma knife radiosurgery is also an important treatment modality for meningioma that is small or cannot be completely removed because of its location. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and long-term results of radiosurgical treatment for meningioma in our institution. We studied 628 patients (130 men and 498 women) who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery for intracranial meningioma, which is radiologically diagnosed, from Jan 2008 to Nov 2012. We included patients with single lesion meningioma, and followed up after 6 months with imaging, and then at 24 months with a clinical examination. Patients with high-grade meningioma or multiple meningiomas were excluded. We analyzed each of the factors associated with progression free survival. The median patient's age was 56.8 years. Maximal dosage was 27.8 Gy and marginal dosage was 13.9 Gy. The overall tumor control rate was 95%. Twenty-eight patients (4.4%) showed evidence of tumor recurrence. Ninety-eight patients (15%) developed peritumoral edema (PTE) after gamma-knife surgery; two of them (2%) underwent surgical resections due to PTE. Nine patients had craniotomy and tumor removal after gamma knife surgery. Gamma knife surgery for intracranial meningioma has proven to be a safe and effective treatment tool with successful long-term outcomes. Gamma knife radiosurgery can be especially effective in cases of remnant meningioma after surgical resection or where PTE is not present.

  11. Place of Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Grade 4 Vestibular Schwannoma Based on Case Series of 86 Patients with Long-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Michel; Da Roz, Leila Maria; Balossier, Anne; Thomassin, Jean Marc; Roche, Pierre Hugue; Regis, Jean

    2018-06-01

    Grade IV vestibular schwannoma (Koos classification) is generally considered to be an indication for microsurgical resection or combined radiosurgery-microsurgery. However, the place of Gamma Knife stereotactic surgery (GK-SRS), either as first-line treatment or when progression of residual tumor compresses the brainstem, has not been clearly evaluated. This article reports the results of a large case series of patients with grade 4 vestibular schwannoma treated by GK-SRS. All consecutive patients with grade IV vestibular schwannoma treated by GK-SRS in our department between 1996 and 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 3 years were included in this study. 86 patients were treated by GK-SRS with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Mean follow-up was 6.2 years (3-16 years). The mean age of the patients at the time of GK-SRS was 54.6 years (range: 23-84) and the sex ratio was 0.6. At the time of radiosurgery, no patient presented brainstem dysfunction prior to GK-SRS. 38 patients had functional hearing before treatment. One patient presented mild trigeminal neuralgia before GK-SRS. Tumor control with no clinical deterioration was obtained in 78 patients (90.7%). No radiation-induced brainstem or cranial nerve toxicity was observed in any of these patients. Functional hearing was maintained in 25 patients. 8 (9.3%) patients presented tumor growth and required microsurgical resection in 7 cases and ventricular shunt in 1 case. On the basis of this large series, GK-SRS appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for grade IV vestibular schwannoma for patients with no signs of brainstem dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gamma Knife Surgery for Metastatic Brain Tumors from Gynecologic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Shigeo; Shuto, Takashi; Sato, Mitsuru

    2016-05-01

    The incidences of metastatic brain tumors from gynecologic cancer have increased. The results of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for the treatment of patients with brain metastases from gynecologic cancer (ovarian, endometrial, and uterine cervical cancers) were retrospectively analyzed to identify the efficacy and prognostic factors for local tumor control and survival. The medical records were retrospectively reviewed of 70 patients with 306 tumors who underwent GKS for brain metastases from gynecologic cancer between January 1995 and December 2013 in our institution. The primary cancers were ovarian in 33 patients with 147 tumors and uterine in 37 patients with 159 tumors. Median tumor volume was 0.3 cm(3). Median marginal prescription dose was 20 Gy. The local tumor control rates were 96.4% at 6 months and 89.9% at 1 year. There was no statistically significant difference between ovarian and uterine cancers. Higher prescription dose and smaller tumor volume were significantly correlated with local tumor control. Median overall survival time was 8 months. Primary ovarian cancer, controlled extracranial metastases, and solitary brain metastasis were significantly correlated with satisfactory overall survival. Median activities of daily living (ADL) preservation survival time was 8 months. Primary ovarian cancer, controlled extracranial metastases, and higher Karnofsky Performance Status score were significantly correlated with better ADL preservation. GKS is effective for control of tumor progression in patients with brain metastases from gynecologic cancer, and may provide neurologic benefits and preservation of the quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Pediatric Arteriovenous Malformations: A Canadian Experience.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Fred A; Janik, Maciej K; McDonald, Patrick J; Kaufmann, Anthony M; Fewer, Derek; Butler, Jim; Schroeder, Garry; West, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery for pediatric arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the brain presents a non-invasive treatment option. We report our institutional experience with GK for pediatric AVMs. We performed a retrospective review of all pediatric patients treated with GK for cerebral AVMs at our institution from November 2003 up to and including September 2014. Patient demographics, AVM characteristics, treatment parameters and AVM responses were recorded. Nineteen patients were treated, with 4 lost to follow-up. The mean age was 14.2 years (range. 7-18 years), with 10 being males (52.6%). The mean AVM diameter and volume were 2.68 cm and 3.10 cm3 respectively. The mean Spetzler-Martin (SM) and Pollock grades of the treated AVMs were 2.4 and 0.99 respectively. The mean follow-up was 62 months. All AVMs treated demonstrated a response on follow-up imaging. Nine of 15 (60.0%) patients displayed obliteration of their AVMs. Nine of 11 patients with a minimum of 3 years follow-up (81.8%) displayed obliteration, with SM and Pollock grades correlating to the chance of obliteration in this group. Two patients developed post-GK edema requiring short course dexamethasone therapy. No other major complications occurred. No permanent complications occurred. GK radiosurgery for pediatric AVMs offers a safe and effective treatment option, with low permanent complication rates during early follow-up.

  14. Recurrent Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Treated with Gamma Knife Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Jung, Hee-Won

    2006-01-01

    Radiosurgery has been rarely applied for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and cumulative reports are lacking. The authors report a case of successful treatment of recurred JNA with gamma knife surgery (GKS). A 48-yr-old man was presented with right visual acuity deterioration and brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) disclosed a 3 cm-sized intraorbital mass in the right orbit. He underwent a right fronto-temporal craniotomy and the mass was subtotally removed to preserve visual function. Histological diagnosis confirmed JNA in typical nature. However, the vision gradually worsened to fail four years after operation. MRI then showed regrowth of the tumor occupying most of the right orbit. GKS was done for the recurred lesion. A dose of 17 Gy was delivered to the 50% isodose line of tumor margin. During the following four-year follow-up period, the mass disappeared almost completely without any complications. Usually JNA can be exclusively diagnosed by radiological study alone. So this report of successful treatment of JNA with GKS may provide an important clue for the novel indication of GKS. PMID:16891831

  15. Benign orbital apex tumors treated with multisession gamma knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Goh, Alice Siew Ching; Kim, Yoon-Duck; Woo, Kyung In; Lee, Jung-Il

    2013-03-01

    The orbital apex is an important anatomic landmark that hosts numerous critical neurovascular structures. Tumor resection performed at this complex region poses a therapeutic challenge to orbital surgeons and often is associated with significant visual morbidity. This article reports the efficacy and safety of multisession gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in benign, well-circumscribed tumors located at the orbital apex. Retrospective interventional case series. Five patients with visual disturbances resulting from a benign, well-circumscribed orbital apex tumor (3 cases of cavernous hemangioma and 2 cases of schwannoma). Each patient treated with GKRS with a total radiation dose of 20 Gy in 4 sessions (5 Gy in each session with an isodose line of 50%) delivered to the tumor margin. Best-corrected visual acuity, visual field changes, orbital imaging, tumor growth control, and side effects of radiation. All patients demonstrated improvement in visual acuity, pupillary responses, color vision, and visual field. Tumor shrinkage was observed in all patients and remained stable until the last follow-up. No adverse events were noted during or after the radiosurgery. None of the patients experienced any radiation-related ocular morbidity. From this experience, multisession GKRS seems to be an effective management strategy to treat solitary, benign, well-circumscribed orbital apex tumors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A nomogram for predicting distant brain failure in patients treated with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery without whole brain radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Peacock, Diandra N.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Lucas, John T.; Isom, Scott; Kuremsky, J. Griff; Urbanic, James J.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; Shaw, Edward G.; Chan, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Background We review our single institution experience to determine predictive factors for early and delayed distant brain failure (DBF) after radiosurgery without whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for brain metastases. Materials and methods Between January 2000 and December 2010, a total of 464 patients were treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) without WBRT for primary management of newly diagnosed brain metastases. Histology, systemic disease, RPA class, and number of metastases were evaluated as possible predictors of DBF rate. DBF rates were determined by serial MRI. Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate rate of DBF. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox Proportional Hazard regression. Results Median number of lesions treated was 1 (range 1–13). Median time to DBF was 4.9 months. Twenty-seven percent of patients ultimately required WBRT with median time to WBRT of 5.6 months. Progressive systemic disease (χ2= 16.748, P < .001), number of metastases at SRS (χ2 = 27.216, P < .001), discovery of new metastases at time of SRS (χ2 = 9.197, P < .01), and histology (χ2 = 12.819, P < .07) were factors that predicted for earlier time to distant failure. High risk histologic subtypes (melanoma, her2 negative breast, χ2 = 11.020, P < .001) and low risk subtypes (her2 + breast, χ2 = 11.343, P < .001) were identified. Progressive systemic disease (χ2 = 9.549, P < .01), number of brain metastases (χ2 = 16.953, P < .001), minimum SRS dose (χ2 = 21.609, P < .001), and widespread metastatic disease (χ2 = 29.396, P < .001) were predictive of shorter time to WBRT. Conclusion Systemic disease, number of metastases, and histology are factors that predict distant failure rate after primary radiosurgical management of brain metastases. PMID:24558022

  17. The current role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in the management of intracranial haemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Spina, Alfio; Boari, Nicola; Gagliardi, Filippo; Donofrio, Carmine A; Franzin, Alberto; Mortini, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Haemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are rare tumours characterised by aggressive behaviour with tendency to local recurrence and to metastasise. WHO grade II and grade III tumours show different progression-free survival and overall survival rates. Gross total tumour resection is still considered the treatment of choice. Adjuvant radiation therapies represent an option in the treatment strategy regardless the extent of resection. Based on this consideration, Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been introduced either as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant treatment for residual or recurrent tumours. A systematic search was performed on PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar for clinical series reporting Gamma Knife radiosurgery, Cyberknife and Linear Accelerator (LINAC) for the management of intracranial HPCs. Fourteen studies focusing on the effects of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for intracranial HPCs were included. Four studies reported data on Cyberknife radiosurgery and LINAC. A total of 208 patients harbouring 366 tumours have been reported. Patient's features, radiosurgical treatment characteristics and follow-up data of the pertinent literature have been critically revised. Gamma Knife radiosurgery and the other radiosurgical techniques represent a feasible and effective therapy in the management of HPCs. Tumour control and survival rate are comparable to those reported for radiotherapy. Further studies should be focused to define the exact role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in the management of HPCs.

  18. Gamma knife radiosurgery for Cushing's disease and Nelson's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marek, Josef; Ježková, Jana; Hána, Václav; Kršek, Michal; Liščák, Roman; Vladyka, Vilibald; Pecen, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents our 18 years of experience in treating ACTH secreting adenomas (Cushing's disease and Nelson's syndrome) using the Leksell gamma knife (LGK) irradiation. Twenty-six patients with Cushing's disease were followed-up after LGK irradiation for 48-216 months (median 78 months). Seventeen patients had undergone previous surgery, in nine patients LGK irradiation was the primary therapy. Furthermore, 14 patients with Nelson's syndrome were followed-up for 30-204 months (median 144 months). LGK treatment resulted in hormonal normalization in 80.7 % of patients with Cushing's disease. Time to normalization was 6-54 months (median 30 months). The volume of the adenoma decreased in 92.3% (in 30.7% disappeared completely). There was no recurrence of the disease. In all 14 patients with Nelson's syndrome ACTH levels decreased (in two patients fully normalized) their ACTH levels. When checked up 5-10 years after irradiation regrowth of the adenoma was only detected in one patient (9.1%), in 27.3% adenoma volume remained unchanged, in 45.4% adenoma volume decreased and in 18.2% adenoma completely disappeared. Hypopituitarism did not develop in any patient where the critical dose to the pituitary and distal infundibulum was respected. LGK radiation represents an effective and well-tolerated option for the treatment of patients with Cushing's disease after unsuccessful surgery and may be valuable even as a primary treatment in patients who are not suitable for, or refuse, surgery. In the case of Nelson's syndrome it is possible to impede tumorous growth and control the size of the adenoma in almost all patients.

  19. Gamma knife radiosurgery for medically and surgically refractory prolactinomas.

    PubMed

    Pouratian, Nader; Sheehan, Jason; Jagannathan, Jay; Laws, Edward R; Steiner, Ladislau; Vance, Mary L

    2006-08-01

    Experience with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for prolactinomas is limited because of the efficacy of medical and surgical intervention. Patients who are refractory to medical and/or surgical therapy may be treated with GKRS. We characterize the efficacy of GKRS for medically and surgically refractory prolactinomas. We reviewed our series of patients with prolactinomas who were treated with GKRS after failing medical and surgical intervention who had at least 1 year of follow-up. Twenty-three patients were included in analysis of endocrine outcomes (median and average follow-up of 55 and 58 mo, respectively) and 28 patients were included in analysis of imaging outcomes (median and average follow-up of 48 and 52 mo, respectively). Twenty-six percent of patients achieved a normal serum prolactin (remission) with an average time of 24.5 months. Remission was significantly associated with being off of a dopamine agonist at the time of GKRS and a tumor volume less than 3.0 cm3 (P < 0.05 for both). Long-term image-based volumetric control was achieved in 89% of patients. Complications included new pituitary hormone deficiencies in 28% of patients and cranial nerve palsy in two patients (7%). Clinical remission in 26% of treated patients is a modest result. However, because the GKRS treated tumors were refractory to other therapies and because complication rates were low, GKRS should be part of the armamentarium for treating refractory prolactinomas. Patients with tumors smaller than 3.0 cm3 and who are not receiving dopamine agonist at the time of treatment will likely benefit most.

  20. Salvage Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Surgically Refractory Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Little, Andrew S.; Shetter, Andrew G.; Shetter, Mary E.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with surgically refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treated with rescue gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Methods and Materials: Seventy-nine patients with typical TN received salvage GKRS between 1997 and 2002 at the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI). All patients had recurrent pain following at least one prior surgical intervention. Prior surgical interventions included percutaneous destructive procedures, microvascular decompression (MVD), or GKRS. Thirty-one (39%) had undergone at least two prior procedures. The most common salvage dose was 80 Gy, although 40-50 Gy was typical in patients who had received prior radiosurgery. Pain outcome was assessed usingmore » the BNI Pain Intensity Score, and quality of life was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Results: Median follow-up after salvage GKRS was 5.3 years. Actuarial analysis demonstrated that at 5 years, 20% of patients were pain-free and 50% had pain relief. Pain recurred in patients who had an initial response to GKRS at a median of 1.1 years. Twenty-eight (41%) required a subsequent surgical procedure for recurrence. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model suggested that the strongest predictor of GKRS failure was a history of prior MVD (p=0.029). There were no instances of serious morbidity or mortality. Ten percent of patients developed worsening facial numbness and 8% described their numbness as 'very bothersome.' Conclusions: GKRS salvage for refractory TN is well tolerated and results in long-term pain relief in approximately half the patients treated. Clinicians may reconsider using GKRS to salvage patients who have failed prior MVD.« less

  1. Cavernomas: Outcomes after gamma-knife radiosurgery in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Parisa; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Bitaraf, Mohammad Ali; Azar, Maziar; Alikhani, Mazdak; Zali, Alireza; Sadeghi, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment of cavernomas remains a challenge in surgically inaccessible regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes after gamma-knife surgery (GKS) for these patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 100 patients treated between 2003 and 2011 was conducted in order to evaluate hemorrhage rates, complications, radiation effects after GKS. Dosage at the tumor margin was stratified into two groups: those that received ≤13 Gy; and those who received >13 Gy. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients including age, gender, and hemorrhage rates were extracted from care records. Results: The median age was 32.5 years (ranging from 15 to 79). 44% were female. The median follow-up time was 42.2 months (ranging from 24 to 90). The median volume of the lesions was 1050.0 mm3 (ranging from 112.0 to 4100.0) before GKS. A reduction of 27.5% in median size of cavernomas was achieved at the last follow-up. There was 12% treatment-related morbidity after GKS. The hemorrhage rate in the first 2 years after GKS was 4.1% and 1.9% thereafter. There was no mortality due to GKS, and 93 patients were alive at the last follow-up. The radiation-related complication developed with marginal dose 13 Gy. Conclusion: The GKS for cavernomas appears to be a safe and beneficial in carefully selected patients. Low-dose GKS may be effective for the management of cavernous malformations. PMID:25767582

  2. Real-time inverse planning for Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q Jackie; Chankong, Vira; Jitprapaikulsarn, Suradet; Wessels, Barry W; Einstein, Douglas B; Mathayomchan, Boonyanit; Kinsella, Timothy J

    2003-11-01

    The challenges of real-time Gamma Knife inverse planning are the large number of variables involved and the unknown search space a priori. With limited collimator sizes, shots have to be heavily overlapped to form a smooth prescription isodose line that conforms to the irregular target shape. Such overlaps greatly influence the total number of shots per plan, making pre-determination of the total number of shots impractical. However, this total number of shots usually defines the search space, a pre-requisite for most of the optimization methods. Since each shot only covers part of the target, a collection of shots in different locations and various collimator sizes selected makes up the global dose distribution that conforms to the target. Hence, planning or placing these shots is a combinatorial optimization process that is computationally expensive by nature. We have previously developed a theory of shot placement and optimization based on skeletonization. The real-time inverse planning process, reported in this paper, is an expansion and the clinical implementation of this theory. The complete planning process consists of two steps. The first step is to determine an optimal number of shots including locations and sizes and to assign initial collimator size to each of the shots. The second step is to fine-tune the weights using a linear-programming technique. The objective function is to minimize the total dose to the target boundary (i.e., maximize the dose conformity). Results of an ellipsoid test target and ten clinical cases are presented. The clinical cases are also compared with physician's manual plans. The target coverage is more than 99% for manual plans and 97% for all the inverse plans. The RTOG PITV conformity indices for the manual plans are between 1.16 and 3.46, compared to 1.36 to 2.4 for the inverse plans. All the inverse plans are generated in less than 2 min, making real-time inverse planning a reality.

  3. Therapeutic Effect of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Multiple Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-Kyu; Lee, Sang Ryul; Cho, Jin Mo; Yang, Kyung Ah

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in patients with multiple brain metastases and to investigate prognostic factors related to treatment outcome. Methods We retrospectively reviewed clinico-radiological and dosimetric data of 36 patients with 4-14 brain metastases who underwent GKRS for 264 lesions between August 2008 and April 2011. The most common primary tumor site was the lung (n=22), followed by breast (n=7). At GKRS, the median Karnofsky performance scale score was 90 and the mean tumor volume was 1.2 cc (0.002-12.6). The mean prescription dose of 17.8 Gy was delivered to the mean 61.1% isodose line. Among 264 metastases, 175 lesions were assessed for treatment response by at least one imaging follow-up. Results The overall median survival after GKRS was 9.1±1.7 months. Among various factors, primary tumor control was a significant prognostic factor (11.1±1.3 months vs. 3.3±2.4 months, p=0.031). The calculated local tumor control rate at 6 and 9 months after GKRS were 87.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Paddick's conformity index (>0.75) was significantly related to local tumor control. The actuarial peritumoral edema reduction rate was 22.4% at 6 months. Conclusion According to our results, GKRS can provide beneficial effect for the patients with multiple (4 or more) brain metastases, when systemic cancer is controlled. And, careful dosimetry is essential for local tumor control. Therefore, GKRS can be considered as one of the treatment modalities for multiple brain metastase. PMID:22102945

  4. Clinical outcomes following salvage Gamma Knife radiosurgery for recurrent glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erik W; Peterson, Halloran E; Lamoreaux, Wayne T; MacKay, Alexander R; Fairbanks, Robert K; Call, Jason A; Carlson, Jonathan D; Ling, Benjamin C; Demakas, John J; Cooke, Barton S; Lee, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor with a survival prognosis of 14-16 mo for the highest functioning patients. Despite aggressive, multimodal upfront therapies, the majority of GBMs will recur in approximately six months. Salvage therapy options for recurrent GBM (rGBM) are an area of intense research. This study compares recent survival and quality of life outcomes following Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) salvage therapy. Following a PubMed search for studies using GKRS as salvage therapy for malignant gliomas, nine articles from 2005 to July 2013 were identified which evaluated rGBM treatment. In this review, we compare Overall survival following diagnosis, Overall survival following salvage treatment, Progression-free survival, Time to recurrence, Local tumor control, and adverse radiation effects. This report discusses results for rGBM patient populations alone, not for mixed populations with other tumor histology grades. All nine studies reported median overall survival rates (from diagnosis, range: 16.7-33.2 mo; from salvage, range: 9-17.9 mo). Three studies identified median progression-free survival (range: 4.6-14.9 mo). Two showed median time to recurrence of GBM. Two discussed local tumor control. Six studies reported adverse radiation effects (range: 0%-46% of patients). The greatest survival advantages were seen in patients who received GKRS salvage along with other treatments, like resection or bevacizumab, suggesting that appropriately tailored multimodal therapy should be considered with each rGBM patient. However, there needs to be a randomized clinical trial to test GKRS for rGBM before the possibility of selection bias can be dismissed. PMID:24829861

  5. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for hypothalamic hamartoma preserves endocrine functions.

    PubMed

    Castinetti, Frederic; Brue, Thierry; Morange, Isabelle; Carron, Romain; Régis, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GK) is an effective treatment for hypothalamic hamartoma. No precise data are available on the risk of endocrine side effects of this treatment. In this study, 34 patients with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) were followed prospectively at the Department of Endocrinology, La Timone Hospital, Marseille, France, for a mean follow-up of >2 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 3.6 ± 2 years). Initial pre- and post-GK radiosurgery evaluations were performed, including weight, body mass index (BMI), and a complete endocrinological workup. At diagnosis, eight patients presented with central precocious puberty at a mean age of 5.4 ± 2.4 years. At the time of GK (mean age 18.2 ± 11.1 years), two patients previously treated with surgery presented with luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) deficiency. After GK, only one patient presented with a new thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency, 2 years after the procedure. The other pituitary axes remained normal in all but two patients (who had LH/FSH deficiency prior to GK). There was no significant difference between pre- and post-GK mean BMI (26.9 vs. 25.1 kg/m 2 , p = 0.59). To conclude, in this group of 34 patients, GK did not induce major endocrinologic side effects reported with all the other surgical techniques in the literature. It is, thus, a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of hypothalamic hamartoma. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Gamma Knife radiosurgery in pituitary adenomas: Why, who, and how to treat?

    PubMed

    Castinetti, Frederic; Brue, Thierry

    2010-08-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors that can be either secreting (acromegaly, Cushing's disease, prolactinomas) or non-secreting. Transsphenoidal neurosurgery is the gold standard treatment; however, it is not always effective. Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a specific modality of stereotactic radiosurgery, a precise radiation technique. Several studies reported the efficacy and low risk of adverse effects induced by this technique: in secreting pituitary adenomas, hypersecretion is controlled in about 50% of cases and tumor volume is stabilized or decreased in 80-90% of cases, making Gamma Knife a valuable adjunctive or first-line treatment. As hormone levels decrease progressively, the main drawback is the longer time to remission (12-60 months), requiring an additional treatment during this period. Hypopituitarism is the main side effect, observed in 20-40% cases. Gamma Knife is thus useful in the therapeutic algorithms of pituitary adenomas in well-defined indications, mainly low secreting small lesions well identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  7. Acute necrosis after Gamma Knife surgery in vestibular schwannoma leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies.

    PubMed

    Kapitza, Sandra; Pangalu, Athina; Horstmann, Gerhard A; van Eck, Albert T; Regli, Luca; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2016-08-01

    We discuss a rare acute complication after Gamma Knife therapy (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) in a single patient. A 52-year-old woman presented with vertigo, facial weakness and hearing loss emerging 48hours following Gamma Knife radiosurgery for a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Neurological examination 6days after symptom onset showed right-sided facial palsy, spontaneous left-beating nystagmus and pathologic head-impulse testing to the right. Pure-tone audiogram revealed right-sided sensorineural hearing loss. A diagnosis of acute vestibulocochlear and facial neuropathy was made. Brain MRI demonstrated focal contrast sparing within the schwannoma, likely related to acute radiation necrosis. Acute multiple cranial neuropathies of the cerebellopontine angle after Gamma Knife treatment should raise suspicion of acute tissue damage within the schwannoma and should result in urgent MRI. Treatment with steroids may be considered based on accompanying swelling and edema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stereotaxic gamma knife surgery in treatment of critically located pilocytic astrocytoma: preliminary result

    PubMed Central

    Hafez, Raef FA

    2007-01-01

    Background Low-grade gliomas are uncommon primary brain tumors, located more often in the posterior fossa, optic pathway, and brain stem and less commonly in the cerebral hemispheres. Case presentations Two patients with diagnosed recurrent cystic pilocytic astrocytoma critically located within the brain (thalamic and brain stem) were treated with gamma knife surgery. Gamma knife surgery (GKS) did improve the patient's clinical condition very much which remained stable later on. Progressive reduction on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the solid part of the tumor and almost disappearance of the cystic component was achieved within the follow-up period of 36 months in the first case with the (thalamic located lesion) and 22 months in the second case with the (brain stem located lesion). Conclusion Gamma knife surgery represents an alternate tool in the treatment of recurrent and/or small postoperative residual pilocytic astrocytoma especially if they are critically located PMID:17394660

  9. Optimal Shape of a Gamma-ray Collimator: single vs double knife edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Albert; Hogenbirk, Alfred

    2017-09-01

    Gamma-ray collimators in nuclear waste scanners are used for selecting a narrow vertical segment in activity measurements of waste vessels. The system that is used by NRG uses tapered slit collimators of both the single and double knife edge type. The properties of these collimators were investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We found that single knife edge collimators are highly preferable for a conservative estimate of the activity of the waste vessels. These collimators show much less dependence on the angle of incidence of the radiation than double knife edge collimators. This conclusion also applies to cylindrical collimators of the single knife edge type, that are generally used in medical imaging spectroscopy.

  10. Characterization of system-related geometric distortions in MR images employed in Gamma Knife radiosurgery applications.

    PubMed

    Pappas, E P; Seimenis, I; Moutsatsos, A; Georgiou, E; Nomikos, P; Karaiskos, P

    2016-10-07

    This work provides characterization of system-related geometric distortions present in MRIs used in Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment planning. A custom-made phantom, compatible with the Leksell stereotactic frame model G and encompassing 947 control points (CPs), was utilized. MR images were obtained with and without the frame, thus allowing discrimination of frame-induced distortions. In the absence of the frame and following compensation for field inhomogeneities, measured average CP disposition owing to gradient nonlinearities was 0.53 mm. In presence of the frame, contrarily, detected distortion was greatly increased (up to about 5 mm) in the vicinity of the frame base due to eddy currents induced in the closed loop of its aluminum material. Frame-related distortion was obliterated at approximately 90 mm from the frame base. Although the region with the maximum observed distortion may not lie within the GK treatable volume, the presence of the frame results in distortion of the order of 1.5 mm at a 7 cm distance from the center of the Leksell space. Additionally, severe distortions observed outside the treatable volume could possibly impinge on the delivery accuracy mainly by adversely affecting the registration process (e.g. the position of the lower part of the N-shaped fiducials used to define the stereotactic space may be miss-registered). Images acquired with a modified version of the frame developed by replacing its front side with an acrylic bar, thus interrupting the closed aluminum loop and reducing the induced eddy currents, were shown to benefit from relatively reduced distortion. System-related distortion was also identified in patient MR images. Using corresponding CT angiography images as a reference, an offset of 1.1 mm was detected for two vessels lying in close proximity to the frame base, while excellent spatial agreement was observed for a vessel far apart from the frame base.

  11. Characterization of system-related geometric distortions in MR images employed in Gamma Knife radiosurgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, E. P.; Seimenis, I.; Moutsatsos, A.; Georgiou, E.; Nomikos, P.; Karaiskos, P.

    2016-10-01

    This work provides characterization of system-related geometric distortions present in MRIs used in Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment planning. A custom-made phantom, compatible with the Leksell stereotactic frame model G and encompassing 947 control points (CPs), was utilized. MR images were obtained with and without the frame, thus allowing discrimination of frame-induced distortions. In the absence of the frame and following compensation for field inhomogeneities, measured average CP disposition owing to gradient nonlinearities was 0.53 mm. In presence of the frame, contrarily, detected distortion was greatly increased (up to about 5 mm) in the vicinity of the frame base due to eddy currents induced in the closed loop of its aluminum material. Frame-related distortion was obliterated at approximately 90 mm from the frame base. Although the region with the maximum observed distortion may not lie within the GK treatable volume, the presence of the frame results in distortion of the order of 1.5 mm at a 7 cm distance from the center of the Leksell space. Additionally, severe distortions observed outside the treatable volume could possibly impinge on the delivery accuracy mainly by adversely affecting the registration process (e.g. the position of the lower part of the N-shaped fiducials used to define the stereotactic space may be miss-registered). Images acquired with a modified version of the frame developed by replacing its front side with an acrylic bar, thus interrupting the closed aluminum loop and reducing the induced eddy currents, were shown to benefit from relatively reduced distortion. System-related distortion was also identified in patient MR images. Using corresponding CT angiography images as a reference, an offset of 1.1 mm was detected for two vessels lying in close proximity to the frame base, while excellent spatial agreement was observed for a vessel far apart from the frame base.

  12. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for large vestibular schwannomas greater than 3 cm in diameter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Tu, Hsien-Tang; Chuang, Chun-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Siu; Chou, Hsi-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Huang, Chuan-Fu

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an important alternative management option for patients with small- and medium-sized vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Its use in the treatment of large tumors, however, is still being debated. The authors reviewed their recent experience to assess the potential role of SRS in larger-sized VSs. METHODS Between 2000 and 2014, 35 patients with large VSs, defined as having both a single dimension > 3 cm and a volume > 10 cm 3 , underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Nine patients (25.7%) had previously undergone resection. The median total volume covered in this group of patients was 14.8 cm 3 (range 10.3-24.5 cm 3 ). The median tumor margin dose was 11 Gy (range 10-12 Gy). RESULTS The median follow-up duration was 48 months (range 6-156 months). All 35 patients had regular MRI follow-up examinations. Twenty tumors (57.1%) had a volume reduction of greater than 50%, 5 (14.3%) had a volume reduction of 15%-50%, 5 (14.3%) were stable in size (volume change < 15%), and 5 (14.3%) had larger volumes (all of these lesions were eventually resected). Four patients (11.4%) underwent resection within 9 months to 6 years because of progressive symptoms. One patient (2.9%) had open surgery for new-onset intractable trigeminal neuralgia at 48 months after GKRS. Two patients (5.7%) who developed a symptomatic cyst underwent placement of a cystoperitoneal shunt. Eight (66%) of 12 patients with pre-GKRS trigeminal sensory dysfunction had hypoesthesia relief. One hemifacial spasm completely resolved 3 years after treatment. Seven patients with facial weakness experienced no deterioration after GKRS. Two of 3 patients with serviceable hearing before GKRS deteriorated while 1 patient retained the same level of hearing. Two patients improved from severe hearing loss to pure tone audiometry less than 50 dB. The authors found borderline statistical significance for post-GKRS tumor enlargement for later resection (p = 0.05, HR 9.97, CI 0

  13. Gamma knife surgery for epilepsy related to hypothalamic hamartomas.

    PubMed

    Régis, J; Bartolomei, F; de Toffol, B; Genton, P; Kobayashi, T; Mori, Y; Takakura, K; Hori, T; Inoue, H; Schröttner, O; Pendl, G; Wolf, A; Arita, K; Chauvel, P

    2000-12-01

    Drug-resistant epilepsy associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) can be cured by microsurgical resection of the lesions. Morbidity and mortality rates for microsurgery in this area are significant. Gamma knife surgery (GKS) is less invasive and seems to be well adapted for this indication. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of GKS to treat this uncommon pathological condition, we organized a multicenter retrospective study. Ten patients were treated in seven different centers. The follow-up periods were more than 12 months for eight patients, with a median follow-up period of 28 months (mean, 35 mo; range, 12-71 mo). All patients had severe drug-resistant epilepsy, including frequent gelastic and generalized tonic or tonicoclonic attacks. The median age was 13.5 years (range, 1-32 yr; mean, 14 yr) at the time of GKS. Three patients experienced precocious puberty. All patients had sessile HHs. The median marginal dose was 15.25 Gy (range, 12-20 Gy). Two patients were treated two times (at 19 and 49 mo) because of insufficient efficacy. All patients exhibited improvement. Four patients were seizure-free, one experienced rare nocturnal seizures, one experienced some rare partial seizures but no more generalized attacks, and two exhibited only improvement, with reductions in the frequency of seizures but persistence of some rare generalized seizures. Two patients, now seizure-free, were considered to exhibit insufficient improvement after the first GKS procedure and were treated a second time. A clear correlation between efficacy and dose was observed in this series. The marginal dose was more than 17 Gy for all patients in the successful group and less than 13 Gy for all patients in the "improved" group. No side effects were reported, except for poikilothermia in one patient. Behavior was clearly improved for two patients (with only slight improvements in their epilepsy). Complete coverage of the HHs did not seem to be mandatory, because the dosimetry spared a

  14. A new Gamma Knife registered radiosurgery paradigm: Tomosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, X.; Maciunas, R. J.; Dean, D.

    This study proposes and simulates an inverse treatment planning and a continuous dose delivery approach for the Leksell Gamma Knife registered (LGK, Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) which we refer to as 'Tomosurgery'. Tomosurgery uses an isocenter that moves within the irradiation field to continuously deliver the prescribed radiation dose in a raster-scanning format, slice by slice, within an intracranial lesion. Our Tomosurgery automated (inverse) treatment planning algorithm utilizes a two-stage optimization strategy. The first stage reduces the current three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning problem to a series of more easily solved 2D treatment planning subproblems. In the second stage, those 2D treatmentmore » plans are assembled to obtain a final 3D treatment plan for the entire lesion. We created Tomosurgery treatment plans for 11 patients who had already received manually-generated LGK treatment plans to treat brain tumors. For the seven cases without critical structures (CS), the Tomosurgery treatment plans showed borderline to significant improvement in within-tumor dose standard deviation (STD) (p<0.058, or p<0.011 excluding case 2) and conformality (p<0.042), respectively. In three of the four cases that presented CS, the Tomosurgery treatment plans showed no statistically significant improvements in dose conformality (p<0.184), and borderline significance in improving within-tumor dose homogeneity (p<0.054); CS damage measured by V{sub 20} or V{sub 30} (i.e., irradiated CS volume that receives {>=}20% or {>=}30% of the maximum dose) showed no significant improvement in the Tomosurgery treatment plans (p<0.345 and p<0.423, respectively). However, the overall CS dose volume histograms were improved in the Tomosurgery treatment plans. In addition, the LGK Tomosurgery inverse treatment planning required less time than standard of care, forward (manual) LGK treatment planning (i.e., 5-35 min vs 1-3 h) for all 11 cases. We expect that LGK Tomosurgery will

  15. Gamma knife radiosurgery for skull-base meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Masami; Fukuoka, Seiji; Hojyo, Atsufumi; Sasaki, Takehiko; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) when used as a treatment modality for cavernous sinus or posterior fossa skull-base meningiomas (SBMs), with particular attention given to whether or not intentional partial resection followed by GKRS constitutes an appropriate combination treatment method for larger SBMs. Of the 101 SBM patients in this series, 38 were classified as having cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSMs), and 63 presented with posterior fossa meningiomas (PFMs). The patients with no history of prior surgery (19 CSMs, 57 PFMs) were treated according to a set protocol. Small to medium-sized SBMs were treated by GKRS only. To minimize the risk of functional deficits, larger tumors were treated with the combination of intentional partial resection followed by GKRS. Residual or recurrent tumors in patients who had undergone extirpations prior to GKRS (19 CSMs, 6 PFMs) are not eligible for this treatment method (due to the surgeries not being performed as part of a combination strategy designed to preserve neurological function as the first priority). The mean follow-up period was 51.9 months (range, 6-144 months). The overall tumor control rates were 95.5% in CSMs and 98.4% in PFMs. Nearly all tumors treated with GKRS alone were well controlled and the patients had no deficits. Furthermore, none of the patients who had undergone prior surgeries experienced new neurological deficits after GKRS. While new neurological deficits appeared far less often in those receiving the combination of partial resection with subsequent GKRS, extirpations tended to be associated with not only a higher incidence of new deficits but also a significant increase in the worsening of already-existing deficits. Our results indicate that GKRS is a safe and effective primary treatment for SBMs with small to moderate tumor volumes. We also found that larger SBMs compressing the optic pathway or brain stem can be effectively

  16. Two‐year experience with the commercial Gamma Knife Check software

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Jagdish; Bednarz, Greg; Novotny, Josef; Flickinger, John; Lunsford, L. Dade; Huq, M. Saiful

    2016-01-01

    The Gamma Knife Check software is an FDA approved second check system for dose calculations in Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and the stability of the commercial software package as a tool for independent dose verification. The Gamma Knife Check software version 8.4 was commissioned for a Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion and a 4C unit at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in May 2012. Independent dose verifications were performed using this software for 319 radiosurgery cases on the Perfexion and 283 radiosurgery cases on the 4C units. The cases on each machine were divided into groups according to their diagnoses, and an averaged absolute percent dose difference for each group was calculated. The percentage dose difference for each treatment target was obtained as the relative difference between the Gamma Knife Check dose and the dose from the tissue maximum ratio algorithm (TMR 10) from the GammaPlan software version 10 at the reference point. For treatment plans with imaging skull definition, results obtained from the Gamma Knife Check software using the measurement‐based skull definition method are used for comparison. The collected dose difference data were also analyzed in terms of the distance from the treatment target to the skull, the number of treatment shots used for the target, and the gamma angles of the treatment shots. The averaged percent dose differences between the Gamma Knife Check software and the GammaPlan treatment planning system are 0.3%, 0.89%, 1.24%, 1.09%, 0.83%, 0.55%, 0.33%, and 1.49% for the trigeminal neuralgia, acoustic neuroma, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), meningioma, pituitary adenoma, glioma, functional disorders, and metastasis cases on the Perfexion unit. The corresponding averaged percent dose differences for the 4C unit are 0.33%, 1.2%, 2.78% 1.99%, 1.4%, 1.92%, 0.62%, and 1.51%, respectively. The dose difference is, in general, larger for treatment targets in the

  17. Two-year experience with the commercial Gamma Knife Check software.

    PubMed

    Xu, Andy Yuanguang; Bhatnagar, Jagdish; Bednarz, Greg; Novotny, Josef; Flickinger, John; Lunsford, L Dade; Huq, M Saiful

    2016-07-08

    The Gamma Knife Check software is an FDA approved second check system for dose calculations in Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and the stability of the commercial software package as a tool for independent dose verification. The Gamma Knife Check software version 8.4 was commissioned for a Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion and a 4C unit at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in May 2012. Independent dose verifications were performed using this software for 319 radiosurgery cases on the Perfexion and 283 radiosurgery cases on the 4C units. The cases on each machine were divided into groups according to their diagnoses, and an averaged absolute percent dose difference for each group was calculated. The percentage dose difference for each treatment target was obtained as the relative difference between the Gamma Knife Check dose and the dose from the tissue maximum ratio algorithm (TMR 10) from the GammaPlan software version 10 at the reference point. For treatment plans with imaging skull definition, results obtained from the Gamma Knife Check software using the measurement-based skull definition method are used for comparison. The collected dose difference data were also analyzed in terms of the distance from the treatment target to the skull, the number of treatment shots used for the target, and the gamma angles of the treatment shots. The averaged percent dose differences between the Gamma Knife Check software and the GammaPlan treatment planning system are 0.3%, 0.89%, 1.24%, 1.09%, 0.83%, 0.55%, 0.33%, and 1.49% for the trigeminal neuralgia, acoustic neuroma, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), meningioma, pituitary adenoma, glioma, functional disorders, and metastasis cases on the Perfexion unit. The corresponding averaged percent dose differences for the 4C unit are 0.33%, 1.2%, 2.78% 1.99%, 1.4%, 1.92%, 0.62%, and 1.51%, respectively. The dose difference is, in general, larger for treatment targets in the

  18. Effect of the gamma knife treatment on the trigeminal nerve root in Chinese patients with primary trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi-Xiu; Qian, Wei; Wu, Yu-Quan; Sun, Fang-Jie; Fei, Jun; Huang, Run-Sheng; Fang, Jing-Yu; Wu, Cai-Zhen; An, You-Ming; Wang, Daxin; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of the gamma knife treating the trigeminal neuralgia. Using the MASEP-SRRS type gamma knife treatment system, 140 Chinese patients with trigeminal neuralgia (NT) were treated in our hospital from 2002 to 2010, in which the pain relief rate reached 95% and recurrence rate was 3% only. We investigated the effect of the gamma knife treatment on the trigeminal nerve root in 20 Chinese patients with primary trigeminal neuralgia by the magnetic resonance imager (MRI) observation. 1) The cross-sectional area of trigeminal nerve root became smaller and MRI signals were lower in the treatment side than those in the non-treatment side after the gamma knife treatment of primary trigeminal neuralgia; 2) in the treatment side, the cross-sectional area of the trigeminal nerve root decreased significantly after the gamma knife treatment; 3) there was good correlation between the clinical improvement and the MRI findings; and 4) the straight distance between the trigeminal nerve root and the brainstem did not change after the gamma knife treatment. The pain relief induced the gamma knife radiosurgery might be related with the atrophy of the trigeminal nerve root in Chinese patients with primary trigeminal neuralgia.

  19. A microcosting study of microsurgery, LINAC radiosurgery, and gamma knife radiosurgery in meningioma patients

    PubMed Central

    van Putten, Erik; Nijdam, Wideke M.; Hanssens, Patrick; Beute, Guus N.; Nowak, Peter J.; Dirven, Clemens M.; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine and compare initial treatment costs of microsurgery, linear accelerator (LINAC) radiosurgery, and gamma knife radiosurgery in meningioma patients. Additionally, the follow-up costs in the first year after initial treatment were assessed. Cost analyses were performed at two neurosurgical departments in The Netherlands from the healthcare providers’ perspective. A total of 59 patients were included, of whom 18 underwent microsurgery, 15 underwent LINAC radiosurgery, and 26 underwent gamma knife radiosurgery. A standardized microcosting methodology was employed to ensure that the identified cost differences would reflect only actual cost differences. Initial treatment costs, using equipment costs per fraction, were €12,288 for microsurgery, €1,547 for LINAC radiosurgery, and €2,412 for gamma knife radiosurgery. Higher initial treatment costs for microsurgery were predominantly due to inpatient stay (€5,321) and indirect costs (€4,350). LINAC and gamma knife radiosurgery were equally expensive when equipment was valued per treatment (€2,198 and €2,412, respectively). Follow-up costs were slightly, but not significantly, higher for microsurgery compared with LINAC and gamma knife radiosurgery. Even though initial treatment costs were over five times higher for microsurgery compared with both radiosurgical treatments, our study gives indications that the relative cost difference may decrease when follow-up costs occurring during the first year after initial treatment are incorporated. This reinforces the need to consider follow-up costs after initial treatment when examining the relative costs of alternative treatments. PMID:20526795

  20. Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery of the jugulotympanic glomus tumor: long-term results.

    PubMed

    Liscak, Roman; Urgosik, Dusan; Chytka, Tomas; Simonova, Gabriela; Novotny, Josef; Vymazal, Josef; Guseynova, Khumar; Vladyka, Vilibald

    2014-12-01

    Glomus tumors usually display indolent behavior, and the effectiveness of radiation in stopping their growth can be assessed after long-term follow-up. Currently only midterm results of radiosurgery are available, so the authors included patients treated by Gamma Knife at least 10 years ago in this study to obtain a perspective of long-term results. During the period from 1992 to 2003, the Gamma Knife was used to treat 46 patients with glomus tumors. The age of the patients ranged from 21 to 79 years (median 56 years). Gamma Knife radiosurgery was the primary treatment in 17 patients (37%). Open surgery preceded radiosurgery in 46% of cases, embolization in 17%, and fractionated radiotherapy in 4%. The volume of the tumor ranged from 0.2 to 24.3 cm(3) (median 3.6 cm(3)). The minimal dose to the tumor margin ranged between 10 and 30 Gy (median 20 Gy). One patient was lost for follow-up after radiosurgery. Clinical follow-up was available in 45 patients and 44 patients were followed with MRI in a follow-up period that ranged from 12 to 217 months (median 118 months). Neurological deficits improved in 19 (42%) of 45 patients and deteriorated in 2 patients (4%). Tumor size decreased in 34 (77%) of 44 patients with imaging follow-up, while an increase in volume was observed in 1 patient (2%) 182 months after radiosurgery and Gamma Knife treatment was repeated. One patient underwent another Gamma Knife treatment for secondary induced meningioma close to the glomus tumor 98 months after initial radiosurgical treatment. Seven patients died 22-96 months after radiosurgery (median 48 months), all for unrelated reasons. Radiosurgery has proved to be a safe treatment with a low morbidity rate and a reliable long-term antiproliferative effect.

  1. SU-F-P-15: Report On AAPM TG 178 Gamma Knife Dosimetry and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, S

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 178 Gamma Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was formed in August, 2008. The Task Group has 12 medical physicists, two physicians and two consultants. Methods: A round robin dosimetry intercomparison of proposed ionization chambers, electrometer and dosimetry phantoms was conducted over a 15 month period in 2011 and 2012 (Med Phys 42, 11, Nov, 2015). The data obtained at 9 institutions (with ten different Elekta Gamma Knife units) was analyzed by the lead author using several protocols. Results: The most consistent results were obtained using the Elekta ABS 16cm diameter phantom, with the TG-51 protocolmore » modified as recommended by Alfonso et al (Med Phys 35, 11, Nov 2008). A key white paper (Med Phys, in press) sponsored by Elekta Corporation, was used to obtain correction factors for the ionization chambers and phantoms used in this intercomparison. Consistent results were obtained for both Elekta Gamma Knife Model 4C and Gamma Knife Perfexion units as measured with each of two miniature ionization chambers Conclusion: The full TG 178 report gives clinical history and background of gamma stereotactic radiosurgery, clinical examples and history, quality assurance recommendations and outline of possible dosimetry protocols. The report will be reviewed by the AAPM Working Group on Recommendations for Radiotherapy External Beam Quality Assurance and then by the AAPM Science Council before publication in Medical Physics. Consultant to Elekta, Inc.« less

  2. The Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Image Guided Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Initial Clinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Winnie; Cho, Young-Bin; Ansell, Steve; Laperriere, Normand; Ménard, Cynthia; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Zadeh, Gelareh; Kongkham, Paul; Bernstein, Mark; Jaffray, David A; Chung, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    The present study used cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to measure the inter- and intrafraction uncertainties for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using the Leksell Gamma Knife (GK). Using a novel CBCT system adapted to the GK radiosurgery treatment unit, CBCT images were acquired immediately before and after treatment for each treatment session within the context of a research ethics board-approved prospective clinical trial. Patients were immobilized in the Leksell coordinate frame (LCF) for both volumetric CBCT imaging and GK-SRS delivery. The relative displacement of the patient's skull to the stereotactic reference (interfraction motion) was measured for each CBCT scan. Differences between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans were used to determine the intrafraction motion. We analyzed 20 pre- and 17 post-treatment CBCT scans in 20 LCF patients treated with SRS. The mean translational pretreatment setup error ± standard deviation in the left-right, anteroposterior, and craniocaudal directions was -0.19 ± 0.32, 0.06 ± 0.27, and -0.23 ± 0.2 mm, with a maximum of -0.74, -0.53, and -0.68 mm, respectively. After an average time between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans of 82 minutes (range 27-170), the mean intrafraction error ± standard deviation for the LCF was -0.03 ± 0.05, -0.03 ± 0.18, and -0.03 ± 0.12 mm in the left-right, anteroposterior, and craniocaudual direction, respectively. Using CBCT on a prototype image guided GK Perfexion unit, we were able to measure the inter- and intrafraction positional changes for GK-SRS using the invasive frame. In the era of image guided radiation therapy, the use of CBCT image guidance for both frame- and non-frame-based immobilization systems could serve as a useful quality assurance tool. Our preliminary measurements can guide the application of achievable thresholds for inter- and intrafraction discrepancy when moving to a frameless approach. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  3. A minimally invasive treatment option for large metastatic brain tumors: long-term results of two-session Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Large brain metastases (BM) remain a significant cause of morbidity and death for cancer patients despite current advances in multimodality therapies. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and limitations of 2-session Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients with large BM. Methods This is a prospective, open-label and single arm study analyzing 58 consecutive patients who received 2-session SRS for large BM (≥ 10 mL). The median age was 66 years, and the median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score was 70. SRS was the initial treatment in 51 large tumors (84%) and was used as salvage after failed prior treatments for 10 tumors (16%). The fraction protocol was 20-30 Gy given in 2 fractions with 3–4 weeks between fractions. Overall survival (OS) and neurological death (ND), local tumor control and KPS were analyzed. Results The median follow-up time was 9.0 months. One- and 2-year OS rates were 47% and 20%, respectively. The median OS time was 11.8 months (95% CI: 5.5-15.6). The causes of death were intracranial local progression in 5 cases, meningeal carcinomatosis in 3 and progression of the primary lesion in 39. One- and 2-year ND-free survival rates were 91% and 84%, respectively. In 52 of 61 large BM (85%) with sufficient radiological follow-up data, 6- and 12-month local tumor control rates were 85% and 64%, respectively. The mean KPS improved from 70 at the 1st SRS to 82 at the 2nd; the first follow-up mean KPS was 87 (P < 0.001). Symptomatic radiation injury developed and required conservative treatment in 3 patients (5%). Conclusions Long-term follow-up showed that two-session Gamma Knife SRS achieved durable tumor control rates as well as acceptable treatment-related morbidity. This treatment method may potentially merit being offered to patients with large BM who are in poor condition or are otherwise ineligible for standard care. PMID:24917309

  4. Clinical outcomes of gamma knife radiosurgery in the salvage treatment of patients with recurrent high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Elaimy, Ameer L; Mackay, Alexander R; Lamoreaux, Wayne T; Demakas, John J; Fairbanks, Robert K; Cooke, Barton S; Lamm, Andrew F; Lee, Christopher M

    2013-12-01

    Previously published randomized evidence did not report a survival advantage for patients diagnosed with grade IV glioma who were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery followed by external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy when compared to patients treated with external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy alone. In recent years, gamma knife radiosurgery has become increasingly popular as a salvage treatment modality for patients diagnosed with recurrent high-grade glioma. The purpose of this article is to review the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery for patients who suffer from this malignancy. Retrospective, prospective, and randomized clinical studies published between the years 2000 and 2012 analyzing gamma knife radiosurgery for patients with high-grade glioma were reviewed. After assessing patient age, Karnofsky performance status, tumor histology, and extent of resection, gamma knife radiosurgery is a viable, minimally invasive treatment option for patients diagnosed with recurrent high-grade glioma. The available prospective and retrospective evidence suggests that gamma knife radiosurgery provides patients with a high local tumor control rate and a median survival after tumor recurrence ranging from 13 to 26 months. Gamma knife radiosurgery followed by chemotherapy for recurrent high-grade glioma may provide select patients with increased levels of survival. However, further investigation into this matter is needed due to the limited number of published reports. Additional clinical research is also needed to analyze the efficacy and radiation-related toxicities of fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery due to its potential to limit treatment-associated morbidity. Gamma knife radiosurgery is a safe and effective treatment option for select patients diagnosed with recurrent high-grade glioma. Although treatment outcomes have improved, further evidence in the form of phase III randomized trials is needed to assess the durability of treating

  5. Successful use of Gamma Knife surgery in a distal lenticulostriate artery aneurysm intervention.

    PubMed

    Lan, ZhiGang; Li, Jin; You, Chao; Chen, Jing

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of a 21-year-old woman who underwent radiosurgical treatment of a distal lenticulostriate artery (LSA) aneurysm. Twenty-two months after treatment, repeat angiography demonstrated patency of the parent vessel and complete obliteration of the aneurysm. Our case implies that Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) might serve as an alternative microinvasive technique in the treatment of LSA aneurysms, making this procedure a potential addition to present methods.

  6. Forward treatment planning techniques to reduce the normalization effect in Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao-Wen; Lo, Wei-Lun; Kuo, Chun-Yuan; Su, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Jo-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Wang, Yu-Jen; Pan, David Hung-Chi

    2017-11-01

    In Gamma Knife forward treatment planning, normalization effect may be observed when multiple shots are used for treating large lesions. This effect can reduce the proportion of coverage of high-value isodose lines within targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of forward treatment planning techniques using the Leksell Gamma Knife for the normalization effect reduction. We adjusted the shot positions and weightings to optimize the dose distribution and reduce the overlap of high-value isodose lines from each shot, thereby mitigating the normalization effect during treatment planning. The new collimation system, Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion, which contains eight movable sectors, provides an additional means to reduce the normalization effect by using composite shots. We propose different techniques in forward treatment planning that can reduce the normalization effect. Reducing the normalization effect increases the coverage proportion of higher isodose lines within targets, making the high-dose region within targets more uniform and increasing the mean dose to targets. Because of the increase in the mean dose to the target after reducing the normalization effect, we can set the prescribed marginal dose at a higher isodose level and reduce the maximum dose, thereby lowering the risk of complications. © 2017 Shuang Ho Hospital-Taipei Medical University. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. Completion of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for AVM treatment after unplanned interruption-technical note.

    PubMed

    Raman, Hari S; Santanam, Lakshmi; Vellimana, Ananth K; Drzymala, Robert E; Tsien, Christina I; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2018-02-17

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery is an established technique for non-urgent treatment of various intracranial pathologies. Intra-procedural dislodgement of the stereotactic frame is an uncommon occurrence that could lead to abortion of ongoing treatment and necessitate more invasive treatment strategies. In this case report, we describe a novel method for resumption of Gamma Knife treatment after an unplanned intra-procedural interruption. The case example involves a radiosurgical treatment of a Spetzler-Martin grade I arteriovenous malformation. Our technique involves integration of scans and coordinate systems from two imaging sessions using the composite isodose line to resolve translational differences, thereby limiting delivery of remaining shots to the untreated region of the lesion. MRI follow-up at 13 months showed a reduction in the nidus size with no evidence of any radiation injury to the surrounding brain parenchyma. We believe this technique will allow care teams to effectively salvage interrupted Gamma Knife procedures and reduce progression to more invasive treatment options.

  8. Shot sequencing based on biological equivalent dose considerations for multiple isocenter Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijun; Lee, Letitia; Barani, Igor; Hwang, Andrew; Fogh, Shannon; Nakamura, Jean; McDermott, Michael; Sneed, Penny; Larson, David A; Sahgal, Arjun

    2011-11-21

    Rapid delivery of multiple shots or isocenters is one of the hallmarks of Gamma Knife radiosurgery. In this study, we investigated whether the temporal order of shots delivered with Gamma Knife Perfexion would significantly influence the biological equivalent dose for complex multi-isocenter treatments. Twenty single-target cases were selected for analysis. For each case, 3D dose matrices of individual shots were extracted and single-fraction equivalent uniform dose (sEUD) values were determined for all possible shot delivery sequences, corresponding to different patterns of temporal dose delivery within the target. We found significant variations in the sEUD values among these sequences exceeding 15% for certain cases. However, the sequences for the actual treatment delivery were found to agree (<3%) and to correlate (R² = 0.98) excellently with the sequences yielding the maximum sEUD values for all studied cases. This result is applicable for both fast and slow growing tumors with α/β values of 2 to 20 according to the linear-quadratic model. In conclusion, despite large potential variations in different shot sequences for multi-isocenter Gamma Knife treatments, current clinical delivery sequences exhibited consistent biological target dosing that approached that maximally achievable for all studied cases.

  9. Shot sequencing based on biological equivalent dose considerations for multiple isocenter Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Lee, Letitia; Barani, Igor; Hwang, Andrew; Fogh, Shannon; Nakamura, Jean; McDermott, Michael; Sneed, Penny; Larson, David A.; Sahgal, Arjun

    2011-11-01

    Rapid delivery of multiple shots or isocenters is one of the hallmarks of Gamma Knife radiosurgery. In this study, we investigated whether the temporal order of shots delivered with Gamma Knife Perfexion would significantly influence the biological equivalent dose for complex multi-isocenter treatments. Twenty single-target cases were selected for analysis. For each case, 3D dose matrices of individual shots were extracted and single-fraction equivalent uniform dose (sEUD) values were determined for all possible shot delivery sequences, corresponding to different patterns of temporal dose delivery within the target. We found significant variations in the sEUD values among these sequences exceeding 15% for certain cases. However, the sequences for the actual treatment delivery were found to agree (<3%) and to correlate (R2 = 0.98) excellently with the sequences yielding the maximum sEUD values for all studied cases. This result is applicable for both fast and slow growing tumors with α/β values of 2 to 20 according to the linear-quadratic model. In conclusion, despite large potential variations in different shot sequences for multi-isocenter Gamma Knife treatments, current clinical delivery sequences exhibited consistent biological target dosing that approached that maximally achievable for all studied cases.

  10. Study Protocol: Early Stereotactic Gamma Knife Radiosurgery to Residual Tumor After Surgery of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma (Gamma-GBM).

    PubMed

    Brehmer, Stefanie; Grimm, Mario Alexander; Förster, Alex; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel; Welzel, Grit; Stieler, Florian; Wenz, Frederik; Groden, Christoph; Mai, Sabine; Hänggi, Daniel; Giordano, Frank Anton

    2018-04-24

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adult patients. Tumor recurrence commonly occurs around the resection cavity, especially after subtotal resection (STR). Consequently, the extent of resection correlates with overall survival (OS), suggesting that depletion of postoperative tumor remnants will improve outcome. To assess safety and efficacy of adding stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the standard treatment of GBM in patients with postoperative residual tumor. Gamma-GBM is a single center, open-label, prospective, single arm, phase II study that includes patients with newly diagnosed GBM (intraoperative via frozen sections) who underwent STR (residual tumor will be identified by native and contrast enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans). All patients will receive SRS with 15 Gy (prescribed to the 50% isodose enclosing all areas of residual tumor) early (within 24-72 h) after surgery. Thereafter, all patients undergo standard-of-care therapy for GBM (radiochemotherapy with 60 Gy external beam radiotherapy [EBRT] plus concomitant temozolomide and 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy). The primary outcome is median progression-free survival, secondary outcomes are median OS, occurrence of radiation induced acute (<3 wk), early delayed (<3 mo), and late (>3 mo post-SRS) neurotoxicity and incidence of symptomatic radionecrosis. We expect to detect efficacy and safety signals by the immediate application of SRS to standard-of-care therapy in newly diagnosed GBM. Early postoperative SRS to areas of residual tumor could bridge the therapeutic gap between surgery and adjuvant therapies.

  11. Comparison of penumbra regions produced by ancient Gamma knife model C and Gamma ART 6000 using Monte Carlo MCNP6 simulation.

