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Sample records for gamma spectrometry measurements

  1. Determination of the measurement threshold in gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Korun, M; Vodenik, B; Zorko, B

    2017-03-01

    In gamma-ray spectrometry the measurement threshold describes the lover boundary of the interval of peak areas originating in the response of the spectrometer to gamma-rays from the sample measured. In this sense it presents a generalization of the net indication corresponding to the decision threshold, which is the measurement threshold at the quantity value zero for a predetermined probability for making errors of the first kind. Measurement thresholds were determined for peaks appearing in the spectra of radon daughters (214)Pb and (214)Bi by measuring the spectrum 35 times under repeatable conditions. For the calculation of the measurement threshold the probability for detection of the peaks and the mean relative uncertainty of the peak area were used. The relative measurement thresholds, the ratios between the measurement threshold and the mean peak area uncertainty, were determined for 54 peaks where the probability for detection varied between some percent and about 95% and the relative peak area uncertainty between 30% and 80%. The relative measurement thresholds vary considerably from peak to peak, although the nominal value of the sensitivity parameter defining the sensitivity for locating peaks was equal for all peaks. At the value of the sensitivity parameter used, the peak analysis does not locate peaks corresponding to the decision threshold with the probability in excess of 50%. This implies that peaks in the spectrum may not be located, although the true value of the measurand exceeds the decision threshold.

  2. Guide to plutonium isotopic measurements using gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.; Rakel, D.A.

    1982-08-26

    Purpose of this guide is to assist those responsible for plutonium isotopic measurements in the application of gamma-ray spectrometry. Objectives are to promote an understanding of the measurement process, including its limitations and applicability, by reviewing the general features of a plutonium spectrum and identifying the quantities which must be extracted from the data; to introduce state-of-the-art analysis techniques by reviewing four isotopic analysis packages and identifying their differences; to establish the basis for measurement control and assurance by discussing means of authenticating the performance of a measurement system; and to prepare for some specific problems encountered in plutonium isotopic analyses by providing solutions from the practical experiences of several laboratories. 29 references, 12 figures, 17 tables.

  3. Initial recommendations for restricting gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of radionuclides for on-site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, W F; Kreek, S A; Wild, J F

    1998-11-06

    The US paper "Radionuclide Sampling, Sample Handling and Analytical Laboratory Equipment for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspections," CTBT/PC/V/OSI/WSII/PR/29 identified the radionuclides of interest to an OS1 as 144Ce, 147Nd, 141Ce, 149Ba140La), 95 Zr(95Nb), 131mXe, 133mXe, 133gXe, 135gXe, and 37Ar. All of these nuclides (except 37Ar) can be measured via some form of conventional or coincidence-based gamma-ray spectrometry. The non-gaseous radionuclides [144Ce, 147Nd, 141Ce, 140Ba(140La), and 95Zr(95Nb)] can be measured via conventional high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a shielded, high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The gaseous radionuclides 131mXe, 133mXe, 133gXe, and 135gXe are best measured (after separation from their homologous elements) via a gamma & beta/electron coincidence technique such as that described in CTBT/WGB/TL-11/5 which could utilize either a HPGe or low-resolution (NaI(TI)) gamma-ray spectrometer to detect the gamma-ray/x-ray and a plastic scintillator to detect the beta particle/electron from the decay of the various Xe isotopes. The US paper CTBT/PC/V/IOSI/WSII/PR/29 (and other papers) identified a need to limit the information that can be extracted from high-resolution gamma-ray spectra to ensure that only information relevant to an OSI is accessible. The term "blinding" has been used to describe the need to limit the information available to the Inspection Team from the high-resolution gamma-ray measurement. A better term is "measurement restriction"; the need for restricting the information is particularly relevant to conventional high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry measurements, but not to the gamma & beta/electron coincidence-type measurements

  4. Measurements of activation induced by environmental neutrons using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Köhler, M; Johnston, P N

    2000-03-01

    The flux of environmental neutrons is being studied by activation of metal discs of selected elements. Near the earth's surface the total neutron flux is in the order of 10(-2) cm(-2)s(-1), which gives induced activities of a few mBq in the discs. Initial results from this technique, involving activation at ground level for several materials (W, Au, Ta, In, Re, Sm, Dy and Mn) and ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory located at 500 m.w.e., are presented. Diffusion of environmental neutrons in water is also measured by activation of gold at different depths.

  5. GEANT4 calibration of gamma spectrometry efficiency for measurements of airborne radioactivity on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2014-11-01

    A simple method of efficiency calibration for gamma spectrometry was performed. This method, which focused on measuring airborne radioactivity collected on filter paper, was based on Monte Carlo simulations using the toolkit GEANT4. Experimentally, the efficiency values of an HPGe detector were calculated for a multi-gamma disk source. These efficiency values were compared to their counterparts produced by a computer code that simulated experimental conditions. Such comparison revealed biases of 24, 10, 1, 3, 7, and 3% for the radionuclides (photon energies in keV) of Ce (166), Sn (392), Cs (662), Co (1,173), Co (1,333), and Y (1,836), respectively. The output of the simulation code was in acceptable agreement with the experimental findings, thus validating the proposed method.

  6. Measurement of uranium series radionuclides in rock and groundwater at the Koongarra ore deposit, Australia, by gamma spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yanase, Nobuyuki; Sekine, Keiichi

    1995-12-31

    Gamma spectrometry without any self-absorption correction was developed to measure low energy gamma rays emitted by uranium and actinium series radionuclides in rock samples and groundwater residues collected at the Koongarra ore deposit, Australia. Thin samples were prepared to minimize the self-absorption by uranium in the samples. The present method gave standard deviations of 0.9 to 18% for the measurements of concentrations of uranium and actinium series radionuclides. The concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 230}Th and {sup 235}U measured by gamma spectrometry were compared with those by alpha spectrometry that requires a complicated chemical separation procedure. The results obtained by both methods were in fairly good agreement, and it was found that the gamma spectrometry is applicable to rock and groundwater samples having uranium content sup to 8.1% (10{sup 3} B1/g) and 3 Bq/l of {sup 238}U, respectively. The detection limits were calculated to be of the order of 10{sup {minus}2} Bq/g for rock samples and 10{sup {minus}1} Bq/l for groundwater samples. The concentrations of uranium and actinium series radionuclides can be determined precisely in these samples using gamma spectrometry without any self-absorption correction.

  7. Study of gamma spectrometry laboratory measurement in various sediment and vulcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Kurniadi, Rizal; Rizka Asmara Hadi, Muhammad; Rizal Komara, Insan

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the quantitative study of the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources. This method is powerful to characterize some minerals, especially to differentiate rocks which contains among Potassium, Uranium, dan Thorium. Rock contains radioactive material which produce gamma rays in various energies and intensities. When these emissions are detected and analyzed with a spectroscopy system, a gamma-ray energy spectrum can be used as indicator for mineral content of rock. Some sediment and vulcanic rock have been collected from East Java Basin. Samples are ranging from Andesite vulcanics, Tuff, Shale, various vulcanic clay and Alluvial clay. We present some unique characteristics of gamma spectrometry in various sedimentar and vulcanic rocks of East Java Basins. Details contents of gamma ray spectra give enrichments to characterize sample of sediment and vulcanic in East Java. Weathered vulcanic clay has lower counting rate of gamma ray than alluvial deltaic clay counting rate. Therefore, gamma spectrometrometry can be used as tool for characterizing the enviroment of clay whether vulcanic or alluvial-deltaic. This phenomena indicates that gamma ray spectrometry can be as tool for characterizing the clay whether it tends to Smectite or Illite

  8. A review of the nationwide proficiency test on natural radioactivity measurements by gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Şahin, N K; Yeltepe, E; Yücel, Ü

    2016-03-01

    This study is the review of the first proficiency test on radioactivity measurement organized in Turkey by Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANAEM) of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) in 2013. The objective of the test was to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in natural soil samples using gamma-ray spectrometry. The bulk material consisting of uranium- and thorium-rich soil and sand was milled, mixed thoroughly and sieved. Homogeneity of the final mix was tested with 6 randomly taken samples. 16 proficiency test samples were distributed to 16 participating laboratories. 12 laboratories reported results. The results were evaluated on the accuracy and precision criteria adopted by the IAEA Proficiency Testing Group. The percentage of acceptable scores was 49%. Some recommendations have been provided to the laboratories to improve the quality of their results. It is planned to extend these proficiency tests periodically for various radionuclides in various matrices.

  9. Comparison of airborne and terrestrial gamma spectrometry measurements - evaluation of three areas in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kock, Peder; Samuelsson, Christer

    2011-06-01

    The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) has been conducting airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of natural radioactivity in Sweden for more than 40 years. Today, the database covers about 80% of the country's land surface. This article explores the first step of putting this data into use in radioactive source search at ground level. However, in order to be able to use the airborne background measurements at ground level, SGU data must be validated against terrestrial data. In this work, we compare the SGU data with data measured by a portable backpack system. This is done for three different areas in southern Sweden. The statistical analysis shows that a linear relationship and a positive correlation exist between the air and ground data. However, this linear relationship could be revealed only when the region possessed large enough variations in areal activity. Furthermore, the activity distributions measured show good agreement to those of SGU. We conclude that the SGU database could be used for terrestrial background assessment, given that a linear transfer function is established.

  10. Uncertainty of gamma-ray spectrometry measurement of environmental samples due to uncertainties in matrix composition, density and sample geometry.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, S; Jakobi, A; Wilhelm, Chr

    2014-12-01

    This paper is intended to identify the uncertainties of activities in environmental samples measured with gamma-ray spectrometry that result from uncertainties in matrix composition, density and geometrical dimensions of the sample. For that purpose efficiencies were calculated for a wide range of environmental matrices such as fresh and ashed food samples, water samples and soil samples. Compositions were mainly taken from literature. Densities and geometry parameters were varied in a range occurring in practice. Considered energies cover a range from 46.5keV to 2000keV. Finally, a couple of recommendations in respect to gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of environmental samples are given.

  11. 137Cs measurement uncertainties and detection limits for airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) data analysed using a spectral windows method.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W; White, D C

    2006-02-01

    The uncertainties associated with airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) measurements analysed using a spectral windows method, and associated detection limits, have been investigated. For individual short measurements over buried 137Cs activity detection limits of 10 kBq m(-2) are achieved. These detection limits are reduced for superficial activity and longer integration times. For superficial activity, detection limits below 1 kBq m(-2) are achievable. A comparison is made with the detection limits for other data processing methods.

  12. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-01

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of 137Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  13. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  14. Measurement of gamma radiation levels in soil samples from Thanjavur using gamma-ray spectrometry and estimation of population exposure.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, B; Dhavamani, V; Ramkumar, S; Philominathan, P

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the level of terrestrial gamma radiation and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclides (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in 10 soil samples collected from Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu, India) using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity profile of radionuclides has clearly showed the existence of low level activity in Thanjavur. The geometric mean activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K is 42.9+/-9.4 Bq.kg(-1), 14.7+/-1.7 Bq.kg(-1) and 149.5+/-3.1 Bq.kg(-1) respectively are derived from all the soil samples studied. The activity concentration of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in soil is due to the presence of metamorphic rocks like shale, hornblende-biotite gneiss and quartzofeldspathic gneiss in these areas. Gamma absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range between 32 nGy.h(-1) and 59.1 nGy.h(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 43.3 +/-9 nGy.h(-1). This value is lesser than the population weighted world-averaged of 60 nGy.h(-1). Inhabitants of Thanjavur are subjected to external gamma radiation exposure (effective dose) ranging between 39.2 and 72.6 muSv.y(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 53.1+/-11 muSv.y(-1). The values of the external hazard index determined from the soil radioactivity of the study area are less than the recommended safe levels.

  15. Improvements on Low Level Activity Gamma Measurements and X-ray Spectrometry at the CEA-MADERE Measurement Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyeva, Victoria; Domergue, Christophe; Destouches, Christophe; Girard, Jean Michel; Philibert, Hervé; Bonora, Jonathan; Thiollay, Nicolas; Lyoussi, Abdallah

    2016-02-01

    The CEA MADERE platform (Measurement Applied to DosimEtry in REactors) is a part of the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory (LDCI). This facility is dedicated to the specific activity measurements of solid and radioactive samples using Gamma and X-ray spectrometry. MADERE is a high-performance facility devoted to neutron dosimetry for experimental programs performed in CEA and for the irradiation surveillance programmes of PWR vessels. The MADERE platform is engaged in a continuous improvement process. Recently, two High Efficiency diodes have been integrated to the MADERE platform in order to manage the accurate low level activity measurements (few Bq per sample). This new equipment provides a good level of efficiency over the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. The background continuum is reduced due to the use of a Ultra Low Background (ULB) lead shielding. Relative and absolute X-ray measurement techniques have been improved in order to facilitate absolute rhodium activity measurement (Rh103m) on solid samples. Additional efforts have been made to increase the accuracy of the relative niobium (Nb93m) activity measurement technique. The way of setting up an absolute measurement method for niobium is under investigation. After a presentation of the MADERE's measurement devices, this paper focuses on the technological options taken into account for the design of high efficiency measurement devices. Then, studies performed on X-ray measurement techniques are presented. Some details about the calculation of uncertainties and correction factors are also mentioned. Finally, future research and development axes are exposed.

  16. The influence of exogenous conditions on mobile measured gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierke, C.; Werban, U.; Dietrich, P.

    2012-12-01

    In the past, gamma ray measurements have been used for geological surveys and exploration using airborne and borehole logging systems. For these applications, the relationships between the measured physical parameter - the concentration of natural gamma emitters 40K, 238U and 232Th - and geological origin or sedimentary developments are well described. Based on these applications and knowledge in combination with adjusted sensor systems, gamma ray measurements are used to derive soil parameters to create detailed soil maps e.g., in digital soil mapping (DSM) and monitoring of soils. Therefore, not only qualitative but also quantitative comparability is necessary. Grain size distribution, type of clay minerals and organic matter content are soil parameters which directly influence the gamma ray emitter concentration. Additionally, the measured concentration is influenced by endogenous processes like soil moisture variation due to raining events, foggy weather conditions, or erosion and deposition of material. A time series of gamma ray measurements was used to observe changes in gamma ray concentration on a floodplain area in Central Germany. The study area is characterised by high variations in grain size distribution and occurrence of flooding events. For the survey, we used a 4l NaI(Tl) detector with GPS connection mounted on a sledge, which is towed across the field sites by a four-wheel-vehicle. The comparison of data from different time steps shows similar structures with minor variation between the data ranges and shape of structures. However, the data measured during different soil moisture contents differ in absolute value. An average increase of soil moisture of 36% leads to a decrease of Th (by 20%), K (by 29%), and U (by 41%). These differences can be explained by higher attenuation of radiation during higher soil moisture content. The different changes in nuclide concentration will also lead to varying ratios. We will present our experiences concerning

  17. Gamma spectrometry efficiency calibration using Monte Carlo methods to measure radioactivity of 137Cs in food samples.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, T

    2014-12-01

    A simple method of efficiency calibration for gamma spectrometry was performed. This method, which focused on measuring the radioactivity of (137)Cs in food samples, was based on Monte Carlo simulations available in the free-of-charge toolkit GEANT4. Experimentally, the efficiency values of a high-purity germanium detector were calculated for three reference materials representing three different food items. These efficiency values were compared with their counterparts produced by a computer code that simulated experimental conditions. Interestingly, the output of the simulation code was in acceptable agreement with the experimental findings, thus validating the proposed method.

  18. PC/FRAM: New capabilities for the gamma-ray spectrometry measurement of plutonium isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, T.E.; Kelley, T.A.; Cremers, T.L.; Konkel, T.R.; Friar, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    We describe the new capability of and.present measurement results from the PC/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis code. This new code allows data acquisition from a single coaxial germanium detector and analysis over an energy range from 120 keV to above I MeV. For the first time we demonstrate a complete isotopic analysis using only gamma rays greater than 200 keV in energy. This new capability allows the measurement of the plutonium isotopic composition of items inside shielded or heavy-walled containers without having to remove the items from the container. This greatly enhances worker safety by reducing handling and the resultant radiation exposure. Another application allows international inspectors to verify the contents of items inside sealed, long-term storage containers that may not be opened for national security or treaty compliance reasons. We present measurement results for traditional planar germanium detectors as well as coaxial detectors measuring shielded and unshielded samples.

  19. Data quality objectives for surface-soil cleanup operation using in situ gamma spectrometry for concentration measurements.

    PubMed

    Fong, S H; Alvarez, J L

    1997-02-01

    In situ gamma spectrometry is an efficient method for monitoring the progress of cleanup activities for radioactive contaminants in surface soil and for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards. However, desired data precision and accuracy must be specified for such a detection system prior to the operation to ensure that the level of uncertainty associated with the concentration measurements is acceptable. A method for developing data quality objectives is described in this paper for in situ gamma spectrometry to achieve numerical goals for data precision and accuracy for cleanup operations. Concentration measurement for a radionuclide at its cleanup level must have a precision commensurate with the importance of cleanup decisions. The 95% lower limit of detection of the system is suggested to be about one tenth the expected system response at the cleanup level. The count time required to achieve the preferred 95% lower limit of detection, and hence the desired precision, can then be determined. The accuracy error arises from the overall calibration factor, which relates the detector responses (e.g., count rate) to physical quantities of interest (e.g., radionuclide soil concentration). The major source of error for the calibration factor using in situ gamma spectrometry is the misidentification of the type of the depth profile of radionuclide concentration in soil. If surrogate radionuclides are used, such as 241Am for plutonium, the variation in the concentration ratio would be another significant source of error. Soil sampling programs performed prior to a cleanup operation will greatly reduce the accuracy error for an in situ detection system, and the analysis of system errors may determine the degree of sampling required. The planning of such a program is discussed in the study. Uncertainty analysis using a Latin Hypercube sampling technique for the calibration factor is also demonstrated. The quantitative result of the uncertainty analysis is useful

  20. The radioactivity measurements in soils and fertilizers using gamma spectrometry technique.

    PubMed

    Boukhenfouf, Wassila; Boucenna, Ahmed

    2011-04-01

    Because of their mineral content, soils are naturally radioactive and one of the sources of radioactivity other than those of natural origin is mainly due to the extensive use of fertilizers. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclides in local production of phosphate fertilizers to determine the content of radioactivity in several commercial fertilizers produced in Algeria and to estimate their radiological impact in a cultivated soil even for the long-term exposure due to their application. For these purposes, virgin and fertilized soils were collected from outlying Setif region in Algeria and from phosphate fertilizers used in this area. Gamma spectrometry was exploited to determine activity concentration due to naturally occurring (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in five types of samples (two different sorts of fertilizers, virgin and fertilized soils and well water used for irrigation) taken from Setif's areas. The results show that these radionuclides were present in an average concentration of 134.7 ± 24.1, 131.8 ± 16.7, 11644 ± 550 Bq/kg for the first fertilizer NPK and 190.3 ± 30, 117.2 ± 10.3, 5312 ± 249 Bq/kg for the second fertilizer (NPKs). For the virgin and the fertilized soils, the corresponding values were respectively 47.01 ± 7.3, 33 ± 7, 329.4 ± 19.7 Bq/kg and 53.2 ± 10.6, 50.0 ± 7, 311.4 ± 18.7 Bq/kg. For well water, the values were 1.93 and 0.12 Bq/kg; however the third value was below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the representative level index I(γr) for all samples were also calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature.

  1. Simultaneous measurements of indoor radon, radon-thoron progeny and high-resolution gamma spectrometry in Greek dwellings.

    PubMed

    Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Antonopoulos-Domis, M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous indoor radon, radon-thoron progeny and high-resolution in situ gamma spectrometry measurements, with portable high-purity Ge detector were performed in 26 dwellings of Thessaloniki, the second largest town of Greece, during March 2003-January 2005. The radon gas was measured with an AlphaGUARD ionisation chamber (in each of the 26 dwellings) every 10 min, for a time period between 7 and 10 d. Most of the values of radon gas concentration are between 20 and 30 Bq m(-3), with an arithmetic mean of 34 Bq m(-3). The maximum measured value of radon gas concentration is 516 Bq m(-3). The comparison between the radon gas measurements, performed with AlphaGUARD and short-term electret ionisation chamber, shows very good agreement, taking into account the relative short time period of the measurement and the relative low radon gas concentration. Radon and thoron progeny were measured with a SILENA (model 4s) instrument. From the radon and radon progeny measurements, the equilibrium factor F could be deduced. Most of the measurements of the equilibrium factor are within the range 0.4-0.5. The mean value of the equilibrium factor F is 0.49 +/- 0.10, i.e. close to the typical value of 0.4 adopted by UNSCEAR. The mean equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration measured in the 26 dwellings is EEC(thoron) = 1.38 +/- 0.79 Bq m(-3). The mean equilibrium equivalent thoron to radon ratio concentration, measured in the 26 dwellings, is 0.1 +/- 0.06. The mean total absorbed dose rate in air, owing to gamma radiation, is 58 +/- 12 nGy h(-1). The contribution of the different radionuclides to the total indoor gamma dose rate in air is 38% due to 40K, 36% due to thorium series and 26% due to uranium series. The annual effective dose, due to the different source terms (radon, thoron and external gamma radiation), is 1.05, 0.39 and 0.28 mSv, respectively.

  2. Spatially-Dependent Measurements of Surface and Near-Surface Radioactive Material Using In situ Gamma Ray Spectrometry (ISGRS) For Final Status Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Chapman, A. J. Boerner, E. W. Abelquist

    2006-11-15

    In-situ, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (ISGRS) measurements were conducted at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) field laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of these tests was to provide analytical data for assessing how “fit for use” this technology is for detecting discrete particles in soil.

  3. In situ gamma spectrometry measurements and Monte Carlo computations for the detection of radioactive sources in scrap metal.

    PubMed

    Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Takoudis, G; Potiriadis, C; Silva, J

    2005-02-01

    A very limited number of field experiments have been performed to assess the relative radiation detection sensitivities of commercially available equipment used to detect radioactive sources in recycled metal scrap. Such experiments require the cooperation and commitment of considerable resources on the part of vendors of the radiation detection systems and the cooperation of a steel mill or scrap processing facility. The results will unavoidably be specific to the equipment tested at the time, the characteristics of the scrap metal involved in the tests, and to the specific configurations of the scrap containers. Given these limitations, the use of computer simulation for this purpose would be a desirable alternative. With this in mind, this study sought to determine whether Monte Carlo simulation of photon flux energy distributions resulting from a radiation source in metal scrap would be realistic. In the present work, experimental and simulated photon flux energy distributions in the outer part of a truck due to the presence of embedded radioactive sources in the scrap metal load are compared. The experimental photon fluxes are deduced by in situ gamma spectrometry measurements with portable Ge detector and the calculated ones by Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. The good agreement between simulated and measured photon flux energy distributions indicate that the results obtained by the Monte Carlo simulations are realistic.

  4. Calculation spreadsheet for uncertainty estimation of measurement results in gamma-ray spectrometry and its validation for quality assurance purpose.

    PubMed

    Ceccatelli, Alessia; Dybdal, Ashild; Fajgelj, Ales; Pitois, Aurelien

    2017-03-03

    An Excel calculation spreadsheet has been developed to estimate the uncertainty of measurement results in γ-ray spectrometry. It considers all relevant uncertainty components and calculates the combined standard uncertainty of the measurement result. The calculation spreadsheet has been validated using two independent open access software and is available for download free of charge at: https://nucleus.iaea.org/rpst/ReferenceProducts/Analytical_Methods/index.htm. It provides a simple and easy-to-use template for estimating the uncertainty of γ-ray spectrometry measurement results and supports the radioanalytical laboratories seeking accreditation for their measurements using γ-ray spectrometry.

  5. Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry generally equates to high-sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometry that can be attained by background reduction, selective signal identification, or some combination of both. Various methods for selectively identifying gamma-ray events and for reducing the background in gamma-ray spectrometers are given. The relative magnitude of each effect on overall sensitivity and the relative cost'' for implementing them are given so that a cost/benefit comparison can be made and a sufficiently sensitive spectrometer system can be designed for any application without going to excessive or unnecessary expense. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Measurement of {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al{sup g} resonance strengths via accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arazi, A.; Niello, J. O. Fernandez; Faestermann, T.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Poutivtsev, M.; Rugel, G.; Richter, E.; Wallner, A.

    2006-08-15

    The strengths of resonances located at center-of-mass energies of E{sub c.m.}=189, 304, 374, and 418 keV for the {sup 25}Mg(p,{gamma}) reaction have been measured for the first time with an off-line method: Mg targets were firstly activated with protons at the resonance energies and the produced {sup 26}Al{sup g} nuclei were counted by means of highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Thus, the production of {sup 26}Al in its ground state is determined independently from the {gamma}-decay branching ratio. While the 304, 374, and 418 keV resonances show fair agreement with previous measurements, the 189 keV resonance yield a significantly less strength. In addition, an experimental upper limit for the E{sub c.m.}=92 keV resonance was determined.

  7. Measurement of gamma radiation levels in soil samples from Thanjavur using γ-ray spectrometry and estimation of population exposure

    PubMed Central

    Senthilkumar, B.; Dhavamani, V.; Ramkumar, S.; Philominathan, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the level of terrestrial gamma radiation and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 238U and 40K in 10 soil samples collected from Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu, India) using γ-ray spectrometry. The activity profile of radionuclides has clearly showed the existence of low level activity in Thanjavur. The geometric mean activity concentrations of 232Th, 238U and 40K is 42.9±9.4 Bq.kg−1, 14.7±1.7 Bq.kg−1 and 149.5±3.1 Bq.kg−1 respectively are derived from all the soil samples studied. The activity concentration of 232Th, 238U and 40K in soil is due to the presence of metamorphic rocks like shale, hornblende-biotite gneiss and quartzofeldspathic gneiss in these areas. Gamma absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range between 32 nGy.h−1 and 59.1 nGy.h−1 with an arithmetic mean of 43.3 ±9 nGy.h−1. This value is lesser than the population weighted world-averaged of 60 nGy.h−1. Inhabitants of Thanjavur are subjected to external gamma radiation exposure (effective dose) ranging between 39.2 and 72.6 μSv.y−1 with an arithmetic mean of 53.1±11 μSv.y−1. The values of the external hazard index determined from the soil radioactivity of the study area are less than the recommended safe levels. PMID:20177570

  8. Spectral interference corrections for the measurement of (238)U in materials rich in thorium by a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yücel, H; Solmaz, A N; Köse, E; Bor, D

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the spectral interferences are investigated for the analytical peaks at 63.3 keV of (234)Th and 1001.0 keV of (234m)Pa, which are often used in the measurement of (238)U activity by the gamma-ray spectrometry. The correction methods are suggested to estimate the net peak areas of the gamma-rays overlapping the analytical peaks, due to the contribution of (232)Th that may not be negligible in materials rich in natural thorium. The activity results for the certified reference materials (CRMs) containing U and Th were measured with a well type Ge detector. The self-absorption and true coincidence-summing (TCS) effects were also taken into account in the measurements. It is found that ignoring the contributions of the interference gamma-rays of (232)Th and (235)U to the mixed peak at 63.3 keV of (234)Th ((238)U) leads to the remarkably large systematic influence of 0.8-122% in the measured (238)U activity, but in case of ignoring the contribution of (232)Th via the interference gamma-ray at 1000.7 keV of (228)Ac to the mixed peak at 1001 keV of (234m)Pa ((238)U) results in relatively smaller systematic influence of 0.05-3%, depending on thorium contents in the samples. The present results showed that the necessary correction for the spectral interferences besides self-absorption and TCS effects is also very important to obtain more accurate (238)U activity results. Additionally, if one ignores the contribution of (232)Th to both (238)U and (40)K activities in materials, the maximum systematic influence on the effective radiation dose is estimated to be ~6% and ~1% via the analytical peaks at 63.3 and 1001 keV for measurement of the (238)U activity, respectively.

  9. Systematic influences of gamma-ray spectrometry data near the decision threshold for radioactivity measurements in the environment.

    PubMed

    Zorko, Benjamin; Korun, Matjaž; Mora Canadas, Juan Carlos; Nicoulaud-Gouin, Valerie; Chyly, Pavol; Blixt Buhr, Anna Maria; Lager, Charlotte; Aquilonius, Karin; Krajewski, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Several methods for reporting outcomes of gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of environmental samples for dose calculations are presented and discussed. The measurement outcomes can be reported as primary measurement results, primary measurement results modified according to the quantification limit, best estimates obtained by the Bayesian posterior (ISO 11929), best estimates obtained by the probability density distribution resembling shifting, and the procedure recommended by the European Commission (EC). The annual dose is calculated from the arithmetic average using any of these five procedures. It was shown that the primary measurement results modified according to the quantification limit could lead to an underestimation of the annual dose. On the other hand the best estimates lead to an overestimation of the annual dose. The annual doses calculated from the measurement outcomes obtained according to the EC's recommended procedure, which does not cope with the uncertainties, fluctuate between an under- and overestimation, depending on the frequency of the measurement results that are larger than the limit of detection. In the extreme case, when no measurement results above the detection limit occur, the average over primary measurement results modified according to the quantification limit underestimates the average over primary measurement results for about 80%. The average over best estimates calculated according the procedure resembling shifting overestimates the average over primary measurement results for 35%, the average obtained by the Bayesian posterior for 85% and the treatment according to the EC recommendation for 89%.

  10. Photon energy conversion efficiency in gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Švec, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Photon energy conversion efficiency coefficient is presented as the ratio of total energy registered in the collected spectrum to the emitted photon energy. This parameter is calculated from the conventional gamma-ray histogram and in principle is not affected by coincidence phenomena. This feature makes it particularly useful for calibration and measurement of radionuclide samples at close geometries. It complements the number of efficiency parameters used in gamma-ray spectrometry and can partly change the view as to how the gamma-ray spectra are displayed and processed.

  11. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India using gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ravisankar, R; Vanasundari, K; Chandrasekaran, A; Rajalakshmi, A; Suganya, M; Vijayagopal, P; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2012-04-01

    The natural level of radioactivity in building materials is one of the major causes of external exposure to γ-rays. The primordial radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the radioactivity level in building materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the specific activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in commonly used building materials from Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India, using gamma-ray spectrometer. The radiation hazard due to the total natural radioactivity in the studied building materials was estimated by different approaches. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and the radium equivalent activity in studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  12. EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, Karin M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the analyses for the third EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program (October 1999). This program assists laboratories in providing more accurate gamma spectra analysis results and provides a means for users of gamma data to assess how a laboratory performed on various types of gamma spectrometry analyses. This is accomplished through the use of synthetic gamma spectra. A calibration spectrum, a background spectrum, and three sample spectra are sent to each participant in the spectral file format requested by the laboratory. The calibration spectrum contains nuclides covering the energy range from 59.5 keV to 1836 keV. The participants are told fallout and fission product nuclides could be present. The sample spectra are designed to test the ability of the software and user to properly resolve multiplets and to identify and quantify nuclides in a complicated fission product spectrum. The participants were asked to report values and uncertainties as Becquerel per sample with no decay correction. Thirty-one sets of results were reported from a total of 60 laboratories who received the spectra. Six foreign laboratories participated. The percentage of the results within 1 of the expected value was 68, 33, and 46 for samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. From all three samples, 18% of the results were more than 3 from the expected value. Eighty-three (12%) values out of a total of 682 expected results were not reported for the three samples. Approximately 30% of these false negatives were due the laboratories not reporting 144Pr in sample 2 which was present at the minimum detectable activity level. There were 53 false positives reported with 25% of these responses due to problems with background subtraction. The results show improvement in the ability of the software or user to resolve peaks separated by 1 keV. Improvement is still needed either in the analysis report produced by the software or in the review of these

  13. Parametric Studies for 233U Gamma Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffing, C.C.; Krichinsky, A.

    2004-01-01

    Quantification of special nuclear material is a necessary aspect to assuring material accountability and is often accomplished using non-destructive gamma spectrometry. For 233U, gamma rays are affected by matrix and packaging attenuation and by a strong Compton continuum from decay products of 232U (inherently found in 233U) that obscure 233U gamma photopeaks. This project, based on current work at the national repository for separated 233U located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), explores the effects of various parameters on the quantification of 233U– including material form and geometry. Using an attenuation correction methodology for calculating the mass of 233U from NDA analysis, a bias of almost 75% less than the actual 233U mass was identified. The source of the bias needs to be understood at a more fundamental level for further use of this quantification method. Therefore, controlled experiments using well characterized packages of 233U were conducted at the repository and are presented in this paper.

  14. The natural radioactivity measurements in coastal sediment samples along the East Coast of Tamilnadu using gamma spectrometry technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chandramohan, J.; Tholkappian, M.; Harikrishnan, N.; Ravisankar, R.

    2015-08-28

    The natural radioactivity concentration in beach sediment samples collected from Pattipulam to Devanampattinam of East Coast of Tamilnadu have been determined by NaI (TI) gamma ray spectrometer. The specific activity concentrations range from ≤ 2.21 (BDL) to 37.02 Bq kg{sup −1} with a mean of 3.79 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 238}U, ≤ 2.11 (BDL) to 643.77 Bqkg{sup −1} with a mean of 49.60 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 232}Th and 300.34 Bqkg{sup −1} to 449.08 Bqkg{sup −1} with a mean of 360.23 Bqkg{sup −1} for {sup 40}K. The potential radiological hazards due to natural radionuclides content such as Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), Representative level index (RLI), External hazard index (H{sub ex}), absorbed gamma does rate (D{sub R}), and Annual effective dose rate (AEDR) are estimated to assess the radiation hazard associated with the sediments. The obtained data are compared with the recommended safety limits and international approved values. All the values are well below the recommended safety limits indicating that radiation levels do not poses any significant health hazard to the public in the area as a result of the natural radioactivity of beach sediments. This study may help the baseline data for more extensive works in the same subjects of future studies.