    PubMed

    Banaee, Nooshin; Asgari, Sepideh; Nedaie, Hassan Ali

    2018-07-01

    The accuracy of penumbral measurements in radiotherapy is pivotal because dose planning computers require accurate data to adequately modeling the beams, which in turn are used to calculate patient dose distributions. Gamma knife is a non-invasive intracranial technique based on principles of the Leksell stereotactic system for open deep brain surgeries, invented and developed by Professor Lars Leksell. The aim of this study is to compare the penumbra widths of Leksell Gamma Knife model C and Gamma ART 6000. Initially, the structure of both systems were simulated by using Monte Carlo MCNP6 code and after validating the accuracy of simulation, beam profiles of different collimators were plotted. MCNP6 beam profile calculations showed that the penumbra values of Leksell Gamma knife model C and Gamma ART 6000 for 18, 14, 8 and 4 mm collimators are 9.7, 7.9, 4.3, 2.6 and 8.2, 6.9, 3.6, 2.4, respectively. The results of this study showed that since Gamma ART 6000 has larger solid angle in comparison with Gamma Knife model C, it produces better beam profile penumbras than Gamma Knife model C in the direct plane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SU-F-T-569: Implementation of a Patient Specific QA Method Using EBT-XD for CyberKnife SRS/SBRT Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Zerouali, K; Aubry, J; Doucet, R

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement the new EBT-XD Gafchromic films for accurate dosimetric and geometric validation of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) CyberKnife (CK) patient specific QA. Methods: Film calibration was performed using a triplechannel film analysis on an Epson 10000XL scanner. Calibration films were irradiated using a Varian Clinac 21EX flattened beam (0 to 20 Gy), to ensure sufficient dose homogeneity. Films were scanned to a resolution of 0.3 mm, 24 hours post irradiation following a well-defined protocol. A set of 12 QA was performed for several types of CK plans: trigeminal neuralgia, brain metastasis, prostate andmore » lung tumors. A custom made insert for the CK head phantom has been manufactured to yield an accurate measured to calculated dose registration. When the high dose region was large enough, absolute dose was also measured with an ionization chamber. Dose calculation is performed using MultiPlan Ray-tracing algorithm for all cases since the phantom is mostly made from near water-equivalent plastic. Results: Good agreement (<2%) was found between the dose to the chamber and the film, when a chamber measurement was possible The average dose difference and standard deviations between film measurements and TPS calculations were respectively 1.75% and 3%. The geometric accuracy has been estimated to be <1 mm, combining robot positioning uncertainty and film registration to calculated dose. Conclusion: Patient specific QA measurements using EBT-XD films yielded a full 2D dose plane with high spatial resolution and acceptable dose accuracy. This method is particularly promising for trigeminal neuralgia plan QA, where the positioning of the spatial dose distribution is equally or more important than the absolute delivered dose to achieve clinical goals.« less

  13. Clinical Evaluation of Targeting Accuracy of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Massager, Nicolas; Abeloos, Laurence; Devriendt, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: The efficiency of radiosurgery is related to its highly precise targeting. We assessed clinically the targeting accuracy of radiosurgical treatment with the Leksell Gamma Knife for trigeminal neuralgia. We also studied the applied radiation dose within the area of focal contrast enhancement on the trigeminal nerve root following radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: From an initial group of 78 patients with trigeminal neuralgia treated with gamma knife radiosurgery using a 90-Gy dose, we analyzed a subgroup of 65 patients for whom 6-month follow-up MRI showed focal contrast enhancement of the trigeminal nerve. Follow-up MRI was spatially coregistered to the radiosurgicalmore » planning MRI. Target accuracy was assessed from deviation of the coordinates of the intended target compared with the center of enhancement on postoperative MRI. Radiation dose delivered at the borders of contrast enhancement was evaluated. Results: The median deviation of the coordinates between the intended target and the center of contrast enhancement was 0.91 mm in Euclidean space. The radiation doses fitting within the borders of the contrast enhancement of the trigeminal nerve root ranged from 49 to 85 Gy (median value, 77 {+-} 8.7 Gy). Conclusions: The median deviation found in clinical assessment of gamma knife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia is low and compatible with its high rate of efficiency. Focal enhancement of the trigeminal nerve after radiosurgery occurred in 83% of our patients and was not associated with clinical outcome. Focal enhancement borders along the nerve root fit with a median dose of 77 {+-} 8.7 Gy.« less

  14. Technical Note: PRESAGE three-dimensional dosimetry accurately measures Gamma Knife output factors

    PubMed Central

    Klawikowski, Slade J.; Yang, James N.; Adamovics, John; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Small-field output factor measurements are traditionally very difficult because of steep dose gradients, loss of lateral electronic equilibrium, and dose volume averaging in finitely sized detectors. Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry is ideal for measuring small output factors and avoids many of these potential challenges of point and two-dimensional detectors. PRESAGE 3D polymer dosimeters were used to measure the output factors for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators of the Leksell Perfexion Gamma Knife radiosurgery treatment system. Discrepancies between the planned and measured distance between shot centers were also investigated. A Gamma Knife head frame was mounted onto an anthropomorphic head phantom. Special inserts were machined to hold 60 mm diameter, 70 mm tall cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters. The phantom was irradiated with one 16 mm shot and either one 4 mm or one 8 mm shot, to a prescribed dose of either 3 Gy or 4 Gy to the 50% isodose line. The two shots were spaced between 30 mm and 60 mm apart and aligned along the central axis of the cylinder. The Presage dosimeters were measured using the DMOS-RPC optical CT scanning system. Five independent 4 mm output factor measurements fell within 2% of the manufacturer’s Monte Carlo simulation-derived nominal value, as did two independent 8 mm output factor measurements. The measured distances between shot centers varied by ± 0.8 mm with respect to the planned shot displacements. On the basis of these results, we conclude that PRESAGE dosimetry is excellently suited to quantify the difficult-to-measure Gamma Knife output factors. PMID:25368961

  15. The safety and efficacy of gamma knife surgery in management of glomus jugulare tumor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glomus jugulare is a slowly growing, locally destructive tumor located in the skull base with difficult surgical access. The operative approach is, complicated by the fact that lesions may be both intra and extradural with engulfment of critical neurovascular structures. The tumor is frequently highly vascular, thus tumor resection entails a great deal of morbidity and not infrequent mortality. At timeslarge residual tumors are left behind. To decrease the morbidity associated with surgical resection of glomus jugulare, gamma knife surgery (GKS) was performed as an alternative in 13 patients to evaluate its safety and efficacy. Methods A retrospective review of 13 residual or unresectable glomus jagulare treated with GKS between 2004 and 2008.. Of these, 11 patients underwent GKS as the primary management and one case each was treated for postoperative residual disease and postembolization. The radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin ranged between 12-15 Gy. Results Post- gamma knife surgery and during the follow-up period twelve patients demonstrated neurological stability while clinical improvement was achieved in 5 patients. One case developed transient partial 7th nerve palsy that responded to medical treatment. In all patients radiographic MRI follow-up was obtained, the tumor size decreased in two cases and remained stable (local tumor control) in eleven patients. Conclusions Gamma knife surgery provids tumor control with a lowering of risk of developing a new cranial nerve injury in early follow-up period. This procedure can be safely used as a primary management tool in patients with glomus jugulare tumors, or in patients with recurrent tumors in this location. If long-term results with GKS are equally effective it will emerge as a good alternative to surgical resection. PMID:20819207

  16. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for glomus jugulare tumors: a single-center series of 75 cases.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ramez; Ammori, Mohannad B; Yianni, John; Grainger, Alison; Rowe, Jeremy; Radatz, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Glomus jugulare tumors are rare indolent tumors that frequently involve the lower cranial nerves (CNs). Complete resection can be difficult and associated with lower CN injury. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has established its role as a noninvasive alternative treatment option for these often formidable lesions. The authors aimed to review their experience at the National Centre for Stereotactic Radiosurgery, Sheffield, United Kingdom, specifically the long-term tumor control rate and complications of GKRS for these lesions. METHODS Clinical and radiological data were retrospectively reviewed for patients treated between March 1994 and December 2010. Data were available for 75 patients harboring 76 tumors. The tumors in 3 patients were treated in 2 stages. Familial and/or hereditary history was noted in 12 patients, 2 of whom had catecholamine-secreting and/or active tumors. Gamma Knife radiosurgery was the primary treatment modality in 47 patients (63%). The median age at the time of treatment was 55 years. The median tumor volume was 7 cm 3 , and the median radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin was 18 Gy (range 12-25 Gy). The median duration of radiological follow-up was 51.5 months (range 12-230 months), and the median clinical follow-up was 38.5 months (range 6-223 months). RESULTS The overall tumor control rate was 93.4% with low CN morbidity. Improvement of preexisting deficits was noted in 15 patients (20%). A stationary clinical course and no progression of symptoms were noted in 48 patients (64%). Twelve patients (16%) had new symptoms or progression of their preexisting symptoms. The Kaplan-Meier actuarial tumor control rate was 92.2% at 5 years and 86.3% at 10 years. CONCLUSIONS Gamma Knife radiosurgery offers a risk-versus-benefit treatment option with very low CN morbidity and stable long-term results.

  17. [Alterations of glial fibrillary acidic protein in rat brain after gamma knife irradiation].

    PubMed

    Ma, Z M; Jiang, B; Ma, J R

    2001-08-28

    To study glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in different time and water content of the rat brain treated with gamma knife radiotherapy and to understand the alteration course of the brain lesion after a single high dose radiosurgical treatment. In the brains of the normal rats were irradiated by gamma knife with 160 Gy-high dose. The irradiated rats were then killed on the 1st day, 7th day, 14th day, and 28th day after radiotherapy, respectively. The positive cells of GFAP in brain tissue were detected by immunostaining; the water content of the brain tissue was measured by microgravimetry. The histological study of the irradiated brain tissue was performed with H.E. and examined under light microscope. The numbers of GFAP-positive astrocytes began to increase on the 1st day after gamma knife irradiation. It was enlarged markedly in the number and size of GFAP-stained astrocytes over the irradiated areas. Up to the 28th day, circumscribed necrosis foci (4 mm in diameter) was seen in the central area of the target. In the brain tissue around the necrosis, GFAP-positive astrocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01, compared with the control group). The swelling of cells in irradiated region was observed on the 1st day; after irradiation endothelial cells degenerated and red blood cells escaped from blood vessel on the 7th day; leakage of Evans blue dye was observed in the target region on the 14th day. There was a significant decrease of specific gravity in the irradiated brain tissue the 14th and 28th day after irradiation. The results suggest that GFAP can be used as a marker for the radiation-induced brain injury. The brain edema and disruption of brain-blood barrier can be occurred during the acute stage after irradiation.

  18. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Treatment for Metastatic Melanoma of the Trigeminal Nerve and Brainstem: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Halloran E.; Larson, Erik W.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Mackay, Alexander R.; Call, Jason A.; Demakas, John J.; Cooke, Barton S.; Lee, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective and Importance. Brainstem metastases (BSMs) are uncommon but serious complications of some cancers. They cause significant neurological deficit, and options for treatment are limited. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for BSMs that prolongs survival and can preserve or in some cases improve neurological function. This case illustrates the use of repeated SRS, specifically Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for management of a unique brainstem metastasis. Clinical Presentation. This patient presented 5 years after the removal of a lentigo maligna melanoma from her left cheek with left sided facial numbness and paresthesias with no reported facial weakness. Initial MRI revealed a mass on the left trigeminal nerve that appeared to be a trigeminal schwannoma. Intervention. After only limited response to the first GKRS treatment, a biopsy of the tumor revealed it to be metastatic melanoma, not schwannoma. Over the next two years, the patient would receive 3 more GKRS treatments. These procedures were effective in controlling growth in the treated areas, and the patient has maintained a good quality of life. Conclusion. GKRS has proven in this case to be effective in limiting the growth of this metastatic melanoma without acute adverse effects. PMID:24194991

  19. Analysis of 2000 cases treated with gamma knife surgery: validating eligibility criteria for a prospective multi-institutional study of stereotactic radiosurgery alone for treatment of patients with 1-10 brain metastases (JLGK0901) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Sato, Yasunori; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Ono, Junichi; Saeki, Naokatsu; Miyakawa, Akifumi; Hirai, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Japan Leksell Gamma Knife (JLGK) Society has conducted a prospective multi-institute study (JLGK0901, UNIN000001812) for selected patients in order to prove the effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone using the gamma knife (GK) for 1-10 brain lesions. Herein, we verify the validity of 5 major patient selection criteria for the JLGK0901 trial. Materials and Methods Between 1998 and 2010, 2246 consecutive cases with 10352 brain metastases treated with GK were analyzed to determine the validity of the following 5 major JLGK0901 criteria; 1) 1-10 brain lesions, 2) less than 10 cm3 volume of the largest tumor, 3) no more than 15 cm3 total tumor volume, 4) no cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination, 5) Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score ≥70. Results For cases with >10 brain metastases, salvage treatments for new lesions were needed more frequently. The tumor control rate for lesions larger than 10 cm3 was significantly lower than that of tumors <10 cm3. Overall, neurological and qualitative survivals (OS, NS, QS) of cases with >15 cm3 total tumor volume or positive magnetic resonance imaging findings of CSF were significantly poorer. Outcomes in cases with KPS <70 were significantly poorer in terms of OS. Conclusion Our retrospective results of 2246 GK-treated cases verified the validity of the 5 major JLGK0901 criteria. The inclusion criteria for the JLGK0901 study are appearently good indications for SRS. PMID:29296339

  20. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    SciTech Connect

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brainmore » were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.« less

  1. MRI textures as outcome predictor for Gamma Knife radiosurgery on vestibular schwannoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenhuizen, P. P. J. H.; Legters, M. J. W.; Zinger, S.; Verheul, H. B.; Leenstra, S.; de With, P. H. N.

    2018-02-01

    Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are benign brain tumors that can be treated with high-precision focused radiation with the Gamma Knife in order to stop tumor growth. Outcome prediction of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) treatment can help in determining whether GKRS will be effective on an individual patient basis. However, at present, prognostic factors of tumor control after GKRS for VS are largely unknown, and only clinical factors, such as size of the tumor at treatment and pre-treatment growth rate of the tumor, have been considered thus far. This research aims at outcome prediction of GKRS by means of quantitative texture feature analysis on conventional MRI scans. We compute first-order statistics and features based on gray-level co- occurrence (GLCM) and run-length matrices (RLM), and employ support vector machines and decision trees for classification. In a clinical dataset, consisting of 20 tumors showing treatment failure and 20 tumors exhibiting treatment success, we have discovered that the second-order statistical metrics distilled from GLCM and RLM are suitable for describing texture, but are slightly outperformed by simple first-order statistics, like mean, standard deviation and median. The obtained prediction accuracy is about 85%, but a final choice of the best feature can only be made after performing more extensive analyses on larger datasets. In any case, this work provides suitable texture measures for successful prediction of GKRS treatment outcome for VS.

  2. SU-F-T-370: A Fast Monte Carlo Dose Engine for Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Song, T; Zhou, L; Li, Y

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a fast Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for Gamma Knife. Methods: To make the simulation more efficient, we implemented the track repeating technique on GPU. We first use EGSnrc to pre-calculate the photon and secondary electron tracks in water from two mono-energy photons of 60Co. The total photon mean free paths for different materials and energies are obtained from NIST. During simulation, each entire photon track was first loaded to shared memory for each block, the incident original photon was then splitted to Nthread sub-photons, each thread transport one sub-photon, the Russian roulette technique was applied formore » scattered and bremsstrahlung photons. The resultant electrons from photon interactions are simulated by repeating the recorded electron tracks. The electron step length is stretched/shrunk proportionally based on the local density and stopping power ratios of the local material. Energy deposition in a voxel is proportional to the fraction of the equivalent step length in that voxel. To evaluate its accuracy, dose deposition in a 300mm*300mm*300mm water phantom is calculated, and compared to EGSnrc results. Results: Both PDD and OAR showed great agreements (within 0.5%) between our dose engine result and the EGSnrc result. It only takes less than 1 min for every simulation, being reduced up to ∼40 times compared to EGSnrc simulations. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a fast Monte Carlo dose engine for Gamma Knife.« less

  3. A simplified model of the source channel of the Leksell GammaKnife tested with PENELOPE.

    PubMed

    Al-Dweri, Feras M O; Lallena, Antonio M; Vilches, Manuel

    2004-06-21

    Monte Carlo simulations using the code PENELOPE have been performed to test a simplified model of the source channel geometry of the Leksell GammaKnife. The characteristics of the radiation passing through the treatment helmets are analysed in detail. We have found that only primary particles emitted from the source with polar angles smaller than 3 degrees with respect to the beam axis are relevant for the dosimetry of the Gamma Knife. The photon trajectories reaching the output helmet collimators at (x, v, z = 236 mm) show strong correlations between rho = (x2 + y2)(1/2) and their polar angle theta, on one side, and between tan(-1)(y/x) and their azimuthal angle phi, on the other. This enables us to propose a simplified model which treats the full source channel as a mathematical collimator. This simplified model produces doses in good agreement with those found for the full geometry. In the region of maximal dose, the relative differences between both calculations are within 3%, for the 18 and 14 mm helmets, and 10%, for the 8 and 4 mm ones. Besides, the simplified model permits a strong reduction (larger than a factor 15) in the computational time.

  4. Single-session Gamma Knife radiosurgery for optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas.

    PubMed

    El-Shehaby, Amr M N; Reda, Wael A; Abdel Karim, Khaled M; Emad Eldin, Reem M; Nabeel, Ahmed M

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Because of their critical and central location, it is deemed necessary to fractionate when considering irradiating optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas. Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy is considered safer when dealing with gliomas in this location. In this study, the safety and efficacy of single-session stereotactic radiosurgery for optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas were reviewed. METHODS Between December 2004 and June 2014, 22 patients with optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas were treated by single-session Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Twenty patients were available for follow-up for a minimum of 1 year after treatment. The patients were 5 to 43 years (median 16 years) of age. The tumor volume was 0.15 to 18.2 cm 3 (median 3.1 cm 3 ). The prescription dose ranged from 8 to 14 Gy (median 11.5 Gy). RESULTS The mean follow-up period was 43 months. Five tumors involved the optic nerve only, and 15 tumors involved the chiasm/hypothalamus. Two patients died during the follow-up period. The tumors shrank in 12 cases, remained stable in 6 cases, and progressed in 2 cases, thereby making the tumor control rate 90%. Vision remained stable in 12 cases, improved in 6 cases, and worsened in 2 cases in which there was tumor progression. Progression-free survival was 83% at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS The initial results indicate that single-session Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a safe and effective treatment option for optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas.

  5. Dose verification to cochlea during gamma knife radiosurgery of acoustic schwannoma using MOSFET dosimeter.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil D; Kumar, Rajesh; Akhilesh, Philomina; Pendse, Anil M; Deshpande, Sudesh; Misra, Basant K

    2012-01-01

    Dose verification to cochlea using metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter using a specially designed multi slice head and neck phantom during the treatment of acoustic schwannoma by Gamma Knife radiosurgery unit. A multi slice polystyrene head phantom was designed and fabricated for measurement of dose to cochlea during the treatment of the acoustic schwannoma. The phantom has provision to position the MOSFET dosimeters at the desired location precisely. MOSFET dosimeters of 0.2 mm x 0.2 mm x 0.5 μm were used to measure the dose to the cochlea. CT scans of the phantom with MOSFETs in situ were taken along with Leksell frame. The treatment plans of five patients treated earlier for acoustic schwannoma were transferred to the phantom. Dose and coordinates of maximum dose point inside the cochlea were derived. The phantom along with the MOSFET dosimeters was irradiated to deliver the planned treatment and dose received by cochlea were measured. The treatment planning system (TPS) estimated and measured dose to the cochlea were in the range of 7.4 - 8.4 Gy and 7.1 - 8 Gy, respectively. The maximum variation between TPS calculated and measured dose to cochlea was 5%. The measured dose values were found in good agreement with the dose values calculated using the TPS. The MOSFET dosimeter can be a suitable choice for routine dose verification in the Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

  6. SU-G-TeP2-12: IROCHouston and MDAPL SRS Anthropomorphic Phantom Results

    SciTech Connect

    Molineu, A; Kry, S; Alvarez, P

    Purpose: To report the results of SRS phantom irradiations Methods: Anthropomorphic SRS head phantoms were sent to institutions participating in NCI sponsored SRS clinical trials and institutions interested in verifying SRS treatment delivery. The phantom shell was purchased from Phantom Laboratory and altered to house dosimetry and imaging inserts. The imaging insert has 1.9 cm diameter spherical target. The dosimetry insert holds two TLD capsules and radiochromic film in the coronal and sagittal planes through the center of the target. Institutions were asked to image, plan and treat the phantom as they would an SRS patient. GammaKnife, CyberKnife and c-armmore » accelerator institutions were asked to cover the target with 15 Gy, 20 Gy and 25 Gy, respectively. Following these guidelines and typical planning protocols for these three types of machines gives roughly 30 Gy to the center of the target for all units. Submission of the DICOM digital data set was required for analysis. Criteria of 5% for TLD results and 85% of pixels passing 5%/3mm gamma analysis were applied beginning in 2013. Results: The phantom was analyzed 269 times between the beginning of 2013 to present. The pass rate is 81%. Nineteen of the irradiation results failed only the TLD criteria, 19 failed only the film criteria and 12 failed both. Irradiations included 32 CyberKnife 23 GammaKnife, 3 TomoTherapy and 211 c-arm units. Planning systems included Eclipse, Ergo, GammaPlan, Hi-Art, iPlan, Monaco, MultiPlan, Pinnacle, RayStation, XiO and XKnife. Irradiations that were not accompanied with DICOM data were not included in this analysis. Conclusion: The phantom is a valuable end-to-end test used to independently verify the accuracy of SRS treatment delivery. This investigation was supported by IROC grant CA180803 awarded by the NCI.« less

  7. Repeat Gamma-Knife Radiosurgery for Refractory or Recurrent Trigeminal Neuralgia with Consideration About the Optimal Second Dose.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Kwon, Do Hoon; Lee, Do Hee; Lee, Jung Kyo

    2016-02-01

    To investigate adequate radiation doses for repeat Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) for trigeminal neuralgia in our series and meta-analysis. Fourteen patients treated by ipsilateral repeat GKS for trigeminal neuralgia were included. Median age of patients was 65 years (range, 28-78), the median target dose, 140-180). Patients were followed a median of 10.8 months (range, 1-151) after the second gamma-knife surgery. Brainstem dose analysis and vote-counting meta-analysis of 19 studies were performed. After the second gamma-knife radiosurgeries, pain was relieved effectively in 12 patients (86%; Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity Score I-III). Post-gamma-knife radiosurgery trigeminal nerve deficits were mild in 5 patients. No serious anesthesia dolorosa was occurred. The second GKS radiation dose ≤ 60 Gy was significantly associated with worse pain control outcome (P = 0.018 in our series, permutation analysis of variance, and P = 0.009 in the meta-analysis, 2-tailed Fisher's exact test). Cumulative dose ≤ 140-150 Gy was significantly associated with poor pain control outcome (P = 0.033 in our series and P = 0.013 in the meta-analysis, 2-tailed Fisher's exact test). A cumulative brainstem edge dose >12 Gy tended to be associated with trigeminal nerve deficit (P = 0.077). Our study suggests that the second GKS dose is a potentially important factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. WE-G-BRA-08: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y; Bhatnagar, J; Bednarz, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To perform a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) study for Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery processes at our institution based on our experience with the treatment of more than 13,000 patients. Methods: A team consisting of medical physicists, nurses, radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and an external physicist expert was formed for the FMEA study. A process tree and a failure mode table were created for the GK procedures using the Leksell GK Perfexion and 4C units. Three scores for the probability of occurrence (O), the severity (S), and the probability of no detectionmore » (D) for failure modes were assigned to each failure mode by each professional on a scale from 1 to 10. The risk priority number (RPN) for each failure mode was then calculated (RPN = OxSxD) as the average scores from all data sets collected. Results: The established process tree for GK radiosurgery consists of 10 sub-processes and 53 steps, including a sub-process for frame placement and 11 steps that are directly related to the frame-based nature of the GK radiosurgery. Out of the 86 failure modes identified, 40 failure modes are GK specific, caused by the potential for inappropriate use of the radiosurgery head frame, the imaging fiducial boxes, the GK helmets and plugs, and the GammaPlan treatment planning system. The other 46 failure modes are associated with the registration, imaging, image transfer, contouring processes that are common for all radiation therapy techniques. The failure modes with the highest hazard scores are related to imperfect frame adaptor attachment, bad fiducial box assembly, overlooked target areas, inaccurate previous treatment information and excessive patient movement during MRI scan. Conclusion: The implementation of the FMEA approach for Gamma Knife radiosurgery enabled deeper understanding of the overall process among all professionals involved in the care of the patient and helped identify

  9. γTools: A modular multifunction phantom for quality assurance in GammaKnife treatments.

    PubMed

    Calusi, Silvia; Noferini, Linhsia; Marrazzo, Livia; Casati, Marta; Arilli, Chiara; Compagnucci, Antonella; Talamonti, Cinzia; Scoccianti, Silvia; Greto, Daniela; Bordi, Lorenzo; Livi, Lorenzo; Pallotta, Stefania

    2017-11-01

    We present the γTools, a new phantom designed to assess geometric and dosimetric accuracy in Gamma Knife treatments, together with first tests and results of applications. The phantom is composed of two modules: the imaging module, a regular grid of 1660 control points to evaluate image distortions and image registration result and the dosimetry module for delivered dose distribution measurements. The phantom is accompanied by a MatLab routine for image distortions quantification. Dose measurement are performed with Gafchromic films fixed between two inserts and placed in various positions and orientations inside the dosimetry module thus covering a volume comparable to the full volume of a head. Tests performed to assess the accuracy and precision of the imaging module demonstrated sub-millimetric values. As an example of possible applications, the phantom was employed to measure image distortions of two MRI scanners and to perform dosimetric studies of single shots delivered to homogeneous and heterogeneous materials. Due to the phantom material, the measured absolute dose do not correspond to the planned dose; doses comparisons are thus carried out between normalized dose distributions. Finally, an end-to-end test was carried out in the treatment of a neuroma-like target which resulted in a 100% gamma passing rate (2% local, 2 mm) and a distance between the real target perimeter and the prescription isodose centroids of about 1 mm. The tests demonstrate that the proposed phantom is suitable to assess both the geometrical and relative dosimetric accuracy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery treatments. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Correction of measured Gamma-Knife output factors for angular dependence of diode detectors and PinPoint ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Hršak, Hrvoje; Majer, Marija; Grego, Timor; Bibić, Juraj; Heinrich, Zdravko

    2014-12-01

    Dosimetry for Gamma-Knife requires detectors with high spatial resolution and minimal angular dependence of response. Angular dependence and end effect time for p-type silicon detectors (PTW Diode P and Diode E) and PTW PinPoint ionization chamber were measured with Gamma-Knife beams. Weighted angular dependence correction factors were calculated for each detector. The Gamma-Knife output factors were corrected for angular dependence and end effect time. For Gamma-Knife beams angle range of 84°-54°. Diode P shows considerable angular dependence of 9% and 8% for the 18 mm and 14, 8, 4 mm collimator, respectively. For Diode E this dependence is about 4% for all collimators. PinPoint ionization chamber shows angular dependence of less than 3% for 18, 14 and 8 mm helmet and 10% for 4 mm collimator due to volumetric averaging effect in a small photon beam. Corrected output factors for 14 mm helmet are in very good agreement (within ±0.3%) with published data and values recommended by vendor (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). For the 8 mm collimator diodes are still in good agreement with recommended values (within ±0.6%), while PinPoint gives 3% less value. For the 4 mm helmet Diodes P and E show over-response of 2.8% and 1.8%, respectively. For PinPoint chamber output factor of 4 mm collimator is 25% lower than Elekta value which is generally not consequence of angular dependence, but of volumetric averaging effect and lack of lateral electronic equilibrium. Diodes P and E represent good choice for Gamma-Knife dosimetry. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for the management of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Jason P; Starke, Robert M; Mathieu, David; Young, Byron; Sneed, Penny K; Chiang, Veronica L; Lee, John Y K; Kano, Hideyuki; Park, Kyung-Jae; Niranjan, Ajay; Kondziolka, Douglas; Barnett, Gene H; Rush, Stephen; Golfinos, John G; Lunsford, L Dade

    2013-08-01

    Pituitary adenomas are fairly common intracranial neoplasms, and nonfunctioning ones constitute a large subgroup of these adenomas. Complete resection is often difficult and may pose undue risk to neurological and endocrine function. Stereotactic radiosurgery has come to play an important role in the management of patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. This study examines the outcomes after radiosurgery in a large, multicenter patient population. Under the auspices of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium, 9 Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) centers retrospectively combined their outcome data obtained in 512 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Prior resection was performed in 479 patients (93.6%) and prior fractionated external-beam radiotherapy was performed in 34 patients (6.6%). The median age at the time of radiosurgery was 53 years. Fifty-eight percent of patients had some degree of hypopituitarism prior to radiosurgery. Patients received a median dose of 16 Gy to the tumor margin. The median follow-up was 36 months (range 1-223 months). Overall tumor control was achieved in 93.4% of patients at last follow-up; actuarial tumor control was 98%, 95%, 91%, and 85% at 3, 5, 8, and 10 years postradiosurgery, respectively. Smaller adenoma volume (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.02-1.13], p = 0.006) and absence of suprasellar extension (OR 2.10 [95% CI 0.96-4.61], p = 0.064) were associated with progression-free tumor survival. New or worsened hypopituitarism after radiosurgery was noted in 21% of patients, with thyroid and cortisol deficiencies reported as the most common postradiosurgery endocrinopathies. History of prior radiation therapy and greater tumor margin doses were predictive of new or worsening endocrinopathy after GKS. New or progressive cranial nerve deficits were noted in 9% of patients; 6.6% had worsening or new onset optic nerve dysfunction. In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, increasing volume, history of prior radiation therapy, and

  12. Advanced image fusion algorithms for Gamma Knife treatment planning. Evaluation and proposal for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, N; Papazoglou, Th; Koutsouris, D

    2006-01-01

    Image fusion is a process of combining information from multiple sensors. It is a useful tool implemented in the treatment planning programme of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery. In this paper we evaluate advanced image fusion algorithms for Matlab platform and head images. We develop nine level grayscale image fusion methods: average, principal component analysis (PCA), discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and Laplacian, filter - subtract - decimate (FSD), contrast, gradient, morphological pyramid and a shift invariant discrete wavelet transform (SIDWT) method in Matlab platform. We test these methods qualitatively and quantitatively. The quantitative criteria we use are the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), the Mutual Information (MI), the Standard Deviation (STD), the Entropy (H), the Difference Entropy (DH) and the Cross Entropy (CEN). The qualitative are: natural appearance, brilliance contrast, presence of complementary features and enhancement of common features. Finally we make clinically useful suggestions.

  13. Stereotactic radiosurgery XX: ocular neuromyotonia in association with gamma knife radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    McQuillan, Joe; Plowman, P Nicholas; MacDougall, Niall; Blackburn, Philip; Sabin, H Ian; Ali, Nadeem; Drake, William M

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report three patients who developed symptoms and signs of ocular neuromyotonia (ONM) 3–6 months after receiving gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for functioning pituitary tumours. All three patients were complex, requiring multi-modality therapy and all had received prior external irradiation to the sellar region. Although direct causality cannot be attributed, the timing of the development of the symptoms would suggest that the GKS played a contributory role in the development of this rare problem, which we suggest clinicians should be aware of as a potential complication. Learning points GKS can cause ONM, presenting as intermittent diplopia.ONM can occur quite rapidly after treatment with GKS.Treatment with carbamazepine is effective and improve patient's quality of life. PMID:26294961

  14. Dosimetric effects of Onyx embolization on Gamma Knife arteriovenous malformation dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, David J; Nordström, Håkan; Lundin, Anders; Xu, Zhiyuan; Sheehan, Jason P

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) subsequent to embolization suffer from elevated local failure rates and differences in adverse radiation effects. Onyx is a common embolic material for AVMs. Onyx is formulated with tantalum, a high atomic number (Z = 73) element that has been investigated as a source of dosimetric uncertainty contributing to the less favorable clinical results. However, prior studies have not modeled the complicated anatomical and beam geometries characteristic of GKRS. This study investigated the magnitude of dose perturbation that can occur due to Onyx embolization using clinically realistic anatomical and Gamma Knife beam models. METHODS Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) was used to segment the AVM nidus and areas of Onyx from postcontrast stereotactic MRI for 7 patients treated with GKRS postembolization. The resulting contours, skull surface, and clinically selected dose distributions were exported from LGP in DICOM-RT (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine-radiotherapy) format. Isocenter locations and dwell times were recorded from the LGP database. Contours were converted into 3D mesh representations using commercial and in-house mesh-editing software. The resulting data were imported into a Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation engine (Pegasos, Elekta Instruments AB) with a beam geometry for the Gamma Knife Perfexion. The MC-predicted dose distributions were calculated with Onyx assigned manufacturer-reported physical constants (MC-Onyx), and then compared with corresponding distributions in which Onyx was reassigned constants for water (MC-water). Differences in dose metrics were determined, including minimum, maximum, and mean dose to the AVM nidus; selectivity index; and target coverage. Combined differences in dose magnitude and distance to agreement were calculated as 3D Gamma analysis passing rates using tolerance criteria of 0.5%/0.5 mm, 1.0%/1.0 mm, and 3.0%/3.0 mm

  15. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-03: Continuous Dose Delivery with Gamma Knife Perfexion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghobadi,; Li, W; Chung, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We propose continuous dose delivery techniques for stereotactic treatments delivered by Gamma Knife Perfexion using inverse treatment planning system that can be applied to various tumour sites in the brain. We test the accuracy of the plans on Perfexion’s planning system (GammaPlan) to ensure the obtained plans are viable. This approach introduces continuous dose delivery for Perefxion, as opposed to the currently employed step-and-shoot approaches, for different tumour sites. Additionally, this is the first realization of automated inverse planning on GammaPlan. Methods: The inverse planning approach is divided into two steps of identifying a quality path inside the target,more » and finding the best collimator composition for the path. To find a path, we select strategic regions inside the target volume and find a path that visits each region exactly once. This path is then passed to a mathematical model which finds the best combination of collimators and their durations. The mathematical model minimizes the dose spillage to the surrounding tissues while ensuring the prescribed dose is delivered to the target(s). Organs-at-risk and their corresponding allowable doses can also be added to the model to protect adjacent organs. Results: We test this approach on various tumour sizes and sites. The quality of the obtained treatment plans are comparable or better than forward plans and inverse plans that use step- and-shoot technique. The conformity indices in the obtained continuous dose delivery plans are similar to those of forward plans while the beam-on time is improved on average (see Table 1 in supporting document). Conclusion: We employ inverse planning for continuous dose delivery in Perfexion for brain tumours. The quality of the obtained plans is similar to forward and inverse plans that use conventional step-and-shoot technique. We tested the inverse plans on GammaPlan to verify clinical relevance. This research was partially supported by

  16. Gamma knife radiosurgery for glomus jugulare tumors: therapeutic advantages of minimalism in the skull base.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manish S; Gupta, A; Kale, S S; Agrawal, D; Mahapatra, A K; Sharma, B S

    2008-01-01

    Glomus jugulare (GJ) tumors are paragangliomas found in the region of the jugular foramen. Surgery with/without embolization and conventional radiotherapy has been the traditional management option. To analyze the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) as a primary or an adjunctive form of therapy. A retrospective analysis of patients who received GKS at a tertiary neurosurgical center was performed. Of the 1601 patients who underwent GKS from 1997 to 2006, 24 patients with GJ underwent 25 procedures. The average age of the cohort was 46.6 years (range, 22-76 years) and the male to female ratio was 1:2. The most common neurological deficit was IX, X, XI cranial nerve paresis (15/24). Fifteen patients received primary GKS. Mean tumor size was 8.7 cc (range 1.1-17.2 cc). The coverage achieved was 93.1% (range 90-97%) using a mean tumor margin dose of 16.4 Gy (range 12-25 Gy) at a mean isodose of 49.5% (range 45-50%). Thirteen patients (six primary and seven secondary) were available for follow-up at a median interval of 24 months (range seven to 48 months). The average tumor size was 7.9 cc (range 1.1-17.2 cc). Using a mean tumor margin dose of 16.3 Gy (range 12-20 Gy) 93.6% coverage (range 91-97%) was achieved. Six patients improved clinically. A single patient developed transient trigeminal neuralgia. Magnetic resonance imaging follow-up was available for 10 patients; seven recorded a decrease in size. There was no tumor progression. Gamma knife radiosurgery is a safe and effective primary and secondary modality of treatment for GJ.

  17. Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: tumor control and functional preservation in 70 patients.

    PubMed

    Arthurs, Benjamin J; Lamoreaux, Wayne T; Mackay, Alexander R; Demakas, John J; Giddings, Neil A; Fairbanks, Robert K; Cooke, Barton S; Elaimy, Ameer L; Peressini, Ben; Lee, Christopher M

    2011-06-01

    We present the previously unreported outcomes of 70 patients treated with Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma (VS), including comprehensive analysis of clinical outcomes and the effects of lower marginal doses. We performed a retrospective study of patients treated for VS at Gamma knife of Spokane between 2003 and 2008. Endpoints measured include tumor control, hearing preservation, and facial nerve preservation, including the effect of tumor size and marginal dose. Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kendall's rank correlation, Fisher exact test, and Liddell's exact χ(2) test for matched pairs. With a mean follow-up of 26 months, 93.8% of tumors either shrank or remained static after receiving a mean marginal dose of 12.7 Gy. Tumor control was independent of marginal dose or tumor size. Hearing preservation was achieved in 64% of patients with serviceable function before the treatment. Hearing changes were independent of dose or tumor size. Preservation of good facial nerve function was achieved in 95% of patients. Post-treatment hydrocephalus occurred in 4.4% of patients, but no other significant morbidities were elucidated. In the treatment of VS, contemporary radiosurgical techniques and the use of marginal doses below 13 Gy offer excellent tumor control, at high rates relative to surgical intervention. These findings are independent of marginal dose and tumor size. Patients should be informed about the benefits and risks of radiosurgery and microsurgery before choosing an intervention. Further analysis of post-treatment outcomes should be encouraged as follow-up times increase and the treatment protocols continue to evolve.

  18. Long-term outcomes of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in patients with vestibular schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Erin S; Barnett, Gene H; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Neyman, Gennady; Stevens, Glen H J; Cohen, Bruce H; Elson, Paul; Vassil, Andrew D; Suh, John H

    2011-02-01

    The authors sought to determine the long-term tumor control and side effects of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in patients with vestibular schwannomas (VS). One hundred seventeen patients with VS underwent GKRS between January 1997 and February 2003. At the time of analysis, at least 5 years had passed since GKRS in all patients. The mean patient age was 60.9 years. The mean maximal tumor diameter was 1.77 ± 0.71 cm. The mean tumor volume was 1.95 ± 2.42 ml. Eighty-two percent of lesions received 1300 cGy and 14% received 1200 cGy. The median dose homogeneity ratio was 1.97 and the median dose conformality ratio was 1.78. Follow-up included MR imaging or CT scanning approximately every 6-12 months. Rates of progression to surgery were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 117 patients in whom data were analyzed, 103 had follow-up MR or CT images and 14 patients were lost to follow-up. Fifty-three percent of patients had stable tumors and 37.9% had a radiographically documented response. Imaging-documented tumor progression was present in 8 patients (7.8%), but in 3 of these the lesion eventually stabilized. Only 5 patients required a neurosurgical intervention. The estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year rates of progression to surgery were 1, 4.6, and 8.9%, respectively. One patient (1%) developed trigeminal neuropathy, 4 patients (5%) developed permanent facial neuropathy, 3 patients (4%) reported vertigo, and 7 patients (18%) had new gait imbalance following GKRS. Gamma Knife radiosurgery results in excellent local control rates with minimal toxicity for patients with VS. The authors recommend standardized follow-up to gain a better understanding of the long-term effects of GKRS.

  19. Prediction of obliteration after gamma knife surgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, B; Lindquist, C; Steiner, L

    1997-03-01

    To define the factors of importance for the obliteration of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), thus making a prediction of the probability for obliteration possible. In 945 AVMs of a series of 1319 patients treated with the gamma knife during 1970 to 1990, the relationship between patient, AVMs, and treatment parameters on the one hand and the obliteration of the nidus on the other was analyzed. The obliteration rate increased both with increased minimum (lowest periphery) and average dose and decreased with increased AVM volume. The minimum dose to the AVMs was the decisive dose factor for the treatment result. The higher the minimum dose, the higher the chance for total obliteration. The curve illustrating this relation increased logarithmically to a value of 87%. A higher average dose shortened the latency to AVM obliteration. For the obliterated cases, the larger the malformation, the lower the minimum dose used. This prompted us to relate the obliteration rate to the product minimum dose (AVM volume)1/3 (K index). The obliteration rate increased linearly with the K index up to a value of approximately 27, and for higher K values, the obliteration rate had a constant value of approximately 80%. For the group of 273 cases treated with a minimum dose of at least 25 Gy, the obliteration rate at the study end point (defined as 2-yr latency) was 80% (95% confidence interval = 75-85%). If obliterations that occurred beyond the end point are included, the obliteration rate increased to 85% (81-89%). The probability of obliteration of AVMs after gamma knife surgery is related both to the lowest dose to the AVMs and the AVM volume, and it can be predicted using the K index.

  20. Volumetric changes and clinical outcome for petroclival meningiomas after primary treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Zjiwar H A; Lie, Suan Te; Leenstra, Sieger; Hanssens, Patrick E J

    2018-01-26

    OBJECTIVE Petroclival meningiomas (PCMs) can cause devastating clinical symptoms due to mass effect on cranial nerves (CNs); thus, patients harboring these tumors need treatment. Many neurosurgeons advocate for microsurgery because removal of the tumor can provide relief or result in symptom disappearance. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is often an alternative for surgery because it can cause tumor shrinkage with improvement of symptoms. This study evaluates qualitative volumetric changes of PCM after primary GKRS and its impact on clinical symptoms. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective study of patients with PCM who underwent primary GKRS between 2003 and 2015 at the Gamma Knife Center of the Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital in Tilburg, the Netherlands. This study yields 53 patients. In this study the authors concentrate on qualitative volumetric tumor changes, local tumor control rate, and the effect of the treatment on trigeminal neuralgia (TN). RESULTS Local tumor control was 98% at 5 years and 93% at 7 years (Kaplan-Meier estimates). More than 90% of the tumors showed regression in volume during the first 5 years. The mean volumetric tumor decrease was 21.2%, 27.1%, and 31% at 1, 3, and 6 years of follow-up, respectively. Improvement in TN was achieved in 61%, 67%, and 70% of the cases at 1, 2, and 3 years of follow-up, respectively. This was associated with a mean volumetric tumor decrease of 25% at the 1-year follow-up to 32% at the 3-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS GKRS for PCMs yields a high tumor control rate with a low incidence of neurological deficits. Many patients with TN due to PCM experienced improvement in TN after radiosurgery. GKRS achieves significant volumetric tumor decrease in the first years of follow-up and thereafter.

  1. Gamma knife radiosurgery for typical trigeminal neuralgia: An institutional review of 108 patients

    PubMed Central

    Elaimy, Ameer L.; Lamm, Andrew F.; Demakas, John J.; Mackay, Alexander R.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Pfeffer, Robert D.; Cooke, Barton S.; Peressini, Benjamin J.; Lee, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, we present the previously unreported pain relief outcomes of 108 patients treated at Gamma Knife of Spokane for typical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) between 2002 and 2011. Methods: Pain relief outcomes were measured using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity scale. In addition, the effects gender, age at treatment, pain laterality, previous surgical treatment, repeat Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS), and maximum radiosurgery dose have on patient pain relief outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using Andersen 95% confidence intervals, approximate confidence intervals for log hazard ratios, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Results: All 108 patients included in this study were grouped into BNI class IV or V prior to GKRS. The median clinical follow-up time was determined to be 15 months. Following the first GKRS procedure, 71% of patients were grouped into BNI class I-IIIb (I = 31%; II = 3%; IIIa = 19%; IIIb = 18%) and the median duration of pain relief for those patients was determined to be 11.8 months. New facial numbness was reported in 19% of patients and new facial paresthesias were reported in 7% of patients after the first GKRS procedure. A total of 19 repeat procedures were performed on the 108 patients included in this study. Following the second GKRS procedure, 73% of patients were grouped into BNI class I-IIIb (I = 44%; II = 6%; IIIa = 17%, IIIb = 6%) and the median duration of pain relief for those patients was determined to be 4.9 months. For repeat procedures, new facial numbness was reported in 22% of patients and new facial paresthesias were reported in 6% of patients. Conclusions: GKRS is a safe and effective management approach for patients diagnosed with typical TN. However, further studies and supporting research is needed on the effects previous surgical treatment, number of radiosurgery procedures, and maximum radiosurgery dose have on GKRS clinical

  2. Gamma Knife surgery for clival epidural-osseous dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Chen, Ching-Jen; Chen, Shao-Ching; Yang, Huai-Che; Lin, Chung Jung; Wu, Chih-Chun; Chung, Wen-Yuh; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Hung-Chi Pan, David; Shiau, Cheng-Ying; Wu, Hsiu-Mei

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Clival epidural-osseous dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is often associated with a large nidus, multiple arterial feeders, and complex venous drainage. In this study the authors report the outcomes of clival epidural-osseous DAVFs treated using Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). METHODS Thirteen patients with 13 clival epidural-osseous DAVFs were treated with GKS at the authors' institution between 1993 and 2015. Patient age at the time of GKS ranged from 38 to 76 years (median 55 years). Eight DAVFs were classified as Cognard Type I, 4 as Type IIa, and 1 as Type IIa+b. The median treatment volume was 17.6 cm 3 (range 6.2-40.3 cm 3 ). The median prescribed margin dose was 16.5 Gy (range 15-18 Gy). Clinical and radiological follow-ups were performed at 6-month intervals. Patient outcomes after GKS were categorized as 1) complete improvement, 2) partial improvement, 3) stationary, and 4) progression. RESULTS All 13 patients demonstrated symptomatic improvement, and on catheter angiography 12 of the 13 patients had complete obliteration and 1 patient had partial obliteration. The median follow-up period was 26 months (range 14-186 months). The median latency period from GKS to obliteration was 21 months (range 8-186 months). There was no intracranial hemorrhage during the follow-up period, and no deaths occurred. Two adverse events were observed following treatment, and 2 patients required repeat GKS treatment with eventual complete obliteration. CONCLUSIONS Gamma Knife surgery offers a safe and effective primary or adjuvant treatment modality for complex clival epidural-osseous DAVFs. All patients in this case series demonstrated symptomatic improvement, and almost all patients attained complete obliteration.

  3. Situated cognition in clinical visualization: the role of transparency in GammaKnife neurosurgery planning.

    PubMed

    Dinka, David; Nyce, James M; Timpka, Toomas

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the clinical use of visualization technology can be advanced by the application of a situated cognition perspective. The data were collected in the GammaKnife radiosurgery setting and analyzed using qualitative methods. Observations and in-depth interviews with neurosurgeons and physicists were performed at three clinics using the Leksell GammaKnife. The users' ability to perform cognitive tasks was found to be reduced each time visualizations incongruent with the particular user's perception of clinical reality were used. The main issue here was a lack of transparency, i.e. a black box problem where machine representations "stood between" users and the cognitive tasks they wanted to perform. For neurosurgeons, transparency meant their previous experience from traditional surgery could be applied, i.e. that they were not forced to perform additional cognitive work. From the view of the physicists, on the other hand, the concept of transparency was associated with mathematical precision and avoiding creating a cognitive distance between basic patient data and what is experienced as clinical reality. The physicists approached clinical visualization technology as though it was a laboratory apparatus--one that required continual adjustment and assessment in order to "capture" a quantitative clinical reality. Designers of visualization technology need to compare the cognitive interpretations generated by the new visualization systems to conceptions generated during "traditional" clinical work. This means that the viewpoint of different clinical user groups involved in a given clinical task would have to be taken into account as well. A way forward would be to acknowledge that visualization is a socio-cognitive function that has practice-based antecedents and consequences, and to reconsider what analytical and scientific challenges this presents us with.

  4. Vestibular schwannomas: clinical results and quality of life after microsurgery or gamma knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Myrseth, Erling; Møller, Per; Pedersen, Paal-Henning; Vassbotn, Flemming S; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lund-Johansen, Morten

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the overall treatment efficacy (tumor control, facial nerve function, complications) and quality of life for patients treated primarily for unilateral vestibular schwannomas of 30 mm or less, either by microsurgery or by gamma knife (GK) radiosurgery. The results for the two treatment groups are compared with each other, with main emphasis on the long-term quality of life. This is a retrospective study of 189 consecutive patients, 86 treated by microsurgery and 103 by gamma knife. The mean observation time was 5.9 years. All patients had a magnetic resonance imaging scan and clinical evaluation performed toward the end of the study. To evaluate the quality of life, we used two standardized questionnaires, the Glasgow Benefit Inventory and Short-Form 36. The questionnaires were sent to the 168 living patients. The reply rate was 83.3%. A total of 79.8% of the patients in the microsurgery group and 94.8% of the GK patients had a good facial nerve function (House-Brackmann Grade 1-2). Hearing was usually lost after microsurgery, whereas the GK patients had preserved hearing, which often became reduced over the years after the treatment. The treatment efficacy, defined as no need for additional treatment, was similar for the two treatment modalities. Quality of life was reduced compared with normative data, being most reduced in the microsurgery group. Some of the quality of life questions showed an association with facial nerve function and sex. Posttreatment facial nerve function, hearing, complication rates, and quality of life were all significantly in favor of GK radiosurgery.

  5. The role of diffusion tensor imaging tractography for Gamma Knife thalamotomy planning.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João Gabriel Ribeiro; Gorgulho, Alessandra Augusta; de Oliveira López, Amanda; Saraiva, Crystian Wilian Chagas; Damiani, Lucas Petri; Pássaro, Anderson Martins; Salvajoli, João Victor; de Oliveira Siqueira, Ludmila; Salvajoli, Bernardo Peres; De Salles, Antônio Afonso Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The role of tractography in Gamma Knife thalamotomy (GK-T) planning is still unclear. Pyramidal tractography might reduce the risk of radiation injury to the pyramidal tract and reduce motor complications. METHODS In this study, the ventralis intermedius nucleus (VIM) targets of 20 patients were bilaterally defined using Iplannet Stereotaxy Software, according to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line and considering the localization of the pyramidal tract. The 40 targets and tractography were transferred as objects to the GammaPlan Treatment Planning System (GP-TPS). New targets were defined, according to the AC-PC line in the functional targets section of the GP-TPS. The target offsets required to maintain the internal capsule (IC) constraint of < 15 Gy were evaluated. In addition, the strategies available in GP-TPS to maintain the minimum conventional VIM target dose at > 100 Gy were determined. RESULTS A difference was observed between the positions of both targets and the doses to the IC. The lateral (x) and the vertical (z) coordinates were adjusted 1.9 mm medially and 1.3 mm cranially, respectively. The targets defined considering the position of the pyramidal tract were more medial and superior, based on the constraint of 15 Gy touching the object representing the IC in the GP-TPS. The best strategy to meet the set constraints was 90° Gamma angle (GA) with automatic shaping of dose distribution; this was followed by 110° GA. The worst GA was 70°. Treatment time was substantially increased by the shaping strategy, approximately doubling delivery time. CONCLUSIONS Routine use of DTI pyramidal tractography might be important to fine-tune GK-T planning. DTI tractography, as well as anisotropy showing the VIM, promises to improve Gamma Knife functional procedures. They allow for a more objective definition of dose constraints to the IC and targeting. DTI pyramidal tractography introduced into the treatment planning may reduce the

  6. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanzadeh, H.; Sharafi, A.; Allah Verdi, M.; Nikoofar, A.

    2006-09-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 ± 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 ± 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 ± 15.1 cGy, 9.15 ± 3.89 cGy, 0.47 ± 0.3 cGy and 0.53 ± 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  7. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, H; Sharafi, A; Allah Verdi, M; Nikoofar, A

    2006-09-07

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 +/- 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 +/- 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 +/- 15.1 cGy, 9.15 +/- 3.89 cGy, 0.47 +/- 0.3 cGy and 0.53 +/- 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours.

  8. Determination of small field synthetic single-crystal diamond detector correction factors for CyberKnife, Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion and linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Veselsky, T; Novotny, J; Pastykova, V; Koniarova, I

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine small field correction factors for a synthetic single-crystal diamond detector (PTW microDiamond) for routine use in clinical dosimetric measurements. Correction factors following small field Alfonso formalism were calculated by comparison of PTW microDiamond measured ratio M Qclin fclin /M Qmsr fmsr with Monte Carlo (MC) based field output factors Ω Qclin,Qmsr fclin,fmsr determined using Dosimetry Diode E or with MC simulation itself. Diode measurements were used for the CyberKnife and Varian Clinac 2100C/D linear accelerator. PTW microDiamond correction factors for Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) were derived using MC simulated reference values from the manufacturer. PTW microDiamond correction factors for CyberKnife field sizes 25-5 mm were mostly smaller than 1% (except for 2.9% for 5 mm Iris field and 1.4% for 7.5 mm fixed cone field). The correction of 0.1% and 2.0% for 8 mm and 4 mm collimators, respectively, needed to be applied to PTW microDiamond measurements for LGK Perfexion. Finally, PTW microDiamond M Qclin fclin /M Qmsr fmsr for the linear accelerator varied from MC corrected Dosimetry Diode data by less than 0.5% (except for 1 × 1 cm 2 field size with 1.3% deviation). Regarding low resulting correction factor values, the PTW microDiamond detector may be considered an almost ideal tool for relative small field dosimetry in a large variety of stereotactic and radiosurgery treatment devices. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A fully automatic approach for multimodal PET and MR image segmentation in gamma knife treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Rundo, Leonardo; Stefano, Alessandro; Militello, Carmelo; Russo, Giorgio; Sabini, Maria Gabriella; D'Arrigo, Corrado; Marletta, Francesco; Ippolito, Massimo; Mauri, Giancarlo; Vitabile, Salvatore; Gilardi, Maria Carla

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, clinical practice in Gamma Knife treatments is generally based on MRI anatomical information alone. However, the joint use of MRI and PET images can be useful for considering both anatomical and metabolic information about the lesion to be treated. In this paper we present a co-segmentation method to integrate the segmented Biological Target Volume (BTV), using [ 11 C]-Methionine-PET (MET-PET) images, and the segmented Gross Target Volume (GTV), on the respective co-registered MR images. The resulting volume gives enhanced brain tumor information to be used in stereotactic neuro-radiosurgery treatment planning. GTV often does not match entirely with BTV, which provides metabolic information about brain lesions. For this reason, PET imaging is valuable and it could be used to provide complementary information useful for treatment planning. In this way, BTV can be used to modify GTV, enhancing Clinical Target Volume (CTV) delineation. A novel fully automatic multimodal PET/MRI segmentation method for Leksell Gamma Knife ® treatments is proposed. This approach improves and combines two computer-assisted and operator-independent single modality methods, previously developed and validated, to segment BTV and GTV from PET and MR images, respectively. In addition, the GTV is utilized to combine the superior contrast of PET images with the higher spatial resolution of MRI, obtaining a new BTV, called BTV MRI . A total of 19 brain metastatic tumors, undergone stereotactic neuro-radiosurgery, were retrospectively analyzed. A framework for the evaluation of multimodal PET/MRI segmentation is also presented. Overlap-based and spatial distance-based metrics were considered to quantify similarity concerning PET and MRI segmentation approaches. Statistics was also included to measure correlation among the different segmentation processes. Since it is not possible to define a gold-standard CTV according to both MRI and PET images without treatment response assessment

  10. End-to-end test of spatial accuracy in Gamma Knife treatments for trigeminal neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovich, Ivan A., E-mail: ibrezovich@uabmc.edu; Wu, Xingen; Duan, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Spatial accuracy is most crucial when small targets like the trigeminal nerve are treated. Although current quality assurance procedures typically verify that individual apparatus, like the MRI scanner, CT scanner, Gamma Knife, etc., are meeting specifications, the cumulative error of all equipment and procedures combined may exceed safe margins. This study uses an end-to-end approach to assess the overall targeting errors that may have occurred in individual patients previously treated for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: The trigeminal nerve is simulated by a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm (1/8 in.) diameter MRI-contrast filled cavity embedded within a PMMA plastic capsule. Themore » capsule is positioned within the head frame such that the location of the cavity matches the Gamma Knife coordinates of an arbitrarily chosen, previously treated patient. Gafchromic EBT2 film is placed at the center of the cavity in coronal and sagittal orientations. The films are marked with a pinprick to identify the cavity center. Treatments are planned for radiation delivery with 4 mm collimators according to MRI and CT scans using the clinical localizer boxes and acquisition protocols. Shots are planned so that the 50% isodose surface encompasses the cavity. Following irradiation, the films are scanned and analyzed. Targeting errors are defined as the distance between the pinprick, which represents the intended target, and the centroid of the 50% isodose line, which is the center of the radiation field that was actually delivered. Results: Averaged over ten patient simulations, targeting errors along the x, y, and z coordinates (patient’s left-to-right, posterior-to-anterior, and head-to-foot) were, respectively, −0.060 ± 0.363, −0.350 ± 0.253, and 0.348 ± 0.204 mm when MRI was used for treatment planning. Planning according to CT exhibited generally smaller errors, namely, 0.109 ± 0.167, −0.191 ± 0.144, and 0.211 ± 0.094 mm. The largest errors along individual axes

  11. Radiosurgery with the world's first fully robotized Leksell Gamma Knife PerfeXion in clinical use: a 200-patient prospective, randomized, controlled comparison with the Gamma Knife 4C.

    PubMed

    Régis, Jean; Tamura, Manabu; Guillot, Cécile; Yomo, Shoji; Muraciolle, Xavier; Nagaje, Mariko; Arka, Yasser; Porcheron, Denis

    2009-02-01

    The world's first Leksell Gamma Knife PerfeXion (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) for radiosurgery of the head and neck became operational at Timone University Hospital in Marseille on July 10, 2006. To allow strict evaluation of the capabilities, advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of this new technology, patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized trial. In 66 working days, between July 10 and December 20, 2006, 363 patients were treated by gamma knife surgery at Timone University Hospital, Marseille. Of these patients, 200 were eligible for the comparative prospective study (inclusion criteria were informed consent obtained, tumor or vascular indication, and no previous radiosurgery or radiotherapy). In accordance with the blinded randomization process, 100 patients were treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife 4C (Elekta Instrument AB) and Gamma Knife 100 (Elekta Instrument AB) with the Leksell Gamma Knife PerfeXion. Dose planning parameters, dosimetry measurements on the patient's body, workflow, patient comfort, quality assurance procedure, and a series of other treatment-related parameters were systematically and prospectively evaluated in both arms of the trial. No technical failure of the treatment procedure was encountered. The new dose-planning system led to the use of composite shots in 39.4% of the patients. The median number of different collimator sizes used was larger with the PerfeXion than with the 4C (2 and 1, respectively). The mean number of isocenters used was lower (10.67 and 13.08, respectively). The median total treatment time was significantly shorter with the PerfeXion (40 and 60 minutes, respectively), but there was no significant difference in the median radiation time (34.02 and 33.40 minutes, respectively). The procedure was performed using only a single run in 98.99% of the PerfeXion cases and in 42% of the 4C cases. Collision risk on the 4C forced us to change the frame gamma angle for at least 1 shot in 24% of

  12. Brain metastases in cancer patients attending a Gamma Knife Center: A study from a single institute in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Parisa; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Bitaraf, Mohammad Ali; Azar, Maziar; Alikhani, Mazdak; Zali, Alireza; Sadeghi, Sohrab; Montazeri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to explore data on brain metastases in cancer patients attending the Iranian Gamma Knife Center. Meterials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. In all 5216 case records of patients who referred to the Iranian Gamma Knife Center for treatment of brain tumors during year 2003-2011 were reviewed. Data were explored to identify patients who developed brain metastases due to cancer and assessed the information as applied to cancer patients including survival analysis. Results: Two hundred and twenty patients were identified as having brain metastases due to cancer. The mean age of patients was 54.0 (standard deviation [SD] =12.7) years. Patients were followed for an average of 7 months after treatment with gamma-knife. The median survival time for different the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) was: GPA: 0-1, 4.0 ± 0.4 months; GPA: 1.5-2.5, 6.0 ± 0.7 months; GPA: 3, 9.0 ± 0.9 months; and GPA: 3.5-4.0, 12.0 ± 1.8 months and the overall median survival was 7.0 (SD = 0.6) months. Conclusion: The findings suggest that many cancer patients in Iran might develop brain metastasis. Although, this is not a very high incidence compared with the existing statistics from other countries, there is an urgent need to explore the issue further. PMID:28761536

  13. Technical note: A 3D-printed phantom for routine accuracy check of Gamma Knife Icon HDMM system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuan; Radevic, Marlyn B; Glass, Jennifer S; Skubic, Stan E

    2018-05-23

    To report a novel 3D-printed device ("SH phantom") that is designed for routine accuracy check of the Gamma Knife Icon High Definition Motion Management (HDMM) system. SH phantom was designed using tinkerCAD software and printed on a commercial 3D printer. We evaluated the SH phantom on our Gamma Knife Icon unit regarding its usability and accuracy for routine HDMM QA. Single-axis and multiple-axis measurements validated the SH phantom design and implementation. An HDMM QA accuracy of 0.22 mm or better along single axis was found using SH phantom. The SH phantom proved to be a quick and simple tool to use to perform the HDMM system QA. The SH phantom was tested successfully and adopted by us as part of monthly QA for the Gamma Knife Icon. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Brain metastases in cancer patients attending a Gamma Knife Center: A study from a single institute in Iran.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Parisa; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Bitaraf, Mohammad Ali; Azar, Maziar; Alikhani, Mazdak; Zali, Alireza; Sadeghi, Sohrab; Montazeri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore data on brain metastases in cancer patients attending the Iranian Gamma Knife Center. This was a retrospective study. In all 5216 case records of patients who referred to the Iranian Gamma Knife Center for treatment of brain tumors during year 2003-2011 were reviewed. Data were explored to identify patients who developed brain metastases due to cancer and assessed the information as applied to cancer patients including survival analysis. Two hundred and twenty patients were identified as having brain metastases due to cancer. The mean age of patients was 54.0 (standard deviation [SD] =12.7) years. Patients were followed for an average of 7 months after treatment with gamma-knife. The median survival time for different the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) was: GPA: 0-1, 4.0 ± 0.4 months; GPA: 1.5-2.5, 6.0 ± 0.7 months; GPA: 3, 9.0 ± 0.9 months; and GPA: 3.5-4.0, 12.0 ± 1.8 months and the overall median survival was 7.0 (SD = 0.6) months. The findings suggest that many cancer patients in Iran might develop brain metastasis. Although, this is not a very high incidence compared with the existing statistics from other countries, there is an urgent need to explore the issue further.

  15. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Skull Base Meningiomas: Long-Term Radiologic and Clinical Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chung, Hyun-Tai

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze the long-term outcomes in patients with skull base meningiomas (SBMNGs) treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Methods and Materials: Of the 98 consecutive patients with SBMNGs treated with GKRS between 1998 and 2002, 63 were followed up for more than 48 months. The mean ({+-}SD) age of the patients was 50 {+-} 12 years, the mean tumor volume was 6.5 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.5-18.4 cm{sup 3}), the mean marginal dose was 12.6 Gy (range, 7.0-20.0 Gy), and the mean follow-up duration was 77 {+-} 18 months. The mean number of shots was 13.7 {+-} 3.8. The tumormore » volume was decreased at the last follow-up in 28 patients (44.4%) and increased in 6 (9.6%). The actuarial tumor control rate was 90.2% at 5 years. No notable prognostic factor related to tumor control was identified. Ten patients (15.9%) with a cranial neuropathy showed unfavorable outcomes. The rate of improvement in patients with a cranial neuropathy was 45.1%. Age >70 years was likely correlated with an unfavorable outcome in patients with cranial neuropathy (odds ratio = 0.027; p = 0.025; 95% confidence interval 0.001-0.632). Cavernous sinus location was significantly associated with improvement of a cranial neuropathy (odds ratio = 7.314; p = 0.007; 95% confidence interval 1.707-31.34). Conclusions: Gamma Knife radiosurgery is an effective modality for the treatment of SBMNGs and provides favorable outcomes in patients with cranial neuropathy, even in the long-term follow-up period. However, radiosurgery for patients with no or only mild symptoms should be performed cautiously because neither complication rate is low enough to be negligible, especially in elderly patients. A cranial neuropathy by MNGs involving the cavernous sinus seems to have a higher chance of improvement after radiosurgery than other SBMNGs.« less

  16. Gamma Knife surgery for intracranial chordoma and chondrosarcoma: radiosurgical perspectives and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hee; Jung, Hyun Ho; Chang, Jong Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Park, Yong Gou; Chang, Won Seok

    2014-12-01

    Intracranial chordomas and chondrosarcomas are histologically low-grade, locally invasive tumors that are reported to be similar in terms of anatomical location, clinical presentation, and radiological findings but different in terms of behavior and outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare clinical outcomes after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for the treatment of intracranial chordoma and chondrosarcoma. The authors conducted a retrospective review of the results of radiosurgical treatment of intracranial chordomas and chondrosarcomas. They enrolled patients who had undergone GKS for intracranial chordoma or chondrosarcoma at the Yonsei Gamma Knife Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, from October 2000 through June 2007. Analyses included only patients for whom the disease was pathologically diagnosed before GKS and for whom more than 5 years of follow-up data after GKS were available. Rates of progression-free survival and overall survival were analyzed and compared according to tumor pathology. Moreover, the association between tumor control and the margin radiation dose to the tumor was analyzed, and the rate of tumor volume change after GKS was quantified. A total of 10 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 5 patients underwent a total of 8 sessions of GKS for chordoma, and the other 5 patients underwent a total of 7 sessions of GKS for chondrosarcoma. The 2- and 5-year progression-free survival rates for patients in the chordoma group were 70% and 35%, respectively, and rates for patients in the chondrosarcoma group were 100% and 80%, respectively (log-rank test, p = 0.04). The 2- and 5-year overall survival rates after GKS for patients in the chordoma group were 87.5% and 72.9%, respectively, and rates for patients in the chondrosarcoma group were 100% and 100%, respectively (log-rank test, p = 0.03). The mean rates of tumor volume change 2 years after radiosurgery were 79.64% and 39.91% for chordoma and

  17. Assessment of the accuracy and stability of frameless gamma knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun-Tai; Park, Woo-Yoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Yong Kyun; Chun, Kook Jin

    2018-06-03

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and stability of frameless gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS). The accuracies of the radiation isocenter and patient couch movement were evaluated by film dosimetry with a half-year cycle. Radiation isocenter assessment with a diode detector and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image accuracy tests were performed daily with a vendor-provided tool for one and a half years after installation. CBCT image quality was examined twice a month with a phantom. The accuracy of image coregistration using CBCT images was studied using magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images of another phantom. The overall positional accuracy was measured in whole procedure tests using film dosimetry with an anthropomorphic phantom. The positional errors of the radiation isocenter at the center and at an extreme position were both less than 0.1 mm. The three-dimensional deviation of the CBCT coordinate system was stable for one and a half years (mean 0.04 ± 0.02 mm). Image coregistration revealed a difference of 0.2 ± 0.1 mm between CT and CBCT images and a deviation of 0.4 ± 0.2 mm between MR and CBCT images. The whole procedure test of the positional accuracy of the mask-based irradiation revealed an accuracy of 0.5 ± 0.6 mm. The radiation isocenter accuracy, patient couch movement accuracy, and Gamma Knife Icon CBCT accuracy were all approximately 0.1 mm and were stable for one and a half years. The coordinate system assigned to MR images through coregistration was more accurate than the system defined by fiducial markers. Possible patient motion during irradiation should be considered when evaluating the overall accuracy of frameless GKRS. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Gamma Knife Treatment of Growing Vestibular Schwannoma in Norway: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Varughese, Jobin Kotakkathu, E-mail: jobinv@gmail.com; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Eastern and Southern Norway, Oslo

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been increasingly used in the treatment of vestibular schwannoma (VS). Very few studies relate tumor control and post-treatment growth rates to pretreatment growth rates. Methods and Materials: We prospectively included 45 consecutive VS patients who were initially treated conservatively and then received GKRS between 2000 and 2007 because of demonstrated tumor growth. Pretreatment and post-treatment tumor volumes were estimated. Patients underwent audiograms, reported their symptoms, and responded to the Short Form General Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire on each visit. Results: Volume doubling times before and after treatment were 1.36 years (95% confidence intervals, 1.14-1.68)more » and -13.1 years (95% confidence intervals, -111.0 to -6.94), respectively. Tumor control, defined as a post-GKRS growth rate {<=}0, was achieved in 71.1% of patients, with highest odds for tumor control among older patients and those with larger tumors. The 5-year retreatment-free survival rate was 93.9% (95% confidence intervals, 76.5-98.5). None of the clinical endpoints investigated showed statistically significant changes after GKRS, but improvement was seen in a few SF-36 parameters. Conclusions: GKRS alters the natural course of the tumor by reducing growth. Mathematic models yield poorer tumor control rates than those found by clinical assessment. Symptoms were unaffected by treatment, but quality of life was improved.« less

  19. Clinical Positioning Accuracy for Multisession Stereotactic Radiotherapy With the Gamma Knife Perfexion

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lori A.; Phillips, Mark H.; Cheung, Michael; Halasz, Lia M.; Rockhill, Jason K.

    2017-01-01

    Multisession stereotactic radiation therapy is increasingly being seen as a preferred option for intracranial diseases in close proximity to critical structures and for larger target volumes. The objective of this study is to investigate the reproducibility of the Extend system from Elekta. A retrospective review was conducted for all patients treated with multisession Gamma Knife between July 2010 and June 2015, including both malignant and benign lesions. Eighty-four patients were treated in this 5-year span. The average residual daily setup uncertainty was 0.48 (0.19) mm. We compare measurements of setup uncertainty from the Extend system to measurements performed with a linac-based approach previously used in our center. The Extend system has significantly reduced setup uncertainty for fractionated intracranial treatments at our institution. Positive results were observed in a small population of edentulous patients. The Extend system compares favorably with other approaches to delivering intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy and is a robust, simple-to-use, and precise method for treating multisession intracranial lesions. PMID:28514899

  20. Effect of beam channel plugging on the outcome of gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Massager, Nicolas; Nissim, Ouzi; Murata, Noriko

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: We studied the influence of using plugs for brainstem protection during gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), with special emphasis on irradiation doses delivered to the trigeminal nerve, pain outcomes, and incidence of trigeminal dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A GKR procedure for TN using an anterior cisternal target and a maximum dose of 90 Gy was performed in 109 patients. For 49 patients, customized beam channel blocking (plugs) were used to reduce the dose delivered to the brainstem. We measured the mean and integrated radiation doses delivered to the trigeminal nerve and the clinical course of patientsmore » treated with and without plugs. Results: We found that blocking increases the length of trigeminal nerve exposed to high-dose radiation, resulting in a significantly higher mean dose to the trigeminal nerve. Significantly more of the patients with blocking achieved excellent pain outcomes (84% vs. 62%), but with higher incidences of moderate and bothersome trigeminal nerve dysfunction (37% mild/10% bothersome with plugs vs. 30% mild/2% bothersome without). Conclusions: The use of plugs to protect the brainstem during GKR treatment for TN increases the dose of irradiation delivered to the intracisternal trigeminal nerve root and is associated with an important increase in the incidence of trigeminal nerve dysfunction. Therefore, beam channel blocking should be avoided for 90 Gy-GKR of TN.« less

  1. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery of the Superior Laryngeal Neuralgia: A report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Fu, Peng; Xiong, Nan-Xiang; Abdelmaksoud, Ahmed; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Song, Guo-Bin; Zhao, Hong-Yang

    2018-05-19

    Superior laryngeal neuralgia (SLN) is a relatively rare disorder that is characterized by neck pain. There are only a few reported cases and treatment options for SLN to date. In this study, we reported 3 patients with SLN who were treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) at the time of diagnosis. For all 3 patients, GKRS was administered using a 4-mm collimator to deliver a single shot of 80 Gy of radiation (the 100% isodose line). The target was set at the jugular foramen where the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves emerge from the skull. Follow-up assessments were performed at 32 months,31 months, and 30 months after GKRS. The 3 patients described pain relief at 3 months, 2 days and 6 weeks. None of the patients developed neurological deficits during the follow-up period. This preliminary report provides encouraging evidence that GKRS represents an effective, safe and relatively durable noninvasive treatment option for patients with SLN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gamma knife treatment for refractory epilepsy in seizure focus localized by positron emission tomography/CT★

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xia; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Hongwei; Zhao, Shigang; Han, Xiaodong; Hao, Linjun; Wang, Xiangcheng

    2012-01-01

    A total of 80 patients with refractory epilepsy were recruited from the Inner Mongolia Medical College Affiliated Hospital. The foci of 60% of the patients could be positioned using a combined positron emission tomography/CT imaging modality. Hyper- and hypometabolism foci were examined as part of this study. Patients who had abnormal metabolism in positron emission tomography/CT imaging were divided into intermittent-phase group and the seizure-phase group. The intermittent-phase group was further divided into a single-focus group and a multiple-foci group according to the number of seizure foci detected by imaging. Following gamma knife treatment, seizure frequency was significantly lower in the intermittent-phase group and the seizure-phase group. Wieser’s classification reached Grade I or II in nearly 40% of patients. Seizure frequency was significantly lower following treatment, but Wieser’s classification score was significantly higher in the seizure-phase group compared with the intermittent-phase group. Seizure frequency was significantly lower following treatment in the single-focus group, but Wieser’s classification score was significantly higher in the single-focus group as compared with the multiple-foci group. PMID:25317147

  3. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas, also called acoustic neuromas, are benign tumors of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Patients with these tumours almost always present with signs of hearing loss, and many also experience tinnitus, vertigo, and equilibrium problems. Following diagnosis with contrast enhanced MRI, patients may choose to observe the tumour with subsequent scans or seek active treatment in the form of microsurgery, radiosurgery, or radiotherapy. Unfortunately, definitive guidelines for treating vestibular schwannomas are lacking, because of insufficient evidence comparing the outcomes of therapeutic modalities. We present a contemporary case report, describing the finding of a vestibular schwannoma in a patient who presented with dizziness and a "clicking" sensation in the ear, but no hearing deficit. Audible clicking is a symptom that, to our knowledge, has not been associated with vestibular schwannoma in the literature. We discuss the diagnosis and patient's decision-making process, which led to treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Treatment resulted in an excellent radiographic response and complete hearing preservation. This case highlights an atypical presentation of vestibular schwannoma, associated with audible "clicks" and normal hearing. We also provide a concise review of the available literature on modern vestibular schwannoma treatment, which may be useful in guiding treatment decisions. PMID:20021676

  4. Neuropsychological outcomes after Gamma Knife radiosurgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Quigg, Mark; Broshek, Donna K; Barbaro, Nicholas M; Ward, Mariann M; Laxer, Kenneth D; Yan, Guofen; Lamborn, Kathleen

    2011-05-01

    To assess outcomes of language, verbal memory, cognitive efficiency and mental flexibility, mood, and quality of life (QOL) in a prospective, multicenter pilot study of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (RS) for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). RS, randomized to 20 Gy or 24 Gy comprising 5.5-7.5 ml at the 50% isodose volume, was performed on mesial temporal structures of patients with unilateral MTLE. Neuropsychological evaluations were performed at preoperative baseline, and mean change scores were described at 12 and 24 months postoperatively. QOL data were also available at 36 months. Thirty patients were treated and 26 were available for the final 24-month neuropsychological evaluation. Language (Boston Naming Test), verbal memory (California Verbal Learning Test and Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised), cognitive efficiency and mental flexibility (Trail Making Test), and mood (Beck Depression Inventory) did not differ from baseline. QOL scores improved at 24 and 36 months, with those patients attaining seizure remission by month 24s accounting for the majority of the improvement. The serial changes in cognitive outcomes, mood, and QOL are unremarkable following RS for MTLE. RS may provide an alternative to open surgery, especially in those patients at risk of cognitive impairment or who desire a noninvasive alternative to open surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  5. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Arthurs, Benjamin J; Lamoreaux, Wayne T; Giddings, Neil A; Fairbanks, Robert K; Mackay, Alexander R; Demakas, John J; Cooke, Barton S; Lee, Christopher M

    2009-12-18

    Vestibular schwannomas, also called acoustic neuromas, are benign tumors of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Patients with these tumours almost always present with signs of hearing loss, and many also experience tinnitus, vertigo, and equilibrium problems. Following diagnosis with contrast enhanced MRI, patients may choose to observe the tumour with subsequent scans or seek active treatment in the form of microsurgery, radiosurgery, or radiotherapy. Unfortunately, definitive guidelines for treating vestibular schwannomas are lacking, because of insufficient evidence comparing the outcomes of therapeutic modalities.We present a contemporary case report, describing the finding of a vestibular schwannoma in a patient who presented with dizziness and a "clicking" sensation in the ear, but no hearing deficit. Audible clicking is a symptom that, to our knowledge, has not been associated with vestibular schwannoma in the literature. We discuss the diagnosis and patient's decision-making process, which led to treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Treatment resulted in an excellent radiographic response and complete hearing preservation. This case highlights an atypical presentation of vestibular schwannoma, associated with audible "clicks" and normal hearing. We also provide a concise review of the available literature on modern vestibular schwannoma treatment, which may be useful in guiding treatment decisions.

  6. Gamma knife radiosurgery for essential tremor: A Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 5 million people in America are affected by essential tremors (ET), which are classified as a type of benign movement disorder. This disease manifests as tremors that usually occur in the hands, but they may also be present in the head, face, tongue, and lower limbs. Radiofrequency thalamotomy (RF) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are common invasive procedures with proven track records that are used to treat ET. Although these procedures have high success rates, they still put patients at risk of potential side effects and are invasive by nature. Thalamotomy using the gamma knife (GK) also produces favorable outcomes in treating tremors, without the complications associated with invasive neurosurgery procedures. This report describes the presenting symptoms and extended treatment outcome for a patient with an advanced case of ET, who received GK thalamotomy treatment six years ago. Because of this non-invasive treatment, she regained the ability to paint and live with an improved quality of life. We also discuss and review the relevant literature regarding the risks and benefits of this treatment modality. GK thalamotomy is one effective option for the treatment of ET, and due to its noninvasive nature, it has a different risk profile than neurosurgery. We suggest that GK thalamotomy should be presented as one viable treatment option to all ET patients, and should be recommended to those who would be best served by less invasive treatment techniques. PMID:20307307

  7. Clinical Outcomes of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the Treatment of Patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Elaimy, Ameer L.; Hanson, Peter W.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Mackay, Alexander R.; Demakas, John J.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Cooke, Barton S.; Thumma, Sudheer R.; Lee, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its introduction by Leksell, Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has become increasingly popular as a management approach for patients diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). For this reason, we performed a modern review of the literature analyzing the efficacy of GKRS in the treatment of patients who suffer from TN. For patients with medically refractory forms of the condition, GKRS has proven to be an effective initial and repeat treatment option. Cumulative research suggests that patients treated a single time with GKRS exhibit similar levels of facial pain control when compared to patients treated multiple times with GKRS. However, patients treated on multiple occasions with GKRS are more likely to experience facial numbness and other facial sensory changes when compared to patients treated once with GKRS. Although numerous articles have reported MVD to be superior to GKRS in achieving facial pain relief, the findings of these comparison studies are weakened by the vast differences in patient age and comorbidities between the two studied groups and cannot be considered conclusive. Questions remain regarding optimal GKRS dosing and targeting strategies, which warrants further investigation into this controversial matter. PMID:22229034

  8. Tolerability and efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery on hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao-Jie; Dong, Jing; Ji, Li-Juan; Xiao, Li-Xin; Ling, Chang-Quan; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective study on the safety and efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). Patients with confirmed HCC and PVTT were allocated into two groups based on the treatments they received (palliative or GKR). A total of 138 patients were included (74 in the palliative group, 64 in GKR group). No significant differences in baseline characteristics existed between the two groups. Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were recorded and compared between groups. The majority of AEs were mild to moderate and subsided naturally or after medication. There was no AE-induced death. The influences of baseline characteristics and treatment options on patients' OS were analyzed. The median OS of patients in the palliative and GKR group were 3.0 months (95% CI: 2.719-3.281) and 6.1 months (95% CI: 4.706-7.494) respectively (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis revealed that GKR treatment, performance status 0-1, Child A, smaller tumor diameter and monolobar distribution were significant favorable prognosticators. Subgroup analyses showed OS benefit of GKR regardless of PVTT location (main or branch of PVTT). In conclusion, GKR is well tolerated in selected HCC-PVTT patients and can confer OS benefit, which needs validation in future prospective studies. PMID:26473291

  9. Repeated transsphenoidal surgery or gamma knife radiosurgery in recurrent cushing disease after transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Bodaghabadi, Mohammad; Riazi, Hooman; Aran, Shima; Bitaraf, Mohammad Ali; Alikhani, Mazdak; Alahverdi, Mahmud; Mohamadi, Masoumeh; Shalileh, Keivan; Azar, Maziar

    2014-03-01

    This study compared Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and repeated transsphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA) to find the best approach for recurrence of Cushing disease (CD) after unsuccessful first TSA. Fifty-two patients with relapse of CD after TSA were enrolled and randomly underwent a second surgery or GKRS as the next therapeutic approach. They were followed for a mean period of 3.05 ± 0.8 years by physical examination and hormone measurement as well as magnetic resonance imaging. No significant difference was observed in sex ratio, mean age, adenoma type, follow-up duration, and initial hormone level between the two groups. No significant relationship was found between preoperative 24-hour free urine cortisol and disease-free months or tumor volume among both groups. Our statistical analysis showed higher recurrence-free interval in the GKRS group compared with TSA group. With longer recurrence-free interval, GKRS could be considered a good treatment alternative to repeated TSA in recurrent CD. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Communicating Hydrocephalus Associated with Intracranial Schwannoma Treated by Gamma Knife Radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Kyu; Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Man Kyu; Choi, Seok Keun; Park, Bong Jin; Lim, Young Jin

    2016-05-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been established as an effective and safe treatment for intracranial schwannoma. However, serious complications can occur after GKRS, including hydrocephalus. The pathophysiology and risk factors of this disorder are not yet fully understood. The objective of the study was to assess potential risk factors for hydrocephalus after GKRS. We retrospectively reviewed the medical radiosurgical records of 244 patients who underwent GKRS to treat intracranial schwannoma. The following parameters were analyzed as potential risk factors for hydrocephalus after GKRS: age, sex, target volume, irradiation dose, prior tumor resection, treatment technique, and tumor enhancement pattern. The tumor enhancement pattern was divided into 2 groups: group A (homogeneous enhancement) and group B (heterogeneous or rim enhancement). Of the 244 patients, 14 of them (5.7%) developed communicating hydrocephalus. Communicating hydrocephalus occurred within 2 years after GKRS in most patients (92.8%). No significant association was observed between any of the parameters investigated and the development of hydrocephalus, with the exception of tumor enhancement pattern. Group B exhibited a statistically significant difference by univariate analysis (P = 0.002); this difference was also significant by multivariate analysis (P = 0.006). Because hydrocephalus is curable, patients should be closely monitored for the development of this disorder after GKRS. In particular, patients with intracranial schwannomas with irregular enhancement patterns or cysts should be meticulously observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Out of field dose during Gamma Knife treatment: a paediatric case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutrie, V.; Grace, M.; Izard, M. A.; Fuller, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was referred for Gamma Knife treatment. As this would be the first paediatric treatment in Australia, additional investigations were undertaken into out of field dose to assure the best possible long term outcome for the patient. A phantom was constructed from water equivalent materials to simulate the patient. A target volume was defined to emulate the size and location of the AVM visible in diagnostic images. An ionisation chamber and EBT3 Gafchromic film were used to record absorbed dose at strategic points both on the surface and at depth within the phantom. On the day of treatment, EBT3 Gafchromic film was used to conduct in vivo dosimetry. The pre-treatment phantom measurements matched the planning system for the cranial section (the only modelled section) and no measurable dose above background was detected in the extracranial sites. In vivo measurements of the lenses returned doses of up to 2 cGy for imaging and 8 cGy for treatment which was also consistent with the planned dose. Dose to the thyroid, chest and abdomen was not measurable above background.

  12. Clinical features of brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma using gamma knife surgery.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Akiyoshi; Hirai, Tatsuo; Serizawa, Toru; Yoshino, Atsuo

    2018-05-01

    Brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are rare, but their incidence is increasing because of developments in recent therapeutic advances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of brain metastases from HCC, to evaluate the predictive factors, and to assess the efficacy of gamma knife surgery (GKS). A retrospective study was performed on patients with brain metastases from HCC who were treated at Tokyo Gamma Unit Center from 2005 to 2014. Nineteen patients were identified. The median age at diagnosis of brain metastases was 67.0 years. Fifteen patients were male and four patients were female. Six patients were infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Two patients were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Eleven patients were not infected with HBV or HCV. The median interval from the diagnosis of HCC to brain metastases was 32.0 months. The median number of brain metastases was two. The median Karnofsky performance score at first GKS was 70. The median survival time following brain metastases was 21.0 weeks. Six-month and 1-year survival rates were 41.2 and 0%, respectively. One month after GKS, no tumor showed progressive disease. The HBV infection (positive vs. negative) was significantly associated with survival according to univariate analysis (p = 0.002). The patients having brain metastases from HCC had poor prognosis and low performance state. Therefore, GKS is an acceptable option for controlling brain metastases from HCC because GKS is noninvasive remedy and local control is reasonable.

  13. Interfraction and intrafraction performance of the Gamma Knife Extend system for patient positioning and immobilization.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, David; Xu, Zhiyuan; Taylor, Frances; Yen, Chun-Po; Sheehan, Jason

    2012-12-01

    The Extend system for the Gamma Knife Perfexion makes possible multifractional Gamma Knife treatments. The Extend system consists of a vacuum-monitored immobilization frame and a positioning measurement system used to determine the location of the patient's head within the frame at the time of simulation imaging and before each treatment fraction. The measurement system consists of a repositioning check tool (RCT), which attaches to the Extend frame, and associated digital measuring gauges. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Extend system for patient repositioning before each treatment session (fraction) and patient immobilization between (interfraction) and during (intrafraction) each session in the first 10 patients (36 fractional treatments) treated at the University of Virginia. The RCT was used to acquire a set of reference measurements for each patient position at the time of CT simulation. Repositioning measurements were acquired before each fraction, and the patient position was adjusted until the residual radial difference from the reference position measurements was less than 1 mm. After treatment, patient position measurements were acquired, and the difference between those measurements and the ones obtained for patient position before the fraction was calculated as a measure of immobilization capability. Analysis of patient setup and immobilization performance included calculation of the group mean, standard deviation (SD), and distribution of systematic (components affecting all fractions) and random (per fraction) uncertainty components. Across all patients and fractions, the mean radial setup difference from the reference measurements was 0.64 mm, with an SD of 0.24 mm. The distribution of systematic uncertainty (Σ) was 0.17 mm, and the distribution of random uncertainty (σ) was 0.16 mm. The root mean square (RMS) differences for each plate of the RCT were as follows: right = 0.35 mm; left = 0.41 mm; superior = 0.28 mm

  14. Evaluation of fractionated radiotherapy and gamma knife radiosurgery in cavernous sinus meningiomas: treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Metellus, Philipe; Regis, Jean; Muracciole, Xavier; Fuentes, Stephane; Dufour, Henry; Nanni, Isabelle; Chinot, Oliver; Martin, Pierre-Marie; Grisoli, Francois

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the respective role of fractionated radiotherapy (FR) and gamma knife stereotactic (GKS) radiosurgery in cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM) treatment. The authors report the long-term follow-up of two populations of patients harboring CSMs treated either by FR (Group I, 38 patients) or GKS radiosurgery (Group II, 36 patients). There were 31 females with a mean age of 53 years in Group I and 29 females with a mean age of 51.2 years in Group II. In 20 patients (Group I) and 13 patients (Group II), FR and GKS radiosurgery were performed as an adjuvant treatment. In 18 patients (Group I) and in 23 patients (Group II), FR and GKS radiosurgery were performed as first line treatment. In our early experience with GKS radiosurgery (1992, date of gamma knife availability in the department), patients with tumors greater than 3 cm, showing close relationship with the optic apparatus (<3 mm) or skull base dural spreading, were treated by FR. Secondarily, with the advent of new devices and our growing experience, these criteria have evolved. The median follow-up period was 88.6 months (range, 42-168 mo) for Group I and 63.6 months (range, 48-92 mo) for Group II. According to Sekhar's classification, 26 (68.4%) patients were Grade III to IV in Group I and 10 (27.8%) patients in Group II (P < 0.05); 23 (60.5%) patients had extensive lesions in Group I and 7 (19.4%) patients in Group II (P < 0.05). Mean tumor volume was 13.5 cm in Group I and 5.2 cm in Group II (P < 0.05). Actuarial progression-free survival was 94.7% and 94.4% in Group I and II, respectively. Clinically, improvement was seen for 24 (63.2%) patients in Group I and for 21 (53.8%) patients in Group II (P > 0.05). Radiologically, 11 (29%, Group I) patients and 19 (Group II, 52.7%) patients showed tumor shrinkage (P = 0.04). Transient morbidity was 10.5% in Group I and 2.8% in Group II. Permanent morbidity was 2.6% in Group I and 0% in Group II. FR and GKS radiosurgery are safe and efficient techniques in

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and the prediction of outcome of vestibular schwannomas following Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chun; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chung, Wen-Yuh; Wu, Hisu-Mei; Lin, Chung-Jung; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Liu, Kang-Du; Yang, Huai-Che

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) is a promising treatment modality for patients with vestibular schwannomas (VSs), but a small percentage of patients have persistent postradiosurgical tumor growth. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and quantitative MRI features of VS as predictors of long-term tumor control after GKS. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective study of all patients with VS treated with GKS using the Leksell Gamma Knife Unit between 2005 and 2013 at their institution. A total of 187 patients who had a minimum of 24 months of clinical and radiological assessment after radiosurgery were included in this study. Those who underwent a craniotomy with tumor removal before and after GKS were excluded. Study patients comprised 85 (45.5%) males and 102 (54.5%) females, with a median age of 52.2 years (range 20.4-82.3 years). Tumor volumes, enhancing patterns, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured by region of interest (ROI) analysis of the whole tumor by serial MRI before and after GKS. RESULTS The median follow-up period was 60.8 months (range 24-128.9 months), and the median treated tumor volume was 3.54 cm 3 (0.1-16.2 cm 3 ). At last follow-up, imaging studies indicated that 150 tumors (80.2%) showed decreased tumor volume, 20 (10.7%) had stabilized, and 17 (9.1%) continued to grow following radiosurgery. The postradiosurgical outcome was not significantly correlated with pretreatment volumes or postradiosurgical enhancing patterns. Tumors that showed regression within the initial 12 months following radiosurgery were more likely to have a larger volume reduction ratio at last follow-up than those that did not (volume reduction ratio 55% vs 23.6%, respectively; p < 0.001). Compared with solid VSs, cystic VSs were more likely to regress or stabilize in the initial postradiosurgical 6-12-month period and during extended follow-up. Cystic VSs exhibited a greater volume reduction ratio at last follow-up (cystic

  16. Is it possible to avoid hypopituitarism after irradiation of pituitary adenomas by the Leksell gamma knife?

    PubMed

    Marek, Josef; Jezková, Jana; Hána, Václav; Krsek, Michal; Bandúrová, L'ubomíra; Pecen, Ladislav; Vladyka, Vilibald; Liscák, Roman

    2011-02-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the treatment options for pituitary adenomas. The most common side effect associated with Leksell gamma knife (LGK) irradiation is the development of hypopituitarism. The aim of this study was to verify that hypopituitarism does not develop if the maximum mean dose to pituitary is kept under 15 Gy and to evaluate the influence of maximum distal infundibulum dose on the development of hypopituitarism. We followed the incidence of hypopituitarism in 85 patients irradiated with LGK in 1993-2003. The patients were divided in two subgroups: the first subgroup followed prospectively (45 patients), irradiated with a mean dose to pituitary <15 Gy; the second subgroup followed retrospectively 1993-2001 and prospectively 2001-2009 (40 patients), irradiated with a mean dose to pituitary >15 Gy. Serum TSH, free thyroxine, testosterone or 17β-oestradiol, IGF1, prolactin and cortisol levels were evaluated before and every 6 months after LGK irradiation. Hypopituitarism after LGK irradiation developed only in 1 out of 45 (2.2%) patients irradiated with a mean dose to pituitary <15 Gy, in contrast to 72.5% patients irradiated with a mean dose to pituitary >15 Gy. The radiation dose to the distal infundibulum was found as an independent factor of hypopituitarism with calculated maximum safe dose of 17 Gy. Keeping the mean radiation dose to pituitary under 15 Gy and the dose to the distal infundibulum under 17 Gy prevents the development of hypopituitarism following LGK irradiation.

  17. Local tumour control and eye preservation after gamma-knife radiosurgery of choroidal melanomas.

    PubMed

    Wackernagel, Werner; Holl, Etienne; Tarmann, Lisa; Mayer, Christoph; Avian, Alexander; Schneider, Mona; Kapp, Karin S; Langmann, Gerald

    2014-02-01

    To report on local tumour control and eye preservation after gamma knife radiosurgery (GK-RS) to treat choroidal melanomas. A total of 189 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated with GK-RS, with treatment doses between 25 and 80 Grays. The main outcome measures of our retrospective analysis were local tumour control, time to recurrence, eye retention rate and the reason for and time to secondary enucleation. Patient-associated, tumour-associated and treatment-associated parameters were evaluated as potential risk factors. Local tumour control was achieved in 94.4% of patients. The estimated tumour control rates were 97.6% at 1 year, 94.2% at 5 years and 92.4% at 10 years after treatment. Recurrence was observed between 3.1 months and 60.7 months post-treatment (median: 13.5 months). Advanced tumour stage (Tumour, Node, Metastasis (TNM) 3-4) was the most important risk factor for recurrence (Fine-Gray model; subhazard ratio, SHR: 3.3; p=0.079). The treatment dose was not related to tumour recurrence. The eye preservation rate was 81.6% at 5 years after treatment, remaining stable thereafter. Twenty-five eyes (14.1%) had to be enucleated at between 17 days and 68.0 months (median: 13.9 months) after GK-RS, and advanced tumour stage (Cox model; p=0.005), treatment dose (p=0.048), pretreatment visual acuity (p=0.016), and retinal detachment (p=0.027) were risk factors for requiring enucleation. GK-RS achieved a high tumour control rate, comparable to linear accelerator-based radiotherapy. Advanced TNM stage was a predictive risk factor for tumour recurrence and for secondary enucleation after GK-RS. Lower treatment doses were unrelated to tumour recurrence, although they were associated with an improved eye retention rate.

  18. RT-06GAMMA KNIFE SURGERY AFTER NAVIGATION-GUIDED ASPIRATION FOR CYSTIC METASTATIC BRAIN TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Yasuyoshi; Mori, Kanji; Toyota, Shingo; Kumagai, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shota; Sugano, Hirofumi; Taki, Takuyu

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic brain tumors over 3 cm in diameter (volume of 14.1ml) are generally considered poor candidates for Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). We retrospectively assessed the method and efficacy of GKS for large cystic metastatic brain tumors after navigation-guided aspiration under local anesthesia. From September 2007 to April 2014, 38 cystic metastatic brain tumors in 32 patients (12 males, 20 females; mean age, 63.2 years) were treated at Kansai Rosai Hospital. The patients were performed navigation-guided cyst aspiration under local anesthesia, then at the day or the next day, were performed GKS and usually discharged on the day. The methods for preventing of leptomeningeal dissemination are following: 1) puncture from the place whose cerebral thickness is 1 cm or more; 2) avoidance of Ommaya reservoir implantation; and 3) placement of absorbable gelatin sponge to the tap tract. Tumor volume, including the cystic component, decreased from 25.4 ml (range 8.7-84.7 ml) to 11.4 ml (range 2.9-36.7 ml) following aspiration; the volume reduction was approximately 51.6%. Follow-up periods in the study population ranged from 0 to 24 months (median 3.5 months). The overall median survival was 6.7 months. There was no leptomeningeal dissemination related to the aspiration. One patient experienced radiation necrosis after GKS, one patient experienced re-aspiration by failure of aspiration, and two patients experienced surgical resections and one patient experienced re-aspiration by cyst regrowth after GKS. Long-term hospitalization is not desirable for the patients with brain metastases. In japan, Long-term hospitalization is required for surgical resection or whole brain radiation therapy, but only two days hospitalization is required for GKS after navigation-guided aspiration at our hospital. This GKS after navigation-guided aspiration is more effective and less invasive than surgical resection or whole brain radiation therapy.

  19. Efficacy and tolerability of gamma knife radiosurgery in acromegaly: a 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Cristina L; Attanasio, Roberto; Verrua, Elisa; Cozzi, Renato; Ferrante, Emanuele; Loli, Paola; Montefusco, Laura; Motti, Enrico; Ferrari, Daniela I; Giugni, Enrico; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Arosio, Maura

    2009-12-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery by gamma knife (GK) still remain unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of GK in acromegalic patients. Retrospective analysis for a median follow-up of 10 years. Thirty-five acromegalic patients from two referral centres in Milan submitted to GK (median margin dose: 20 Gy, median % isodose: 50) between 1995 and 2004. GH/IGF-I secretion, anterior pituitary function, radiological imaging and ophthalmological data. Cure rate improved over time (up to 46% at 10 years), as did the proportion of patients achieving control on somatostatin analogues (from 12.5% at baseline to 50% at 10 years). Normal IGF-I values were observed in 82% of patients at their last visit. No visual impairment, disease recurrence, tumour growth or secondary cerebral tumour occurred. Half of the patients developed one or more new deficiencies, while two patients normalized their prior failures. In particular, new onset of clinical or subclinical hypoadrenalism occurred in 12/30 patients (40%), hypothyroidism in 3/28 (11%), hypogonadism in 2/15 (13%) and GH deficiency in 2/35 (6%). GH value at the time of GK was the best negative predictor of cure and margin dose was the best positive predictor of new hypopituitarism. Over a 10-year period after GK radiosurgery, an increasing percentage of patients achieve cure, or adequate control of the disease on pharmacological therapy, at the expense of increasing novel pituitary deficiencies. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Long-term outcome of gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors originating from lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bir, Shyamal C.; Ambekar, Sudheer; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has emerged as an important treatment option for metastasis brain tumors (MBTs). However, the long-term outcome of GKRS on MBTs originating from lung carcinoma is not well understood. The treatment of MBTs derived from lung cancer with GKRS at our institution is reviewed. Methods: We performed a retrospective review (2000-2013) of 173 patients with MBTs from lung cancer who received GKRS. Out of 173 patients, 38 patients had recurrent tumors after microsurgical resection and whole brain radiotherapy (WBT). Results: GKRS in MBTs metastasized from lung carcinoma showed significant variations in tumor growth control (decreased in 79 [45.7%] patients, arrested growth in 54 [31.2%] patients, and increased tumor size in 40 [23.1%] patients). The median survival in the study population was 14 months. Overall survival after 3 years was 25%, whereas progression-free survival after 3 years was 45%. The predictive factors for improving survival in the patients with MBTs were recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class I (P = 0.005), absence of hydrocephalus (P = 0.001), Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) >70 (P = 0.007), age ≤65 (P = 0.041), tumor size ≤3 cm (P = 0.023), controlled primary tumor (P = 0.049), and single number of MBTS (P = 0.044). Conclusion: Long-term follow-up revealed that GKRS offers a high rate of tumor control and good overall survival period in both new and recurrent patients with MBTs originating from lung carcinoma. Thus, GKRS is an effective treatment option for new patients with MBTs from lung cancer, as well as an adjuvant therapy in patients with recurrent MBTs derived from lung cancer. PMID:25289169

  1. Gamma knife radiosurgery for symptomatic brainstem intra-axial cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of symptomatic brainstem intra-axial cavernous malformations (CMs) associated with high surgical morbidity. Twenty-one patients with symptomatic brainstem intra-axial CMs were treated by GKRS between 2005 and 2010. One patient was lost to follow-up. The median age of the patients was 39.5 years (range, 24-69 years). All patients had experienced 1 or more symptomatic hemorrhages before GKRS (range, 1-3). The median marginal radiation dose was 13 Gy, and the median volume of the malformation was 0.56 mL. The median follow-up period after radiosurgery was 32 months (range, 12-82 months; mean, 38.9 months). Before GKRS, 31 hemorrhages (1.55 per patient) were observed. The annual hemorrhage rate before GKRS was 39.5%, excluding the first hemorrhage. After GKRS, 1 hemorrhage (0.05 per patient) was identified. It occurred 6 months after radiosurgery. The patient showed complete recovery to a premorbid status with steroid medication. The annual hemorrhage rate after GKRS was 8.2% for the first 2 years. After the expected latency period, no hemorrhages were identified. One patient (5%) exhibited permanent paresthesia, which was a new neurologic symptom in absence of any hemorrhagic event, after the radiosurgery. GKRS seems to be relatively effective and safe for reducing the rebleeding rate of brainstem intra-axial CMs that have high surgical risk. Careful selection of a low marginal dose and an optimal radiosurgical technique are helpful to achieve good outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Different Score Index for Predicting Prognosis in Gamma Knife Radiosurgical Treatment for Brain Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Franzin, Alberto; Snider, Silvia; Picozzi, Piero

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) and Score Index for Radiosurgery (SIR) stratification systems in predicting survival in patients with brain metastasis treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Methods and Materials: A total of 185 patients were included in the study. Patients were stratified according to RPA and SIR classes. The RPA and SIR classes, age, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), and systemic disease were correlated with survival. Results: Five patients were lost to follow-up. Median survival in patients in RPA Class 1 (30 patients) was 17 months; in Class 2 (140more » patients), 10 months; and in Class 3 (10 patients), 3 months. Median survival in patients in SIR Class 1 (30 patients) was 3 months; in Class 2 (135 patients), 8 months; and in Class 3 (15 patients), 20 months. In univariate testing, age younger than 65 years (p = 0.0004), KPS higher than 70 (p = 0.0001), RPA class (p = 0.0078), SIR class (p = 0.0002), and control of the primary tumor (p = 0.02) were significantly associated with improved outcome. In multivariate analysis, KPS (p < 0.0001), SIR class (p = 0.0008), and RPA class (p = 0.03) had statistical value. Conclusions: This study supports the use of GKRS as a single-treatment modality in this selected group of patients. Stratification systems are useful in the estimation of patient eligibility for GKRS. A second-line treatment was necessary in 30% of patients to achieve distal or local brain control. This strategy is useful to control brain metastasis in long-surviving patients.« less

  3. Hearing Preservation after Low-dose Gamma Knife Radiosurgery of Vestibular Schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    HORIBA, Ayako; HAYASHI, Motohiro; CHERNOV, Mikhail; KAWAMATA, Takakazu; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the retrospective study was to evaluate the factors associated with hearing preservation after low-dose Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) of vestibular schwannomas performed according to the modern standards. From January 2005 to September 2010, 141 consecutive patients underwent such treatment in Tokyo Women’s Medical University. Mean marginal dose was 11.9 Gy (range, 11–12 Gy). The doses for the brain stem, cranial nerves (V, VII, and VIII), and cochlea were kept below 14 Gy, 12 Gy, and 4 Gy, respectively. Out of the total cohort, 102 cases with at least 24 months follow-up were analyzed. Within the median follow-up of 56 months (range, 24–99 months) the crude tumor growth control was 92% (94 cases), whereas its actuarial rate at 5 years was 93%. Out of 49 patients with serviceable hearing on the side of the tumor before GKS, 28 (57%) demonstrated its preservation at the time of the last follow-up. No one evaluated factor, namely Gardner-Robertson hearing class before irradiation, Koos tumor stage, extension of the intrameatal part of the neoplasm up to fundus, nerve of tumor origin, presence of cystic changes in the neoplasm, and cochlea dose demonstrated statistically significant association with preservation of the serviceable hearing after radiosurgery. In conclusion, GKS of vestibular schwannomas performed according to the modern standards of treatment permits to preserve serviceable hearing on the side of the tumor in more than half of the patients. The actual causes of hearing deterioration after radiosurgery remain unclear. PMID:26876903

  4. Long-Term Outcome of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Treatment of Typical Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Gyu, E-mail: gknife@plaza.snu.ac.k; Chung, Hyun-Tai

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To analyze the long-term outcomes of patients with typical trigeminal neuralgia treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 62 consecutive patients with typical trigeminal neuralgia were treated with GKRS between 1998 and 2004. Of the 62 patients, 2 were lost to follow-up; the remaining 60 patients were followed for >12 months. The mean prescribed maximal dose was 79.7 Gy (range, 75-80), using a 4-mm shot. Results: Of the 60 patients, 48 were followed for >4 years. An additional 3 patients, followed for <4 years, experienced recurrent pain after a favorable initial response and weremore » incorporated into the long-term response analysis. Of these 51 patients (mean age, 61 +- 11 years; 37 women [72.5%]; and mean follow-up duration, 58 +- 14 months), 46 (90.2%) responded to GKRS, as demonstrated by an improvement in their Barrow Neurological Institute pain intensity score. Of the 46 patients, 24 (52.2%) had pain recurrence. The actuarial recurrence-free survival rate was 84.8%, 76.1%, 69.6%, 63.0%, and 45.8% at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after radiosurgery, respectively. Patient age >70 years correlated with a favorable outcome in terms of pain recurrence after radiosurgery (hazard ratio, 0.125; 95% confidence interval, 0.016-0.975; p = .047) on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: GKRS seems to be an effective treatment modality for patients with typical trigeminal neuralgia considering the initial response rate; however, fewer than one-half of patients might continue to benefit from GKRS after long-term follow-up. Elderly patients might be good candidates for radiosurgery considering the long-term durability of efficacy.« less

  5. Optimization of the prescription isodose line for Gamma Knife radiosurgery using the shot within shot technique.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Perry B; Monterroso, Maria I; Yang, Fei; Mellon, Eric

    2017-11-25

    This work explores how the choice of prescription isodose line (IDL) affects the dose gradient, target coverage, and treatment time for Gamma Knife radiosurgery when a smaller shot is encompassed within a larger shot at the same stereotactic coordinates (shot within shot technique). Beam profiles for the 4, 8, and 16 mm collimator settings were extracted from the treatment planning system and characterized using Gaussian fits. The characterized data were used to create over 10,000 shot within shot configurations by systematically changing collimator weighting and choice of prescription IDL. Each configuration was quantified in terms of the dose gradient, target coverage, and beam-on time. By analyzing these configurations, it was found that there are regions of overlap in target size where a higher prescription IDL provides equivalent dose fall-off to a plan prescribed at the 50% IDL. Furthermore, the data indicate that treatment times within these regions can be reduced by up to 40%. An optimization strategy was devised to realize these gains. The strategy was tested for seven patients treated for 1-4 brain metastases (20 lesions total). For a single collimator setting, the gradient in the axial plane was steepest when prescribed to the 56-63% (4 mm), 62-70% (8 mm), and 77-84% (16 mm) IDL, respectively. Through utilization of the optimization technique, beam-on time was reduced by more than 15% in 16/20 lesions. The volume of normal brain receiving 12 Gy or above also decreased in many cases, and in only one instance increased by more than 0.5 cm 3 . This work demonstrates that IDL optimization using the shot within shot technique can reduce treatment times without degrading treatment plan quality.

  6. Conservative management or gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: tumor growth, symptoms, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Cathrine Nansdal; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Myrseth, Erling; Pedersen, Paal Henning; Varughese, Jobin K; Chaudhry, Aqeel Asghar; Lund-Johansen, Morten

    2013-07-01

    There are few reports about the course of vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients following gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) compared with the course following conservative management (CM). In this study, we present prospectively collected data of 237 patients with unilateral VS extending outside the internal acoustic canal who received either GKRS (113) or CM (124). The aim was to measure the effect of GKRS compared with the natural course on tumor growth rate and hearing loss. Secondary end points were postinclusion additional treatment, quality of life (QoL), and symptom development. The patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans, clinical examination, and QoL assessment by SF-36 questionnaire. Statistics were performed by using Spearman correlation coefficient, Kaplan-Meier plot, Poisson regression model, mixed linear regression models, and mixed logistic regression models. Mean follow-up time was 55.0 months (26.1 standard deviation, range 10-132). Thirteen patients were lost to follow-up. Serviceable hearing was lost in 54 of 71 (76%) (CM) and 34 of 53 (64%) (GKRS) patients during the study period (not significant, log-rank test). There was a significant reduction in tumor volume over time in the GKRS group. The need for treatment following initial GKRS or CM differed at highly significant levels (log-rank test, P < .001). Symptom and QoL development did not differ significantly between the groups. In VS patients, GKRS reduces the tumor growth rate and thereby the incidence rate of new treatment about tenfold. Hearing is lost at similar rates in both groups. Symptoms and QoL seem not to be significantly affected by GKRS.

  7. Impact on cognitive functions following gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, A.; Bennett, Niranjana; Arimappamagan, Arivazhagan; Bhat, Dhananjaya I.; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Thennarasu, K.; Jamuna, R.; Somanna, Sampath

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiosurgery is an alternative to surgical resection of arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Very few studies have addressed the concern of radiation injury to the brain and its attendant adverse effects on cognitive function. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included all patients who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) at our institute for cerebral AVM between 2006 and December 2008 (n = 34). All patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation before the procedure. Neuropsychological evaluation was repeated in eighteen patients 2 years following GKRS. Clinical outcome, AVM obliteration, and factors influencing outcome were analyzed in these eighteen patients. Results: Before GKRS, more than 50% had significant impairment of neuropsychological functions compared to normal population norms. 66.6% achieved the excellent radiosurgical outcome. At 2 years follow-up, patients showed varied improvement in neuropsychological function in various categories. Pretherapeutic median value for percentage perseverative responses was 26.5 and at follow-up, it reduced to 18.2 (P = 0.039). Set shifting improved in 11 patients (61.1%), remained same in 5 patients (27.7%), and deteriorated in two patients (11.1%). Patients with a higher Spetzler-Martin grade AVM demonstrated a significantly more favorable shift in follow-up test values for set shifting function (P = 0.021). Patients with postradiation imaging changes had lesser tendency to improve in neuropsychological performance at follow-up. Conclusions: GKRS has no clinically harmful effect on cognitive and neuropsychological functioning in patients with brain AVM. On the contrary, there is an improvement in majority of patients at 2 years following radiosurgery when nidus is obliterated. PMID:26933340

  8. Impact on cognitive functions following gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, A; Bennett, Niranjana; Arimappamagan, Arivazhagan; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Thennarasu, K; Jamuna, R; Somanna, Sampath

    2016-01-01

    Radiosurgery is an alternative to surgical resection of arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Very few studies have addressed the concern of radiation injury to the brain and its attendant adverse effects on cognitive function. This prospective study included all patients who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) at our institute for cerebral AVM between 2006 and December 2008 (n = 34). All patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation before the procedure. Neuropsychological evaluation was repeated in eighteen patients 2 years following GKRS. Clinical outcome, AVM obliteration, and factors influencing outcome were analyzed in these eighteen patients. Before GKRS, more than 50% had significant impairment of neuropsychological functions compared to normal population norms. 66.6% achieved the excellent radiosurgical outcome. At 2 years follow-up, patients showed varied improvement in neuropsychological function in various categories. Pretherapeutic median value for percentage perseverative responses was 26.5 and at follow-up, it reduced to 18.2 (P = 0.039). Set shifting improved in 11 patients (61.1%), remained same in 5 patients (27.7%), and deteriorated in two patients (11.1%). Patients with a higher Spetzler-Martin grade AVM demonstrated a significantly more favorable shift in follow-up test values for set shifting function (P = 0.021). Patients with postradiation imaging changes had lesser tendency to improve in neuropsychological performance at follow-up. GKRS has no clinically harmful effect on cognitive and neuropsychological functioning in patients with brain AVM. On the contrary, there is an improvement in majority of patients at 2 years following radiosurgery when nidus is obliterated.

  9. Histopathological observations on vestibular schwannomas after Gamma Knife radiosurgery: the Marseille experience.

    PubMed

    Szeifert, G T; Figarella-Branger, D; Roche, P-H; Régis, J

    2004-06-01

    Radiosurgery has become a successful treatment modality in the management of vestibular schwannomas (VS) during the past four decades. Although the number of treated cases has been increasing continuously we know relatively little about the pathological effect of high dose irradiation on VS following radiosurgery. The purpose of this study was to analyze histopathological changes in VS after Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) radiosurgery. Out of a series of 1350 VS cases treated with LGK surgery 22 patients underwent craniotomy for tumor removal in 6-92 Months interval after radiosurgery. Surgical pathology material was available in 17 cases. Routine histological and immunohistochemical investigations were performed on the tIssue samples. Histopathological findings were compared with clinical and radiological follow-up data. Coagulation necrosis in the central part of the schwannomas surrounded with a transitional zone containing loosened tIssue structure of shrunken tumor cells covered with an outer capsule of vigorous neoplastic cells was the basic histopathological lesion. Granulation tIssue proliferation with inflammatory cell infiltration, different extent of hemorrhages and scar tIssue development was usually present. Endothelial destruction or wall damage of vascular channels was a common finding. Analyzing the follow-up data it turned out that 7 patients out of the 22 were operated on because of radiological progression only without clinical deterioration and 4 of them was removed during the latency period after radiosurgery. Results of the present histopathological study suggest that radiosurgery works with double effect on VS: it seems to destroy directly tumor cells (with necrosis or inducing apoptosis), and causes vascular damages as well. The loss of central contrast enhancement on CT and MR images following radiosurgery might be consequence of necrosis and vascular impairment. From clinical-pathological point of view we think that patients should not undergo

  10. Analysis of risk factors to predict communicating hydrocephalus following gamma knife radiosurgery for intracranial schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghoon; Seo, Seong-Wook; Hwang, Juyoung; Seol, Ho Jun; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Il; Kong, Doo-Sik

    2016-12-01

    Communicating hydrocephalus (HCP) in vestibular schwannomas (VS) after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been reported in the literature. However, little information about its incidence and risk factors after GKRS for intracranial schwannomas is yet available. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence and risk factors for developing communicating HCP after GKRS for intracranial schwannomas. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 702 patients with intracranial schwannomas who were treated with GKRS between January 2002 and December 2015. We investigated patients' age, gender, tumor origin, previous surgery history, tumor volume, marginal radiation dose, and presence of tumor control to identify associations with communicating HCP following GKRS. To make predictive models of communicating HCP, we performed Cox regression analyses and constructed a decision tree for risk factors. In total, 29 of the 702 patients (4.1%) developed communicating HCP following GKRS, which required ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt surgery. Multivariate analyses indicated that age (P = 0.0011), tumor origin (P = 0.0438), and tumor volume (P < 0.0001) were significant predictors of communicating HCP in patients with intracranial schwannoma after GKRS. Using machine-learning methods, we fit an optimal predictive model. We found that developing communicating HCP following GKRS was most likely if the tumor was vestibular origin and had a volume ≥13.65 cm 3 . Communicating HCP is not a rare complication of GKRS for intracranial schwannomas. Under specific conditions, communicating HCP following GKRS is warranted for this patient group, and this patient group should be closely followed up. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Dmytriw, Adam A; Schwartz, Michael L; Cusimano, Michael D; Mendes Pereira, Vitor; Krings, Timo; Tymianski, Michael; Radovanovic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Background Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) may present a treatment challenge. Endovascular embolization is in most cases the first line of treatment but does not always achieve cure. Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery represents an alternative treatment option, and the purpose of this study was to further evaluate its utility. Methods We reviewed all cases of DAVF treated between 2009 and 2016 at our institution with GK radiosurgery independently, or following failed/refused endovascular or surgical management. Patients’ clinical files, radiological images, catheter angiograms, and surgical DAVF disconnection reports were retrospectively reviewed. Results Sixteen DAVF (14 patients) treated by GK radiosurgery were identified. Eleven fistulae were aggressive and five were benign. Marginal doses ranged from 15 to 25 Gy. Target volumes ranged from 0.04 to 4.47 cm3. In all symptomatic patients, GK treatment resulted in symptom palliation. In 13/15 lesions, cure of symptoms (86.0%) was reported. One lesion was asymptomatic. Angiographic cure was achieved in eight cases (50%), small residual DAVF occurred in four, and four were unchanged. One patient developed headache that resolved at one year. No hemorrhage occurred during the follow-up period. There was no significant association between Borden type and cure rate. Prior failed endovascular treatment and small target volume were associated with lower rates of cure. Conclusions Stereotactic radiosurgery is viable treatment for DAVF. It is very effective in palliating symptoms as a de novo approach or adjunctive to endovascular therapy. In our experience it is only somewhat effective in achieving complete angiographic cure. PMID:28156167

  12. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Treatment of Cerebral Metastases From Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, Micaela, E-mail: motta.micaela@hsr.it; Vecchio, Antonella del; Attuati, Luca

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate clinical and physico-dosimetric variables affecting clinical outcome of patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2006, 373 patients (298 men and 75 women, median age 65 years) with brain metastases from NSCLC underwent GKRS. All of them had KPS {>=} 60%, eight or fewer brain metastases, confirmed histopathological diagnosis and recent work-up (<3 months). Thirty-five patients belonged to recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) Class I, 307 patients were in RPA Class II, 7 patients were in RPA Class III. Median tumor volume wasmore » 3.6 cm{sup 3}. Median marginal dose was 22.5 Gy at 50% isodose.; median 10 Gy and 12 Gy isodose volumes were 30.8 cm{sup 3} and 15.8 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Follow-up with MRI was performed every 3 months. Overall survival data were collected from internal database, telephone interviews, and identifying registries. Results: Mean follow-up after GKRS was 51 months (range, 6 to 96 months); mean overall survival was 14.2 months. Of 373 patients, 29 were alive at time of writing, 104 had died of cerebral progression, and 176 had died of systemic progression. In 64 cases it was not possible to ascertain the cause. Univariate and multivariate analysis were adjusted for the following: RPA class, surgery, WBRT, age, gender, number of lesions, median tumor volume, median peripheral dose, and 10 Gy and 12 Gy volumes. Identified RPA class and overall tumor volume >5 cc were the only two covariates independently predictive of overall survival in patients who died of cerebral progression. Conclusions: Global volume of brain disease should be the main parameter to consider for performing GKRS, which is a first-line therapy for patient in good general condition and controlled systemic disease.« less

  13. Evolution of gamma knife capsulotomy for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Euripedes C; Lopes, Antonio C; McLaughlin, Nicole C R; Norén, Georg; Gentil, André F; Hamani, Clement; Shavitt, Roseli G; Batistuzzo, Marcelo C; Vattimo, Edoardo F Q; Canteras, Miguel; De Salles, Antonio; Gorgulho, Alessandra; Salvajoli, João Victor; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Paddick, Ian; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Lindquist, Christer; Haber, Suzanne N; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Sheth, Sameer A

    2018-05-09

    For more than half a century, stereotactic neurosurgical procedures have been available to treat patients with severe, debilitating symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that have proven refractory to extensive, appropriate pharmacological, and psychological treatment. Although reliable predictors of outcome remain elusive, the establishment of narrower selection criteria for neurosurgical candidacy, together with a better understanding of the functional neuroanatomy implicated in OCD, has resulted in improved clinical efficacy for an array of ablative and non-ablative intervention techniques targeting the cingulum, internal capsule, and other limbic regions. It was against this backdrop that gamma knife capsulotomy (GKC) for OCD was developed. In this paper, we review the history of this stereotactic radiosurgical procedure, from its inception to recent advances. We perform a systematic review of the existing literature and also provide a narrative account of the evolution of the procedure, detailing how the procedure has changed over time, and has been shaped by forces of evidence and innovation. As the procedure has evolved and adverse events have decreased considerably, favorable response rates have remained attainable for approximately one-half to two-thirds of individuals treated at experienced centers. A reduction in obsessive-compulsive symptom severity may result not only from direct modulation of OCD neural pathways but also from enhanced efficacy of pharmacological and psychological therapies working in a synergistic fashion with GKC. Possible complications include frontal lobe edema and even the rare formation of delayed radionecrotic cysts. These adverse events have become much less common with new radiation dose and targeting strategies. Detailed neuropsychological assessments from recent studies suggest that cognitive function is not impaired, and in some domains may even improve following treatment. We conclude this review with

  14. SU-E-T-366: Estimation of Whole Body Dose From Cranial Irradiation From C and Perfexion Series Gamma Knife Units

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S; Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleaveland, OH; Andersen, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Leksell Gamma Knife (GK) B & C series contains 201 Cobalt-60 sources with a helmet. The new model, Perfexion uses 192 Cobalt-60 sources without a helmet; using IRIS system for collimation and stereotactic guidance to deliver SRS to brain tumors. Relative dose to extracranial organs at risk (OARs) is measured in phantom in this study for Perfexion and C-series GK. Materials & Methods: Measurements were performed in a Rando anthropomorphic phantom on both systems using a large ion chamber (Keithley-175) for each collimator. The Keithley-175 cc ion chamber was sandwiched between phantom slices at various locations in themore » phantom to correspond to different extracranial OARs (thyroid, heart, kidney, ovary and testis, etc.) The dose measurement was repeated with OSL detectors for each position and collimator. Results: A large variation is observed in the normalized dose between these two systems. The dose beyond the housing falls off exponentially for Perfexion. Dose beyond the C-series GK housing falls off exponentially from 0–20cm then remains relatively constant from 20–40cm and again falls off with distance but less rapidly. The variation of extracranial dose with distance for each collimator is found to be parallel to each other for both systems. Conclusion: Whole body dose is found to vary significantly between these systems. It is important to measure the extracranial dose, especially for young patients. It is estimated that dose falls off exponentially from the GK housing and is about 1% for large collimators at 75 cm. The dose is two-orders of magnitude smaller for the 4mm collimator. However, this small dose for patient may be significant radiologically.« less

  15. Three-dimensional dose verification of the clinical application of gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery using polymer gel and MRI.

    PubMed

    Papagiannis, P; Karaiskos, P; Kozicki, M; Rosiak, J M; Sakelliou, L; Sandilos, P; Seimenis, I; Torrens, M

    2005-05-07

    This work seeks to verify multi-shot clinical applications of stereotactic radiosurgery with a Leksell Gamma Knife model C unit employing a polymer gel-MRI based experimental procedure, which has already been shown to be capable of verifying the precision and accuracy of dose delivery in single-shot gamma knife applications. The treatment plan studied in the present work resembles a clinical treatment case of pituitary adenoma using four 8 mm and one 14 mm collimator helmet shots to deliver a prescription dose of 15 Gy to the 50% isodose line (30 Gy maximum dose). For the experimental dose verification of the treatment plan, the same criteria as those used in the clinical treatment planning evaluation were employed. These included comparison of measured and GammaPlan calculated data, in terms of percentage isodose contours on axial, coronal and sagittal planes, as well as 3D plan evaluation criteria such as dose-volume histograms for the target volume, target coverage and conformity indices. Measured percentage isodose contours compared favourably with calculated ones despite individual point fluctuations at low dose contours (e.g., 20%) mainly due to the effect of T2 measurement uncertainty on dose resolution. Dose-volume histogram data were also found in a good agreement while the experimental results for the percentage target coverage and conformity index were 94% and 1.17 relative to corresponding GammaPlan calculations of 96% and 1.12, respectively. Overall, polymer gel results verified the planned dose distribution within experimental uncertainties and uncertainty related to the digitization process of selected GammaPlan output data.

  16. Stereotactic radiosurgery versus stereotactic radiotherapy for patients with vestibular schwannoma: a Leksell Gamma Knife Society 2000 debate.

    PubMed

    Linskey, M E

    2000-12-01

    By definition, the term "radiosurgery" refers to the delivery of a therapeutic radiation dose in a single fraction, not simply the use of stereotaxy. Multiple-fraction delivery is better termed "stereotactic radiotherapy." There are compelling radiobiological principles supporting the biological superiority of single-fraction radiation for achieving an optimal therapeutic response for the slowly proliferating, late-responding, tissue of a schwannoma. It is axiomatic that complication avoidance requires precise three-dimensional conformality between treatment and tumor volumes. This degree of conformality can only be achieved through complex multiisocenter planning. Alternative radiosurgery devices are generally limited to delivering one to four isocenters in a single treatment session. Although they can reproduce dose plans similar in conformality to early gamma knife dose plans by using a similar number of isocenters, they cannot reproduce the conformality of modern gamma knife plans based on magnetic resonance image-targeted localization and five to 30 isocenters. A disturbing trend is developing in which institutions without nongamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) centers are championing and/or shifting to hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannomas. This trend appears to be driven by a desire to reduce complication rates to compete with modern GKS results by using complex multiisocenter planning. Aggressive advertising and marketing from some of these centers even paradoxically suggests biological superiority of hypofractionation approaches over single-dose radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas. At the same time these centers continue to use the term radiosurgery to describe their hypofractionated radiotherapy approach in an apparent effort to benefit from a GKS "halo effect." It must be reemphasized that as neurosurgeons our primary duty is to achieve permanent tumor control for our patients and not to eliminate complications at the

  17. Stereotactic radiosurgery versus stereotactic radiotherapy for patients with vestibular schwannoma: a Leksell Gamma Knife Society 2000 debate.