  15. Composite mapping experiences in airborne gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bucher, B

    2014-08-01

    During an international intercomparison exercise of airborne gamma spectrometry held in Switzerland 2007 teams from Germany, France and Switzerland were proving their capabilities. One of the tasks was the composite mapping of an area around Basel. Each team was mainly covering the part of its own country at its own flying procedures. They delivered the evaluated data in a data format agreed in advance. The quantities to be delivered were also defined in advance. Nevertheless, during the process to put the data together a few questions raised: Which dose rate was meant? Had the dose rate to be delivered with or without cosmic contribution? Activity per dry or wet mass? Which coordinate system was used? Finally, the data could be put together in one map. For working procedures in case of an emergency, quantities of interest and exchange data format have to be defined in advance. But the procedures have also to be proved regularly.

  16. In-situ gamma spectrometry in environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kluson, J

    2010-01-01

    In-situ gamma spectrometry (scintillation or semiconductor) can be used effectively for monitoring natural and man-made radionuclide concentrations, together with the corresponding photon fields, in the environment and in workplaces. It is applied in operational and emergency monitoring of nuclear facilities, waste storage facilities and the uranium industry, in radioactive contamination measurements and mapping, environmental, radiohygienic and radiation safety studies, etc. Methods for processing and interpreting data, experimental techniques (ground or airborne arrangement), calibration and verification and examples of applications are discussed in this paper.

  17. Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, M.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Ligori, S.; Loreggia, D.; Vecchiato, A.

    GAME aims at the measurement of gravitational deflection of the light by the Sun, by an optimised telescope on board a small class satellite. The targeted precision on the gamma parameter of the Parametrised Post-Newtonian formulation of General Relativity is below 10-6, i.e. one to two orders of magnitude better than the best current results. Such precision is suitable to detect possible deviations from the unity value, associated to generalised Einstein models for gravitation, with potentially huge impacts on the cosmological distribution of dark matter and dark energy. The measurement principle is based on differential astrometry. The observations also allow additional scientific objectives related to tests of General Relativity and to the study of exo-planetary systems. The instrument concept is based on a dual field, multiple aperture Fizeau interferometer, observing simultaneously two regions close to the Solar limb. The diluted optics achieves efficient rejection of the solar radiation, with good angular resolution on the science targets. We describe the science motivation, the proposed mission implementation and the expected performance.

  18. Recovery and reanalysis of archived airborne gamma spectrometry data from the 1991 Dounreay survey.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A J

    2012-01-01

    Archived Airborne Gamma Spectrometry (AGS) data from the 1991 NIREX characterisations of Caithness have been recovered. The separate gamma spectrometry and positional data streams for approximately 120,000 measurements have been combined into a single data stream using the European Radiometrics and Spectrometry (ERS) data format. An analysis using working calibration coefficients and spectral stripping procedure has verified that the original survey recorded high quality data. The converted data stream is in a format more accessible to future research use, including evaluation of environmental change in the Caithness region.

  19. Gamma spectrometry of the minor bodies of the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Moskaleva, L.P.; Manvelyan, O.S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigate the possibility of determining the elemental composition of the surfaces of minor bodies of the solar system (asteroids, the Martian satellites Phobos and Deimos, etc.) using spacecraft-based ..gamma..-spectrometry. The dependence of ..gamma..-photon flux on altitude above the body was calculated for body radii from 13 to 500 km. Estimates were made of the sensitivity of the determination of basic rock-forming elements with respect to changes in geometry of a factor of two, using ..gamma..-spectrometry with a 100 mm by 100 mm crystal of NaI(Tl). Finally, the time required to determine the stipulated characteristic ..gamma..-radiation of surface rocks with the given precision was derived as a function of altitude.

  20. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.; Tanner, Allan B.

    1977-01-01

    Sedimentary-type uranium deposits accumulate at favorable sites along a migration path which may be kilometers in length. Their source is a large volume of rock from which the uranium has been leached. The geochemical mobilities and half lives of uranium and its daughter products vary widely so that they are transported from the source rocks, at different rates, along the migration path to their ultimate site. The radioactive disequilibrium resulting from this process has been well documented in the immediate vicinity of ore deposits, and disequilibrium is commonly recorded on gamma-ray logs up the hydraulic gradient from uranium ore. Little is known about the state of secular equilibrium in the leached host rocks, which often represent the only part of the migration path that is at or near the surface and is thus most accessible to the exploration geophysicist. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry provides a means of investigating the disequilibrium associated with uranium leaching and migration. Direct measurement of uranium can be made by this method, and the equivalent weight percents can be determined for six of the seven daughter-product decay groups that characterize the state of radioactive equilibrium. The technique has been used quantitatively in laboratory studies, where the results compare favorably with radiochemical analyses; field experiments suggest that semi-quantitative data may be obtained at the outcrop.

  1. The Dortmund Low Background Facility - Low-background gamma ray spectrometry with an artificial overburden.

    PubMed

    Gastrich, Holger; Gößling, Claus; Klingenberg, Reiner; Kröninger, Kevin; Neddermann, Till; Nitsch, Christian; Quante, Thomas; Zuber, Kai

    2016-06-01

    The Dortmund Low Background Facility is an instrument for low-level gamma ray spectrometry with an artificial overburden of ten meters of water equivalent, an inner shielding, featuring a neutron absorber, and an active muon veto. An integral background count rate between 40keV and 2700keV of (2.528±0.004)counts/(kgmin) enables low-background gamma ray spectrometry with sensitivities in the range of some 10mBq/kg within a week of measurement time.

  2. New shield for gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brar, S. S.; Gustafson, P. F.; Nelson, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Gamma-ray shield that can be evacuated, refilled with a clean gas, and pressurized for exclusion of airborne radioactive contaminants effectively lowers background noise. Under working conditions, repeated evacuation and filling procedures have not adversely affected the sensitivity and resolution of the crystal detector.

  3. Use of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry for kaolin exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourlière, B.; Perrin, J.; Le Berre, P.; Pasquet, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry was used to define targets with kaolin potential in the Armorican Massif of Brittany, France. This exploration method is based on the principle that kaolinite, an aluminosilicate clay mineral constituting kaolin, is formed by the hydrolysis of potash feldspar with the elimination of potassium. Therefore, potassium contrast between favourable host-rock such as a leucogranite and kaolin occurrence is likely a significant pathfinder. As the relationship between the potassium-40 recorded by an airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and total potassium is constant, such data provide us a direct measurement of the potassium content of the ground flown over. Our study tested this by calculating, for each geological unit, the difference between the measured and average potassium content calculated for a given geological formation. The study was based on (i) a recent (1998) high-definition airborne geophysical survey over the Armorican Massif undertaken on behalf of the French Government, and (ii) new geological compilation maps covering the same region. Depleted zones, where the measured potassium is less than the average potassium content calculated target areas with high potential of containing kaolin, provided that the unit was originally rich in potash feldspar. By applying this method to the entire Armorican Massif, it was possible to identify 150 potassium-depleted zones, including 115 that were subjected to rapid field checks and 36 that contained kaolin (21 new discoveries). This method, which is both safe for the environment and easy to use, is therefore a good tool for rapidly defining targets with kaolin potential at a regional scale. The method may also have possibilities in exploring for other types of deposit characterised by an enrichment or depletion in U, K and/or Th.

  4. Martian Provinces From Neutron and Gamma Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnault, O.

    2003-12-01

    This study intends to identify and characterize the major provinces at the surface of Mars. We used the data from the Neutron Spectrometer (NS) and the Gamma-ray Sensor Head (GSH) aboard Mars Odyssey. NS data help to define broad provinces that should present uniform composition. GSH data can be then summed over these provinces to derive their chemical compositions with good statistics. At the present stage, we manage to conduct the first step that identifies the provinces, while the second step is still under progress to characterize them. Variations in NS epithermal and fast neutron data are largely dominated by the distribution of hydrogen and carbon at the surface or at shallow depths. Neutrons are also affected by the presence of an atmosphere. To limit these effects, we chose frost free data (i.e. measured during the summer at high-latitudes), between -60 and +60 degrees latitude, and corrected for atmospheric thickness (normalization to 16 g/cm2). On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that neutron fluxes can be used as a proxy for composition: thermal neutrons are strongly attenuated by absorbing elements such as iron, titanium, chlorine, gadolinium, and samarium; on the contrary, the fast neutron flux increases in presence of high-atomic mass elements such as iron or titanium. For a dry and airless body it is known that the ratio of epithermal over fast neutron counts is correlated to the ratio of thermal over fast neutron counts. This correlation leads to a unique parameter, which characterizes the various soil compositions. A similar behaviour has been observed within our subset of NS data. Effects of hydrogen and carbon are quite obvious, allowing us to focus on secondary components, which are driven by soil composition. From there, we derived four provinces besides the poles. The first province is made of H-rich equatorial regions (Arabia Terra and south of Lucus Planum). The second and third provinces are found north and south of the crustal

  5. Low-resolution gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Christiansen, A.; Cole, R.; Collins, M.L.

    1996-11-01

    Facilities that process special nuclear material perform periodic inventories. In bulk facilities that process low-enriched uranium, these inventories and their audits are based primarily on weight and enrichment measurements. Enrichment measurements determine the {sup 211}U weight fraction of the uranium compound from the passive gamma-ray emissions of the sample. Both international inspectors and facility operators rely on the capability to make in-field gamma-ray measurements of uranium enrichment. These users require rapid, portable measurement capability. Some in-field measurements have been biased, forcing the inspectors to resort to high-resolution measurements or mass spectrometry to accomplish their goals.

  6. Demonstration of lightweight gamma spectrometry systems in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W; Harrold, M; Kirley, B; Mitchell, C; Weir, A

    2013-10-01

    Urban areas present highly complex radiation environments; with small scale features resulting from different construction materials, topographic effects and potential anthropogenic inputs from past industrial activity or other sources. Mapping of the radiation fields in urban areas allows a detailed assessment of exposure pathways for the people who live and work there, as well as locating discrete sources of activity that may warrant removal to mitigate dose to the general public. These areas also present access difficulties for radiometric mapping using vehicles or aircraft. A lightweight portable gamma spectrometry system has been used to survey sites in the vicinity of Glasgow to demonstrate the possibilities of radiometric mapping of urban areas, and to investigate the complex radiometric features such areas present. Variations in natural activity due to construction materials have been described, the presence of (137)Cs used to identify relatively undisturbed ground, and a previously unknown NORM feature identified. The effect of topographic enclosure on measurements of activity concentration has been quantified. The portable system is compared with the outputs that might be expected from larger vehicular or airborne systems. For large areas airborne surveys are the most cost effective approach, but provide limited spatial resolution, vehicular surveys can provide sparse exploratory data rapidly or detailed mapping of open areas where off-road access is possible. Backpack systems are ideally suited to detailed surveys of small areas, especially where vehicular access is difficult.

  7. Development of isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.K.; Parker, J.L. ); Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Kurosawa, A.; Akiyama, T. )

    1991-01-01

    We are studying the feasibility of determining the plutonium concentration and isotopic distribution of highly radioactive, spent-fuel dissolver solutions by employing high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The study involves gamma-ray plutonium isotopic analysis for both dissolver and spiked dissolver solution samples, after plutonium is eluted through an ion-exchange column and absorbed in a small resin bead bag. The spike is well characterized, dry plutonium containing {approximately}98% of {sup 239}Pu. By using measured isotopic information, the concentration of elemental plutonium in the dissolver solution can be determined. Both the plutonium concentration and the isotopic composition of the dissolver solution obtained from this study agree well with values obtained by traditional isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Because it is rapid, easy to operate and maintain, and costs less, this new technique could be an alternative method to IDMS for input accountability and verification measurements in reprocessing plants. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Determination of impurities in (124)I samples by high resolution gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, M C M; da Silva, R L; Delgado, J U; Poledna, R; de Araújo, M T F; Laranjeira, A S; de Veras, E; Braghirolli, A M S; dos Santos, G R; Lopes, R T

    2016-03-01

    (124)I is a radionuclide used in the diagnosis of tumors. The National Health Agency requires identification and activity measurement of impurities. Using gamma spectrometry with an efficiency calibrated high-purity germanium detector, impurities (125)I and (126)I in an (1)(24)I production sample were identified. Activity ratios of (125)I and (126)I to (124)I were approximately 0.5% and 98%, respectively.

  9. Airborne gamma spectrometry--towards integration of European operational capability.

    PubMed

    Toivonen, Harri

    2004-01-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is an excellent tool for finding out in a timely manner the extent and magnitude of the dispersion of radioactive materials resulting from a nuclear disaster. To utilise existing European airborne monitoring capabilities for multilateral assistance in an accident is a complex administrative and technical matter. Several international exercises have been organised demonstrating the capability to cooperate. However, efficient mutual assistance between European countries requires conceptual work, standards and harmonisation of software. A unified radiological vocabulary and data exchange format in XML need to be developed. A comprehensive database is essential for data assimilation. An operations centre is needed for management and planning of surveys.

  10. Gamma ray spectrometry of LDEF samples at SRL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, Willard G.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 31 samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), including materials of aluminum, vanadium, and steel trunnions were analyzed by ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry. The study quantified particle induced activations of Na-22, Sc-46, Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, Co-58, and Co-60. The samples of trunnion sections exhibited increasing activity toward the outer end of the trunnion and decreasing activity toward its radial center. The trunnion sections did not include end pieces, which were reported to collect noticeable Be-7 on their leading surfaces. No significant Be-7 was detected in the samples analyzed.

  11. Measurement of the gamma gamma* --> eta and gamma gamma* --> eta' transition form factors

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez et al, P.

    2011-02-07

    We study the reactions e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} {eta}{sup (/)} in the single-tag mode and measure the {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} {eta}{sup (/)} transition form factors in the momentum transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV{sup 2}. The analysis is based on 469 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  12. Rapid determination of (237)Np in soil samples by multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaowei; Shi, Yanmei; Xu, Jiang; He, Xiaobing; Zhang, Haitao; Lin, Jianfeng

    A radiochemical procedure is developed for the determination of (237)Np in soil with multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) and gamma-spectrometry. (239)Np (milked from (243)Am) was used as an isotopic tracer for chemical yield determination. The neptunium in the soil is separated by thenoyl-trifluoracetone extraction from 1 M HNO3 solution after reducing Np to Np(IV) with ferrous sulfamate, and then purified with Dowex 1 × 2 anion exchange resin. (239)Np in the resulting solution is measured with gamma-spectrometry for chemical yield determination while the (237)Np is measured with MC-ICP-MS. Measurement results for soil samples are presented together with those for two reference samples. By comparing the determined value with the reference value of the (237)Np activity concentration, the feasibility of the procedure was validated.

  13. Testing of regolith of celestial bolides with active neutron gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrukhin, Andrey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Golovin, Dmitry; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Current space instruments for studying planet's surface include gamma ray spectrometers that detect natural radioactive isotopes as well as gamma-rays induced in subsurface by galactic cosmic rays. When measuring from celestial body's surface, statistics and amount of detected elements can be dramatically increased with active methods, where soil exposed to artificial flux of particles. One good example is the Russian Dynamic Albedo of Neutron (DAN) instrument onboard Martian Science Laboratory mission (Curiosity rover) developed in 2005-2011. It is the first active neutron spectrometer flown to another planet as part of a landed mission to investigate subsurface water distribution and which has now successfully operated for more than two years on the Martian surface. Presentation describes a number of space instruments for different landers and rovers being developed in Russian Space Research Institute for studying Moon and Mars, as well as method of active neutron and gamma spectrometry overview.

  14. Use of Gamma Spectrometry Method for Environmental Monitoring in the area of NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinova, L.; Cechak, T.; Kluson, J.; Trojek, T.

    2006-05-01

    It is generally not possible to correctly determine the long and short term impact of human activity upon the environment, without thorough processing of data, obtained through monitoring. It was confirmed that such impact on the environment must be monitored over a long time period. The data obtained must be of high quality, an attribute assured by present state of scientific knowledge. One of the well established methods for monitoring atmospheric deposition of radionuclides in the environment is laboratory and in situ gamma spectrometry. With the aim to monitor an occurrence of a one-time escape or persistent release of fission products into the air, resulting from an operation of a nuclear plant, two types of monitoring are performed: i/ measurement of samples from the environment (Schreber moss, forest humus, pine bark, mushrooms and forest berries) using laboratory gamma spectrometry method in the range up to 3 MeV (those data are used for the trend analysis and for the construction of the contaminationmaps); ii/ in situ gama spectrometry for assessment dosimetry and spectrometry characteristic of photon-fields (those data are used for the dose rate calculation).

  15. Evaluation of radiological data of some saturated fatty acids using gamma ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.; Palani Selvam, T.

    2016-02-01

    Radiological parameters such as mass attenuation coefficients (μm), total attenuation cross section (σtot), molar extinction coefficient (ε), mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and effective electronic cross section (σt, el) of saturated fatty acids, namely butyric acid (C4H8O2), caproic acid (C6H12O2), enanthic acid (C7H14O2), caprylic acid (C8H16O2), pelargonic acid (C9H18O2) and valeric acid (C5H10O2) were measured using NaI(Tl)-based gamma spectrometry. Radioactive sources used in the study are 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co and 22Na. Gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set up was used in the study. The measured data were compared against Win-XCOM-based data. The agreement is within 1%.

  16. Determination of radionuclide levels in rainwater using ion exchange resin and gamma-spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jungck, Matthias H A; Andrey, Jean-Louis; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2009-04-01

    The evaluation of radioactivity accidentally released into the atmosphere involves determining the radioactivity levels of rainwater samples. Rainwater scavenges atmospheric airborne radioactivity in such a way that surface contamination can be deduced from rainfall rate and rainwater radioactivity content. For this purpose, rainwater is usually collected in large surface collectors and then measured by gamma-spectrometry after such treatments as evaporation or iron hydroxide precipitation. We found that collectors can be adapted to accept large surface (diameter 47mm) cartridges containing a strongly acidic resin (Dowex AG 88) which is able to quantitatively extract radioactivity from rainwater, even during heavy rainfall. The resin can then be measured by gamma-spectrometry. The detection limit is 0.1Bq per sample of resin (80g) for (137)Cs. Natural (7)Be and (210)Pb can also be measured and the activity ratio of both radionuclides is comparable with those obtained through iron hydroxide precipitation and air filter measurements. Occasionally (22)Na has also been measured above the detection limit. A comparison between the evaporation method and the resin method demonstrated that 2/3 of (7)Be can be lost during the evaporation process. The resin method is simple and highly efficient at extracting radioactivity. Because of these great advantages, we anticipate it could replace former rainwater determination methods. Moreover, it does not necessitate the transportation of large rainwater volumes to the laboratory.

  17. A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data for mapping low level contaminations.

    PubMed

    Aage, H K; Korsbech, U; Bargholz, K; Hovgaard, J

    1999-12-01

    A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data has been developed. It is based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method introduced by Hovgaard in 1997. The new technique opens for mapping of very low contamination levels. It is tested with data from Latvia where the remaining contamination from the 1986 Chernobyl accident together with fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests includes 137Cs at levels often well below 1 kBq/m2 equivalent surface contamination. The limiting factors for obtaining reliable results are radon in the air, spectrum stability and accurate altitude measurements.

  18. Characterisation of uranium(VI) sorption by two environmental fungal species using gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gargarello, R; Cavalitto, S; Di Gregorio, D; Niello, J Fernández; Huck, H; Pardo, A; Somacal, H; Curutchet, G

    2008-12-01

    Uranium(VI) sorption by two highly uranium-resistant air-borne fungi in a low-pH medium was measured by means of gamma spectrometry. Growth kinetics and stoichiometry of the two fungal species were also studied. Results show acceptable growth rates in synthetic medium with glucose and ammonia as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Typical oxidative metabolism of carbohydrates was found. In vivo uptake of the radionuclide was negligible, but biosorption dry biomass presented a remarkable performance. The fungal strains showed potential for use in bioremediation.

  19. A Case Study Correlating Innovative Gamma Ray Scanning Detection Systems Data to Surface Soil Gamma Spectrometry Results - 13580

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Shannon; Rodriguez, Rene; Billock, Paul; Lit, Peter

    2013-07-01

    HydroGeoLogic (HGL), Inc. completed a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) study to characterize radiological contamination at a site near Canoga Park, California. The characterized area contained 470 acres including the site of a prototype commercial nuclear reactor and other nuclear design, testing, and support operations from the 1950's until 1988 [1]. The site history included radiological releases during operation followed by D and D activities. The characterization was conducted under an accelerated schedule and the results will support the project remediation. The project has a rigorous cleanup to background agenda and does not allow for comparison to risk-based guidelines. To target soil sample locations, multiple lines of evidence were evaluated including a gamma radiation survey, geophysical surveys, historical site assessment, aerial photographs, and former worker interviews. Due to the time since production and decay, the primary gamma emitting radionuclide remaining is cesium-137 (Cs-137). The gamma ray survey covered diverse, rugged terrain using custom designed sodium iodide thallium-activated (NaI(Tl)) scintillation detection systems. The survey goals included attaining 100% ground surface coverage and detecting gamma radiation as sensitively as possible. The effectiveness of innovative gamma ray detection systems was tested by correlating field Cs-137 static count ratios to Cs-137 laboratory gamma spectrometry results. As a case study, the area encompassing the former location of the first nuclear power station in the U. S. was scanned, and second by second global positioning system (GPS)-linked gamma spectral data were evaluated by examining total count rate and nuclide-specific regions of interest. To compensate for Compton scattering from higher energy naturally occurring radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and their progeny, and K-40), count rate ratios of anthropogenic nuclide-specific regions of interest to the total count rate were

  20. An analysis of nuclear fuel burnup in the AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment using gamma spectrometry, mass spectrometry, and computational simulation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Winston, Philip L.; Sterbentz, James W.

    2014-09-03

    AGR 1 was the first in a series of experiments designed to test US TRISO fuel under high temperature gas-cooled reactor irradiation conditions. This experiment was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is currently undergoing post irradiation examination (PIE) at INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. One component of the AGR 1 PIE is the experimental evaluation of the burnup of the fuel by two separate techniques. Gamma spectrometry was used to non destructively evaluate the burnup of all 72 of the TRISO fuel compacts that comprised the AGR 1 experiment. Two methods for evaluating burnup by gamma spectrometry were developed, one based on the Cs 137 activity and the other based on the ratio of Cs 134 and Cs 137 activities. Burnup values determined from both methods compared well with the values predicted from simulations. The highest measured burnup was 20.1% FIMA for the direct method and 20.0% FIMA for the ratio method (compared to 19.56% FIMA from simulations). An advantage of the ratio method is that the burnup of the cylindrical fuel compacts can determined in small (2.5 mm) axial increments and an axial burnup profile can be produced. Destructive chemical analysis by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was then performed on selected compacts that were representative of the expected range of fuel burnups in the experiment to compare with the burnup values determined by gamma spectrometry. The compacts analyzed by mass spectrometry had a burnup range of 19.3% FIMA to 10.7% FIMA. The mass spectrometry evaluation of burnup for the four compacts agreed well with the gamma spectrometry burnup evaluations and the expected burnup from simulation. For all four compacts analyzed by mass spectrometry, the maximum range in the three experimentally determined values and the predicted value was 6% or less. Furthermore, the results confirm the accuracy of the nondestructive burnup evaluation from gamma spectrometry

  1. An analysis of nuclear fuel burnup in the AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment using gamma spectrometry, mass spectrometry, and computational simulation techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Winston, Philip L.; ...

    2014-09-03

    AGR 1 was the first in a series of experiments designed to test US TRISO fuel under high temperature gas-cooled reactor irradiation conditions. This experiment was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and is currently undergoing post irradiation examination (PIE) at INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. One component of the AGR 1 PIE is the experimental evaluation of the burnup of the fuel by two separate techniques. Gamma spectrometry was used to non destructively evaluate the burnup of all 72 of the TRISO fuel compacts that comprised the AGR 1 experiment. Two methodsmore » for evaluating burnup by gamma spectrometry were developed, one based on the Cs 137 activity and the other based on the ratio of Cs 134 and Cs 137 activities. Burnup values determined from both methods compared well with the values predicted from simulations. The highest measured burnup was 20.1% FIMA for the direct method and 20.0% FIMA for the ratio method (compared to 19.56% FIMA from simulations). An advantage of the ratio method is that the burnup of the cylindrical fuel compacts can determined in small (2.5 mm) axial increments and an axial burnup profile can be produced. Destructive chemical analysis by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP MS) was then performed on selected compacts that were representative of the expected range of fuel burnups in the experiment to compare with the burnup values determined by gamma spectrometry. The compacts analyzed by mass spectrometry had a burnup range of 19.3% FIMA to 10.7% FIMA. The mass spectrometry evaluation of burnup for the four compacts agreed well with the gamma spectrometry burnup evaluations and the expected burnup from simulation. For all four compacts analyzed by mass spectrometry, the maximum range in the three experimentally determined values and the predicted value was 6% or less. Furthermore, the results confirm the accuracy of the nondestructive burnup evaluation from gamma

  2. Gamma-ray spectrometry in the cascade area of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lauppe, W.D.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.

    1985-01-01

    In the frame of the programme of the Federal Republic of Germany in support of the IAEA, measurements were performed in the SP4 gas centrifuge enrichment plant in Almelo, the Netherlands. The objective was the investigation of the applicability of non-destructive ..gamma..-spectrometry equipment - presently available to the IAEA - at uranium-hexafluoride cascade piping for the purpose of measuring the uranium enrichment. The measurement locations were chosen at the product pipework between the top of a cascade and the first valve, which is inside the cascade area. Taking account of the results of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project, the measurement method should be capable of giving a go/no go result on current and preceding production of high-enriched uranium. The paper gives a description of the acquired measurement method and evaluation. The measurement results are discussed and conclusions are drawn.

  3. Monitoring radioactive plumes by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Grasty, R.L.; Hovgaard, J.; Multala, J.

    1996-06-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys using large volume sodium-iodide detectors are routinely flown throughout the world for mineral exploration and geological mapping. Techniques have now been developed to detect and map man-made sources of radiation. In Canada, airborne gamma-rays surveys have been flown around nuclear reactors to map {sup 41}Ar plumes from nuclear reactors and to calculate the dose rate at ground level. In May 1986, the Finnish Geological survey aircraft flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. As the aircraft flew through the plume, the aircraft became increasingly contaminated. By measuring the final aircraft contamination, the activity of the plume could be separated from the contamination due to the aircraft. Within 1 h of encountering the plume, the aircraft activity was comparable to the maximum levels found in the plume. From an analysis of the gamma-ray spectra, the concentration of {sup 131}I and {sup 140}La within the plume were calculated as a function of time.

  4. Seven years of gamma-ray spectrometry interlaboratory comparisons in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bailat, Claude; Buchillier, Thierry; Caffari, Yvan; Nedjadi, Youcef; Spring, Philippe; Estier, Sybille; Bochud, François

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, regular comparisons of gamma-ray spectrometry in Switzerland were organized to improve laboratory abilities to measure the radioactivity in the environment and food stuffs at typical routine levels. The activity concentration of the test samples and the evaluation of the associated uncertainties remained each year the main required test result. Over the years, the comparisons used certified reference solutions as well as environmental samples. The aim of this study is to research the effect of the comparisons on measurement quality. An analysis of the seven last interlaboratory comparisons revealed that the Swiss measurement capability is up to date. In addition, the results showed that the participants now have an improved evaluation of the uncertainties associated with their measurement.

  5. Gamma heating measurements with proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, H.; Bennett, E.F.; Micklich, B.J.

    1990-05-01

    A new data acquisition technique (the Continuously-varied Bias- voltage Acquisition mode) has been developed and tested for the low-flux broad-energy regime characteristic of existing fusion blanket mock-ups. This method of analysis allows for the acquisition of data spanning several orders of magnitude in energy with a single proportional counter. Utilizing this method, the gamma energy deposition in a mixed neutron and gamma field was measured. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Waste Characterization Using Gamma Ray Spectrometry with Automated Efficiency Optimization - 13404

    SciTech Connect

    Bosko, A.; Venkataraman, R.; Bronson, F.L.; Ilie, G.; Russ, W.R.

    2013-07-01

    Gamma ray spectrometry using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors is commonly employed in assaying radioactive waste streams from a variety of sources: nuclear power plants, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, medical facilities, decontamination and decommissioning activities etc. The radioactive material is typically packaged in boxes or drums (for e.g. B-25 boxes or 208 liter drums) and assayed to identify and quantify radionuclides. Depending on the origin of the waste stream, the radionuclides could be special nuclear materials (SNM), fission products, or activation products. Efficiency calibration of the measurement geometry is a critical step in the achieving accurate quantification of radionuclide content. Due to the large size of the waste items, it is impractical and expensive to manufacture gamma ray standard sources for performing a measurement based calibration. For well over a decade, mathematical efficiency methods such as those in Canberra's In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) have been successfully employed in the efficiency calibration of gamma based waste assay systems. In the traditional ISOCS based calibrations, the user provides input data such as the dimensions of the waste item, the average density and fill height of the matrix, and matrix composition. As in measurement based calibrations, the user typically defines a homogeneous matrix with a uniform distribution of radioactivity. Actual waste containers can be quite nonuniform, however. Such simplifying assumptions in the efficiency calibration could lead to a large Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), thus limiting the amount of waste that can be disposed of as intermediate or low activity level waste. To improve the accuracy of radionuclide quantification, and reduce the TMU, Canberra has developed the capability to optimize the efficiency calibration using the ISOCS method. The optimization is based on benchmarking the efficiency shape and magnitude to the data available in the

  7. Gamma-ray spectrometry of LDEF samples at SRL

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1991-07-22

    A total of 31 samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), including materials of aluminum, vanadium, and steel trunnions were analyzed by ultra-low-level gamma spectroscopy. The study quantified particle induced activations of {sup 22}Na, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 56}Co, {sup 57}Co, {sup 58}Co, and {sup 60}Co. The samples of trunnion sections exhibited increasing activity toward the outer end of the trunnion and decreasing activity toward its radial center. The trunnion sections did not include end pieces, which have been reported to collect noticeable {sup 7}Be on their leading surfaces. No significant {sup 7}Be was detected in the samples analyzed. The Underground Counting Facility at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) was used in this work. The facility is 50 ft. underground, constructed with low-background shielding materials, and operated as a clean room. The most sensitive analyses were performed with a 90%-efficient HPGe gamma-ray detector, which is enclosed in a purged active/passive shield. Each sample was counted for one to six days in two orientations to yield more representative average activities for the sample. The non-standard geometries of the LDEF samples prompted the development of a novel calibration method, whereby the efficiency about the samples surfaces (measured with point sources) predicted the efficiency for the bulk sample.

  8. The use of gamma spectrometry in the determination of fission products migration in irradiated fuel

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Non destructive examinations realized in hot cells of LECA STAR facility give main data on irradiated fuel rods and pins. Among those examinations, gamma spectrometry allows access to fuel, inside the cladding, thanks to gamma rays of fission products such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 154}Eu coming from pellets... From those gamma scannings we can detect the position and the length of the fuel column and of its pellets, calculate local burnup.. In the database of our lab we have already such gamma scannings on hundreds of rods or pins with different fuels, claddings and irradiations conditions (under nominal or non nominal). We have detected that in specific cases, an unusual shape of the {sup 137}Cs scanning (distribution quite different from those of {sup 154}Eu) can be explained by the migration of this isotope, moving to the cold sides of the pellet. This phenomenon is mainly associated with an increasing of the pellet's temperature. Based on our observations, we have developed a quantitative approach of the changes on the {sup 137}Cs scannings through the calculation of appropriate 'indicators'. Those calculations allow us to be able to localize, quantify and compare the {sup 137}Cs migration all along rods or pins. Those migration results are so quickly and easily achievable from gamma measurements and can then be easily correlated to other observations realized with destructive examinations, puncturing and calculations, already realized or to come. Because such a migration is the result of temperature increasing in the pellets, our indicators can be directly associated with this local temperature. In perspective, thermically activated phenomena such as geometrical changes in the shape of the pellets, fission gas release... can also indirectly be deduced from our indicators. (authors)

  9. Application of low-background gamma-ray spectrometry to monitor radioactivity in the environment and food.

    PubMed

    Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Beach, S E; Haines, D K; Bradt, C J; Bari, A; Syed, U-F; Torres, M; Marrantino, J; Kitto, M E; Menia, T; Fielman, E

    2014-08-01

    The results are described of an upgrade of the low-background gamma-ray spectrometry laboratory at New York State Department of Health by acquiring sensitivity to low-energy gamma rays. Tuning of the spectrometer and its low-energy response characteristics are described. The spectrometer has been applied to monitor the environment by measuring aerosols and water in New York State contaminated by the 2011 Fukushima accident plume. In addition, the spectrometer has been used to monitor radioactivity in food by performing a study of cesium in Florida milk.

  10. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  11. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  12. The 124Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, M. C. M.; Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J. U.; Poledna, R.; da Silva, R. L.

    2010-07-01

    This work describes a metrological activity determination of 124Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. 124Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. 124Sb decays by β-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point 124Sb solid sources were obtained from a 166mHo standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of 124Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% ( k=2) were obtained.