    PubMed

    Linskey, Mark E

    2013-12-01

    By definition, the term "radiosurgery" refers to the delivery of a therapeutic radiation dose in a single fraction, not simply the use of stereotaxy. Multiple-fraction delivery is better termed "stereotactic radiotherapy." There are compelling radiobiological principles supporting the biological superiority of single-fraction radiation for achieving an optimal therapeutic response for the slowly proliferating, late-responding, tissue of a schwannoma. It is axiomatic that complication avoidance requires precise three-dimensional conformality between treatment and tumor volumes. This degree of conformality can only be achieved through complex multiisocenter planning. Alternative radiosurgery devices are generally limited to delivering one to four isocenters in a single treatment session. Although they can reproduce dose plans similar in conformality to early gamma knife dose plans by using a similar number of isocenters, they cannot reproduce the conformality of modern gamma knife plans based on magnetic resonance image--targeted localization and five to 30 isocenters. A disturbing trend is developing in which institutions without nongamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) centers are championing and/or shifting to hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannomas. This trend appears to be driven by a desire to reduce complication rates to compete with modern GKS results by using complex multiisocenter planning. Aggressive advertising and marketing from some of these centers even paradoxically suggests biological superiority of hypofractionation approaches over single-dose radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas. At the same time these centers continue to use the term radiosurgery to describe their hypofractionated radiotherapy approach in an apparent effort to benefit from a GKS "halo effect." It must be reemphasized that as neurosurgeons our primary duty is to achieve permanent tumor control for our patients and not to eliminate complications at the

  18. Tumour regression of uveal melanoma after ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or stereotactic radiotherapy with gamma knife or linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, Michael; Zehetmayer, Martin; Ruhswurm, Irene; Toma-Bstaendig, Sabine; Ségur-Eltz, Nikolaus; Sacu, Stefan; Menapace, Rupert

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses differences in relative tumour regression and internal acoustic reflectivity after 3 methods of radiotherapy for uveal melanoma: (1) brachytherapy with ruthenium-106 radioactive plaques (RU), (2) fractionated high-dose gamma knife stereotactic irradiation in 2-3 fractions (GK) or (3) fractionated linear-accelerator-based stereotactic teletherapy in 5 fractions (Linac). Ultrasound measurements of tumour thickness and internal reflectivity were performed with standardised A scan pre-operatively and 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months postoperatively. Of 211 patients included in the study, 111 had a complete 3-year follow-up (RU: 41, GK: 37, Linac: 33). Differences in tumour thickness and internal reflectivity were assessed with analysis of variance, and post hoc multiple comparisons were calculated with Tukey's honestly significant difference test. Local tumour control was excellent with all 3 methods (>93%). At 36 months, relative tumour height reduction was 69, 50 and 30% after RU, GK and Linac, respectively. In all 3 treatment groups, internal reflectivity increased from about 30% initially to 60-70% 3 years after treatment. Brachytherapy with ruthenium-106 plaques results in a faster tumour regression as compared to teletherapy with gamma knife or Linac. Internal reflectivity increases comparably in all 3 groups. Besides tumour growth arrest, increasing internal reflectivity is considered as an important factor indicating successful treatment. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. A simplified model of the source channel of the Leksell GammaKnife® tested with PENELOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dweri, Feras M. O.; Lallena, Antonio M.; Vilches, Manuel

    2004-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations using the code PENELOPE have been performed to test a simplified model of the source channel geometry of the Leksell GammaKnife®. The characteristics of the radiation passing through the treatment helmets are analysed in detail. We have found that only primary particles emitted from the source with polar angles smaller than 3° with respect to the beam axis are relevant for the dosimetry of the Gamma Knife. The photon trajectories reaching the output helmet collimators at (x, y, z = 236 mm) show strong correlations between rgr = (x2 + y2)1/2 and their polar angle thgr, on one side, and between tan-1(y/x) and their azimuthal angle phgr, on the other. This enables us to propose a simplified model which treats the full source channel as a mathematical collimator. This simplified model produces doses in good agreement with those found for the full geometry. In the region of maximal dose, the relative differences between both calculations are within 3%, for the 18 and 14 mm helmets, and 10%, for the 8 and 4 mm ones. Besides, the simplified model permits a strong reduction (larger than a factor 15) in the computational time.

  20. Monte Carlo and experimental determination of correction factors for gamma knife perfexion small field dosimetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoros, E.; Moutsatsos, A.; Pappas, E. P.; Georgiou, E.; Kollias, G.; Karaiskos, P.; Pantelis, E.

    2017-09-01

    Detector-, field size- and machine-specific correction factors are required for precise dosimetry measurements in small and non-standard photon fields. In this work, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation techniques were used to calculate the k{{Qmsr},{{Q}0}}{{fmsr},{{f}ref}} and k{{Qclin},{{Q}msr}}{{fclin},{{f}msr}} correction factors for a series of ionization chambers, a synthetic microDiamond and diode dosimeters, used for reference and/or output factor (OF) measurements in the Gamma Knife Perfexion photon fields. Calculations were performed for the solid water (SW) and ABS plastic phantoms, as well as for a water phantom of the same geometry. MC calculations for the k{{Qclin},{{Q}msr}}{{fclin},{{f}msr}} correction factors in SW were compared against corresponding experimental results for a subset of ionization chambers and diode detectors. Reference experimental OF data were obtained through the weighted average of corresponding measurements using TLDs, EBT-2 films and alanine pellets. k{{Qmsr},{{Q}0}}{{fmsr},{{f}ref}} values close to unity (within 1%) were calculated for most of ionization chambers in water. Greater corrections of up to 6.0% were observed for chambers with relatively large air-cavity dimensions and steel central electrode. A phantom correction of 1.006 and 1.024 (breaking down to 1.014 from the ABS sphere and 1.010 from the accompanying ABS phantom adapter) were calculated for the SW and ABS phantoms, respectively, adding up to k{{Qmsr},{{Q}0}}{{fmsr},{{f}ref}} corrections in water. Both measurements and MC calculations for the diode and microDiamond detectors resulted in lower than unit k{{Qclin},{{Q}msr}}{{fclin},{{f}msr}} correction factors, due to their denser sensitive volume and encapsulation materials. In comparison, higher than unit k{{Qclin},{{Q}msr}}{{fclin},{{f}msr}} results for the ionization chambers suggested field size depended dose underestimations (being significant for the 4 mm field), with magnitude depending on the combination of

  1. Gamma-knife radiosurgery in acromegaly: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Roberto; Epaminonda, Paolo; Motti, Enrico; Giugni, Enrico; Ventrella, Laura; Cozzi, Renato; Farabola, Mario; Loli, Paola; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Arosio, Maura

    2003-07-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery by gamma-knife (GK) is an attractive therapeutic option after failure of microsurgical removal in patients with pituitary adenoma. In these tumors or remnants of them, it aims to obtain the arrest of cell proliferation and hormone hypersecretion using a single precise high dose of ionizing radiation, sparing surrounding structures. The long-term efficacy and toxicity of GK in acromegaly are only partially known. Thirty acromegalic patients (14 women and 16 men) entered a prospective study of GK treatment. Most were surgical failures, whereas in 3 GK was the primary treatment. Imaging of the adenoma and target coordinates identification were obtained by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were treated with multiple isocenters (mean, 8; range, 3-11). The 50% isodose was used in 27 patients (90%). The mean margin dose was 20 Gy (range, 15-35), and the dose to the visual pathways was always less than 8 Gy. After a median follow-up of 46 months (range, 9-96), IGF-I fell from 805 micro g/liter (median; interquartile range, 640-994) to 460 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 217-654; P = 0.0002), and normal age-matched IGF-I levels were reached in 7 patients (23%). Mean GH levels decreased from 10 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 6.4-15) to 2.9 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 2-5.3; P < 0.0001), reaching levels below 2.5 micro g/liter in 11 (37%). The rate of persistently pathological hormonal levels was still 70% at 5 yr by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The median volume was 1.43 ml (range, 0.20-3.7). Tumor shrinkage (at least 25% of basal volume) occurred after 24 months (range, 12-36) in 11 of 19 patients (58% of assessable patients). The rate of shrinkage was 79% at 4 yr. In no case was further growth observed. Only 1 patient complained of side-effects (severe headache and nausea immediately after the procedure, with full recovery in a few days with steroid therapy). Anterior pituitary failures were observed in 2 patients

  2. On the development of a comprehensive MC simulation model for the Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, E. P.; Moutsatsos, A.; Pantelis, E.; Zoros, E.; Georgiou, E.; Torrens, M.; Karaiskos, P.

    2016-02-01

    This work presents a comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulation model for the Gamma Knife Perfexion (PFX) radiosurgery unit. Model-based dosimetry calculations were benchmarked in terms of relative dose profiles (RDPs) and output factors (OFs), against corresponding EBT2 measurements. To reduce the rather prolonged computational time associated with the comprehensive PFX model MC simulations, two approximations were explored and evaluated on the grounds of dosimetric accuracy. The first consists in directional biasing of the 60Co photon emission while the second refers to the implementation of simplified source geometric models. The effect of the dose scoring volume dimensions in OF calculations accuracy was also explored. RDP calculations for the comprehensive PFX model were found to be in agreement with corresponding EBT2 measurements. Output factors of 0.819  ±  0.004 and 0.8941  ±  0.0013 were calculated for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimator, respectively, which agree, within uncertainties, with corresponding EBT2 measurements and published experimental data. Volume averaging was found to affect OF results by more than 0.3% for scoring volume radii greater than 0.5 mm and 1.4 mm for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively. Directional biasing of photon emission resulted in a time efficiency gain factor of up to 210 with respect to the isotropic photon emission. Although no considerable effect on relative dose profiles was detected, directional biasing led to OF overestimations which were more pronounced for the 4 mm collimator and increased with decreasing emission cone half-angle, reaching up to 6% for a 5° angle. Implementation of simplified source models revealed that omitting the sources’ stainless steel capsule significantly affects both OF results and relative dose profiles, while the aluminum-based bushing did not exhibit considerable dosimetric effect. In conclusion, the results of this work suggest that any PFX

  3. Calvarial and skull base metastases: expanding the clinical utility of Gamma Knife surgery.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Rupesh; Angelov, Lilyana; Barnett, Gene H; Reddy, Chandana A; Suh, John H; Murphy, Erin S; Neyman, Gennady; Chao, Samuel T

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, the treatment of choice for patients with metastases to the calvaria or skull base has been conventional radiation therapy. Because patients with systemic malignancies are also at risk for intracranial metastases, the utility of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for these patients has been explored to reduce excess radiation exposure to the perilesional brain parenchyma. The purpose of this study was to report the efficacy of GKS for the treatment of calvarial metastases and skull base lesions. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of 21 patients with at least 1 calvarial or skull base metastatic lesion treated with GKS during 2001-2013. For 7 calvarial lesions, a novel technique, in which a bolus was placed over the treatment site, was used. For determination of local control or disease progression, radiation therapy data were examined and posttreatment MR images and oncology records were reviewed. Survival times from the date of procedure were estimated by using Kaplan-Meier analyses. The median patient age at treatment was 57 years (range 29-84 years). A total of 19 (90%) patients received treatment for single lesions, 1 patient received treatment for 3 lesions, and 1 patient received treatment for 4 lesions. The most common primary tumor was breast cancer (24% of patients). Per lesion, the median clinical and radiographic follow-up times were 10.3 months (range 0-71.9 months) and 7.1 months (range 0-61.3 months), respectively. Of the 26 lesions analyzed, 14 (54%) were located in calvarial bones and 12 (46%) were located in the skull base. The median lesion volume was 5.3 cm(3) (range 0.3-55.6 cm(3)), and the median prescription margin dose was 15 Gy (range 13-24 Gy). The median overall survival time for all patients was 35.9 months, and the 1-year local control rate was 88.9% (95% CI 74.4%-100%). Local control rates did not differ between lesions treated with the bolus technique and those treated with traditional methods or between calvarial

  4. Effect of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery and Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor Antagonists on Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Molly; Nordmann, Tyler; Sperduto, Paul W; Clark, H. Brent; Hunt, Matthew A

    2017-01-01

    Learning objectives To evaluate radiation-induced changes in patients with brain metastasis secondary to malignant melanoma who received treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor antagonists. Introduction  Stereotactic radiosurgery and chemotherapeutics are used together for treatment of metastatic melanoma and have been linked to delayed radiation-induced vasculitic leukoencephalopathy (DRIVL). There have been reports of more intense interactions with new immunotherapeutics targeting PD-1 receptors, but their interactions have not been well described and may result in an accelerated response to GKRS. Here we present data on subjects treated with this combination from a single institution. Methods Records from patients who underwent treatment for metastatic melanoma to the brain with GKRS from 2011 to 2016 were reviewed. Demographics, date of brain metastasis diagnosis, cause of death when applicable, immunotherapeutics, and imaging findings were recorded. The timing of radiation therapy and medications were also documented.  Results A total of 79 subjects were treated with GKRS, and 66 underwent treatment with both GKRS and immunotherapy. Regarding the 30 patients treated with anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, 21 patients received pembrolizumab, seven patients received nivolumab, and two patients received pembrolizumab and nivolumab. Serial imaging was available for interpretation in 25 patients, with 13 subjects who received GKRS and anti-PD-1 immunotherapy less than six weeks of each other. While four subjects had indeterminate/mixed findings on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nine subjects were noted to have progression. Two of these patients showed progression but subsequent imaging revealed a decrease in progression or improvement on MRI to previously targeted lesions by GKRS. None of the 13 subjects had surgery following their combined therapies. Conclusions This data suggests that there is need for

  5. Neurological Change after Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases Involving the Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chang-Yong; Choi, Hyun-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ryul; Roh, Tae Hoon; Seo, Mi-Ra

    2016-01-01

    Background Although Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) can provide beneficial therapeutic effects for patients with brain metastases, lesions involving the eloquent areas carry a higher risk of neurologic deterioration after treatment, compared to those located in the non-eloquent areas. We aimed to investigate neurological change of the patients with brain metastases involving the motor cortex (MC) and the relevant factors related to neurological deterioration after GKRS. Methods We retrospectively reviewed clinical, radiological and dosimetry data of 51 patients who underwent GKRS for 60 brain metastases involving the MC. Prior to GKRS, motor deficits existed in 26 patients (50.9%). The mean target volume was 3.2 cc (range 0.001–14.1) at the time of GKRS, and the mean prescription dose was 18.6 Gy (range 12–24 Gy). Results The actuarial median survival time from GKRS was 19.2±5.0 months. The calculated local tumor control rates at 6 and 12 months after GKRS were 89.7% and 77.4%, respectively. During the median clinical follow-up duration of 12.3±2.6 months (range 1–54 months), 18 patients (35.3%) experienced new or worsened neurologic deficits with a median onset time of 2.5±0.5 months (range 0.3–9.7 months) after GKRS. Among various factors, prescription dose (>20 Gy) was a significant factor for the new or worsened neurologic deficits in univariate (p=0.027) and multivariate (p=0.034) analysis. The managements of 18 patients were steroid medication (n=10), boost radiation therapy (n=5), and surgery (n=3), and neurological improvement was achieved in 9 (50.0%). Conclusion In our series, prescription dose (>20 Gy) was significantly related to neurological deterioration after GKRS for brain metastases involving the MC. Therefore, we suggest that careful dose adjustment would be required for lesions involving the MC to avoid neurological deterioration requiring additional treatment in the patients with limited life expectancy. PMID:27867921

  6. Evaluation of the stability of the stereotactic Leksell Frame G in Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Villabona, Alvaro; Miszkiel, Katherine; Kitchen, Neil; Jäger, Rolf; Paddick, Ian

    2016-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of the Leksell Frame G in Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKR). Forty patients undergoing GKR underwent pretreatment stereotactic MRI for GKR planning and stereotactic CT immediately after GKR. The stereotactic coordinates of four anatomical landmarks (cochlear apertures and the summits of the anterior post of the superior semicircular canals, bilaterally) were measured by two evaluators on two separate occasions in the pre-treatment MRI and post-treatment CT scans and the absolute distance between the observations is reported. The measurement method was validated with an indepen-dent group of patients who underwent both stereotactic MRI and CT imaging before treatment (negative controls; n: 5). Patients undergoing GKR for arteriovenous malformations (AVM) also underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which could result in extra stresses on the frame. The distance between landmark local-ization in the scans for the negative control group (0.63 mm; 95% CI: 0.57-0.70; SD: 0.29) represents the overall consistency of the evaluation method and provides an estimate of the minimum displacement that could be detected by the study. Two patients in the study group had the fiducial indicator box accidentally misplaced at post-treatment CT scanning. This simulated the scenario of a frame displacement, and these cases were used as positive controls to demonstrate that the evaluation method is capable of detecting a discrepancy between the MRI and CT scans, if there was one. The mean distance between the location of the landmarks in the pretreatment MRI and post-treatment CT scans for the study group was 0.71 mm (95% CI: 0.68-0.74; SD:0.32), which was not statistically different from the over-all uncertainty of the evaluation method observed in the negative control group (p = 0.06). The subgroup of patients with AVM (n: 9), who also underwent DSA, showed a statistically significant difference between the location of the

  7. Radiological aspects of gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations and other non-tumoural disorders of the brain.

    PubMed

    Guo, W Y

    1993-01-01

    The aims of the thesis were to investigate stereotaxic procedures in radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and radiation effects of single session high-dose irradiation delivered by gamma knife on the human brain. Investigation of gamma knife radiosurgery in 1,464 patients constitutes the data base of this thesis. High quality stereotaxic angiography is the gold standard targeting imaging in radiosurgery for cerebral AVMs, particularly for small AVMs or residual AVMs after other treatments. For medium and large size AVMs, stereotaxic MR techniques can improve targeting precision and decrease irradiation volume as compared to stereotaxic angiography in selected cases provided that proper pulse sequences are used. Combined treatments, where embolization precedes radiosurgery, can improve amenability of the treatment for large AVMs. This is on condition that the partially embolized nidi are well delineated and the volume of the residual nidi has been decreased to a level where an optimum irradiation can be safely prescribed. Radiologically, adverse radiation effects (ARE) of gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebral AVMs are observed in 16% (131/816) of the patients. The ARE are observed as a focal low attenuation on CT or as a focal high signal on MR image without enhancement in 47% (61/131), and as a peripheral or homogeneous enhancing lesion in 48% (63/131). MR imaging is more sensitive than CT in detecting the ARE. 91% of the ARE are observed within 18 months after radiosurgery and 89% are seen to regress within 18 months. Clinically, symptomatic ARE are only observed in 6% (51/816) and only in half of them, i.e. 3%, are the symptoms permanent. The risk of ARE in radiosurgery for venous angiomas is higher as compared to AVMs. Other mechanisms have probably been employed. In gamma capsulotomy, the necrotic lesions and reaction volumes created by using multiple isocentres of 4 mm collimators are less predictable as compared to that by single

  8. Review of the poster "Dosimetric comparison of gamma knife radiosurgery vs. 125I plaque brachytherapy in a cohort of choroidal melanomas".

    PubMed

    Odell, Kelly R

    2009-01-01

    Historically, treatment for choroidal melanomas was surgical enucleation. Currently, treatment methods such as stereotactic radiosurgery and brachytherapy are being used to spare the eye. The poster "Dosimetric Comparison of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery vs. I-125 Plaque Brachytherapy in a Cohort of Choroidal Melanomas" presented at ASTRO 2007 by Anderson et al. provides a comparison of these methods. The dose to disk, fovea and lens in 29 patients from a simulated I-125 treatment and a delivered Gamma Knife radiosurgery was compared. Thirty Gy was prescribed to the 50% Isodose line in the radiosurgery and 85 Gy was prescribed to the apex of the tumor in the I-125 simulation. It was found that the Gamma Knife spares the disk better in 59% of the tumors, including those >or=6.5 mm in height; spares the fovea better in 69% of the tumors, including those >or=5.5 mm; and spares lens better in only 30% of the tumors, with no distinction in size. Tumor location was not taken into account for this study, which could explain the variations in smaller tumors. For larger tumors, gamma knife will protect most organs at risk more effectively. This study shows how a tumor's parameters can be used in selecting treatment modality.

  9. Evaluation of stability of stereotactic space defined by cone-beam CT for the Leksell Gamma Knife Icon.

    PubMed

    AlDahlawi, Ismail; Prasad, Dheerendra; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2017-05-01

    The Gamma Knife Icon comes with an integrated cone-beam CT (CBCT) for image-guided stereotactic treatment deliveries. The CBCT can be used for defining the Leksell stereotactic space using imaging without the need for the traditional invasive frame system, and this allows also for frameless thermoplastic mask stereotactic treatments (single or fractionated) with the Gamma Knife unit. In this study, we used an in-house built marker tool to evaluate the stability of the CBCT-based stereotactic space and its agreement with the standard frame-based stereotactic space. We imaged the tool with a CT indicator box using our CT-simulator at the beginning, middle, and end of the study period (6 weeks) for determining the frame-based stereotactic space. The tool was also scanned with the Icon's CBCT on a daily basis throughout the study period, and the CBCT images were used for determining the CBCT-based stereotactic space. The coordinates of each marker were determined in each CT and CBCT scan using the Leksell GammaPlan treatment planning software. The magnitudes of vector difference between the means of each marker in frame-based and CBCT-based stereotactic space ranged from 0.21 to 0.33 mm, indicating good agreement of CBCT-based and frame-based stereotactic space definition. Scanning 4-month later showed good prolonged stability of the CBCT-based stereotactic space definition. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Brain metastases in women with epithelial ovarian cancer: multimodal treatment including surgery or gamma-knife radiation is associated with prolonged survival.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoyu; Rajanbabu, Anupama; Delisle, Megan; Peng, Feng; Vijaykumar, Dehannathuparambil K; Pavithran, Keechilattu; Feng, Yukuan; Lau, Susie; Gotlieb, Walter H; Press, Joshua Z

    2013-09-01

    To explore the impact of treatment modality on survival in patients with brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer. We conducted a retrospective review of cases of ovarian cancer with brain metastases treated at institutions in three countries (Canada, China, and India) and conducted a search for studies regarding brain metastases in ovarian cancer reporting survival related to treatment modality. Survival was analyzed according to treatment regimens involving (1) some form of surgical excision or gamma-knife radiation with or without other modalities, (2) other modalities without surgery or gamma-knife radiation, or (3) palliation only. Twelve patients (mean age 56 years) with detailed treatment/outcome data were included; five were from China, four from Canada, and three from India. Median time from diagnosis of ovarian cancer to brain metastasis was 19 months (range 10 to 37 months), and overall median survival time from diagnosis of ovarian cancer was 38 months (13 to 82 months). Median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastasis was 17 months (1 to 45 months). Among patients who had multimodal treatment including gamma-knife radiotherapy or surgical excision, the median survival time after the identification of brain metastasis was 25.6 months, compared with 6.0 months in patients whose treatment did not include this type of focused localized modality (P = 0.006). Analysis of 20 studies also indicated that use of gamma-knife radiotherapy and excisional surgery in multi-modal treatment resulted in improved median survival interval (25 months vs. 6.0 months, P < 0.001). In the subset of patients with brain metastases from ovarian cancer, prolonged survival may result from use of multidisciplinary therapy, particularly if metastases are amenable to localized treatments such as gamma-knife radiotherapy and surgical excision.

  11. Critical appraisal of RapidArc radiosurgery with flattening filter free photon beams for benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife: a treatment planning study.

    PubMed

    Abacioglu, Ufuk; Ozen, Zeynep; Yilmaz, Meltem; Arifoglu, Alptekin; Gunhan, Basri; Kayalilar, Namik; Peker, Selcuk; Sengoz, Meric; Gurdalli, Salih; Cozzi, Luca

    2014-05-21

    To evaluate the role of RapidArc (RA) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife (GK) based technique. Twelve patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS, n = 6) or cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM, n = 6) were planned for both SRS using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RA. 104 MV flattening filter free photon beams with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min were selected. Data were compared against plans optimised for GK. A single dose of 12.5 Gy was prescribed. The primary objective was to assess treatment plan quality. Secondary aim was to appraise treatment efficiency. For VS, comparing best GK vs. RA plans, homogeneity was 51.7 ± 3.5 vs. 6.4 ± 1.5%; Paddick conformity Index (PCI) resulted 0.81 ± 0.03 vs. 0.84 ± 0.04. Gradient index (PGI) was 2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6. Mean target dose was 17.1 ± 0.9 vs. 12.9 ± 0.1 Gy. For the brain stem, D(1cm3) was 5.1 ± 2.0 Gy vs 4.8 ± 1.6 Gy. For the ipsilateral cochlea, D(0.1cm3) was 1.7 ± 1.0 Gy vs. 1.8 ± 0.5 Gy. For CSM, homogeneity was 52.3 ± 2.4 vs. 12.4 ± 0.6; PCI: 0.86 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.05; PGI: 2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.8 ± 0.5; D(1cm3) to brain stem was 5.4 ± 2.8 Gy vs. 5.2 ± 2.8 Gy; D(0.1cm3) to ipsi-lateral optic nerve was 4.2 ± 2.1 vs. 2.1 ± 1.5 Gy; D(0.1cm3) to optic chiasm was 5.9 ± 3.1 vs. 4.5 ± 2.1 Gy. Treatment time was 53.7 ± 5.8 (64.9 ± 24.3) minutes for GK and 4.8 ± 1.3 (5.0 ± 0.7) minutes for RA for schwannomas (meningiomas). SRS with RA and FFF beams revealed to be adequate and comparable to GK in terms of target coverage, homogeneity, organs at risk sparing with some gain in terms of treatment efficiency.

  12. Critical appraisal of RapidArc radiosurgery with flattening filter free photon beams for benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife: a treatment planning study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the role of RapidArc (RA) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife (GK) based technique. Methods Twelve patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS, n = 6) or cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM, n = 6) were planned for both SRS using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RA. 104 MV flattening filter free photon beams with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min were selected. Data were compared against plans optimised for GK. A single dose of 12.5 Gy was prescribed. The primary objective was to assess treatment plan quality. Secondary aim was to appraise treatment efficiency. Results For VS, comparing best GK vs. RA plans, homogeneity was 51.7 ± 3.5 vs. 6.4 ± 1.5%; Paddick conformity Index (PCI) resulted 0.81 ± 0.03 vs. 0.84 ± 0.04. Gradient index (PGI) was 2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6. Mean target dose was 17.1 ± 0.9 vs. 12.9 ± 0.1 Gy. For the brain stem, D1cm3 was 5.1 ± 2.0 Gy vs 4.8 ± 1.6 Gy. For the ipsilateral cochlea, D0.1cm3 was 1.7 ± 1.0 Gy vs. 1.8 ± 0.5 Gy. For CSM, homogeneity was 52.3 ± 2.4 vs. 12.4 ± 0.6; PCI: 0.86 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.05; PGI: 2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.8 ± 0.5; D1cm3 to brain stem was 5.4 ± 2.8 Gy vs. 5.2 ± 2.8 Gy; D0.1cm3 to ipsi-lateral optic nerve was 4.2 ± 2.1 vs. 2.1 ± 1.5 Gy; D0.1cm3 to optic chiasm was 5.9 ± 3.1 vs. 4.5 ± 2.1 Gy. Treatment time was 53.7 ± 5.8 (64.9 ± 24.3) minutes for GK and 4.8 ± 1.3 (5.0 ± 0.7) minutes for RA for schwannomas (meningiomas). Conclusions SRS with RA and FFF beams revealed to be adequate and comparable to GK in terms of target coverage, homogeneity, organs at risk sparing with some gain in terms of treatment efficiency. PMID:24884967

  13. Epilepsy related to hypothalamic hamartomas: surgical management with special reference to gamma knife surgery.

    PubMed

    Régis, Jean; Scavarda, Didier; Tamura, Manabu; Nagayi, Mariko; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Brue, Thierry; Dafonseca, David; Chauvel, Patrick

    2006-08-01

    A large spectrum of surgical techniques can be proposed to young patients presenting with hypothalamic hamartomas (HH) associated with severe epilepsy. The aim of this report is to point on some clinical and anatomical parameters supposed to influence the choice of the surgical approach and to emphasize the specific role of radiosurgery. We reviewed both our experience and the recent literature based on a Pubmed search. Lateral pterional, midline frontal through the lamina terminalis, transcallosal interforniceal approaches, endoscopic treatment through the foramen of Monro, disconnecting surgery, radiofrequency ablation, brachytherapy and gamma knife surgery (GKS) were all considered. Mortality, morbidity, and efficacy of each of these techniques were compared. Specific limits, difficulties, and constraints were taken into account. Our experience of radiosurgery is based on a prospective trial which enrolled 60 patients with HH and associated severe epilepsy between October 1999 and December 2005. Several surgical techniques can lead to a real reversal of the epileptic encephalopathy. The main factors for the decision-making process are the age, the size of the lesion and its anatomical type (according to our original classification), the severity of the epilepsy, and the severity of the cognitive/psychiatric comorbidity. In our prospective trial (GKS), 27 patients have a follow-up superior to 3 years. Among those, 59.2% have an excellent result with a dramatic behavioral and cognitive improvement and are completely seizure-free (37%) or have only rare non-disabling seizures (22.2%). No permanent neurological complication has been observed so far; three patients have presented a transient poïkilothermia. GKS is clearly the safer approach for these difficult patients. Young patients with severe epilepsy and comorbidity must be operated on using a curative approach as early as possible. Very large type VI or mixed type with a large component above the floor of the

  14. Histopathology of radiation necrosis with severe peritumoral edema after gamma knife radiosurgery for parasagittal meningioma. A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-hua; Shen, Chiung-chyi; Sun, Ming-hsi; Ho, William L; Huang, Chuan-fu; Kwan, Po-cheung

    2007-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) has been an effective treatment for meningiomas. Nevertheless, it still has certain risks. We present 2 cases of parasagittal meningioma after GKS complicated with radiation necrosis and peritumoral edema. The results of histologic examination are discussed. Two cases of parasagittal meningioma received GKS. Symptomatic peritumoral edema developed 3-4 months after GKS. Both of them underwent surgical resection of their tumor afterwards. Histologic examination showed necrotic change inside the tumor and infiltration of inflammatory cells in both cases. Hyalinization of blood vessels was seen in the 2nd case. The patients had improvement of neurologic function after surgical resection. Imaging performed 3 months after surgical resection showed alleviation of brain edema. After radiosurgery peritumoral edema tends to occur in meningiomas with a parasagittal position. Radiation necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and radiation injury to the vasculature causing hyalinization of blood vessels are suggested as the underlying histopathology. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Feasibility of Multiple Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgeries for Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Guy C.; Elaimy, Ameer L.; Demakas, John J.; Jiang, Hansi; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Mackay, Alexander R.; Cooke, Barton S.; Lee, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) must be customized for the individual patient, and physicians must be aware of the medical, surgical, and radiation treatment modalities to prescribe optimal treatment courses for specific patients. The following case illustrates the potential for gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) to be repeated multiple times for the purpose of achieving facial pain control in cases of TN that have been refractory to other medical and surgical options, as well as prior GKRS. The patient described failed to achieve pain control with initial GKRS, as well as medical and surgical treatments, but experienced significant pain relief for a period of time with a second GKRS procedure and later underwent a third procedure. Only a small subset of patients have reportedly undergone more than two GKRS for TN; thus, further research and long-term clinical followup will be valuable in determining its usefulness in specific clinical situations. PMID:21904556

  16. [The Effect of Pain Relieving Intervention During Infiltration among Gamma Knife Surgery Patients for Stereotactic Frame Fixation].

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Jun; Kim, Hyeon Ok

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of three interventions on pain, blood pressure, and pulse rate during infiltration anesthesia in patients about to undergo gamma knife surgeries. The three interventions employed in a university-affiliated Hospital in J City, South Korea were as follows: EMLA cream plus Vapocoolant spray (Vapocoolant, n=30), EMLA cream plus 10.0% Lidocaine spray (Lidocaine, n=30), and EMLA cream only (EMLA, n=30). The equivalent control-group pre test - post test study design was used. Pain was assessed subjectively using the numeric rating scale (NRS) and objectively using a Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) tester. NRS scores were assessed after infiltration anesthesia and the GSR was assessed during infiltration anesthesia. Blood pressure and pulse rate were assessed twice: before and after infiltration anesthesia. Data were collected between August 3, 2016 and March 24, 2017. NRS scores after infiltration anesthesia and the GSR during infiltration anesthesia were significantly lower in the Vapocoolant group than in the Lidocaine and EMLA groups (F=13.56, p<.001 and F=14.43, p<.001, respectively). The increase in systolic blood pressure (F=4.77, p=.011) and in pulse rates (F=4.78, p=.011) before and after infiltration anesthesia were significantly smaller in the Vapocoolant group than in the Lidocaine and EMLA groups; however, no significant differences were observed in diastolic blood pressures (F=1.51, p=.227). EMLA cream plus Vapocoolant spray was the most effective intervention to relieve pain and to lower increase in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate caused by infiltration anesthesia for stereotactic frame fixation. Thus, application of Vapocoolant spray in addition to EMLA cream is highly recommended as a nursing intervention for patients undergoing gamma knife surgeries. © 2018 Korean Society of Nursing Science.

  17. Quality of life after gamma knife radiosurgery treatment in patients with a vestibular schwannoma: the patient’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    van Haren, Anniek E. P.; Mulder, Jef J. S.; Hanssens, Patrick E. J.; van Overbeeke, Jacobus J.; Cremers, Cor W. R. J.; Graamans, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) on the quality of life (QOL) of patients with a sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). This study pertains to 108 VS patients who had GKRS in the years 2003 through 2007. Two different QOL questionnaires were used: medical outcome study short form 36 (SF36) and Glasgow benefit inventory (GBI). Radiosurgery was performed using a Leksell 4C gamma knife. The results of the QOL questionnaires in relation to prospectively and retrospectively gathered data of the VS patients treated by GKRS. Eventually, 97 patients could be included in the study. Their mean tumor size was 17 mm (range 6–39 mm); the mean maximum dose on the tumor was 19.9 Gy (range 16–25.5 Gy) and the mean marginal dose on the tumor was 11.1 (range 9.3–12.5 Gy). SF36 scores showed results comparable to those for a normal Dutch population. GBI showed a marginal decline in QOL. No correlation was found between QOL and gender, age, tumor size, or radiation dose. Increased audiovestibular symptoms after GKRS were correlated with a decreased GBI score, and decreased symptoms were correlated with a higher QOL post-GKRS. In this study shows that GKRS for VS has little impact on the general QOL of the VS patient. However, there is a wide range in individual QOL results. Individual QOL was influenced by the audiovestibular symptoms. No predictive patient, tumor, or treatment factors for QOL outcome after GKRS could be determined. Comparison with microsurgery is difficult because of intra group variability. PMID:19894058

  18. Novel biomarker identification using metabolomic profiling to differentiate radiation necrosis and recurrent tumor following Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Alex Y; Turban, Jack L; Damisah, Eyiyemisi C; Li, Jie; Alomari, Ahmed K; Eid, Tore; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Chiang, Veronica L

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Following an initial response of brain metastases to Gamma Knife radiosurgery, regrowth of the enhancing lesion as detected on MRI may represent either radiation necrosis (a treatment-related inflammatory change) or recurrent tumor. Differentiation of radiation necrosis from tumor is vital for management decision making but remains difficult by imaging alone. In this study, gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) was used to identify differential metabolite profiles of the 2 tissue types obtained by surgical biopsy to find potential targets for noninvasive imaging. METHODS Specimens of pure radiation necrosis and pure tumor obtained from patient brain biopsies were flash-frozen and validated histologically. These formalin-free tissue samples were then analyzed using GC-TOF. The metabolite profiles of radiation necrosis and tumor samples were compared using multivariate and univariate statistical analysis. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS For the metabolic profiling, GC-TOF was performed on 7 samples of radiation necrosis and 7 samples of tumor. Of the 141 metabolites identified, 17 (12.1%) were found to be statistically significantly different between comparison groups. Of these metabolites, 6 were increased in tumor, and 11 were increased in radiation necrosis. An unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis found that tumor had elevated levels of metabolites associated with energy metabolism, whereas radiation necrosis had elevated levels of metabolites that were fatty acids and antioxidants/cofactors. CONCLUSIONS To the authors' knowledge, this is the first tissue-based metabolomics study of radiation necrosis and tumor. Radiation necrosis and recurrent tumor following Gamma Knife radiosurgery for brain metastases have unique metabolite profiles that may be targeted in the future to develop noninvasive metabolic imaging techniques.

  19. Long-term results of Gamma-knife stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas in patients with type 2 neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Spatola, G; Carron, R; Delsanti, C; Thomassin, J-M; Roche, P-H; Régis, J

    2016-08-12

    The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of Gamma-knife radiosurgery treatment of vestibular schwannomas in type 2 neurofibromatosis patients. A cohort of 129 treatments for vestibular schwannomas in 103 patients was selected from a prospectively-maintained clinical database. Tumor control was assessed by volumetric analysis of the tumor at the last follow-up. Any need of a further procedure such as microsurgical removal or second treatment was regarded as a failure of tumor control. Hearing function was assessed based on Gardner-Robertson classification. Progression-free survival and functional hearing preservation rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The median age at treatment was 34 years with no gender predominance. The median tumor volume was 1.5cm 3 . At a median clinical follow-up of 5.9 years, five patients had died, four underwent a second radiosurgical procedure and eight underwent microsurgical resection. Progression-free survival was 88 and 75% respectively at 5 and 10 years. Hearing was considered serviceable in 70 ears and remained functional in 28 ears. Kaplan-Meier estimates for 5 and 10 years functional hearing was 47 and 34%, respectively. Three patients developed new facial nerve palsy after radiosurgery at 15 days, 6 and 19 months respectively and only one partially recovered. Five patients complained of a subjective instability worsening. Four cases developed trigeminal neuropathy. No predictive factors were found to be statistically correlated with a better hearing outcome or an improved tumor growth control. Results prove less satisfying than in sporadic unilateral schwannomas. However, the lower rate of mortality and morbidity compared with microsurgical resection may support a proactive role of Gamma-knife in this pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical efficacy of gamma knife and surgery treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and their effects on EF-Tumt and EF-Tsmt expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-Q; Zhang, X-D; Han, Y-M; Shi, X-F; Lan, Z-B; Men, X-X; Pan, Y-W

    2017-04-01

    To study the clinical efficacy of gamma knife and surgery treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and their effects on EF-Tumt and EF-Tsmt expression. The data of 78 cases of MTLE patients treated in our hospital from April 2011 to March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment methods: the surgery group (including 41 cases) and the gamma knife group (including 37 cases). The clinical efficacy, the occurrence and recurrence of complications were evaluated, respectively; meanwhile, the expression of the EF-Tumt protein and EF-Tsmt protein in brain tissue were analyzed. The difference between the efficacy rate of the two groups showed no statistical significance (χ2=0.960, p>0.05). The complication rate of the gamma knife group was significantly lower than that of the control group (χ2=6.430, p<0.05). The recurrence rate of the patients in the gamma knife group was significantly lower than that of the patients in the surgery group (p>0.05). Within the two groups, the positive expression granum of EF-Tsmt protein and EF-Tumt protein of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than that before treatment (p<0.05). After treatment, the positive expression granum of EF-Tsmt protein of the patients in the gamma knife group was obviously more than that of the patients in the surgery group (p<0.05). The difference between the positive expression granum of EF-Tumt protein of the two groups showed no statistical significance (p>0.05). Before and after treatment within the group, the positive cell of EF-Tsmt protein and EF-Tumt protein of the two groups of patients after treatment were significantly lower than that before treatment (p<0.05). After treatment, the difference between the EF-Tsmt protein positive cell and the EF-Tumt protein positive cell of the two groups of patients showed no statistical significance (p>0.05). Both surgery and gamma knife could treat MTLE effectively, and

  1. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) utilizes cobalt-60 as its radiation source, and thus dose rate varies as the fixed source decays over its half-life of approximately 5.26 years. This natural decay results in increasing treatment times when delivering the same cumulative dose. It is also possible, however, that the biological effective dose may change based on this dose rate even if the total dose is kept constant. Because patients are generally treated in a uniform manner, radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents a clinical model whereby biological efficacy can be tested. The authors hypothesized that higher dose rates would result in earlier and more complete pain relief but only if measured with a sensitive pain assessment tool. One hundred thirty-three patients were treated with the Gamma Knife Model 4C unit at a single center by a single neurosurgeon during a single cobalt life cycle from January 2006 to May 2012. All patients were treated with 80 Gy with a single 4-mm isocenter without blocking. Using an output factor of 0.87, dose rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.95 Gy/min. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-Facial was administered before the procedure and at the first follow-up office visit 1 month from the procedure (mean 1.3 months). Phone calls were made to evaluate patients after their procedures as part of a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was performed on several independent variables, including sex, age in deciles, diagnosis, follow-up duration, prior surgery, and dose rate. In the short-term analysis (mean 1.3 months), patients' self-reported pain intensity at its worst was significantly correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Similarly, patients' self-reported interference with activities of daily living was closely correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.067). A 1 Gy/min decrease in dose rate resulted in a 17% decrease in pain intensity at its worst and a 22% decrease

  2. Long-term follow-up studies of Gamma Knife surgery for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shibin; Liu, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes after Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) and the role of GKS in the management of NF2. From December 1994 through December 2008, a total of 46 patients (21 male, 25 female) with NF2 underwent GKS and follow-up evaluation for at least 5 years at the Gamma Knife Center of the Beijing Neurosurgical Institute. GKS was performed using the Leksell Gamma Knife Models B and C. The mean age of the patients was 30 years (range 13-59 years). A family history of NF2 was found for 9 (20%) patients. The NF2 phenotype was thought to be Wishart for 20 (44%) and Feiling-Gardner for 26 (56%) patients. Among these 46 patients, GKS was performed to treat 195 tumors (73 vestibular schwannomas and 122 other tumors including other schwannomas and meningiomas). For vestibular schwannomas, the mean volume was 5.1 cm(3) (median 3.6 cm(3), range 0.3-27.3 cm(3)), the mean margin dose was 12.9 Gy (range 10-14 Gy), and the mean maximum dose was 27.3 Gy (range 16.2-40 Gy). For other tumors, the mean volume was 1.7 cm(3) (range 0.3-5.5 cm(3)), the mean margin dose was 13.3 Gy (range 11-14 Gy), and the mean maximum dose was 26.0 Gy (range 18.0-30.4 Gy). The median duration of follow-up was 109 months (range 8-195 months). For the 73 vestibular schwannomas that underwent GKS, the latest follow-up MR images demonstrated regression of 30 (41%) tumors, stable size for 31 (43%) tumors, and enlargement of 12 (16%) tumors. The total rate of tumor control for bilateral vestibular schwannomas in patients with NF2 was 84%. Of the 122 other types of tumors that underwent GKS, 103 (85%) showed no tumor enlargement. The rate of serviceable hearing preservation after GKS was 31.9% (15/47). The actuarial rates for hearing preservation at 3 years, 5 years, 10 years, and 15 years were 98%, 93%, 44%, and 17%, respectively. Of the 46 patients, 22 (48%) became completely bilaterally deaf, 17 (37%) retained

  3. Hypertrophic olivary degeneration following surgical resection or gamma knife radiosurgery of brainstem cavernous malformations: an 11-case series and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jung-Ho; Ahn, Jae Sung; Park, Jung Cheol; Kwon, Do Hoon; Kwun, Byung Duk; Kim, Chang Jin

    2013-03-01

    We describe 11 patients with hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) after surgical resection or gamma knife radiosurgery for brainstem cavernous malformations. In addition, we statistically analyzed the predicting factors associated with the development of HOD. From January 2001 to May 2011, a total of 73 patients (30 in the surgical group and 43 in the radiosurgery group) with brainstem cavernous malformations were treated in our institute. Of them, 11 patients (incidence: 15 %) developed HOD with high signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI during follow-up. The predicting factors (location, size, age, and treatment method) associated with the development of HOD were statistically analyzed. Among the 11 HOD patients, seven patients received surgical resection and four patients received gamma knife radiosurgery. Six patients had bilateral HOD and the remaining five patients had unilateral HOD. Overall HOD-associated symptoms presented in four patients, including three palatal tremors and one ataxia. In all four patients with symptoms, these symptoms disappeared incompletely within the clinical follow-up period. The size of the cavernous malformation, age of patient, and treatment methods were not significantly correlated with the development of HOD. A significantly higher incidence of HOD was associated with midbrain cavernous malformations than with pontine or medulla cavernous malformations. HOD should be recognized as a non-infrequent complication of surgical resection or gamma knife radiosurgery within the brainstem, especially for midbrain cavernous malformations. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on HOD development after radiosurgery.

  4. Ten-Year Survival of a Patient Treated with Stereotactic Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases from Colon Cancer with Ovarian and Lymph Node Metastases: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Naritaka; Shitara, Yoshinori; Ishizaki, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Takatomo; Kouga, Hideaki; Wakabayashi, Kazuki; Fukuchi, Minoru; Tsunoda, Yoshiyuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastasis from colorectal cancer is infrequent and carries a poor prognosis. Herein, we present a patient alive 10 years after the identification of a first brain metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer. A 39-year-old woman underwent sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer during an emergency operation for pelvic peritonitis. The pathological finding was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Eleven months after the sigmoidectomy, a metastatic lesion was identified in the left ovary. Despite local radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy, the left ovarian lesion grew, so resection of the uterus and bilateral ovaries was performed. Adjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur-uracil (UFT)/calcium folinate (leucovorin, LV) was initiated. Seven months after resection of the ovarian lesion, brain metastases appeared in the bilateral frontal lobes and were treated with stereotactic Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Cervical and mediastinal lymph node metastases were also diagnosed, and irradiation of these lesions was performed. After radiotherapy, 10 courses of oxaliplatin and infused fluorouracil plus leucovorin (FOLFOX) were administered. During FOLFOX administration, recurrent left frontal lobe brain metastasis was diagnosed and treated with stereotactic Gamma Knife radiosurgery. In this case, the brain metastases were well treated with stereotactic Gamma Knife radiosurgery, and the systemic disease arising from sigmoid colon cancer has been kept under control with chemotherapies, surgical resection, and radiotherapy.

  5. A comparison of the convolution and TMR10 treatment planning algorithms for Gamma Knife® radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gavin; Harrold, Natalie; Bownes, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Aims To compare the accuracies of the convolution and TMR10 Gamma Knife treatment planning algorithms, and assess the impact upon clinical practice of implementing convolution-based treatment planning. Methods Doses calculated by both algorithms were compared against ionisation chamber measurements in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. Relative dose distributions calculated by both algorithms were compared against film-derived 2D isodose plots in a heterogeneous phantom, with distance-to-agreement (DTA) measured at the 80%, 50% and 20% isodose levels. A retrospective planning study compared 19 clinically acceptable metastasis convolution plans against TMR10 plans with matched shot times, allowing novel comparison of true dosimetric parameters rather than total beam-on-time. Gamma analysis and dose-difference analysis were performed on each pair of dose distributions. Results Both algorithms matched point dose measurement within ±1.1% in homogeneous conditions. Convolution provided superior point-dose accuracy in the heterogeneous phantom (-1.1% v 4.0%), with no discernible differences in relative dose distribution accuracy. In our study convolution-calculated plans yielded D99% 6.4% (95% CI:5.5%-7.3%,p<0.001) less than shot matched TMR10 plans. For gamma passing criteria 1%/1mm, 16% of targets had passing rates >95%. The range of dose differences in the targets was 0.2-4.6Gy. Conclusions Convolution provides superior accuracy versus TMR10 in heterogeneous conditions. Implementing convolution would result in increased target doses therefore its implementation may require a revaluation of prescription doses. PMID:29657896

  6. Early versus late Gamma Knife radiosurgery following transsphenoidal surgery for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas: a multicenter matched-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pomeraniec, I Jonathan; Kano, Hideyuki; Xu, Zhiyuan; Nguyen, Brandon; Siddiqui, Zaid A; Silva, Danilo; Sharma, Mayur; Radwan, Hesham; Cohen, Jonathan A; Dallapiazza, Robert F; Iorio-Morin, Christian; Wolf, Amparo; Jane, John A; Grills, Inga S; Mathieu, David; Kondziolka, Douglas; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Wu, Chih-Chun; Cifarelli, Christopher P; Chytka, Tomas; Barnett, Gene H; Lunsford, L Dade; Sheehan, Jason P

    2017-10-27

    OBJECTIVE Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is frequently used to treat residual or recurrent nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas. There is no consensus as to whether GKRS should be used early after surgery or if radiosurgery should be withheld until there is evidence of imaging-defined progression of tumor. Given the high incidence of adenoma progression after subtotal resection over time, the present study intended to evaluate the effect of timing of radiosurgery on outcome. METHODS This is a multicenter retrospective review of patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas who underwent transsphenoidal surgery followed by GKRS from 1987 to 2015 at 9 institutions affiliated with the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Patients were matched by adenoma and radiosurgical parameters and stratified based on the interval between last resection and radiosurgery. Operative results, imaging data, and clinical outcomes were compared across groups following early (≤ 6 months after resection) or late (> 6 months after resection) radiosurgery. RESULTS After matching, 222 patients met the authors' study criteria (from an initial collection of 496 patients) and were grouped based on early (n = 111) or late (n = 111) GKRS following transsphenoidal surgery. There was a greater risk of tumor progression after GKRS (p = 0.013) and residual tumor (p = 0.038) in the late radiosurgical group over a median imaging follow-up period of 68.5 months. No significant difference in the occurrence of post-GKRS endocrinopathy was observed (p = 0.68). Thirty percent of patients without endocrinopathy in the early cohort developed new endocrinopathies during the follow-up period versus 27% in the late cohort (p = 0.84). Fourteen percent of the patients in the early group and 25% of the patients in the late group experienced the resolution of endocrine dysfunction after original presentation (p = 0.32). CONCLUSIONS In this study, early GKRS was associated with a lower risk of

  7. Management of brain metastasis in a patient with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma by gamma-knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Nikolaoul, Marinos; Stamenković, Srdjan; Stergiou, Christos; Skarleas, Christos; Torrens, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are rare events. We present a rare case of single ovarian cancer metastasis to the brain treated with gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS). A 65-year-old woman with advanced EOC presented with severe neurologic symptoms. A single brain metastasis of 3.2 cm with surrounding edema in the left parietal lobe was detected by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan during the work-up. The decision to perform GKRS was due to a surgical inaccessibility of intracranial lesion. Twelve weeks after the procedure, the MRI scan showed reduction in the diameter of brain metastasis and surrounding edema and the patient returned to good mental and motor performance.The patient survived for 22 months following treatment and died from a progressive intra-abdominal disease. Prognosis of ovarian cancer patients with brain metastases is generally poor regardless of treatment. Our case shows that GKRS as primary treatment modality for the control of ovarian cancer metastases to the brain was effective and can be considered as a treatment of choice if international selection criteria are followed.

  8. Gamma Knife surgery in patients harboring orbital cavernous hemangiomas that were diagnosed on the basis of imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomin; Xu, Desheng; Zhang, Yipei; Liu, Dong; Song, Guoxiang

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate clinical outcomes and tumor control in patients harboring orbital cavernous hemangiomas (OCHs) that had been diagnosed based on findings of imaging studies and treated by Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). Between 1995 and 2008, 23 patients harboring OCHs that had been diagnosed on the basis of imaging findings were treated using GKS; complete follow-up data are available in all cases. The median treatment volume was 1.5 cm³ (range 0.15-10.10 cm³), the median tumor margin dose was 15 Gy (range 12-20 Gy), and the median follow-up period was 12 months (range 6-120 months). A decrease in tumor size was found in 20 patients, and no tumor progression was observed after GKS. Eleven of 14 patients whose visual function had been adversely affected prior to treatment had improved visual acuity at the last assessment. Side effects of the procedure included orbital pain in 3 patients and chemosis in 2 patients. In this preliminary experience, GKS proved to be an effective treatment for OCHs diagnosed on the basis of imaging findings. Additional follow-up is necessary, and the long-term side effects of the procedure still need to be determined.

  9. P11.10 Role of hydroxyurea as an adjuvant treatment after gamma knife radiosurgery for atypical (WHO grade II) meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Karim, K.; El Shehaby, A.; Emad, R.; Reda, W.; El Mahdy, M.; Ghali, R.; Nabeel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The use of gamma knife radiosurgery in the treatment of atypical (WHO grade II) meningiomas has been reported in the past with highly variable degrees of success. The use of hydroxyurea as a radiation sensitizer as well as salvage chemotherapy in cancer patients is well established and was also used for treatment of recurrent and malignant meningiomas. In this study we investigated the effect of hydroxyurea administration after gamma knife radiosurgery for atypical (grade II) meningiomas on local tumor control and patient survival. Patients and methods: Between November 2008 and April 2014, thirty-five patients with pathologically proven atypical meningiomas were treated by gamma knife radiosurgery. We excluded patients who had received previous external beam radiotherapy. Twenty-three patients were given hydroxyurea after gamma knife treatment. The rest of the patients refused to take the treatment or were incompliant (were not included in the study). Of these 23, nineteen patients harboring 20 tumors were available for radiological and clinical follow up for a minimum of 2 years. Four patients were lost from follow up. Twenty tumors underwent 26 gamma knife procedures. Five tumors underwent staged treatment. The tumor volume was 0.6–38.3 cc (median 12.7 cc). The prescription dose/session ranged from 10 to 16 Gy (mean 14 Gy). The patients received a course of hydroxyurea (1000 mg/day) for one year after gamma knife treatment. The mean follow up period was 43 months (14–76 months). Results: Tumor control was achieved in 18 out of 20 tumors where 15 tumors shrank and 3 tumors remained stable with a tumor control rate of 90%. Tumor progression occurred in 2 patients (at 14 and 15 months). Transient edema was observed with 6 tumors which was temporary, and no G3 or G4 myelosuppression were recorded. Two patients died from progression of other tumors not included in the study after 3 and 6 years. Distant tumor progression (in another

  10. Long-term safety and efficacy of Gamma Knife surgery in classical trigeminal neuralgia: a 497-patient historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Régis, Jean; Tuleasca, Constantin; Resseguier, Noémie; Carron, Romain; Donnet, Anne; Gaudart, Jean; Levivier, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) is one of the surgical alternatives for the treatment of drug-resistant trigeminal neuralgia (TN). This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of GKS in a large population of patients with TN with very long-term clinical follow-up. Between July 1992 and November 2010, 737 patients presenting with TN were treated using GKS. Data were collected prospectively and were further retrospectively evaluated at Timone University Hospital. The frequency and severity of pain, as well as trigeminal nerve function, were evaluated before GKS and regularly thereafter. Radiosurgery using the Gamma Knife (model B, C, 4C, or Perfexion) was performed with the help of both MR and CT targeting. A single 4-mm isocenter was positioned in the cisternal portion of the trigeminal nerve at a median distance of 7.6 mm (range 4-14 mm) anterior to the emergence of the nerve (retrogasserian target). A median maximum dose of 85 Gy (range 70-90 Gy) was prescribed. The safety and efficacy are reported for 497 patients with medically refractory classical TN who were never previously treated by GKS and had a follow-up of at least 1 year. The median age in this series was 68.3 years (range 28.1-93.2 years). The median follow-up period was 43.8 months (range 12-174.4 months). Overall, 456 patients (91.75%) were initially pain free in a median time of 10 days (range 1-180 days). Their actuarial probabilities of remaining pain free without medication at 3, 5, 7, and 10 years were 71.8%, 64.9%, 59.7%, and 45.3%, respectively. One hundred fifty-seven patients (34.4%) who were initially pain free experienced at least 1 recurrence, with a median delay of onset of 24 months (range 0.6-150.1 months). However, the actuarial rate of maintaining pain relief without further surgery was 67.8% at 10 years. The hypesthesia actuarial rate at 5 years was 20.4% and at 7 years reached 21.1%, but remained stable until 14 years with a median delay of onset of 12 months (range 1-65 months

  11. Predictors of quality of life and survival following Gamma Knife surgery for lung cancer brain metastases: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bragstad, Sidsel; Flatebø, Marianne; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Eide, Geir Egil; Skeie, Geir Olve; Behbahani, Maziar; Pedersen, Paal-Henning; Enger, Per Øyvind; Skeie, Bente Sandvei

    2017-08-18

    OBJECTIVE Lung cancer (LC) patients who develop brain metastases (BMs) have a poor prognosis. Estimations of survival and risk of treatment-related deterioration in quality of life (QOL) are important when deciding on treatment. Although we know of several prognostic factors for LC patients with BMs, the role of QOL has not been established. Authors of this study set out to evaluate changes in QOL following Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for BMs in LC patients and QOL as a prognostic factor for survival. METHODS Forty-four of 48 consecutive LC patients with BMs underwent GKS in the period from May 2010 to September 2011, and their QOL was prospectively assessed before and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after GKS by using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-BR) questionnaire. A mixed linear regression model was used to identify potential predictive factors for QOL and to assess the effect of GKS and the disease course on QOL at follow-up. RESULTS Mean QOL as measured by the brain cancer subscale (BRCS) of the FACT-BR remained stable from baseline (score 53.0) up to 12 months post-GKS (57.1; p = 0.624). The BRCS score improved for 32 patients (72.3%) with a total BM volume ≤ 5 cm 3 . Mean improvement in these patients was 0.45 points each month of follow-up, compared to a decline of 0.50 points each month despite GKS treatment in patients with BM volumes > 5 cm 3 (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic BMs (p = 0.01), a lower recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classification (p = 0.04), and a higher Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score (p < 0.01) at baseline were predictors for a high, stable QOL after GKS. After multivariate analysis, a high KPS score (p < 0.01) remained the only positive predictor of a high, stable QOL post-GKS. Median survival post-GKS was 5.6 months (95% CI 1.0-10.3). A higher BRCS score (p = 0.01), higher KPS score (p = 0.01), female sex (p = 0.01), and the absence of liver (p = 0.02), adrenal (p = 0.02), and bone metastases (p = 0

  12. Quantifying and improving the efficiency of Gamma Knife treatment plans for brain metastases: results of a 1-year audit.