  13. NMIS with Imaging and Gamma Ray Spectrometry for Pu, HEU, HE and Other Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, John T; Mullens, James Allen

    2012-03-01

    The Nuclear Material Identification System (NMIS) has been under development at ORNL and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Y-12 National Security Complex since 1984. In the mid-1990s, what is now the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Verification (ONV) realized that it was a useful technology for future arms control treaty applications and supported further development of the system. In 2004, fast-neutron imaging was incorporated into the system. In 2007, the ONV decided to develop a fieldable version of the system, designated as FNMIS, for potential use in future treaties. The FNMIS is being developed to be compatible with the eventual incorporation of gamma-ray spectrometry and an information barrier. This report addresses how and what attributes could be determined by the FNMIS system with gamma-ray spectrometry. The NMIS is a time-dependent coincidence system that incorporates tomographic imaging (including mapping of the fission sites) and gamma-ray spectrometry. It utilizes a small, lightweight (30 lb), portable deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron (14.1 MeV) generator (4 x 10{sup 7} neutrons/second) for active interrogation and can also perform passive interrogation. A high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detector with multichannel analysis can be utilized in conjunction with the source for active interrogation or passively. The system uses proton recoil scintillators: 32 small 2.5 x 2.5 x 10.2-cm-thick plastic scintillators for imaging and at least two 2 x 2 arrays of 27 x 27 x 10-cm-thick plastic scintillators that detect induced fission radiation. The DT generator contains an alpha detector that time and directionally tags a fan beam of some of the neutrons emitted and subdivides it into pixels. A fast (1 GHz) time correlation processor measures the time-dependent coincidence among all detectors in the system. A computer-controlled scanner moves the small detectors and the source appropriately for scanning a target object for

  14. Critical review of gamma spectrometry detection approaches for in-plant surface deposition monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorich, Carola

    2015-07-01

    Surface deposition of activated corrosion product on oxide layers of light-water reactor primary system components is the primary source for ex-core radiation fields and personnel radiation exposure. Understanding the deposition mechanism and what factors influence the deposition and release behaviors are crucial for developing effective radiation field reduction measures. One of the available tools to assess the surface deposition is in-plant gamma spectrometry, which has been performed for several decades using either sodium iodide (NaI) or high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Lately, the much more mobile cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detectors are increasingly employed by stations because of their ease in use and handling. However, all of these gamma detectors face the same challenges; namely large-geometry samples of inconsistent sample compositions and sometimes gaps in the information necessary to establish proper efficiency calibrations. This paper reviews current measurements and efficiency calibration approaches taken in the industry. The validity of the measurement results and the feasibility of the data's use in understanding source term behavior is examined. Suggestions are made for the development of a more robust deposit characterization and radiation field monitoring program. (authors)

  15. Cadium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) Gamma Ray Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    William Quam

    2001-09-01

    This report describes CZT crystals and their use in large arrays for generation of gamma ray spectra. Laboratory spectra will be shown together with spectra accumulated by various battery powered portable instruments (see Appendix A). One of these portable instruments was specifically constructed to minimize power consumption and yet provide reasonable isotope identification capability. Detailed data will be presented covering gamma energy resolution, gamma peak shapes, system background, and detector efficiency. Nearly all data were taken with very small crystals of CZT; cubes 5 mm on a side. A few spectra will be presented from cylindrical crystals of about the same size (see Appendix A). The small crystal size leads to low counting rates and extended counting times for reliable isotope identification. We have addressed this problem by using arrays of CZT crystals, initially two crystals and, at present, arrays of eight crystals. Data will be shown relating spectral parameters for these two arrays. System MDA is one way of combining resolution, efficiency, and background that will enable direct comparison of various detector types for individual isotope identification. We have calculated the MDA for an early dual crystal array and the current eight crystal array. Data derived from each array will be presented. In addition, it is possible to extrapolate the MDA methodology to much larger arrays. A 32-crystal array is under construction and extrapolations to 256 and 1024 crystals are considered possible. Estimated MDA values for these larger arrays are also presented. Several 8-crystal arrays have been constructed and versions have been incorporated into portable instruments. Descriptions of these small instruments are given covering physical size, weight, and general configuration. These instruments have been tested for shock and temperature effects and data will be presented on the results of these tests. The MDA concept will also allow extrapolation to large

  16. GAME: Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Mario; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Ligori, Sebastiano; Vecchiato, Alberto

    2008-07-01

    The GAME mission concept aims at the very precise measurement of the gravitational deflection of light by the Sun, by means of an optimised telescope operating in the visible and launched in orbit on a small class satellite. The targeted precision on the γ parameter of the Parametrised Post-Newtonian formulation of General Relativity is 10-6 or better, i.e. one to two orders of magnitude better than the best currently available results. Such precision is suitable to detect possible deviations from the unity value, associated to generalised Einstein models for gravitation, with potentially huge impacts on the cosmological distribution of dark matter and dark energy. The measurement principle is based on the differential astrometric signature on the stellar positions, i.e., based on the spatial component of the effect rather than the temporal component as in the most recent experiments using radio link delay timing. The observation strategy also allows some additional scientific objectives related to other tests of General Relativity and to the study of exo-planetary field, multiple aperture Fizeau interferometer, observing simultaneously two regions close to the Solar limb. The diluted optics approach is selected for achieving an efficient rejection of the scattered solar radiation, while retaining an acceptable angular resolution on the science targets. We describe the science motivation, the proposed mission profile, the possible payload implementation and the expected performance.

  17. Summary of gamma spectrometry on local air samples from 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1997-04-02

    This report summarizes the 1985--1995 results of low-level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis of high-volume air samples collected at the Aiken Airport, which is about 25 miles north of SRS. The author began analyzing these samples with new calibrations using the newly developed GRABGAM code in 1985. The air sample collections were terminated in 1995, as the facilities at the Aiken Airport were no longer available. Air sample measurements prior to 1985 were conducted with a different analysis system (and by others prior to 1984), and the data were not readily available. The report serves to closeout this phase of local NTS air sample studies, while documenting the capabilities and accomplishments. Hopefully, the information will guide other applications for this technology, both locally and elsewhere.

  18. Early detection of radioactive fallout by gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aage, H K; Korsbech, U; Bargholz, K

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive fallout should be detected as early as possible. A new and efficient method for detection of low-level irradiation from manmade radioactivity is developed. Radiation abnormalities are detectable down to air kerma rates of 0.5 to 1.0 nGy h(-1) for 137Cs and even lower for 131I. For multi-gamma energy radioactivity the detection level is 2.6-3.5 nGy h(-1). A standard NaI detector and a 512-channel analyser are used together with noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD). Statistical noise is removed and the measured spectra are reproduced using spectral components produced by NASVD. Stripping is not used and false alarms due to washout of atmospheric radon progeny are almost eliminated. Detection levels and the criteria for setting warning and alarm levels are discussed. The method may also be useful in other situations, for example where low-level signals from radioactive sources need to be detected.

  19. Gamma-Gamma Angular Correlation Measurements With GRIFFIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Andrew; Griffin Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this work was to explore the sensitivity of the Gamma-Ray Infrastructure For Fundamental Investigations of Nuclei (GRIFFIN) 16 clover-detector γ-ray spectrometer at TRIUMF-ISAC to such γ - γ angular correlations. The methodology was established using both experimental measurements and Geant4 simulations that were used to create angular correlation templates for the GRIFFIN geometry. Direct comparisons were made between experimental data sets and the simulated angular correlation templates. A first in-beam test of the γ - γ angular correlation measurements with GRIFFIN was performed with a radioactive beam of 66Ga. Mixing ratios of δ = - 2 . 1(2) and δ = - 0 . 08(3) were measured for the 2+ ->2+ ->0+ 833-1039 keV and 1+ ->2+ ->0+ 2752-1039 keV cascades in the daughter nucleus 66Zn. These results are in good agreement with pervious literature values and the mixing ratio for the 833-1039 keV cascade has a higher precision. Also, the sensitivity to the 1333-1039 keV cascade, with its pronounced 0+ ->2+ ->0+ angular correlation, was measured.A test measurement of the superallowed Fermi β emitter 62Ga will also be discussed. Canada Foundation of Innovation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, National Research Council of Canada and Canadian Research Chairs Program.

  20. In-flight, online processing and mapping of airborne gamma spectrometry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus; Schwarz, Georg

    2005-03-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is a technique especially useful for environmental monitoring and emergency preparedness. Because time is a critical factor in emergency response a fast data processing and mapping software is needed, which also supports online monitoring and data processing features. Therefore a new online data processing and mapping software was developed, which also displays successfully the gamma spectra, the ground activity and the topographical data. The software was successfully tested during various survey flights.

  1. Efficiency transfer using the GEANT4 code of CERN for HPGe gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chagren, S; Ben Tekaya, M; Reguigui, N; Gharbi, F

    2016-01-01

    In this work we apply the GEANT4 code of CERN to calculate the peak efficiency in High Pure Germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometry using three different procedures. The first is a direct calculation. The second corresponds to the usual case of efficiency transfer between two different configurations at constant emission energy assuming a reference point detection configuration and the third, a new procedure, consists on the transfer of the peak efficiency between two detection configurations emitting the gamma ray in different energies assuming a "virtual" reference point detection configuration. No pre-optimization of the detector geometrical characteristics was performed before the transfer to test the ability of the efficiency transfer to reduce the effect of the ignorance on their real magnitude on the quality of the transferred efficiency. The obtained and measured efficiencies were found in good agreement for the two investigated methods of efficiency transfer. The obtained agreement proves that Monte Carlo method and especially the GEANT4 code constitute an efficient tool to obtain accurate detection efficiency values. The second investigated efficiency transfer procedure is useful to calibrate the HPGe gamma detector for any emission energy value for a voluminous source using one point source detection efficiency emitting in a different energy as a reference efficiency. The calculations preformed in this work were applied to the measurement exercise of the EUROMET428 project. A measurement exercise where an evaluation of the full energy peak efficiencies in the energy range 60-2000 keV for a typical coaxial p-type HpGe detector and several types of source configuration: point sources located at various distances from the detector and a cylindrical box containing three matrices was performed.

  2. Pulser injection with subsequent removal for gamma-ray spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Hartwell, Jack K.; Goodwin, Scott G.; Johnson, Larry O.; Killian, E. Wayne

    1990-01-01

    An improved system for gamma-ray spectroscopy characterized by an interface module that controls the injection of electronic pulses as well as separation logic that enables storage of pulser events in a region of the spectrum of a multichannel analyzer distinct from the region reserved for storage of gamma-ray events. The module accomplishes this by tagging pulser events (high or low) injected into the amplification circuitry, adding an offset to the events so identified at the time the events are at the output of the analog to digital converter, and storing such events in the upper portion of the spectrum stored in the multichannel analyzer. The module can be adapted for use with existing gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment to provide for automatic analyses of radioisotopes.

  3. Improved detector for the measurement of gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelt, F. B.

    1985-07-01

    The present invention lies in the field of gamma ray spectrometry of geologic deposits and other materials, such as building materials (cement, asphalt, etc.) More specifically, the invention is an improved device for the gamma ray spetcrometery of gelogical deposits as a tool for petroleum exploration, geologic research and monitoring of radio-active materials such as in uranium mill tailings and the like. Improvement consists in enlarging the area of the receptor face and without any necessarily substantial increase in the volume of the receptor crystal over the current cylindrical shapes. The invention also provides, as a corollary of the increase in area receptor crystal face, a reduction in the weight of the amount of material necessary to provide effective shielding of the crystal from atmospheric radiation and radiation from deposits not under examination. The area of the receptor crystal face is increased by forming the crystal as a truncated cone with the shielding shaped as a hollow frustrum of a cone. A photomultiplier device is secured to the smaller face of the crystal. The improved detector shape can also be used in scintillometers which measure total gamma radiation.

  4. A simple gamma spectrometry method for evaluating the burnup of MTR-type HEU fuel elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makmal, T.; Aviv, O.; Gilad, E.

    2016-10-01

    A simple method for the evaluation of the burnup of a materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel element by gamma spectrometry is presented. The method was applied to a highly enriched uranium MTR nuclear fuel element that was irradiated in a 5 MW pool-type research reactor for a total period of 34 years. The experimental approach is based on in-situ measurements of the MTR fuel element in the reactor pool by a portable high-purity germanium detector located in a gamma cell. To corroborate the method, analytical calculations (based on the irradiation history of the fuel element) and computer simulations using a dedicated fuel cycle burnup code ORIGEN2 were performed. The burnup of the MTR fuel element was found to be 52.4±8.8%, which is in good agreement with the analytical calculations and the computer simulations. The method presented here is suitable for research reactors with either a regular or an irregular irradiation regime and for reactors with limited infrastructure and/or resources. In addition, its simplicity and the enhanced safety it confers may render this method suitable for IAEA inspectors in fuel element burnup assessments during on-site inspections.

  5. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in uranium exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghuwanshi, S. S.

    1992-07-01

    Uranium exploration is of paramount importance to India to maximize the indigeneous resources to meet the ever increasing demand for energy. Comprehensive regional and local zones of uranium mineralization are needed to be resolved. Such data comprise information on radioactivity in various energy ranges and on lithological knowledge. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometric techniques are particularly suited to provide spatial information. This review briefly discusses the conventional data presentation, statistically significant maps and the schemes suitable for classification of mineralized zones. A brief introduction is provided to airborne gamma-ray data, their acquisition, analysis, processing and interpretation to bring out their role in designing suitable models of uranium resources. State-of-the-art in uranium exploration covers radiometric mapping through airborne gamma-ray surveys. Through the examples of the Indian work done during this decade, the state-of-the-art and its usefulness in the country has been illustrated. It is concluded that the high sensitivity airborne gamma-ray spectrometric surveys coupled with modern methods of data analysis can further narrow down the targets.

  6. Digital approach to high rate gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Korolczuk, Stefan; Mianowski, Slawomir; Rzadkiewicz, Jacek; Sibczynski, Pawel; Swiderski, Lukasz; Szewinski, Jaroslaw; Zychor, Izabella

    2015-07-01

    Basic concepts and preliminary results of creating high rate digital spectrometry system using efficient ADCs and latest FPGA are presented as well as a comparison with commercially available devices. The possibility to use such systems, coupled to scintillators, in plasma experiments is discussed. (authors)

  7. Characterization of coal and charcoal by alpha-particle and gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco Lourtau, A. M.; Rubio Montero, M. P.; Jurado Vargas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Although coal and charcoal have similar physical and chemical characteristics, there are several crystallographic procedures used to distinguish and characterize them. But if the matrix is crushed, there is no standard procedure to distinguish coal from charcoal. In this work, a procedure to characterize coal and charcoal samples based on the radioactive content is proposed. The first assay is by gamma-ray spectrometry, which allows a part of the radioactive content to be determined rapidly and non-destructively. Then, alpha-particle spectrometry is applied to assay the content of those radionuclides which are difficult to determine precisely by gamma-ray spectrometry. This second technique requires prior chemical purification of the carbon sample in order to separate the corresponding radionuclides of interest.

  8. Some applications of gamma absorptiometry and spectrometry for the control of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guery, M.

    1991-02-01

    In nuclear fuels, and neutrons absorbers used in control rods, the thermal power generated is locally dependent on the concentration of the fissile or absorbing nucleus. In order to control the homogeneity of such materials, non-destructive methods using either gamma absorptiometry or gamma spectrometry were developed; some applications of these methods are presented in this paper. The fuel of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is frequently composed of UO 2 and ThO 2 spherical particles dispersed in a carbon matrix; the axial distribution of the particles along the fuel rods can be controlled in two ways: with gamma absorptiometry the heavy elements atoms (U+Th) can be detected but without discrimination between U and Th; with gamma spectrometry, separate distributions of uranium and thorium, deduced from the intensity of characteristic gamma rays are obtained. In nuclear power plants (PWR, FBR) the control rods are made usually with boron carbide (B 4C) pellets. By mean of gamma absorptiometry scanning the density distribution along the axis and the radius of the pellets are obtained. The originality of the method consists in the use of a self-calibration process, then the knowledge of the mass absorption coefficient is not required to perform the examinations. A computerized apparatus has been developed for these controls.

  9. Measurement of radionuclide activities induced in target components of an IBA CYCLONE 18/9 by gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe and LaBr3: Ce detectors.

    PubMed

    Tomarchio, Elio

    2014-08-01

    Cyclotrons are used worldwide to produce radiopharmaceuticals by proton irradiation of a suitable target. The intense secondary neutron beam generated by proton interactions with the target induce high radionuclide activities in the target assembly parts that may result in an exposure to high dose levels of the operators during maintenance. The main goal of this work is to evaluate gamma-emitting radionuclide activities induced in Havar foils and titanium windows of a target assembly and carousel stripper forks of an IBA CYCLONE 18/9 cyclotron. The knowledge of radionuclide inventory for each component is required by many companies to assess risk for operators before waste handling and disposal. Gamma-ray spectrometric analyses were carried out with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) scintillation detectors. HPGe is the most used detector for its high energy resolution although it is more suitable for use in a laboratory. The use of LaBr3:Ce can be considered a viable option, particularly in realizing a portable spectrometric system to perform "on-site" measurements and a fast dose rate evaluation before the disposal of activated parts. Due to a high activity of target assembly components replaced after a typical irradiation cycle (about 5000 μAh integrated beam current), gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed at a large distance from the detector, even more than 100 cm, or by using a purposely realized Lead-walled collimator. The identification of some key-radionuclides allows to evaluate through simple formulations the dose rate behavior for each component as function of decay time from the last irradiation. The knowledge of the dose rate behavior is a significant piece of information to health physicists for waste handling with safety at work. For an Havar™ foil, the dose rate will be reduced to about 1/1,000 of the starting value after a decay period of approximately 4 y (about 1,500 d), with a relatively safety at

  10. Measurements of the CKM Angle Gamma at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, Emmanuel; /Ecole Polytechnique

    2007-10-02

    We present a short review of the measurements of the CKM angle {gamma} performed by the BABAR experiment. We focus on methods using charged B decays, which give a direct access to {gamma} and provide the best constraints so far.

  11. Baseline measurements of terrestrial gamma radioactivity at the CEBAF site

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Smith, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    A survey of the gamma radiation background from terrestrial sources was conducted at the CEBAF site, Newport News, Virginia, on November 12--16, 1990, to provide a gamma radiation baseline for the site prior to the startup of the accelerator. The concentrations and distributions of the natural radioelements in exposed soil were measured, and the results of the measurements were converted into gamma-ray exposure rates. Concurrently, samples were collected for laboratory gamma spectral analyses.

  12. 241Am (n,gamma) isomer ratio measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Evelyn M; Vieira, David J; Moody, Walter A; Slemmons, Alice K

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy of the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemistry ratio. We have performed an activation experiment to measure the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) cross section leading to either the ground state of {sup 242g}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 16 hr) which decays to {sup 242}Cm (t{sub 1/2} = 163 d) or the long-lived isomer {sup 242m}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 141 yr). This experiment will develop a new set of americium cross section evaluations that can be used with a measured {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemical measurement for nuclear forensic purposes. This measurement is necessary to interpret the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am ratio because a good measurement of this neutron capture isomer ratio for {sup 241}Am does not exist. The targets were prepared in 2007 from {sup 241}Am purified from LANL stocks. Gold was added to the purified {sup 241}Am as an internal neutron fluence monitor. These targets were placed into a holder, packaged, and shipped to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, where they were irradiated at their Van de Graff facility in February 2008. One target was irradiated with {approx}25 keV quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction for 3 days and a second target was also irradiated for 3 days with {approx}500 keV neutrons. Because it will be necessary to separate the {sup 242}Cm from the {sup 241}Am in order to measure the amount of {sup 242}Cm by alpha spectrometry, research into methods for americium/curium separations were conducted concurrently. We found that anion exchange chromatography in methanol/nitric acid solutions produced good separations that could be completed in one day resulting in a sample with no residue. The samples were returned from Germany in July 2009 and were counted by gamma spectrometry. Chemical separations have commenced on the blank sample. Each sample will be spiked with {sup 244}Cm, dissolved and digested in nitric acid solutions. One third of each sample will be processed at a time

  13. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    Greenwood, R. E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  14. (239)Pu, (240)Pu, and (241)Am determination in hot particles by low level gamma-spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ramos, M C; Hurtado, S; Chamizo, E; García-Tenorio, R; León-Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I

    2010-06-01

    A nondestructive method based on low-energy, high-resolution photon spectrometry is presented which allows accurate determination of (239)Pu, (240)Pu, and (241)Am (as a daughter of (241)Pu) activities in radioactive particles containing relatively high levels of plutonium isotopes. The proposed method requires only one measurement for the establishment of an absolute efficiency curve. Since the density and composition of the radioactive particles of interest may vary, a self-absorption correction is required for the accurate determination of isotopic activities and ratios. This correction is carried out for each individual particle using the convenient gamma-ray emissions of (241)Am.

  15. Study of different filtering techniques applied to spectra from airborne gamma spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, Emilien; Gutierrez, Sebastien; Reboli, Anne; Menard, Stephanie; Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid; Arbor, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    One of the features of spectra obtained by airborne gamma spectrometry is low counting statistics due to the short acquisition time (1 s) and the large source-detector distance (40 m). It leads to considerable uncertainty in radionuclide identification and determination of their respective activities from the windows method recommended by the IAEA, especially for low-level radioactivity. The present work compares the results obtained with filters in terms of errors of the filtered spectra with the window method and over the whole gamma energy range. The results are used to determine which filtering technique is the most suitable in combination with some method for total stripping of the spectrum. (authors)

  16. Demonstrating the European capability for airborne gamma spectrometry: results from the eccomags exercise.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, D C W; Cresswell, A J; Scott, E M; Lang, J J

    2004-01-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) is being increasingly recognised as an important means for mapping environmental radioactivity in emergency response. Progress has been made in recent years towards methodological convergence and cooperation between European teams. Recently, an international comparison was undertaken in SW Scotland in 2002 to evaluate AGS and ground-based methods. Teams from 18 institutions in 10 European countries attended, collecting some 140,000 AGS spectra, with 750 laboratory gamma spectrometry analyses and 120 in situ observations from the ground sites. Comparisons between AGS and ground-based methods have confirmed the validity of AGS protocols. A composite mapping task, where AGS teams recorded data over adjacent parts of a 90 x 40 km2 area within a few days, confirmed the ability of teams to work together in an effective manner. This paper provides a summary of the results of the exercise. These demonstrate the operational capabilities of European AGS teams and confirm the quantitative nature of the method.

  17. Use of a Shielded High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry System to Segregate LLW from Contact Handleable ILW Containing Plutonium - 13046

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, Rosemary; Wilkins, Colin; Chard, Patrick; Jaederstroem, Henrik; LeBlanc, Paul; Mowry, Rick; MacDonald, Sanders; Gunn, William

    2013-07-01

    Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) have a number of drums of solid waste that may contain Plutonium Contaminated Material. These are currently categorised as Contact Handleable Intermediate Level Waste (CHILW). A significant fraction of these drums potentially contain waste that is in the Low Level Waste (LLW) category. A Canberra Q2 shielded high resolution gamma spectrometry system is being used to quantify the total activity of drums that are potentially in the LLW category in order to segregate those that do contain LLW from CHILW drums and thus to minimise the total volume of waste in the higher category. Am-241 is being used as an indicator of the presence of plutonium in the waste from its strong 59.54 keV gamma-ray; a knowledge of the different waste streams from which the material originates allows a pessimistic waste 'fingerprint' to be used in order to determine an upper limit to the activities of the weak and non-gamma-emitting plutonium and associated radionuclides. This paper describes the main features of the high resolution gamma spectrometry system being used by DSRL to perform the segregation of CHILW and LLW and how it was configured and calibrated using the Canberra In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). It also describes how potential LLW drums are selected for assay and how the system uses the existing waste stream fingerprint information to determine a reliable upper limit for the total activity present in each measured drum. Results from the initial on-site commissioning trials and the first measurements of waste drums using the new monitor are presented. (authors)

  18. The potential of gamma-ray spectrometry as supplementary information for mapping central European soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, U.; Bock, M.; Baritz, R.; Willer, J.; Pickert, E.; Kardel, K.; Herrmann, L.

    2012-04-01

    Permanently updated soil maps are needed inter alia for the prediction of landslide hazards, flooding and drought effects, land degradation monitoring, and precision farming. Since comprehensive and intensive field mapping is not affordable, alternative mapping approaches are required. A promising tool, with quite unrecognised potential for modern soil science is gamma-ray spectrometry. As the radioelements potassium, thorium and uranium respond differently to soil forming processes, it should be possible to infer from their concentration on weathering status, and after calibration on soil properties and types. This paper aims to investigate the potential of airborne gamma spectrometry for mapping of central European soils and soil properties. The study was conducted for a test site in Southern Saxony, Germany, 140*85 km wide, representing diverse soil landscapes. Seven different petrographic training and validation areas were chosen each. To assess the potential of gamma-ray spectrometry as additional data layer, predictions were carried out (i) with and (ii) without radiometric data. The outputs were compared with independent soil information of the validation areas. Both prediction runs used the following predictors: elevation, slope, curvature, planform curvature, profile curvature, terrain ruggedness index, relative altitude, vertical distance above drainage network, wetness index, and convergence index. As additional predictor parent material derived from a reclassification of the official geological map (1:1M scale) was used. As radiometric properties potassium, thorium and uranium were used. The radiometric raster datasets were generated by universal kriging using relative altitude as covariate. Training and validation datasets were selected from a comprehensive dataset representing more than 14.000 point data. Point data include soil types and substrates, and for more than 800 sites soil profiles with analysed texture, pH, exchangeable cations, nutrients

  19. Detection of /sup 210/Pb in the lungs of smokers by in-vivo gamma spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.

    1982-09-01

    Since mainstream smoke is highly enriched in /sup 210/Pb, alpha radiation from inhaled cigarette smoke particles has been proposed as a cancer-producing agent in cigarette smokers. /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb have been observed in tobacco, cigarette smoke and in the lungs of smokers. Since /sup 210/Pb is highly enriched in mainstream smoke, there have been estimates of yearly excesses of /sup 210/Pb in the lungs of one-pack-a-day smokers of 3 to 10 pCi (0.11 to 0.37 Bq). The ORNL Whole Body Counter was used to verify this estimate by the methodology of high-resolution, in vivo gamma spectrometry. Measurements were made on 113 adult male non-radiation workers who have either smoked at least one pack of cigarettes per day for at least five years, or have never smoked cigarettes. An analysis-of-variance table was generated based on the Pb-ratio for each individual which revealed that there was no statistically significant increase in the amount of /sup 210/Pb in the lungs of smokers over those of non-smokers. Sources of error are also discussed.

  20. Determination of IRT-2M fuel burnup by gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koleška, Michal; Viererbl, Ladislav; Marek, Milan; Ernest, Jaroslav; Šunka, Michal; Vinš, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    A spectrometric system was developed for evaluating spent fuel in the LVR-15 research reactor, which employs highly enriched (36%) IRT-2M-type fuel. Such system allows the measurement of detailed fission product profiles. Within these measurements, nuclides such as (137)Cs, (134)Cs, (144)Ce, (106)Ru and (154)Eu may be detected in fuel assemblies with different cooling times varying between 1.67 and 7.53 years. Burnup calculations using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code data showed good agreement with measurements, though some discrepancies were observed in certain regions. These discrepancies are attributed to the evaluation of irradiation history, reactor regulation pattern and buildup schemes.

  1. Dating of sediments from four Swiss prealpine lakes with (210)Pb determined by gamma-spectrometry: progress and problems.

    PubMed

    Putyrskaya, V; Klemt, E; Röllin, S; Astner, M; Sahli, H

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the most important problems in dating lake sediments with unsupported (210)Pb are summarized and the progress in gamma-spectrometry of the unsupported (210)Pb is discussed. The main topics of these studies concern sediment samples preparation for gamma-spectrometry, measurement techniques and data analysis, as well as understanding of accumulation and sedimentation processes in lakes. The vertical distributions of artificial ((137)Cs, (241)Am, (239)Pu) and natural radionuclides ((40)K, (210,214)Pb, (214)Bi) as well as stable trace elements (Fe, Mn, Pb) in sediment cores from four Swiss lakes were used as examples for the interpretation, inter-comparison and validation of depth-age relations established by three (210)Pb-based models (CF-CSR, CRS and SIT). The identification of turbidite layers and the influence of the turbidity flows on the accuracy of sediment dating is demonstrated. Time-dependent mass sedimentation rates in lakes Brienz, Thun, Biel and Lucerne are discussed and compared with published data.

  2. Measurements of Branching Fractions for B+ -> rho+ gamma, B0 -> rho0 gamma, and B0 -> omega gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B

    2008-08-15

    The authors present branching fraction measurements for the radiative decays B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{gamma}, B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{gamma}, and B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{gamma}. The analysis is based on a data sample of 465 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). They find {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{gamma}) = (1.20{sub -0.37}{sup +0.42} {+-} 0.20) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{gamma}) = (0.97{sub -0.22}{sup +0.24} {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup -6}, and a 90% C.L. upper limit {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {omega}{gamma}) < 0.9 x 10{sup -6}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. They also measure the isospin-violating quantity {Lambda}(B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{gamma})/2{Lambda}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{gamma}) - 1 = -0.43{sub -0.22}{sup +0.25} {+-} 0.10.

  3. Novel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Measurements Using Phoswich Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, James H.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.

    2003-09-30

    The PNNL has developed an Automated Radio-xenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) for the CTBT to measure four radio-xenon isotopes using a beta-gamma coincidence counting detector. A novel method to measure beta-gamma coincidences using a phoswich detector with state-of-the-art pulse shape discrimination techniqueses has been investigated.

  4. EML HASL-300 Method Ga-01-R: Gamma Radioassay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This method uses gamma spectrometry for measurement of gamma photons emitted from radionuclides. Samples are placed into a standard geometry for gamma counting, typically using an high purity Germanium [HP(Ge)] detector.

  5. The Application of High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (HRGS) to Nuclear Safeguards, Nonproliferation, and Arms Control Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Walter R.; Lemley, James R.; Forman, Leon

    1997-12-31

    While well-developed methodologies exist for the employment of high- resolution gamma ray spectrometry (HRGS) in determining the isotopic composition of plutonium samples, the potential capabilities of such measurements in determining the properties of nuclear materials otherwise remain largely unexploited. These measurements contain information sufficiently detailed such that not only can the isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium materials be determined, but the details of the spectrum obtained will depend reproducibly upon other factors including the total mass, density, chemical composition, and geometrical configuration of the material, and for certain materials, the elapsed time since chemical processing. The potential thus exists to obtain a `gamma-ray fingerprint` for typical containers or assemblies of nuclear material which will then serve to identify that class of item in a later confirmatory measurement. These measurements have the additional advantage that, by comparison with active interrogation techniques which usually require the introduction of some extraneous form of radiation or other intrusive activity, they are totally passive, and thus impose only minimal additional safety or regulatory burdens on the operators. In the application of these measurements to the verification of treaty-limited items, where the information acquired may be sensitive in nature, the use of the CIVET (Controlled Intrusiveness Verification Technique) approach, where a computer-based interface is employed to limit access to the information obtained, may be followed.

  6. A broadband gamma-ray spectrometry using novel unfolding algorithms for characterization of laser wakefield-generated betatron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Jong Ho Nakajima, Kazuhisa Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Yoo, Byung Ju; Shin, Kang Woo; Kim, Hyung Taek; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seung Ku; Choi, Il Woo; Rhee, Yong Joo; Shin, Jung Hun; Jo, Sung Ha; Hojbota, Calin; Cho, Byeoung Ick; Nam, Chang Hee

    2015-12-15

    We present a high-flux, broadband gamma-ray spectrometry capable of characterizing the betatron radiation spectrum over the photon energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV with respect to the peak photon energy, spectral bandwidth, and unique discrimination from background radiations, using a differential filtering spectrometer and the unfolding procedure based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. These properties are experimentally verified by measuring betatron radiation from a cm-scale laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) driven by a 1-PW laser, using a differential filtering spectrometer consisting of a 15-filter and image plate stack. The gamma-ray spectra were derived by unfolding the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) values recorded on the image plates, using the spectrometer response matrix modeled with the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The accuracy of unfolded betatron radiation spectra was assessed by unfolding the test PSL data simulated with GEANT4, showing an ambiguity of less than 20% and clear discrimination from the background radiation with less than 10%. The spectral analysis of betatron radiation from laser wakefield-accelerated electron beams with energies up to 3 GeV revealed radiation spectra characterized by synchrotron radiation with the critical photon energy up to 7 MeV. The gamma-ray spectrometer and unfolding method presented here facilitate an in-depth understanding of betatron radiation from LWFA process and a novel radiation source of high-quality photon beams in the MeV regime.

  7. A broadband gamma-ray spectrometry using novel unfolding algorithms for characterization of laser wakefield-generated betatron radiation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong Ho; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Kim, Hyung Taek; Rhee, Yong Joo; Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Shin, Jung Hun; Yoo, Byung Ju; Hojbota, Calin; Jo, Sung Ha; Shin, Kang Woo; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seung Ku; Cho, Byeoung Ick; Choi, Il Woo; Nam, Chang Hee

    2015-12-01

    We present a high-flux, broadband gamma-ray spectrometry capable of characterizing the betatron radiation spectrum over the photon energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV with respect to the peak photon energy, spectral bandwidth, and unique discrimination from background radiations, using a differential filtering spectrometer and the unfolding procedure based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. These properties are experimentally verified by measuring betatron radiation from a cm-scale laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) driven by a 1-PW laser, using a differential filtering spectrometer consisting of a 15-filter and image plate stack. The gamma-ray spectra were derived by unfolding the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) values recorded on the image plates, using the spectrometer response matrix modeled with the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The accuracy of unfolded betatron radiation spectra was assessed by unfolding the test PSL data simulated with GEANT4, showing an ambiguity of less than 20% and clear discrimination from the background radiation with less than 10%. The spectral analysis of betatron radiation from laser wakefield-accelerated electron beams with energies up to 3 GeV revealed radiation spectra characterized by synchrotron radiation with the critical photon energy up to 7 MeV. The gamma-ray spectrometer and unfolding method presented here facilitate an in-depth understanding of betatron radiation from LWFA process and a novel radiation source of high-quality photon beams in the MeV regime.