    PubMed

    Wright, Gavin; Hatfield, Paul; Loughrey, Carmel; Reiner, Beatrice; Bownes, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A method for quantifying the efficiency of Gamma Knife treatment plans for metastases was previously implemented by the authors to retrospectively identify the least efficient plans and has provided insights into improved planning strategies. The aim of the current work was to ascertain whether those insights led to improved treatment plans. Following completion of the initial study, a 1-year audit of metastasis plans created at St. James's Institute of Oncology was carried out. Audited recent plans were compared with the earlier plans of the initial study, in terms of their efficiency and dosimetric quality. The statistical significance of any differences between relevant plan parameters was quantified by Mann-Whitney U-tests. Comparisons were made between all plans and repeated for a reduced set of plans from which the smallest lesions treated with a single 4-mm shot were excluded. The plan parameters compared were a plan efficiency index (PEI), the number of shots, Paddick conformity index (PCI), gradient index (GI), and percent coverage (of the lesion by the prescription isodose). A total of 157 metastatic lesions were included in the audit and were compared with 241 in the initial study. In a comparison of all cases, the audited plans achieved a higher median PEI score than did the earlier plans from the initial study (1.08 vs 1.02), indicating improved efficiency of the audited plans. When the smallest lesions (for which there was little scope for varying plan strategy) were discounted, the improvement in median PEI score was greater (1.23 vs 1.03, p < 0.001). This improvement in efficiency corresponds to an estimated mean (maximum) time saving of 15% (66%) per lesion (11 minutes [64 minutes] on the day of treatment). The modified planning strategy yielding these efficiency improvements did not rely on the use of significantly fewer shots (median 11 vs 11 shots, p = 0.924), nor did it result in significant detriment to dosimetric quality (median coverage 99

  13. A Simple and Efficient Methodology To Improve Geometric Accuracy in Gamma Knife Radiation Surgery: Implementation in Multiple Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Karaiskos, Pantelis, E-mail: pkaraisk@med.uoa.gr; Gamma Knife Department, Hygeia Hospital, Athens; Moutsatsos, Argyris

    Purpose: To propose, verify, and implement a simple and efficient methodology for the improvement of total geometric accuracy in multiple brain metastases gamma knife (GK) radiation surgery. Methods and Materials: The proposed methodology exploits the directional dependence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-related spatial distortions stemming from background field inhomogeneities, also known as sequence-dependent distortions, with respect to the read-gradient polarity during MRI acquisition. First, an extra MRI pulse sequence is acquired with the same imaging parameters as those used for routine patient imaging, aside from a reversal in the read-gradient polarity. Then, “average” image data are compounded from data acquiredmore » from the 2 MRI sequences and are used for treatment planning purposes. The method was applied and verified in a polymer gel phantom irradiated with multiple shots in an extended region of the GK stereotactic space. Its clinical impact in dose delivery accuracy was assessed in 15 patients with a total of 96 relatively small (<2 cm) metastases treated with GK radiation surgery. Results: Phantom study results showed that use of average MR images eliminates the effect of sequence-dependent distortions, leading to a total spatial uncertainty of less than 0.3 mm, attributed mainly to gradient nonlinearities. In brain metastases patients, non-eliminated sequence-dependent distortions lead to target localization uncertainties of up to 1.3 mm (mean: 0.51 ± 0.37 mm) with respect to the corresponding target locations in the “average” MRI series. Due to these uncertainties, a considerable underdosage (5%-32% of the prescription dose) was found in 33% of the studied targets. Conclusions: The proposed methodology is simple and straightforward in its implementation. Regarding multiple brain metastases applications, the suggested approach may substantially improve total GK dose delivery accuracy in smaller, outlying targets.« less

  14. Dosimetric and Clinical Analysis of Spatial Distribution of the Radiation Dose in Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma

    SciTech Connect

    Massager, Nicolas, E-mail: nmassage@ulb.ac.be; Neurosurgery-Department, Hospital Erasme, Brussels; Lonneville, Sarah

    2011-11-15

    Objectives: We investigated variations in the distribution of radiation dose inside (dose inhomogeneity) and outside (dose falloff) the target volume during Gamma Knife (GK) irradiation of vestibular schwannoma (VS). We analyzed the relationship between some parameters of dose distribution and the clinical and radiological outcome of patients. Methods and Materials: Data from dose plans of 203 patients treated for a vestibular schwannoma by GK C using same prescription dose (12 Gy at the 50% isodose) were collected. Four different dosimetric indexes were defined and calculated retrospectively in all plannings on the basis of dose-volume histograms: Paddick conformity index (PI), gradientmore » index (GI), homogeneity index (HI), and unit isocenter (UI). The different measures related to distribution of the radiation dose were compared with hearing and tumor outcome of 203 patients with clinical and radiological follow-up of minimum 2 years. Results: Mean, median, SD, and ranges of the four indexes of dose distribution analyzed were calculated; large variations were found between dose plans. We found a high correlation between the target volume and PI, GI, and UI. No significant association was found between the indexes of dose distribution calculated in this study and tumor control, tumor volume shrinkage, hearing worsening, loss of functional hearing, or complete hearing loss at last follow-up. Conclusions: Parameters of distribution of the radiation dose during GK radiosurgery for VS can be highly variable between dose plans. The tumor and hearing outcome of patients treated is not significantly related to these global indexes of dose distribution inside and around target volume. In GK radiosurgery for VS, the outcome seems more to be influenced by local radiation dose delivered to specific structures or volumes than by global dose gradients.« less

  15. Toxicity of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the Treatment of Intracranial Tumors in Patients With Collagen Vascular Diseases or Multiple Sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, Dot; Tatter, Stephen B.; Bourland, J. Daniel

    Purpose: To assess toxicity in patients with either a collagen vascular disease (CVD) or multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with intracranial radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: Between January 2004 and April 2009, 6 patients with MS and 14 patients with a CVD were treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for intracranial tumors. Treated lesions included 15 total brain metastases in 7 patients, 11 benign brain tumors, 1 low grade glioma, and 1 cavernous malformation. Toxicities were graded by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute/Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria. 'Rare toxicities' were characterized as those reported in the scientific literature at an incidencemore » of <5%. Results: Median follow-up time was 16 months. Median dose to the tumor margin was 13.0 Gy (range, 12-21 Gy). Median size of tumor was 5.0 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.14-7.8 cm{sup 3}). Of the 14 patients with CVD, none experienced a Grade 3 or 4 toxicity or a toxicity characterized as rare. Of the 6 patients with MS, 3 experienced rare toxicities, and two of these were Grade 3 toxicities. Rare complications included a patient experiencing both communicating hydrocephalus and facial nerve palsy, as well as 2 additional patients with motor cranial nerve palsy. High-grade toxicities included the patient with an acoustic neuroma requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for obstructive hydrocephalus, and 1 patient with a facial nerve schwannoma who experienced permanent facial nerve palsy. Interval between radiosurgery and high-grade toxicities ranged from 1 week to 4 months. Conclusions: Our series suggests that patients with MS who receive GKRS may be at increased risk of rare and high-grade treatment-related toxicity. Given the time course of toxicity, treatment-related edema or demyelination represent potential mechanisms.« less

  16. RT-23THE ROLE OF GAMMA KNIFE RADIOSURGERY IN THE TREATMENT FOR PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kanji; Chiba, Yasuyoshi; Toyota, Shingo; Kumagai, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shota; Sugano, Hirohumi; Taki, Takuyu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the role of gamma knife (GK) as a treatment modality for primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL), we reviewed PCNSL patients who were treated with GK between November 2004 and May 2014, retrospectively. There were 29 cases (13 males and 16 females, ranged from 33 years old to 91 years old) with 210 treated lesions. Marginal dose was from 12Gy to 18 Gy. One hundred and nineteen lesions of 23 cases could be accessed and all of them showed partial response or complete response. In seven cases, GK was performed at initial treatment, in 18 cases at recurrence, and in four cases at both. Median age of initial treatment group were significantly higher than that of recurred group (77.8 y.o. and 63.6 y.o., p = 0.00268). Two cases of initial treatment group and 16 cases of recurrent group were treated with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). GK after first relapse, progression free survival more than six months were obtained for six cases (33.3%), and four of them were free from additional therapy more than one year. Otherwise, thirteen cases (59.1%) received GK repeatedly (2-6 times, median = 3), and interval between each therapy was from 22 to 513 days (median = 93days). We confirmed that GK has high potential for local control. And it was supposed that GK was used as an alternative to WBRT at initial treatment for elderly, or selected to recurrent cases after WBRT. These results showed the role of GK in the treatment for PCNSL is palliative care, now in Japan. But it is clear that there exist patients who can live longer without WBRT by GK. We conclude that GK will become to play a more positive role by modifying its timing and modalities used together.

  17. Gamma knife radiosurgery in patients with persistent acromegaly or Cushing's disease: long-term risk of hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Inbar, Or; Ramesh, Arjun; Xu, Zhiyuan; Vance, Mary Lee; Schlesinger, David; Sheehan, Jason P

    2016-04-01

    For patient with a recurrent or residual acromegaly or Cushing's disease (CD) after resection, gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is often used. Hypopituitarism is the most common adverse effect after GKRS treatment. The paucity of studies with long-term follow-up has hampered understanding of the latent risks of hypopituitarism in patients with acromegaly or CD. We report the long-term risks of hypopituitarism for patients treated with GKRS for acromegaly or CD. From a prospectively created, IRB-approved database, we identified all patients with acromegaly or CD treated with GKRS at the University of Virginia from 1989 to 2008. Only patients with a minimum endocrine follow-up of 60 months were included. The median follow-up is 159·5 months (60·1-278). Thorough radiological and endocrine assessments were performed immediately before GKRS and at regular follow-up intervals. New onset of hypopituitarism was defined as pituitary hormone deficits after GKRS requiring corresponding hormone replacement. Sixty patients with either acromegaly or CD were included. Median tumour volume at time of GKRS was 1·3 cm(3) (0·3-13·4), and median margin dose was 25 Gy (6-30). GKRS-induced new pituitary deficiency occurred in 58·3% (n = 35) of patients. Growth hormone deficiency was most common (28·3%, n = 17). The actuarial overall rates of hypopituitarism at 3, 5 and 10 years were 10%, 21·7% and 53·3%, respectively. The median time to hypopituitarism was 61 months after GKRS (range, 12-160). Cavernous sinus invasion of the tumour was found to correlate with the occurrence of a new or progressive hypopituitarism after GKRS (P = 0·018). Delayed hypopituitarism increases as a function of time after radiosurgery. Hormone axes appear to vary in terms of radiosensitivity. Patients with adenoma in the cavernous sinus are more prone to develop loss of pituitary function after GKRS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Efficacy and Quality of Life Outcomes in Patients With Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia Treated With Gamma-Knife Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Dhople, Anil; Kwok, Young; Chin, Lawrence

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To assess efficacy and quality of life (QOL) outcomes associated with gamma-knife radiosurgery (GK-RS) in treating atypical trigeminal neuralgia (ATN) compared with classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN). Methods and Materials: Between September 1996 and September 2004, 35 cases of ATN were treated with GK-RS. Patients were categorized into two groups: Group I comprised patients presenting with ATN (57%); Group II consisted of patients presenting with CTN then progressing to ATN (43%). Median prescription dose 75 Gy (range, 70-80 Gy) was delivered to trigeminal nerve root entry zone. Treatment efficacy and QOL improvements were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Results: Withmore » median follow-up of 29 months (range, 3-74 months), 72% reported excellent/good outcomes, with mean time to relief of 5.8 weeks (range, 0-24 weeks) and mean duration of relief of 62 weeks (range, 1-163 weeks). This rate of pain relief is similar to rate achieved in our previously reported experience treating CTN with GK-RS (p = 0.36). There was a trend toward longer time to relief (p = 0.059), and shorter duration of relief (p = 0.067) in patients with ATN. There was no difference in rate of, time to, or duration of pain relief between Groups I and II. Of the patients with ATN, 88% discontinued or decreased the use of pain medications. Among the patients with sustained pain relief, QOL improved an average of 85%. Conclusion: This is the largest reported GK-RS experience for the treatment of ATN. Patients with ATN can achieve rates of pain relief similar to those in patients with CTN. Further follow-up is necessary to assess adequately the durability of response.« less

  19. Retrospective analysis of imaging techniques for treatment planning and monitoring of obliteration for gamma knife treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Amponsah, Kwame; Ellis, Thomas L; Chan, Michael D; Lovato, James F; Bourland, J Daniel; deGuzman, Allan F; Ekstrand, Kenneth E; Munley, Michael T; McMullen, Kevin P; Shaw, Edward G; Tatter, Stephen B

    2012-10-01

    It has been well established that Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) is an effective treatment for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). To evaluate complete obliteration rates for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based GKS treatment planning performed with and without angiography and to conduct a preliminary assessment of the utility of using pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging to confirm complete obliteration. Forty-six patients were identified who had undergone GKS without embolization with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. One group was planned with integrated stereotactic angiography and MR (spoiled gradient recalled) images obtained on the day of GKS. A second technique avoided the risk of arteriography by using only axial MR images. Beginning in 2007, PASL MR perfusion imaging was routinely performed as a portion of the follow-up MRI to assess the restoration of normal blood flow of the nidus and surrounding area. The overall obliteration rate for the angiography/MRI group was 88.0% (29 of 33). Patients in the MRI-only group had an obliteration rate of 61.5% (8 of 13), with P=.092 with the Fisher exact test, which is not statistically significant. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was also not statistically significant (log rank test, P=.474). Four of 9 patients with incomplete obliteration on angiography also had shown residual abnormal blood flow on PASL imaging. This retrospective analysis shows that treatment planning technique used in GKS does not play a role in the eventual obliteration of treated AVMs. PASL may have potential in the evaluation of AVM obliteration.

  20. Experimental Comparison of Knife-Edge and Multi-Parallel Slit Collimators for Prompt Gamma Imaging of Proton Pencil Beams.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Julien; Roellinghoff, Frauke; Janssens, Guillaume; Perali, Irene; Celani, Andrea; Fiorini, Carlo; Freud, Nicolas; Testa, Etienne; Prieels, Damien

    2016-01-01

    More and more camera concepts are being investigated to try and seize the opportunity of instantaneous range verification of proton therapy treatments offered by prompt gammas emitted along the proton tracks. Focusing on one-dimensional imaging with a passive collimator, the present study experimentally compared in combination with the first, clinically compatible, dedicated camera device the performances of instances of the two main options: a knife-edge slit (KES) and a multi-parallel slit (MPS) design. These two options were experimentally assessed in this specific context as they were previously demonstrated through analytical and numerical studies to allow similar performances in terms of Bragg peak retrieval precision and spatial resolution in a general context. Both collimators were prototyped according to the conclusions of Monte Carlo optimization studies under constraints of equal weight (40 mm tungsten alloy equivalent thickness) and of the specificities of the camera device under consideration (in particular 4 mm segmentation along beam axis and no time-of-flight discrimination, both of which less favorable to the MPS performance than to the KES one). Acquisitions of proton pencil beams of 100, 160, and 230 MeV in a PMMA target revealed that, in order to reach a given level of statistical precision on Bragg peak depth retrieval, the KES collimator requires only half the dose the present MPS collimator needs, making the KES collimator a preferred option for a compact camera device aimed at imaging only the Bragg peak position. On the other hand, the present MPS collimator proves more effective at retrieving the entrance of the beam in the target in the context of an extended camera device aimed at imaging the whole proton track within the patient.

  1. Longitudinal assessment of quality of life and audiometric test outcomes in vestibular schwannoma patients treated with gamma knife surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Sean S; Grills, Inga Siiner; Bojrab, Dennis; Pieper, Daniel; Kartush, Jack; Maitz, Ann; Martin, Arturo; Perez, Evelyn; Hahn, Yoav; Ye, Hong; Martinez, Alvaro; Chen, Peter

    2011-06-01

    To prospectively assess the quality of life (QOL) and hearing acuity in vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients after gamma knife surgery (GKS). Fifty-nine VS patients. GKS. Prospective follow-up algorithm included 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), Hearing Handicap Inventory (HHI), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), pure-tone average, and speech discrimination hearing scores (Gardner-Robertson and American Academy of Otolaryngology), performed before and after GKS at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-month posttreatment intervals. From December 2006 to November 2008, 59 VS patients were treated with a median follow-up of 15 months. At baseline, mean scores for SF-36, HHI, DHI, and THI were 73, 37, 17, and 23, respectively. Median baseline Gardner-Robertson and American Academy of Otolaryngology hearing acuity scores were 2 and B, respectively. No significant decline in SF-36 health survey was noted after GKS. Mean SF-36 score at baseline was 73, compared with a range of 70 to 77 at predetermined posttreatment intervals. Similarly, no significant changes in DHI, HHI, and THI were noted. Approximately 47% of patients with baseline serviceable hearing maintained serviceable hearing at 12 months. Significant acute and chronic worsening in hearing acuity were noted at 1 and 18 months, respectively. No correlative decline in QOL was noted as assessed by SF-36 or HHI. No significant decline in global QOL occurred after GKS with relatively short follow-up and approximately 50% survey completion. When discussing therapy options with VS patients, anticipated treatment-related QOL outcomes should be considered.

  2. Postcontrast T1 Mapping for Differential Diagnosis of Recurrence and Radionecrosis after Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Brain Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Zhang, Y; Zhao, B; Zhao, P; Ge, M; Gao, M; Ding, F; Xu, S; Liu, Y

    2018-06-01

    The differential diagnosis of radionecrosis and tumor recurrence in brain metastases is challenging. We investigated the diagnostic efficiency of postcontrast T1 mapping in solving this problem. Between March 2016 and June 2017, fifty-six patients with brain metastases who underwent contrast-enhanced cerebral T1 mapping were recruited for this prospective study. The findings revealed new enhancement after gamma knife radiosurgery. The subjects were assigned to radionecrosis and recurrence groups based on follow-up (median, 11.5 months) and histopathologic results. T1 values of lesions 5 (T1 5min ) and 60 (T1 60min ) minutes after administration of contrast agent and their difference (T1 differ ) were compared between the 2 groups with the 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the optimum cutoff values for differential diagnosis. There were significant differences between the 2 groups in T1 5min , T1 60min , and T1 differ values ( P = .012, P = .004, and P < .001, respectively). Relative to T1 5min and T1 60min , T1 differ exhibited greater sensitivity and specificity ( P < .001, respectively) in identifying radionecrosis. The optimum T1 differ value for differential diagnosis was 71.1 ms (area under the curve = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00), with sensitivity and specificity of 81.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Postcontrast T1 mapping is optimal for the differential diagnosis of radionecrosis and tumor recurrence. Among T1 parameters, T1 differ is the most powerful parameter for differential diagnosis. Advantages in terms of quantitative analysis and high resolution portend the wide use of postcontrast T1 mapping in the future. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy and gamma knife surgery for brain arteriovenous malformations in China: Study protocol for an observational clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hengwei; Huo, Xiaochuan; Jiang, Yuhua; Li, Xiaolong; Li, Youxiang

    2017-09-01

    Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The treatment of BAVM remains controversial. Microinvasive treatment, including endovascular therapy and gamma knife surgery, has been the first choice in many conditions. However, the overall clinical outcome of microinvasive treatment remains unknown and a prospective trial is needed. This is a prospective, non-randomized, and multicenter observational registry clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of microinvasive treatment for BAVMs. The study will require up to 400 patients in approximately 12 or more centers in China, followed for 2 years. Main subjects of this study are BAVM patients underwent endovascular therapy and/or gamma knife surgery. The trial will not affect the choice of treatment modality. The primary outcomes are perioperative complications (safety), and postoperative hemorrhage incidence rate and complete occlusion rate (efficacy). Secondary outcomes are elimination of hemorrhage risk factors (coexisting aneurysms and arteriovenous fistula), volume reduction and remission of symptoms. Safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy, gamma knife surgery, and various combination modes of the two modalities will be compared. Operative complications and outcomes at pretreatment, post-treatment, at discharge and at 3 months, 6 months and 2 years follow-up intervals will be analyzed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The most confusion on BAVM treatment is whether to choose interventional therapy or medical therapy, and the choice of interventional therapy modes. This study will provide evidence for evaluating the safety and efficacy of microinvasive treatment in China, to characterize the microinvasive treatment strategy for BAVMs.

  4. Adaptive fractionated stereotactic Gamma Knife radiotherapy of meningioma using integrated stereotactic cone-beam-CT and adaptive re-planning (a-gkFSRT).

    PubMed

    Stieler, F; Wenz, F; Abo-Madyan, Y; Schweizer, B; Polednik, M; Herskind, C; Giordano, F A; Mai, S

    2016-11-01

    The Gamma Knife Icon (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) allows frameless stereotactic treatment using a combination of cone beam computer tomography (CBCT), a thermoplastic mask system, and an infrared-based high-definition motion management (HDMM) camera system for patient tracking during treatment. We report on the first patient with meningioma at the left petrous bone treated with adaptive fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (a-gkFSRT). The first patient treated with Gamma Knife Icon at our institute received MR imaging for preplanning before treatment. For each treatment fraction, a daily CBCT was performed to verify the actual scull/tumor position. The system automatically adapted the planned shot positions to the daily position and recalculated the dose distribution (online adaptive planning). During treatment, the HDMM system recorded the intrafractional patient motion. Furthermore, the required times were recorded to define a clinical treatment slot. Total treatment time was around 20 min. Patient positioning needed 0.8 min, CBCT positioning plus acquisition 1.65 min, CT data processing and adaptive planning 2.66 min, and treatment 15.6 min. The differences for the five daily CBCTs compared to the reference are for rotation: -0.59 ± 0.49°/0.18 ± 0.20°/0.05 ± 0.36° and for translation: 0.94 ± 0.52 mm/-0.08 ± 0.08 mm/-1.13 ± 0.89 mm. Over all fractions, an intrafractional movement of 0.13 ± 0.04 mm was observed. The Gamma Knife Icon allows combining the accuracy of the stereotactic Gamma Knife system with the flexibility of fractionated treatment with the mask system and CBCT. Furthermore, the Icon system introduces a new online patient tracking system to the clinical routine. The interfractional accuracy of patient positioning was controlled with a thermoplastic mask and CBCT.

  5. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for intracranial meningiomas: Do we need to treat the dural tail? A single-center retrospective analysis and an overview of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bulthuis, Vincent J; Hanssens, Patrick E J; Lie, Suan Te; van Overbeeke, Jacobus J

    2014-01-01

    The dural tail (DT) has been described as a common feature in meningiomas. There is a great variation of tumor invasion and extent of tumor cells in the DT. Therefore, the necessity to include the whole DT in Gamma Knife radiosurgery is not clear, since inclusion increases the target volume and therefore increases the risk of complications. In this analysis, we evaluated whether the complete tail should be included as part of the target in Gamma Knife radiosurgery for meningiomas. Between June 2002 and December 2010, Gamma Knife radiosurgery was performed in 160 patients with 203 meningiomas with a DT. In 105 tumors, the diagnosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, and in 98 tumors, the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination after surgery. The median volume of the tumors was 3.55 cc. All tumors were treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery with a median prescribed dose of 13 Gy (range 11-15), resulting in a median marginal dose of 11 Gy (range 10-15). Only the part of the DT closely related to the tumor mass was included in the target. The median follow-up period was 41 months (range 12-123). In image-based meningiomas, the overall local control rate was 96.2% with 2- and 5-year control rates of 98.0% and 95.1%, respectively. In WHO grade I tumors, the overall local control rate was 85.9% with 2- and 5-year control rates of 94.5% and 88.0%, respectively. The overall local control rate in World Health Organization (WHO) grade II tumors was 70.6% with control rates of 83.4% and 64.4% after 2 and 5 years, respectively. The growth of all new tumors was found in the radiation target area. No tumor growth was observed in the part of the DT that had been excluded from the target volume. We found in this study that routinely excluding the DT from the target does not lead to out-of-field tumor progression. Given the possibility that the DT is infiltrated with tumor cells, regular follow-up is needed.

  6. Positive clinical effects of gamma knife capsulotomy in a patient with deep brain stimulation-refractory Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Richieri, Raphaëlle; Blackman, Graham; Musil, Richard; Spatola, Giorgio; Cavanna, Andrea E; Lançon, Christophe; Régis, Jean

    2018-04-26

    We report the first case of a patient with severe, intractable Tourette Syndrome with comorbid Obsessive Compulsive disorder, who recovered from both disorders with gamma-knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery following deep brain stimulation (DBS). This case highlights the possible role of the internal capsule within the neural circuitries underlying both TS and OCD, and suggests that in cases of treatment-refractory TS and comorbid OCD, bilateral anterior capsulotomy using stereotactic radiosurgery may be a viable treatment option. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MAGAT gel and EBT2 film‐based dosimetry for evaluating source plugging‐based treatment plan in Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Vivekanandhan, S.; Kale, S.S.; Rath, G.K.; Senthilkumaran, S.; Thulkar, S.; Subramani, V.; Laviraj, M.A.; Bisht, R.K.; Mahapatra, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    This work illustrates a procedure to assess the overall accuracy associated with Gamma Knife treatment planning using plugging. The main role of source plugging or blocking is to create dose falloff in the junction between a target and a critical structure. We report the use of MAGAT gel dosimeter for verification of an experimental treatment plan based on plugging. The polymer gel contained in a head‐sized glass container simulated all major aspects of the treatment process of Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The 3D dose distribution recorded in the gel dosimeter was read using a 1.5T MRI scanner. Scanning protocol was: CPMG pulse sequence with 8 equidistant echoes, TR=7 s, echo step=14 ms, pixel size=0.5 mm x 0.5 mm, and slice thickness of 2 mm. Using a calibration relationship between absorbed dose and spin‐spin relaxation rate (R2), we converted R2 images to dose images. Volumetric dose comparison between treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurement was accomplished using an in‐house MATLAB‐based program. The isodose overlay of the measured and computed dose distribution on axial planes was in close agreement. Gamma index analysis of 3D data showed more than 94% voxel pass rate for different tolerance criteria of 3%/2 mm, 3%/1 mm and 2%/2 mm. Film dosimetry with GAFCHROMIC EBT 2 film was also performed to compare the results with the calculated TPS dose. Gamma index analysis of film measurement for the same tolerance criteria used for gel measurement evaluation showed more than 95% voxel pass rate. Verification of gamma plan calculated dose on account of shield is not part of acceptance testing of Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK). Through this study we accomplished a volumetric comparison of dose distributions measured with a polymer gel dosimeter and Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) calculations for plans using plugging. We propose gel dosimeter as a quality assurance (QA) tool for verification of plug‐based planning. PACS number: 87.53.Ly, 87.55.‐x, 87

  8. SU-E-T-471: Improvement of Gamma Knife Treatment Planning Through Tumor Control Probability for Metastatic Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Lo, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The dose–volume histogram (DVH) has been normally accepted as a tool for treatment plan evaluation. However, spatial information is lacking in DVH. As a supplement to the DVH in three-dimensional treatment planning, the differential DVH (DDVH) provides the spatial variation, the size and magnitude of the different dose regions within a region of interest, which can be incorporated into tumor control probability model. This study was to provide a method in evaluating and improving Gamma Knife treatment planning. Methods: 10 patients with brain metastases from different primary tumors including melanoma (#1,#4,#5, #10), breast cancer (#2), prostate cancer (#3) andmore » lung cancer (#6–9) were analyzed. By using Leksell GammaPlan software, two plans were prepared for each patient. Special attention was given to the DDVHs that were different for different plans and were used for a comparison between two plans. Dose distribution inside target and tumor control probability (TCP) based on DDVH were calculated, where cell density and radiobiological parameters were adopted from literature. The plans were compared based on DVH, DDVH and TCP. Results: Using DVH, the coverage and selectivity were the same between plans for 10 patients. DDVH were different between two plans for each patient. The paired t-test showed no significant difference in TCP between the two plans. For brain metastases from melanoma (#1, #4–5), breast cancer (#2) and lung cancer (#6–8), the difference in TCP was less than 5%. But the difference in TCP was about 6.5% for patient #3 with the metastasis from prostate cancer, 10.1% and 178.7% for two patients (#9–10) with metastasis from lung cancer. Conclusion: Although DVH provides average dose–volume information, DDVH provides differential dose– volume information with respect to different regions inside the tumor. TCP provides radiobiological information and adds additional information on improving treatment planning as well as

  9. Five-year Survival After Surgical Removal and Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for a Cerebellar Metastasis from an Esophagogastric Junction Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    KANAZAWA, YOSHIKAZU; FUJITA, ITSUO; KAKINUMA, DAISUKE; AOKI, YUTO; KANNO, HITOSHI; ARAI, HIROKI; MATSUNO, KUNIHIKO; SHIMODA, TOMOHIRO; MATSUTANI, TAKESHI; HAGIWARA, NOBUTOSHI; NOMURA, TSUTOMU; YAMADA, TAKESHI; KATO, SHUNJI; NAITO, ZENYA; TAKASAKI, HIDEAKI; UCHIDA, EIJI

    2017-01-01

    Brain metastases originating from esophageal or gastric cancer are rare, accounting for 2.1-3.3% of all brain tumors registered in Japan. There are no established therapeutic measures for brain metastases, which accordingly have a poor prognosis. We present here a patient who survived for 5 years after surgery and gamma knife treatment of a cerebellar metastasis from esophagogastric adenocarcinoma. The primary gastric cancer was treated by laparotomy with total gastrectomy, splenectomy, and D2 lymphadenectomy. It was diagnosed as a esophagogastric junction Siewert type II tumor, type 3, tub1-2, pT3 (SS), pN1, and stage IIB on histopathological examination of the surgical specimen. Five months postoperatively, a solitary cerebellar metastasis was identified and surgically removed, followed by 20 Gy administered by gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery; the patient received no subsequent treatment such as chemotherapy. Five years after the primary surgery, there have been no recurrences and the patient has a good quality of life. There are very few case reports of long-term survival after surgical treatment of cerebellar metastases from esophagogastric junction cancer. We report our experience and review published case reports of surgical treatment of brain metastases from gastric cancer. PMID:29102948

  10. Long-Term Survival after Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in a Case of Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Thumma, Sudheer R.; Elaimy, Ameer L.; Daines, Nathan; Mackay, Alexander R.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Demakas, John J.; Cooke, Barton S.; Lee, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The management of recurrent glioblastoma is highly challenging, and treatment outcomes remain uniformly poor. Glioblastoma is a highly infiltrative tumor, and complete surgical resection of all microscopic extensions cannot be achieved at the time of initial diagnosis, and hence local recurrence is observed in most patients. Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been used to treat these tumor recurrences for select cases and has been successful in prolonging the median survival by 8–12 months on average for select cases. We present the unique case of a 63-year-old male with multiple sequential recurrences of glioblastoma after initial standard treatment with surgery followed by concomitant external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide). The patient was followed clinically as well as with surveillance MRI scans at every 2-3-month intervals. The patient underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery three times for 3 separate tumor recurrences, and the patient survived for seven years following the initial diagnosis with this aggressive treatment. The median survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma is usually 8–12 months after recurrence, and this unique case illustrates that aggressive local therapy can lead to long-term survivors in select situations. We advocate that each patient treatment at the time of recurrence should be tailored to each clinical situation and desire for quality of life and improved longevity. PMID:22548078

  11. Long-term effectiveness and safety of stereotactic gamma knife surgery as a primary sole treatment in the management of glomus jagulare tumor.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Raef F A; Morgan, Magad S; Fahmy, Osama M; Hassan, Hamdy T

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to report and confirm long-term effectiveness and safety of stereotactic Gamma Knife Surgery as a primary sole treatment in the management of 40 glomus jagulare tumors patients. Retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological outcomes of 40 GJTs consecutive patients treated with GKS as primary sole treatment at International Medical Center (IMC), Cairo-Egypt from the beginning of 2005 till the end of 2014,with mean follow-up period of 84 months (range 36-156 months), mean tumor volume was 6.5 cc, and mean peripheral radiation dose of 15 Gy, to mean isodose curve of 38%. The most common neurological deficit at initial evaluation was bulbar symptoms in 24 patients, followed by pulsatile tinnitus in 22, deterioration of hearing in 20 patients. The overall clinical control achieved in 92.5% of patients, while actuarial tumor size control rate post- GKS was 97.5% at 3 years, 97% at 5 years and 92% at 10 years of follow-up period. Gamma knife surgery could be used effectively and safely as a primary sole treatment tool in the management of glomus jugulare tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated medial axis seeding and guided evolutionary simulated annealing for optimization of gamma knife radiosurgery treatment plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengpeng

    The Leksell Gamma KnifeRTM (LGK) is a tool for providing accurate stereotactic radiosurgical treatment of brain lesions, especially tumors. Currently, the treatment planning team "forward" plans radiation treatment parameters while viewing a series of 2D MR scans. This primarily manual process is cumbersome and time consuming because the difficulty in visualizing the large search space for the radiation parameters (i.e., shot overlap, number, location, size, and weight). I hypothesize that a computer-aided "inverse" planning procedure that utilizes tumor geometry and treatment goals could significantly improve the planning process and therapeutic outcome of LGK radiosurgery. My basic observation is that the treatment team is best at identification of the location of the lesion and prescribing a lethal, yet safe, radiation dose. The treatment planning computer is best at determining both the 3D tumor geometry and optimal LGK shot parameters necessary to deliver a desirable dose pattern to the tumor while sparing adjacent normal tissue. My treatment planning procedure asks the neurosurgeon to identify the tumor and critical structures in MR images and the oncologist to prescribe a tumoricidal radiation dose. Computer-assistance begins with geometric modeling of the 3D tumor's medial axis properties. This begins with a new algorithm, a Gradient-Phase Plot (G-P Plot) decomposition of the tumor object's medial axis. I have found that medial axis seeding, while insufficient in most cases to produce an acceptable treatment plan, greatly reduces the solution space for Guided Evolutionary Simulated Annealing (GESA) treatment plan optimization by specifying an initial estimate for shot number, size, and location, but not weight. They are used to generate multiple initial plans which become initial seed plans for GESA. The shot location and weight parameters evolve and compete in the GESA procedure. The GESA objective function optimizes tumor irradiation (i.e., as close to

  13. WE-G-BRD-08: End-To-End Targeting Accuracy of the Gamma Knife for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovich, I; Wu, X; Duan, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Current QA procedures verify accuracy of individual equipment parameters, but may not include CT and MRI localizers. This study uses an end-to-end approach to measure the overall targeting errors in individual patients previously treated for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: The trigeminal nerve is simulated by a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm (1/8 inch) diameter MRI contrast-filled cavity embedded within a PMMA plastic capsule. The capsule is positioned within the head frame such that the cavity position matches the Gamma Knife coordinates of 10 previously treated patients. Gafchromic EBT2 film is placed at the center of the cavity in coronal andmore » sagittal orientations. The films are marked with a pin prick to identify the cavity center. Treatments are planned for delivery with 4 mm collimators using MRI and CT scans acquired with the clinical localizer boxes and acquisition protocols. Coordinates of shots are chosen so that the cavity is centered within the 50% isodose volume. Following irradiation, the films are scanned and analyzed. Targeting errors are defined as the distance between the pin prick and the centroid of the 50% isodose line. Results: Averaged over 10 patient simulations, targeting errors along the x, y and z coordinates (patient left-to-right, posterior-anterior, head-to-foot) were, respectively, −0.060 +/− 0.363, −0.350 +/− 0.253, and 0.364 +/− 0.191 mm when MRI was used for treatment planning. Planning according to CT exhibited generally smaller errors, namely 0.109 +/− 0.167, −0.191 +/− 0.144, and 0.211 +/− 0.94 mm. The largest errors in MRI and CT planned treatments were, respectively, y = −0.761 and x = 0.428 mm. Conclusion: Unless patient motion or stronger MRI image distortion in actual treatments caused additional errors, all patients received the prescribed dose, i.e., the targeted section of the trig±eminal nerve was contained within the 50% isodose surface in all cases.« less

  14. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for glossopharyngeal neuralgia: A study of 21 patients with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Borius, Pierre-Yves; Tuleasca, Constantin; Muraciole, Xavier; Negretti, Laura; Schiappacasse, Luis; Dorenlot, Antoine; Marguet, Maud; Zeverino, Michele; Donnet, Anne; Levivier, Marc; Regis, Jean

    2018-03-01

    Objective Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is a very rare condition, affecting the patient's quality of life. We report our experience in drug-resistant, idiopathic GPN, treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS), in terms of safety and efficiency, on a very long-term basis. Methods The study was opened, self-controlled, non-comparative and bicentric (Marseille and Lausanne University Hospitals). Patients treated with GKRS between 2003 and 2015 (models C, 4C and Perfexion) were included. A single 4-mm isocentre was positioned in the cisternal portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve, with a targeting based both on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). The mean maximal dose delivered was 81.4 ± 6.7 Gy (median = 85 Gy, range = 60-90 Gy at the 100% isodose line). Results Twenty-one patients (11 women, 10 men) benefited from 25 procedures. The mean follow-up period was 5.2 ± 3 years (range = 0.9-12.1 years). Seventeen (81%) were initially pain-free after GKRS. At three months, six months and one year after radiosurgery, the percentage of patients with good outcome (BNI classes I to IIIA) was 87.6%, 100% and 81.8%, respectively. Ten cases (58.8%) from the initial pain-free ones had a recurrence, after a mean period of 13.6 ± 10.4 months (range = 3.1-36.6 months). Only three patients (14.2%) had recurrences (two for each one of them) requiring further surgeries. Three patients underwent a second GKRS procedure; one case needed a third GKRS. The former procedures were performed at 7, 17, 19 and 30 months after the first one, respectively. Furthermore, two patients needed additional interventions. At last follow-up, 17 cases (80.9%) were still pain-free without medication. The actuarial pain relief without new surgery was 83%. A transient complication (paraesthesia of the edge of the tongue) was seen in one case (4.8%). Conclusion GKRS is a valuable, minimally invasive, surgical alternative for idiopathic GPN

  15. Investigation of intracranial peripheral dose arising from the treatment of large lesions with Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion.

    PubMed

    Ruschin, Mark; Nordström, Håkan; Kjäll, Per; Cho, Young-Bin; Jaffray, David

    2009-06-01

    This investigation involves quantifying the extent of intracranial peripheral dose arising from simulated targets situated in the skull-base or upper-spine region using the Leksell GammaKnife Perfexion treatment unit. For each of three spherical target volumes--denoted as Vs (4 cm3), VM (18 cm3), and VL (60 cm3)--three treatment plans were manually generated, one for each of the three collimator sizes--4, 8, and 16 mm. Each of the plans was delivered to a spherical dosimetry phantom with an insert containing EBT Gafchromic film. The total dose at 70 mm from the targets' edges, %D(70 mm), was measured as a function of elevation angle and expressed as a percentage of the prescription dose. The film insert was placed centered in the median sagittal plane (Leksell X = 100) and %D(70 mm) was measured for the angular range from 0 degree (superior/along Z axis) to 90 degrees (anterior/along Y axis). For a given collimator i, the irradiation time ti to treat a spherical target of volume V using the 50% isodose line was observed to follow a power-law relationship of the form ti = Ai(V/ Vi)n where Ai was the maximum dose divided by collimator dose rate and Vi was the volume encompassed by the 50% isodose line for a single shot. The mean value of n was 0.61 (range: 0.61-0.62). Along the superior (Z) direction (angle=0 degree) and up to angles of around 30 degrees, the %D(70 mm) was always highest for the 4 mm plans, followed by the 8 mm, followed by the 16 mm. In this angular range, the maximum measured %D(70 mm) was 1.7% of the prescription dose. The intracranial peripheral dose along the superior direction (combined scatter and leakage dose) resulting from irradiation of upper-spine or base-of-skull lesions is measured to be less than 2% of the prescription dose, even for very large (60 cm3) targets. The results of this study indicate that, for a given target volume, treatment plans consisting of only 4 mm shots yield larger peripheral dose in the superior direction than 8

  16. SU-E-T-517: Investigation of Factors Contributing to Extracranial Radiation Doses From Leksell Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Kon, D; Kameda Medical Centre, Chiba, JP; Nakano, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate dominant factors for doses to extracranial sites in treatment with Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK). Methods Monte Carlo simulation was implemented using EGS5 version 1.4.401. The simulation was divided into two major steps for the purpose of efficiency. As the first step, phase-space files were obtained at a scoring plane located just below patient-side surface of the collimator helmet of LGK. Scored particles were classified into three groups, primary, leakage and scatter, using their history information until their arrival to the scoring plane. Then classification was used at the following second stepmore » simulation to investigate which type of particle is dominant in the deposited energy at extra-cranial sites. In the second stage, a cylindrical phantom with a semisphere shaped head was modeled such that the geometrical center of the phantom’s head corresponds to the unit center point (UCP) of LGK. Scoring regions were arranged at 10 cm intervals from the UCP to 70 cm away on the central axis of the phantom. Energy deposition from each type of particles and location of interaction were recorded. Results The dominant factor of deposited energy depended on the collimator size. In the case of smaller collimator size, leakage was dominant. However, contribution of leakage was relatively small in the case of larger collimator size. The contribution of internal scatter varied with the distance from the UCP. In the proximal areas, internal scatter was dominant, whereas in the distal areas, particles interacting with machine components became dominant factor. Conclusion The Result of this study indicates that the dominant factor to dose to an extracranial site can vary with the distance from UCP and with collimator size. This means that the variation of this contribution must be considered for modeling of the extracranial dose especially in the distal area. This work was partly supported by the JSPS Core

  17. Do Recent Advances in MR Technologies Contribute to Better Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Treatment Results for Brain Metastases?

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M; Yamamoto, M; Nishimura, C; Satoh, H

    2007-10-31

    The detection of intracerebral lesions has improved greatly with advancements in MR imaging, especially the greater sensitivity of the 1.5 Tesla unit versus the older 1.0 Tesla unit. We aimed to determine whether improvements in MR imaging have actually improved diagnostic capabilities and treatment outcomes in gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for brain metastases (METs). Ours was a retrospective study of a consecutive series of 1179 patients (441 females, 738 males, mean age: 63 years, range: 19-92 years) with brain METs who underwent GKRS from 1998 to 2004. Our treatment policy was to irradiate all lesions visible on MR images during a single GKRS session. Mean and median tumor numbers were seven and three (range; 1-74). The 1179 patients were divided into two groups: a 1.0 T-group of 660 patients examined using a 1.0 Tesla MR unit before August,2002, and a 1.5 T-group of 519 examined using a 1.5 Tesla MR unit after September 2002. In the 1.5 T-group, lesion volumes as small as 0.004 cc were detected with a 5 mm slice thickness. The corresponding lesion size was 0.013 cc in the 1.0 T-group. One or more lesions invisible on a 5 mm slice study were additionally detected on a 2 mm slice study in 47.8% of patients in the 1.0 T-group and 25.2% in the 1.5 T-group (p<.0001). The median survival time (MST) in the 1.5 T-group was significantly longer than that in the 1.0 T-group (8.4 vs. 6.3 months, p=.0004). Due to biases in patient numbers between the two groups, we analyzed subgroups with KPS of 80% or better, no neurological deficits, stable primary tumors, lung cancer, tumor numbers of four or less and tumor volumes of 10.0 cc or smaller. In every subgroup analysis, the MSTs of the 1.5-Tesla group were significantly longer than those of the 1.0-Tesla group. The prognosis of a cancer patient is undoubtedly influenced by multiple factors. Nevertheless, we conclude that application of the 1.5 Tesla MR unit has had a favorable impact on diagnosis and GKRS treatment

  18. SU-E-J-240: The Impact On Clinical Dose-Distributions When Using MR-Images Registered with Stereotactic CT-Images in Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Benmakhlouf, H; Kraepelien, T; Forander, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Most Gamma knife treatments are based solely on MR-images. However, for fractionated treatments and to implement TPS dose calculations that require electron densities, CT image data is essential. The purpose of this work is to assess the dosimetric effects of using MR-images registered with stereotactic CT-images in Gamma knife treatments. Methods: Twelve patients treated for vestibular schwannoma with Gamma Knife Perfexion (Elekta Instruments, Sweden) were selected for this study. The prescribed doses (12 Gy to periphery) were delivered based on the conventional approach of using stereotactic MR-images only. These plans were imported into stereotactic CT-images (by registering MR-images withmore » stereotactic CT-images using the Leksell gamma plan registration software). The dose plans, for each patient, are identical in both cases except for potential rotations and translations resulting from the registration. The impact of the registrations was assessed by an algorithm written in Matlab. The algorithm compares the dose-distributions voxel-by-voxel between the two plans, calculates the full dose coverage of the target (treated in the conventional approach) achieved by the CT-based plan, and calculates the minimum dose delivered to the target (treated in the conventional approach) achieved by the CT-based plan. Results: The mean dose difference between the plans was 0.2 Gy to 0.4 Gy (max 4.5 Gy) whereas between 89% and 97% of the target (treated in the conventional approach) received the prescribed dose, by the CT-plan. The minimum dose to the target (treated in the conventional approach) given by the CT-based plan was between 7.9 Gy and 10.7 Gy (compared to 12 Gy in the conventional treatment). Conclusion: The impact of using MR-images registered with stereotactic CT-images has successfully been compared to conventionally delivered dose plans showing significant differences between the two. Although CTimages have been implemented clinically; the

  19. SU-E-T-563: Multi-Fraction Stereotactic Radiosurgery with Extend System of Gamma Knife: Treatment Verification Using Indigenously Designed Patient Simulating Multipurpose Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Bisht, R; Kale, S; Gopishankar, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Aim of the study is to evaluate mechanical and radiological accuracy of multi-fraction regimen and validate Gamma knife based fractionation using newly developed patient simulating multipurpose phantom. Methods: A patient simulating phantom was designed to verify fractionated treatments with extend system (ES) of Gamma Knife however it could be used to validate other radiotherapy procedures as well. The phantom has options to insert various density material plugs and mini CT/MR distortion phantoms to analyze the quality of stereotactic imaging. An additional thorax part designed to predict surface doses at various organ sites. The phantom was positioned using vacuum headmore » cushion and patient control unit for imaging and treatment. The repositioning check tool (RCT) was used to predict phantom positioning under ES assembly. The phantom with special inserts for film in axial, coronal and sagittal plane were scanned with X-Ray CT and the acquired images were transferred to treatment planning system (LGP 10.1). The focal precession test was performed with 4mm collimator and an experimental plan of four 16mm collimator shots was prepared for treatment verification of multi-fraction regimen. The prescription dose of 5Gy per fraction was delivered in four fractions. Each fraction was analyzed using EBT3 films scanned with EPSON 10000XL Scanner. Results: The measurement of 38 RCT points showed an overall positional accuracy of 0.28mm. The mean deviation of 0.28% and 0.31 % were calculated as CT and MR image distortion respectively. The radiological focus accuracy test showed its deviation from mechanical center point of 0.22mm. The profile measurement showed close agreement between TPS planned and film measured dose. At tolerance criteria of 1%/1mm gamma index analysis showed a pass rate of > 95%. Conclusion: Our results show that the newly developed multipurpose patient simulating phantom is highly suitable for the verification of fractionated stereotactic

  20. Stereotactic Radiosurgery - Gamma Knife

    MedlinePlus

    ... nerve that connects the ear to the brain ( acoustic neuroma ) Pituitary tumors Tumors that are not cancer ( ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Acoustic Neuroma Read more Brain Tumors Read more Radiation ...

  1. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for brain metastases from pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a Japanese multi-institutional cooperative study (JLGK1401).

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takuya; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Sato, Yasunori; Yomo, Shoji; Kondoh, Takeshi; Nagano, Osamu; Serizawa, Toru; Tsugawa, Takahiko; Okamoto, Hisayo; Akabane, Atsuya; Aita, Kazuyasu; Sato, Manabu; Jokura, Hidefumi; Kawagishi, Jun; Shuto, Takashi; Kawai, Hideya; Moriki, Akihito; Kenai, Hiroyuki; Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Gondo, Masazumi; Hasegawa, Toshinori; Yasuda, Soichiro; Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Nagatomo, Yasushi; Watanabe, Shinya; Hashimoto, Naoya

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE In 1999, the World Health Organization categorized large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung as a variant of large cell carcinoma, and LCNEC now accounts for 3% of all lung cancers. Although LCNEC is categorized among the non-small cell lung cancers, its biological behavior has recently been suggested to be very similar to that of a small cell pulmonary malignancy. The clinical outcome for patients with LCNEC is generally poor, and the optimal treatment for this malignancy has not yet been established. Little information is available regarding management of LCNEC patients with brain metastases (METs). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for patients with brain METs from LCNEC. METHODS The Japanese Leksell Gamma Knife Society planned this retrospective study in which 21 Gamma Knife centers in Japan participated. Data from 101 patients were reviewed for this study. Most of the patients with LCNEC were men (80%), and the mean age was 67 years (range 39-84 years). Primary lung tumors were reported as well controlled in one-third of the patients. More than half of the patients had extracranial METs. Brain metastasis and lung cancer had been detected simultaneously in 25% of the patients. Before GKRS, brain METs had manifested with neurological symptoms in 37 patients. Additionally, prior to GKRS, resection was performed in 17 patients and radiation therapy in 10. A small cell lung carcinoma-based chemotherapy regimen was chosen for 48 patients. The median lesion number was 3 (range 1-33). The median cumulative tumor volume was 3.5 cm 3 , and the median radiation dose was 20.0 Gy. For statistical analysis, the standard Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine post-GKRS survival. Competing risk analysis was applied to estimate GKRS cumulative incidences of maintenance of neurological function and death, local recurrence, appearance of new lesions, and complications. RESULTS The overall median survival time

  2. Long-term stability of the Leksell Gamma Knife{sup ®} Perfexion™ patient positioning system (PPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, J., E-mail: josef.novotnyml@homolka.cz; Department of Medical Physics, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague 150 30; Institute of Biophysics and Informatics, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague 120 00

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the long-term mechanical stability and accuracy of the patient positioning system (PPS) of the Leksell Gamma Knife{sup ®} Perfexion™ (LGK PFX). Methods: The mechanical stability of the PPS of the LGK PFX was evaluated using measurements obtained between September 2007 and June 2011. Three methods were employed to measure the deviation of the coincidence of the radiological focus point (RFP) and the PPS calibration center point (CCP). In the first method, the onsite diode test tool with single diode detector was used together with the 4 mm collimator on a daily basis. In the second method, amore » service diode test tool with three diode detectors was used biannually at the time of the routine preventive maintenance. The test performed with the service diode test tool measured the deviations for all three collimators 4, 8, and 16 mm and also for three different positions of the PPS. The third method employed the conventional film pin-prick method. This test was performed annually for the 4 mm collimator at the time of the routine annual QA. To estimate the effect of the patient weight on the performance of the PPS, the focus precision tests were also conducted with varying weights on the PPS using a set of lead bricks. Results: The average deviations measured from the 641 daily focus precision tests were 0.1 ± 0.1, 0.0 ± 0.0, and 0.0 ± 0.0 mm, respectively, for the 4 mm collimator in the X (left/right of the patient), Y (anterior/posterior of the patient), and Z (superior/inferior of the patient) directions. The average of the total radial deviations as measured during ten semiannual measurements with the service diode test tool were 0.070 ± 0.029, 0.060 ± 0.022, and 0.103 ± 0.028 mm, respectively for the central, long, and short diodes for the 4 mm collimator. Similarly, the average total radial deviations measured during the semiannual measurements for the 4, 8, and 16 mm collimators and using the central diode were 0.070 ± 0.029, 0

  3. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children/adolescents and adults. Part II: Differences in obliteration rates, treatment-obliteration intervals, and prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolato, Antonio; Lupidi, Francesco; Section of Sterotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Verona and University Hospital, Verona

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare obliteration rates (OBRs) and treatment-obliteration intervals (TOIs) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery in children/adolescents and adults; and to determine factors predicting the OBR and TOI in these two populations. Methods and Materials: This study concerned 62 children/adolescents and 193 adults observed for {>=}3 years. Fisher exact two-tailed and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, multiple logistics, and Cox proportional hazard models were used for statistical analysis. Results: The overall OBR was 85.5% in children/adolescents and 87.6% in adults (p 0.671), but children/adolescents showed higher 36-month actuarial OBRs (69.35%) and shorter median TOIs (25.7more » months) than adults (66.84% and 28.2 months; p 0.006 and p = 0.017, respectively). In children/adolescents, lower Spetzler-Martin grades (p = 0.043) and younger age (p = 0.019) correlated significantly with OBRs, and lower Spetzler-Martin grades (p 0.024) and noneloquent cAVM locations (p = 0.046) with TOIs. In adults, low flow through the cAVM and <6.2-cm{sup 3} volume were associated with both OBR and TOI (p 0.012 and p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: The differences in OBRs within 3 years and TOIs, although slight, seem to show that pediatric cAVMs behave differently from those in adults after Gamma Knife radiosurgery.« less

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial metastases: linac-based and gamma-dedicated unit approach.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Filippo; Fiorentino, Alba; Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Pierina; Giaj Levra, Niccolò; Mazzola, Rosario; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-07-01

    For intracranial metastases, the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy is well recognized. Historically, the first technology, for stereotactic device able to irradiate a brain tumor volume, was Gamma Knife® (GK). Due to the technological advancement of linear accelerator (Linac), there was a continuous increasing interest in SRS Linac-based applications. In those decades, it was assumed a superiority of GK compared to SRS Linac-based for brain tumor in terms of dose conformity and rapid fall-off dose close to the target. Expert commentary: Recently, due to the Linac technologic advancement, the choice of SRS GK-based is not necessarily so exclusive. The current review discussed in details the technical and clinical aspects comparing the two approaches for brain metastases.

  5. Time-resolved imaging of prompt-gamma rays for proton range verification using a knife-edge slit camera based on digital photon counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambraia Lopes, Patricia; Clementel, Enrico; Crespo, Paulo; Henrotin, Sebastien; Huizenga, Jan; Janssens, Guillaume; Parodi, Katia; Prieels, Damien; Roellinghoff, Frauke; Smeets, Julien; Stichelbaut, Frederic; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2015-08-01

    Proton range monitoring may facilitate online adaptive proton therapy and improve treatment outcomes. Imaging of proton-induced prompt gamma (PG) rays using a knife-edge slit collimator is currently under investigation as a potential tool for real-time proton range monitoring. A major challenge in collimated PG imaging is the suppression of neutron-induced background counts. In this work, we present an initial performance test of two knife-edge slit camera prototypes based on arrays of digital photon counters (DPCs). PG profiles emitted from a PMMA target upon irradiation with a 160 MeV proton pencil beams (about 6.5   ×   109 protons delivered in total) were measured using detector modules equipped with four DPC arrays coupled to BGO or LYSO : Ce crystal matrices. The knife-edge slit collimator and detector module were placed at 15 cm and 30 cm from the beam axis, respectively, in all cases. The use of LYSO : Ce enabled time-of-flight (TOF) rejection of background events, by synchronizing the DPC readout electronics with the 106 MHz radiofrequency signal of the cyclotron. The signal-to-background (S/B) ratio of 1.6 obtained with a 1.5 ns TOF window and a 3 MeV-7 MeV energy window was about 3 times higher than that obtained with the same detector module without TOF discrimination and 2 times higher than the S/B ratio obtained with the BGO module. Even 1 mm shifts of the Bragg peak position translated into clear and consistent shifts of the PG profile if TOF discrimination was applied, for a total number of protons as low as about 6.5   ×   108 and a detector surface of 6.6 cm  ×  6.6 cm.

  6. Long-Term Survival of a Patient with Brainstem and Recurrent Brain Metastasis from Stage IV Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Multiple Gamma Knife Radiosurgeries and Craniotomies: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, Andrew F.; Elaimy, Ameer L.; Mackay, Alexander R.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Demakas, John J.; Cooke, Barton S.; Lee, Christopher M.; Taylor, Blake S.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis of patients diagnosed with stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer that have brain and brainstem metastasis is very poor, with less than a third surviving a year past their initial date of diagnosis. We present the rare case of a 57-year-old man who is a long-term survivor of brainstem and recurrent brain metastasis, after aggressive treatment. He is now five and a half years out from diagnosis and continues to live a highly functional life without evidence of disease. Four separate Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgeries in conjunction with two craniotomies were utilized since his initial diagnosis to treat recurrent brain metastasis while chemoradiation therapy and thoracic surgery were used to treat his primary disease in the right upper lung. In his situation, Gamma Knife radiosurgery proved to be a valuable, safe, and effective tool for the treatment of multiply recurrent brain metastases within critical normal structures. PMID:23056973

  7. Gamma Knife surgery for arteriovenous malformations in the brain: integration of time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography into dosimetry planning. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Taschner, Christian A; Le Thuc, Vianney; Reyns, Nicolas; Gieseke, Juergen; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Leclerc, Xavier

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an algorithm for the integration of time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography into dosimetry planning for Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brain. Twelve patients harboring brain AVMs referred for GKS underwent intraarterial digital subtraction (DS) angiography and time-resolved MR angiography while wearing an externally applied cranial stereotactic frame. Time-resolved MR angiography was performed on a 1.5-tesla MR unit (Achieva, Philips Medical Systems) using contrast-enhanced 3D fast field echo sequencing with stochastic central k-space ordering. Postprocessing with interactive data language (Research Systems, Inc.) produced hybrid data sets containing dynamic angiographic information and the MR markers necessary for stereotactic transformation. Image files were sent to the Leksell GammaPlan system (Elekta) for dosimetry planning. Stereotactic transformation of the hybrid data sets containing the time-resolved MR angiography information with automatic detection of the MR markers was possible in all 12 cases. The stereotactic coordinates of vascular structures predefined from time-resolved MR angiography matched with DS angiography data in all cases. In 10 patients dosimetry planning could be performed based on time-resolved MR angiography data. In two patients, time-resolved MR angiography data alone were considered insufficient. The target volumes showed a notable shift of centers between modalities. Integration of time-resolved MR angiography data into the Leksell GammaPlan system for patients with brain AVMs is feasible. The proposed algorithm seems concise and sufficiently robust for clinical application. The quality of the time-resolved MR angiography sequencing needs further improvement.

  8. TH-CD-BRA-09: Towards Absolute Dose Measurement in MRI-Linac and Gamma-Knife: Design and Construction of An MR-Compatible Water Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Entezari, N; Sarfehnia, A; Renaud, J

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to design and optimize a portable Water Calorimeter (WC) for use in a commercial MRI-linac and Gamma-knife in addition to conventional radiotherapy linacs. Water calorimeters determine absorbed dose to water at a point by measuring radiation-induced temperature rise of the volume (the two are related by the medium specific heat capacity). In this formalism, one important correction factor is heat transfer correction k-ht. It compensates for heat gain/loss due to conductive and convective effects, and is numerically calculated as ratio of temperature rise in the absence of heat loss to that in themore » presence of heat loss. Operating at 4°C ensures convection is minimal. Methods: A commercial finite element software was used to evaluate several WC designs with different insulation materials and thicknesses; channels allowing coolant to travel around WC (to sustain WC at 4°C) were modeled, and worst-case scenario variation in the temperature of the coolant was simulated for optimization purposes (2.6 mK/s). Additionally, several calorimeter vessel design parameters (front/back glass thickness/separation, diameter) were also simulated and optimized. Optimization is based on minimizing long term calorimeter drift (24h) as well as variation and magnitude of k-ht. Results: The final selected WC design reached a modest drift of 11µK/s after 15h for the worst-case coolant temperature variation. This design consists of coolant channels being encompassed on both sides by cryogel insulation. For the MRI-linac beam, glass thickness plays the largest effect on k-ht with variation of upto 0.6% in the first run for thicknesses ranging between 0.5–1.7mm. Subsequent runs vary only within 0.1% with glass thickness. Other factors such as vessel radius and top/bottom glass separation have sub 0.1% effects on k-ht. Conclusion: An MR-safe 4°C stagnant WC appropriate for dosimetry in MRI-linac and Gamma-Knife was designed, optimized, and

  9. Long-Term Survival in a Patient with Multiple Brain Metastases from Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Gamma Knife Radiosurgery on Four Occasions: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Elaimy, Ameer L.; Thumma, Sudheer R.; Lamm, Andrew F.; Mackay, Alexander R.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Demakas, John J.; Cooke, Barton S.; Lee, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain metastases are the most common cancerous neoplasm in the brain. The treatment of these lesions is challenging and often includes a multimodality management approach with whole-brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and neurosurgery options. Although advances in biomedical imaging technologies and the treatment of extracranial cancer have led to the overall increase in the survival of brain metastases patients, the finding that select patients survive several years remains puzzling. For this reason, we present the case of a 70-year-old patient who was diagnosed with multiple brain metastases from small-cell lung cancer five years ago and is currently alive following treatment with chemotherapy for the primary cancer and whole-brain radiation therapy and Gamma Knife radiosurgery on four separate occasions for the neurological cancer. Since the diagnosis of brain metastases five years ago, the patient's primary cancer has remained controlled. Furthermore, multiple repeat GKRS procedures provided this patient with high levels of local tumor control, which in combination with a stable primary cancer led to an extended period of survival and a highly functional life. Further analysis and clinical research will be valuable in assessing the durability of multiple GKRS for brain metastases patients who experience long-term survival. PMID:23091748

  10. Gamma knife surgery for refractory postherpetic trigeminal neuralgia: targeting in one session both the retrogasserian trigeminal nerve and the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus.

    PubMed

    Keep, Marcus F; DeMare, Paul A; Ashby, Lynn S

    2005-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that two targets are needed to treat postherpetic trigeminal neuralgia (TN): one in the trigeminal nerve for the direct sharp pain and one in the thalamus for the diffuse burning pain. Three patients with refractory postherpetic TN were treated with gamma knife surgery (GKS) through a novel two-target approach. In a single treatment session, both the trigeminal nerve and centromedian nucleus were targeted. First, the trigeminal nerve, ipsilateral to the facial pain, was treated with 60 to 80 Gy. Second, the centromedian nucleus was localized using standard coordinates and by comparing magnetic resonance images with a stereotactic atlas. A single dose of 120 to 140 Gy was delivered to the target point with a single 4-mm isocenter. Patients were followed clinically and with neuroimaging studies. Pain relief was scored as excellent (75-100%), good (50-75%), poor (25-50%); or none (0-25%). Follow up ranged from 6 to 53 months. There were no GKS-related complications. Two patients died of unrelated medical illnesses but had good or excellent pain relief until death. One patient continues to survive with 44 months follow up and no decrease in pain intensity, but with a decreased area of pain. Combined GKS of the centromedian nucleus and trigeminal nerve in a single treatment session is feasible and safe, and the effect was promising. A larger study is required to confirm and expand these results.

  11. Pros, cons, and current indications of open craniotomy versus gamma knife in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and the role of endovascular embolization.

    PubMed

    Surdell, Daniel L; Bhattacharjee, Sumon; Loftus, Christopher M

    2002-06-01

    The successful treatment of an intracranial arteriovenous malformation poses both technical and conceptual problems to the neurosurgeon. Treatment decisions are made in light of current understanding of the natural history of these lesions. It is important to understand the pros, cons and current indication of open craniotomy vs. gamma knife in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and the role of endovascular embolization. Surgical removal of an arteriovenous malformation is indicated when the operative risk is less than the morbidity and mortality associated with its natural history. The treatment goal of complete angiographic obliteration of arteriovenous malformations is achieved most effectively by microneurosurgery in low-grade lesions. Large lesions frequently require a combination of embolization and microsurgery. Although recent advances in technology and medical management have allowed previously inoperable arteriovenous malformations to be surgically excised, there is still a small group of arteriovenous malformations that cannot be excised safely due to their size and location. Stereotactic radiosurgery is clearly an important adjunct in the multimodality treatment approach for large arteriovenous malformations. Endovascular embolization can potentially increase safety and efficacy in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations when applied to selective cases with well-defined treatment goals.

  12. Why SRS Matters - Introduction

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul

    2018-01-16

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode provides an introduction to the SRS mission and operations.

  13. Ingenious laparoscopic knife.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajiv; Modi, Pranjal

    2007-06-01

    Retroperitoneoscopic ureterolithotomy may be an option in selected group of patients. We present our cost effective, reliable ingenious laparoscopic knife of ureteric incision during retroperitoneoscopic ureterolithotomy. Ingenious laparoscopic knife is made by firmly tying stab knife to 5 mm laparoscopic instrument. This knife is passed through 10-mm renal angle port for making ureteric incision. Ingenious laparoscopic knife has been successfully used in 22 patients with no intraoperative and postoperative complications. Ingenious laparoscopic knife is cost effective, reliable instrument for ureteric incision during retroperitoneoscopic ureterolithotomy.