  8. A method for the comparison of performance of gamma-ray spectrometry calibration cocktails.

    PubMed

    Legarda, F; Los Arcos, J M; Herranz, M

    2004-01-01

    In order to make quantitative assessments about the usefulness of different gamma-ray emitting radionuclide cocktails to carry out efficiency calibrations of gamma-ray spectrometers, a method has been developed that allows the comparison of their different performances and to optimize the choice of gamma energy lines for the radionuclides within a specific cocktail. The method has been applied to compare different cocktail configurations obtained from measurements made in the laboratory with monoenergetic radionuclides, and their relative performances are presented and discussed.

  9. Study of different filtering techniques applied to spectra from airborne gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Emilien; Gutierrez, Sébastien; Arbor, Nicolas; Ménard, Stéphanie; Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2016-11-01

    One of the features of the spectra obtained by airborne gamma spectrometry is the low counting statistics due to a short acquisition time (1 s) and a large source-detector distance (40 m) which leads to large statistical fluctuations. These fluctuations bring large uncertainty in radionuclide identification and determination of their respective activities from the window method recommended by the IAEA, especially for low-level radioactivity. Different types of filter could be used on spectra in order to remove these statistical fluctuations. The present work compares the results obtained with filters in terms of errors over the whole gamma energy range of the filtered spectra with the window method. These results are used to determine which filtering technique is the most suitable in combination with some method for total stripping of the spectrum.

  10. Fluence Evaluations For Applications of In Situ Gamma-Ray Spectrometry in Non-Flat Terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Kevin M.

    1999-02-28

    Evaluations of gamma-ray fluence are made for source geometries that depart from the flat ground geometry that is used in standard applications of in situ spectrometry. Geometries considered include uniform source distributions for soil mounds on top of flat terrain, cylindrical wells, and rectangular trenches. The results indicate that scaling the standard fluence values for flat terrain by the ratio of solid angle subtended by the soil to 2π leads to fluence estimates that are accurate to within a few percent. Practical applications of in situ spectrometry in non-flat terrain also appears to be simplified by the fact that the angular correction factor for a typical coaxial detector in these geometries may typically be about the same as that computed for flat ground.

  11. Calculating Measurement Uncertainties for Mass Spectrometry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essex, R. M.; Goldberg, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    A complete and transparent characterization of measurement uncertainty is fundamentally important to the interpretation of analytical results. We have observed that the calculation and reporting of uncertainty estimates for isotopic measurement from a variety of analytical facilities are inconsistent, making it difficult to compare and evaluate data. Therefore, we recommend an approach to uncertainty estimation that has been adopted by both US national metrology facilities and is becoming widely accepted within the analytical community. This approach is outlined in the ISO "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement" (GUM). The GUM approach to uncertainty estimation includes four major steps: 1) Specify the measurand; 2) Identify uncertainty sources; 3) Quantify components by determining the standard uncertainty (u) for each component; and 4) Calculate combined standard uncertainty (u_c) by using established propagation laws to combine the various components. To obtain a desired confidence level, the combined standard uncertainty is multiplied by a coverage factor (k) to yield an expanded uncertainty (U). To be consistent with the GUM principles, it is also necessary create an uncertainty budget, which is a listing of all the components comprising the uncertainty and their relative contribution to the combined standard uncertainty. In mass spectrometry, Step 1 is normally the determination of an isotopic ratio for a particular element. Step 2 requires the identification of the many potential sources of measurement variability and bias including: gain, baseline, cup efficiency, Schottky noise, counting statistics, CRM uncertainties, yield calibrations, linearity calibrations, run conditions, and filament geometry. Then an equation expressing the relationship of all of the components to the measurement value must be written. To complete Step 3, these potential sources of uncertainty must be characterized (Type A or Type B) and quantified. This information

  12. Precipitation correction of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data using monitoring profiles: methodology and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahl, Andreas; Motschka, Klaus; Slapansky, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Variations of soil moisture content caused by precipitation often complicate the interpretation of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data. This is particularly the case in repeated surveys designed to monitor the change of near surface abundances of radioactive elements or in large and time-consuming surveys. To counter this precipitation effect we propose a correction method based on repeated survey flights over a monitoring profile. Assuming that the weather and the soil conditions at the monitoring profile are representative for the survey area, the weather dependent effect of soil moisture can be observed and sufficiently corrected.

  13. Nuclear chemistry of returned lunar samples: Nuclide analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okelley, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Primordial and cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations are determined nondestructively by gamma-ray spectrometry in soil and rock samples from the returned Apollo 17 sample collection from Taurus-Littrow and Descartes. Geochemical evidence in support of field geology speculation concerning layering of the subfloor basalt flows is demonstrated along with a possible correlation of magmatic fractionation of K/U as a function of depth. The pattern of radionuclide concentrations observed in these samples is distinct due to proton bombardment by the intense solar flares of August 4-9, 1972. Such radionuclide determinations are used in determining lunar sample orientation and characterizing solar flare activity.

  14. The measurement of gamma ray induced heating in a mixed neutron and gamma ray environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, H.K.

    1991-10-01

    The problem of measuring the gamma heating in a mixed DT neutron and gamma ray environment was explored. A new detector technique was developed to make this measurement. Gamma heating measurements were made in a low-Z assembly irradiated with 14-Mev neutrons and (n, n{prime}) gammas produced by a Texas Nuclear Model 9400 neutron generator. Heating measurements were made in the mid-line of the lattice using a proportional counter operating in the Continuously-varied Bias-voltage Acquisition mode. The neutron-induced signal was separated from the gamma-induced signal by exploiting the signal rise-time differences inherent to radiations of different linear energy transfer coefficient, which are observable in a proportional counter. The operating limits of this measurement technique were explored by varying the counter position in the low-Z lattice, hence changing the irradiation spectrum observed. The experiment was modelled numerically to help interpret the measured results. The transport of neutrons and gamma rays in the assembly was modelled using the one- dimensional radiation transport code ANISN/PC. The cross-section set used for these calculations was derived from the ENDF/B-V library using the code MC{sup 2}-2 for the case of DT neutrons slowing down in a low-Z material. The calculated neutron and gamma spectra in the slab and the relevant mass-stopping powers were used to construct weighting factors which relate the energy deposition in the counter fill-gas to that in the counter wall and in the surrounding material. The gamma energy deposition at various positions in the lattice is estimated by applying these weighting factors to the measured gamma energy deposition in the counter at those locations.

  15. Porosity measurement of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms by gamma-ray transmission.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José Martins; Andréo Filho, Newton; Chaud, Marco Vinícius; Angiolucci, Tatiana; Aranha, Norberto; Martins, Antonio César Germano

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present work is the determination of porosity in tablets by using the gamma-ray transmission technique. Tablet dissolution depends on some inherent characteristics of the manufacturing process, such as compression force, tablet volume, density and porosity, nature of excipients, preparation methods and its physical-chemical properties. Porosity is a measure of empty spaces in a material and can be determined by various techniques. In this paper, we propose the use of a gamma-ray transmission technique to obtain the porosity of experimental formulation of tablets. The results of porosity were compared with those obtained by using conventional methodology (density and mercury intrusion). The experimental setup for gamma-ray transmission consists of a gamma-ray source of (241)Am (photons of 59.6 keV and an activity of 3.7 × 10(9)Bq), an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, collimators and a standard gamma-ray spectrometry electronics. Our results suggest that the gamma-ray transmission technique is a powerful tool for non-destructive porosity quantification of solid pharmaceutical forms and presents smaller errors than those obtained with conventional methodologies.

  16. Measuring the charged pion polarizability in the gamma gamma -> pi+pi- reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David W.; Miskimen, Rory A.; Mushkarenkov, Alexander Nikolaevich; Smith, Elton S.

    2013-08-01

    Development has begun of a new experiment to measure the charged pion polarizability $\\alpha_{\\pi}-\\beta_{\\pi}$. The charged pion polarizability ranks among the most important tests of low-energy QCD presently unresolved by experiment. Analogous to precision measurements of $\\pi^{\\circ}\\rightarrow\\gamma\\gamma$ that test the intrinsic odd-parity (anomalous) sector of QCD, the pion polarizability tests the intrinsic even-parity sector of QCD. The measurement will be performed using the $\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow\\pi^{+{}}\\pi^{-{}}$ cross section accessed via the Primakoff mechanism on nuclear targets using the GlueX detector in Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The linearly polarized photon source in Hall-D will be utilized to separate the Primakoff cross-section from coherent $\\rho^{\\circ}$ production.

  17. Measurment of B Decays to phi K gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-11-28

    The authors search for the decays B{sup -} {yields} {phi}K{sup -}{gamma} and {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{bar K}{sup 0}{gamma} in a data sample of 228 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. They measure the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup -} {yields} {phi}K{sup -}{gamma}) = (3.5 {+-} 0.6 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -6} and set an upper limit {Beta}({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{bar K}{sup 0}{gamma}) < 2.7 x 10{sup -6} at the 90% confidence level. They also measure the direct CP asymmetry in B{sup -} {yields} {phi}K{sup -}{gamma}, {Alpha}{sub CP} = (-26 {+-} 14 {+-} 5)%. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  18. On the accuracy of gamma spectrometric isotope ratio measurements of uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramebäck, H.; Lagerkvist, P.; Holmgren, S.; Jonsson, S.; Sandström, B.; Tovedal, A.; Vesterlund, A.; Vidmar, T.; Kastlander, J.

    2016-04-01

    The isotopic composition of uranium was measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry. Two acid solutions and two samples in the form of UO2 pellets were measured. The measurements were done in close geometries, i.e. directly on the endcap of the high purity germanium detector (HPGe). Applying no corrections for count losses due to true coincidence summing (TCS) resulted in up to about 40% deviation in the abundance of 235U from the results obtained with mass spectrometry. However, after correction for TCS, excellent agreement was achieved between the results obtained using two different measurement methods, or a certified value. Moreover, after corrections, the fitted relative response curves correlated excellently with simulated responses, for the different geometries, of the HPGe detector.

  19. Perspectives of the GAMMA-400 space observatory for high-energy gamma rays and cosmic rays measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topchiev, N. P.; Galper, A. M.; Bonvicini, V.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Bergstrom, L.; Berti, E.; Bigongiari, G.; Bobkov, S. G.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, S.; Bongi, M.; Bottai, S.; Castellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cumani, P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Dedenko, G. L.; De Donato, C.; Dogiel, V. A.; Finetti, N.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Gusakov, Yu V.; Hnatyk, B. I.; Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Kaplun, A. A.; Kheymits, M. D.; Korepanov, V. E.; Larsson, J.; Leonov, A. A.; Loginov, V. A.; Longo, F.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Men'shenin, A. L.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mori, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Naumov, P. Yu; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Ricciarini, S.; Runtso, M. F.; Ryde, F.; Serdin, O. V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu I.; Suchkov, S. I.; Taraskin, A. A.; Tavani, M.; Tiberio, A.; Tyurin, E. M.; Ulanov, M. V.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Yurkin, Yu T.; Zampa, N.; Zirakashvili, V. N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is intended to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons and positrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to several TeV. Such measurements concern the following scientific tasks: investigation of point sources of gamma-rays, studies of the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, studies of gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun, as well as high precision measurements of spectra of high-energy electrons and positrons. Also the GAMMA- 400 instrument provides the possibility for protons and nuclei measurements up to knee. But the main goal for the GAMMA-400 mission is to perform a sensitive search for signatures of dark matter particles in high-energy gamma-ray emission. To fulfill these measurements the GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope possesses unique physical characteristics in comparison with previous and present experiments. The major advantage of the GAMMA-400 instrument is excellent angular and energy resolution for gamma-rays above 10 GeV. The GAMMA-400 experiment will be installed onboard of the Navigator space platform, manufactured by the NPO Lavochkin Association. The expected orbit will be a highly elliptical orbit (with apogee 300.000 km and perigee 500 km) with 7 days orbital period. An important profit of such an orbit is the fact that the full sky coverage will always be available for gamma ray astronomy.

  20. In-situ ground gamma spectrometry — an effective tool for geological mapping (the Male Karpaty Mts., Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojzeš, Andrej; Porubčanová, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    This contribution presents the results of profile in-situ gamma spectrometry measurements that sought to determine the content of natural radionuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th in a near surface horizon of rocks, their weathering cover and soils in the area of the Malé Karpaty Mts. It is widely established that the exploration of radioactivity of bedrocks and cover rocks can be a very effective and useful tool for both geological mapping, for identifying deposits of mineral resources, and even addressing the issues of structural and tectonic geology. This assertion is equally confirmed by the ground gamma spectrometry measurements carried out as part of this case study on larger scales, seeking more detailed geological structure solutions. The results obtained provide a welcome addition to an already existing database, which monitors the content of naturally occurring radionuclides individually for every rock lithotype of the Western Carpathians, by elaborating on the data collected by previous research and by updating this database for any future needs. The presented results confirmed the low to medium radioactivity levels of rocks and soils in the studied area. The highest values were detected in granitoids and metamorfic phyllitic rocks of the Malé Karpaty Mts. core; the lowest values were detected in carbonates, arenaceous sediments and, above all, amphibolite bodies. In this way, the presented results of the interpreted profile (P5) confirm the model of local geological structure as represented on the most up-to-date edition of the geological map of the Male Karpaty Mts. (Polak et al. 2011).

  1. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis.

  2. Measurement of the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reaction with the DANCE {gamma} calorimeter array

    SciTech Connect

    Chyzh, A.; Dashdorj, D.; Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Walker, C. L.; Becker, J. A.; Parker, W.; Wu, C. Y.; Becvar, F.; Kroll, J.; Krticka, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2011-07-15

    The {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reaction was measured with the DANCE {gamma} calorimeter (consisting of 160 BaF{sub 2} scintillation detectors) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The multiplicity distributions of the {gamma} decay were used to determine the resonance spins up to E{sub n}=300 eV. The {gamma}-ray energy spectra for different multiplicities were measured for the s-wave resonances. The shapes of these spectra were compared with simulations based on the use of the DICEBOX statistical model code. Simulations showed that the scissors mode is required not only for the ground-state transitions but also for transitions between excited states.

  3. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of isotope ratios in depleted uranium contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    Laser ablation of pressed soil pellets was examined as a means of direct sample introduction to enable inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) screening of soils for residual depleted uranium (DU) contamination. Differentiation between depleted uranium, an anthropogenic contaminant, and naturally occurring uranium was accomplished on the basis of measured 235U/238U isotope ratios. The amount of sample preparation required for laser ablation is considerably less than that typically required for aqueous sample introduction. The amount of hazardous laboratory waste generated is diminished accordingly. During the present investigation, 235U/238U isotope ratios measured for field samples were in good agreement with those derived from gamma spectrometry measurements. However, substantial compensation was required to mitigate the effects of impaired pulse counting attributed to sample inhomogeneity and sporadic introduction of uranium analyte into the plasma.

  4. Reconstruction of distribution functions of fast ions and runaway electrons in fusion plasmas using gamma-ray spectrometry with applications to ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevelev, A. E.; Khilkevitch, E. M.; Kiptily, V. G.; Chugunov, I. N.; Gin, D. B.; Doinikov, D. N.; Naidenov, V. O.; Litvinov, A. E.; Polunovskii, I. A.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-12-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry on ITER can provide information both on confined fusion alpha particles for optimization of plasma heating and runaway electrons, which is important for safe reactor operations. For the purpose of deconvolution of gamma-ray spectra recorded in fusion plasma experiments the DeGaSum code has been developed. The code can be applied for processing of both spectra of monoenergetic gamma rays, which are born in nuclear reactions produced by alpha particles and other fast ions, and continuous bremsstrahlung spectra generated by runaway electrons in the MeV range in the plasma and reactor structure materials. Gamma-ray spectrometer response functions and bremsstrahlung spectra generated by electrons in the MeV energy range are calculated and used in the DeGaSum code. The deconvolution of the discrete spectra allows the identification of nuclear reactions, which give rise to gamma rays, and the calculation of their intensities. By applying the code for continuous hard x-ray spectra, the runaway electron energy distribution can be inferred. It can provide the maximal energy of runaway electrons with accuracy, which satisfies the ITER project requirements. The code has been used for processing of spectra recorded in JET experiments. An application of the deconvolution technique for gamma-ray emission measurements on ITER is discussed.

  5. A new measurement of the rare decay eta -> pi^0 gamma gamma with the Crystal Ball/TAPS detectors at the Mainz Microtron

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B M; Prakhov, S; Aguar-Bartolom��, P; Annand, J R; Arends, H J; Bantawa, K; Beck, R; Bekrenev, V; Bergh��user, H; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Cherepnya, S; Codling, R F; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Danilkin, I V; Denig, A; Demissie, B; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Fil'kov, L V; Fix, A; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Gregor, R; Hamilton, D; Heid, E; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Jahn, O; Jude, T C; Kashevarov, V L; K��ser, A; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Kotulla, M; Koulbardis, A; Kruglov, S; Krusche, B; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J; Maghrbi, Y; Mancel, J; Manley, D M; McNicoll, E F; Mekterovic, D; Metag, V; Mushkarenkov, A; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Oberle, M; Ortega, H; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Robinson, J; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, T; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Starostin, A; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, T; Suarez, I M; Supek, I; Tarbert, C M; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Watts, D P; Werthmueller, D; Witthauer, L

    2014-08-01

    A new measurement of the rare, doubly radiative decay eta->pi^0 gamma gamma was conducted with the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. New data on the dependence of the partial decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma), on the two-photon invariant mass squared, m^2(gamma gamma), as well as a new, more precise value for the decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma) = (0.33+/-0.03_tot) eV, are based on analysis of 1.2 x 10^3 eta->pi^0 gamma gamma decays from a total of 6 x 10^7 eta mesons produced in the gamma p -> eta p reaction. The present results for dGamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma)/dm^2(gamma gamma) are in good agreement with previous measurements and recent theoretical calculations for this dependence.

  6. Isotope ratio measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betti, Maria

    2005-04-01

    The basic principles of secondary ion mass spectrometry and glow discharge mass spectrometry have been shortly revisited. The applications of both techniques as exploited for the isotope ratio measurements in several matrices have been reviewed. Emphasis has been given to research fields in expansions such as solar system studies, medicine, biology, environment and nuclear forensic. The characteristics of the two techniques are discussed in terms of sensitivity and methodology of quantification. Considerations on the different detection possibilities in SIMS are also presented.

  7. Radiological Mapping of the Alkaline Intrusive Complex of Jombo, South Coastal Kenya by In-Situ Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniu, Ian; Darby, Iain G.; Kalambuka Angeyo, Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusive complexes are rich in a variety of mineral deposits such as rare earth elements (REEs), including Nb, Zr and Mn. These are often associated with U and Th bearing minerals, including monazite, samarskite and pyrochlore. Mining waste resulting from mineral processing activities can be highly radioactive and therefore poses a risk to human health and environment. The Jombo complex located in Kenya's south coastal region is potentially one of the richest sources of Nb and REEs in the world. It consists of the main intrusion at Jombo hill, three associated satellite intrusions at Mrima, Kiruku and Nguluku hills, and several dykes. The complex is highly heterogeneous with regard to its geological formation as it is characterized by alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites which also influence its radio-ecological dynamics. In-situ gamma spectrometry offers a low-cost, rapid and spatially representative radioactivity estimate across a range of landscapes compared to conventional radiometric techniques. In this work, a wide ranging radiological survey was conducted in the Jombo complex as follow up on previous studies[1,2], to determine radiation exposure levels and source distributions, and perform radiological risk assessments. The in-situ measurements were carried out using a 2.0 l NaI(Tl) PGIS-2 portable detector from Pico Envirotec Inc integrated with GPS, deployed for ground (back-pack) and vehicular gamma-ray spectrometry. Preliminary results of radiological distribution and mapping will be presented. [1] Patel, J. P. (1991). Discovery and Innovation, 3(3): 31-35. [2] Kebwaro, J. M. et. al. (2011). J. Phys. Sci., 6(13): 3105-3110.

  8. Gamma spectrometry and chemical characterization of ceramic seeds with samarium-153 and holmium-166 for brachytherapy proposal.

    PubMed

    Valente, Eduardo S; Campos, Tarcísio P R

    2010-12-01

    Ceramic seeds were synthesized by the sol-gel technique with Si:Sm:Ca and Si:Ho:Ca. One set of seeds was irradiated in the TRIGA type nuclear reactor IPR-R1 and submitted to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), K(0) method, to determine mass percentage concentration of natural samarium and holmium in the seed as well as to determine all existing radionuclides and their activities. Attention was paid to discrimination of Si-31, Ca-40, Ca-45, Ca-47, Ca-49, Sm-145, Sm-155, Sm-153 and Ho-166. A second sample was submitted to atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) also to determine samarium and holmium concentrations in weight. A third sample was submitted to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to qualitatively determine chemical composition. The measured activity was due to Sm-153 and Ho-166 with a well-characterized gamma spectrum. The X-ray fluorescence spectrum demonstrated that there is no discrepancy in seed composition. The maximum ranges in the water of beta particles from Sm-153 and Ho-166 decay were evaluated, as well as the dose rate and total dose delivered within the volume delimited by the range of the beta particles. The results are relevant for investigation of the viability of producing Sm-153 and Ho-166 radioactive seeds for use in brachytherapy.

  9. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shuhaimi, Alif Imran Mohd

    2016-01-22

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software.

  10. Characterisation of imperial college reactor centre legacy waste using gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuhaimi, Alif Imran Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Waste characterisation is a principal component in waste management strategy. The characterisation includes identification of chemical, physical and radiochemical parameters of radioactive waste. Failure to determine specific waste properties may result in sentencing waste packages which are not compliant with the regulation of long term storage or disposal. This project involved measurement of intensity and energy of gamma photons which may be emitted by radioactive waste generated during decommissioning of Imperial College Reactor Centre (ICRC). The measurement will use High Purity Germanium (HPGe) as Gamma-ray detector and ISOTOPIC-32 V4.1 as analyser. In order to ensure the measurements provide reliable results, two quality control (QC) measurements using difference matrices have been conducted. The results from QC measurements were used to determine the accuracy of the ISOTOPIC software.

  11. Gamma Efficiency Simulations towards Coincidence Measurements for Fusion Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, M.; Courtin, S.; Fruet, G.; Jenkins, D. G.; Montanari, D.; Morris, L.; Regan, P. H.; Rudigier, M.; Symochko, D.

    2016-10-01

    With the experimental station STELLA (STELlar LAboratory) we will measure fusion cross sections of astrophysical relevance making use of the coincident detection of charged particles and gamma rays for background reduction. For the measurement of gamma rays from the de-excitation of fusion products a compact array of 36 UK FATIMA LaBr3 detectors is designed based on efficiency studies with Geant4. The photo peak efficiency in the region of interest compares to other gamma detection systems used in this field. The features of the internal decay of 138La is used in a background study to obtain an online calibration of the gamma detectors. Background data are fit to the Monte Carlo model of the self activity assuming crude exponential behavior of external background. Accuracy in the region of interest is of the order of some keV in this first study.

  12. Isotopic composition analysis and age dating of uranium samples by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, A. I.; Pantelica, A.; Sima, O.; Fugaru, V.

    2016-09-01

    Non-destructive methods were applied to determine the isotopic composition and the time elapsed since last chemical purification of nine uranium samples. The applied methods are based on measuring gamma and X radiations of uranium samples by high resolution low energy gamma spectrometric system with planar high purity germanium detector and low background gamma spectrometric system with coaxial high purity germanium detector. The ;Multigroup γ-ray Analysis Method for Uranium; (MGAU) code was used for the precise determination of samples' isotopic composition. The age of the samples was determined from the isotopic ratio 214Bi/234U. This ratio was calculated from the analyzed spectra of each uranium sample, using relative detection efficiency. Special attention is paid to the coincidence summing corrections that have to be taken into account when performing this type of analysis. In addition, an alternative approach for the age determination using full energy peak efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulations with the GESPECOR code is described.

  13. A convenient method for discriminating between natural and depleted uranium by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shoji, M; Hamajima, Y; Takatsuka, K; Honoki, H; Nakajima, T; Kondo, T; Nakanishi, T

    2001-08-01

    A convenient method for discriminating between natural and depleted uranium reagent was developed by measuring and analyzing the gamma-ray spectra of some reagents with no standard source. The counting rates (R) of photoelectric peaks of gamma-rays from nuclides with the same radioactivity divided by their emission probability (B) are expressed as a function of gamma-ray energy. The radioactivities of 234Th and 234mPa and 21.72 times that of 235U are equal to the radioactivity of 235U in natural uranium. Therefore, the plot of 21.72-fold R/B for 235U should be on a curve fitted to the points for 234Th and 234mPa in natural uranium. Depleted uranium with a 235U isotopic composition of less than 0.68% could be discriminated from natural uranium in the case of a reagent containing 4.0 g of uranium.

  14. Precision Measurement of {eta} --> {gamma} {gamma} Decay Width via the Primakoff Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Liping Gin

    2013-08-01

    A precision measurement of the {eta} --> {gamma} {gamma} decay width via the Primakoff effect is underway in Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The decay width will be extracted from measured differential cross sections at forward angles on two light targets, liquid hydrogen and 4He, using a 11.5 GeV tagged photon beam. Results of this experiment will not only potentially resolve a long standing discrepancy between the Primakoff and the collider measurements, but will also reduce the experimental uncertainty by a factor of two on the average value of previous experimental results listed by the Particle Data Group(PDG). It will directly improve all other eta partial decay widths which rely on the accuracy of the eta radiative decay width. The projected 3% precision on the {Gamma}({eta} --> {gamma} {gamma} ) measurement will have a significant impact on the experimental determination of the fundamental parameters in QCD, such as the ratio of light quark masses (m{sub u},m{sub d},m{sub s}) and the {eta} - {eta}' mixing angle. It will be a sensitive probe for understanding QCD symmetries and the origin and the dynamics of QCD symmetry breaking.

  15. Experimental determination of the self-absorption factor for MTR plates by passive gamma spectrometric measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, R.; Mortreau, P.

    2011-07-01

    The measurement of the absolute activity or the mass of radioactive substances by gamma spectrometry needs to include a correction for the radiation absorption inside the source volume, the so-called self-absorption factor. It depends on geometry and material composition of the source, the detector geometry and on the geometrical arrangement of source and gamma radiation detector; it can be calculated if full information about all that is available. This article however describes how to determine the self-absorption factor from measurements if the radiation sources are plates of uranium fuel with typical parameters of nuclear fuel for MTR reactors and without using detail information on the source geometry, thus allowing easy inspection without relying on - potentially falsified - declarations on the internal properties of the fuel objects and without calculation.

  16. Recent developments in ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry at IRMM

    PubMed

    Hult; Martinez Canet MJ; Kohler; das Neves J; Johnston

    2000-07-01

    IRMM performs ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in the underground laboratory HADES, located at the SCK-CEN site in Mol, Belgium. Recently a third low-background coaxial HPGe detector was put into operation. The detector has 60% relative efficiency and better background characteristics than the two previous detectors: The shield comprises 14 cm of lead with 21OPb specific activity of 20 Bq kg(-1) and 14 cm of freshly produced electrolytic copper. The background count rate integrated from 40 to 2700 keV is 394 +/- 2 counts per day. Details of the background and the shield are presented together with applications to nuclear safeguards and material selection.

  17. Measurements of (n,{gamma}) cross sections with small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1995-02-05

    Neutron capture cross section data for certain isotopes of very small natural abundance are crucial for a better understanding of the s- and p-processes of nucleosynthesis. Also, recent work has shown that many previous (n,{gamma}) measurements need to be extended to lower neutron energies and that the accuracy of some previous data need to be improved. At Los Alamos we have developed a system for measuring (n,{gamma}) cross sections on samples as small as 1 mg. We give examples of measurements made with this apparatus and discuss the nuclear astrophysics motivation for these and future measurements.

  18. Measurements of (n,{gamma}) cross sections with small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1994-09-01

    Neutron capture cross section data for certain isotopes of very small natural abundance are crucial for a better understanding of the s- and p-processes of nucleosynthesis. Also, recent work has shown that many previous (n,{gamma}) measurements need to be extended to lower neutron energies and that the accuracy of some previous data need to be improved. At Los Alamos the authors have developed a system for measuring (n,{gamma}) cross sections on samples as small as 1 mg. They give examples of measurements made with this apparatus and discuss the nuclear astrophysics motivation for these and future measurements.

  19. Semi-automated structural analysis of high resolution magnetic and gamma-ray spectrometry airborne surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debeglia, N.; Martelet, G.; Perrin, J.; Truffert, C.; Ledru, P.; Tourlière, B.

    2005-08-01

    A user-controlled procedure was implemented for the structural analysis of geophysical maps. Local edge segments are first extracted using a suitable edge detector function, then linked into straight discontinuities and, finally, organised in complex boundary lines best delineating geophysical features. Final boundary lines may be attributed by a geologist to lithological contacts and/or structural geological features. Tests of some edge detectors, (i) horizontal gradient magnitude (HGM), (ii) various orders of the analytic signal ( An), reduced to the pole or not, (iii) enhanced horizontal derivative (EHD), (iv) composite analytic signal (CAS), were performed on synthetic magnetic data (with and without noise). As a result of these comparisons, the horizontal gradient appears to remain the best operator for the analysis of magnetic data. Computation of gradients in the frequency domain, including filtering and upward continuation of noisy data, is well-suited to the extraction of magnetic gradients associated to deep sources, while space-domain smoothing and differentiation techniques is generally preferable in the case of shallow magnetic sources, or for gamma-ray spectrometry analysis. Algorithms for edge extraction, segment linking, and line following can be controlled by choosing adequate edge detector and processing parameters which allows adaptation to a desired scale of interpretation. Tests on synthetic and real case data demonstrate the adaptability of the procedure and its ability to produce basic layer for multi-data analysis. The method was applied to the interpretation of high-resolution airborne magnetic and gamma-ray spectrometry data collected in northern Namibia. It allowed the delineation of dyke networks concealed by superficial weathering and demonstrated the presence of lithological variations in alluvial flows. The output from the structural analysis procedure are compatible with standard GIS softwares and enable the geologist to (i) compare

  20. The Study of Equilibrium factor between Radon-222 and its Daughters in Bangkok Atmosphere by Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rujiwarodom, Rachanee

    2010-05-01

    To study the Equilibrium between radon-222 and its daughters in Bangkok atmosphere by Gamma-ray spectrometry, air sample were collected on 48 activated charcoal canister and 360 glass fiber filters by using a high volume jet-air sampler during December 2007 to November 2008.The Spectra of gamma-ray were measured by using a HPGe (Hyper Pure Germanium Detector). In the condition of secular equilibrium obtaining between Radon-222 and its decay products, radon-222 on activated charcoal canister and its daughters on glass fiber filters collected in the same time interval were calculated. The equilibrium factor (F) in the open air had a value of 0.38 at the minimum ,and 0.75 at the maximum. The average value of equilibrium factor (F) was 0.56±0.12. Based on the results, F had variations with a maximum value in the night to the early morning and decreased in the afternoon. In addition, F was higher in the winter than in the summer. This finding corresponds with the properties of the Earth atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (F) also depended on the concentration of dust in the atmosphere. People living in Bangkok were exposed to average value of 30 Bq/m3 of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (0.56±0.12) and the average value of Radon-222 showed that people were exposed to alpha energy from radon-222 and its daughters decay at 0.005 WL(Working Level) which is lower than the safety standard at 0.02 WL. Keywords: Radon, Radon daughters , equilibrium factor, Gamma -ray spectrum analysis ,Bangkok ,Thailand

  1. Moisture effect in prompt gamma measurements from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Khiari, F Z; Liadi, F A; Khateeb-Ur-Rehman; Raashid, M A; Isab, A H

    2016-09-01

    The variation in intensity of 1.78MeV silicon, 6.13MeV oxygen, and 2.22MeV hydrogen prompt gamma rays from soil samples due to the addition of 5.1, 7.4, 9.7, 11.9 and 14.0wt% water was studied for 14MeV incident neutron beams utilizing a LaBr3:Ce gamma ray detector. The intensities of 1.78MeV and 6.13MeV gamma rays from silicon and oxygen, respectively, decreased with increasing sample moisture. The intensity of 2.22MeV hydrogen gamma rays increases with moisture. The decrease in intensity of silicon and oxygen gamma rays with moisture concentration indicates a loss of 14MeV neutron flux, while the increase in intensity of 2.22MeV gamma rays with moisture indicates an increase in thermal neutron flux due to increasing concentration of moisture. The experimental intensities of silicon, oxygen and hydrogen prompt gamma rays, measured as a function of moisture concentration in the soil samples, are in good agreement with the theoretical results obtained through Monte Carlo calculations.

  2. Investigation of the soil-plant transfer of primordial radionuclides in tomatoes by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Köhler, M; Gleisberg, B; Niese, S

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides 40K, 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb and 227Ac for tomatoes growing at soils from former uranium mining areas. The analysis were carried out using low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in a 47 m deep underground laboratory. For tomato fruits transfer factors of (0.0007 +/- 0.0006) for 235U, (0.0021 +/- 0.0017) for 226Ra, (0.0015 +/- 0.0009) for 210Pb and (0.0018 +/- 0.0012) for 227Ac were obtained. The investigation of the soil-plant transfer by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry is often limited by the Compton-continuum from the always present high-energy gamma-ray emitter 40K.

  3. An airborne gamma-ray spectrometry survey of nuclear sites in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, D C W; Cresswell, A J; Hardeman, F; Debauche, A

    2004-01-01

    As part of a wider study to define the existing background levels in Belgium an airborne gamma-ray survey was conducted in two areas associated with nuclear sites. In the Mol area, the survey zone included areas surrounding the SCK-CEN nuclear research centre, and its associated neighbourhood which includes radioactive waste stores, fuel manufacture and fabrication facilities and an international accelerator laboratory. In the vicinity of Fleurus, the survey included the IRE complex with radiochemical laboratories, irradiation facilities and stores, and isotope production accelerators. The survey was conducted using a twin engined helicopter equipped with a combined scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer. The system was installed and tested in the UK, and then transferred to Belgium for operations. The complete survey was conducted successfully within 1 week. The results provide a comprehensive record of the radiation environment of the nuclear sites at time of survey, and show a range of signals associated with the types of activity present in each area. They confirm that radiation fields are largely confined to the operational sites, and provide a traceable record against which future changes could be assessed. The demonstration of efficient deployment between two European countries, coupled with rapid mapping of many different radiometric signals around these sites confirms the utility of the airborne gamma spectrometry approach for accurate definition of enhanced radiation fields. This has important implications for emergency response.

  4. ICF Gamma-Ray measurements on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Y.; Hoffman, N. M.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Liebman, J. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Carpenter, A. C.; Grafil, E. M.; Khater, H. Y.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is to provide bang time and burn width information in order to constrain implosion simulation parameters such as shell velocity and confinement time. This is accomplished by measuring DT fusion gamma-rays with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV gamma-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. Burn-weighted CH ablator areal density is also inferred based on measurement of the 12C(n,n') gammas emitted at 4.44 MeV from DT neutrons inelastically scattering off carbon nuclei as they pass through the plastic ablator. This requires that the four independent GRH gas cells be set to differing Cherenkov thresholds (e.g., 2.9, 4.5, 8 & 10 MeV) in order to be able to unfold the primary spectral components predicted to be in the gamma ray energy spectrum (i.e., DT γ 27Al & 28Si (n,n') γ from the thermo-mechanical package (TMP); and 12C(n,n' γ from the ablator). The GRH response to 12C(n,n') γ is calibrated in-situ by placing a known areal density of carbon in the form of a puck placed ~6 cm from a DT exploding pusher implosion. Comparisons between inferred gamma fluences and simulations based on the nuclear cross sections databases will be presented. Supported by US DOE NNSA.

  5. Application of Bayesian decision theory to airborne gamma snow measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bissell, V. C.

    1975-01-01

    Measured values of several variables are incorporated into the calculation of snow water equivalent as measured from an aircraft by snow attenuation of terrestrial gamma radiation. Bayesian decision theory provides a snow water equivalent measurement by taking into account the uncertainties in the individual measurement variables and filtering information about the measurement variables through prior notions of what the calculated variable (water equivalent) should be.

  6. Gamma-ray spectrometry of granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihermann, Jessica Derkacz; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; Cury, Leonardo Fadel; da Silveira, Claudinei Taborda

    2016-09-01

    The Paranaguá Terrane, located in the coastal portion of the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná and São Paulo in Southern Brazil is a crustal segment constituted mainly by an igneous complex, with a variety of granitic rocks inserted into the Serra do Mar ridge. The average altitude is approximately 1200 m above sea level, with peaks of up to 1800 m. Due to the difficulty of accessing the area, a shortage of outcrops and the thick weathering mantle, this terrane is understudied. This research aims to evaluate the gamma-ray spectrometry data of the granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, in correspondence with the geological, petrographical, lithogeochemical, relief and mass movement information available in the literature. Aerogeophysical data were acquired along north-south lines spaced at 500 m, with a mean terrain clearance of 100 m. These data cover potassium (K, %), equivalent in thorium (eTh, ppm) and equivalent in uranium (eU, ppm). After performing a critical analysis of the data, basic (K, eU, eTh) and ternary (R-K/G-eTh/B-eU) maps were generated and then superimposed on the digital elevation model (DEM). The investigation of the radionuclide mobility across the relief and weathering mantle consisted of an analysis of the schematic profiles of elevation related with each radionuclide; a comparison of the K, eU and eTh maps with their 3D correspondents; and the study of mass movements registered in the region. A statistical comparison of lithogeochemical (K, U, Th) and geophysical (K, eU, eTh) data showed consistency in all the granitic suites studied (Morro Inglês, Rio do Poço and Canavieiras-Estrela). Through gamma-ray spectrometry, it was possible to establish relationships between scars (from mass movements) and the gamma-ray responses as well as the radionuclide mobility and the relief and to map the granitic bodies.

  7. Development and calibration of a real-time airborne radioactivity monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; Salvadó, M

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry in an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network can help to identify and characterize abnormal radioactivity increases quickly. For this reason, a Real-time Airborne Radioactivity Monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors (RARM-D2) was developed. The two scintillation detectors in the RARM-D2 are strategically shielded with Pb to permit the separate measurement of the airborne isotopes with respect to the deposited isotopes.In this paper, we describe the main aspects of the development and calibration of the RARM-D2 when using NaI(Tl) or LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The calibration of the monitor was performed experimentally with the exception of the efficiency curve, which was set using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the EGS5 code system. Prior to setting the efficiency curve, the effect of the radioactive source term size on the efficiency calculations was studied for the gamma-rays from (137)Cs. Finally, to study the measurement capabilities of the RARM-D2, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for (131)I and (137)Cs were calculated for typical spectra at different integration times.

  8. Assay for uranium and determination of disequilibrium by means of in situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Allan B.; Moxham, Robert M.; Senftle, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    Two sealed sondes, using germanium gamma-ray detectors cooled by melting propane, have been field tested to depths of 79 m in water-filled boreholes at the Pawnee Uranium Mine in Bee Co., Texas. When, used as total-count devices, the sondes are comparable in logging speed and counting rate with conventional scintillation detectors for locating zones of high radioactivity. When used with a multichannel analyzer, the sondes are detectors with such high resolution that individual lines from the complex spectra of the uranium and thorium series can be distinguished. Gamma rays from each group of the uranium series can be measured in ore zones permitting determination of the state of equilibrium at each measurement point. Series of 10-minute spectra taken at 0.3- to 0.5-m intervals in several holes showed zones where maxima from the uranium group and from the 222Rn group were displaced relative to each other. Apparent excesses of 230Th at some locations suggest that uranium-group concentrations at those locations were severalfold greater some tens of kiloyears, ago. At the current state of development a 10-minute count yields a sensitivity of about 80 ppm U308. Data reduction could in practice be accomplished in about 5 minutes. The result is practically unaffected by disequilibrium or radon contamination. In comparison with core assay, high-resolution spectrometry samples a larger volume; avoids problems due to incomplete core recovery, loss of friable material to drilling fluids, and errors in depth and marking; and permits use of less expensive drilling methods. Because gamma rays from the radionuclides are accumulated simultaneously, it also avoids the problems inherent in trying to correlate logs made in separate runs with different equipment. Continuous-motion delayed-gamma activation by a 163-?g 252Cf neutron source attached to the sonde yielded poor sensitivity. A better neutron-activation method, in which the sonde is moved in steps so as to place the detector

  9. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  10. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of 137Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <<0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered. PMID:27274073

  11. Lunar Elemental Abundances from Gamma-Ray and Neutron Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Vaniman, D. T.

    1999-01-01

    The determination of elemental abundances is one of the highest science objectives of most lunar missions. Such multi-element abundances, ratios, or maps should include results for elements that are diagnostic or important in lunar processes, including heat-producing elements (such as K and Th), important incompatible elements (Th and rare earth elements), H (for polar deposits and regolith maturity), and key variable elements in major lunar provinces (such as Fe and Ti in the maria). Both neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy can be used to infer elemental abundances; the two complement each other. These elemental abundances need to be determined with high accuracy and precision from measurements such as those made by the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) and neutron spectrometers (NS) on Lunar Prospector. As presented here, a series of steps, computer codes, and nuclear databases are needed to properly convert the raw gamma-ray and neutron measurements into good elemental abundances, ratios, and/or maps. Lunar Prospector (LP) is the first planetary mission that has measured neutrons escaping from a planet other than the Earth. The neutron spectrometers on Lunar Prospector measured a wide range of neutron energies. The ability to measure neutrons with thermal (E < 0.1 eV), epithermal (E about equal 0.1 - 1000 eV), and fast (E about 0.1-10 MeV) energies maximizes the scientific return, being especially sensitive to both H (using epithermal neutrons) and thermal-neutron-absorbing elements. Neutrons are made in the lunar surface by the interaction of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with the atomic nuclei in the surface. Most neutrons are produced with energies above about 0.1 MeV. The flux of fast neutrons in and escaping from the Moon depends on es the intensity of the cosmic rays (which vary with solar activity) and the elemental composition of the surface. Variations in the elemental composition of the lunar surface can affect the flux of fast neutrons by about 25

  12. Neutron/Gamma-ray discrimination through measures of fit

    SciTech Connect

    Amiri, Moslem; Prenosil, Vaclav; Cvachovec, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Statistical tests and their underlying measures of fit can be utilized to separate neutron/gamma-ray pulses in a mixed radiation field. In this article, first the application of a sample statistical test is explained. Fit measurement-based methods require true pulse shapes to be used as reference for discrimination. This requirement makes practical implementation of these methods difficult; typically another discrimination approach should be employed to capture samples of neutrons and gamma-rays before running the fit-based technique. In this article, we also propose a technique to eliminate this requirement. These approaches are applied to several sets of mixed neutron and gamma-ray pulses obtained through different digitizers using stilbene scintillator in order to analyze them and measure their discrimination quality. (authors)

  13. A COMPARISON OF GADRAS SIMULATED AND MEASURED GAMMA RAY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffcoat, R.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-06-28

    Gamma-ray radiation detection systems are continuously being developed and improved for detecting the presence of radioactive material and for identifying isotopes present. Gamma-ray spectra, from many different isotopes and in different types and thicknesses of attenuation material and matrixes, are needed to evaluate the performance of these devices. Recently, a test and evaluation exercise was performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory that required a large number of gamma-ray spectra. Simulated spectra were used for a major portion of the testing in order to provide a pool of data large enough for the results to be statistically significant. The test data set was comprised of two types of data, measured and simulated. The measured data were acquired with a hand-held Radioisotope Identification Device (RIID) and simulated spectra were created using Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS, Mitchell and Mattingly, Sandia National Laboratory). GADRAS uses a one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculation to simulate gamma-ray spectra. The measured and simulated spectra have been analyzed and compared. This paper will discuss the results of the comparison and offer explanations for spectral differences.

  14. Gamma background measurements in the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane.

    PubMed

    Malczewski, Dariusz; Kisiel, Jan; Dorda, Jerzy

    In situ gamma-ray measurements were taken at six locations in the Modane Underground Laboratory. Count rates for gamma radiation within the energy range of 7-2734 keV varied from 15 to 108 γs(-1). The arithmetic mean was 79 γs(-1) for measurements taken without a collimator. The metamorphic rocks surrounding the Lab are characterized by low activity concentrations of uranium and thorium equal to 12 and 10 Bq kg(-1), respectively.

  15. Measurement of ²²⁶Ra in soil from oil field: advantages of γ-ray spectrometry and application to the IAEA-448 CRM.

    PubMed

    Ceccatelli, A; Katona, R; Kis-Benedek, G; Pitois, A

    2014-05-01

    The analytical performance of gamma-ray spectrometry for the measurement of (226)Ra in TENORM (Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) soil was investigated by the IAEA. Fast results were obtained for characterization and certification of a new TENORM Certified Reference Material (CRM), identified as IAEA-448 (soil from oil field). The combined standard uncertainty of the gamma-ray spectrometry results is of the order of 2-3% for massic activity measurement values ranging from 16500 Bq kg(-1) to 21500 Bq kg(-1). Methodologies used for the production and certification of the IAEA-448 CRM are presented. Analytical results were confirmed by alpha spectrometry. The "t" test showed agreement between alpha and gamma results at 95% confidence level.

  16. Development and application of Marinelli beaker standards for monitoring radioactivity in Dairy-Products by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lavi, N; Alfassi, Z B

    2004-12-01

    Marinelli (reentrant) beakers are recommended for measurement of low-activity radioactive environmental samples, in both liquid and solid phase. The preparation of Marinelli beaker standards of milk powder containing 232ThO2 at secular equilibrium with its daughter radionuclides was studied. Standards were prepared by mixing of known amounts of solid ThO2 and milk powder. The densities of the standards were 0.5-0.7 kg dm(-3). Measurements of calibrated Marinelli beaker standards with HPGe detector showed that the energy dependence of the efficiency is similar to that of a point source, i.e. an almost linear dependence of log-efficiency vs. log-energy in the 200-2000 keV range, however the parabolic correlation fits better. The validity of these standards was checked by comparison with certified standard reference material IAEA-152-Milk powder containing radiocesium and radiopotassium. The results obtained were found to be in a good agreement with the published certified data. The limit of detection for the determination of radiocesium by gamma ray spectrometry under the prevailing experimental conditions is 0.03 Bq (i.e. 0.8 pCi), for samples of dairy products having lower densities of 0.7 kg dm(-1).

  17. Ultra low-level gamma ray spectrometry of thorium in human bone samples.

    PubMed

    Martínez Canet, M J; Hult, M; Johnston, P N; Lambrichts, I

    2001-01-01

    Following the use of in vivo measurements of 210Pb to estimate retrospectively radon exposure, interest has been expressed in the use of in vivo measurements of 208Tl to estimate thorium intake. To aid with calibration and to determine the optimum part of the body on which in vivo measurements should be made, the distribution of 208Tl and 228Ac amongst different human bones was measured in the underground laboratory HADES. The 208Tl activity was determined by the 2614.5 keV and the 583.2 keV gamma ray lines. The 225Ac activity was determined by the 911.2 keV and the 969.0 keV gamma ray lines. The background under those peaks when measured on the 106% relative efficiency coaxial HPGe detector in HADES is of the order of 1 d(-1), resulting in detection limits in the order of 1 mBq for both radionuclides for a typical 10 g bone sample and for a measuring time of I week.

  18. In situ subterranean determination of actinides by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1981-04-01

    A system utilizing high resolution germanium diode gamma-ray spectroscopy for the simple, safe, and economical in situ determination of actinides is described. Six isotopes, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Pu, and /sup 241/Am, can be simultaneously measured at the 10 nCi g/sup -1/ level in less than 7 minutes. Collimators provide for measurement of horizontal strata as thin as 1 cm or solid angles as small as 0.1 steradians. Information obtainable with the system is discussed and compared to that obtainable with neutron activation/detection systems.

  19. Systematic Effects on Duration Measurements of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshut, Thomas M.; Paciesas, William S.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; vanParadijs, Jan; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    The parameters T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) have recently been introduced as a measurement of the duration of gamma-ray bursts. We present here a description of the method of measuring T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) and its application to gamma-ray bursts observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). We use simulated as well as observed time profiles to address some of the possible systematic effects affecting individual T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) measurements. We show that these systematic effects do not mimic those effects that would result from time dilation if the burst sources are at distances of several Gpc. We discuss the impact of these systematic effects on the T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) distributions for the gamma-ray bursts observed with BATSE. We distinguish between various types of T(sub 90) (T(sub 50)) distributions, and discuss the ways in which distributions observed with different experiments can vary, even though the measurements for commonly observed bursts may be the same. We then discuss the distributions observed with BATSE and compare them to those observed with other experiments.

  20. Radon tightness of different sample sealing methods for gamma spectrometric measurements of ²²⁶Ra.

    PubMed

    Mauring, Alexander; Gäfvert, Torbjörn

    2013-11-01

    Different methods for sealing sample containers for (222)Rn when measuring (226)Ra through its progenies (214)Pb and (214)Bi using gamma-ray spectrometry have been investigated. Results show that a method consisting of vacuum packaging of the sample container in a sealed aluminium lined bag gives excellent results for ensuring radon tightness. However, care should be taken to fill the sample container completely in order to avoid systematic errors due to radon accumulating in the void volume.

  1. Measurements of B to V(Gamma) Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Yarritu, Aaron K.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-09-02

    The standard model has been highly successful at describing current experimental data. However, extensions of the standard model predict particles that have masses at energy scales that are above the electroweak scale. The flavor-changing neutral current processes of the B meson are sensitive to the influences of these new physics contributions. These processes proceed through loop diagrams, thus allowing new physics to enter at the same order as the standard model. New physics may contribute to the enhancement or suppression of rate asymmetries or the decay rates of these processes. The transition B {yields} V{gamma} (V = K*(892), {rho}(770), {omega}(782), {phi}(1020)) represents radiative decays of the B meson that proceed through penguin processes. Hadronic uncertainties limit the theoretical accuracy of the prediction of the branching fractions. However, uncertainties, both theoretical and experimental, are much reduced when considering quantities involving ratios of branching fractions, such as CP or isospin asymmetries. The most dominant exclusive radiative b {yields} s transition is B {yields} K*{gamma}. We present the best measurements of the branching fractions, direct CP, and isospin asymmetries of B {yields} K*{gamma}. The analogous b {yields} d transitions are B {yields} {rho}{gamma} and B {yields} {omega}{gamma}, which are suppressed by a factor of |V{sub td}/V{sub ts}|{sup 2} {approx} 0.04 relative to B {yields} K*{gamma}. A measurement of the branching fractions and isospin asymmetry of B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{gamma} and B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{gamma}, as well as a search for B {yields} {omega}{gamma}, are also given. These measurements are combined to calculate the ratio of CKM matrix elements |V{sub td}/V{sub ts}|, which corresponds to the length of one side of the unitary triangle. Finally, we present a search for the penguin annihilation process B {yields}{phi}{gamma}. We use a sample of 383 million B{bar B} events collected with

  2. Gamma-ray spectrometry across the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary in the Lusitanian Basin (Western Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Marisa; Henriques, Helena; Pena, Rui

    2016-04-01

    supply, which has enabled the faunal recovery, as well as the raise of deep infaunal foraminifers recorded at the latest part of the Discites Biochron. This could be related to the increase of calcareous nannofossil fluxes that coincide with a positive shift in carbon isotope compositions of bulk carbonate in the earliest Bajocian reported by some authors for the Murtinheira and other Iberian sections. In basin analysis of carbonate platforms the integration of major biotic turnovers and gamma-ray spectrometry data can be a useful tool in the improvement of correlation between wells and outcrops. Moreover, they assist in the interpretation of depositional environment and paleoclimatic constrains assigned to a basin.

  3. Directional correlation measurements for gamma transitions in /sup 127/Te

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, M.O.M.D.; Saxena, R.N.

    1985-02-01

    The directional correlation of coincident ..gamma.. transitions in /sup 127/Te has been measured following the ..beta../sup -/ decay of /sup 127/Sb (T/sub 1/2/ = 3.9 d) using Ge(Li)-Ge(Li) and Ge(Li)-NaI(T1) gamma spectrometers. Measurements have been carried out for 14 gamma cascades resulting in the determination of multipole mixing ratios delta(E2/M1) for 15 ..gamma.. transitions. The present results permitted a definite spin assignment of (7/2) for the 785 keV level and confirmation of several previous assignments to other levels in /sup 127/Te. The g factor of the 340 keV ((9/2)/sup -/) level has also been measured using the integral perturbed angular correlation method in the hyperfine magnetic field of a Te in Ni matrix. The results of the g factor as well as the mixing ratio for the 252 keV ((9/2)/sup -/..-->..(11/2)/sup -/) transition support the earlier interpretation of this state as an anomalous coupling state.

  4. The Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment (GAME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Mario; Vecchiato, Alberto; Ligori, Sebastiano; Fineschi, Silvano; Lattanzi, Mario G.

    2009-08-01

    The GAME mission concept is aimed at very precise measurement of the gravitational deflection of light by the Sun, by an optimized telescope in the visible and launched in orbit on a small class satellite. The targeted precision on the γ parameter of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian formulation of General Relativity is 10-6 or better, i.e. one to two orders of magnitude better than the best current results. Such precision is suitable to detect possible deviations from unity value, associated to generalized Einstein models for gravitation, with potentially huge impacts on the cosmological distribution of dark matter and dark energy. The measurement principle is based on differential astrometric signature on the stellar positions, i.e. on the spatial component of the effect rather than the temporal component as in recent experiments using radio link delay timing. Exploiting the observation strategy, it is also possible to target other interesting scientific goals both in the realm of General Relativity and in the observations of extrasolar systems. The instrument is a dual field, multiple aperture Fizeau interferometer, observing simultaneously two regions close to the Solar limb. The diluted optics approach is selected for efficient rejection of the solar radiation, while retaining an acceptable angular resolution on the science targets. We describe the science motivation, the proposed mission profile, the payload concept and the expected performance from recent results.

  5. Low-background gamma-ray spectrometry in the Garching underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Mannel, T.; Sivers, M. V.

    2013-08-01

    We describe two setups that were built for low-background gamma-ray spectrometry in the Garching Underground Laboratory (˜ 10 m.w.e.). Both setups are based on HPGe detectors surrounded by several layers of passive shielding as well as an active muon veto. The first setup (GEM) comprises a single HPGe detector surrounded by a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector that serves as anti-Compton veto. The second setup (LoAx) consists of two smaller HPGe detectors which are arranged face-to-face to cover a large solid angle around the sample. The detection efficiency of both systems is determined using a calibrated Monte-Carlo simulation. The count rate finally achieved in the energy range 40-2700keV is 10250±26cts/day for the GEM setup, and 5258±27cts/day and 6876±31cts/day between 20-1500keV for the two detectors of the LoAx setup. This leads to detection sensitivities of a few mBq/kg for U and Th at both screening stations.

  6. Measurement of the gamma gamma* to eta_c transition form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C.M.; /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2010-04-28

    The authors study the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} {eta}{sub c}, {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{sub S}K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} and obtain {eta}{sub c} mass and width values 2982.2 {+-} 0.4 {+-} 1.6 MeV/c{sup 2} and 31.7 {+-} 1.2 {+-} 0.8 MeV, respectively. They find {Lambda}({eta}{sub c} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}){Beta}({eta}{sub c} {yields} K{bar K}{pi}) = 0.374 {+-} 0.009 {+-} 0.031 keV, and measure the {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} {eta}{sub c} transition form factor in the momentum transfer range from 2 to 50 GeV{sup 2}. The analysis is based on 469 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  7. A portable absorbed dose measuring instrument with gamma discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quam, W. M.; Wilde, W. I.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of an electronic instrument for measuring the radiation dose absorbed by tissues are presented. The detector is a sphere of tissue-equivalent plastic with a single wire located on a diameter of the sphere. The electronic circuits and method of operation of the detector are described. Advantages are the small size and easy portability plus ability to selectively measure neutron and gamma plus neutron events.

  8. Measurements of the CKM angle gamma at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Marchiori, G.; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2011-11-07

    We report on our recent measurements of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa CP-violating phase {gamma} and of related CP-asymmetries and branching fraction ratios. The measurements have been performed on samples of up to 465 million B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory in the years 1999-2007.

  9. Determination of 137Cs activity in soil from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Matthews, M.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Al Sadig, Ibrahim; Daar, Eman

    2016-10-01

    With interest in establishing baseline concentrations of 137Cs in soil from the Qatarian peninsula, we focus on determination of the activity concentrations in 129 soil samples collected across the State of Qatar prior to the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. As such, the data provides the basis of a reference map for the detection of releases of this fission product. The activity concentrations were measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector enclosed in a copper-lined passive lead shield that was situated in a low-background environment. The activity concentrations ranged from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg, with a median value of 1 Bq/kg, the greatest activity concentration being observed in a sample obtained from northern Qatar. Although it cannot be confirmed, it is expected that this contamination is mainly due to releases from the Chernobyl accident of 26 April 1986, there being a lack of data from Qatar before the accident. The values are typically within but are sometimes lower than the range indicated by data from other countries in the region. The lower values than those of others is suggested to be due to variation in soil characteristics as well as metrological factors at the time of deposition.

  10. Environmental gamma radiation measurement in district Swat, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, T; Khan, K; Subhani, M S; Akhter, P; Jabbar, A

    2008-01-01

    External exposure to environmental gamma ray sources is an important component of exposure to the public. A survey was carried out to determine activity concentration levels and associated doses from (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs by means of high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry in the Swat district, famous for tourism. The mean concentrations for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 50.4 +/- 0.7, 34.8 +/- 0.7 and 434.5 +/- 7.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in soil samples, which are slightly more than the world average values. However, (137)Cs was only found in the soil sample of Barikot with an activity concentration of 34 +/- 1.2 Bq kg(-1). Only (40)K was determined in vegetation samples with an average activity of 172.2 +/- 1.7 Bq kg(-1), whereas in water samples, all radionuclides were found below lower limits of detection. The radium equivalent activity in all soil samples is lower than the limit set in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development report (370 Bq kg(-1)). The value of the external exposure dose has been determined from the content of these radionuclides in soil. The average terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate was observed to be 62.4 nGy h(-1), which yields an annual effective dose of 0.08 mSv. The average value of the annual effective dose lies close to the global range of outdoor radiation exposure given in United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. However, the main component of the radiation dose to the population residing in the study area arises from cosmic ray due to high altitude.

  11. Alpha spectrometry — A tool for nuclear data measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, R. A. P.

    1984-06-01

    Alpha spectrometry is a precise technique which can be applied to the measurement of data such as half-lives and the production cross-sections of higher actinides. The application of this technique to the measurement of 239Pu and 242Cm half-lives, to the production cross-sections for curium isotopes in fast reactor spectra and to the analysis of irradiated fuel for alpha emitting higher actinide nuclides are discussed.

  12. Implications of final L3 measurement of {sigma}{sub tot}({gamma}{gamma}{yields}bb)

    SciTech Connect

    Chyla, Jiri

    2006-02-01

    The excess of data on the total cross section of bb production in {gamma}{gamma} collisions over QCD predictions, observed by L3, OPAL and DELPHI Collaborations at LEP2, has so far defied explanation. The recent final analysis of L3 data has brought important new information concerning the dependence of the observed excess on the {gamma}{gamma} collisions energy W{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}. The implications of this dependence are discussed.

  13. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, S. J.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Hu, J.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Trellue, H.; Vo, D.

    2016-10-01

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. To compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  14. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Favalli, Andrea; Grogan, Brandon R.; Jansson, Peter; Liljenfeldt, Henrik; Mozin, Vladimir; Hu, Jianwei; Schwalbach, P.; Sjoland, A.; Trellue, Holly; Vo, D.

    2016-07-17

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. As a result, to compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  15. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Favalli, Andrea; ...

    2016-07-17

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detectmore » the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. As a result, to compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.« less

  16. Low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry for an information barrier based on a multi-criteria template-matching approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göttsche, Malte; Schirm, Janet; Glaser, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry has been successfully employed to identify unique items containing special nuclear materials. Template information barriers have been developed in the past to confirm items as warheads by comparing their gamma signature to the signature of true warheads. Their development has, however, not been fully transparent, and they may not be sensitive to some relevant evasion scenarios. We develop a fully open template information barrier concept, based on low-resolution measurements, which, by design, reduces the extent of revealed sensitive information. The concept is based on three signatures of an item to be compared to a recorded template. The similarity of the spectrum is assessed by a modification of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to confirm the isotopic composition. The total gamma count rate must agree with the template as a measure of the projected surface of the object. In order to detect the diversion of fissile material from the interior of an item, a polyethylene mask is placed in front of the detector. Neutrons from spontaneous and induced fission events in the item produce 2.223 MeV gamma rays from neutron capture by hydrogen-1 in the mask. This peak is detected and its intensity scales with the item's fissile mass. The analysis based on MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of various plutonium configurations suggests that this concept can distinguish a valid item from a variety of invalid ones. The concept intentionally avoids any assumptions about specific spectral features, such as looking for specific gamma peaks of specific isotopes, thereby facilitating a fully unclassified discussion. By making all aspects public and allowing interested participants to contribute to the development and benchmarking, we enable a more open and inclusive discourse on this matter.

  17. Measurements of the CKM Angle phi3/gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Tisserand, Vincent; /Annecy, LAPP

    2007-06-27

    We present a review on the measurements of the CKM angle {gamma} ({phi}{sub 3}){sup 1} as performed by the BABAR and Belle experiments at the asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} B factories colliders PEP-II and KEKB. These measurements are using either charged or neutral B decays. For charged B decays the modes {tilde D}{sup 0}K{sup -}, {tilde D}*{sup 0}K{sup -}, and {tilde D}{sup 0}K*{sup -} are employed, where {tilde D}{sup 0} indicates either a D{sup 0} or a {bar D}{sup 0} meson. Direct CP violation is exploited. It is caused by interferences between V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} accessible transitions that generate asymmetries in the final states. For these decays various methods exist to enhance the sensitivity to the V{sub ub} transition, carrying the weak phase {gamma}. For neutral B decays, the modes D{sup (*){+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} and D{sup {+-}}{rho}{sup {-+}} are used. In addition to the V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} interferences, these modes are sensitive to the B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} mixing, so that time dependent analyses are performed to extract sin(2{beta} + {gamma}). An alternative method would use the lower branching ratios decay modes {tilde D}{sup (*)0}{bar K}{sup (*)0} where much larger asymmetries are expected. The various available methods are mostly ''theoretically clean'' and always free of penguins diagrams. In some cases a high sensitivity to {gamma} is expected and large asymmetries may be seen. But these measurements are always experimentally difficult as one has to face with either low branching ratios, or small asymmetries, or additional technical/theoretical difficulties due to Dalitz/SU(3) and re-scattering models needed to treat/estimate nuisance parameters such as unknown strong phases and the relative magnitude of the amplitude of the interfering ''V{sub ub}'' transitions. Thus at the present time only a relatively limited precision on {gamma} can be extracted from these measurements. The current world average is {gamma} = (78{sub -26}{sup +19

  18. PRESAGE 3D dosimetry accurately measures Gamma Knife output factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawikowski, Slade J.; Yang, James N.; Adamovics, John; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.

    2014-12-01

    Small-field output factor measurements are traditionally very difficult because of steep dose gradients, loss of lateral electronic equilibrium, and dose volume averaging in finitely sized detectors. Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry is ideal for measuring small output factors and avoids many of these potential challenges of point and 2D detectors. PRESAGE 3D polymer dosimeters were used to measure the output factors for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators of the Leksell Perfexion Gamma Knife radiosurgery treatment system. Discrepancies between the planned and measured distance between shot centers were also investigated. A Gamma Knife head frame was mounted onto an anthropomorphic head phantom. Special inserts were machined to hold 60 mm diameter, 70 mm tall cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters. The phantom was irradiated with one 16 mm shot and either one 4 mm or one 8 mm shot, to a prescribed dose of either 3 Gy or 4 Gy to the 50% isodose line. The two shots were spaced between 30 mm and 60 mm apart and aligned along the central axis of the cylinder. The Presage dosimeters were measured using the DMOS-RPC optical CT scanning system. Five independent 4 mm output factor measurements fell within 2% of the manufacturer’s Monte Carlo simulation-derived nominal value, as did two independent 8 mm output factor measurements. The measured distances between shot centers varied by ±0.8 mm with respect to the planned shot displacements. On the basis of these results, we conclude that PRESAGE dosimetry is excellently suited to quantify the difficult-to-measure Gamma Knife output factors.

  19. Neanderthal skeleton from Tabun: U-series data by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, H P; Simpson, J J; Stringer, C B

    1998-12-01

    The Neanderthal hominid Tabun C1, found in Israel by Garrod & Bate, was attributed to either layer B or C of their stratigraphic sequence. We have used gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the 230Th/234U and 231Pa/235U ratios of two bones from this skeleton, the mandible and a femur. The ages calculated from these ratios depend on the uranium uptake history of the bones. Assuming a model of early U (EU) uptake the age of the Tabun C1 mandible is 34+/-5 ka. The EU age of the femur is 19+/-2 ka. The femur may have experienced continuous (linear) U uptake which would give an age of 33+/-4 ka, in agreement with the mandible's EU age, but implies marked inhomogeneity in U uptake history at the site. These new age estimates for the skeleton suggest that it was younger than deposits of layer C. This apparent age is less than those of other Neanderthals found in Israel, and distinctly younger than the ages of the Skhul and Qafzeh burials. This suggests that Neanderthals did not necessarily coexist with the earliest modern humans in the region. All of the more complete Neanderthal fossils from Israel are now dated to the cool period of the last glacial cycle, suggesting that Neanderthals may have arrived in this region as a result of the southward expansion of their habitable range. The young age determined for the Tabun skeleton would suggest that Neanderthals survived as late in the Levant as they did in Europe.

  20. Delayed Gamma Measurements in Different Nuclear Research Reactors Bringing Out the Importance of the Delayed Contribution in Gamma Flux Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Fourmentel, D.; Radulovic, V.; Barbot, L.; Villard, J-F.; Zerovnik, G.; Snoj, L.; Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K.; Malouch, F.