  14. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma: clinical results at long-term follow-up in a series of 379 patients.

    PubMed

    Boari, Nicola; Bailo, Michele; Gagliardi, Filippo; Franzin, Alberto; Gemma, Marco; del Vecchio, Antonella; Bolognesi, Angelo; Picozzi, Piero; Mortini, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1990 s, Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has become the first-line treatment option for small- to medium-size vestibular schwannomas (VSs), especially in patients without mass effect-related symptoms and with functional hearing. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of GKRS, in terms of tumor control, hearing preservation, and complications, in a series of 379 consecutive patients treated for VS. Of 523 patients treated at the authors' institution for VS between 2001 and 2010, the authors included 379 who underwent GKRS as the primary treatment. These patients were not affected by Type 2 neurofibromatosis and had clinical follow-up of at least 36 months. Clinical follow-up (mean and median 75.7 and 69.5 months, respectively) was performed for all patients, whereas audiometric and quantitative radiological follow-up examinations were obtained for only 153 and 219 patients, respectively. The patients' ages ranged from 23 to 85 years (mean 59 years). The mean tumor volume was 1.94 ± 2.2 cm(3) (median 1.2 cm(3), range 0.013-14.3 cm(3)), and the median margin dose was 13 Gy (range 11-15 Gy). Parameters considered as determinants of the clinical outcome were long-term tumor control, hearing preservation, and complications. A statistical analysis was performed to correlate clinical outcomes with the radiological features of the tumor, dose-planning parameters, and patient characteristics. Control of the tumor with GKRS was achieved in 97.1% of the patients. In 82.7% of the patients, the tumor volume had decreased at the last follow-up, with a mean relative reduction of 34.1%. The rate of complications was very low, with most consisting of a transient worsening of preexisting symptoms. Patients who had vertigo, balance disorders, or facial or trigeminal impairment usually experienced a complete or at least significant symptom relief after treatment. However, no significant improvement was observed in patients previously reporting tinnitus

  15. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for treatment of growing vestibular schwannomas in patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2: a matched cohort study with sporadic vestibular schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Kruyt, Ivo J; Verheul, Jeroen B; Hanssens, Patrick E J; Kunst, Henricus P M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) is a tumor syndrome characterized by an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. The hallmark of NF2 is the development of bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs), generally by 30 years of age. One of the first-line treatment options for small to medium-large VSs is radiosurgery. Although radiosurgery shows excellent results in sporadic VS, its use in NF2-related VS is still a topic of dispute. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term tumor control, hearing preservation rates, and factors influencing outcome of optimally dosed, contemporary Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for growing VSs in patients with NF2 and compare the findings to data obtained in patients with sporadic VS also treated by means of GKRS. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 47 growing VSs in 34 NF2 patients who underwent GKRS treatment performed with either the Model C or Perfexion Leksell Gamma Knife, with a median margin dose of 11 Gy. Actuarial tumor control rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. For patient- and treatment-related factors, a Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors of outcome. Trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerve function were assessed before and after treatment. NF2-related VS patients were matched 1:1 with sporadic VS patients who were treated in the same institute, and the same indications for treatment, definitions, and dosimetry were used in order to compare outcomes. RESULTS Actuarial tumor control rates in NF2 patients after 1, 3, 5, and 8 years were 98%, 89%, 87%, and 87%, respectively. Phenotype and tumor volume had significant hazard rates of 0.086 and 22.99, respectively, showing that Feiling-Gardner phenotype and a tumor volume not exceeding 6 cm 3 both were associated with significantly better outcome. Actuarial rates of serviceable hearing preservation after 1, 3, 5, and 7 years were 95%, 82%, 59%, and 33%, respectively. None of the patients

  16. Comparison of plan quality and delivery time between volumetric arc therapy (RapidArc) and Gamma Knife radiosurgery for multiple cranial metastases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Evan M; Popple, Richard A; Wu, Xingen; Clark, Grant M; Markert, James M; Guthrie, Barton L; Yuan, Yu; Dobelbower, Michael C; Spencer, Sharon A; Fiveash, John B

    2014-10-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been shown to be feasible for radiosurgical treatment of multiple cranial lesions with a single isocenter. To investigate whether equivalent radiosurgical plan quality and reduced delivery time could be achieved in VMAT for patients with multiple intracranial targets previously treated with Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery. We identified 28 GK treatments of multiple metastases. These were replanned for multiarc and single-arc, single-isocenter VMAT (RapidArc) in Eclipse. The prescription for all targets was standardized to 18 Gy. Each plan was normalized for 100% prescription dose to 99% to 100% of target volume. Plan quality was analyzed by target conformity (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Paddick conformity indices [CIs]), dose falloff (area under the dose-volume histogram curve), as well as the V4.5, V9, V12, and V18 isodose volumes. Other end points included beam-on and treatment time. Compared with GK, multiarc VMAT improved median plan conformity (CIVMAT = 1.14, CIGK = 1.65; P < .001) with no significant difference in median dose falloff (P = .269), 12 Gy isodose volume (P = .500), or low isodose spill (P = .49). Multiarc VMAT plans were associated with markedly reduced treatment time. A predictive model of the 12 Gy isodose volume as a function of tumor number and volume was also developed. For multiple target stereotactic radiosurgery, 4-arc VMAT produced clinically equivalent conformity, dose falloff, 12 Gy isodose volume, and low isodose spill, and reduced treatment time compared with GK. Because of its similar plan quality and increased delivery efficiency, single-isocenter VMAT radiosurgery may constitute an attractive alternative to multi-isocenter radiosurgery for some patients.

  17. Semiquantitative Analysis Using Thallium-201 SPECT for Differential Diagnosis Between Tumor Recurrence and Radiation Necrosis After Gamma Knife Surgery for Malignant Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Shigeo, E-mail: shigeo-m@mui.biglobe.ne.jp; Shuto, Takashi; Takase, Hajime

    Purpose: Semiquantitative analysis of thallium-201 chloride single photon emission computed tomography ({sup 201}Tl SPECT) was evaluated for the discrimination between recurrent brain tumor and delayed radiation necrosis after gamma knife surgery (GKS) for metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: The medical records were reviewed of 75 patients, including 48 patients with metastatic brain tumor and 27 patients with high-grade glioma who underwent GKS in our institution, and had suspected tumor recurrence or radiation necrosis on follow-up neuroimaging and deteriorating clinical status after GKS. Analysis of {sup 201}Tl SPECT data used the early ratio (ER) and the delayedmore » ratio (DR) calculated as tumor/normal average counts on the early and delayed images, and the retention index (RI) as the ratio of DR to ER. Results: A total of 107 tumors were analyzed with {sup 201}Tl SPECT. Nineteen lesions were removed surgically and histological diagnoses established, and the other lesions were evaluated with follow-up clinical and neuroimaging examinations after GKS. The final diagnosis was considered to be recurrent tumor in 65 lesions and radiation necrosis in 42 lesions. Semiquantitative analysis demonstrated significant differences in DR (P=.002) and RI (P<.0001), but not in ER (P=.372), between the tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis groups, and no significant differences between metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas in all indices (P=.926 for ER, P=.263 for DR, and P=.826 for RI). Receiver operating characteristics analysis indicated that RI was the most informative index with the optimum threshold of 0.775, which provided 82.8% sensitivity, 83.7% specificity, and 82.8% accuracy. Conclusions: Semiquantitative analysis of {sup 201}Tl SPECT provides useful information for the differentiation between tumor recurrence and radiation necrosis in metastatic brain tumors and high-grade gliomas after GKS, and the RI may be the

  18. TU-D-207B-01: A Prediction Model for Distinguishing Radiation Necrosis From Tumor Progression After Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Based On Radiomics Features From MR Images

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z; MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; Ho, A

    Purpose: To develop and validate a prediction model using radiomics features extracted from MR images to distinguish radiation necrosis from tumor progression for brain metastases treated with Gamma knife radiosurgery. Methods: The images used to develop the model were T1 post-contrast MR scans from 71 patients who had had pathologic confirmation of necrosis or progression; 1 lesion was identified per patient (17 necrosis and 54 progression). Radiomics features were extracted from 2 images at 2 time points per patient, both obtained prior to resection. Each lesion was manually contoured on each image, and 282 radiomics features were calculated for eachmore » lesion. The correlation for each radiomics feature between two time points was calculated within each group to identify a subset of features with distinct values between two groups. The delta of this subset of radiomics features, characterizing changes from the earlier time to the later one, was included as a covariate to build a prediction model using support vector machines with a cubic polynomial kernel function. The model was evaluated with a 10-fold cross-validation. Results: Forty radiomics features were selected based on consistent correlation values of approximately 0 for the necrosis group and >0.2 for the progression group. In performing the 10-fold cross-validation, we narrowed this number down to 11 delta radiomics features for the model. This 11-delta-feature model showed an overall prediction accuracy of 83.1%, with a true positive rate of 58.8% in predicting necrosis and 90.7% for predicting tumor progression. The area under the curve for the prediction model was 0.79. Conclusion: These delta radiomics features extracted from MR scans showed potential for distinguishing radiation necrosis from tumor progression. This tool may be a useful, noninvasive means of determining the status of an enlarging lesion after radiosurgery, aiding decision-making regarding surgical resection versus conservative

  19. OUT-OF-FIELD DOSES IN CHILDREN TREATED FOR LARGE ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS USING HYPOFRACTIONATED GAMMA KNIFE RADIOSURGERY AND INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY.

    PubMed

    De Saint-Hubert, Marijke; Majer, Marija; Hršak, Hrvoje; Heinrich, Zdravko; Kneževic, Željka; Miljanic, Saveta; Porwol, Paulina; Stolarczyk, Liliana; Vanhavere, Filip; Harrison, Roger M

    2018-01-17

    The purpose of this study was to measure out-of-field organ doses in two anthropomorphic child phantoms for the treatment of large brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using hypofractionated gamma knife (GK) radiosurgery and to compare these with an alternative treatment using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Target volume was identical in size and shape in all cases. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL), thermoluminescent (TL) and optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters were used for out-of-field dosimetry during GK treatment and a good agreement within 1-2% between results was shown. In addition, the use of multiple dosimetry systems strengthens the reliability of the findings. The number of GK isocentres was confirmed to be important for the magnitude of out-of-field doses. Measured GK doses for the same distance from the target, when expressed per target dose and isocentre, were comparable in both phantoms. GK out-of-field doses averaged for both phantoms were evaluated to be 120 mGy/Gy for eyes then sharply reduced to 20 mGy/Gy for mandible and slowly reduced up to 0.8 mGy/Gy for testes. Taking into account the fractionation regimen used to treat AVM patients, the total treatment organ doses to the out-of-field organs were calculated and compared with IMRT. The eyes were better spared with GK whilst for more distant organs doses were up to a factor of 2.8 and 4 times larger for GK compared to IMRT in 5-year and 10-year old phantoms, respectively. Presented out-of-field dose values are specific for the investigated AVM case, phantoms and treatment plans used for GK and IMRT, but provide useful information about out-of-field dose levels and emphasise their importance. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A randomised trial to compare cognitive outcome after gamma knife radiosurgery versus whole brain radiation therapy in patients with multiple brain metastases: research protocol CAR-study B.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Wietske C M; Verhaak, Eline; Hanssens, Patrick E J; Gehring, Karin; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

    2018-02-21

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is increasingly applied in patients with multiple brain metastases and is expected to have less adverse effects in cognitive functioning than whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Effective treatment with the least negative cognitive side effects is increasingly becoming important, as more patients with brain metastases live longer due to more and better systemic treatment options. There are no published randomized trials yet directly comparing GKRS to WBRT in patients with multiple brain metastases that include objective neuropsychological testing. CAR-Study B is a prospective randomised trial comparing cognitive outcome after GKRS or WBRT in adult patients with 11-20 newly diagnosed brain metastases on a contrast-enhanced MRI-scan, KPS ≥70 and life expectancy of at least 3 months. Randomisation by the method of minimization, is stratified by the cumulative tumour volume in the brain, systemic treatment, KPS, histology, baseline cognitive functioning and age. The primary endpoint is the between-group difference in the percentage of patients with significant memory decline at 3 months. Secondary endpoints include overall survival, local control, development of new brain metastases, cognitive functioning over time, quality of life, depression, anxiety and fatigue. Cognitive functioning is assessed by a standardised neuropsychological test battery. Assessments (cognitive testing, questionnaires and MRI-scans) are scheduled at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months after treatment. Knowledge gained from this trial may be used to inform individual patients with BM more precisely about the cognitive effects they can expect from treatment, and to assist both doctors and patients in making (shared) individual treatment decisions. This trial is currently recruiting. Target accrual: 23 patients at 3-months follow-up in both groups. The Netherlands Trials Register number NTR5463. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT02953717

  1. Utilization of Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Angiography in Planning for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery of Arteriovenous Malformations: A Case Series and Early Report

    PubMed Central

    Safain, Mina G.; Rahal, Jason P.; Raval, Ami; Rivard, Mark J.; Mignano, John; Wu, Julian; Malek, Adel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKR) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is predicated on inclusion of the entire nidus while excluding normal tissue. As such, GKR may be limited by the resolution and accuracy of the imaging modality used in targeting. Objective We present the first case series to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing ultra-high-resolution C-arm cone beam computed tomography angiography (CBCT-A) in AVM targeting. Methods From June 2009 to June 2013, CBCT-A was utilized for targeting of all patients with AVMs treated with GKR at our institution. Patients underwent Leksell stereotactic head frame placement followed by catheter-based biplane 2-D digital subtraction angiography (DSA), 3-D rotational angiography (3DRA), as well as CBCT-A. The CBCT-A dataset was used for stereotactic planning for GKR. Patients were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and then annually thereafter. Results CBCT-A-based targeting was used in twenty-two consecutive patients. CBCT-A provided detailed spatial resolution and sensitivity of nidal angioarchitecture enabling treatment. The average radiation dose to the margin of the AVM nidus corresponding to the 50% percent isodose line was 15.6 Gy. No patient had treatment-associated hemorrhage. At early follow-up (mean=16 months), 84% of patients had a decreasing or obliterated AVM nidus. Conclusion CBCT-A-guided radiosurgery is feasible and useful because it provides sufficient detailed resolution and sensitivity for imaging brain AVMs. PMID:24584136

  2. Why SRS Matters - Tritium

    ScienceCinema

    Howell, Steve; Schifer, Lee

    2018-01-16

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer.

  3. Development of a multi-knife-edge slit collimator for prompt gamma ray imaging during proton beam cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ready, John Francis, III

    Proton beam usage to treat cancer has recently experienced rapid growth, as it offers the ability to target dose delivery in a patient more precisely than traditional x-ray treatment methods. Protons stop within the patient, delivering the maximum dose at the end of their track--a phenomenon described as the Bragg peak. However, because a large dose is delivered to a small volume, proton therapy is very sensitive to errors in patient setup and treatment planning calculations. Additionally, because all primary beam particles stop in the patient, there is no direct information available to verify dose delivery. These factors contribute to the range uncertainty in proton therapy, which ultimately hinders its clinical usefulness. A reliable method of proton range verification would allow the clinician to fully utilize the precise dose delivery of the Bragg peak. Several methods to verify proton range detect secondary emissions, especially prompt gamma ray (PG) emissions. However, detection of PGs is challenging due to their high energy (2-10 MeV) and low attenuation coefficients, which limit PG interactions in materials. Therefore, detection and collimation methods must be specifically designed for prompt gamma ray imaging (PGI) applications. In addition, production of PGs relies on delivering a dose of radiation to the patient. Ideally, verification of the Bragg peak location exposes patients to a minimal dose, thus limiting the PG counts available to the imaging system. An additional challenge for PGI is the lack of accurate simulation models, which limit the study of PG production characteristics and the relationship between PG distribution and dose delivery. Specific limitations include incorrect modeling of the reaction cross sections, gamma emission yields, and angular distribution of emission for specific photon energies. While simulations can still be valuable assets in designing a system to detect and image PGs, until new models are developed and incorporated

  4. Long-term safety and efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular schwannomas: evaluation of 440 patients more than 10 years after treatment with Gamma Knife surgery.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Toshinori; Kida, Yoshihisa; Kato, Takenori; Iizuka, Hiroshi; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    Object Little is known about long-term outcomes, including tumor control and adverse radiation effects, in patients harboring vestibular schwannomas (VSs) treated with stereotactic radiosurgery > 10 years previously. The aim of this study was to confirm whether Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for VSs continues to be safe and effective > 10 years after treatment. Methods A total of 440 patients with VS (including neurofibromatosis Type 2) treated with GKS between May 1991 and December 2000 were evaluable. Of these, 347 patients (79%) underwent GKS as an initial treatment and 93 (21%) had undergone prior resection. Three hundred fifty-eight patients (81%) had a solid tumor and 82 (19%) had a cystic tumor. The median tumor volume was 2.8 cm(3) and the median marginal dose was 12.8 Gy. Results The median follow-up period was 12.5 years. The actuarial 5- and ≥ 10-year progression-free survival was 93% and 92%, respectively. No patient developed treatment failure > 10 years after treatment. According to multivariate analysis, significant factors related to worse progression-free survival included brainstem compression with a deviation of the fourth ventricle (p < 0.0001), marginal dose ≤ 13 Gy (p = 0.01), prior treatment (p = 0.02), and female sex (p = 0.02). Of 287 patients treated at a recent optimum dose of ≤ 13 Gy, 3 (1%) developed facial palsy, including 2 with transient palsy and 1 with persistent palsy after a second GKS, and 3 (1%) developed facial numbness, including 2 with transient and 1 with persistent facial numbness. The actuarial 10-year facial nerve preservation rate was 97% in the high marginal dose group (> 13 Gy) and 100% in the low marginal dose group (≤ 13 Gy). Ten patients (2.3%) developed delayed cyst formation. One patient alone developed malignant transformation, indicating an incidence of 0.3%. Conclusions In this study GKS was a safe and effective treatment for the majority of patients followed > 10 years after treatment. Special attention

  5. Safety and efficacy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in hypothalamic hamartomas with severe epilepsies: A prospective trial in 48 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Régis, Jean; Lagmari, Medhi; Carron, Romain; Hayashi, Motohiro; McGonigal, Aileen; Daquin, Géraldine; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Laguitton, Virginie; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Chauvel, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Epilepsies associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are frequently drug resistant with severe psychiatric and cognitive comorbidities. We performed a prospective trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS). Between October 1999 and October 2007, a total of 57 patients were investigated, included and treated by GKS in Timone University Hospital. Preoperative workup and 3-year postoperative evaluation consisted of seizure diary, neuropsychological, psychiatric, endocrinologic, visual field, and visual acuity examinations. Follow-up of >3 years was available for 48 patients. Topologic type was type I in 11 patients, type II in 15, type III in 17, type IV in one, type V in one, type VI in one, and mixed type in 2. The median marginal dose was 17 Gy (min 14 and max 25 Gy). The median target volume was 398 mm 3 (28-1,600 mm 3 ). Due to partial results, 28 patients (58.3%) required a second treatment. The median follow-up was 71 months (36-153 months). At last follow-up, the rate of Engel class I outcome was 39.6%, Engel class II was 29.2% (I+II 68.8%), and Engel class III was 20%. Global psychiatric comorbidity was considered cured in 28%, improved in 56%, stable in 8%, and continued to worsen in 8%. No permanent neurologic side effect was reported (in particular, no memory deficit). Nondisabling transient poikilothermia was observed in three patients (6.2%). A transient increase of seizure frequency was reported in 8 patients (16.6%) with a median duration of 30 days (9-90 days). Microsurgery was proposed because of insufficient efficacy of GKS in seven patients (14.5%) with a postoperative Engel class I-II in 28.6%. This prospective trial demonstrates very good long-term safety and efficacy of GKS for 2 patients. Beyond seizure reduction, the improvement of psychiatric and cognitive comorbidities along with better school performance and social functioning, being better socially integrated, having friends having a social life

  6. SU-E-J-64: Feasibility Study of Surgical Clips for Fiducial Tracking in CyberKnife System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H; Yoon, J; Lee, E

    Purpose: To investigate the ability of CyberKnife to track surgical clips used as fiducial markers. Methods: The Octavius 1000SRS detector and solid water (RW3) slab phantom were used with motion platform to evaluate the study. The RW3 slab phantom was set up to measure the dose distribution from coronal plane. It consists of 9 plates and the thickness of each plate is 10mm. Among them, one plate was attached with 3 surgical clips, which are orthogonally positioned on outer region of array. The length of attached clip was represented as 1cm on planning CT. The clip plate was placed onmore » the 1000SRS detector and 3 slabs were stacked up on the plate to build the measuring depth. Below the detector, 5 slabs were set. The two-axis motion platform was programmed with 1D sinusoidal movement (20mm peak-to-peak, 3s period) toward superior/inferior and left/right directions to simulate target motion. During delivery, two clips were extracted by two X-ray imagers, which led to translational error correction only. Synchrony was also used for dynamic tracking. After the irradiation, the measured dose distribution of coronal plane was compared with the planar dose distribution calculated by the CyberKnife treatment planning system (Multiplan) for cross verification. The results were assessed by comparing the absolute Gamma (γ) index. Results: The dose distributions measured by the 1000SRS detector were in good agreements with those calculated by Multiplan. In the dosimetric comparison using γ-function criteria based on the distance-to-agreement of 3mm and the local dose difference of 3%, the passing rate with γ- parameter ≤1 was 91% in coronal plane. Conclusion: The surgical clips can be considered as new fiducials for robotic radiosurgery delivery by considering the target margin with less than 5mm.« less

  7. SU-F-J-166: Volumetric Spatial Distortions Comparison for 1.5 Tesla Versus 3 Tesla MRI for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Scans Using Frame Marker Fusion and Co-Registration Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Neyman, G

    Purpose: To compare typical volumetric spatial distortions for 1.5 Tesla versus 3 Tesla MRI Gamma Knife radiosurgery scans in the frame marker fusion and co-registration frame-less modes. Methods: Quasar phantom by Modus Medical Devices Inc. with GRID image distortion software was used for measurements of volumetric distortions. 3D volumetric T1 weighted scans of the phantom were produced on 1.5 T Avanto and 3 T Skyra MRI Siemens scanners. The analysis was done two ways: for scans with localizer markers from the Leksell frame and relatively to the phantom only (simulated co-registration technique). The phantom grid contained a total of 2002more » vertices or control points that were used in the assessment of volumetric geometric distortion for all scans. Results: Volumetric mean absolute spatial deviations relatively to the frame localizer markers for 1.5 and 3 Tesla machine were: 1.39 ± 0.15 and 1.63 ± 0.28 mm with max errors of 1.86 and 2.65 mm correspondingly. Mean 2D errors from the Gamma Plan were 0.3 and 1.0 mm. For simulated co-registration technique the volumetric mean absolute spatial deviations relatively to the phantom for 1.5 and 3 Tesla machine were: 0.36 ± 0.08 and 0.62 ± 0.13 mm with max errors of 0.57 and 1.22 mm correspondingly. Conclusion: Volumetric spatial distortions are lower for 1.5 Tesla versus 3 Tesla MRI machines localized with markers on frames and significantly lower for co-registration techniques with no frame localization. The results show the advantage of using co-registration technique for minimizing MRI volumetric spatial distortions which can be especially important for steep dose gradient fields typically used in Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Consultant for Elekta AB.« less

  8. The SRS railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    A Segmented Rail Surface (SRS) structure is described that eliminates restrike arcs by progressively disconnecting segments of the rail surface after the plasma armature has passed. This technique has been demonstrated using the Los Alamos MIDI-2 railgun. Restrike was eliminated in a plasma armature acceleration experiment using metal-foil fuses as opening switches. A plasma velocity increase from 11 to 16 km/s was demonstrated using the SRS technique to eliminate the viscous drag losses associated with the restrike plasma. This technique appears to be a practical option for a laboratory launcher at present and for future multi-shot launchers if appropriate switchesmore » can be developed.« less

  9. SRS SWPF Construction Completion

    ScienceCinema

    Craig, Jack; Sheppard, Frank; Marks, Pam

    2018-01-16

    Now that construction is complete, DOE and construction contractor Parsons, are focusing on testing the Savannah River Site’s Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) systems and training the workforce to operate the plant in preparation for the start of operations. Once in operation, the SWPF will significantly increase processing rates at SRS tank farms in an effort to empty the site’s high-level radioactive waste tanks.

  10. SRS SWPF Construction Completion

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Jack; Sheppard, Frank; Marks, Pam

    Now that construction is complete, DOE and construction contractor Parsons, are focusing on testing the Savannah River Site’s Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) systems and training the workforce to operate the plant in preparation for the start of operations. Once in operation, the SWPF will significantly increase processing rates at SRS tank farms in an effort to empty the site’s high-level radioactive waste tanks.

  11. The Shoemaker's Knife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes, the famous Greek mathematician, lived from 287 BCE until approximately 212 BCE. He thought that the figure of two semi-circles on a straight line enclosed by a larger semi-circle resembled a shoemaker's knife. Archimedes called this figure an "arbelos" since arbelos is the Greek word for a shoemaker's knife. The author describes the…

  12. Enterprise.SRS = Business for Success at SRS

    ScienceCinema

    Wilson, Dwayne; Moody, David; Michalske, Terry; Bush, Byron; Sprague, Leslie; Worrell, Timothy

    2017-12-09

    Goals and accomplishments of SRS. The debut of enterprise.srs, a strategic vision that will refocus site talents and efforts on developing future missions by broadening its impact in existing and new areas of national service. An expansion of people and facility in 3 areas: National Security, Clean Energy, and Environmental Stewardship.

  13. Sensitivity and variability of Presage dosimeter formulations in sheet form with application to SBRT and SRS QA

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, Michael, E-mail: mdumas1127@gmail.com; Rakowski, Joseph T.

    Purpose: To measure sensitivity and stability of the Presage dosimeter in sheet form for various chemical concentrations over a range of clinical photon energies and examine its use for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) QA. Methods: Presage polymer dosimeters were formulated to investigate and optimize their sensitivity and stability. The dosimeter is composed of clear polyurethane base, leucomalachite green (LMG) reporting dye, and bromoform radical initiator in 0.9–1.0 mm thick sheets. The chemicals are mixed together for 2 min, cast in an aluminum mold, and left to cure at 60 psi for a minimum of twomore » days. Dosimeter response was characterized at energies Co-60, 6 MV, 10 MV flattening-filter free, 15 MV, 50 kVp (mean 19.2 keV), and Ir-192. The dosimeters were scanned by a Microtek Scanmaker i800 at 300 dpi, 2{sup 16} bit depth per color channel. Red component images were analyzed with ImageJ and RIT. SBRT QA was done with gamma analysis tolerances of 2% and 2 mm DTA. Results: The sensitivity of the Presage dosimeter increased with increasing concentration of bromoform. Addition of tin catalyst decreased curing time and had negligible effect on sensitivity. LMG concentration should be at least as high as the bromoform, with ideal concentration being 2% wt. Gamma Knife SRS QA measurements of relative output and profile widths were within 2% of manufacturer’s values validated at commissioning, except the 4 mm collimator relative output which was within 3%. The gamma pass rate of Presage with SBRT was 73.7%, compared to 93.1% for EBT2 Gafchromic film. Conclusions: The Presage dosimeter in sheet form was capable of detecting radiation over all tested photon energies and chemical concentrations. The best sensitivity and photostability of the dosimeter were achieved with 2.5% wt. LMG and 8.2% wt. bromoform. Scanner used should not emit any UV radiation as it will expose the dosimeter, as with the Epson 10000 XL

  14. Histology-Stratified Tumor Control and Patient Survival After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Pineal Region Tumors: A Report From the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    Iorio-Morin, Christian; Kano, Hideyuki; Huang, Marshall; Lunsford, L Dade; Simonová, Gabriela; Liscak, Roman; Cohen-Inbar, Or; Sheehan, Jason; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Mathieu, David

    2017-11-01

    Pineal region tumors represent a rare and histologically diverse group of lesions. Few studies are available to guide management and the outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Patients who underwent SRS for a pineal region tumor and for whom at least 6 months of imaging follow-up was available were retrospectively assessed in 5 centers. Data were collected from the medical record and histology level analyses were performed, including actuarial tumor control and survival analyses. A total of 70 patients were treated between 1989 and 2014 with a median follow-up of 47 months. Diagnoses were pineocytoma (37%), pineoblastoma (19%), pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (10%), papillary tumor of the pineal region (9%), germinoma (7%), teratoma (3%), embryonal carcinoma (1%), and unknown (14%). Median prescription dose was 15 Gy at the 50% isodose line. Actuarial local control and survival rates were 81% and 76% at 20 years for pineocytoma, 50% and 56% at 5 years for pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, 27% and 48% at 5 years for pineoblastoma, 33% and 100% at 5 years for papillary tumor of the pineal region, 80% and 80% at 20 years for germinoma, and 61% and 67% at 5 years for tumors of unknown histology. New focal neurological deficit, Parinaud syndrome, and hydrocephalus occurred in 9%, 7%, and 3% of cases, respectively. SRS is a safe modality for the management of pineal region tumors. Its specific role is highly dependent on tumor histology. As such, all efforts should be made to obtain a reliable histologic diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Souvenir knife: a retained transcranial knife blade.

    PubMed

    Davis, Neil L; Kahana, Tzipi; Hiss, Jehuda

    2004-09-01

    Upon necroscopic examination of a homeless male found comatose in the street and pronounced dead at a medical center 12 hours later, a sharp tip of a knife lodged in the right parietal region of his skull was incidentally discovered. The blade transected the diploe and penetrated the cerebral cortex. Subsequent police investigation revealed that this was the remnant of a stabbing attempt on his life several months prior to his death. The cause of death was determined to be unrelated to the metallic blade fragment, thus making it a truly incidental and rare finding of a "souvenir knife." Nevertheless, since the injury sustained in the stabbing was potentially life threatening, the investigation into that assault was reopened.A case report is presented, along with a brief review of the literature on "souvenir objects."

  16. Usefulness of the advanced neuroimaging protocol based on plain and gadolinium-enhanced constructive interference in steady state images for gamma knife radiosurgery and planning microsurgical procedures for skull base tumors.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Motohiro; Chernov, Mikhail F; Tamura, Noriko; Yomo, Shoji; Tamura, Manabu; Horiba, Ayako; Izawa, Masahiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi; Okada, Yoshikazu; Ivanov, Pavel; Régis, Jean; Takakura, Kintomo

    2013-01-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) is currently performed with 0.1 mm preciseness, which can be designated microradiosurgery. It requires advanced methods for visualizing the target, which can be effectively attained by a neuroimaging protocol based on plain and gadolinium-enhanced constructive interference in steady state (CISS) images. Since 2003, the following thin-sliced images are routinely obtained before GKS of skull base lesions in our practice: axial CISS, gadolinium-enhanced axial CISS, gadolinium-enhanced axial modified time-of-flight (TOF), and axial computed tomography (CT). Fusion of "bone window" CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and detailed three-dimensional (3D) delineation of the anatomical structures are performed with the Leksell GammaPlan (Elekta Instruments AB). Recently, a similar technique has been also applied to evaluate neuroanatomy before open microsurgical procedures. Plain CISS images permit clear visualization of the cranial nerves in the subarachnoid space. Gadolinium-enhanced CISS images make the tumor "lucid" but do not affect the signal intensity of the cranial nerves, so they can be clearly delineated in the vicinity to the lesion. Gadolinium-enhanced TOF images are useful for 3D evaluation of the interrelations between the neoplasm and adjacent vessels. Fusion of "bone window" CT and MRI scans permits simultaneous assessment of both soft tissue and bone structures and allows 3D estimation and correction of MRI distortion artifacts. Detailed understanding of the neuroanatomy based on application of the advanced neuroimaging protocol permits performance of highly conformal and selective radiosurgical treatment. It also allows precise planning of the microsurgical procedures for skull base tumors.

  17. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children/adolescents and adults. Part I: Differences in epidemiologic, morphologic, and clinical characteristics, permanent complications, and bleeding in the latency period

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolato, Antonio; Lupidi, Francesco; Section of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Verona and University Hospital, Verona

    Purpose: To compare the epidemiologic, morphologic, and clinical characteristics of 92 children/adolescents (Group A) and 362 adults (Group B) with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) considered suitable for radiosurgery; to correlate radiosurgery-related permanent complication and post-radiosurgery bleeding rates in the 75 children/adolescents and 297 adults available for follow-up. Methods and Materials: Radiosurgery was performed with a model C 201-source Co{sup 6} Leksell Gamma Unit (Elekta Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden). Fisher exact two-tailed, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and two-sample binomial exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were significant differences between the two populations in sex (p = 0.015), clinical presentation (p =more » 0.001), and location (p = 0.008). The permanent complication rate was lower in younger (1.3%) than in older patients (5.4%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.213). The postradiosurgery bleeding rate was lower in Group A (1.3%) than in Group B (2.7%) (p = 0.694), with global actuarial bleeding rates of 0.56% per year and 1.15% per year, respectively. Conclusions: The different characteristics of child/adolescent and adult cAVMs suggest that they should be considered two distinct vascular disorders. The similar rates of radiosurgery-related complications and latency period bleeding in the two populations show that gamma knife radiosurgery does not expose young patients to a higher risk of sequelae than that for older patients.« less

  18. Why SRS Matters - K Area

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul; Lawson, Janice

    2018-06-22

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features K Area's mission and operations. K area is the former production reactor that's been re-purposed to serve as a plutonium processing and storage facility.

  19. Why SRS Matters - L Area

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul

    2018-06-22

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features L Area's mission and operations. The L reactor, the former production reactor, now serves as a basin for the storage of used nuclear fuel.

  20. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  1. Why SRS Matters - F Area

    ScienceCinema

    Howell, Steve; Tadlock, Bill; Beeler, Dewitt; Gardner, Curt

    2018-06-22

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features F Area's mission and operations.

  2. Why SRS Matters - E Area

    ScienceCinema

    Howell, Steve; Mooneyhan, Verne; Tempel, Kevin; Bullington, Michele

    2018-06-22

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features E Area's mission and operations.

  3. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  4. Why SRS Matters - H Canyon

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul; Lewczyk, Mike; Swain, Mike

    2018-06-22

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode features H Canyon's mission and operations. H Canyon and its adjoining H B Line facility represent the last full-scale radio chemical processing capabilities left in the United States.

  5. Implementation of Monte Carlo Dose calculation for CyberKnife treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.-M.; Li, J. S.; Deng, J.; Fan, J.

    2008-02-01

    Accurate dose calculation is essential to advanced stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) especially for treatment planning involving heterogeneous patient anatomy. This paper describes the implementation of a fast Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm in SRS/SRT treatment planning for the CyberKnife® SRS/SRT system. A superposition Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for this application. Photon mean free paths and interaction types for different materials and energies as well as the tracks of secondary electrons are pre-simulated using the MCSIM system. Photon interaction forcing and splitting are applied to the source photons in the patient calculation and the pre-simulated electron tracks are repeated with proper corrections based on the tissue density and electron stopping powers. Electron energy is deposited along the tracks and accumulated in the simulation geometry. Scattered and bremsstrahlung photons are transported, after applying the Russian roulette technique, in the same way as the primary photons. Dose calculations are compared with full Monte Carlo simulations performed using EGS4/MCSIM and the CyberKnife treatment planning system (TPS) for lung, head & neck and liver treatments. Comparisons with full Monte Carlo simulations show excellent agreement (within 0.5%). More than 10% differences in the target dose are found between Monte Carlo simulations and the CyberKnife TPS for SRS/SRT lung treatment while negligible differences are shown in head and neck and liver for the cases investigated. The calculation time using our superposition Monte Carlo algorithm is reduced up to 62 times (46 times on average for 10 typical clinical cases) compared to full Monte Carlo simulations. SRS/SRT dose distributions calculated by simple dose algorithms may be significantly overestimated for small lung target volumes, which can be improved by accurate Monte Carlo dose calculations.

  6. Iridium-Knife: Another knife in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Milickovic, Natasa; Tselis, Nikolaos; Karagiannis, Efstratios; Ferentinos, Konstantinos; Zamboglou, Nikolaos

    Intratarget dose escalation with superior conformity is a defining feature of three-dimensional (3D) iridium-192 ( 192 Ir) high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BRT). In this study, we analyzed the dosimetric characteristics of interstitial 192 Ir HDR BRT for intrathoracic and cerebral malignancies. We examined the dose gradient sharpness of HDR BRT compared with that of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy, usually called X-Knife, to demonstrate that it may as well be called a Knife. Treatment plans for 10 patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme or intrathoracic malignancies, five of each entity, treated with X-Knife (stereotactic radiosurgery for glioblastoma multiforme and stereotactic body radiation therapy for intrathoracic malignancies) were replanned for simulated HDR BRT. For 3D BRT planning, we used identical structure sets and dose prescription as for the X-Knife planning. The indices for qualitative treatment plan analysis encompassed planning target volume coverage, conformity, dose falloff gradient, and the maximum dose-volume limits to different organs at risk. Volume coverage in HDR plans was comparable to that calculated for X-Knife plans with no statistically significant difference in terms of conformity. The dose falloff gradient-sharpness-of the HDR plans was considerably steeper compared with the X-Knife plans. Both 3D 192 Ir HDR BRT and X-Knife are effective means for intratarget dose escalation with HDR BRT achieving at least equal conformity and a steeper dose falloff at the target volume margin. In this sense, it can reasonably be argued that 3D 192 Ir HDR BRT deserves also to be called a Knife, namely Iridium-Knife. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations on daily or alternate day schedule outside the linear quadratic model: Proof of concept and early results. A substitute to volume fractionation.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Kumar, Narendra; Tripathi, Manjul; Oinam, Arun S; Ahuja, Chirag K; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Kapoor, Rakesh; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kaur, Rupinder; Bhatt, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery (DFGKRS) on a daily schedule beyond the linear quadratic (LQ) model, for large volume arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Between 2012-16, 14 patients of large AVMs (median volume 26.5 cc) unsuitable for surgery or embolization were treated in 2-3 of DFGKRS sessions. The Leksell G frame was kept in situ during the whole procedure. 86% (n = 12) patients had radiologic evidence of bleed, and 43% (n = 6) had presented with a history of seizures. 57% (n = 8) patients received a daily treatment for 3 days and 43% (n = 6) were on an alternate day (2 fractions) regimen. The marginal dose was split into 2 or 3 fractions of the ideal prescription dose of a single fraction of 23-25 Gy. The median follow up period was 35.6 months (8-57 months). In the three-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 8.9-11.5 Gy, while in the two-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 11.3-15 Gy at 50% per fraction. Headache (43%, n = 6) was the most common early postoperative complication, which was controlled with short course steroids. Follow up evaluation of at least three years was achieved in seven patients, who have shown complete nidus obliteration in 43% patients while the obliteration has been in the range of 50-99% in rest of the patients. Overall, there was a 67.8% reduction in the AVM volume at 3 years. Nidus obliteration at 3 years showed a significant rank order correlation with the cumulative prescription dose (p 0.95, P value 0.01), with attainment of near-total (more than 95%) obliteration rates beyond 29 Gy of the cumulative prescription dose. No patient receiving a cumulative prescription dose of less than 31 Gy had any severe adverse reaction. In co-variate adjusted ordinal regression, only the cumulative prescription dose had a significant correlation with common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) severity (P value 0.04), independent of age, AVM volume

  8. Bovine immune response to inoculation with Neospora caninum surface antigen SRS2 lipopeptides mimics immune response to infection with live parasites.

    PubMed

    Baszler, Timothy V; Shkap, Varda; Mwangi, Waithaka; Davies, Christopher J; Mathison, Bruce A; Mazuz, Monica; Resnikov, Dror; Fish, Lea; Leibovitch, Benjamin; Staska, Lauren M; Savitsky, Igor

    2008-04-01

    Infection of cattle with Neospora caninum protozoa, the causative agent of bovine protozoal abortion, results in robust cellular and humoral immune responses, particularly CD4(+) T-lymphocyte activation and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion. In the present study, N. caninum SRS2 (NcSRS2) T-lymphocyte-epitope-bearing subunits were incorporated into DNA and peptide preparations to assess CD4(+) cell proliferation and IFN-gamma T-lymphocyte-secretion immune responses in cattle with predetermined major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotypes. In order to optimize dendritic-cell processing, NcSRS2 DNA vaccine was delivered with granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor and Flt3 ligand adjuvant. The synthesized NcSRS2 peptides were coupled with a palmitic acid molecule (lipopeptide) and delivered with Freund's adjuvant. Cattle vaccinated with NcSRS2 DNA vaccine alone did not induce T-lymphocyte activation or IFN-gamma secretion, whereas subsequent booster inoculation with NcSRS2-lipopeptides induced robust NcSRS2-specific immune responses. Compared to the response in control animals, NcSRS2-lipopeptide-immunized cattle had significantly increased NcSRS2-specific T-lymphocyte proliferation, numbers of IFN-gamma-secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a antibody levels. The findings show that N. caninum NcSRS2 subunits bearing T-lymphocyte epitopes induced cell-mediated immune responses similar to the protective immune responses previously described against live parasite infection, namely T-lymphocyte activation and IFN-gamma secretion. The findings support the investigation of NcSRS2 immunogens for protection against N. caninum-induced fetal infection and abortion in cattle.

  9. OS03.4 Gammaknife versus Linac based (EDGE) radiosurgery (SRS) for patients with limited brain metastases (BMS) from different solid tumor: a phase III randomized trial.

    PubMed Central

    Scorsetti, M.; Navarria, P.; Ascolese, A.; Clerici, E.; Mancosu, P.; Picozzi, P.; Pecchioli, G.; Franzese, C.; Reggiori, G.; Tomatis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Radiosurgery is an emerging terapeutich approach for the treatment of brain metastases (BMs), considering the effective local control obtained without neurological impairment. Different technological modalities have been used: Gammaknife, Cybernife, or Linac with comparable results and different incidence of symptomatic radionecrosis. To date no comparative randomized studies have been published on this matter. We draw this randomized phase III trial with the aim to evaluate incidence of symptomatic radionecrosis using gamma knife radiosurgery versus linac based (EDGE) radiosurgery. Local control (LC) rate and patients overall survival (OS) were assessed as well. Materials: Patients with limited BMs (up to 4) from different solid tumors, except SCLC or hematologic malignancies, were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were a histopatological diagnosis of malignant primary tumor, a KPS ≥70, RPA class I-II, and BMs with maximum diameter ≤3 cm and/or with a total tumor volume <30 cm3. The total dose prescribed was 24 Gy for BMs ≤ 20 mm or 4.2 cm3, and 20 Gy for BMs 21–30 mm or volume <14.1 cm3 as suggested by RTOG guidelines. Clinical outcome was evaluated by neurological examination and MRI at 2 months after SRS and then every 3 months. The radionecrosis was considered the presence of central hypodensity and peripheral enhancement on T1-weighted post-contrast imaging, with edema on T2-weighted sequences and a clear lack of perfusion without any nodular highly vascularized area within the contrast enhanced lesion on perfusion MRI. Local progression was defined as radiographic increase of the enhancing abnormality in the irradiated volume on serial MR imaging, and distant failure by the presence of new brain metastases or leptomeningeal enhancement outside the irradiated volume. Results: From October 2014 to December 2015, 101 consecutives patients of the expected 250, for 167 BMs treated, were evaluated. The most common primary

  10. The EBI SRS server-new features.

    PubMed

    Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Lopez, Rodrigo; Apweiler, Rolf; Etzold, Thure

    2002-08-01

    Here we report on recent developments at the EBI SRS server (http://srs.ebi.ac.uk). SRS has become an integration system for both data retrieval and sequence analysis applications. The EBI SRS server is a primary gateway to major databases in the field of molecular biology produced and supported at EBI as well as European public access point to the MEDLINE database provided by US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It is a reference server for latest developments in data and application integration. The new additions include: concept of virtual databases, integration of XML databases like the Integrated Resource of Protein Domains and Functional Sites (InterPro), Gene Ontology (GO), MEDLINE, Metabolic pathways, etc., user friendly data representation in 'Nice views', SRSQuickSearch bookmarklets. SRS6 is a licensed product of LION Bioscience AG freely available for academics. The EBI SRS server (http://srs.ebi.ac.uk) is a free central resource for molecular biology data as well as a reference server for the latest developments in data integration.

  11. Development of stereotactic radiosurgery using carbon beams (carbon-knife)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keawsamur, Mintra; Matsumura, Akihiko; Souda, Hikaru; Kano, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Masami; Nakano, Takashi; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a stereotactic-radiosurgery (SRS) technique using carbon beams to treat small intracranial lesions; we call this device the carbon knife. A 2D-scanning method is adapted to broaden a pencil beam to an appropriate size for an irradiation field. A Mitsubishi slow extraction using third order resonance through a rf acceleration system stabilized by a feed-forward scanning beam using steering magnets with a 290 MeV/u initial beam energy was used for this purpose. Ridge filters for spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) with widths of 5 mm, 7.5 mm, and 10 mm were designed to include fluence-attenuation effects. The collimator, which defines field shape, was used to reduce the lateral penumbra. The lateral-penumbra width at the SOBP region was less than 2 mm for the carbon knife. The penumbras behaved almost the same when changing the air gap, but on the other hand, increasing the range-shifter thickness mostly broadened the lateral penumbra. The physical-dose rates were approximate 6 Gy s-1 and 4.5 Gy s-1 for the 10  ×  10 mm2 and 5  ×  5 mm2 collimators, respectively.

  12. Critical Skills at SRS Radcon Inspectors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Don; Brant, Kristin

    2017-05-02

    This video series provides a first-hand look at critical skills positions at the Savannah River Site and required qualifications. Meet the people behind the jobs and learn what they do to support important SRS missions.

  13. Critical Skills at SRS – Scientist

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, Aaron

    This video series provides a first-hand look at critical skills positions at the Savannah River Site and required qualifications. Meet the people behind the jobs and learn what they do to support important SRS missions.

  14. SRS Computer Animation and Drive Train System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthun, Daniel; Schachner, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The spinning rocket simulator (SRS) is an ongoing project at Oral Roberts University. The goal of the SRS is to gather crucial data concerning a spinning rocket under thrust for the purpose of analysis and correction of the coning motion experienced by this type of spacecraft maneuver. The computer animation simulates a virtual, scale model of the component of the SRS that represents the spacecraft itself. This component is known as the (VSM), or virtual spacecraft model. During actual physical simulation, this component of the SRS will experience a coning. The goal of the animation is to cone the VSM within that range to accurately represent the motion of the actual simulator. The drive system of the SRS is the apparatus that turns the actual simulator. It consists of a drive motor, motor mount and chain to power the simulator into motion. The motor mount is adjustable and rigid for high torque application. A digital stepper motor controller actuates the main drive motor for linear acceleration. The chain transfers power from the motor to the simulator via sprockets on both ends.

  15. Radiobiological basis of SBRT and SRS.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang W; Kim, Mi-Sook; Cho, L Chinsoo; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Sperduto, Paul W

    2014-08-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have been demonstrated to be highly effective for a variety of tumors. However, the radiobiological principles of SBRT and SRS have not yet been clearly defined. It is well known that newly formed tumor blood vessels are fragile and extremely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Various lines of evidence indicate that irradiation of tumors with high dose per fraction, i.e. >10 Gy per fraction, not only kills tumor cells but also causes significant damage in tumor vasculatures. Such vascular damage and ensuing deterioration of the intratumor environment then cause ischemic or indirect/secondary tumor cell death within a few days after radiation exposure, indicating that vascular damage plays an important role in the response of tumors to SBRT and SRS. Indications are that the extensive tumor cell death due to the direct effect of radiation on tumor cells and the secondary effect through vascular damage may lead to massive release of tumor-associated antigens and various pro-inflammatory cytokines, thereby triggering an anti-tumor immune response. However, the precise role of immune assault on tumor cells in SBRT and SRS has not yet been clearly defined. The "4 Rs" for conventional fractionated radiotherapy do not include indirect cell death and thus 4 Rs cannot account for the effective tumor control by SBRT and SRS. The linear-quadratic model is for cell death caused by DNA breaks and thus the usefulness of this model for ablative high-dose SBRT and SRS is limited.

  16. Wrapping SRS with CORBA: from textual data to distributed objects.

    PubMed

    Coupaye, T

    1999-04-01

    Biological data come in very different shapes. Databanks are maintained and used by distinct organizations. Text is the de facto Standard exchange format. The SRS system can integrate heterogeneous textual databanks but it was lacking a way to structure the extracted data. This paper presents a CORBA interface to the SRS system which manages databanks in a flat file format. SRS Object Servers are CORBA wrappers for SRS. They allow client applications (visualisation tools, data mining tools, etc.) to access and query SRS servers remotely through an Object Request Broker (ORB). They provide loader objects that contain the information extracted from the databanks by SRS. Loader objects are not hard-coded but generated in a flexible way by using loader specifications which allow SRS administrators to package data coming from distinct databanks. The prototype may be available for beta-testing. Please contact the SRS group (http://srs.ebi.ac.uk).

  17. TH-C-BRC-02: A Review of Emerging Technologies in Robotic SRS/SBRT Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioningmore » capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been

  18. TH-C-BRC-01: An Overview of Emerging Technologies in SRS/SBRT Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.

    2016-06-15

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioningmore » capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been

  19. TH-C-BRC-00: Emerging Technologies in SRS/SBRT Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioningmore » capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been

  20. TH-C-BRC-03: Emerging Linac Based SRS/SBRT Technologies with Modulated Arc Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, L.

    2016-06-15

    The delivery techniques for SRS/SBRT have been under rapid developments in recent years, which pose new challenges to medical physicists ranging from planning and quality assurance to imaging and motion management. This educational course will provide a general overview of the latest delivery techniques in SRS/SBRT, and discuss the clinical processes to address the challenges of each technique with special emphasis on dedicated gamma-ray based device, robotic x-band linac-based system and conventional C-arm s-band linac-based SRS systems. (1). Gamma-ray based SRS/SRT: This is the gold standard of intracranial SRS. With the advent of precision imaging guidance and frameless patient positioningmore » capabilities, novel stereoscopic CBCT and automatic dose adaption solution are introduced to the Gamma-ray based SRS for the first time. The first North American system has been approved by the US regulatory for patient treatments in the spring of 2016. (2). Robotic SRS/SBRT system: A number of technological milestones have been developed in the past few years, including variable aperture collimator, sequential optimization technique, and the time reduction technique. Recently, a new robotic model allows the option of a multi-leaf collimator. These technological advances have reduced the treatment time and improved dose conformity significantly and could potentially expand the application of radiosurgery for the treatment of targets not previously suitable for robotic SRS/SBRT or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. These technological advances have created new demanding mandates on hardware and patient quality assurance (QA) tasks, as well as the need for updating/educating the physicists in the community on these requirements. (3). Conventional Linac based treatments: Modulated arc therapy (MAT) has gained wide popularities in Linac-based treatments in recent years due to its high delivery efficiency and excellent dose conformities. Recently, MAT has been

  1. Using the phacoemulsification crescent knife in dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Fong, K S; Koh, A H; Choo, C T

    1998-04-01

    Dacryocystorhinostomy is an effective treatment for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Most techniques employ a conventional blade or knife in making the incision of the nasal mucosa and lacrimal sac. The authors describe the use of a phacoemulsification crescent knife for this purpose. This technique can be effective and at the same time safer and easier to perform.

  2. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  3. SU-E-T-480: Radiobiological Dose Comparison of Single Fraction SRS, Multi-Fraction SRT and Multi-Stage SRS of Large Target Volumes Using the Linear-Quadratic Formula

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, C; Hrycushko, B; Jiang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the radiobiological effect on large tumors and surrounding normal tissues from single fraction SRS, multi-fractionated SRT, and multi-staged SRS treatment. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with a centrally located large volume target (18.2 cm{sup 3}) was scanned using a 16 slice large bore CT simulator. Scans were imported to the Multiplan treatment planning system where a total prescription dose of 20Gy was used for a single, three staged and three fractionated treatment. Cyber Knife treatment plans were inversely optimized for the target volume to achieve at least 95% coverage of the prescription dose. For the multistage plan,more » the target was segmented into three subtargets having similar volume and shape. Staged plans for individual subtargets were generated based on a planning technique where the beam MUs of the original plan on the total target volume are changed by weighting the MUs based on projected beam lengths within each subtarget. Dose matrices for each plan were export in DICOM format and used to calculate equivalent dose distributions in 2Gy fractions using an alpha beta ratio of 10 for the target and 3 for normal tissue. Results: Singe fraction SRS, multi-stage plan and multi-fractionated SRT plans had an average 2Gy dose equivalent to the target of 62.89Gy, 37.91Gy and 33.68Gy, respectively. The normal tissue within 12Gy physical dose region had an average 2Gy dose equivalent of 29.55Gy, 16.08Gy and 13.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The single fraction SRS plan had the largest predicted biological effect for the target and the surrounding normal tissue. The multi-stage treatment provided for a more potent biologically effect on target compared to the multi-fraction SRT treatments with less biological normal tissue than single-fraction SRS treatment.« less

  4. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys,more » interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations.« less

  5. Maintaining knife sharpness in industrial meat cutting: A matter of knife or meat cutter ability.

    PubMed

    Karltun, J; Vogel, K; Bergstrand, M; Eklund, J

    2016-09-01

    Knife sharpness is imperative in meat cutting. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of knife blade steel quality with meat cutters' individual ability to maintain the cutting edge sharp in an industrial production setting. Twelve meat cutters in two different companies using three different knives during normal production were studied in this quasi-experimental study. Methods included were measuring knife cutting force before and after knife use, time knives were used, ratings of sharpness and discomfort and interviews. Results showed that the meat cutters' skill of maintaining sharpness during work had a much larger effect on knife sharpness during work than the knife steel differences. The ability was also related to feelings of discomfort and to physical exertion. It was found that meat cutters using more knives were more likely to suffer from discomfort in the upper limbs, which is a risk for developing MSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Infraoccipital needle-knife for cervical vertigo].

    PubMed

    Li, Shaofang; Huang, Manhua; Lin, Zhuopeng; Chen, Xinze; Lin, Dongna; Lu, Peng; Lu, Qu

    2017-03-12

    To observe the clinical effect differences between infraoccipital needle-knife and massage for cervical vertigo. A total of 366 patients with cervical vertigo were randomly assigned into a needle-knife group (186 cases) and a massage group (180 cases). With cases dropping excluded, 183 cases in the needle-knife group and 176 cases in the massage group were included. Needle-knife was used at Fengchi (GB 20), infraoccipital ashi point, etc. in the needle-knife group. The treatment was given for one course, once three days, 5 times as one course. The traditional massage was applied in the massage group for one course, including systematic stroking, kneading, and the application of pressure and plucking, etc., once every two days and 7 times as one course. The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) score was observed before and after treatment, as well as 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. The effects were also evaluated. The total effective rate was 92.3% (169/183) in the needle-knife group, which was better than 85.2% (150/176) in the massage group ( P <0.05). Compared with those before treatment, the DHI scores at all the observation time points after treatment were improved in the two groups (all P <0.05), with better improvements after treatment as well as 3 and 6 months after treatment in the needle-knife group (all P <0.05). There was no significant difference in the improvement of DHI scores between the two groups 12 months after treatment ( P >0.05). The recurrence rate was 10.3% (12/117) in the needle-knife group, and it was 10.7% (11/103) in the massage group 12 months after treatment ( P >0.05). Infraoccipital needle-knife achieves apparent effect for cervical vertigo, which is superior to massage in short period.

  7. Teaching with Student Response Systems (SRS): Teacher-Centric Aspects that Can Negatively Affect Students' Experience of Using SRS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Kjetil L.; Hansen, Gabrielle; Stav, John B.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe and discuss the most significant teacher-centric aspects of student response systems (SRS) that we have found to negatively affect students' experience of using SRS in lecture settings. By doing so, we hope to increase teachers' awareness of how they use SRS and how seemingly trivial choices or aspects when using SRS…

  8. SU-E-T-404: Evaluation of the Effect of Spine Hardware for CyberKnife Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, J; Zhang, Y; Zheng, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Spine hardware made of high-Z materials such as titanium has the potential to affect the dose distribution around the metal rods in CyberKnife spinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the magnitude of such effect retrospectively for clinical CyberKnife plans. Methods: The dose calculation was performed within the MultiPlan treatment planning system using the ray tracing (RT) and Monte Carlo (MC) method. A custom density model was created by extending the CT-to-Density table to titanium density of 4.5 g/cm3 with the CT number of 4095. To understand the dose perturbation caused by themore » titanium rod, a simple beam setup (7.5 mm IRIS collimator) was used to irradiate a mimic rod (5 mm) with overridden high density. Five patient spinal SRS cases were found chronologically from 2010 to 2015 in our institution. For each case, the hardware was contoured manually. The original plan was re-calculated using both RT and MC methods with and without rod density override without changing clinical beam parameters. Results: The simple beam irradiation shows that there is 10% dose increase at the interface because of electron backscattering and 7% decrease behind the rod because of photon attenuation. For actual clinical plans, the iso-dose lines and DVHs are almost identical (<2%) for calculations with and without density override for both RT and MC methods. However, there is a difference of more than 10% for D90 between RT and MC method. Conclusion: Although the dose perturbation around the metal rods can be as large as 10% for a single beam irradiation, for clinical treatments with complex beam composition the effect of spinal hardware to the PTV and spinal dose is minimal. As such, the MC dose algorithm without rod density override for CyberKnife spinal SRS is acceptable.« less

  9. A sharp knife for high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisman, R. M.; Iceland, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Electrically heated nickel-chrome-steel alloy knife may be used to cut heat resistant plastic felt and similar materials with relative ease. Blade made of commercially available alloy RA 330 retains edge at temperatures as high as 927 C.

  10. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  11. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    SciTech Connect

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other typesmore » of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.« less

  12. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic surgical...

  13. Status of The Indian SRS Indus-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, V. C.

    2009-07-01

    Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT, formerly called Centre for Advanced Technology) is a prime R&D laboratory of Indian Department of Atomic Energy devoted to developing technologies related to accelerators and lasers as well as their applications. RRCAT is home to 2 synchrotron radiation sources (SRS): Indus-1 (a 100 mA, 450 MeV storage ring) & Indus-2 (a 2.5 GeV booster cum storage ring designed for a current of up to 300 mA), sharing a common injector system, comprising of 20 MeV microtron & 450-700 MeV range booster synchrotron. Most of the accelerator hardware has been built indigenously. Normally beam is injected into Indus-2 (and accumulated) at 550 MeV, and ramped to 2 or 2.5 GeV depending on the user needs. At present we have permission from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (Indian agency charged with radiation protection responsibility in the country) to operate Indus-2 at 2.5 GeV with up to 50 mA & in the next stage we will get authorization to go up to 100 mA. Currently 5 beam lines on Indus-1 and 3 on Indus-2 are operational and work is going on 4 more beam lines on Indus-2 & is progressing well. The 3 completed beam lines on Indus-2 are: high resolution XRD, position sensitive detector based multi channel EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) and EDXRD (Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction). The paper gives an overview of how the SRS program at RRCAT has evolved over the years, where we stand today and also some of our future plans.

  14. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, ifmore » any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned« less

  15. Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy: is a knife really necessary?

    PubMed

    Jain, Vishesh; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy; Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Archana; Naga, Abhimanyu Singh

    2012-02-01

    Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy (LP) is currently accepted as a suitable treatment modality for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS). In this report, we describe some technical modifications of LP using a 3- or 5-mm hook with electrocautery as a substitute for a knife for incising the pylorus. The outcomes of LP using a standard retractable pyloromyotomy knife are compared with those of LP using a hook electrocautery. The patients with ultrasound proven IHPS who had undergone LP in a single institution from December 2008 to April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Incision on the pylorus was made with a 3-mm pyloromyotomy knife in the initial 12 cases. However, in the latter part of the study, a 3- or 5-mm hook with electrocautery was used for the incision. A Maryland dissector was used for completing the pyloromyotomy. The results were compared in terms of duration of surgery, complications, time taken to establish the first full feed, requirement of analgesics, postoperative emesis, and postoperative stay in the hospital. Independent sample t test and the Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Of the 27 patients analyzed, 12 underwent LP using a pyloromyotomy knife and the remaining 15 patients were operated on using a hook with electrocautery instead of the knife. The operating time, time taken to establish the first full feed, and duration of hospital stay were comparable among the two groups with no statistically significant difference. No complications were recorded in either group. Use of hook electrocautery for incising the pylorus provides a bloodless field without affecting the postoperative recovery and outcome. It also obviates any need of specialized instruments like a pyloromyotomy knife or other sharp instruments for pyloric incision.

  16. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of SRS 9971 shipping package. [SRS (Savannah River Site)

    SciTech Connect

    Vescovi, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    This evaluation is requested to revise the criticality evaluation used to generate Chapter 6 (Criticality Evaluation) of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for shipment Of UO[sub 3] product from the Uranium Solidification Facility (USF) in the SRS 9971 shipping package. The pertinent document requesting this evaluation is included as Attachment I. The results of the evaluation are given in Attachment II which is written as Chapter 6 of a NRC format SARP.

  17. SRS in the single molecule limit (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potma, Eric O.; Crampton, Kevin T.; Fast, Alexander; Apkarian, Vartkess A.

    2017-02-01

    We present combined surface-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering (SE-SRS) and surface-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SE-CARS) measurements on individual plasmonic antennas dressed with bipyridyl-ethylene molecules. By carefully optimizing the conditions for performing SE-SRS experiments, we have obtained stable and reproducible molecular surface-enhanced SRS spectra from single nano-antennas. Using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and transmission electron microscopy of the same antennas, we confirm that the observed SE-SRS signals originate from only one or a few molecules. We highlight the physics of surface enhancement in the context of coherent Raman scattering and derive sensitivity parameters under the relevant conditions. The implications of single molecule SRS measurements are discussed.