    2015-07-01

    Neutron and gamma flux levels are key parameters in nuclear research reactors. In Material Testing Reactors, such as the future Jules Horowitz Reactor, under construction at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache, France), the expected gamma flux levels are very high (nuclear heating is of the order of 20 W/g at 100 MWth). As gamma rays deposit their energy in the reactor structures and structural materials it is important to take them into account when designing irradiation devices. There are only a few sensors which allow measurements of the nuclear heating ; a recent development at the CEA Cadarache allows measurements of the gamma flux using a miniature ionization chamber (MIC). The measured MIC response is often compared with calculation using modern Monte Carlo (MC) neutron and photon transport codes, such as TRIPOLI-4 and MCNP6. In these calculations only the production of prompt gamma rays in the reactor is usually modelled thus neglecting the delayed gamma rays. Hence calculations and measurements are usually in better accordance for the neutron flux than for the gamma flux. In this paper we study the contribution of delayed gamma rays to the total MIC signal in order to estimate the systematic error in gamma flux MC calculations. In order to experimentally determine the delayed gamma flux contributions to the MIC response, we performed gamma flux measurements with CEA developed MIC at three different research reactors: the OSIRIS reactor (MTR - 70 MWth at CEA Saclay, France), the TRIGA MARK II reactor (TRIGA - 250 kWth at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia) and the MARIA reactor (MTR - 30 MWth at the National Center for Nuclear Research, Poland). In order to experimentally assess the delayed gamma flux contribution to the total gamma flux, several reactor shut down (scram) experiments were performed specifically for the purpose of the measurements. Results show that on average about 30 % of the MIC signal is due to

  1. Methylation of gamma-carboxylated Glu (Gla) allows detection by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the identification of Gla residues in the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Hallgren, K. W.; Zhang, D.; Kinter, M.; Willard, B.; Berkner, K. L.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-carboxylated Glu (Gla) is a post-translational modification required for the activity of vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins that has been difficult to study by mass spectrometry due to the properties of this negatively-charged residue. Gla is generated by a single enzyme, the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, which has broad biological impact because VKD proteins have diverse functions that include hemostasis, apoptosis, and growth control. The carboxylase also contains Glas, of unknown function, and is an integral membrane protein with poor sequence coverage. To locate these Glas, we first established methods that resulted in high coverage (92%) of uncarboxylated carboxylase. Subsequent analysis of carboxylated carboxylase identified a Gla-peptide (729-758) and a missing region (625-647) that was detected in uncarboxylated carboxylase. We therefore developed an approach to methylate Gla, which efficiently neutralized Gla and improved mass spectrometric analysis. Methylation eliminated CO2 loss from Gla, increased the ionization of Gla-containing peptide, and appeared to facilitate trypsin digestion. Methylation of a carboxylated carboxylase tryptic digest identified Glas in the 625-647 peptide. These studies provide valuable information for testing the function of carboxylase carboxylation. The methylation approach for studying Gla by mass spectrometry is an important advance that will be broadly applicable to analyzing other VKD proteins. PMID:22536908

  2. Thermal neutron fluence from ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry of spoons activated during the JCO criticality accident at Tokai-mura in 1999.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Martínez Canet, María Jose; Johnston, Peter N; Komura, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    During the JCO-accident in Tokai-mura in 1999, the surrounding village was irradiated by an uncontrolled neutron flux. At some locations in that village, the thermal neutron flux was determined retrospectively by measurement of the very low activity of 51Cr and 60Co in stainless-steel spoons using gamma-ray spectrometry in underground laboratories. Activities determined in the HADES underground facility are presented here, together with calibrations performed using a well-defined thermal neutron flux to directly estimate the fluence of thermal neutrons independent of most assumptions. The results show measurable 51Cr in three samples and 60Co in four samples taken from locations at distances of up to 430m from the accident location despite the elapse of 4 half-lives of 51Cr before measurement. Effects of air transport of the samples were considered and shown to be negligible.

  3. Gamma Ray Burst 150518a measured at different wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apala, Ellizabeth Ann; Soderberg, Alicia Margarita; West, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gamma Ray Burst (GRB's), extremely energetic flashes of Gamma Rays, are caused by either deaths of massive unstable stars or colliding binary neutron stars. A unique burst, GRB 150518a, had two recorded bursts fifteen minutes apart which is very rare and is considered to be ultra-long, lasting around thirty minutes total and is associated with a Supernova explosion. GBR 150518a is also extremely close compared to the average burst being measured to have a redshift of .2, this is important to note because GRB's measuring less than a redshift of .3 only are seen every ten years. Gamma rays are emitted by supernovae, neutron stars, black holes, and quasars and by studying GRB's it allows us to see more deeply into how these objects function. The first few days of GRB 150518as' detected afterglow was plotted in different wavelengths, including optical, x-ray, radio, and infrared, in flux verses time. Data is continuously being added as time goes on. This research is funded by the NSF, grant number 1358990.

  4. Optimized background reduction in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry at a surface laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, S; García-León, M; García-Tenorio, R

    2006-09-01

    The background of a coaxial Ge detector placed at a surface laboratory has been reduced by means of a background reduction setup consisting of a passive shield of low-activity lead, a simple radon suppression system and an active shield with a plastic scintillation plate. In particular, we have devoted our efforts to in-depth optimization of each parameter associated with different anticoincidence setups and to their subsequent intercomparison. The overall performance of the active shield was improved by using the optimum time parameters for each setup. The final objective is to decrease the cosmic-ray background and, by this way, to reduce the detection limits of gamma-ray spectrometers at conventional laboratories, and consequently make them competitive for different measurements like (210)Pb dating.

  5. Cortisol production rates measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban, N.V.; Yergey, A.L. )

    1990-04-01

    Cortisol production rates (FPRs) in physiologic and pathologic states in humans have been investigated over the past 30 years. However, there has been conflicting evidence concerning the validity of the currently accepted value of FPRs in humans (12 to 15 mg/m2/d) as determined by radiotracer methodology. The present study reviews previous methods proposed for the measurement of FPRs in humans and discusses the applications of the first method for the direct determination of 24-hour plasma FPRs during continuous administration of a stable isotope, using a thermospray high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The technique is fast, sensitive, and, unlike gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, does not require derivatization, allowing on-line detection and quantification of plasma cortisol after a simple extraction procedure. The results of determination of plasma FPRs by stable tracer/mass spectrometry are directly in units of mass/time and, unlike radiotracer methods, are independent of any determination of volume of distribution or cortisol concentration. Our methodology offers distinct advantages over radiotracer techniques in simplicity and reliability since only single measurements of isotope ratios are required. The technique was validated in adrenalectomized patients. Circadian variations in daily FRPs were observed in normal volunteers, and, to date, results suggest a lower FRP in normal children and adults than previously believed. 88 references.

  6. RADSAT Benchmarks for Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2011-07-01

    The accurate and efficient simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems is necessary for several important radiation detection applications. Examples include the detection of nuclear threats concealed in cargo containers and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for nondestructive determination of elemental composition of unknown samples. High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are used in these applications to measure the spectrum of the emitted photon flux, which consists of both continuum and characteristic gamma rays with discrete energies. Monte Carlo transport is the most commonly used simulation tool for this type of problem, but computational times can be prohibitively long. This work explores the use of multi-group deterministic methods for the simulation of coupled neutron-photon problems. The main purpose of this work is to benchmark several problems modeled with RADSAT and MCNP to experimental data. Additionally, the cross section libraries for RADSAT are updated to include ENDF/B-VII cross sections. Preliminary findings show promising results when compared to MCNP and experimental data, but also areas where additional inquiry and testing are needed. The potential benefits and shortcomings of the multi-group-based approach are discussed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  7. Neutron detection by measuring capture gammas in a calorimetric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausch, Guntram; Herbach, Claus-Michael; Kong, Yong; Lentering, Ralf; Plettner, Cristina; Roemer, Katja; Scherwinski, Falko; Stein, Juergen; Schotanus, Paul; Wilpert, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    The neutron capture detector (NCD) is introduced as a novel detection scheme for thermal and epithermal neutrons that could provide large-area neutron counters by using common detector materials and proven technologies. The NCD is based on the fact that neutron captures are usually followed by prompt gamma cascades, where the sum energy of the gammas equals to the total excitation energy of typically 6-9 MeV. This large sum energy is measured in a calorimetric approach and taken as the signature of a neutron capture event. An NCD consists of a neutron converter, comprising of constituents with large elemental neutron capture cross-section like cadmium or gadolinium, which is embedded in common scintillator material. The scintillator must be large and dense enough to absorb with reasonable probability a portion of the sum energy that exceeds the energy of gammas emitted by common (natural, medical, industrial) radiation sources. An energy window, advantageously complemented with a multiplicity filter, then discriminates neutron capture signals against background. The paper presents experimental results obtained at the cold-neutron beam of the BER II research reactor, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, and at other neutron sources with a prototype NCD, consisting of four BGO crystals with embedded cadmium sheets, and with a benchmark configuration consisting of two separate NaI(Tl) detectors. The detector responses are in excellent agreement with predictions of a simulation model developed for optimizing NCD configurations. NCDs could be deployed as neutron detectors in radiation portal monitors (RPMs). Advanced modular scintillation detector systems could even combine neutron and gamma sensitivity with excellent background suppression at minimum overall expense.

  8. Low Level Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Radium and Cesium in Lucerne (Medicago Sativa)

    SciTech Connect

    Fokapic, S.; Bikit, I.; Mrda, D.; Veskovic, M.; Slivka, J.; Mihaljev, Z.; Cupic, Z.

    2007-04-23

    Nineteen years after Chernobyl nuclear accident, activity concentration of 137Cs still could be detected in food and soil samples in Central and Eastern Europe. In this paper radiation levels of radium and cesium in Lucerne will be presented. It is a perennial plant with a deep root system and it is widely grown throughout the world as forage for cattle. The samples of Lucerne were taken from twelve different locations in Vojvodina in the summer period July-September 2004. The samples were specially dried on the air and after that ground, powdered and mineralized by method of dry burning on the temperature of 450 deg. C. Gamma spectrometry measurements of the ash were performed by means of actively shielded germanium detector with maximal background reduction. For cesium 137Cs 10 mBq/kg order of magnitude detection limits were achieved.

  9. Low Level Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Radium and Cesium in Lucerne (Medicago Sativa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokapić, S.; Bikit, I.; Mrđa, D.; Vesković, M.; Slivka, J.; Mihaljev, Ž.; Ćupić, Ž.

    2007-04-01

    Nineteen years after Chernobyl nuclear accident, activity concentration of 137Cs still could be detected in food and soil samples in Central and Eastern Europe. In this paper radiation levels of radium and cesium in Lucerne will be presented. It is a perennial plant with a deep root system and it is widely grown throughout the world as forage for cattle. The samples of Lucerne were taken from twelve different locations in Vojvodina in the summer period July-September 2004. The samples were specially dried on the air and after that ground, powdered and mineralized by method of dry burning on the temperature of 450°C. Gamma spectrometry measurements of the ash were performed by means of actively shielded germanium detector with maximal background reduction. For cesium 137Cs 10 mBq/kg order of magnitude detection limits were achieved.

  10. Consistent Small-Sample Variances for Six Gamma-Family Measures of Ordinal Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-family measures are bivariate ordinal correlation measures that form a family because they all reduce to Goodman and Kruskal's gamma in the absence of ties (1954). For several gamma-family indices, more than one variance estimator has been introduced. In previous research, the "consistent" variance estimator described by Cliff and…

  11. Aerosol and gamma background measurements at Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, Christo; Arsov, Todor; Penev, Ilia; Nikolova, Nina; Kalapov, Ivo; Georgiev, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Trans boundary and local pollution, global climate changes and cosmic rays are the main areas of research performed at the regional Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station Moussala BEO (2925 m a.s.l., 42°10'45'' N, 23°35'07'' E). Real time measurements and observations are performed in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics. Complex information about the aerosol is obtained by using a threewavelength integrating Nephelometer for measuring the scattering and backscattering coefficients, a continuous light absorption photometer and a scanning mobile particle sizer. The system for measuring radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols allows us to monitor a large scale radioactive aerosol transport. The measurements of the gamma background and the gamma-rays spectrum in the air near Moussala peak are carried out in real time. The HYSPLIT back trajectory model is used to determine the origin of the data registered. DREAM code calculations [2] are used to forecast the air mass trajectory. The information obtained combined with a full set of corresponding meteorological parameters is transmitted via a high frequency radio telecommunication system to the Internet.

  12. Measurement of Branching Fractions in Radiative BDecays to eta K gamma and Search for B Decays to eta' K gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-03-31

    The authors present measurements of the B {yields} {eta}K{gamma} branching fractions and upper limits for the B {yields} {eta}'K{gamma} branching fractions. For B{sup +} {yields} {eta}K{sup +}{gamma} they also measure the time-integrated charge asymmetry. The data sample, collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represents 232 x 10{sup 6} produced B{bar B} pairs. The results for branching fractions and upper limits at 90% C.L. in units of 10{sup -6} are: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}K{sup 0}{gamma}) = 11.3{sub -2.6}{sup +2.8} {+-} 0.6, {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}K{sup +}{gamma}) = 10.0 {+-} 1.3 {+-} 0.5, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'K{sup 0}{gamma}) < 6.6, {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}'K{sup +}{gamma}) < 4.2. The charge asymmetry in the decay B{sup +} {yields} {eta}K{sup +}{gamma} is {Alpha}{sub ch} = -0.09 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.01. The first errors are statistical and the second systematic.

  13. Equipment for the continuous measurement and identification of gamma radioactivity on aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    De Blas, Alfredo; Tapia, Carlos; Riego, Albert; Garcia, Roger; Dies, Javier; Diaz, Pedro; Toral, Juan; Batalla, Enric

    2015-07-01

    Presentation the Equipment for the Continuous Measurement and Identification of Gamma Radioactivity on Aerosols developed by the Nuclear Engineering Research Group (NERG) from the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) and the Raditel Company. The device is based on a fixed filter of glass fiber (100% borosilicate), this allows determine the concentration of activity of gamma emitters on aerosols in air. A specifically developed Spectrometry Analysis System has been developed. The analysis of the spectra allows the identification of the emitters and determine the concentration of activity. Nowadays four Stations with this equipment are operating on the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network of the Catalonian Generalitat (Spain): two near the Asco and Vandellos Nuclear Power Plants in the province of Tarragona and one in the city of Barcelona. Soon a fourth monitor will be incorporated at Roses (province of Girona) and a fifth in Puigcerda (province of Barcelona). We present measurements and analysis of the evolution of the emitters identified on different stations of the Network. (authors)

  14. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M.

    2013-08-08

    The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Level Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.

  15. Construction and testing of a neutron and gamma spectrometry system using pulse shape discrimination with an organic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Robert S.

    1993-03-01

    The goal of this thesis was to construct and test a neutron detector to measure the energy spectrum of 1 to 14-MeV neutrons in the presence of gammas. A spectrometer based on the process of pulse shape discrimination (PSD) was constructed, in which the scintillator NE-213 was used. The primary neutron/gamma sources used were 78-mCi and 4.7-Ci Pu-239Be sources, while 4.7-micro-Ci and 97.6-micro-Ci Na-22 gamma sources were used for energy calibration and additional testing of the detector. Proton recoil spectra and Compton electron spectra were unfolded with the neutron and gamma unfolding code FORIST to generate the incident neutron and gamma spectra, respectively. FORIST, which was written for a CDC computer, was modified to run on a VAX 6420. The experimental spectra were compared to those in the literature. The locations of the peaks in the Pu-239Be spectrum agreed with the literature to within 8.3%, the Pu-239Be gamma spectrum agreed to within 0.7%, while the Na-22 gamma spectrum agreed exactly. Uncertainties in the detection system and unfolding procedure are on the order of 5-10%. This thesis is intended to be a summary of the relevant literature and a user's guide to the PSD spectrometer.

  16. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Measurement of Long-Lived Radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, David; Phillips, Fred M.

    1987-05-01

    Particle accelerators, such as those built for research in nuclear physics, can also be used together with magnetic and electrostatic mass analyzers to measure rare isotopes at very low abundance ratios. All molecular ions can be eliminated when accelerated to energies of millions of electron volts. Some atomic isobars can be eliminated with the use of negative ions; others can be separated at high energies by measuring their rate of energy loss in a detector. The long-lived radioisotopes 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, and 129I can now be measured in small natural samples having isotopic abundances in the range 10-12 to 10-15 and as few as 105 atoms. In the past few years, research applications of accelerator mass spectrometry have been concentrated in the earth sciences (climatology, cosmochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochronology, glaciology, hydrology, igneous petrogenesis, minerals exploration, sedimentology, and volcanology), in anthropology and archeology (radiocarbon dating), and in physics (searches for exotic particles and measurement of half-lives). In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry may become an important tool for the materials and biological sciences.

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry for measurement of long-lived radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Elmore, D; Phillips, F M

    1987-05-01

    Particle accelerators, such as those built for research in nuclear physics, can also be used together with magnetic and electrostatic mass analyzers to measure rare isotopes at very low abundance ratios. All molecular ions can be eliminated when accelerated to energies of millions of electron volts. Some atomic isobars can be eliminated with the use of negative ions; others can be separated at high energies by measuring their rate of energy loss in a detector. The long-lived radioisotopes (10)Be, (14)C,(26)A1, 36Cl, and (129)1 can now be measured in small natural samples having isotopic abundances in the range 10(-12) to 10(- 5) and as few as 10(5) atoms. In the past few years, research applications of accelerator mass spectrometry have been concentrated in the earth sciences (climatology, cosmochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochronology, glaciology, hydrology, igneous petrogenesis, minerals exploration, sedimentology, and volcanology), in anthropology and archeology (radiocarbon dating), and in physics (searches for exotic particles and measurement of halflives). In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry may become an important tool for the materials and biological sciences.

  18. Martian surface heat production and crustal heat flow from Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, B. C.; McLennan, S. M.; Klein, E. C.

    2011-07-01

    Martian thermal state and evolution depend principally on the radiogenic heat-producing element (HPE) distributions in the planet's crust and mantle. The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has mapped the surface abundances of HPEs across Mars. From these data, we produce the first models of global and regional surface heat production and crustal heat flow. As previous studies have suggested that the crust is a repository for approximately 50% of the radiogenic elements on Mars, these models provide important, directly measurable constraints on Martian heat generation. Our calculations show considerable geographic and temporal variations in crustal heat flow, and demonstrate the existence of anomalous heat flow provinces. We calculate a present day average surface heat production of 4.9 ± 0.3 × 10-11 W · kg-1. We also calculate the average crustal component of heat flow of 6.4 ± 0.4 mW · m-2. The crustal component of radiogenically produced heat flow ranges from <1 mW · m-2 in the Hellas Basin and Utopia Planitia regions to ˜13 mW · m-2 in the Sirenum Fossae region. These heat production and crustal heat flow values from geochemical measurements support previous heat flow estimates produced by different methodologies.

  19. Comparison of optimised germanium gamma spectrometry and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of 134Cs, 137Cs and 154Eu single ratios in highly burnt UO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, S.; Günther-Leopold, I.; Murphy, M. F.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R.

    2008-05-01

    Non-destructive and destructive methods have been compared to validate their corresponding assessed accuracies in the measurement of 134Cs/137Cs and 154Eu/137Cs isotopic concentration ratios in four spent UO2 fuel samples with very high (52 and 71 GWd/t) and ultra-high (91 and 126 GWd/t) burnup values, and about 10 (in the first three samples) and 4 years (in the latter sample) cooling time. The non-destructive technique tested was high-resolution gamma spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and a special tomographic station for the handling of highly radioactive 400 mm spent fuel segments that included a tungsten collimator, lead filter (to enhance the signal to Compton background ratio and reduce the dead time) and paraffin wax (to reduce neutron damage). The non-destructive determination of these isotopic concentration ratios has been particularly challenging for these segments because of the need to properly derive non-Gaussian gamma-peak areas and subtract the background from perturbing capture gammas produced by the intrinsic high-intensity neutron emissions from the spent fuel. Additionally, the activity distribution within each pin was determined tomographically to correct appropriately for self-attenuation and geometrical effects. The ratios obtained non-destructively showed a 1σ statistical error in the range 1.9-2.9%. The destructive technique used was a high-performance liquid chromatographic separation system, combined online to a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-MC-ICP-MS), for the analysis of dissolved fuel solutions. During the mass spectrometric analyses, special care was taken in the optimisation of the chromatographic separation for Eu and the interfering element Gd, as also in the mathematical correction of the 154Gd background from the 154Eu signal. The ratios obtained destructively are considerably more precise (1σ statistical error in the range 0.4-0.8% for most of the samples, but up to

  20. Electric Field Change Measurements of a Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Thomas; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Stolzenburg, Maribeth

    2016-04-01

    Cummer et al. [GRL, 2014] reported on two terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) detected by the Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi satellite. At a range of 632 km we detected an electric field change pulse associated with the first of these TGFs. The sensor bandwidth was 0.16 Hz - 2.6 MHz and was sampled at 5 MS/s. The measured zero-to-peak amplitude was 3.1 V/m. Assuming a 1/R range dependence, the amplitude range normalized to 100 km would be about 20 V/m. However, a little more than half of the path from the TGF to the sensor was over land rather than ocean, which should cause the attenuation to be greater than 1/R. Based on recent measurements of Kolmasova et al. (2015 AGU Fall Meeting), we estimate that the real peak amplitude was 40 - 50 V/m. The detected pulse was bipolar with a leading positive peak and had an overall duration of about 50 μs; these characteristics are typical of initial breakdown pulses (IBPs) that occur at the beginning of intracloud (IC) flashes. However, the pulse amplitude is an order of magnitude larger than typical IBPs. These data support the notion that IBPs of IC flashes cause TGFs [e.g., Shao et al., JGR 2010; Lu et al., GRL 2010; Cummer et al., GRL 2014].

  1. Determination of thorium-232 in Canadian soils by gamma-ray spectrometry via lead-212 and actinium-228, interference from uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Zikovsky, L.; Blagoeva, R.

    1994-12-31

    Thorium-232 background levels in non-cultivated Canadian soils (southern and northern Quebec and the Northwest Territories) are presented. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine the activity of {sup 232}Th by measuring the activities of {sup 228}Ac and {sup 212}Pb at 37 sites. The specific activity levels ranged from 2.7 to 95.5 Bq/kg with an overall mean of 24.0 {+-} 15.4 Bq/kg. This activity generated an annual absorbed dose equivalent in air of 0.1 mSv. The activities of {sup 228}Ac and {sup 212}Pb in the soil increased with increasing depth. IT was found that uranium, via its decay product radium, can interfere with the determination of thorium in the soil.

  2. Depleted uranium in Kosovo: results of a survey by gamma spectrometry on soil samples.

    PubMed

    Uyttenhove, J; Lemmens, M; Zizi, M

    2002-10-01

    The presence of depleted uranium in the soil of former Yugoslavia after the 1999 conflict raised great public concern all over the world. The so-called Balkan-syndrome is often linked with depleted uranium contamination. An excellent compilation of data about DU and its possible impact on health and environment can be found in the 1999 UNEP report and publications from the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute. Unfortunately, very few systematic and reliable data on the possible depleted uranium concentrations were until now available. Some of these rare data are only available on the web, without adequate information about the experimental procedure used. To clarify the situation, a systematic survey was started in the summer of 2000 as a collaborative effort between Ghent University (Physics Laboratory) and the Belgian Ministry of Defense (Medical Service). From 50 sites selected all over Kosovo, 150 soil samples were measured in the laboratory with a high-resolution gamma-spectrometer. Some sites (14) were explicitly selected based on military information on the use of depleted uranium munitions in the vicinity. After careful analysis we can conclude that there is no indication of any depleted uranium contamination on these 50 sites with a minimal detectable activity of 15 Bq; this corresponds approximately to 1 mg depleted uranium in a typical sample (100-150 g).

  3. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry for isotopic abundance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) is a relatively new laser-based technique for the determination of isotopic abundances. The resonance ionization process depends upon the stepwise absorption of photons from the laser, promoting atoms of the element of interest through progressively higher electronic states until an ion is formed. Sensitivity arises from the efficiency of the resonant absorption process when coupled with the power available from commercial laser sources. Selectivity derives naturally from the distinct electronic structure of different elements. This isobaric discrimination has provided the major impetus for development of the technique. Resonance ionization mass spectrometry was used for analysis of the isotopic abundances of the rare earth lutetium. Isobaric interferences from ytterbium severely effect the ability to measure small amounts of the neutron-deficient Lu isotopes by conventional mass spectrometric techniques. Resonance ionization for lutetium is performed using a continuous-wave laser operating at 452 nm, through a sequential two-photon process, with one photon exciting the intermediate resonance and the second photon causing ionization. Ion yields for microgram-sized quantities of lutetium lie between 10(6) and 10(7) ions per second, at overall ionization efficiencies approaching 10(-4). Discrimination factors against ytterbium greater than 10(6) have been measured. Resonance ionization for technetium is also being explored, again in response to an isobaric interference, molybdenum. Because of the relatively high ionization potential for Tc, three-photon, two-color RIMS processes are being developed.

  4. Measurement of Gamma Knife registered helmet factors using MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Kurjewicz, Laryssa; Berndt, Anita

    2007-03-15

    The relative dose rate for the different Gamma Knife registered helmets (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm) is characterized by their respective helmet factors. Since the plateau of the dose profile for the 4 mm helmet is at most 1 mm wide, detector choices are limited. Traditionally helmet factors have been measured using 1x1x1 mm{sup 3} thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). However, these are time-consuming, cumbersome measurements. This article investigates the use of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) (active area of 0.2x0.2 mm{sup 2}) as a more accurate and convenient dosimeter. Their suitability for these measurements was confirmed by basic characterization measurements. Helmet factors were measured using both MOSFETs and the established TLD approach. A custom MOSFET cassette was designed in analogy to the Elekta TLD cassette (Elekta Instruments AB) for use with the Elekta dosimetry sphere. Although both dosimeters provided values within 3% of the manufacturer's suggestion, MOSFETs provided superior accuracy and precision, in a fraction of the time required for the TLD measurements. Thus, MOSFETs proved to be a reasonable alternative to TLDs for performing helmet factor measurements.

  5. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) airborne gamma spectrometry system for environmental and emergency response surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, John, II; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy

    2010-08-01

    The EPA Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) Program provides airborne ortho-rectified imagery, video, chemical and now radiological information directly to emergency response personnel via a commercial satellite link onboard the aircraft. EPA initiated the ASPECT Gamma Emergency Mapper GEM Project in 2008 to improve its airborne gamma-screening and mapping capability for monitoring any ground-based gamma contamination. This paper will provide an overview of the system, which can be configured to carry six 2"x4"x16" NaI(Tl) detectors and two 3"x3" LaBr3(Ce) detectors or eight 2"x4"x16" NaI(Tl) detectors. The paper will provide an overview of the analysis of gamma radiation spectra, system limitations, and emergency response applications.

  6. Radon potential mapping of the Tralee-Castleisland and Cavan areas (Ireland) based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and geology.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J D; Doyle, E; Fenton, D; Organo, C

    2011-06-01

    The probability of homes in Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is estimated on the basis of known in-house radon measurements averaged over 10 km × 10 km grid squares. The scope for using airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data for the Tralee-Castleisland area of county Kerry and county Cavan to predict the radon potential (RP) in two distinct areas of Ireland is evaluated in this study. Airborne data are compared statistically with in-house radon measurements in conjunction with geological and ground permeability data to establish linear regression models and produce radon potential maps. The best agreement between the percentage of dwellings exceeding the reference level (RL) for radon concentrations in Ireland (% > RL), estimated from indoor radon data, and modelled RP in the Tralee-Castleisland area is produced using models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry equivalent uranium (eU) and ground permeability data. Good agreement was obtained between the % > RL from indoor radon data and RP estimated from eU data in the Cavan area using terrain specific models. In both areas, RP maps derived from eU data are spatially more detailed than the published 10 km grid map. The results show the potential for using airborne radiometric data for producing RP maps.

  7. Implementation of a new gamma spectrometer on the MERARG loop: Application to the volatile fission products release measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, S.; Gleizes, B.; Pontillon, Y.; Hanus, E.; Ducros, G.; Roure, C.

    2015-07-01

    The MERARG facility initially aims at the annealing of irradiated fuel samples to study the gaseous fission products release kinetics. In order to complete the evaluation of the source term potentially released during accidental situation, the MERARG experimental circuit has been enhanced with a new gamma spectrometer. This one is directly sighting the fuel and is devoted to the fission products release kinetics. Because of the specificities of the fuel measurements, it has been dimensioned and designed to match the specific requirements. The acquisition chain and the collimation system have been optimized for this purpose and a first set of two experiments have shown the good functioning of this new spectrometry facility. (authors)

  8. Thermodynamic Activity Measurements with Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Coupling the Knudsen effusion method with mass spectrometry has proven to be one of the most useful experimental techniques for studying the equilibrium between condensed phases and complex vapors. The Knudsen effusion method involves placing a condensed sample in a Knudsen cell, a small "enclosure", that is uniformly heated and held until equilibrium is attained between the condensed and vapor phases. The vapor is continuously sampled by effusion through a small orifice in the cell. A molecular beam is formed from the effusing vapor and directed into a mass spectrometer for identification and pressure measurement of the species in the vapor phase. Knudsen cell mass spectrometry (KCMS) has been used for nearly fifty years now and continues to be a leading technique for obtaining thermodynamic data. Indeed, much of the well-established vapor specie data in the JANAF tables has been obtained from this technique. This is due to the extreme versatility of the technique. All classes of materials can be studied and all constituents of the vapor phase can be measured over a wide range of pressures (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -11) bar) and temperatures (500-2800 K). The ability to selectively measure different vapor species makes KCMS a very powerful tool for the measurement of component activities in metallic and ceramic solutions. Today several groups are applying KCMS to measure thermodynamic functions in multicomponent metallic and ceramic systems. Thermodynamic functions, especially component activities, are extremely important in the development of CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) type thermodynamic descriptions. These descriptions, in turn, are useful for modeling materials processing and predicting reactions such as oxide formation and fiber/matrix interactions. The leading experimental methods for measuring activities are the Galvanic cell or electro-motive force (EMF) technique and the KCMS technique. Each has specific advantages, depending on

  9. Measuring Cosmological Parameters with Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, Lorenzo; Valle, Massimo Della

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) emit in a few dozen of seconds up to ~1054 erg, in terms of isotropic equivalent radiated energy Eiso, therefore they can be observed up to z ~ 10 and appear very promising tools to describe the expansion rate history of the Universe. In this paper we review the use of the Ep,i-Eiso correlation of Gamma-Ray Bursts to measure ΩM. We show that the present data set of GRBs, coupled with the assumption that we live in a flat universe, can provide indipendent evidence, from other probes, that ΩM~0.3. We show that current (e.g., Swift, Fermi/GBM, Konus-WIND) and next GRB experiments (e.g., CALET/GBM, SVOM, Lomonosov/UFFO, LOFT/WFM) will allow us, within a few years, to constrain ΩM and the evolution of dark energy with time, with an accuracy comparable to that currently exhibited by SNe-Ia.

  10. 137 Ba Double Gamma Decay Measurement with GAMMASPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Merchán, E.; Moran, K.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; McCutchan, E. A.; Greene, J. P.; Zhu, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Shearman, R.

    2015-05-28

    The study of the electromagnetic moments (EM), and decay probability, provides detailed information about nuclear wave functions. The well-know properties of EM interactions are good for extracting information about the motion of nucleons. Higher order EM processes always occur, but are usually too weak to be measured. In the case of a 0+ → 0+ transitions, where a single gamma transition is forbidden, the simultaneous emission of two γ-rays has been studied. An interesting opportunity to further investigate 2-photon emission phenomena is by using a standard 137Cs source populating, via β-decay, the Jπ = 11/2- isomeric state at 662 keV in 137Ba. In this case, two photon process can have contributions from quadrupole-quadrupole or dipole-octupole multipolarities in direct competition with the high multipolarity M4 decay. Since the yield of the double gamma decay is around six orders of magnitude less than the first order transition, very good statistics are needed in order to observe the phenomena and great care must be taken to suppress the first-order decay. The Gammasphere array is ideal since its configuration allows a good coverage of the angular distribution and the Compton events can be suppressed. Nevertheless the process to understand and eliminate the Compton background is a challenge. Geant4 simulations were carried out to help understand and correct for those factors.

  11. 137 Ba Double Gamma Decay Measurement with GAMMASPHERE

    DOE PAGES

    Merchán, E.; Moran, K.; Lister, C. J.; ...

    2015-05-28

    The study of the electromagnetic moments (EM), and decay probability, provides detailed information about nuclear wave functions. The well-know properties of EM interactions are good for extracting information about the motion of nucleons. Higher order EM processes always occur, but are usually too weak to be measured. In the case of a 0+ → 0+ transitions, where a single gamma transition is forbidden, the simultaneous emission of two γ-rays has been studied. An interesting opportunity to further investigate 2-photon emission phenomena is by using a standard 137Cs source populating, via β-decay, the Jπ = 11/2- isomeric state at 662 keVmore » in 137Ba. In this case, two photon process can have contributions from quadrupole-quadrupole or dipole-octupole multipolarities in direct competition with the high multipolarity M4 decay. Since the yield of the double gamma decay is around six orders of magnitude less than the first order transition, very good statistics are needed in order to observe the phenomena and great care must be taken to suppress the first-order decay. The Gammasphere array is ideal since its configuration allows a good coverage of the angular distribution and the Compton events can be suppressed. Nevertheless the process to understand and eliminate the Compton background is a challenge. Geant4 simulations were carried out to help understand and correct for those factors.« less

  12. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activities range 24-231, 20-70, and 242-1434 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The geographic distribution of (238)U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of (238)U than of (232)Th. The (238)U activities become lower than (232)Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. (137)Cs activity ranges 0.4-86.8 kBq m(-2). The lowest activity of (137)Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The (137)Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to (137)Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities.

  13. Measurement of gamma field parameters in core with LEU fuel IRT-4M using TL detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bily, T.

    2008-07-15

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters represent very useful tool for gamma fields parameters measurements at nuclear research reactors, especially at zero power ones. {sup 7}LiF:Mg,Ti and {sup 7}LiF:Mg,Cu,P type TL dosimeters enable determination of only gamma component in mixed neutron - gamma field. At VR-1 reactor operated within the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering at the Czech Technical University in Prague the integral characteristics of gamma rays field were investigated, especially its spatial distribution and time behaviour, i.e. the non-saturated delayed gamma ray emission influence. Measured spatial distributions were compared with monte carlo code MCNP5 calculations. Although MCNP cannot generate delayed gamma rays from fission, the relative gamma dose rate distribution is within {+-} 15% with measured values. The experiments were carried out with core configuration C1 consisting of LEU fuel IRT-4M (19.7 %). (author)

  14. Effect of small potassium-rich dykes on regional gamma-spectrometry image of a potassium-poor volcanic complex: A case from the Doupovské hory Volcanic Complex, NW Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzana, Skácelová; Vladislav, Rapprich; Bedřich, Mlčoch

    2009-10-01

    Basaltic rocks with low K, U and Th contents dominate the entire Volcanic Complex of the Doupovské hory Mts. Significant potassium anomaly exceeding 1.5 atomic wt.% of potassium over an area of 4 × 8 km and 2 atomic wt.% of potassium over an area of 2 × 6 km was defined by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry above the central part of the Doupovské hory Volcanic Complex. The following detailed field study, supported by field and laboratory gamma-spectrometry measurements and geochemical analyses of rock samples, resulted in discovery of a swarm of potassium-rich trachytic dykes. The existence of such highly-differentiated rocks in the volcanic complex was unknown till present. These dykes are commonly less than 1 m wide, but their potassium content varies between 4 and 8 atomic wt.%. Owing to this high-K composition and relative abundance of dykes, the dyke rocks significantly modify the regional pattern of gamma-spectrometry data. The potassium anomaly cannot be explained by the presence of Flurbühl intrusive body dominated by ijolites and essexites, as all these rocks are poor in K, with potassium typically not exceeding 1.5 wt.%. On the other hand, much more extensive intermediate trachybasaltic lavas with K content varying within the range 1.8-3 wt.% cause only minor or undetectable anomalies.

  15. ICF Gamma-Ray Yield Measurements on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Hoffman, N. M.; Stoeffl, W. S.; Watts, P. W.; Carpenter, A. C.; Church, J. A.; Liebman, J.; Grafil, E.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is to provide bang time and burn width information in order to constrain implosion simulation parameters such as shell velocity and confinement time. This is accomplished by measuring DT fusion γ-rays with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV γ-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. For yield determination, absolute uncertainties associated with the d(t,n) α/d(t,γ)5He branching ratio and detector response are removed by cross-calibrating the GRH signal against independent neutron yield measurements of directly-driven DT exploding pushers with negligible neutron downscatter. The GRH signal can then be used to make Total DTn Yield inferences on indirectly-driven, cryogenically-layered DT implosions which achieve high areal density and hence scatter a significant fraction of DTn out of the 14 MeV primary peak. By comparing the Total DTn Yield from γ-ray measurements with the Primary DTn Yield (13-15 MeV) from neutron measurements, the Total Downscatter Fraction (TDSF) can be inferred. Results of recent measurements will be presented. This work supported by US DOE under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  16. 102Pd(n, {gamma}) Cross Section Measurement Using DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hatarik, R.; Alpizar-Vicente, A. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Esch, E.-I.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.; Greife, U.

    2006-03-13

    The neutron capture cross section of the proton rich nucleus 102Pd was measured with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The target was a 2 mg Pd foil with 78% enriched 102Pd. It was held by a 0.9 {mu}m thick Mylar bag which was selected after comparing different thicknesses of Kapton and Mylar for their scattering background. To identify the contribution of the other Pd isotopes the data of a natural Pd sample was compared to the data of the 102Pd enriched sample. A 12C sample was used to determine the scattering background. The 102Pd(n, {gamma}) rate is of importance for the p-process nucleosynthesis.

  17. EGAF: Measurement and Analysis of Gamma-ray Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Abusaleem, K.; Basunia, M. S.; Bečvář, F.; Belgya, T.; Bernstein, L. A.; Choi, H. D.; Escher, J. E.; Genreith, C.; Hurst, A. M.; Krtička, M.; Renne, P. R.; Révay, Zs.; Rogers, A. M.; Rossbach, M.; Siem, S.; Sleaford, B.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklosi, L.; van Bibber, K.; Wiedeking, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) is the result of a 2000-2007 IAEA Coordinated Research Project to develop a database of thermal, prompt γ-ray cross sections, σγ, for all elemental and selected radioactive targets. No previous database of this kind had existed. EGAF was originally based on measurements using guided neutron beams from the Budapest Reactor on all elemental targets from Z=1-82, 90 and 92, except for He and Pm. The EGAF σγ data were published in the Database of Prompt Gamma Rays from Slow Neutron Capture for Elemental Analysis [1]. An international collaboration has formed to continue the EGAF measurements with isotopically enriched targets, derive total radiative thermal neutron cross sections, σ0, extend the σγ data from thermal to 20 MeV neutrons, compile a completed activation data file, improve sections of the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL) with more complete and up to date level and γ-ray data, evaluate statistical γ-ray data from reaction studies, and determine recommended neutron separations energies, Sn, for atomic mass evaluations. A new guided neutron beam facility has become available at the Garching (Munich) FRM II Reactor, and high energy neutron experimental facilities are being developed by a Berkeley area collaboration where 5-33 MeV neutron beams are available at the LBNL 88” cyclotron, 2.5 and 14 MeV beams at the University of California, Berkeley neutron generator laboratory, and high flux, 10 nṡcmṡ-2 s-1, neutron pulses available from the LLNL National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  18. Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Aminotransferase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Xin; Zhang, Chengsen; Xu, Yang; Cooks, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    A change in enzyme activity has been used as a clinical biomarker for diagnosis and is useful in evaluating patient prognosis. Current laboratory measurements of enzyme activity involve multi-step derivatization of the reaction products followed by quantitative analysis of these derivatives. This study simplified the reaction systems by using only the target enzymatic reaction and directly detecting its product. A protocol using paper spray mass spectrometry for identifying and quantifying the reaction product has been developed. Evaluation of the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was chosen as a proof-of-principle. The volume of sample needed is greatly reduced compared with the traditional method. Paper spray has a desalting effect that avoids sprayer clogging problems seen when examining serum samples by nanoESI. This very simple method does not require sample pretreatment and additional derivatization reactions, yet it gives high quality kinetic data, excellent limits of detection (60 ppb from serum), and coefficients of variation <10% in quantitation.

  19. Determination of (241)Pu by the method of disturbed radioactive equilibrium using 2πα-counting and precision gamma-spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, I; Kuzmina, T

    2016-04-01

    A simple technique is proposed for the determination of the content of (241)Pu, which is based on disturbance of radioactive equilibrium in the genetically related (237)U←(241)Pu→(241)Am decay chain of radionuclides, with the subsequent use of 2πα-counting and precision gamma-spectroscopy for monitoring the process of restoration of that equilibrium. It has been shown that the data on dynamics of accumulation of the daughter (241)Am, which were obtained from the results of measurements of α- and γ-spectra of the samples, correspond to the estimates calculated for the chain of two genetically related radionuclides, the differences in the estimates of (241)Pu radioactivity not exceeding 2%. Combining the different methods of registration (2πα-counting, semiconductor alpha- and gamma-spectrometry) enables the proposed method to be efficiently applied both for calibration of (241)Pu-sources (from several hundreds of kBq and higher) and for radioisotopic analysis of plutonium mixtures. In doing so, there is a deep purification of (241)Pu from its daughter decay products required due to unavailability of commercial detectors that could make it possible, based only on analysis of alpha-spectra, to conduct quantitative analysis of the content of (238)Pu and (241)Am.

  20. Mathematical model of gamma-ray spectrometry borehole logging for quantitative analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich

    1981-01-01

    A technique for analyzing gamma-ray spectral-logging data has been developed, in which a digital computer is used to calculate the effects of gamma-ray attentuation in a borehole environment. The computer model allows for the calculation of the effects of lithology, porosity, density, and the thickness of a horizontal layer of uniformly distributed radioactive material surrounding a centralized probe in a cylindrical borehole. The computer program also contains parameters for the calculation of the effects of well casing, drilling fluid, probe housing, and losses through the sodium-iodide crystal. Errors associated with the commonly used mathematical assumption of a point detector are eliminated in this model. (USGS)

  1. Low-background gamma-ray spectrometry for the international monitoring system

    DOE PAGES

    Greenwood, L. R.; Cantaloub, M. G.; Burnett, J. L.; ...

    2016-12-28

    PNNL has developed two low-background gamma-ray spectrometers in a new shallow underground laboratory, thereby significantly improving its ability to detect low levels of gamma-ray emitting fission or activation products in airborne particulate in samples from the IMS (International Monitoring System). Furthermore, the combination of cosmic veto panels, dry nitrogen gas to reduce radon and low background shielding results in a reduction of the background count rate by about a factor of 100 compared to detectors operating above ground at our laboratory.

  2. Low-background gamma-ray spectrometry for the international monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, L R; Cantaloub, M G; Burnett, J L; Myers, A W; Overman, C T; Forrester, J B; Glasgow, B G; Miley, H S

    2016-12-28

    PNNL has developed two low-background gamma-ray spectrometers in a new shallow underground laboratory, thereby significantly improving its ability to detect low levels of gamma-ray emitting fission or activation products in airborne particulate in samples from the IMS (International Monitoring System). The combination of cosmic veto panels, dry nitrogen gas to reduce radon and low background shielding results in a reduction of the background count rate by about a factor of 100 compared to detectors operating above ground at our laboratory.

  3. In-flight measurements of Terrestrial Gamma-Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Deursen, Alexander; Kochkin, Pavlo; de Boer, Alte; Bardet, Michiel; Boissin, Jean-Francois

    2014-05-01

    Thunderstorms emit bursts of energetic radiation. Moreover, lightning stepped leader produces X-ray pulses. The phenomena, their interrelation and impact on Earth's atmosphere and near space are not fully understood yet. In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System ILDAS is developed in a EU FP6 project ( http://ildas.nlr.nl/ ) to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. It consists of 2 E-field sensors, and a varying number of H-field sensors. It has recently been modified to include two LaBr3 scintillation detectors. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x- and gamma-rays above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on A-350 aircraft and digitizes data with 100 MSamples/sec rate when triggered by lightning. A continuously monitoring channel counts the number of occurrences that the X-ray signal exceeds a set of trigger levels. In the beginning of 2014 the aircraft flies through thunderstorm cells collecting the data from the sensors. The X-rays generated by the lightning flash are measured in synchronization with the lightning current information during a period of 1 second around the strike. The continuous channel stores x-ray information with less time and amplitude resolution during the whole flight. That would allow x-rays from TGFs and continuous gamma-ray glow of thundercloud outside that 1 s time window. We will give an overview of the ILDAS system and show that the X-ray detection works as intended. The availability of the lightning associated data depends on the flight schedule. If available, these data will be discussed at the conference.

  4. Gamma Knife output factor measurements using VIP polymer gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Moutsatsos, A.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Karaiskos, P.; Papagiannis, P.; Georgiou, E.; Dardoufas, K.; Sandilos, P.; Torrens, M.; Pantelis, E.; Kantemiris, I.; Sakelliou, L.; Seimenis, I.

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: Water equivalent polymer gel dosimeters and magnetic resonance imaging were employed to measure the output factors of the two smallest treatment fields available in a Gamma Knife model C radiosurgery unit, those formed employing the 4 and 8 mm final collimator helmets. Methods: Three samples of the VIP normoxic gel formulation were prepared and irradiated so that a single shot of the field whose output factor is to be measured and a single shot of the reference 18 mm field were delivered in each one. Emphasis is given to the development and benchmarking of a refined data processing methodology of reduced uncertainty that fully exploits the 3D dose distributions registered in the dosimeters. Results: Polymer gel results for the output factor of the 8 mm collimator helmet are found to be in close agreement with the corresponding value recommended by the vendor (0.955{+-}0.007 versus 0.956, respectively). For the 4 mm collimator helmet, however, polymer gel results suggest an output factor 3% lower than the value recommended by the vendor (0.841{+-}0.009 versus 0.870, respectively). Conclusions: A comparison with corresponding measurements published in the literature indicates that output factor results of this work are in agreement with those obtained using dosimetric systems which, besides fine spatial resolution and lack of angular and dose rate dependence of the dosimeter's response, share with polymer gels the favorable characteristic of minimal radiation field perturbation.

  5. Assessment of ambient gamma dose rate around a prospective uranium mining area of South India - A comparative study of dose by direct methods and soil radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara, K.; Tripathi, R. M.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S.; Chougaonkar, M. P.

    Indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were evaluated around a prospective uranium mining region - Gogi, South India through (i) direct measurements using a GM based gamma dose survey meter, (ii) integrated measurement days using CaSO4:Dy based thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs), and (iii) analyses of 273 soil samples for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K activity concentration using HPGe gamma spectrometry. The geometric mean values of indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were 104 nGy h-1 and 97 nGy h-1, respectively with an indoor to outdoor dose ratio of 1.09. The gamma dose rates and activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K varied significantly within a small area due to the highly localized mineralization of the elements. Correlation study showed that the dose estimated from the soil radioactivity is better correlated with that measured directly using the portable survey meter, when compared to that obtained from TLDs. This study showed that in a region having localized mineralization in situ measurements using dose survey meter provide better representative values of gamma dose rates.

  6. Fission prompt gamma-ray multiplicity distribution measurements and simulations at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Ullmann, J; Jandel, M; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Norman, E

    2010-08-24

    The nearly energy independence of the DANCE efficiency and multiplicity response to {gamma} rays makes it possible to measure the prompt {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution in fission. We demonstrate this unique capability of DANCE through the comparison of {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution between the measurement and numerical simulation for three radioactive sources {sup 22}Na, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 88}Y. The prospect for measuring the {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution for both spontaneous and neutron-induced fission is discussed.

  7. Measurement of the {gamma} cross section at D0 using dimuons

    SciTech Connect

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.

    1995-07-01

    The D0 experiment has measured the {gamma} differential cross section in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV for {vert_bar}y{sup {gamma}}{vert_bar} < 0.7. We find the measured cross section to be a factor of five larger than the O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 3}) QCD prediction for p{sub T}{sup {gamma}} > 5 GeV/c.

  8. Designing a minimum-functionality neutron and gamma measurement instrument with a focus on authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Karpius, Peter J; Williams, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    During the design and construction of the Next-Generation Attribute-Measurement System, which included a largely commercial off-the-shelf (COTS), nondestructive assay (NDA) system, we realized that commercial NDA equipment tends to include numerous features that are not required for an attribute-measurement system. Authentication of the hardware, firmware, and software in these instruments is still required, even for those features not used in this application. However, such a process adds to the complexity, cost, and time required for authentication. To avoid these added authenticat ion difficulties, we began to design NDA systems capable of performing neutron multiplicity and gamma-ray spectrometry measurements by using simplified hardware and software that avoids unused features and complexity. This paper discusses one possible approach to this design: A hardware-centric system that attempts to perform signal analysis as much as possible in the hardware. Simpler processors and minimal firmware are used because computational requirements are kept to a bare minimum. By hard-coding the majority of the device's operational parameters, we could cull large sections of flexible, configurable hardware and software found in COTS instruments, thus yielding a functional core that is more straightforward to authenticate.

  9. Radionuclide measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry at Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; Zabel, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past years, Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TAMS) has become established as an important method for radionuclide analysis. In the Arizona system the accelerator is operated at a thermal voltage of 1.8MV for C-14 analysis, and 1.6 to 2MV for Be-10. Samples are inserted into a cesium sputter ion source in solid form. Negative ions sputtered from the target are accelerated to about 25kV, and the injection magnet selects ions of a particular mass. Ions of the 3+ charge state, having an energy of about 9MeV are selected by an electrostatic deflector, surviving ions pass through two magnets, where only ions of the desired mass-energy product are selected. The final detector is a combination ionization chamber to measure energy loss (and hence, Z), and a silicon surface-barrier detector which measures residual energy. After counting the trace iosotope for a fixed time, the injected ions are switched to the major isotope used for normalization. These ions are deflected into a Faraday cup after the first high-energy magnet. Repeated measurements of the isotope ratio of both sample and standards results in a measurement of the concentration of the radionuclide. Recent improvements in sample preparation for C-14 make preparation of high-beam current graphite targets directly from CO2 feasible. Except for some measurements of standards and backgrounds for Be-10 measurements to date have been on C-14. Although most results have been in archaeology and quaternary geology, studies have been expanded to include cosmogenic C-14 in meteorites. The data obtained so far tend to confirm the antiquity of Antarctic meteorites from the Allan Hills site. Data on three samples of Yamato meteorites gave terrestrial ages of between about 3 and 22 thousand years.

  10. Software for Control and Measuring Instrumentation of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-telescope Fast Scintillator Detector System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, P. P.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Runtso, M. F.; Solodovnikov, A. A.

    Currently, the final stage of the ground tests for the technological detector of the high-energy gamma-ray telescope (GRT) GAMMA-400 are finished. The new space GRT will accept the gamma-rays with energy more than 400 MeV and is aimed to open our eyes for so-called "dark matter" problem in the Universe. The high-speed scintillation detectors system (SDS) is used one of the main GRT particle detectors and the good ground test measurements will let the future space mission to get the reliable data. This paper describes the software and hardware of the laboratory control and calibration systems for physical measurements of GRT STDS properties.

  11. Measurements of Gamma Rays from 7 Be Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. L.; Ahn, T.; Allen, J.; Bardayan, D. W.; Caprio, M. A.; Constantinou, Ch.; Fasano, P.; Frentz, B.; Hall, M.; Jensen, L.; Kolata, J. J.; Li, X.; McCoy, A. E.; Moylan, S.; O'Malley, P.; Re, C. S.; Riggins, J.; Simon, A.; Torres-Isea, R.; Strauss, S.

    2016-09-01

    Ab-initio methods have been successful in describing the structure of light nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions, but more experimental data is needed in the light unstable nuclei region. No-core configuration interaction calculations have made predictions for the M1 and a lower limit for the E2 electromagnetic transition strengths of the decay of the first excited state of 7Be where the latter has never before been measured. To measure the E2 transition strength, a Coulomb Excitation experiment was performed using TwinSol at the University of Notre Dame. A beam of 7Be ions were scattered off a gold target, and gamma rays from inelastically scattered ions were detected using clover Ge detectors. Preliminary results for the E2 transition strength and its comparison to the no-core configuration interaction approach will be shown. Extensions of this experimental method to other light unstable nuclei will be discussed. This work has been supported by US NSF Grant No. PHY 14-19765 and DOE Grant Number DE-FG02-95ER-40934.

  12. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A; Eysa, E A

    2013-03-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively.

  13. Using gamma spectrometry indicators to detect and quantify fission products changes in irradiated fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Loubet, L.; Martella, Th.

    2015-07-01

    A new analysis method based on gamma scanning of fission products on irradiated rods is presented. Indicators calculated from this method can be used for the qualitative treatment and comparison of irradiated rods from PWR, SFR or and MTR. Differences in the behavior of fission products (FP) can thus be quantified. Phenomena such as migration or geometrical changes in pellets should thus benefit from these accurate, yet quickly and easily achievable results. (authors)

  14. FemtoMolar measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salehpour, Mehran; Forsgard, Niklas; Possnert, Göran

    2009-03-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive analytical method suitable for the detection of sub-nM concentrations of labeled biological substances such as pharmaceutical drugs in body fluids. A limiting factor in extending the concentration measurements to the sub-pM range is the natural (14)C content in living tissues. This was circumvented by separating the labeled drug from the tissue matrix, using standard high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedures. As the separated total drug amount is in the few fg range, it is not possible to use a standard AMS sample preparation method, where mg sizes are required. We have utilized a sensitive carbon carrier method where a (14)C-deficient compound is added to the HPLC fractions and the composite sample is prepared and analyzed by AMS. Using 50 microL human blood plasma aliquots, we have demonstrated concentration measurements below 20 fM, containing sub-amol amounts of the labeled drug. The method has the immediate potential of operating in the sub-fM region.

  15. Nanowire dopant measurement using secondary ion mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chia, A. C. E.; Boulanger, J. P.; Wood, B. A.; LaPierre, R. R.; Dhindsa, N.; Saini, S. S.

    2015-09-21

    A method is presented to improve the quantitative determination of dopant concentration in semiconductor nanowire (NW) arrays using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). SIMS measurements were used to determine Be dopant concentrations in a Be-doped GaAs thin film and NW arrays of various pitches that were dry-etched from the same film. A comparison of these measurements revealed a factor of 3 to 12 difference, depending on the NW array pitch, between the secondary Be ion yields of the film and the NW arrays, despite being identically doped. This was due to matrix effects and ion beam mixing of Be from the NWs into the surrounding benzocyclobutene that was used to fill the space between the NWs. This indicates the need for etched NWs to be used as doping standards instead of 2D films when evaluating NWs of unknown doping by SIMS. Using the etched NWs as doping standards, NW arrays of various pitches grown by the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism were characterized by SIMS to yield valuable insights into doping mechanisms.

  16. Optimizing a three-stage Compton camera for measuring prompt gamma rays emitted during proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, S. W.; Robertson, D.; Polf, J.

    2010-11-01

    In this work, we investigate the use of a three-stage Compton camera to measure secondary prompt gamma rays emitted from patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was (1) to develop an optimal three-stage Compton camera specifically designed to measure prompt gamma rays emitted from tissue and (2) to determine the feasibility of using this optimized Compton camera design to measure and image prompt gamma rays emitted during proton beam irradiation. The three-stage Compton camera was modeled in Geant4 as three high-purity germanium detector stages arranged in parallel-plane geometry. Initially, an isotropic gamma source ranging from 0 to 15 MeV was used to determine lateral width and thickness of the detector stages that provided the optimal detection efficiency. Then, the gamma source was replaced by a proton beam irradiating a tissue phantom to calculate the overall efficiency of the optimized camera for detecting emitted prompt gammas. The overall calculated efficiencies varied from ~10-6 to 10-3 prompt gammas detected per proton incident on the tissue phantom for several variations of the optimal camera design studied. Based on the overall efficiency results, we believe it feasible that a three-stage Compton camera could detect a sufficient number of prompt gammas to allow measurement and imaging of prompt gamma emission during proton radiotherapy.

  17. Optimizing a three-stage Compton camera for measuring prompt gamma rays emitted during proton radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S W; Robertson, D; Polf, J

    2010-11-21

    In this work, we investigate the use of a three-stage Compton camera to measure secondary prompt gamma rays emitted from patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was (1) to develop an optimal three-stage Compton camera specifically designed to measure prompt gamma rays emitted from tissue and (2) to determine the feasibility of using this optimized Compton camera design to measure and image prompt gamma rays emitted during proton beam irradiation. The three-stage Compton camera was modeled in Geant4 as three high-purity germanium detector stages arranged in parallel-plane geometry. Initially, an isotropic gamma source ranging from 0 to 15 MeV was used to determine lateral width and thickness of the detector stages that provided the optimal detection efficiency. Then, the gamma source was replaced by a proton beam irradiating a tissue phantom to calculate the overall efficiency of the optimized camera for detecting emitted prompt gammas. The overall calculated efficiencies varied from ∼ 10(-6) to 10(-3) prompt gammas detected per proton incident on the tissue phantom for several variations of the optimal camera design studied. Based on the overall efficiency results, we believe it feasible that a three-stage Compton camera could detect a sufficient number of prompt gammas to allow measurement and imaging of prompt gamma emission during proton radiotherapy.

  18. Estimates of rates and errors for measurements of direct-. gamma. and direct-. gamma. + jet production by polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.G.

    1992-08-14

    Studies of inclusive direct-{gamma} production by pp interactions at RHIC energies were performed. Rates and the associated uncertainties on spin-spin observables for this process were computed for the planned PHENIX and STAR detectors at energies between {radical}s = 50 and 500 GeV. Also, rates were computed for direct-{gamma} + jet production for the STAR detector. The goal was to study the gluon spin distribution functions with such measurements. Recommendations concerning the electromagnetic calorimeter design and the need for an endcap calorimeter for STAR are made.

  19. Using gamma-ray emission to measure areal density of ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Nelson M; Wilson, Douglas C; Hermann, Hans W; Young, Carlton S

    2010-01-01

    Fusion neutrons streaming from a burning ICF capsule generate gamma rays via nuclear inelastic scattering in the ablator of the capsule. The intensity of gamma-ray emission is proportional to the product of the ablator areal density ('{rho}R') and the yield of fusion neutrons, so by detecting the gamma rays we can infer the ablator areal density, provided we also have a measurement of the capsule's total neutron yield. In plastic-shell capsules, for example, {sup 12}C nuclei emit gamma rays at 4.44 MeV after excitation by 14.1-MeV neutrons from D+T fusion. These gamma rays can be measured by the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) experiment being built at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A linear error analysis indicates the chief sources of uncertainty in inferred areal density.

  20. Thick target measurement of the 40Ca(alpha,gamma)44Ti reaction rate

    SciTech Connect

    Sheets, S A; Burke, J T; Scielzo, N D; Phair, L; Bleuel, D; Norman, E B; Grant, P G; Hurst, A M; Tumey, S; Brown, T A; Stoyer, M

    2009-02-06

    The thick-target yield for the {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti reaction has been measured for E{sub beam} = 4.13, 4.54, and 5.36 MeV using both an activation measurement and online {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. The results of the two measurements agree. From the measured yield a reaction rate is deduced that is smaller than statistical model calculations. This implies a smaller {sup 44}Ti production in supernova compared to recently measured {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti reaction rates.

  1. Increasing of MERARG experimental performances: on-line fission gas release measurement by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pontillon, Y.; Capdevila, H.; Clement, S.; Guigues, E.; Janulyte, A.; Zerega, Y.; Andre, J.

    2015-07-01

    The MERARG device - implemented at the LECASTAR Hot Laboratory, at the CEA Cadarache - allows characterizing nuclear fuels with respect to the behaviour of fission gases during thermal transients representative of normal or off normal operating nuclear power plant conditions. The fuel is heated in order to extract a part or the total gas inventory it contains. Fission Gas Release (FGR) is actually recorded by mean of both on-line gamma spectrometry station and micro gas chromatography. These two devices monitor the quantity and kinetics of fission gas release rate. They only address {sup 85}Kr radioactive isotope and the elemental quantification of Kr, Xe and He (with a relatively low detection limit in the latter case, typically 5-10 ppm). In order to better estimate the basic mechanisms that promote fission gas release from irradiated nuclear fuels, the CEA fuel study department decided to improve its experimental facility by modifying MERARG to extend the studies of gamma emitter fission gases to all gases (including Helium) with a complete isotopic distribution capability. To match these specifications, a Residual Gas Analyser (RGA) has been chosen as mass spectrometer. This paper presents a review of the main aspects of the qualification/calibration phase of the RGA type analyser. In particular, results recorded over three mass ranges 1-10 u, 80-90 u and 120-140 u in the two classical modes of MERARG, i.e. on-line and off-line measurements are discussed. Results obtained from a standard gas bottle show that the quantitative analysis at a few ppm levels can be achieved for all isotopes of Kr and Xe, as well as masses 2 and 4 u. (authors)

  2. Modern aerial gamma-ray spectrometry and regional potassium map of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    The aerial gamma-ray data were obtained as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy during the period 1975-1983. References for the Open-File Reports that describe the surveys and data collection can be found in Bendix Field Engineering Corp. (1983). The aerial surveys were flown by contractors using fixed-wing and helicopter systems with 33-50 L (liters) of thallium-activated sodium iodide (NaI (TI)) crystals. The nominal survey altitude used is 122 m. The survey lines were generally east-west with line spacings of 1.6-10 km. Tie lines were flown perpendicular to the flight lines at intervals of 16- 30 km. The data were corrected for background from aircraft contamination and cosmic rays, altitude variations, airborne 214Bi, and Compton scattering. The gamma-ray systems were calibrated using the calibrations pads at Grand Junction, Colorado (Ward, 1978 ) and the dynamic test strip at Lake Mead, Arizona (Geodata International, Inc., 1977).  

  3. Gamma ray bursts: A review of recent high-precision measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent measurements and discoveries in gamma ray bursts and transients are reviewed including observations of the red shifted annihilation line in two kinds of slow transients (in 'classical' gamma ray bursts and in the unique 1979 March 5th event); of red shifted nuclear lines in a slow transient and in one gamma ray burst; and of the positions of precise source locations of gamma ray bursts and of the March 5th event, within the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  4. Measurements of gamma-ray production cross sections for shielding materials of space nuclear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orphan, V. J.; John, J.; Hoot, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of secondary gamma ray production from neutron interactions have been made over the entire energy range of interest in shielding applications. The epithermal capture gamma ray yields for both resolved gamma ray lines and continuum have been measured from thermal energies to 100 KeV for natural tungsten and U-238, two important candidate shield materials in SNAP reactor systems. Data are presented to illustrate the variation of epithermal capture gamma ray yields with neutron energy. The gamma ray production cross sections from (n,xy) reactions have been measured for Fe and Al from the threshold energies for inelastic scattering to approximately 16 MeV. Typical Fe and Al cross sections obtained with high-neutron energy resolution and averaged over broad neutron-energy groups are presented.

  5. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed.

  6. Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A.A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; /more authors..

    2012-04-11

    The diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess {gamma}-ray emission {ge}1 GeV relative to diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called 'EGRET GeV excess'). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has measured the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission with improved sensitivity and resolution compared to EGRET. We report on LAT measurements for energies 100 MeV to 10 GeV and galactic latitudes 10{sup o} {le} |b| {le} 20{sup o}. The LAT spectrum for this region of the sky is well reproduced by a diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission model that is consistent with local CR spectra and inconsistent with the EGRET GeV excess.

  7. Density fluctuation measurements by using the Fraunhofer diffraction method in GAMMA10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Shima, Y.; Hasegawa, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M.

    2013-12-01

    We applied Fraunhofer diffraction (FD) method to GAMMA10 plasma. The FD method can measure the density fluctuation in detail and the wave number of the fluctuation. We successfully obtained the density fluctuation spectra in GAMMA 10. Analyzing the FD method signals of radial fluctuation intensity profile, we can successfully obtain the wave number and the phase velocity of the low frequency density fluctuation.

  8. Measurement of Radon concentration by Xenon gamma-ray spectrometer for seismic monitoring of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, A.; Ulin, S.; Dmitrenko, V.; Vlasik, K.; Bychkova, O.; Petrenko, D.; Uteshev, Z.; Shustov, A.

    2016-02-01

    A method for earthquake precursors search based on variations of 222Rn concentration determined via intensity measurement of 222Rn daughter nuclei gamma ray emission lines by means of xenon gamma-ray spectrometer is discussed. The equipment description as well as the first experimental data are presented.

  9. Independent predictors of neuronal adaptation in human primary visual cortex measured with high-gamma activity.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Juhász, Csaba; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2012-01-16

    Neuronal adaptation is defined as a reduced neural response to a repeated stimulus and can be demonstrated by reduced augmentation of event-related gamma activity. Several studies reported that variance in the degree of gamma augmentation could be explained by pre-stimulus low-frequency oscillations. Here, we measured the spatio-temporal characteristics of visually-driven amplitude modulations in human primary visual cortex using intracranial electrocorticography. We determined if inter-stimulus intervals or pre-stimulus oscillations independently predicted local neuronal adaptation measured with amplitude changes of high-gamma activity at 80-150 Hz. Participants were given repetitive photic stimuli with a flash duration of 20 μs in each block; the inter-stimulus interval was set constant within each block but different (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0s) across blocks. Stimuli elicited augmentation of high-gamma activity in the occipital cortex at about 30 to 90 ms, and high-gamma augmentation was most prominent in the medial occipital region. High-gamma augmentation was subsequently followed by lingering beta augmentation at 20-30 Hz and high-gamma attenuation. Neuronal adaptation was demonstrated as a gradual reduction of high-gamma augmentation over trials. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a larger number of prior stimuli, shorter inter-stimulus interval, and pre-stimulus high-gamma attenuation independently predicted a reduced high-gamma augmentation in a given trial, while pre-stimulus beta amplitude or delta phase had no significant predictive value. Association between pre-stimulus high-gamma attenuation and a reduced neural response suggests that high-gamma attenuation represents a refractory period. The local effects of pre-stimulus beta augmentation and delta phase on neuronal adaptation may be modest in primary visual cortex.

  10. Quantification of gamma-aminobutyric acid in Sri Lankan tea by means of ultra performance tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Elisabete; Punyasiri, P A Nimal; Somasiri, H P P Sudarshana; Abeysinghe, I Sarath B; Martens, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), an important bioactive component of tea, acts as a major inhibitory neurotransmitter and is considered to influence other physiological processes in human as well as in planta. In the hereby presented study, the content of this valuable metabolite was investigated in two novel types of Ceylon Tea, explicitly "Silver Tips" and "White Tea", originating from minimally processed buds of the unique cultivar, "TRI 2043". The samples were subjected to hot water infusion, equivalent to the traditional beverage preparation procedure, and analyzed by means of hydrophilic interaction ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC LC-MS/MS). The registered GABA levels were compared with those obtained for the classic "Black Tea" and "Green Tea" samples from Sri Lanka. A high variation of GABA content was observed among the different tea types, especially in the case of "Silver Tips" and "White Tea", indicating the crucial influence of the manufacturing procedure (processing extent) on the final abundance of the bioactive component of interest. Furthermore, "White Tea" samples boasted the highest GABA concentration reported for this type of tea so far, reaching up to 50% of that characteristic of the high-priced "GABA Tea". Therefore, "White Tea" and "Silver Tips" were proved to be high quality tea with amounts of gamma-aminobutyric acid comparable with those described for similar types before. To our knowledge, this is the first report on HILIC LC-MS/MS application for the quantification of GABA and for in-depth characterization of teas from Sri Lanka.