  18. Submillisecond Optical Knife-Edge Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurlow, P.

    1983-01-01

    Fast computer-controlled sampling of optical knife-edge response (KER) signal increases accuracy of optical system aberration measurement. Submicrosecond-response detectors in optical focal plane convert optical signals to electrical signals converted to digital data, sampled and feed into computer for storage and subsequent analysis. Optical data are virtually free of effects of index-of-refraction gradients.

  19. The SKED: speckle knife edge detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpies, S. D.; Light, R. A.; Achamfuo-Yeboah, S. O.; Clark, M.; Somekh, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The knife edge detector—also known as optical beam deflection—is a simple and robust method of detecting ultrasonic waves using a laser. It is particularly suitable for detection of high frequency surface acoustic waves as the response is proportional to variation of the local tilt of the surface. In the case of a specular reflection of the incident laser beam from a smooth surface, any lateral movement of the reflected beam caused by the ultrasonic waves is easily detected by a pair of photodiodes. The major disadvantage of the knife edge detector is that it does not cope well with optically rough surfaces, those that give a speckled reflection. The optical speckles from a rough surface adversely affect the efficiency of the knife edge detector, because 'dark' speckles move synchronously with 'bright' speckles, and their contributions to the ultrasonic signal cancel each other out. We have developed a new self-adapting sensor which can cope with the optical speckles reflected from a rough surface. It is inelegantly called the SKED—speckle knife edge detector—and like its smooth surface namesake it is simple, cheap, compact, and robust. We describe the theory of its operation, and present preliminary experimental results validating the overall concept and the operation of the prototype device.

  20. SU-F-T-576: Characterization of Two Dimensional Liquid Filled Detector Array(SRS 1000) in High Precision Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery System

    SciTech Connect

    Muthukumaran, M; Manigandan, D; Murali, V

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to characterize a two dimensional liquid filled detector array SRS 1000 for routine QA in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system. Methods: SRS 1000 consists of 977 liquid filled ionization chambers and is designed to be used in small field SRS/SBRT techniques. The detector array has got two different spacial resolutions. Till field size of 5.5×5.5 cm the spacial resolution is 2.5mm (center to center) and after that till field size of 11 × 11 cm the spacial resolution is 5mm. The size of the detector is 2.3 × 2.3 0.5 mm with a volumemore » of .003 cc. The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system in which a LINAC is mounted on a robotic manipulator to deliver beams with a high sub millimeter accuracy. The SRS 1000’s MU linearity, stability, reproducibility in Cyberknife Robotic Radiosurgery system was measured and investigated. The output factors for fixed and IRIS collimators for all available collimators (5mm till 60 mm) was measured and compared with the measurement done with PTW pin-point ionization chamber. Results: The MU linearity was measured from 2 MU till 1000 MU for doserates in the range of 700cGy/min – 780 cGy/min and compared with the measurement done with pin point chamber The MU linearity was with in 3%. The detector arrays stability and reproducibility was excellent and was withinin 0.5% The measured output factors showed an agreement of better than 2% when compared with the measurements with pinpoint chamber for both fixed and IRIS collimators with all available field sizes. Conclusion: We have characterised PTW 1000 SRS as a precise and accurate measurement tool for routine QA of Cyberknife Robotic radiosurgery system.« less

  1. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results foundmore » in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.« less

  2. SU-F-T-538: CyberKnife with MLC for Treatment of Large Volume Tumors: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bichay, T; Mayville, A

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: CyberKnife is a well-documented modality for SRS and SBRT treatments. Typical tumors are small and 1–5 fractions are usually used. We determined the feasibility of using CyberKnife, with an InCise multileaf collimator option, for larger tumors undergoing standard dose and fractionation. The intent was to understand the limitation of using this modality for other external beam radiation treatments. Methods: Five tumors from different anatomical sites with volumes from 127.8 cc to 1,320.5 cc were contoured and planned on a Multiplan V5.1 workstation. The target average diameter ranged from 7 cm to 13 cm. The dose fractionation was 1.8–2.0 Gy/fractionmore » and 25–45 fractions for total doses of 45–81 Gy. The sites planned were: pancreas, head and neck, prostate, anal, and esophagus. The plans were optimized to meet conventional dose constraints based on various RTOG protocols for conventional fractionation. Results: The Multiplan treatment planning system successfully generated clinically acceptable plans for all sites studied. The resulting dose distributions achieved reasonable target coverage, all greater than 95%, and satisfactory normal tissue sparing. Treatment times ranged from 9 minutes to 38 minutes, the longest being a head and neck plan with dual targets receiving different doses and with multiple adjacent critical structures. Conclusion: CyberKnife, with the InCise multileaf collimation option, can achieve acceptable dose distributions in large volume tumors treated with conventional dose and fractionation. Although treatment times are greater than conventional accelerator time; target coverage and dose to critical structures can be kept within a clinically acceptable range. While time limitations exist, when necessary CyberKnife can provide an alternative to traditional treatment modalities for large volume tumors.« less

  3. A flexible and rapid frequency selective scheme for SRS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingting; Yue, Yuankai; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2017-02-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is a label-free imaging technique suitable for studying biological systems. Due to stimulated nature by ultrafast laser pulses, SRS microscopy has the advantage of significantly higher sensitivity but often reduced spectroscopic information. In this paper, we present a newly constructed femtosecond SRS microscope with a high-speed dynamic micromirror device based pulse shaper to achieve flexible and rapid frequency selection within the C-H stretch region near 2800 to 3100 cm-1 with spectral width of 30 cm-1. This technique is applicable to lipid profiling such as cell activity mapping, lipid distribution mapping and distinction among subclasses.

  4. Gamma Knife® radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chun-Po; Schlesinger, David; Sheehan, Jason P

    2011-11-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is characterized by a temporary paroxysmal lancinating facial pain in the trigeminal nerve distribution. The prevalence is four to five per 100,000. Local pressure on nerve fibers from vascular loops results in painful afferent discharge from an injured segment of the fifth cranial nerve. Microvascular decompression addresses the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, making this treatment the gold standard for medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia. In patients who cannot tolerate a surgical procedure, those in whom a vascular etiology cannot be identified, or those unwilling to undergo an open surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery is an appropriate alternative. The majority of patients with typical facial pain will achieve relief following radiosurgical treatment. Long-term follow-up for recurrence as well as for radiation-induced complications is required in all patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia.

  5. Gamma knife treatment for refractory cluster headache: prospective open trial.

    PubMed

    Donnet, A; Valade, D; Régis, J

    2005-02-01

    Since the initial report of Ford et al in 1998 no further study has evaluated radiosurgery of the trigeminal nerve in chronic cluster headache (CCH). We carried out a prospective open trial of neurosurgery and enrolled 10 patients (nine men, one woman; mean age 49.8 years, range 32-77) presenting with severe and drug resistant CCH (mean duration 9 years, range 2-33). The cisternal segment of the nerve was targeted with a single 4 mm collimator (80-85 Gy max). The mean follow up was 13.2 months. No improvement was observed in two patients and three patients had no further attacks. Three patients showed dramatic improvement with a few attacks per month or very few attacks over the last six months. Two patients were pain free for only one and two weeks and their headaches recurred with the same severity as before. Three patients developed paraesthesia with no hypoaesthesia, one developed hypoaesthesia, and one developed deafferentation pain. The rate and severity of trigeminal nerve injury appeared to be significantly higher than in trigeminal neuralgia, and this study does not support the positive results of the study of Ford et al. We consider the morbidity to be significant for the low rate of pain cessation, making this procedure less attractive even for the more severely affected subgroup of patients.

  6. Some observations on glass-knife making.

    PubMed

    Ward, R T

    1977-11-01

    The yield of usable knife edge per knife (for thin sectioning) was markedly increased when glass knives were made at an included angle of 55 degrees rather than the customary 45 degrees. A large number of measurements of edge check marks made with a routine light scattering method as well as observations made on a smaller number of test sections with the electron microscope indicated the superiority of 55 degrees knives. Knives were made with both taped pliers and an LKB Knifemaker. Knives were graded by methods easily applied in any biological electron microscope laboratory. Depending on the mode of fracture, the yield of knives having more than 33% of their edges free of check marks was 30 to 100 times greater at 55 degrees than 45 degrees.

  7. Knife blade as a facial foreign body.

    PubMed

    Gardner, P A; Righi, P; Shahbahrami, P B

    1997-08-01

    This case demonstrates the unpredictability of foreign bodies in the face. The retained knife blade eluded detection on two separate examinations. The essential components to making a correct diagnosis of a foreign body following a stabbing to the face include a thorough review of the mechanism of injury, a complete head and neck examination, a high index of suspicion, and plain radiographs of the face.

  8. Repeat Courses of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), Deferring Whole-Brain Irradiation, for New Brain Metastases After Initial SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, David B.; Modlin, Leslie A.; Jayachandran, Priya

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), deferring whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), for distant intracranial recurrences and identify factors associated with prolonged overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively identified 652 metastases in 95 patients treated with 2 or more courses of SRS for brain metastases, deferring WBRT. Cox regression analyzed factors predictive for OS. Results: Patients had a median of 2 metastases (range, 1-14) treated per course, with a median of 2 courses (range, 2-14) of SRS per patient. With a median follow-up after first SRS of 15 months (range, 3-98 months), the median OS from the timemore » of the first and second course of SRS was 18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-24) and 11 months (95% CI 6-17), respectively. On multivariate analysis, histology, graded prognostic assessment score, aggregate tumor volume (but not number of metastases), and performance status correlated with OS. The 1-year cumulative incidence, with death as a competing risk, of local failure was 5% (95% CI 4-8%). Eighteen (24%) of 75 deaths were from neurologic causes. Nineteen patients (20%) eventually received WBRT. Adverse radiation events developed in 2% of SRS sites. Conclusion: Multiple courses of SRS, deferring WBRT, for distant brain metastases after initial SRS, seem to be a safe and effective approach. The graded prognostic assessment score, updated at each course, and aggregate tumor volume may help select patients in whom the deferral of WBRT might be most beneficial.« less

  9. Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

    This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The…

  10. [Design and application of silver needle-knife].

    PubMed

    Sun, Guodong; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Benwu; Xu, Haidong

    2015-04-01

    A silver needle-knife which has the dual function of silver needle and needle-knife is designed. The main components of this silver needle-knife are approximately 50% silver and approximately 50% nichrome. The silver needle-knife is composed of five parts, including needle-knife tail, spiral handle; steering handle, needle-knife body and needle-knife edge. It converges the advantages of needle-knife and silver needle, which can cut loose of diseased tissue and peel adhesion of lesions, but also be heated with moxa cone and thermal therapeutic instrument, and connect with electroacupuncture apparatus. It has the function of warming channel and removing coldness, dispelling wind and eliminating dampness, resolving spasm and relieving pain, dredging the channel and so on. Due to the spiral handle and the steering handle, the operation is easier, which reduces the blindness of cutting and increase the safety. It is mainly used for soft tissue injury, rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as degenerative diseases of spine and joint, and it has obvious efficacy on some internal medical diseases.

  11. NEEDLE KNIFE SPHINCTEROTOMY - THE CHRIS HANI BARAGWANATH ACADEMIC HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J T; Smith, M D; Omoshoro-Jones, J A O; Devar, J D; Khan, Z K; Jugmohan, B J

    2017-06-01

    Deep biliary cannulation is essential in performing a therapeutic ERCP. Cannulation can be enhanced through the utilization of a pre-cut by means of a needle knife sphincterotomy. Retrospective analysis of the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital's ERCP database was performed. All ERCPs performed with the aid of a needle knife were identified and analysed for successful and unsuccessful deep biliary cannulation. 2830 ERCPs were performed during the study period. 369 (13%) required needle knife sphincterotomies and successful deep biliary cannulation was achieved in 229 (62%) of these patients. Repeat ERCPs were performed on 125 (34%) patients. 61 (49%) of the repeat ERCPs were performed because of previously failed cannulation. 34 (56%) of these repeat ERCPs resulted in successful deep biliary cannulation at re-attempt. 99% of successful cannulations at repeat ERCP had had a needle knife sphincterotomy at the first ERCP. Needle knife sphincterotomy improves deep biliary cannulation at initial ERCP and subsequent ERCPs with low incidences of complications.

  12. Technical Review of SRS Dose Reconstrruction Methods Used By CDC

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Ali, A

    2005-07-20

    At the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a subcontractor Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc.(ATL) issued a draft report estimating offsite dose as a result of Savannah River Site operations for the period 1954-1992 in support of Phase III of the SRS Dose Reconstruction Project. The doses reported by ATL differed than those previously estimated by Savannah River Site SRS dose modelers for a variety of reasons, but primarily because (1) ATL used different source terms, (2) ATL considered trespasser/poacher scenarios and (3) ATL did not consistently use site-specific parameters or correct usage parameters. Themore » receptors with the highest dose from atmospheric and liquid pathways were within about a factor of four greater than dose values previously reported by SRS. A complete set of technical comments have also been included.« less

  13. SU-F-T-584: Investigating Correction Methods for Ion Recombination Effects in OCTAVIUS 1000 SRS Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knill, C; Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; Snyder, M

    Purpose: PTW’s Octavius 1000 SRS array performs IMRT QA measurements with liquid filled ionization chambers (LICs). Collection efficiencies of LICs have been shown to change during IMRT delivery as a function of LINAC pulse frequency and pulse dose, which affects QA results. In this study, two methods were developed to correct changes in collection efficiencies during IMRT QA measurements, and the effects of these corrections on QA pass rates were compared. Methods: For the first correction, Matlab software was developed that calculates pulse frequency and pulse dose for each detector, using measurement and DICOM RT Plan files. Pulse information ismore » converted to collection efficiency and measurements are corrected by multiplying detector dose by ratios of calibration to measured collection efficiencies. For the second correction, MU/min in daily 1000 SRS calibration was chosen to match average MU/min of the VMAT plan. Usefulness of derived corrections were evaluated using 6MV and 10FFF SBRT RapidArc plans delivered to the OCTAVIUS 4D system using a TrueBeam equipped with an HD- MLC. Effects of the two corrections on QA results were examined by performing 3D gamma analysis comparing predicted to measured dose, with and without corrections. Results: After complex Matlab corrections, average 3D gamma pass rates improved by [0.07%,0.40%,1.17%] for 6MV and [0.29%,1.40%,4.57%] for 10FFF using [3%/3mm,2%/2mm,1%/1mm] criteria. Maximum changes in gamma pass rates were [0.43%,1.63%,3.05%] for 6MV and [1.00%,4.80%,11.2%] for 10FFF using [3%/3mm,2%/2mm,1%/1mm] criteria. On average, pass rates of simple daily calibration corrections were within 1% of complex Matlab corrections. Conclusion: Ion recombination effects can potentially be clinically significant for OCTAVIUS 1000 SRS measurements, especially for higher pulse dose unflattened beams when using tighter gamma tolerances. Matching daily 1000 SRS calibration MU/min to average planned MU/min is a simple correction

  14. SWS: accessing SRS sites contents through Web Services.

    PubMed

    Romano, Paolo; Marra, Domenico

    2008-03-26

    Web Services and Workflow Management Systems can support creation and deployment of network systems, able to automate data analysis and retrieval processes in biomedical research. Web Services have been implemented at bioinformatics centres and workflow systems have been proposed for biological data analysis. New databanks are often developed by taking into account these technologies, but many existing databases do not allow a programmatic access. Only a fraction of available databanks can thus be queried through programmatic interfaces. SRS is a well know indexing and search engine for biomedical databanks offering public access to many databanks and analysis tools. Unfortunately, these data are not easily and efficiently accessible through Web Services. We have developed 'SRS by WS' (SWS), a tool that makes information available in SRS sites accessible through Web Services. Information on known sites is maintained in a database, srsdb. SWS consists in a suite of WS that can query both srsdb, for information on sites and databases, and SRS sites. SWS returns results in a text-only format and can be accessed through a WSDL compliant client. SWS enables interoperability between workflow systems and SRS implementations, by also managing access to alternative sites, in order to cope with network and maintenance problems, and selecting the most up-to-date among available systems. Development and implementation of Web Services, allowing to make a programmatic access to an exhaustive set of biomedical databases can significantly improve automation of in-silico analysis. SWS supports this activity by making biological databanks that are managed in public SRS sites available through a programmatic interface.

  15. Validation of a pretreatment delivery quality assurance method for the CyberKnife Synchrony system.

    PubMed

    Mastella, E; Vigorito, S; Rondi, E; Piperno, G; Ferrari, A; Strata, E; Rozza, D; Jereczek-Fossa, B A; Cattani, F

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the geometric and dosimetric accuracies of the CyberKnife Synchrony respiratory tracking system (RTS) and to validate a method for pretreatment patient-specific delivery quality assurance (DQA). An EasyCube phantom was mounted on the ExacTrac gating phantom, which can move along the superior-inferior (SI) axis of a patient to simulate a moving target. The authors compared dynamic and static measurements. For each case, a Gafchromic EBT3 film was positioned between two slabs of the EasyCube, while a PinPoint ionization chamber was placed in the appropriate space. There were three steps to their evaluation: (1) the field size, the penumbra, and the symmetry of six secondary collimators were measured along the two main orthogonal axes. Dynamic measurements with deliberately simulated errors were also taken. (2) The delivered dose distributions (from step 1) were compared with the planned ones, using the gamma analysis method. The local gamma passing rates were evaluated using three acceptance criteria: 3% local dose difference (LDD)/3 mm, 2%LDD/2 mm, and 3%LDD/1 mm. (3) The DQA plans for six clinical patients were irradiated in different dynamic conditions, to give a total of 19 cases. The measured and planned dose distributions were evaluated with the same gamma-index criteria used in step 2 and the measured chamber doses were compared with the planned mean doses in the sensitive volume of the chamber. (1) A very slight enlargement of the field size and of the penumbra was observed in the SI direction (on average <1 mm), in line with the overall average CyberKnife system error for tracking treatments. (2) Comparison between the planned and the correctly delivered dose distributions confirmed the dosimetric accuracy of the RTS for simple plans. The multicriteria gamma analysis was able to detect the simulated errors, proving the robustness of their method of analysis. (3) All of the DQA clinical plans passed the tests, both in static and dynamic conditions

  16. SU-F-T-568: QA of a Multi-Target Multi-Dose VMAT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Roa, D; Kuo, J; Gonzales, A

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To, experimentally, corroborated the prescribed doses utilizing dosimeters (e.g. films and TLDs) that can provide high spatial resolution, allow dose measurement of multiple targets at once, and provide accurate dosimetric results. Methods: A single-isocenter 6FFF SRS VMAT plan consisting of one 358° arc at 0° couch angle and four 179° arcs at 30°, 60°, 330° and 300° couch angles respectively, was generated in ECLIPSE v.11 using a Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic head phantom CT study. This plan was a reproduction of a clinical plan generated for a stage-IV melanoma patient diagnosed with 19 intracranial lesions. The phantom was loaded with axiallymore » mounted (between phantom slabs) Gafchromic EBT3 film and TLDs strategically positioned within various target volumes. Film and TLDS were calibrated according to established protocols. Target prescription doses were 16 Gy (3cc≤, 3 lesions), 18 Gy (∼1–3cc, 10 lesions) and 20 Gy (≤1cc, 6 lesions). Phantom setup was verified through CBCT imaging prior to irradiation. Gafchromic films were scanned in transmission mode and TLDs were read, respectively, ∼24 hrs after irradiation. Results: Dose calibrated Gafchromic film data were compared to the ECLIPSE calculated data using a 3% / 3mm gamma function analysis. Results for the gamma values were 96–99% in agreement with the calculated data and with 84–90% of the film pixels within the 3% dose difference. TLD data showed a dose difference of 0.4–8% while the film data for those same locations yielded a difference of 0.4–4%. It was observed that the highest dose discrepancies correlated with the location of the small volume targets. Conclusion: Overall this study corroborated that a VMAT SRS treatment, employing various treatment table rotations and arcs, to multiple intracranial lesions with multiple dose prescriptions can be delivered accurately with the existing radiotherapy technology.« less

  17. Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy: comparing the arthrotomy knife to the Bovie blade.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Priscilla G; Sharp, Nicole E; St Peter, Shawn D

    2014-07-01

    Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy was performed at our institution using an arthrotomy knife until it became unavailable in 2010. Thus, we adapted the use of the blunt Bovie tip, which can be used with or without electrocautery to perform the myotomy. This study compared the outcomes between using the arthrotomy knife versus the Bovie blade in laparoscopic pyloromyotomies. Retrospective review was performed on all laparoscopic pyloromyotomy patients from October 2007 to September 2012. Arthrotomy knife pyloromyotomy patients were compared with those performed with the Bovie blade. Patient demographics, diagnostic measurements, electrolyte levels, length of stay, operative time, and complications were compared. A total of 381 patients were included, with 191 in the arthrotomy group and 190 in the Bovie blade group. No significant differences existed between groups in age, weight, gender, pyloric dimensions, electrolyte levels, or length of stay. Mean operative times were 15.8±5.6 min with knife and 16.4±5.3 min for Bovie blade (P=0.24). In the arthrotomy knife group, there was one incomplete pyloromyotomy and one omental herniation. There was one wound infection in each group. Readmission rate was greater in the arthrotomy knife group (5.7%) versus the Bovie blade group (3.1%). The Bovie blade appears to offer no objective disadvantages compared with the arthrotomy knife when performing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 75 FR 32158 - Information Collection; SRS Publications Evaluation Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ..., filing of petitions and applications and agency #0;statements of organization and functions are examples... should be addressed to Forest Service, USDA, Southern Research Station, Science Delivery Group, 200 W.T... through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: SRS Publications Evaluation Card. OMB Number: 0596-0163...

  19. Evaluation of a new disposable silicon limbal relaxing incision knife by experienced users.

    PubMed

    Albanese, John; Dugue, Geoffrey; Parvu, Valentin; Bajart, Ann M; Lee, Edwin

    2009-12-21

    Previous research has suggested that the silicon BD Atomic Edge knife has superior performance characteristics when compared to a metal knife and performance similar to diamond knife when making various incisions. This study was designed to determine whether a silicon accurate depth knife has equivalent performance characteristics when compared to a diamond limbal relaxing incision (LRI) knife and superior performance characteristics when compared to a steel accurate depth knife when creating limbal relaxing incision. Sixty-five ophthalmic surgeons with limbal relaxing incision experience created limbal relaxing incisions in ex-vivo porcine eyes with silicon and steel accurate depth knives and diamond LRI knives. The ophthalmic surgeons rated multiple performance characteristics of the knives on Visual Analog Scales. The observed differences between the silicon knife and diamond knife were found to be insignificant. The mean ratio between the performance of the silicon knife and the diamond knife was shown to be greater than 90% (with 95% confidence). The silicon knife's mean performance was significantly higher than the performance of the steel knife for all characteristics. (p-value < .05) For experienced users, the silicon accurate depth knife was found to be equivalent in performance to the diamond LRI knife and superior to the steel accurate depth knife when making limbal relaxing incisions in ex vivo porcine eyes. Disposable silicon LRI knives may be an alternative to diamond LRI knives.

  20. Testing of SRS and RFETS Nylon Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    This report compares the effects of radiation and heating on nylon bagout materials used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Recently, to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C), FB-Line has replaced the low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags normally used to package cans of plutonium-bearing material with nylon bags. LDPE and PVC are not soluble in the nitric acid dissolver solution used in F-Canyon, so cans bagged using these materials had to be repackaged before they were added to the dissolver. Because nylon dissolves inmore » nitric acid, cans bagged in nylon can be charged to the F-Canyon dissolvers without repackaging, thereby reducing handling requirements and personnel exposure. As part of a program to process RFETS SS and C at SRS, RFETS has also begun to use a nylon bagout material. The RFETS bag materials is made from a copolymer of nylon 6 and nylon 6.9, while the SRS material is made from a nylon 6 monomer. In addition, the SRS nylon has an anti-static agent added. The RFETS nylon is slightly softer than the SRS nylon, but does not appear to be as resistant to flex cracks initiated by contact with sharp corners of the inner can containing the SS and C.2 FB-Line Operations has asked for measurement of the effects of radiation and heating on these materials. Specifically, they have requested a comparison of the material properties of the plastics before and after irradiation, a measurement of the amount of outgassing when the plastics are heated, and a calculation of the amount of radiolytic gas generation. Testing was performed on samples taken from material that is currently used in FB-Line (color coded orange) and at RFETS. The requested tests are the same tests previously performed on the original and replacement nylon and LDPE bag materials.3,4,5. To evaluate the effect of irradiation on material properties, tensile stresses and elongations

  1. Enterprise SRS: Leveraging Ongoing Operations to Advance National Programs - 13108

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.E.; Murray, A.M.; McGuire, P.W.

    2013-07-01

    The SRS is re-purposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, strategic view of SRS as a united endeavor for 'all things nuclear' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with ongoing missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in amore » relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The DOE Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established the Center for Applied Nuclear Materials Processing and Engineering Research (CANMPER). The key objective of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear materials management advancements and large-scale deployment of the technology by leveraging SRS assets (e.g. facilities, staff, and property) for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. CANMPER will coordinate the demonstration of R and D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R and D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the R and D team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of CANMPER will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, CANMPER also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform R and D demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact that these SRS assets will continue to accomplish DOE

  2. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the modern management of patients with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hany; Das, Sunit; Larson, David A.; Sahgal, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established non-invasive ablative therapy for brain metastases. Early clinical trials with SRS proved that tumor control rates are superior to whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone. As a result, WBRT plus SRS was widely adopted for patients with a limited number of brain metastases (“limited number” customarily means 1-4). Subsequent trials focused on answering whether WBRT upfront was necessary at all. Based on current randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses comparing SRS alone to SRS plus WBRT, adjuvant WBRT results in better intracranial control; however, at the expense of neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. These adverse effects of WBRT may also negatively impact on survival in younger patients. Based on the results of these studies, treatment has shifted to SRS alone in patients with a limited number of metastases. Additionally, RCTs are evaluating the role of SRS alone in patients with >4 brain metastases. New developments in SRS include fractionated SRS for large tumors and the integration of SRS with targeted systemic therapies that cross the blood brain barrier and/or stimulate an immune response. We present in this review the current high level evidence and rationale supporting SRS as the standard of care for patients with limited brain metastases, and emerging applications of SRS. PMID:26848525

  3. Bark Separation During Chipping With a Parallel Knife Chipper

    Treesearch

    John R. Erickson

    1968-01-01

    Five winter-cut northern species were chipped in a frozen and unfrozen condition with a parallel knife chipper. The degree of bark separation during chipping and a relative gradation of chip size are reported.

  4. How Sharp Does a "Knife Edge" Have to Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Eric R.; Gash, Philip W.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help understand the effect of the curvature of the laboratory equipment support (cylindrical rod instead of knife-edge) on the frequency of oscillation of pendula. (ZWH)

  5. Independent Monte-Carlo dose calculation for MLC based CyberKnife radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackeprang, P.-H.; Vuong, D.; Volken, W.; Henzen, D.; Schmidhalter, D.; Malthaner, M.; Mueller, S.; Frei, D.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.; Dal Pra, A.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.

    2018-01-01

    This work aims to develop, implement and validate a Monte Carlo (MC)-based independent dose calculation (IDC) framework to perform patient-specific quality assurance (QA) for multi-leaf collimator (MLC)-based CyberKnife® (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) treatment plans. The IDC framework uses an XML-format treatment plan as exported from the treatment planning system (TPS) and DICOM format patient CT data, an MC beam model using phase spaces, CyberKnife MLC beam modifier transport using the EGS++ class library, a beam sampling and coordinate transformation engine and dose scoring using DOSXYZnrc. The framework is validated against dose profiles and depth dose curves of single beams with varying field sizes in a water tank in units of cGy/Monitor Unit and against a 2D dose distribution of a full prostate treatment plan measured with Gafchromic EBT3 (Ashland Advanced Materials, Bridgewater, NJ) film in a homogeneous water-equivalent slab phantom. The film measurement is compared to IDC results by gamma analysis using 2% (global)/2 mm criteria. Further, the dose distribution of the clinical treatment plan in the patient CT is compared to TPS calculation by gamma analysis using the same criteria. Dose profiles from IDC calculation in a homogeneous water phantom agree within 2.3% of the global max dose or 1 mm distance to agreement to measurements for all except the smallest field size. Comparing the film measurement to calculated dose, 99.9% of all voxels pass gamma analysis, comparing dose calculated by the IDC framework to TPS calculated dose for the clinical prostate plan shows 99.0% passing rate. IDC calculated dose is found to be up to 5.6% lower than dose calculated by the TPS in this case near metal fiducial markers. An MC-based modular IDC framework was successfully developed, implemented and validated against measurements and is now available to perform patient-specific QA by IDC.

  6. Combination of water-jet dissection and needle-knife as a hybrid knife simplifies endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Lingenfelder, Tobias; Fischer, Klaus; Sold, Moritz G; Post, Stefan; Enderle, Markus D; Kaehler, Georg F B A

    2009-07-01

    The safety and efficacy of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is very dependent on an effective injection beneath the submucosal lamina and on a controlled cutting technique. After our study group demonstrated the efficacy of the HydroJet in needleless submucosal injections under various physical conditions to create a submucosal fluid cushion (Selective tissue elevation by pressure = STEP technique), the next step was to develop a new instrument to combine the capabilities of an IT-Knife with a high-pressure water-jet in a single instrument. In this experimental study, we compared this new instrument with a standard ESD technique. Twelve gastric ESD were performed in six pigs under endotracheal anesthesia. Square areas measuring 4-cm x 4-cm were marked out on the anterior and posterior wall in the corpus-antrum transition region. The HybridKnife was used as an standard needle knife with insulated tip (i.e., the submucosal injection was performed with an injection needle and only the radiofrequency (RF) part of the HybridKnife was used for cutting (conventional technique)) or the HybridKnife was used in all the individual stages of the ESD, making use of the HybridKnife's combined functions (HybridKnife technique). The size of the resected specimens, the operating time, the frequency with which instruments were changed, the number of bleeding episodes, and the number of injuries to the gastric wall together with the subjective overall assessment of the intervention by the operating physician were recorded. The resected specimens were the same size, with average sizes of 16.96 cm(2) and 15.85 cm(2) resp (p = 0.8125). Bleeding episodes have been less frequent in the HybridKnife group (2.83 vs. 3.5; p = 0.5625). The standard knife caused more injuries to the lamina muscularis propria (0.17 vs. 1.33; p = 0.0313). The operating times had a tendency to be shorter with the HybridKnife technique (47.18 vs. 58.32 minute; p = 0.0313). The combination of a needle-knife

  7. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of SRS 9971 shipping package

    SciTech Connect

    Vescovi, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    This evaluation is requested to revise the criticality evaluation used to generate Chapter 6 (Criticality Evaluation) of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for shipment Of UO{sub 3} product from the Uranium Solidification Facility (USF) in the SRS 9971 shipping package. The pertinent document requesting this evaluation is included as Attachment I. The results of the evaluation are given in Attachment II which is written as Chapter 6 of a NRC format SARP.

  8. Usefulness of a novel slim type FlushKnife-BT over conventional FlushKnife-BT in esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Yoshiko; Toyonaga, Takashi; Hoshi, Namiko; Tanaka, Shinwa; Baba, Shinichi; Takihara, Hiroshi; Kawara, Fumiaki; Ishida, Tsukasa; Morita, Yoshinori; Umegaki, Eiji; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-03-07

    To investigated the usefulness of a novel slim type ball-tipped FlushKnife (FlushKnife-BTS) over ball-tipped FlushKnife (FlushKnife-BT) in functional experiments and clinical practice. In order to evaluate the functionality of FlushKnife-BTS, water aspiration speed, resistance to knife insertion through the scope, and waterjet flushing speed were compared between FlushKnife-BTS and BT. In clinical practice, esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) performed using FlushKnife-BTS or BT by an experienced endoscopist between October 2015 and January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The treatment speed and frequency of removing and reinserting the knife to aspirate fluid and air during ESD sessions were analyzed. Functional experiments revealed that water aspiration speed by the endoscope equipped with a 2.8-mm working channel with FlushKnife-BTS was 7.7-fold faster than that with conventional FlushKnife-BT. Resistance to knife insertion inside the scope with a 2.8-mm working channel was reduced by 40% with FlushKnife-BTS. The waterjet flushing speed was faster with the use of FlushKnife-BT. In clinical practice, a comparison of 6 and 7 ESD using FlushKnife-BT and BTS, respectively, revealed that the median treatment speed was 25.5 mm 2 /min (range 19.6-30.3) in the BT group and 44.2 mm 2 /min (range 15.5-55.4) in the BTS group ( P = 0.0633). However, the median treatment speed was significantly faster with FlushKnife-BTS when the resection size was larger than 1000 m 2 ( n = 4, median 24.2 mm 2 /min, range 19.6-27.7 vs n = 4, median 47.4 mm 2 /min, range 44.2-55.4, P = 0.0209). The frequency of knife replacement was less in the BTS group (median 1.76 times in one hour, range 0-5.45) than in the BT group (7.02 times in one hour, range 4.23-15) ( P = 0.0065). Our results indicate that FlushKnife-BTS enhances the performance of ESD, particularly for large lesions, by improving air and fluid aspiration and knife insertion during ESD and reducing the frequency

  9. Usefulness of a novel slim type FlushKnife-BT over conventional FlushKnife-BT in esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Yoshiko; Toyonaga, Takashi; Hoshi, Namiko; Tanaka, Shinwa; Baba, Shinichi; Takihara, Hiroshi; Kawara, Fumiaki; Ishida, Tsukasa; Morita, Yoshinori; Umegaki, Eiji; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigated the usefulness of a novel slim type ball-tipped FlushKnife (FlushKnife-BTS) over ball-tipped FlushKnife (FlushKnife-BT) in functional experiments and clinical practice. METHODS In order to evaluate the functionality of FlushKnife-BTS, water aspiration speed, resistance to knife insertion through the scope, and waterjet flushing speed were compared between FlushKnife-BTS and BT. In clinical practice, esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) performed using FlushKnife-BTS or BT by an experienced endoscopist between October 2015 and January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The treatment speed and frequency of removing and reinserting the knife to aspirate fluid and air during ESD sessions were analyzed. RESULTS Functional experiments revealed that water aspiration speed by the endoscope equipped with a 2.8-mm working channel with FlushKnife-BTS was 7.7-fold faster than that with conventional FlushKnife-BT. Resistance to knife insertion inside the scope with a 2.8-mm working channel was reduced by 40% with FlushKnife-BTS. The waterjet flushing speed was faster with the use of FlushKnife-BT. In clinical practice, a comparison of 6 and 7 ESD using FlushKnife-BT and BTS, respectively, revealed that the median treatment speed was 25.5 mm2/min (range 19.6-30.3) in the BT group and 44.2 mm2/min (range 15.5-55.4) in the BTS group (P = 0.0633). However, the median treatment speed was significantly faster with FlushKnife-BTS when the resection size was larger than 1000 m2 (n = 4, median 24.2 mm2/min, range 19.6-27.7 vs n = 4, median 47.4 mm2/min, range 44.2-55.4, P = 0.0209). The frequency of knife replacement was less in the BTS group (median 1.76 times in one hour, range 0-5.45) than in the BT group (7.02 times in one hour, range 4.23-15) (P = 0.0065). CONCLUSION Our results indicate that FlushKnife-BTS enhances the performance of ESD, particularly for large lesions, by improving air and fluid aspiration and knife insertion during ESD and

  10. Examining Reuse in LaSRS++-Based Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) developed the Langley Standard Real-Time Simulation in C++ (LaSRS++) to consolidate all software development for its simulation facilities under one common framework. A common framework promised a decrease in the total development effort for a new simulation by encouraging software reuse. To judge the success of LaSRS++ in this regard, reuse metrics were extracted from 11 aircraft models. Three methods that employ static analysis of the code were used to identify the reusable components. For the method that provides the best estimate, reuse levels fall between 66% and 95% indicating a high degree of reuse. Additional metrics provide insight into the extent of the foundation that LaSRS++ provides to new simulation projects. When creating variants of an aircraft, LaRC developers use object-oriented design to manage the aircraft as a reusable resource. Variants modify the aircraft for a research project or embody an alternate configuration of the aircraft. The variants inherit from the aircraft model. The variants use polymorphism to extend or redefine aircraft behaviors to meet the research requirements or to match the alternate configuration. Reuse level metrics were extracted from 10 variants. Reuse levels of aircraft by variants were 60% - 99%.

  11. Health effects of SRS non-radiological air emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.

    1997-06-16

    This report examines the potential health effects of non radiological emissions to the air resulting from operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this study was limited to the 55 air contaminants for which the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has quantified risk by determining unit risk factors (excess cancer risks) and/or reference concentrations (deleterious non cancer risks). Potential health impacts have been assessed in relation to the maximally exposed individual. This is a hypothetical person who resides for a lifetime at the SRS boundary. The most recent (1994) quality assured SRS emissions data available were used.more » Estimated maximum site boundary concentrations of the air contaminants were calculated using air dispersion modeling and 24-hour and annual averaging times. For the emissions studied, the excess cancer risk was found to be less than the generally accepted risk level of 1 in 100,000 and, in most cases, was less than 1 in 1,000,000. Deleterious non cancer effects were also found to be very unlikely.« less

  12. The SRS-Viewer: A Software Tool for Displaying and Evaluation of Pyroshock Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberl, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    For the evaluation of the success of a pyroshock, the time domain and the corresponding Shock-Response- Spectra (SRS) have to be considered. The SRS-Viewer is an IABG developed software tool [1] to read data in Universal File format (*.unv) and either display or plot for each accelerometer the time domain, corresponding SRS and the specified Reference-SRS with tolerances in the background.The software calculates the "Average (AVG)", "Maximum (MAX)" and "Minimum (MIN)" SRS of any selection of accelerometers. A statistical analysis calculates the percentages of measured SRS above the specified Reference-SRS level and the percentage within the tolerance bands for comparison with the specified success criteria.Overlay plots of single accelerometers of different test runs enable to monitor the repeatability of the shock input and the integrity of the specimen. Furthermore the difference between the shock on a mass-dummy and the real test unit can be examined.

  13. SU-F-T-574: MLC Based SRS Beam Commissioning - Minimum Target Size Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Zakikhani, R; Able, C

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement a MLC accelerator based SRS program using small fields down to 1 cm × 1 cm and to determine the smallest target size safe for clinical treatment. Methods: Computerized beam scanning was performed in water using a diode detector and a linac-head attached transmission ion chamber to characterize the small field dosimetric aspects of a 6 MV photon beam (Trilogy-Varian Medical Systems, Inc.). The output factors, PDD and profiles of field sizes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10 cm{sup 2} were measured and utilized to create a new treatment planning system (TPS) model (AAA ver 11021). Staticmore » MLC SRS treatment plans were created and delivered to a homogeneous phantom (Cube 20, CIRS, Inc.) for a 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm “PTV” target. A 12 field DMLC plan was created for a 2.1 cm target. Radiochromic film (EBT3, Ashland Inc.) was used to measure the planar dose in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes. A micro ion chamber (0.007 cc) was used to measure the dose at isocenter for each treatment delivery. Results: The new TPS model was validated by using a tolerance criteria of 2% dose and 2 mm distance to agreement. For fields ≤ 3 cm{sup 2}, the max PDD, Profile and OF difference was 0.9%, 2%/2mm and 1.4% respectively. The measured radiochromic film planar dose distributions had gamma scores of 95.3% or higher using a 3%/2mm criteria. Ion chamber measurements for all 3 test plans effectively met our goal of delivering the dose accurately to within 5% when compared to the expected dose reported by the TPS (1 cm plan Δ= −5.2%, 1.5 cm plan Δ= −2.0%, 2 cm plan Δ= 1.5%). Conclusion: End to end testing confirmed that MLC defined SRS for target sizes ≥ 1.0 cm can be safely planned and delivered.« less

  14. Efficacy of a Novel Narrow Knife with Water Jet Function for Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Yutaka; Rani, Rafiz Abdul; Naito, Yuji; Azuma, Takeshi; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds With respect to the knife's design in colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), diameter, water jet function, and electric power are important because these relate to efficient dissection. In this study, we analyzed a novel, narrow ball tip-typed ESD knife with water jet function (Flush knife BT-S, diameter: 2.2 mm, length: 2000 mm, Fujifilm Co., Tokyo, Japan) compared to a regular diameter knife (Flush knife BT, diameter: 2.6 mm, length: 1800 mm). Methods In laboratory and clinical research, electric power, knife insertion time, vacuum/suction amount with knife in the endoscopic channel, and water jet function were analyzed. We used a knife 2.0 mm long for BT-S and BT knives. Results The BT-S showed faster mean knife insertion time (sec) and better vacuum amount (ml/min) compared to the BT (insertion time: 16.7 versus 21.6, p < 0.001, vacuum amount: 38.0 versus 14.0, p < 0.01). Additionally, the water jet function of the BT-S was not inferior. In 39 colorectal ESD cases in two institutions, there were mean 4.7 times (range: 1–28) of knife insertion. Suction under knife happened 59% (23/39) and suction of fluid could be done in 100%. Conclusions Our study showed that the narrow knife allows significantly faster knife insertion, better vacuum function, and effective clinical results. PMID:29081793

  15. Efficacy of a Novel Narrow Knife with Water Jet Function for Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naohisa; Toyonaga, Takashi; Murakami, Takaaki; Hirose, Ryohei; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Inada, Yutaka; Rani, Rafiz Abdul; Naito, Yuji; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Ohara, Yoshiko; Azuma, Takeshi; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    With respect to the knife's design in colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), diameter, water jet function, and electric power are important because these relate to efficient dissection. In this study, we analyzed a novel, narrow ball tip-typed ESD knife with water jet function (Flush knife BT-S, diameter: 2.2 mm, length: 2000 mm, Fujifilm Co., Tokyo, Japan) compared to a regular diameter knife (Flush knife BT, diameter: 2.6 mm, length: 1800 mm). In laboratory and clinical research, electric power, knife insertion time, vacuum/suction amount with knife in the endoscopic channel, and water jet function were analyzed. We used a knife 2.0 mm long for BT-S and BT knives. The BT-S showed faster mean knife insertion time (sec) and better vacuum amount (ml/min) compared to the BT (insertion time: 16.7 versus 21.6, p < 0.001, vacuum amount: 38.0 versus 14.0, p < 0.01). Additionally, the water jet function of the BT-S was not inferior. In 39 colorectal ESD cases in two institutions, there were mean 4.7 times (range: 1-28) of knife insertion. Suction under knife happened 59% (23/39) and suction of fluid could be done in 100%. Our study showed that the narrow knife allows significantly faster knife insertion, better vacuum function, and effective clinical results.

  16. Growth in coculture stimulates metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Sebastian R; Ronen, Zeev; Aamand, Jens

    2002-07-01

    Metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 was significantly enhanced when the strain was grown in coculture with a soil bacterium (designated strain SRS1). Both members of this consortium were isolated from a highly enriched isoproturon-degrading culture derived from an agricultural soil previously treated regularly with the herbicide. Based on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, strain SRS1 was assigned to the beta-subdivision of the proteobacteria and probably represents a new genus. Strain SRS1 was unable to degrade either isoproturon or its known metabolites 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, or 4-isopropyl-aniline. Pure culture studies indicate that Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 is auxotrophic and requires components supplied by association with other soil bacteria. A specific mixture of amino acids appeared to meet these requirements, and it was shown that methionine was essential for Sphingomonas sp. SRS2. This suggests that strain SRS1 supplies amino acids to Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, thereby leading to rapid metabolism of (14)C-labeled isoproturon to (14)CO(2) and corresponding growth of strain SRS2. Proliferation of strain SRS1 suggests that isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 provides unknown metabolites or cell debris that supports growth of strain SRS1. The role of strain SRS1 in the consortium was not ubiquitous among soil bacteria; however, the indigenous soil microflora and some strains from culture collections also stimulate isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 to a similar extent.

  17. Growth in Coculture Stimulates Metabolism of the Phenylurea Herbicide Isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. Strain SRS2

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Sebastian R.; Ronen, Zeev; Aamand, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Metabolism of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 was significantly enhanced when the strain was grown in coculture with a soil bacterium (designated strain SRS1). Both members of this consortium were isolated from a highly enriched isoproturon-degrading culture derived from an agricultural soil previously treated regularly with the herbicide. Based on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, strain SRS1 was assigned to the β-subdivision of the proteobacteria and probably represents a new genus. Strain SRS1 was unable to degrade either isoproturon or its known metabolites 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, or 4-isopropyl-aniline. Pure culture studies indicate that Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 is auxotrophic and requires components supplied by association with other soil bacteria. A specific mixture of amino acids appeared to meet these requirements, and it was shown that methionine was essential for Sphingomonas sp. SRS2. This suggests that strain SRS1 supplies amino acids to Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, thereby leading to rapid metabolism of 14C-labeled isoproturon to 14CO2 and corresponding growth of strain SRS2. Proliferation of strain SRS1 suggests that isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. SRS2 provides unknown metabolites or cell debris that supports growth of strain SRS1. The role of strain SRS1 in the consortium was not ubiquitous among soil bacteria; however, the indigenous soil microflora and some strains from culture collections also stimulate isoproturon metabolism by Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 to a similar extent. PMID:12089031

  18. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with γ-knife compared to TACE or γ-knife alone for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yeyu; Chang, Qian; Xiao, Enhua; Shang, Quan-Liang; Chen, Zhu

    2018-06-01

    To compare the clinical efficacies and adverse reactions between transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), γ-ray 3-dimensional fractionated stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (FSCR), and TACE combined with FSCR for primary hepatocellular carcinoma.The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived due to the retrospective study design. About 121 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study, from March 2008 to January 2010, in the Second Xiangya Hospital. Forty-six patients underwent TACE alone, 36 patients underwent γ-knife alone, and 39 were treated by γ-knife combined with TACE. Short-term effects, overall survival rates, adverse reactions, and survival times were compared between the 3 treatment groups.Short-term effects were observed in 41.3% of the TACE group, 33.3% of the γ-knife group, and 64.1% of the TACE combined γ-knife group (P = .020). Overall survival rates at 6,12, 18, and 24 months were 50%, 34.8%, 28.3%, and 21.7% for the TACE group, 36.1%, 30.6%, 16.7%, and 11.1% for γ-knife group, and 84.6%, 71.8%, 61.5%, and 30.8% for TACE combined γ-knife group, respectively. The differences in the overall survival rates at 6, 12, and 18 months between the 3 groups were statistically significant (P = 0), but the overall survival rates at 24 months in the 3 groups were not significantly different (P = .117). The median survival time was 7 months for the TACE group, 3 months for the γ-knife group, and 20 months for the TACE combined γ-knife group (P = 0). There were statistically significant differences (P = .010) of leukopenia between the 3 groups, and no statistically significant differences of (P > .05) thrombocytopenia, anemia, nausea, vomiting, and liver function lesions.TACE combined with γ-knife for primary hepatocellular carcinoma is superior to TACE or γ-knife alone in short-term and long-term effects. This procedure is a mild, safe, and effective

  19. [Development of external quality control protocol for CyberKnife beams dosimetry: preliminary tests multicentre].

    PubMed

    Guinement, L; Marchesi, V; Veres, A; Lacornerie, T; Buchheit, I; Peiffert, D

    2013-01-01

    To develop an external quality control procedure for CyberKnife(®) beams. This work conducted in Nancy, has included a test protocol initially drawn by the medical physicist of Nancy and Lille in collaboration with Equal-Estro Laboratory. A head and neck anthropomorphic phantom and a water-equivalent homogeneous cubic plastic test-object, so-called "MiniCube", have been used. Powder and solid thermoluminescent dosimeters as well as radiochromic films have been used to perform absolute and relative dose studies, respectively. The comparison between doses calculated by Multiplan treatment planning system and measured doses have been studied in absolute dose. The dose distributions measured with films and treatment planning system calculations have been compared via the gamma function, configured with different tolerance criteria. This work allowed, via solid thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements, verifying the beam reliability with a reproducibility of 1.7 %. The absolute dose measured in the phantom irradiated by the seven participating centres has shown an error inferior to the standard tolerance limits (± 5 %), for most of participating centres. The relative dose measurements performed at Nancy and by the Equal-Estro laboratory allowed defining the most adequate parameters for gamma index (5 %/2mm--with at least 95 % of pixels satisfying acceptability criteria: γ<1). These parameters should be independent of the film analysis software. This work allowed defining a dosimetric external quality control for CyberKnife(®) systems, based on a reproducible irradiation plan through measurements performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiochromic films. This protocol should be validated by a new series of measurement and taking into account the lessons of this work. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Penetration tests to study the mechanical tribological properties of chisel type knife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlăduţoiu, L.; Chişiu, G.; Andrei, T.; Predescu, A.; Muraru, C.; Vlăduţ, V.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the behaviour of chisel knife type penetration in a certain type of sand. A series of penetration tests were carried out with chisel knife type, the answer to penetration depending mainly on nature, shape, size of knife and operating parameters such as speed, depth and working conditions. Tests were conducted in work conditions with wet sand and dry sand and determined force of resistance to penetration of the chisel knife type to a certain depth.

  1. Analysis of volumetric response of pituitary adenomas receiving adjuvant CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery with the application of an exponential fitting model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-Lin; Yang, Yun-Ju; Lin, Chin; Hsieh, Chih-Chuan; Li, Chiao-Zhu; Feng, Shao-Wei; Tang, Chi-Tun; Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Ma, Hsin-I; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Ju, Da-Tong; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tumor control rates of pituitary adenomas (PAs) receiving adjuvant CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (CK SRS) are high. However, there is currently no uniform way to estimate the time course of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the volumetric responses of PAs after CK SRS and investigate the application of an exponential decay model in calculating an accurate time course and estimation of the eventual outcome. A retrospective review of 34 patients with PAs who received adjuvant CK SRS between 2006 and 2013 was performed. Tumor volume was calculated using the planimetric method. The percent change in tumor volume and tumor volume rate of change were compared at median 4-, 10-, 20-, and 36-month intervals. Tumor responses were classified as: progression for >15% volume increase, regression for ≤15% decrease, and stabilization for ±15% of the baseline volume at the time of last follow-up. For each patient, the volumetric change versus time was fitted with an exponential model. The overall tumor control rate was 94.1% in the 36-month (range 18–87 months) follow-up period (mean volume change of −43.3%). Volume regression (mean decrease of −50.5%) was demonstrated in 27 (79%) patients, tumor stabilization (mean change of −3.7%) in 5 (15%) patients, and tumor progression (mean increase of 28.1%) in 2 (6%) patients (P = 0.001). Tumors that eventually regressed or stabilized had a temporary volume increase of 1.07% and 41.5% at 4 months after CK SRS, respectively (P = 0.017). The tumor volume estimated using the exponential fitting equation demonstrated high positive correlation with the actual volume calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as tested by Pearson correlation coefficient (0.9). Transient progression of PAs post-CK SRS was seen in 62.5% of the patients receiving CK SRS, and it was not predictive of eventual volume regression or progression. A three-point exponential model is of potential predictive value

  2. Analysis of volumetric response of pituitary adenomas receiving adjuvant CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery with the application of an exponential fitting model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi-Lin; Yang, Yun-Ju; Lin, Chin; Hsieh, Chih-Chuan; Li, Chiao-Zhu; Feng, Shao-Wei; Tang, Chi-Tun; Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Ma, Hsin-I; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Ju, Da-Tong; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Tumor control rates of pituitary adenomas (PAs) receiving adjuvant CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (CK SRS) are high. However, there is currently no uniform way to estimate the time course of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the volumetric responses of PAs after CK SRS and investigate the application of an exponential decay model in calculating an accurate time course and estimation of the eventual outcome.A retrospective review of 34 patients with PAs who received adjuvant CK SRS between 2006 and 2013 was performed. Tumor volume was calculated using the planimetric method. The percent change in tumor volume and tumor volume rate of change were compared at median 4-, 10-, 20-, and 36-month intervals. Tumor responses were classified as: progression for >15% volume increase, regression for ≤15% decrease, and stabilization for ±15% of the baseline volume at the time of last follow-up. For each patient, the volumetric change versus time was fitted with an exponential model.The overall tumor control rate was 94.1% in the 36-month (range 18-87 months) follow-up period (mean volume change of -43.3%). Volume regression (mean decrease of -50.5%) was demonstrated in 27 (79%) patients, tumor stabilization (mean change of -3.7%) in 5 (15%) patients, and tumor progression (mean increase of 28.1%) in 2 (6%) patients (P = 0.001). Tumors that eventually regressed or stabilized had a temporary volume increase of 1.07% and 41.5% at 4 months after CK SRS, respectively (P = 0.017). The tumor volume estimated using the exponential fitting equation demonstrated high positive correlation with the actual volume calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as tested by Pearson correlation coefficient (0.9).Transient progression of PAs post-CK SRS was seen in 62.5% of the patients receiving CK SRS, and it was not predictive of eventual volume regression or progression. A three-point exponential model is of potential predictive value according to relative

  3. A retracting wire knife for cutting fiber bundles and making sheet lesions of brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Russell, I S

    1979-07-01

    A retracting knife which has two cutting wires for the transection of fiber bundles is described. The knife holds the fiber bundles of the stria terminalis between the two cutting wires and transects them by a shearing movement as the wires close. In addition, the feasability of such a knife producing a sheet lesion around the n. caudatus is also described.

  4. Development of an air knife to remove seed coat fragments during lint cleaning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An air knife is a tool commonly used to blow off debris in a manufacturing line. The knife may also be used to break the attachment force between a lint cleaner saw and a seed coat fragment (SCF) with attached fiber, and remove them. Work continued on evaluating an auxiliary air knife mounted on t...

  5. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, K.; Jannik, T.

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused notmore » only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.« less

  6. Super-resolved terahertz microscopy by knife-edge scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliberti, V.; Flammini, M.; Ciano, C.; Pontecorvo, E.; Del Re, E.; Ortolani, M.

    2017-08-01

    We present a compact, all solid-state THz confocal microscope operating at 0.30 THz that achieves super-resolution by using the knife-edge scan approach. In the final reconstructed image, a lateral resolution of 60 μm ≍ λ/17 is demonstrated when the knife-edge is deep in the near-field of the sample surface. When the knife-edge is lifted up to λ/4 from the sample surface, a certain degree of super-resolution is maintained with a resolution of 0.4 mm, i.e. more than a factor 2 if compared to the diffraction-limited scheme. The present results open an interesting path towards super-resolved imaging with in-depth information that would be peculiar to THz microscopy systems.

  7. Knife wound to the posterior fossa in a child.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Avinash L; Slim, Michel; Benzil, Deborah L

    2005-03-01

    Knife wounds to the posterior fossa are a rare occurrence, especially in children. We report an 8-year-old girl who sustained a penetrating knife injury through the occipital bone into the posterior fossa. On presentation, the large knife blade was firmly embedded in her head. Radiographic evaluation was limited to plain X-rays because of the large size and sharpness of the embedded blade. Innovative positioning was used during intubation and then the patient was positioned semi-prone on the operating room table. The blade was surgically removed and the dura was closed. Atypical penetrating cranial injuries in children may require the treatment team to take a creative approach to the evaluation and repair of the lesion in order to maximize patient safety and minimize the risk of neurological injury.

  8. Enterprise SRS: leveraging ongoing operations to advance nuclear fuel cycles research and development programs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.M.; Marra, J.E.; Wilmarth, W.R.

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is re-purposing its vast array of assets (including H Canyon - a nuclear chemical separation plant) to solve issues regarding advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies, nuclear materials processing, packaging, storage and disposition. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, radical view of SRS as a united endeavor for 'all things nuclear' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into SRS facilities but also in other facilities in conjunction with on-goingmore » missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research has been established in SRS.« less

  9. Dose calculation accuracy of the Monte Carlo algorithm for CyberKnife compared with other commercially available dose calculation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Subhash; Ott, Joseph; Williams, Jamone; Dickow, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithms have the potential for greater accuracy than traditional model-based algorithms. This enhanced accuracy is particularly evident in regions of lateral scatter disequilibrium, which can develop during treatments incorporating small field sizes and low-density tissue. A heterogeneous slab phantom was used to evaluate the accuracy of several commercially available dose calculation algorithms, including Monte Carlo dose calculation for CyberKnife, Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm and Pencil Beam convolution for the Eclipse planning system, and convolution-superposition for the Xio planning system. The phantom accommodated slabs of varying density; comparisons between planned and measured dose distributions were accomplished with radiochromic film. The Monte Carlo algorithm provided the most accurate comparison between planned and measured dose distributions. In each phantom irradiation, the Monte Carlo predictions resulted in gamma analysis comparisons >97%, using acceptance criteria of 3% dose and 3-mm distance to agreement. In general, the gamma analysis comparisons for the other algorithms were <95%. The Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm for CyberKnife provides more accurate dose distribution calculations in regions of lateral electron disequilibrium than commercially available model-based algorithms. This is primarily because of the ability of Monte Carlo algorithms to implicitly account for tissue heterogeneities, density scaling functions; and/or effective depth correction factors are not required. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopic OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Zhou, Kevin C.; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables non-invasive, high-resolution, tomographic imaging of biological tissues by leveraging principles of low coherence interferometry; however, OCT lacks molecular specificity. Spectroscopic OCT (SOCT) overcomes this limitation by providing depth-resolved spectroscopic signatures of chromophores, but SOCT has been limited to a couple of endogenous molecules, namely hemoglobin and melanin. Stimulated Raman scattering, on the other hand, can provide highly specific molecular information of many endogenous species, but lacks the spatial and spectral multiplexing capabilities of SOCT. In this work we integrate the two methods, SRS and SOCT, to enable simultaneously multiplexed spatial and spectral imaging with sensitivity to many endogenous biochemical species that play an important role in biology and medicine. The method, termed SRS-SOCT, has the potential to achieve fast, volumetric, and highly sensitive label-free molecular imaging, which would be valuable for many applications. We demonstrate the approach by imaging excised human adipose tissue and detecting the lipids' Raman signatures in the high-wavenumber region. Details of this method along with validations and results will be presented.

  11. Comparison of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone and whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plus a stereotactic boost (WBRT+SRS) for one to three brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Rades, Dirk; Kueter, Jan-Dirk; Hornung, Dagmar; Veninga, Theo; Hanssens, Patrick; Schild, Steven E; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-12-01

    The best available treatment of patients with one to three brain metastases is still unclear. This study compared the results of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone and whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plus SRS (WBRT+SRS). Survival (OS), intracerebral control (IC), and local control of treated metastases (LC) were retrospectively analyzed in 144 patients receiving SRS alone (n=93) or WBRT+SRS (n=51). Eight additional potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age, gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG-PS), tumor type, number of brain metastases, extracerebral metastases, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class, and interval from tumor diagnosis to irradiation. Subgroup analyses were performed for RPA class I and II patients. 1-year-OS was 53% after SRS and 56% after WBRT+SRS (p=0.24). 1-year-IC rates were 51% and 66% (p=0.015), respectively. 1-year-LC rates were 66% and 87% (p=0.003), respectively. On multivariate analyses, OS was associated with age (p=0.004), ECOG-PS (p=0.005), extracerebral metastases (p<0.001), RPA class (p<0.001), and interval from tumor diagnosis to irradiation (p<0.001). IC was associated with interval from tumor diagnosis to irradiation (p=0.004) and almost with treatment (p=0.09), and LC with treatment (p=0.026) and almost with interval (p=0.08). The results of the subgroup analyses were similar to those of the entire cohort. The increase in IC was stronger in RPA class I patients. WBRT+SRS resulted in better IC and LC but not better OS than SRS alone. Because also IC and LC are important end-points, additional WBRT appears justified in patients with one to three brain metastases, in particular in RPA class I patients.

  12. Adjustable knife cuts honeycomb material to specified depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Calibrated, adjustable knife cuts aluminum honeycomb or other soft materials to a desired depth. The frame of the device accommodates standard commercial blades. Since the blade is always visible to the operator, the device can be used on any straight or irregular layout line.

  13. The Shoemaker's Knife--An Approach of the Polya Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libeskind, Shlomo; Lott, Johnny W.

    1984-01-01

    Archimedes' shoemaker's knife problem is interesting in its own right and also allows the demonstration of heuristic teaching ideas and a different method of doing a routine construction. The focus in the article is on the thought processes involved and questions asked when attempting proofs with the problem. (MNS)

  14. "Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun": Getting Real in Upward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Barbara G.; Adkins, Theresa A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a teacher found literature for Upward Bound students. Presents Geoffrey Canada's "Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America" as a nonfiction work to provide clarity and connections that might not have been available in a fictional work, yet it had elements of literary fiction that made the text…

  15. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Mike; Herbert, James E.; Scheele, Patrick W.

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m 3 to 4921 m 3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removalmore » and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and product lubricated

  16. A 3D correction method for predicting the readings of a PinPoint chamber on the CyberKnife® M6™ machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongqian; Brandner, Edward; Ozhasoglu, Cihat; Lalonde, Ron; Heron, Dwight E.; Saiful Huq, M.