  11. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  12. Measurement of the direct CP asymmetry in b-->s gamma Decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Lynch, G; Merchant, A M; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q L; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Cormack, C M; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, C; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, C; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, S; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Rubin, A E; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-07-09

    We describe a measurement of the direct CP asymmetry between inclusive b-->s gamma and b-->s gamma decays. This asymmetry is expected to be less than 0.01 in the standard model, but could be enhanced up to about 0.10 by new physics contributions. We use a sample of 89 x 10(6) BB pairs recorded with the BABAR detector at SLAC PEP-II, from which we reconstruct a set of 12 exclusive b-->s gamma final states containing one charged or neutral kaon and one to three pions. We measure an asymmetry of A(CP)(b-->s gamma)=0.025+/-0.050(stat)+/-0.015(syst), corresponding to an allowed range of -0.06s gamma)<+0.11 at 90% confidence level.

  13. Visualization of spatial distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid in eggplant (Solanum melongena) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro

    2010-01-01

    We applied imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to determine the spatial distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We found that GABA had a specific localization in seeds. We also visualized various biomolecules as well as GABA with higher spatial resolution than in the previous report. Our work suggests that IMS might be a powerful tool for exploring functional food factors, investigating the specific distribution of nutrients in unused natural resources, and evaluating the quality of functional foods.

  14. Neutron and gamma dose and spectra measurements on the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Hoots, S.; Wadsworth, D.

    1984-06-01

    The radiation-measurement team of the Weapons Engineering Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) measured neutron and gamma dose and spectra on the Little Boy replica at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in April 1983. This assembly is a replica of the gun-type atomic bomb exploded over Hiroshima in 1945. These measurements support the National Academy of Sciences Program to reassess the radiation doses due to atomic bomb explosions in Japan. Specifically, the following types of information were important: neutron spectra as a function of geometry, gamma to neutron dose ratios out to 1.5 km, and neutron attenuation in the atmosphere. We measured neutron and gamma dose/fission from close-in to a kilometer out, and neutron and gamma spectra at 90 and 30/sup 0/ close-in. This paper describes these measurements and the results. 12 references, 13 figures, 5 tables.

  15. A UK comparison for measurements of low levels of gamma-emitters in waste drums.

    PubMed

    Dean, Julian

    2009-05-01

    Much of the work of the UK nuclear industry is now concerned with decommissioning many of the existing power stations and other facilities. An important aspect of this work is the accurate measurement of low levels of radioactivity in waste forms such as building materials in order that these materials can be assigned to the correct waste streams. This has led to a call for suitable standards and reference materials, and the specific needs of UK users were identified at an NPL workshop in 2005. One of the highest priorities was for 'soft waste' spiked with gamma-emitters in a 200 L drum format, with an activity concentration of just under 0.4 Bq g(-1). In response, NPL prepared a single reference drum meeting this specification. The low density was achieved by loading the drum with plastic bottles, each partially loaded with ion-exchange resin. The resin in each bottle had been previously spiked with a mixture of (241)Am, (137)Cs and (60)Co, all traceable to national standards. The drum would be used primarily as the basis of a comparison exercise, but feedback on its usefulness as a calibration standard would also be sought. The drum was measured by 17 radioassay groups at 15 UK sites. The monitors used were mostly commercial gamma-spectrometry systems designed to accommodate waste drums. Some groups measured the drum on more than one monitor and some used more than one efficiency calibration. Many of the groups used mathematical modelling to derive their efficiencies. The results of the exercise were discussed at a second NPL workshop (2007), after which the participants were allowed to submit supplementary or replacement results (with reasons for any changes clearly stated). In total, 88 results were submitted. A total of 51 results were in agreement with the NPL values; of the remaining results, 24 were explained by the participants concerned (or were revised to provide supplementary values), but the other 13 results were either clearly discrepant or

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF ULTRATRACE LASER SPECTROMETRY TECHNIQUES FOR MEASUREMENTS OF ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory


    Development of Arsenic Speciation Techniques Based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry

    J.B. Simeonsson, H.D. Beach and D.J. Thomas
    US EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Resear...

  17. Measurement of the 135Cs half-life with accelerator mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, C. M.; Cornett, R. J.; Charles, C. R. J.; Zhao, X. L.; Kieser, W. E.

    2016-01-01

    The isotope 135Cs is quoted as having a half-life of 2.3 Myr. However, there are three published values ranging from 1.8 to 3 Myr. This research reviews previous measurements and reports a new measurement of the half-life using newly developed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) techniques along with β and γ radiometric analysis. The half-life was determined to be (1.6 ±0.6 ) ×106 yr by AMS and (1.3 ±0.2 ) ×106 yr by ICPMS with 95% confidence. The two values agree with each other but differ from the accepted value by ˜40 % .

  18. Shaped scintillation detector systems for measurements of gamma ray flux anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.; Vette, J. I.; Stecker, F. W.; Eller, E. L.; Wildes, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    The detection efficiencies of cylindrical detectors for various gamma ray photon angular distributions were studied in the energy range from .10 Mev to 15 Mev. These studies indicate that simple detector systems on small satellites can be used to measure flux anisotropy of cosmic gamma rays and the angular distribution of albedo gamma rays produced in planetary atmospheres. The results indicate that flat cylindrical detectors are most suitable for measuring flux anisotropy because of their angular response function. A general method for calculating detection efficiencies for such detectors is presented.

  19. The use of mercury as a supplementary inner shielding material for low-background gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sharkawy, A.; Sharshar, T.; Badran, H. M.

    2013-07-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements of low-level environmental samples require the reduction of the background as low as practicable. In the present work, we investigate the advantages of adding Hg passive shielding inside a low-background Pb-shield to further reduce the background radiation. The background count rate achieved by the Pb-shield alone over the energy interval from 25 to 2700 keV, amounts to 8.4 × 10-4 counts/s.keV which is ~ 1.5% of the normal background. The introduction of Hg-shield adds another 15% reduction. On the average, the Hg-shield suppresses the net peak areas of X- and gamma-rays to < 3 and 1% of the normal background, respectively. On the other hand, the reduction in the count rate of these peaks due to the addition of Hg-shield varies according to the energy. The measurements showed no evidence of the presence of cosmogenically produced 194Hg in the measured spectra. An additional 2% reduction was achieved by using neutron moderators.

  20. Measurement of Branching Fractions and CP and Isospin Asymmetry in B->K*(892)gamma Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2009-06-19

    We present an analysis of the decays B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0}(892){gamma} and B{sup +} {yields} K*{sup +}(892){gamma} using a sample of about 383 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy B factory. We measure the branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0}{gamma}) = (4.47 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.16) x 10{sup -5} and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K*{sup +}{gamma}) = (4.22 {+-} 0.14 {+-} 0.16) x 10{sup -5}. We constrain the direct CP asymmetry to be -0.033 < {Alpha}(B {yields} K*{gamma}) < 0.028 and the isospin asymmetry to be 0.017 < {Delta}{sub 0-} < 0.116, where the limits are determined by the 90% confidence interval and include both the statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  1. Measurement of B --> K*gamma branching fractions and charge asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Palano, A; Chen, G P; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Reinertsen, P L; Stugu, B; Abbott, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Clark, A R; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kluth, S; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Liu, T; Lynch, G; Meyer, A B; Momayezi, M; Oddone, P J; Perazzo, A; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Zisman, M S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; O'Neale, S W; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Krug, J; Kunze, M; Lewandowski, B; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Andress, J C; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, W N; De Groot, N; Dyce, N; Foster, B; McFall, J D; Wallom, D; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Jolly, S; McKemey, A K; Tinslay, J; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Bukin, D A; Buzykaev, A R; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Salnikov, A A; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Telnov, V I; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Stoker, D P; Ahsan, A; Arisaka, K; Buchanan, C; Chun, S; Branson, J G; MacFarlane, D B; Prell, S; Rahatlou, Sh; Raven, G; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hart, P A; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Yellin, S; Beringer, J; Dorfan, D E; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Johnson, R P; Kroeger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Sadrozinski, H; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Metzler, S; Oyang, J; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Weaver, M; Yang, S; Zhu, R Y; Devmal, S; Geld, T L; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Barillari, T; Bloom, P; Dima, M O; Fahey, S; Ford, W T; Johnson, D R; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Park, H; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Sen, S; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Wagner, D L; Blouw, J; Harton, J L; Krishnamurthy, M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dahlinger, G; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Behr, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Ferrag, S; Roussot, E; T'Jampens, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Falbo, M; Borean, C; Bozzi, C; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Musenich, R; Pallavicini, M; Parodi, R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Pia, M G; Priano, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Morii, M; Bartoldus, R; Dignan, T; Hamilton, R; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Fischer, P-A; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Rosenberg, E I; Benkebil, M; Grosdidier, G; Hast, C; Höcker, A; Lacker, H M; Laplace, S; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Valassi, A; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljević, V V; Lange, D J; Mugge, M; Shi, X; van Bibber, K; Wenaus, T J; Wright, D M; Wuest, C R; Carroll, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, M; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gunawardane, N J W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Smith, D; Azzopardi, D E; Back, J J; Dixon, P; Harrison, P F; Potter, R J L; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Williams, M I; Cowan, G; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McGrath, P; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Scott, I; Vaitsas, G; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Boyd, J T; Forti, A C; Fullwood, J; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Savvas, N; Simopoulos, E T; Weatherall, J H; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Lillard, V; Olsen, J; Roberts, D A; Schieck, J R; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Moore, T B; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Brau, B; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Trischuk, J; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Booke, M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Martin, J P; Nief, J Y; Seitz, R; Taras, P; Zacek, V; Nicholson, H; Sutton, C S; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; LoSecco, J M; Alsmiller, J R G; Gabriel, T A; Handler, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Colecchia, F; Dal Corso, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Michelon, G; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Torassa, E; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de La Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Le Diberder, F; Leruste, Ph; Lory, J; Roos, L; Stark, J; Versillé, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Speziali, V; Frank, E D; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J H; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Turnbull, L; Wagoner, D E; Albert, J; Bula, C; Elmer, P; Lu, C; McDonald, K T; Miftakov, V; Schaffner, S F; Smith, A J S; Tumanov, A; Varnes, E W; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Fratini, K; Lamanna, E; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Voena, C; Christ, S; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; De Domenico, G; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Serfass, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Copty, N; Purohit, M V; Singh, H; Yumiceva, F X; Adam, I; Anthony, P L; Aston, D; Baird, K; Berger, J P; Bloom, E; Boyarski, A M; Bulos, F; Calderini, G; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Coward, D H; Dorfan, J; Doser, M; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G L; Gowdy, S J; Grosso, P; Himel, T; Hryn'ova, T; Huffer, M E; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Mount, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Quinn, H; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Rochester, L S; Roodman, A; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Seeman, J T; Serbo, V V; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Spanier, S M; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weinstein, A J R; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Cheng, C H; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; De Silva, A; Henderson, R; Bugg, W; Cohn, H; Weidemann, A W; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Turcotte, M; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Di Girolamo, B; Gamba, D; Smol, A; Zanin, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Brown, C M; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Charles, E; Dasu, S; Di Lodovico, F; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Liu, R; Nielsen, J; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Scott, I J; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Zobernig, H; Kordich, T M B; Neal, H

    2002-03-11

    The branching fractions of the exclusive decays B0-->K(*0)gamma and B+-->K(*+)gamma are measured from a sample of (22.74+/-0.36)x10(6) BB decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric e(+)e(-) collider. We find B (B0-->K(*0)gamma) = [4.23+/-0.40(stat)+/-0.22(syst)]x10(-5), B(B+-->K(*+)gamma) = [3.83+/-0.62(stat)+/-0.22(syst)]x10(-5) and constrain the CP-violating charge asymmetry to be -0.170K(*)gamma)<0.082 at 90% C.L.

  2. A Users' Guide for the Computer Program ISDMAP: Analysis and Mapping of In-Situ Gamma-Ray Spectrometry and Soil Sample Data

    SciTech Connect

    Reginatto, Marcel; Bailey, Paul; Shebell, Peter

    2000-11-30

    The computer program ISDMAP was written to analyze data from a set of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements on a grid. It can also do a combined analysis of this type of data and data from soil samples. One well-known difficulty with attempting this type of analysis is that such sets of data can never provide enough information to determine a unique solution. This can be understood intuitively since a finite number of measurements cannot be sufficient to determine a continuous distribution (this observation is not restricted to data collected with the in situ technique, but holds for any set of discrete measurements, such as a series of soil samples). One can, however, restrict to particular types of solutions by requiring that they satisfy other conditions in addition to the measurements, and this is the approach taken by ISDMAP. In ISDMAP, the data are analyzed in a different manner depending on whether the data is from a characterization survey or from a post-remediation survey. The ''characterization'' option creates a map of contamination in surface soil that is smooth and fits the data. The ''post-remediation'' option creates a map with a summary of potential hot spots over a constant background level, providing a map of hot spots that might be ''hidden'' in the data. This report describes the operation of ISDMAP in sufficient detail to allow a user to prepare the necessary input files and run the program. The program requires a PC with DOS or a DOS emulator (most Windows machines have this).

  3. Gamma ray measurements during deuterium and /sup 3/He discharges on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, F.E.; Medley, S.S.

    1987-05-01

    Gamma ray count rates and energy spectra have been measured in TFTR deuterium plasmas during ohmic heating and during injection of deuterium neutral beams for total neutron source strengths up to 6 x 10/sup 15/ neutrons per second. The gamma ray measurements for the deuterium plasmas are in general agreement with predictions obtained using simplified transport models. The 16.6 MeV fusion gamma ray from the direct capture reaction D(/sup 3/He,..gamma..)/sup 5/Li was observed during deuterium neutral beam injection into /sup 3/He plasmas for beam powers up to 7 MW. The measured yield of the 16.6 MeV gamma ray is consistent with the predicted yield. The observation of this capture gamma ray establishes the spectroscopy of the fusion gamma rays from the D-/sup 3/He reactions as a viable diagnostic of total fusion reaction rates and benchmarks the modeling for extension of the technique to D-T plasmas. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetry in B0 --> KS pi0 gamma Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, Bernard; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, Antimo; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, Bjarne; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Cahn, Robert N.; Jacobsen, R.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Consorzio Milano Ricerche /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /Banca di Roma /Frascati /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2008-10-20

    The authors measure the time-dependent CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} decays for two regions of K{sub S}{sup 0}-{pi}{sup 0} invariant mass, m(K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}), using the final BABAR data set of 467 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. They find 339 {+-} 24 B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0}{gamma} candidates and measure S{sub K*{gamma}} = -0.03 {+-} 0.29 {+-} 0.03 and C{sub K*{gamma}} = -0.14 {+-} 0.16 {+-} 0.03. In the range 1.1 < m(K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) < 1.8 GeV/c{sup 2} they find 133 {+-} 20 B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma} candidates and measure S{sub K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}} = -0.78 {+-} 0.59 {+-} 0.09 and C{sub K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}} = -0.36 {+-} 0.33 {+-} 0.04. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  5. TRYAD: a Pair of CubeSats to Measure Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M. S.; Wersinger, J. M.; Fogle, M., Jr.; Biaz, S.; Jenke, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Terrestrial RaYs Analysis and Detection (TRYAD) mission is designed to measure the beam profiles and tilts of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) using a pair of CubeSats separated by several hundred km in low Earth orbit. Until now, all TGF gamma-ray measurements have been made from single locations so that there is substantial degeneracy in modeling TGF beams. TRYAD will sample the gamma-ray beam at two locations. Additionally, for many TGFs the source location will be determined using networks of ground-based very low frequency (VLF) radio receivers. With gamma-ray measurements at two positions of known location relative to the TGF source, we will be able to test and distinguish between TGF beam models. Control of satellite separation is essential to the TRYAD mission. Separation control is achieved by using ionospheric differential drag on the two satellites.

  6. Determination of the natural radioactivity levels in north west of Dukhan, Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K S; Alkhomashi, N; Al-Dahan, N; Al-Dosari, M; Bradley, D A; Bukhari, S; Matthews, M; Regan, P H; Santawamaitre, T; Malain, D; Habib, A

    2012-07-01

    This study is aimed at the determination of the activity concentrations of naturally occuring and technologically enhanced levels of radiation in 34 representative soil samples that have been collected from an inshore oil field area which was found to have, in a previous study, the highest observed value of 226Ra concentration among 129 soil samples. The activity concentrations of 238U and 226Ra have been inferred from gamma-ray transitions associated with their decay progenies and measured using a hyper-pure germanium detector. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented, together with the values of the activity concentrations associated with the naturally occuring radionuclide chains for all the samples collected from NW Dukhan. Discrete-line, gamma-ray energy transitions from spectral lines ranging in energy from ∼100 keV up to 2.6 MeV have been associated with characteristic decays of the various decay products within the 235.8U and 232Th radioactive decay chains. These data have been analyzed, under the assumption of secular equilibrium for the U and Th decay chains. Details of the sample preparation and the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis techniques are presented. The weighted mean value of the activity concentrations of 226Ra in one of the samples was found to be around a factor of 2 higher than the values obtained in the previous study and approximately a factor of 10 higher than the accepted worldwide average value of 35 Bq/kg. The weighted mean values of the activity concentrations of 232Th and 40K were also deduced and found to be within the worldwide average values of 30 and 400 Bq/kg, respectively. Our previous study reported a value of 201.9±1.5Stat.±13Syst.Bq/kg for 226Ra in one sample and further investigation in the current work determined a measured value for 226Ra of 342.00±1.9Stat.±25Syst.Bq/kg in a sample taken from the same locality. This is significantly higher than all the other

  7. Measurement of W-gamma and Z-gamma production in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2011-07-01

    A measurement of W-gamma and Z-gamma production in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is presented. Results are based on a data sample recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. The electron and muon decay channels of the W and Z are used. The total cross sections are measured for photon transverse energy >10 GeV and spatial separation from charged leptons in the plane of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle >0.7, and with an additional dilepton invariant mass requirement of > 50 GeV for the Z-gamma process. The following cross section times branching fraction values are found: sigma(pp to W-gamma+X) B(W to lepton neutrino) = 56.3 +/- 5.0 (stat.) +/- 5.0 (syst.) +/- 2.3 (lumi.) pb and sigma(pp to Z-gamma+X) B}(Z to lepton lepton) = 9.4 +/- 1.0 (stat.) +/- 0.6 (syst.) +/- 0.4 (lumi.) pb. These measurements are in agreement with standard model predictions. The first limits on anomalous WW gamma, ZZ gamma, and Z gamma gamma trilinear gauge couplings at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV are set

  8. Rapid In-Situ Measurement of Gamma Activity in Soil for Environmental Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, T. K.

    2003-12-01

    In-situ measurements of gamma radiation in soil are used as a rapid, low-cost, non-intrusive alternative to conventional sampling and analysis methods in the preliminary assessment of environmental impacts to watersheds at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The method resolves the ambient gamma-radiation field near ground surface into background and residual components and provides radionuclide-specific soil activity determination. The efficacy of the method has been evaluated and compares favorably with conventional gamma-PHA soil analyses and aerial survey data. The method has garnered regulatory approval and is being successfully deployed to evaluate the impact of Cs-137 contamination from CERCLA sites.

  9. A system for the measurement of delayed neutrons and gammas from special nuclear materials

    DOE PAGES

    Andrews, M. T.; Corcoran, E. C.; Goorley, J. T.; ...

    2014-11-27

    The delayed neutron counting (DNC) system at the Royal Military College of Canada has been upgraded to accommodate concurrent delayed neutron and gamma measurements. This delayed neutron and gamma counting (DNGC) system uses a SLOWPOKE-2 reactor to irradiate fissile materials before their transfer to a counting arrangement consisting of six ³He and one HPGe detector. The application of this system is demonstrated in an example where delayed neutron and gamma emissions are used in complement to examine ²³³U content and determine fissile mass with an average relative error and accuracy of -2.2 and 1.5 %, respectively.

  10. Measuring planetary neutron albedo fluxes by remote gamma-ray sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, E. L.; Metzger, A. E.

    In order to measure the planetary neutron albedo fluxes, a neutron-absorbing shield which emits gamma rays of characteristic energy and serves as a neutron detector, is added to a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). The gamma rays representing the neutron flux are observed against interference consisting of cosmic gamma rays, planetary continuum and line emission, and gamma rays arising from the interaction of cosmic rays with the GRS and the spacecraft. The uncertainty and minimum detection limits in neutron albedo fluxes are calculated for two missions, a lunar orbiter and a comet nucleus rendezvous. A GRS on a lunar orbiter at 100 km altitude detects a thermal neutron albedo flux as low as 0.002/sq cm/s and an expected flux of about 0.6/sq cm/s is measured with an uncertainty of 0.001/sq cm/s, for a 100 h observation period. For the comet nucleus, again in a 100 h observing period, a thermal neutron albedo flux is detected at a level of 0.006/sq cm/s and an expected flux of about 0.4/sq cm/s is measured with an uncertainty of 0.004/sq cm/s. The expanded geological capabilities made possible by this technique include improvements in H sensitivity, spatial resolution, and measurement depth; and an improved model of induced gamma-ray emission.

  11. Radon emanation and soil moisture effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Grasty, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    A theoretical model is developed to explain variations in airborne gamma-ray measurements over a calibration range near Ottawa, Ontario. The gamma-ray flux from potassium and the thorium decay series showed an expected decrease with increasing soil moisture. However, the gamma-ray flux from the uranium decay series was highest in the spring when the ground was water-saturated and even covered with snow. These results are explained through the build-up of radon and its associated gamma-ray-emitting decay products in the clay soil of the calibration range with increasing soil moisture. Similar results were found from airborne measurements over other clay soils. However, measurements over sandy soils showed that the count rates from all three radio elements increased with decreasing soil moisture. This difference between soil types was attributed to the lower radon emanation of the more coarse-grained sandy soils compared to finer-grained clay soils. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that any estimate of the natural gamma-ray field caused by radium in the ground must take into consideration the radon emanation coefficient of the soil. The radon diffusion coefficient of the soil must also be considered since it depends strongly on soil moisture. This has significant implications for the assessment of outdoor radiation doses using laboratory analyses of soil samples and the use of ground and airborne gamma-ray measurements for radon potential mapping.

  12. Electroweak physics: measurement of w gamma and z gamma production in pp-bar collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96 tev

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, D.; The CDF Collaboration

    2005-02-02

    The Standard Model predictions for W{gamma} and Z{gamma} production are tested using an integrated luminosity of 200 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collision data collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The cross sections are measured by selecting leptonic decays of the W and Z bosons, and photons with transverse energy E{sub T} > 7 GeV that are well separated from leptons. The production cross sections and kinematic distributions for the W{gamma} and Z{gamma} data are compared to SM predictions.

  13. Measurement of Branching Fractions and Mass Spectra of B to K pi pi gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-07-12

    The authors present a measurement of the partial branching fractions and mass spectra of the exclusive radiative penguin processes B {yields} K{pi}{pi}{gamma} in the range m{sub K{pi}{pi}} < 1.8 GeV/c{sup 2}. They reconstruct four final states: K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}, K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}, and K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, where K{sub S}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. Using 232 million e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} B{bar B} events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage ring, they measure the branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}) = (2.95 {+-} 0.13(stat.) {+-} 0.20(syst)) x 10{sup -5}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}) = (4.07 {+-} 0.22(stat.) {+-} 0.31(syst.)) x 10{sup -5}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) = (1.85 {+-} 0.21(stat.) {+-} 0.12(syst.)) x 10{sup -5}, and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}) = (4.56 {+-} 0.42(stat.) {+-} 0.31(syst.)) x 10{sup -5}.

  14. COMBINED GAMMA-RAY AND NEUTRON DETECTOR FOR MEASURING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AIRLESS PLANETARY BODIES.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David J. ,; Barraclough, B. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Wiens, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) constant1,y itnpinge all planetary bodies and produce characteristic gamma-ray lines and leakage neutrons as reaction products. Together with gamma-ray lines produced by radioactive decay, these nuclear emissions provide a powerful technique for remotely measuring the chemical composition of airless planetary surfaces. While lunar gamma-ray spectroscopy was first demonstrated with Apollo Gamma-Ray measurements, the full value of combined gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy was shown for the first time with the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray (LP-GRS) and Neutron Spectrometers (LP-NS). Any new planetary mission will likely have the requirement that instrument mass and power be kept to a minimum. To satisfy such requirements, we have been designing a GR/NS instrument which combines all the functionality of the LP-GRS and LP-NS for a fraction of the mass and power. Specifically, our design uses a BGO scintillator crystal to measure gamma-rays from 0.5-10 MeV. A borated plastic scintillator and a lithium gliiss scintillator are used to separately measure thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons as well as serve as an anticoincidence shield for the BGO. All three scintillators are packaged together in a compact phoswich design. Modifications to this design could include a CdZnTe gamma-ray detector for enhanced energy resolution at low energies (0.5-3 MeV). While care needs to be taken to ensure that an adequate count rate is achieved for specific mission designs, previous mission successes demonstrate that a cornbined GR/NS provides essential information about planetary surfaces.

  15. Proposed experiment to measure {gamma}-rays from the thermal neutron capture of gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Takatomi; Ou, I.; Izumi, T.; Yamaguchi, R.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.

    2012-11-12

    Gadolinium-157 ({sup 157}Gd) has the largest thermal neutron capture cross section among any stable nuclei. The thermal neutron capture yields {gamma}-ray cascade with total energy of about 8 MeV. Because of these characteristics, Gd is applied for the recent neutrino detectors. Here, we propose an experiment to measure the multiplicity and the angular correlation of {gamma}-rays from the Gd neutron capture. With these information, we expect the improved identification of the Gd neutron capture.

  16. Unfolding the fission prompt gamma-ray energy and multiplicity distribution measured by DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J; Laptev, A

    2010-10-16

    The nearly energy independence of the {gamma}-ray efficiency and multiplicity response for the DANCE array, the unusual characteristic elucidated in our early technical report (LLNL-TR-452298), gives one a unique opportunity to derive the true prompt {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution in fission from the measurement. This unfolding procedure for the experimental data will be described in details and examples will be given to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstruction of the true distribution.

  17. Time-integrated measurements of $\\gamma$ at the Tevatron and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Squillacioti, Paola

    2010-12-01

    The measurement of CP-violating asymmetries and branching ratios of B {yields} DK modes allows a theoretically-clean extraction of the CKM angle {gamma}. We report recent CDF measurements with Cabibbo suppressed ({pi}{pi}, KK) or doubly Cabibbo suppressed (K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) D decays. These measurements are performed for the first time in hadron collisions.

  18. Measuring the activity of a 51Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 51Cr is presented.

  19. Rapid determination of radon daughters and of artificial radionuclides in air by online gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hötzl, H; Winkler, R

    1993-01-01

    For the determination of airborne radionuclide concentrations in real time, a fixed filter device was constructed which fits directly onto a germanium detector with standard nuclear electronics and a multichannel analyzer buffer connected via a data line to a personal computer for remote control and on-line spectrum evaluation. The on-line gamma-ray spectrometer was applied to the study of radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air and to the rapid detection of any contamination of the environmental air by artificial radionuclides. At Munich-Neuherberg, depending on the meterological conditions, the measured air concentrations of 214Pb, the first gamma-ray-emitting member of the 222Rn decay series, varied from about 1 to 50 Bq m-3. For the artificial radionuclides 60Co, 131I and 137Cs the detection limits were determined as a function of the varying natural radon daughter concentrations at sampling and counting times of 1 h or 1 day. For these radionuclides minimum detectable air activity concentrations of 0.3 or 0.001 Bq m-3, respectively, were obtained at low radon daughter levels. At high radon daughter levels the respective detection limits were found to be higher by a factor of only about 2.

  20. Spent-fuel cooling curve for safeguard applications of gross-gamma measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.

    1983-04-01

    Gross-gamma detectors can be used to gather data from spent-fuel assemblies in a simple and rapid manner. Using these data, inspectors can generate a power-law curve to check the consistency of the declared values with the measured values; points outside the curve indicate erroneously declared values or removal of material. Simple types of erroneously declared values can be detected immediately, whereas subtle types may require a second measurement and more subtle types may escape detection. If measurements of passive emissions of neutrons from the assemblies are made in addition to the gamma measurements, the values of the exposures and cooling times can be estimated independent of the operator-declared values. Although not yet demonstrated, it may be possible to obtain crude estimates of the exposures and cooling times from the gamma measurments alone.

  1. Nuclear data production, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma heating issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombier, A.-C.; Amharrak, H.; Fourmentel, D.; Ravaux, S.; Régnier, D.; Gueton, O.; Hudelot, J.-P.; Lemaire, M.

    2013-03-01

    The gamma heating evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPRTM, GENIV, MTR-JHR), is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core & out-core experiments…). This paper deals with the works started since 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in ordre to answer to several problematic which have been identified as well for nuclear data production and calculation as for experimental measurement methods. The selected subjects are: Development of a Monte Carlo code (FIFRELIN) to simulate the prompt fission gamma emission which represents the major part of the gamma heating production inside the core Production and qualification of new evaluations of nuclear data especially for radiative capture and inelastic neutron scattering which are the main sources of gamma heating out-core Development and qualification of a recommended method for the total gamma heating calculation using the Monte Carlo simulation code TRIPOLI-4 Development, test and qualification of new devices dedicated to the in-core gamma heating measurement as well in MTR-JHR as in zero power facilities (EOLE-MINERVE) of CEA, Cadarache to increase the experimental measurement accuracy.

  2. Modeled Martian subsurface elemental composition measurements with the Probing In situ with Neutron and Gamma ray instrument: Gamma and Neutron Measurements on Mars

    DOE PAGES

    Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Evans, Larry G.; Starr, Richard D.; ...

    2017-02-01

    Here, the Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument is an innovative application of active neutron-induced gamma-ray technology. The objective of PING is to measure the elemental composition of the Martian regolith. As part 2 of a two-part submission, this manuscript presents PING's sensitivities as a function of the Martian regolith depth and PING's uncertainties in the measurements as a function of observation time in passive and active mode. Part 1 of our submission models the associated regolith types. The modeled sensitivities show that in PING's active mode, where both a Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG) and amore » Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) are used, PING can interrogate the material below the rover to about 20 cm due to the penetrating nature of the high-energy neutrons and the resulting secondary gamma rays observed with the GRS. PING is capable of identifying most major and minor rock-forming elements, including H, O, Na, Mn, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Cr, K, Ca, Ti, Fe and Th. The modeled uncertainties show that PING's use of a PNG reduces the required observation times by an order of magnitude over a passive operating mode where the PNG is turned off. While the active mode allows for more complete elemental inventories with higher sensitivity, the gamma-ray signatures of some elements are strong enough to detect in passive mode. We show that PING can detect changes in key marker elements and make thermal neutron measurements in about 1 minute that are sensitive to H and Cl.« less

  3. Cosmogenic and primordial radionuclides in lunar samples by nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Perkins, R W; Rancitelli, L A; Cooper, J A; Kaye, J H; Wogman, N A

    1970-01-30

    The (7)Be, (22)Na, (26)Al, (44)Ti, (46)SC, (48)V (51)Cr, (54)Mn, (56)Co, (57)Co, (57)CO, (40)K, (238)U, and (232)Th were measured in lunar fines and portions of three rocks. Major production of cosmogenic radionuclides is due to solar protons, thus their concentrations are far different than those in meteorites. Surface exposures of the rocks and fines are long compared with the 0.74 million year half-life of (26)Al. Lunar fines show substantially higher concentrations of low energy reaction products. The ratios of thorium to uranium are extremely constant at 3.8, which indicates very little geochemical differentiation and are in good agreement with a common nucleosynthesis for lunar and earth materials.

  4. Statistical data evaluation in mobile gamma spectrometry: an optimization of on-line search strategies in the scenario of lost point sources.

    PubMed

    Hjerpe, T; Finck, R R; Samuelsson, C

    2001-06-01

    There is a potential risk that hazardous radioactive sources could enter the environment, e.g., via satellite debris, smuggled radioactive goods, or lost metal scrap. From a radiation protection point of view there is a need for rapid and reliable methods for locating and identifying sources. The methods could also be used to locate hot spots after radioactive fallout. Carborne and airborne gamma spectrometry systems are suitable for the task. This work focuses on a situation where the radionuclide to search for is known, which is not an unlikely scenario. The possibility that the source is located near a road can be high, and thus motivating a carborne spectrometer system. The main object is to optimize on-line statistical methods in order to achieve a high probability for locating the point source and still have reasonably few false alarms caused by variations in the natural background radiation. Data were obtained from a carborne 3-L NaI(Tl) detector and two point sources located at various distances from the road. The nuclides used were 137Cs and 131I. Spectra were measured stationary on the road. From these measurements we have reconstructed counts in spectral windows applicable to different speed and sampling times; the time 3 s and speeds 32 and 54 km h(-1) are used in this work. The maximum distance a source can be located from the road and still be detected is estimated with four different statistical analysis methods. This distance is called the critical distance, CD. The method is applied on gross counts in the full energy peak spectral window. For each method alarm levels have been calculated from background data obtained in Scania (Skåne), in the south of Sweden. The results show large differences in CD. With the best approach, the two sources could be detected from about 180 m (137Cs, 6 GBq) and 170 m (131I, 4.5 GBq).

  5. Gamma-glutamyltransferase: value of its measurement in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Abreu, Jose C; Green, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a microsomal enzyme that is widely distributed in human tissues involved in secretory and absorptive processes, particularly the bile canaliculi. Serum GGT is elevated in liver diseases affecting the biliary system, such as extrahepatic biliary atresia, sclerosing cholangitis and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 3. Conversely, two other subtypes of PFIC have normal or low serum GGT activity, discordant with the degree of cholestasis. GGT is also useful in detecting cholestasis associated with parenteral nutrition and assessing the efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid in its treatment. GGT may also help screening for biliary complications on patients that have undergone orthotopic liver transplantation. The reference range for GGT is age dependent. In normal full-term neonates the activity at birth is approximately six to seven times the upper limit of the adult reference range. The activity then declines, reaching adult levels by the age of 5-7 months.

  6. Measurement