    2018-02-01

    The use of small fields in radiation therapy techniques has increased substantially in particular in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). However, as field size reduces further still, the response of the detector changes more rapidly with field size, and the effects of measurement uncertainties become increasingly significant due to the lack of lateral charged particle equilibrium, spectral changes as a function of field size, detector choice, and subsequent perturbations of the charged particle fluence. This work presents a novel 3D dose volume-to-point correction method to predict the readings of a 0.015 cc PinPoint chamber (PTW 31014) for both small static-fields and composite-field dosimetry formed by fixed cones on the CyberKnife® M6™ machine. A 3D correction matrix is introduced to link the 3D dose distribution to the response of the PinPoint chamber in water. The parameters of the correction matrix are determined by modeling its 3D dose response in circular fields created using the 12 fixed cones (5 mm-60 mm) on a CyberKnife® M6™ machine. A penalized least-square optimization problem is defined by fitting the calculated detector reading to the experimental measurement data to generate the optimal correction matrix; the simulated annealing algorithm is used to solve the inverse optimization problem. All the experimental measurements are acquired for every 2 mm chamber shift in the horizontal planes for each field size. The 3D dose distributions for the measurements are calculated using the Monte Carlo calculation with the MultiPlan® treatment planning system (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The performance evaluation of the 3D conversion matrix is carried out by comparing the predictions of the output factors (OFs), off-axis ratios (OARs) and percentage depth dose (PDD) data to the experimental measurement data. The discrepancy of the measurement and the prediction data for composite fields is also

  17. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservationmore » and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  18. Dependence of normal brain integral dose and normal tissue complication probability on the prescription isodose values for γ-knife radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun

    2001-11-01

    A recent multi-institutional clinical study suggested possible benefits of lowering the prescription isodose lines for stereotactic radiosurgery procedures. In this study, we investigate the dependence of the normal brain integral dose and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) on the prescription isodose values for γ-knife radiosurgery. An analytical dose model was developed for γ-knife treatment planning. The dose model was commissioned by fitting the measured dose profiles for each helmet size. The dose model was validated by comparing its results with the Leksell gamma plan (LGP, version 5.30) calculations. The normal brain integral dose and the NTCP were computed and analysed for an ensemble of treatment cases. The functional dependence of the normal brain integral dose and the NCTP versus the prescribing isodose values was studied for these cases. We found that the normal brain integral dose and the NTCP increase significantly when lowering the prescription isodose lines from 50% to 35% of the maximum tumour dose. Alternatively, the normal brain integral dose and the NTCP decrease significantly when raising the prescribing isodose lines from 50% to 65% of the maximum tumour dose. The results may be used as a guideline for designing future dose escalation studies for γ-knife applications.

  19. Investigating the Clinical Usefulness of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a Tertiary Level, Autism Spectrum Disorder Specific Assessment Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Fiona J.; Gibbs, Vicki M.; Schmidhofer, Katherine; Williams, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS; Constantino and Gruber in Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2005) is a commonly used screening tool for identifying children with possible autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study investigated the relationship between SRS scores and eventual diagnostic outcome…

  20. Brief Report: The Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults (SRS-A)-- Initial Results in a German Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a tool for quantitative autism assessment in children and adolescents. The SRS-A addresses social responsiveness in adulthood. Reliability and validity using the German adaptation of the SRS-A was examined in 20 adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 62 with other mental disorders (CLIN) and 163…

  1. Srs2 prevents Rad51 filament formation by repetitive motion on DNA.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yupeng; Antony, Edwin; Doganay, Sultan; Koh, Hye Ran; Lohman, Timothy M; Myong, Sua

    2013-01-01

    Srs2 dismantles presynaptic Rad51 filaments and prevents its re-formation as an anti-recombinase. However, the molecular mechanism by which Srs2 accomplishes these tasks remains unclear. Here we report a single-molecule fluorescence study of the dynamics of Rad51 filament formation and its disruption by Srs2. Rad51 forms filaments on single-stranded DNA by sequential binding of primarily monomers and dimers in a 5'-3' direction. One Rad51 molecule binds to three nucleotides, and six monomers are required to achieve a stable nucleation cluster. Srs2 exhibits ATP-dependent repetitive motion on single-stranded DNA and this activity prevents re-formation of the Rad51 filament. The same activity of Srs2 cannot prevent RecA filament formation, indicating its specificity for Rad51. Srs2's DNA-unwinding activity is greatly suppressed when Rad51 filaments form on duplex DNA. Taken together, our results reveal an exquisite and highly specific mechanism by which Srs2 regulates the Rad51 filament formation.

  2. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SRAO: optical design and the dual-knife-edge WFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    The Southern Robotic Adaptive Optics (SRAO) instrument will bring the proven high-efficiency capabilities of Robo-AO to the Southern-Hemisphere, providing the unique capability to image with high-angular-resolution thousands of targets per year across the entire sky. Deployed on the modern 4.1m SOAR telescope located on Cerro Tololo, the NGS AO system will use an innovative dual-knife-edge wavefront sensor, similar to a pyramid sensor, to enable guiding on targets down to V=16 with diffraction limited resolution in the NIR. The dual-knife-edge wavefront sensor can be up to two orders of magnitude less costly than custom glass pyramids, with similar wavefront error sensitivity and minimal chromatic aberrations. SRAO is capable of observing hundreds of targets a night through automation, allowing confirmation and characterization of the large number of exoplanets produced by current and future missions.

  4. SU-F-T-578: Characterization of Vidar DosimetryPro Advantage RED Scanner with Application to SBRT and SRS QA

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, M; Wen, N

    Purpose: To use Gafchromic EBT3 film to quantify key dosimetric characteristics of the Vidar DosimetryPro Advantage RED film scanner for use in SBRT/SRS QA, by analyzing scanner uniformity and dose sensitivity. Method: Gafchromic EBT3 film was used in this study. Films were irradiated using 6MV FFF and 10MV FFF beams from a Varian Edge linear accelerator, with setup of 100cm SAD at depth 5 cm. Nine doses were delivered per film, with calibration dose ranges of 1–10 Gy and 3–24 Gy for 6MV FFF, and 3–27 Gy for 10MV FFF. Films were scanned with the long side of the filmmore » parallel to the detector array. Dose calibration curves were fitted to a 3rd degree polynomial. The derivative of a calibration curve was taken to determine the scanner’s sensitivity per dose delivered (OD/Gy). Scanner non-uniformity was calculated in 2 dimensions by taking the mean of standard deviation in each row and column. Absolute dose SRS/SBRT Gamma analyses were performed with passing criteria of 3% and 1mm DTA. For comparison, Gamma analyses were also performed using an Epson Expression 10000 XL. Results: Uniformity for the Vidar scanner was 0.37% +/− 0.03% in the perpendicular to scan direction and 0.67% +/− 0.05% in the parallel to scan direction, with an overall uniformity of 0.52% +/− 0.03%. Epson red channel uniformity was 0.85% +/− 0.05% and 0.88% +/− 0.08% for the green channel. The Vidar average dose sensitivity from 1–10 Gy was 0.112 OD/Gy and 0.061 OD/Gy for 3–24 Gy. SBRT/SRS Gamma pass rates were 97.8 +/− 1.4 for Vidar and 97.5 +/− 1.4 for Epson. Conclusion: The Vidar scanner has 41% less non-uniformity compared to Epson XL10000 green channel. The dose sensitivity is 2–3 time greater for the Vidar scanner compared to the Epson in the SRS/SBRT dose range of 5–24 Gy.« less

  5. Cross-Grain Knife Planing Improves Surface Quality and Utilization of Aspen

    Treesearch

    Harold A. Stewart

    1971-01-01

    Aspen at 6 percent moisture content was planed parallel to the grain and across the grain on a cabinet planer with a 25? rake angle, 1/16- and 1/32-inch depth of cut, and 20 knife marks per inch. Aspen was also cross-grain knife planed with a 45? rake angle, 1/32-, 1/16-, and 1/8-inch depths of cut, and 20, 10, 5, and 2.5 knife marks per inch. Cross-grain knife...

  6. No need to change the skin knife in modern arthroplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, C; Skovby, A; Troelsen, A; Specht, C; Friis-Møller, A; Husted, H

    2014-08-01

    Earlier studies have found varying contamination rates using separate skin and deep knives in total hip (THA) and total knee (TKA) arthroplasty surgery. Previous studies were primarily conducted in the setting of concomitant use of laminar airflow and/or plastic adhesive draping. This has lead to conflicting conclusions regarding discarding the skin knife or not. This study evaluates the prevalence of contamination of a separate skin knife using modern antiseptic technique in primary THA and TKA without laminar airflow. Three knives from each primary THA and TKA surgery in non-laminar airflow operating rooms were collected: one used for the skin, one used for deeper tissues and one control knife. A total of 831 knife blades from 277 patients were cultured 12 days. Contamination of the skin knife was found in eight patients (2.8 %), contamination of the "deep" knife in five patients (1.8 %) and contamination of the control knife in five patients (1.8 %). No patient developed an infection with 1-year follow-up. Our findings suggest a very low rate of contamination of the skin knife using modern antiseptic technique without laminar airflow and/or plastic adhesive draping and do not support the use of a separate skin knife in arthroplasty surgery.

  7. [Treatment of trigger finger with located needle knife].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Feng; Yang, Jiang; Xi, Sheng-Hua

    2016-07-25

    To investigate the clinical effects of located needle knife in the treatment of trigger finger. The clinical data of 133 patients(145 fingers) with trigger finger underwent treatment with located needle knife from September 2010 to March 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 37 males(40 fingers) and 96 females (105 fingers), aged from 18 to 71 years old with a mean of 51.8 years. Course of disease was from 1 to 19 months with an average of 8.2 months. Affected fingers included 82 thumbs, 12 index fingers, 11 middle fingers, 36 ring fingers, and 4 little fingers. According to the standard of Quinnell grade, 42 fingers were grade III, 92 fingers were grade IV, and 11 fingers were grade V. Firstly the double pipe gab was put into the distal edge of hypertrophic tendon sheath, then small knife needle was used to release the sheath proximally along the tendon line direction. The informations of wound healing and nerve injury, postoperative finger function, finger pain at 6 months were observed. The operation time was from 8 to 25 min with an average of 9.8 min. All the patients were followed up from 6 to 26 months with an average of 12.5 months. No complications such as the wound inflammation and seepage, vascular or nerve injuries were found. According to the standard of Quinnell grade, 123 fingers got excellent results, 15 good, 7 poor. It's a good choice to treat trigger finger with located needle knife in advantage of minimal invasion, simple safe operation, and it should be promoted in clinic.

  8. SRS modeling in high power CW fiber lasers for component optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, G.; Villeneuve, A.; Faucher, M.; Morin, M.; Trépanier, F.; Dionne, R.

    2017-02-01

    A CW kilowatt fiber laser numerical model has been developed taking into account intracavity stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). It uses the split-step Fourier method which is applied iteratively over several cavity round trips. The gain distribution is re-evaluated after each iteration with a standard CW model using an effective FBG reflectivity that quantifies the non-linear spectral leakage. This model explains why spectrally narrow output couplers produce more SRS than wider FBGs, as recently reported by other authors, and constitute a powerful tool to design optimized and innovative fiber components to push back the onset of SRS for a given fiber core diameter.

  9. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott; Fabien, Jeffrey

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, withmore » radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm

  10. Modulation of the formation and release of bovine SRS-A in vitro by several anti-anaphylactic drugs.

    PubMed

    Burka, J F; Eyre, P

    1975-01-01

    Slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) is released immunologically from bovine lung in vitro. Various drugs known to protect calves and other animals during anaphylaxis were tested to investigate their modulation of the formation and release of SRS-A. The anti-inflammatory drugs, meclofenamate and aspirin, potentiated SRS-A release. Chlorphenesin and diethylcarbamazine citrate at high concentrations both inhibited SRS-A release. Two new anti-anaphylactic drugs, PR-D-92-EA and M&B 22,948, were particularly effective in inhibiting SRS-A release at low concentrations. The possible modes of actions of these drugs are discussed.

  11. Endoscopic treatment of Zenker's diverticulum with the stag beetle knife (sb knife) - feasibility and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Goelder, S K; Brueckner, J; Messmann, H

    2016-10-01

    Flexible endoscopic treatment of symptomatic Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) is an established treatment option. This study reports the first large cohort of ZD patients treated with the stag beetle knife (sb knife, a new scissor-like device) regarding feasibility, safety, and sustainability of mucomyotomy using this technique. From August 2013 to January 2016, n = 52 patients (pts) were treated at Klinikum Augsburg, a tertiary referral center, with the sb knife junior or standard. For stability and safety, the septum is fixed with a soft overtube before intervention. Symptoms were analyzed before and at 1 and 6 months past intervention using an extensive questionnaire of dysphagia, odynophagia, regurgitation, chronic cough, state of health, and complications. The mean size of ZD was 3 cm (1-5 cm). Forty-seven out of 52 (90.4%) patients received one treatment session. The mean procedure time was 32 min (18-60 min). In 10 procedures (17%), a clip was placed at the bottom of the resection line. No major complications (e.g., perforation, mediastinitis) occurred. Five patients (9.6%) required a second treatment after a mean of 7 months (3-13) due to symptomatic recurrence. One patient was lost to further follow-up after one month with no or rare complaints. One patient had a third treatment (1.9%) without complications. During a mean follow-up of 16 months (2-31), the dysphagia score improved from 2 (1-4) prior of treatment to 1 (0-4), odynophagia, regurgitation, and chronic cough were no longer reported in the asymptomatic patients at all. Flexible endoscopic treatment of ZD with the sb knife and overtube is effective, safe, and has lasting effects with a relatively low recurrence rate.

  12. Usefulness of IT knife nano for endoscopic submucosal dissection of large colo-rectal lesions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Hara, T; Kitagawa, Y; Yamaguchi, T

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is currently widely conducted for the treatment of early gastrointestinal -cancers. Due to the characteristic anatomy of the large intestine, needle- tip type devices such as Dual knife are mainly used in colorectal ESD. On the other hand, the non- needle-tip type IT knife is a unique device with an insulated tip, and has been reported to be safe, efficacious and speedy when used in gastric ESD. A new model of IT knife, IT knife nano, anticipated to be useful for esophageal and colorectal ESD has become available, but its usefulness has not been reported. Therefore, we performed this study to evaluate the usefulness of IT knife nano for ESD of large colorectal lesions. Previous studies have shown that a tumor size of 40 mm or above significantly prolongs treatment time and is a factor of treatment difficulty. We selected colorectal lesions of 40 mm and above, and compared 32 lesions treated with Dual knife alone before IT knife nano was available (No-IT group) and 40 cases treated with IT knife nano as a second knife after IT knife nano became available (IT group). We assessed en bloc resection rate, complete en bloc resection rate, complication rate and treatment time. The en bloc resection rates in No-IT group and IT group were 100% and 97.5%, respectively, with no significant difference. The respective median treatment time was 70 min and 51 min, and was significantly shortened in IT group (P < 0.05). The respective rates of procedure- related perforation were 3.1% and 0% ; in IT group suggesting a tendency of reduced incidence. Use of IT knife nano in ESD for large colorectal -lesions achieves the same levels of efficacy and safety as conventional device, with the additional merit of shortening treatment time. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  13. TU-A-BRB-00: PANEL DISCUSSION: SBRT/SRS Case Studies - Brain and Spine

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    Brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are commonly treated by a multidisciplinary team of neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists. However the treatment objectives, constraints, and technical considerations involved can be quite different between the two techniques. In this interactive session an expert panel of speakers will present clinical brain SRS and spine SBRT cases in order to demonstrate real-world considerations for ensuring safe and accurate treatment delivery and to highlight the significant differences in approach for each treatment site. The session will include discussion of topic such as clinical indications, immobilization, target definition, normalmore » tissue tolerance limits, and beam arrangements. Learning Objectives: Understand the differences in indications and dose/fractionation strategies for intracranial SRS and spine SBRT. Describe the different treatment modalities which can be used to deliver intracranial SRS and spine SBRT. Cite the major differences in treatment setup and delivery principles between intracranial and spine treatments. Identify key critical structures and clinical dosimetric tolerance levels for spine SBRT and intracranial SRS. Understand areas of ongoing work to standardize intracranial SRS and spine SBRT procedures. Schlesinger: Research support: Elekta Instruments, AB; D. Schlesinger, Elekta Instruments, AB - research support; B. Winey, No relevant external funding for this subject.« less

  14. Removing seed coat fragments with a lint cleaner grid bar air knife

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) in ginned lint cause spinning problems at the textile mill and undesirable defects in finished goods. Work continued on developing an air knife that may help remove SCF from ginned lint. The air knife is mounted on the 1st lint cleaner grid bar of a saw-type lint cleaner,...

  15. [Research progress of needles with knife-edge for carotid cardiac syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tan, Lingqiong; Zhao, Yanling

    2015-04-01

    According to topographic anatomy, pathogenesis and by retrieving, summarizing and analyzing literature regarding needle-knife and needles with knife-edge for carotid cardiac syndrome, it is found out that clinical misdiagnosis rate of carotid cardiac syndrome is considerably high. Needle-knife and needles with knife-edge could significantly improve the clinical symptoms of carotid cardiac syndrome, showing characteristic and advantage in treatment, but it is deficient in technique standard and efficacy criteria that should be united and authoritative. Researches regarding pathogenesis of carotid cardiac syndrome are not systematic. Clinical observation regarding long-term efficacy and relapse of needle-knife and needles with knife-edge treatment is rare. It is believed that the awareness on carotid cardiac syndrome should be increased to reduce misdiagnosis; scientific and standardized technique standard and efficacy criteria should be established; systematic and comprehensive researches regarding mechanism of needle-knife and needles with knife-edge for carotid cardiac syndrome should be launched; besides, clinical discussion regarding its long-term efficacy should start to provide a better clinical guideline.

  16. Palliation of Postintubation Tracheal Stenosis Using Insulation-Tipped Diathermic Knife 2: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seon Bin; Park, Yong Won; Cheon, Mi Ju; Koh, Young Min; Park, Sanghoon; Kim, Se Joong; Lee, Seung Hyeun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the first case of using the insulation-tipped diathermic knife 2 (IT knife-2) for the treatment of postintubation tracheal stenosis. Clinical Presentation and Intervention A 71-year-old female patient with a history of endotracheal intubation 3 years earlier presented with throat discomfort, gross wheezing and dyspnea. Chest imaging and bronchoscopy demonstrated a strand-like tracheal stenosis in the upper trachea. The IT knife-2 was used to treat the patient and the lesion was palliated without complication. Conclusion This case was successfully treated with the IT knife-2 and thus implies a potential usefulness of the IT knife-2 as a new modality for bronchoscopic intervention. PMID:26390388

  17. Geology of the Knife River area, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, William Edward

    1953-01-01

    The Knife River area, consisting of six 15-minute quadrangles, includes the lower half of the Knife River valley in west-central North Dakota. The area, in the center of the Williston Basin, is underlain by the Tongue River member of the Fort Union formation (Paleocene) and the Golden Valley formation (Eocene). The Tongue River includes beds equivalent to the Sentinel Butte shale; the Golden Valley formation, which receives its first detailed description in this report, consists of two members, a lower member of gray to white sandy kaolin clay and an upper member of cross-bedded micaceous sandstone. Pro-Tongue River rocks that crop out in southwestern North Dakota include the Ludlow member of the Fort Union formation, the Cannonball marine formation (Paleocene) and the Hell Creek, Fox Hills, and Pierre formations, all upper Cretaceous. Post-Golden Valley rocks include the White River formation (Oligocene) and gravels on an old planation surface that may be Miocene or Pliocent. Surficial deposits include glacial and fluvial deposits of Pleistocene age and alluvium, dune sand, residual silica, and landslide blocks of Recent age. Three ages of glacial deposits can be differentiated, largely on the basis of three fills, separated by unconformities, in the Knife River valley. All three are of Wisconsin age and probably represent the Iowan, Tazewell, and Mankato substages. Deposits of the Cary substage have not been identified either in the Knife River area or elsewhere in southern North Dakota. Iowan glacial deposits form the outermost drift border in North Dakota. Southwest of this border are a few scattered granite boulders that are residual from the erosion of either the White River formation or a pre-Wisconsin till. The Tazewell drift border cannot be followed in southern North Dakota. The Mankato drift border can be traced in a general way from the South Dakota State line northwest across the Missouri River and through the middle of the Knife River area. The major

  18. A novel device for endoscopic submucosal dissection, the Fork knife

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Gun; Cho, Joo Young; Bok, Gene Hyun; Cho, Won Young; Kim, Wan Jung; Hong, Su Jin; Ko, Bong Min; Kim, Jin Oh; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Moon Sung; Shim, Chan Sup

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To introduce and evaluate the efficacy and technical aspects of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using a novel device, the Fork knife. METHODS: From March 2004 to April 2008, ESD was performed on 265 gastric lesions using a Fork knife (Endo FS®) (group A) and on 72 gastric lesions using a Flexknife (group B) at a single tertiary referral center. We retrospectively compared the endoscopic characteristics of the tumors, pathological findings, and sizes of the resected specimens. We also compared the en bloc resection rate, complete resection rate, complications, and procedure time between the two groups. RESULTS: The mean size of the resected specimens was 4.27 ± 1.26 cm in group A and 4.29 ± 1.48 cm in group B. The en bloc resection rate was 95.8% (254/265 lesions) in group A and 93.1% (67/72) in group B. Complete ESD without tumor cell invasion of the resected margin was obtained in 81.1% (215/265) of group A and in 73.6% (53/72) of group B. The perforation rate was 0.8% (2/265) in group A and 1.4% (1/72) in group B. The mean procedure time was 59.63 ± 56.12 min in group A and 76.65 ± 70.75 min in group B (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The Fork knife (Endo FS®) is useful for clinical practice and has the advantage of reducing the procedure time. PMID:19034979

  19. Genetic labelling and application of the isoproturon-mineralizing Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 in soil and rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, K E; Jacobsen, C S; Hansen, L H; Aamand, J; Morgan, J A W; Sternberg, C; Sørensen, S R

    2006-09-01

    To construct a luxAB-labelled Sphingomonas sp. strain SRS2 maintaining the ability to mineralize the herbicide isoproturon and usable for monitoring the survival and distribution of strain SRS2 on plant roots in laboratory systems. We inserted the mini-Tn5-luxAB marker into strain SRS2 using conjugational mating. In the transconjugant mutants luciferase was produced in varying levels. The mutants showed significant differences in their ability to degrade isoproturon. One luxAB-labelled mutant maintained the ability to mineralize isoproturon and was therefore selected for monitoring colonization of barley roots. We successfully constructed a genetically labelled isoproturon-mineralizing-strain SRS2 and demonstrated its ability to survive in soil and its colonization of rhizosphere. The construction of a luxAB-labelled strain SRS2 maintaining the degradative ability, provides a powerful tool for ecological studies serving as the basis for evaluating SRS2 as a bioremediation agent.

  20. The comparison of SRs' variation affected by solar events observed in America and in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Williams, E.

    2017-12-01

    Schumann Resonances(SRs) are the electromagnetic resonance wave propagating in the earth-ionosphere cavity. Its characteristic of propagation are modified by the variation of ionosphere. So SRs can be the tools of monitoring the ionosphere which is often perturbed by solar events, x-ray emission and some other space-weather events (Roldugin et.al., 2004, De et al., 2010; Satori et.al., 2015). In present work, the amplitude and intrinsic frequencies of SRs observed at RID station in America and YSH station in China are compared. The variation of SRs during the solar flare on Feb. 15, 2011 are analyzed. Two-Dimensional Telegraph Equation(TDTE) method is used to simulate the perturbation of ionosphere by solar proton events. From the simulation and observation, the asymmetric construction of ionoshphere which is perturbed by the solar event will affect the amplitudes and frequencies of SRs. Due to the interfere influence of forward and backward propagation of electromagnetic field, the SR amplitude on different station will present different variation. The distance among the lightning source, observer and perturbed area will produce the different variation of amplitude and frequency for different station' SR.

  1. Endoscopic treatment for pancreatic diseases: Needle-knife-guided cannulation via the minor papilla

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Gong, Biao; Jiang, Wei-Song; Liu, Lei; Bielike, Kouken; Xv, Bin; Wu, Yun-Lin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the efficacy and safety of meticulous cannulation by needle-knife. METHODS: Three needle-knife procedures were used to facilitate cannulation in cases when standard cannulation techniques failed. A total of 104 cannulations via the minor papilla attempted in 74 patients at our center between January 2008 and June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Standard methods were successful in 79 cannulations. Of the 25 cannulations that could not be performed by standard methods, 19 were performed by needle-knife, while 17 (89.5%) were successful. Needle-knife use improved the success rate of cannulation [76.0%, 79/104 vs 92.3%, (79 + 17)/104; P = 0.001]. When the 6 cases not appropriate for needle-knife cannulation were excluded, the success rate was improved further (80.6%, 79/98 vs 98.0%, 96/98; P = 0.000). There were no significant differences in the rates of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography adverse events between the group using standard methods alone and the group using needle-knife after failure of standard methods (4.7% vs 10.5%, P = 0.301). CONCLUSION: The needle-knife procedure may be an alternative method for improving the success rate of cannulation via the minor papilla, particularly when standard cannulation has failed. PMID:26019460

  2. Endoscopic treatment for pancreatic diseases: Needle-knife-guided cannulation via the minor papilla.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gong, Biao; Jiang, Wei-Song; Liu, Lei; Bielike, Kouken; Xv, Bin; Wu, Yun-Lin

    2015-05-21

    To determine the efficacy and safety of meticulous cannulation by needle-knife. Three needle-knife procedures were used to facilitate cannulation in cases when standard cannulation techniques failed. A total of 104 cannulations via the minor papilla attempted in 74 patients at our center between January 2008 and June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Standard methods were successful in 79 cannulations. Of the 25 cannulations that could not be performed by standard methods, 19 were performed by needle-knife, while 17 (89.5%) were successful. Needle-knife use improved the success rate of cannulation [76.0%, 79/104 vs 92.3%, (79 + 17)/104; P = 0.001]. When the 6 cases not appropriate for needle-knife cannulation were excluded, the success rate was improved further (80.6%, 79/98 vs 98.0%, 96/98; P = 0.000). There were no significant differences in the rates of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography adverse events between the group using standard methods alone and the group using needle-knife after failure of standard methods (4.7% vs 10.5%, P = 0.301). The needle-knife procedure may be an alternative method for improving the success rate of cannulation via the minor papilla, particularly when standard cannulation has failed.

  3. A Comparative Analysis Among the SRS M&M, NIS, and KID Databases for the Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nathan J; Guzman, Javier Z; Kim, Jun; Skovrlj, Branko; Martin, Christopher T; Pugely, Andrew J; Gao, Yubo; Caridi, John M; Mendoza-Lattes, Sergio; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-11-01

    Retrospective cohort analysis. A growing number of publications have utilized the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Morbidity and Mortality (M&M) database, but none have compared it to other large databases. The objective of this study was to compare SRS complications with those in administrative databases. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) captured a greater number of overall complications while the SRS M&M data provided a greater incidence of spine-related complications following adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. Chi-square was used to obtain statistical significance, with p < .05 considered significant. The SRS 2004-2007 (9,904 patients), NIS 2004-2007 (20,441 patients) and KID 2003-2006 (10,184 patients) databases were analyzed for AIS patients who underwent fusion. Comparable variables were queried in all three databases, including patient demographics, surgical variables, and complications. Patients undergoing AIS in the SRS database were slightly older (SRS 14.4 years vs. NIS 13.8 years, p < .0001; KID 13.9 years, p < .0001) and less likely to be male (SRS 18.5% vs. NIS 26.3%, p < .0001; KID 24.8%, p < .0001). Revision surgery (SRS 3.3% vs. NIS 2.4%, p < .0001; KID 0.9%, p < .0001) and osteotomy (SRS 8% vs. NIS 2.3%, p < .0001; KID 2.4%, p < .0001) were more commonly reported in the SRS database. The SRS database reported fewer overall complications (SRS 3.9% vs. NIS 7.3%, p < .0001; KID 6.6%, p < .0001). However, when respiratory complications (SRS 0.5% vs. NIS 3.7%, p < .0001; KID 4.4%, p < .0001) were excluded, medical complication rates were similar across databases. In contrast, SRS reported higher spine-specific complication rates. Mortality rates were similar between SRS versus NIS (p = .280) and SRS versus KID (p = .08) databases. There are similarities and differences between the three databases. These discrepancies are likely due to the varying data-gathering methods each organization uses to

  4. Novel design and sensitivity analysis of displacement measurement system utilizing knife edge diffraction for nanopositioning stages.

    PubMed

    Lee, ChaBum; Lee, Sun-Kyu; Tarbutton, Joshua A

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel design and sensitivity analysis of a knife edge-based optical displacement sensor that can be embedded with nanopositioning stages. The measurement system consists of a laser, two knife edge locations, two photodetectors, and axillary optics components in a simple configuration. The knife edge is installed on the stage parallel to its moving direction and two separated laser beams are incident on knife edges. While the stage is in motion, the direct transverse and diffracted light at each knife edge is superposed producing interference at the detector. The interference is measured with two photodetectors in a differential amplification configuration. The performance of the proposed sensor was mathematically modeled, and the effect of the optical and mechanical parameters, wavelength, beam diameter, distances from laser to knife edge to photodetector, and knife edge topography, on sensor outputs was investigated to obtain a novel analytical method to predict linearity and sensitivity. From the model, all parameters except for the beam diameter have a significant influence on measurement range and sensitivity of the proposed sensing system. To validate the model, two types of knife edges with different edge topography were used for the experiment. By utilizing a shorter wavelength, smaller sensor distance and higher edge quality increased measurement sensitivity can be obtained. The model was experimentally validated and the results showed a good agreement with the theoretically estimated results. This sensor is expected to be easily implemented into nanopositioning stage applications at a low cost and mathematical model introduced here can be used for design and performance estimation of the knife edge-based sensor as a tool.

  5. Utilization of SRS pond ash in controlled low strength material. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Rajendran, N.

    1995-12-01

    Design mixes for Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) were developed which incorporate pond ashes (fly ashes) from the A-Area Ash Pile, the old F-Area Ash Basin and the D-Area Ash Basin. CLSM is a pumpable, flowable, excavatable backfill used in a variety of construction applications at SRS. Results indicate that CLSM which meets all of the SRS design specifications for backfill, can be made with the A-, D-, and F-Area pond ashes. Formulations for the design mixes are provided in this report. Use of the pond ashes may result in a cost savings for CLSM used at SRS and willmore » utilize a by-product waste material, thereby decreasing the amount of material requiring disposal.« less

  6. pF3D Simulations of SBS and SRS in NIF Hohlraum Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Steven; Strozzi, David; Amendt, Peter; Chapman, Thomas; Hopkins, Laura; Kritcher, Andrea; Sepke, Scott

    2016-10-01

    We present simulations of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for NIF experiments using high foot pulses in cylindrical hohlraums and for low foot pulses in rugby-shaped hohlraums. We use pF3D, a massively-parallel, paraxial-envelope laser plasma interaction code, with plasma profiles obtained from the radiation-hydrodynamics codes Lasnex and HYDRA. We compare the simulations to experimental data for SBS and SRS power and spectrum. We also show simulated SRS and SBS intensities at the target chamber wall and report the fraction of the backscattered light that passes through and misses the lenses. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Release number LLNL-ABS-697482.

  7. A SINS/SRS/GNS Autonomous Integrated Navigation System Based on Spectral Redshift Velocity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wenhui; Gao, Zhaohui; Gao, Shesheng; Jia, Ke

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of autonomy and reliability for the navigation system, combined with the method of measuring speed by using the spectral redshift information of the natural celestial bodies, a new scheme, consisting of Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS)/Spectral Redshift (SRS)/Geomagnetic Navigation System (GNS), is designed for autonomous integrated navigation systems. The principle of this SINS/SRS/GNS autonomous integrated navigation system is explored, and the corresponding mathematical model is established. Furthermore, a robust adaptive central difference particle filtering algorithm is proposed for this autonomous integrated navigation system. The simulation experiments are conducted and the results show that the designed SINS/SRS/GNS autonomous integrated navigation system possesses good autonomy, strong robustness and high reliability, thus providing a new solution for autonomous navigation technology. PMID:29642549

  8. A SINS/SRS/GNS Autonomous Integrated Navigation System Based on Spectral Redshift Velocity Measurements.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenhui; Gao, Zhaohui; Gao, Shesheng; Jia, Ke

    2018-04-09

    In order to meet the requirements of autonomy and reliability for the navigation system, combined with the method of measuring speed by using the spectral redshift information of the natural celestial bodies, a new scheme, consisting of Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS)/Spectral Redshift (SRS)/Geomagnetic Navigation System (GNS), is designed for autonomous integrated navigation systems. The principle of this SINS/SRS/GNS autonomous integrated navigation system is explored, and the corresponding mathematical model is established. Furthermore, a robust adaptive central difference particle filtering algorithm is proposed for this autonomous integrated navigation system. The simulation experiments are conducted and the results show that the designed SINS/SRS/GNS autonomous integrated navigation system possesses good autonomy, strong robustness and high reliability, thus providing a new solution for autonomous navigation technology.

  9. "Characterization of ELEKTA SRS cone collimator using high spatial resolution monolithic silicon detector array".

    PubMed

    Shukaili, Khalsa Al; Corde, Stéphanie; Petasecca, Marco; Pereveratylo, Vladimir; Lerch, Michael; Jackson, Michael; Rosenfeld, Anatoly

    2018-05-22

    To investigate the accuracy of the dosimetry of radiation fields produced by small ELEKTA cone collimators used for stereotactic radiosurgery treatments (SRS) using commercially available detectors EBT3 Gafchromic TM film, IBA Stereotactic diode (SFD), and the recently developed detector DUO, which is a monolithic silicon orthogonal linear diode array detector. These three detectors were used for the measurement of beam profiles, output factors, and percentage depth dose for SRS cone collimators with cone sizes ranging from 5 to 50 mm diameter. The measurements were performed at 10 cm depth and 90 cm SSD. The SRS cone beam profiles measured with DUO, EBT3 film, and IBA SFD agreed well, results being in agreement within ±0.5 mm in the FWHM, and ±0.7 mm in the penumbra region. The output factor measured by DUO with 0.5 mm air gap above agrees within ±1% with EBT3. The OF measured by IBA SFD (corrected for the over-response) agreed with both EBT3 and DUO within ±2%. All three detectors agree within ±2% for PDD measurements for all SRS cones. The characteristics of the ELEKTA SRS cone collimator have been evaluated by using a monolithic silicon high spatial resolution detector DUO, EBT3, and IBA SFD diode. The DUO detector is suitable for fast real-time quality assurance dosimetry in small radiation fields typical for SRS/SRT. This has been demonstrated by its good agreement of measured doses with EBT 3 films. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Towards frameless maskless SRS through real-time 6DoF robotic motion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Andrew H.; Liu, Xinmin; Chmura, Steven; Yenice, Kamil; Wiersma, Rodney D.

    2017-12-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) uses precise dose placement to treat conditions of the CNS. Frame-based SRS uses a metal head ring fixed to the patient’s skull to provide high treatment accuracy, but patient comfort and clinical workflow may suffer. Frameless SRS, while potentially more convenient, may increase uncertainty of treatment accuracy and be physiologically confining to some patients. By incorporating highly precise robotics and advanced software algorithms into frameless treatments, we present a novel frameless and maskless SRS system where a robot provides real-time 6DoF head motion stabilization allowing positional accuracies to match or exceed those of traditional frame-based SRS. A 6DoF parallel kinematics robot was developed and integrated with a real-time infrared camera in a closed loop configuration. A novel compensation algorithm was developed based on an iterative closest-path correction approach. The robotic SRS system was tested on six volunteers, whose motion was monitored and compensated for in real-time over 15 min simulated treatments. The system’s effectiveness in maintaining the target’s 6DoF position within preset thresholds was determined by comparing volunteer head motion with and without compensation. Comparing corrected and uncorrected motion, the 6DoF robotic system showed an overall improvement factor of 21 in terms of maintaining target position within 0.5 mm and 0.5 degree thresholds. Although the system’s effectiveness varied among the volunteers examined, for all volunteers tested the target position remained within the preset tolerances 99.0% of the time when robotic stabilization was used, compared to 4.7% without robotic stabilization. The pre-clinical robotic SRS compensation system was found to be effective at responding to sub-millimeter and sub-degree cranial motions for all volunteers examined. The system’s success with volunteers has demonstrated its capability for implementation with frameless and

  11. Highly Selective Nuclide Removal from the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J. B.; Austin, W. E.; Dukes, H. H.

    This paper describes the results of a deployment of highly selective ion-exchange resin technologies for the in-situ removal of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the Savannah River Site (SRS) R-Reactor Disassembly Basin. The deployment was supported by the DOE Office of Science and Technology's (OST, EM-50) National Engineering Technology Laboratory (NETL), as a part of an Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project. The Facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning (FDD) Program at the SRS conducted this deployment as a part of an overall program to deactivate three of the site's five reactor disassembly basins.

  12. Highly Selective Nuclide Removal from the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.

    This paper describes the results of a deployment of highly selective ion-exchange resin technologies for the in-situ removal of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the Savannah River Site (SRS) R-Reactor Disassembly Basin. The deployment was supported by the DOE Office of Science and Technology's (OST, EM-50) National Engineering Technology Laboratory (NETL), as a part of an Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project. The Facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning (FDD) Program at the SRS conducted this deployment as a part of an overall program to deactivate three of the site's five reactor disassembly basins

  13. Towards frameless maskless SRS through real-time 6DoF robotic motion compensation.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Andrew H; Liu, Xinmin; Chmura, Steven; Yenice, Kamil; Wiersma, Rodney D

    2017-11-13

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) uses precise dose placement to treat conditions of the CNS. Frame-based SRS uses a metal head ring fixed to the patient's skull to provide high treatment accuracy, but patient comfort and clinical workflow may suffer. Frameless SRS, while potentially more convenient, may increase uncertainty of treatment accuracy and be physiologically confining to some patients. By incorporating highly precise robotics and advanced software algorithms into frameless treatments, we present a novel frameless and maskless SRS system where a robot provides real-time 6DoF head motion stabilization allowing positional accuracies to match or exceed those of traditional frame-based SRS. A 6DoF parallel kinematics robot was developed and integrated with a real-time infrared camera in a closed loop configuration. A novel compensation algorithm was developed based on an iterative closest-path correction approach. The robotic SRS system was tested on six volunteers, whose motion was monitored and compensated for in real-time over 15 min simulated treatments. The system's effectiveness in maintaining the target's 6DoF position within preset thresholds was determined by comparing volunteer head motion with and without compensation. Comparing corrected and uncorrected motion, the 6DoF robotic system showed an overall improvement factor of 21 in terms of maintaining target position within 0.5 mm and 0.5 degree thresholds. Although the system's effectiveness varied among the volunteers examined, for all volunteers tested the target position remained within the preset tolerances 99.0% of the time when robotic stabilization was used, compared to 4.7% without robotic stabilization. The pre-clinical robotic SRS compensation system was found to be effective at responding to sub-millimeter and sub-degree cranial motions for all volunteers examined. The system's success with volunteers has demonstrated its capability for implementation with frameless and maskless SRS

  14. SU-F-T-638: Is There A Need For Immobilization in SRS?

    SciTech Connect

    Masterova, K; Sethi, A; Anderson, D

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Frameless Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used in the clinic. Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) to simulation-CT match has replaced the 3-dimensional coordinate based set up using a stereotactic localizing frame. The SRS frame however served as both a localizing and immobilizing device. We seek to measure the quality of frameless (mask based) and frame based immobilization and evaluate its impact on target dose. Methods: Each SRS patient was set up by kV on-board imaging (OBI) and then fine-tuned with CBCT. A second CBCT was done at treatment-end to ascertain intrafraction motion. We compared pre- vs post-treatment CBCT shifts for bothmore » frameless and frame based SRS patients. CBCT to sim-CT fusion was repeated for each patient off-line to assess systematic residual image registration error. Each patient was re-planned with measured shifts to assess effects on target dose. Results: We analyzed 11 patients (12 lesions) treated with frameless SRS and 6 patients (11 lesions) with a fixed frame system. Average intra-fraction iso-center positioning errors for frameless and frame-based treatments were 1.24 ± 0.57 mm and 0.28 ± 0.08 mm (mean ± s.d.) respectively. Residual error in CBCT registration was 0.24 mm. The frameless positioning uncertainties led to target dose errors in Dmin and D95 of 15.5 ± 18.4% and 6.6 ± 9.1% respectively. The corresponding errors in fixed frame SRS were much lower with Dmin and D95 reduced by 4.2 ± 6.5% and D95 2.5 ± 3.8% respectively. Conclusion: Frameless mask provides good immobilization with average patient motion of 1.2 mm during treatment. This exceeds MRI voxel dimensions (∼0.43mm) used for target delineation. Frame-based SRS provides superior patient immobilization with measureable movement no greater than the background noise of the CBCT registration. Small lesions requiring submm precision are better served with a frame based SRS.« less

  15. SU-E-T-364: 6X FFF and 10X FFF Portal Dosimetry Output Factor Verification: Application for SRS/SBRT

    SciTech Connect

    Gulam, M; Bellon, M; Gopal, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To enhance portal dosimetry of high dose rate SRS/SBRT plan verifications with extensive imager measurement of output factors (OF). Methods: Electronic portal image dosimetry (EPID), implemented on the Varian Edge allows for acquisition of its two energies: 6X FFF and 10 FFF (1400 and 2400 MU/min, respectively) at source to imager distance (SID) =100cm without imager saturation. Square and rectangular aSi OF following EPID calibration were obtained. Data taken was similar to that obtained during beam commissioning (of almost all field sizes from 1×1 to 15×15 and 20×20 cm{sup 2}, [Trilogy] and [Edge], respectively) to construct a table usingmore » the OF tool for use in the Portal Dosimetry Prediction Algorithm (PDIP v11). The Trilogy 6x SRS 1000 MU/min EPID data were taken at 140 SID. The large number of OF were obtained for comparison to that obtained with diode detectors and ion chambers (cc13 for >3×3 field size). As Edge PDIP verification is currently ongoing, EPID measurements of three SRS/SBRT plans for the Trilogy were taken and compared to results obtained prior to these measurements. Results: The relative difference output factors of field sizes 2×2 and higher compared to commissioning data were (mean+/-SD, [range]): Edge 6X (−1.9+/−2.9%, [−5.9%,3.1%]), Edge 10X (−0.7+/−1.2%, [− 3.3%,0.8%] and Trilogy (0.03+/−0.5%, [−1.4%,1.1%]) with EPID over predicting. The results for the 140 SID showed excellent agreement throughout except at the 1×1 to 1×15 and 15×1 field sizes where differences were: −10.6%, −6.0% and −5.8%. The differences were also most pronounced for the 1×1 at 100 SID. They were −7.4% and −11.5% for 6X and 10X, respectively. The Gamma (3%, 1mm) for three clinical plans improved by 8.7+/−1.8%. Conclusion: Results indicate that imager output factor measurements at any SID of high dose rate SRS/SBRT are quite reliable for portal dosimetry plan verification except for the smallest fields. This work was

  16. Influence on grip of knife handle surface characteristics and wearing protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Claudon, Laurent

    2006-11-01

    Ten subjects were asked to apply maximum torques on knife handles with either their bare hand or their hand wearing a Kevlar fibre protective glove. Four knife handles (2 roughnesses, 2 hardnesses) were tested. Surface electromyograms of 6 upper limb and shoulder muscles were recorded and subject opinions on both knife handle hardness and friction in the hand were also assessed. The results revealed the significant influence of wearing gloves (p<0.0001), knife type (p<0.0005) and handle hardness (p<0.005) on the applied torque. Wearing Kevlar fibre gloves greatly increased the torque independently of the other two parameters. Under the bare hand condition, a 90 degrees ShA slightly rough handle provided the greatest torque. Subject opinion agreed with the observed effects on recorded torque values except for the hardness factor, for which a preference for the 70 degrees ShA value over the 90 degrees ShA value emerged.

  17. Bulky Trichomonad Genomes: Encoding a Swiss Army Knife.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Joel; Gough, Rory; Stark, Damien; Ellis, John

    2016-10-01

    The trichomonads are a remarkably successful lineage of ancient, predominantly parasitic protozoa. Recent molecular analyses have revealed extensive duplication of certain genetic loci in trichomonads. Consequently, their genomes are exceptionally large compared to other parasitic protozoa. Retention of these large gene expansions across different trichomonad families raises the question: do these duplications afford an advantage? Many duplicated genes are linked to the parasitic lifestyle and some are regulated differently to their paralogues, suggesting they have acquired new functions. It is proposed that these large genomes encode a Swiss army knife of sorts, packed with a multitude of tools for use in many different circumstances. This may have bestowed trichomonads with the extraordinary versatility that has undoubtedly contributed to their success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Minimally invasive carpal tunnel decompression using the KnifeLight.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Peter Y K; Ho, Chi Long

    2007-02-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common condition causing hand pain, dysfunction, and paresthesia. Endoscopic carpal tunnel decompression offers many advantages compared with conventional open surgical decompression. However, it is equipment intensive and requires familiarity with endoscopic surgery. We review a minimally invasive technique to divide the flexor retinaculum by using a new instrument, the KnifeLight (Stryker, Kalamazoo, Michigan), which combines the advantages of the open and endoscopic methods, without the need for endoscopic set-up. Between July 2003 and April 2005, 44 consecutive patients (26 women [59%] and 18 men [36%]), with clinical signs and symptoms, as well as electrodiagnostic findings consistent with carpal tunnel syndrome, who did not respond to non-surgical treatment, underwent the new procedure. All patients were asked about scar hypertrophy, scar tenderness, and pillar pain. The Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) was used to determine overall hand function, activities of daily living, work performance, pain, aesthetics, and satisfaction with hand function. Other preoperative testing included grip strength and lateral pinch strength. Grip strength was measured using the Jamar hand dynamometer (Asimov Engineering Co., Los Angeles, CA); lateral key pinch was measured using the Jamar hydraulic pinch gauge. Postoperative evaluations were scheduled at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after the procedure. A small 10-mm incision was made in the wrist crease and a small opening was made at the transverse carpal ligament. The KnifeLight tool was inserted, and the ligament was incised completely. Follow-up evaluations with use of quantitative measurements of grip strength, pinch strength, and hand dexterity were performed at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Fifty procedures were performed on 22 left hands (44%) and 28 right hands (56%). There were no complications related to the approach. All patients were able to use their hands

  19. SU-F-T-365: Clinical Commissioning of the Monaco Treatment Planning System for the Novalis Tx to Deliver VMAT, SRS and SBRT Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Adnani, N

    Purpose: To commission the Monaco Treatment Planning System for the Novalis Tx machine. Methods: The commissioning of Monte-Carlo (MC), Collapsed Cone (CC) and electron Monte-Carlo (eMC) beam models was performed through a series of measurements and calculations in medium and in water. In medium measurements relied Octavius 4D QA system with the 1000 SRS detector array for field sizes less than 4 cm × 4 cm and the 1500 detector array for larger field sizes. Heterogeneity corrections were validated using a custom built phantom. Prior to clinical implementation, an end to end testing of a Prostate and H&N VMAT plansmore » was performed. Results: Using a 0.5% uncertainty and 2 mm grid sizes, Tables I and II summarize the MC validation at 6 MV and 18 MV in both medium and water. Tables III and IV show similar comparisons for CC. Using the custom heterogeneity phantom setup of Figure 1 and IGRT guidance summarized in Figure 2, Table V lists the percent pass rate for a 2%, 2 mm gamma criteria at 6 and 18 MV for both MC and CC. The relationship between MC calculations settings of uncertainty and grid size and the gamma passing rate for a prostate and H&N case is shown in Table VI. Table VII lists the results of the eMC calculations compared to measured data for clinically available applicators and Table VIII for small field cutouts. Conclusion: MU calculations using MC are highly sensitive to uncertainty and grid size settings. The difference can be of the order of several per cents. MC is superior to CC for small fields and when using heterogeneity corrections, regardless of field size, making it more suitable for SRS, SBRT and VMAT deliveries. eMC showed good agreement with measurements down to 2 cm − 2 cm field size.« less

  20. Plan delivery quality assurance for CyberKnife: Statistical process control analysis of 350 film-based patient-specific QAs.

    PubMed

    Bellec, J; Delaby, N; Jouyaux, F; Perdrieux, M; Bouvier, J; Sorel, S; Henry, O; Lafond, C

    2017-07-01

    Robotic radiosurgery requires plan delivery quality assurance (DQA) but there has never been a published comprehensive analysis of a patient-specific DQA process in a clinic. We proposed to evaluate 350 consecutive film-based patient-specific DQAs using statistical process control. We evaluated the performance of the process to propose achievable tolerance criteria for DQA validation and we sought to identify suboptimal DQA using control charts. DQAs were performed on a CyberKnife-M6 using Gafchromic-EBT3 films. The signal-to-dose conversion was performed using a multichannel-correction and a scanning protocol that combined measurement and calibration in a single scan. The DQA analysis comprised a gamma-index analysis at 3%/1.5mm and a separate evaluation of spatial and dosimetric accuracy of the plan delivery. Each parameter was plotted on a control chart and control limits were calculated. A capability index (Cpm) was calculated to evaluate the ability of the process to produce results within specifications. The analysis of capability showed that a gamma pass rate of 85% at 3%/1.5mm was highly achievable as acceptance criteria for DQA validation using a film-based protocol (Cpm>1.33). 3.4% of DQA were outside a control limit of 88% for gamma pass-rate. The analysis of the out-of-control DQA helped identify a dosimetric error in our institute for a specific treatment type. We have defined initial tolerance criteria for DQA validations. We have shown that the implementation of a film-based patient-specific DQA protocol with the use of control charts is an effective method to improve patient treatment safety on CyberKnife. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wounding patterns and human performance in knife attacks: optimising the protection provided by knife-resistant body armour.

    PubMed

    Bleetman, A; Watson, C H; Horsfall, I; Champion, S M

    2003-12-01

    Stab attacks generate high loads, and to defeat them, armour needs to be of a certain thickness and stiffness. Slash attacks produce much lower loads and armour designed to defeat them can be far lighter and more flexible. Phase 1: Human performance in slash attacks: 87 randomly selected students at the Royal Military College of Science were asked to make one slash attack with an instrumented blade on a vertically mounted target. No instructions on how to slash the target were given. The direction, contact forces and velocity of each attack were recorded. Phase 2: Clinical experience with edged weapon attacks: The location and severity of all penetrating injuries in patients attending the Glasgow Royal Infirmary between 1993 and 1996 were charted on anatomical figures. Phase 1: Two types of human slash behaviour were evident: a 'chop and drag' blow and a 'sweep motion' type of attack. 'Chop and drag' attacks had higher peak forces and velocities than sweep attacks. Shoulder to waist blows (diagonal) accounted for 82% of attacks, 71% of attackers used a long diagonal slash with an average cut length of 34 cm and 11% used short diagonal attacks with an average cut length of 25 cm. Only 18% of attackers slashed across the body (short horizontal); the average measured cut length of this type was 28 cm. The maximum peak force for the total sample population was 212 N; the maximum velocity was 14.88 m s(-1). The 95 percentile force for the total sample population was 181 N and the velocity was 9.89 m s(-1). Phase 2: 431 of the 500 patients had been wounded with edged weapons. The average number of wounds sustained by victims in knife assaults was 2.4. The distribution of wounds by frequency and severity are presented. Anti-slash protection is required for the arms, neck, shoulders, and thighs. The clinical experience of knife-attack victims provides information on the relative vulnerabilities of different regions of the body. It is anticipated that designing a tunic

  2. Outcome of peroral endoscopic myotomy in achalasia cardia: Experience with a new triangular knife.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Zaheer; Ramchandani, Mohan; Chavan, Radhika; Kalapala, Rakesh; Darisetty, Santosh; Reddy, D Nageshwar

    2018-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a technically demanding procedure. Recently, a new triangular knife with integrated water jet function (TTJ) has been introduced. The present study was aimed to analyze and compare the operating time, efficacy, and adverse events (AEs) between the conventional (TT knife) and new knife (TTJ). All patients with achalasia cardia (AC) who underwent POEM between August 2015 and November 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Operating time (OT), technical success, and AEs were assessed and compared between TT and TTJ knife. A total of 193 patients with AC underwent POEM during the specified period. Both groups had equivalent number of different subtypes of AC (I, II, and III). There was no difference in technical success between the two groups (TT, 99% vs TT, 98.9%). OT was significantly less in the TTJ group as compared to TT group (53.8 ± 15.2 vs 66.26 ± 19.2; P = 0.0001). On subanalysis, OT taken for submucosal tunneling was significantly less with TTJ knife (34.6 ± 10.1 vs 45.83 ± 14.80), whereas OT was similar for myotomy and clipping in both the groups. Significantly fewer use of coagulation forceps and exchanges of accessories were required in TTJ knife group (2.92 ± 1.77 vs 10.5 ± 3.58; P = 0.0001). There were no major AEs. Minor AEs were noted in 21.5% and 31% of patients in TTJ and TT knife groups, respectively. New triangular knife reduces procedure time and technical difficulty with POEM. POEM is an efficacious treatment for achalasia and can be safely executed in an endoscopy unit.

  3. Outcome of peroral endoscopic myotomy in achalasia cardia: Experience with a new triangular knife

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Zaheer; Ramchandani, Mohan; Chavan, Radhika; Kalapala, Rakesh; Darisetty, Santosh; Reddy, D. Nageshwar

    2018-01-01

    Background and Aim: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a technically demanding procedure. Recently, a new triangular knife with integrated water jet function (TTJ) has been introduced. The present study was aimed to analyze and compare the operating time, efficacy, and adverse events (AEs) between the conventional (TT knife) and new knife (TTJ). Patients and Methods: All patients with achalasia cardia (AC) who underwent POEM between August 2015 and November 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Operating time (OT), technical success, and AEs were assessed and compared between TT and TTJ knife. Results: A total of 193 patients with AC underwent POEM during the specified period. Both groups had equivalent number of different subtypes of AC (I, II, and III). There was no difference in technical success between the two groups (TT, 99% vs TT, 98.9%). OT was significantly less in the TTJ group as compared to TT group (53.8 ± 15.2 vs 66.26 ± 19.2; P = 0.0001). On subanalysis, OT taken for submucosal tunneling was significantly less with TTJ knife (34.6 ± 10.1 vs 45.83 ± 14.80), whereas OT was similar for myotomy and clipping in both the groups. Significantly fewer use of coagulation forceps and exchanges of accessories were required in TTJ knife group (2.92 ± 1.77 vs 10.5 ± 3.58; P = 0.0001). There were no major AEs. Minor AEs were noted in 21.5% and 31% of patients in TTJ and TT knife groups, respectively. Conclusion: New triangular knife reduces procedure time and technical difficulty with POEM. POEM is an efficacious treatment for achalasia and can be safely executed in an endoscopy unit. PMID:29451180

  4. Scale-Resolving simulations (SRS): How much resolution do we really need?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Filipe M. S.; Girimaji, Sharath

    2017-11-01

    Scale-resolving simulations (SRS) are emerging as the computational approach of choice for many engineering flows with coherent structures. The SRS methods seek to resolve only the most important features of the coherent structures and model the remainder of the flow field with canonical closures. With reference to a typical Large-Eddy Simulation (LES), practical SRS methods aim to resolve a considerably narrower range of scales (reduced physical resolution) to achieve an adequate degree of accuracy at reasonable computational effort. While the objective of SRS is well-founded, the criteria for establishing the optimal degree of resolution required to achieve an acceptable level of accuracy are not clear. This study considers the canonical case of the flow around a circular cylinder to address the issue of `optimal' resolution. Two important criteria are developed. The first condition addresses the issue of adequate resolution of the flow field. The second guideline provides an assessment of whether the modeled field is canonical (stochastic) turbulence amenable to closure-based computations.

  5. ASD Screening Measures for High-Ability Youth with ASD: Examining the ASSQ and SRS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederberg, Charles D.; Gann, Lianne C.; Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Sussman, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    High-ability youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) historically have been neglected within samples validating ASD screening measures, and consensus for what constitutes high ability has not been established. The Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) are two common screening tools for ASD…

  6. Single speckle SRS threshold as determined by electron trapping, collisions and speckle duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Harvey; Daughton, William; Yin, Lin; Langdon, Bruce

    2008-11-01

    Speckle SRS intensity threshold has been shown to increase with spatial dimension, D, because both diffraction and trapped electron escape rate increase with D, though the net effect is to substantially decrease the threshold compared to 1D linear gain calculations. On the other hand, the apparent threshold appears to decrease with integration time in PIC simulations. We present an optimum nonlinearly resonant calculation of the SRS threshold, taking into account large fluctuations of the SRS seed reflectivity, R0. Such fluctuations, absent in 1D, are caused by a gap in the linear reflectivity gain spectrum which leads to an exponential probability distribution for R0. While the SRS threshold intensity is of course finite, these fluctuations lead to a decrease of apparent threshold with increasing speckle lifetime. L. Yin et al., Physics of Plasmas 15, 013109 (2008). D. S. Montgomery et al., 9, 2311(2002). Bruce Langdon et al., 38^th Anomalous Absorption Conference (2008). Harvey A. Rose, Physics of Plasmas 10, 1468 (2003). Harvey A. Rose and L. Yin, Physics of Plasmas 15, 042311 (2008)., Harvey A. Rose and David A. Russell, Phys. Plasma 8, 4784 (2001).

  7. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SRS-2 Teacher Ratings for Youth with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Andrew T.; Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Dua, Elissa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and internal consistency of special education teaching staff ratings on the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2; Constantino and Gruber 2012), as well as the percentage of ratings falling above pre-established cut scores, for a sample of lower-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 264).…

  8. Trigonal LaF3: a novel SRS-active crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskii, A. A.; Lux, O.; Hanuza, J.; Rhee, H.; Eichler, H. J.; Zhang, J.; Tang, D.; Shen, D.; Yoneda, H.; Shirakawa, A.

    2014-12-01

    Trigonal fluoride LaF3, widely known as a host crystal for Ln3+-lasants, was found to be an attractive many-phonon Raman material and a subject for the investigation of different χ(3)-nonlinear optical effects. We present the manifestation of photon-phonon interactions related to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and Raman-induced four-wave mixing (RFWM) processes, initiated by picosecond exсitation at room temperature. Sesqui-octave-spanning Stokes and anti-Stokes frequency comb generation as well as many-step cascaded and cross-cascaded up-conversion χ(3)-nonlinear processes have been observed. The recorded spectral lines originated by SRS and RFWM are identified and attributed to the three observed SRS-promoting phonon modes. The lower limit of the steady-state Raman gain coefficient for near-IR first Stokes generation was estimated. Moreover, a brief review of known Ln3+ : LaF3 laser crystals and SRS-active fluorides is given.

  9. Maxdose-SR and popdose-SR routine release atmospheric dose models used at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G. T.; Trimor, P. P.

    MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are used to calculate dose to the offsite Reference Person and to the surrounding Savannah River Site (SRS) population respectively following routine releases of atmospheric radioactivity. These models are currently accessed through the Dose Model Version 2014 graphical user interface (GUI). MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are personal computer (PC) versions of MAXIGASP and POPGASP, which both resided on the SRS IBM Mainframe. These two codes follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Regulatory Guides 1.109 and 1.111 (1977a, 1977b). The basis for MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are USNRC developed codes XOQDOQ (Sagendorf et. al 1982) and GASPAR (Eckerman et. almore » 1980). Both of these codes have previously been verified for use at SRS (Simpkins 1999 and 2000). The revisions incorporated into MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR Version 2014 (hereafter referred to as MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR unless otherwise noted) were made per Computer Program Modification Tracker (CPMT) number Q-CMT-A-00016 (Appendix D). Version 2014 was verified for use at SRS in Dixon (2014).« less

  10. Reliability and Validity Study of the Finnish Adaptation of Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire Version SRS-30.

    PubMed

    Kyrölä, Kati; Järvenpää, Salme; Ylinen, Jari; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Repo, Jussi Petteri; Häkkinen, Arja

    2017-06-15

    A prospective clinical study to test and adapt a Finnish version of the Scoliosis Research Society 30 (SRS-30) questionnaire. The aim of this study was to perform cross-cultural adaptation and evaluate the validity of the adapted Finnish version of the SRS-30 questionnaire. The SRS-30 questionnaire has proved to be a valid instrument in evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescent and adult population with spine deformities in the United States. Multinational availability requires cross-cultural and linguistic adaptation and validation of the instrument. The SRS-30 was translated into Finnish using accepted methods for translation of quality-of-life questionnaires. A total of 274 adult patients with degenerative radiographic sagittal spinal disorder answered the questionnaire with sociodemographic data, RAND 36-item health survey questionnaire (RAND Corp. Health, Santa Monica, CA, US), Oswestry disability index, DEPS depression scale, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) back and leg pain scales within 2 weeks' interval. The cohort included patients with and without previous spine surgery. Internal consistency and validity were tested with Cronbach α, intraclass correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement, and Spearman correlation coefficient with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The internal consistency of SRS-30 was good in both surgery and nonsurgery groups, with Cronbach α 0.853 (95% CI, 0.670 to 0.960) and 0.885 (95% CI, 0.854 to 0.911), respectively. The test-retest reproducibility ICC of the SRS-30 total and subscore domains of patients with stable symptoms was 0.905 (95% CI, 0.870-0.930) and 0.904 (95% CI, 0.871-0.929), respectively. The questionnaire had discriminative validity in the pain, self-image, and satisfaction with management domains compared with other questionnaires. The SRS-30 questionnaire proved to be valid and applicable in evaluating HRQoL in Finnish adult spinal deformity patients. It has two domains related to deformity

  11. ENTERPRISE SRS: LEVERAGING ONGOING OPERATIONS TO ADVANCE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.; Wilmarth, W.; Marra, J.

    2013-05-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is repurposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, strategic view of SRS as a united endeavor for “all things nuclear” as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic init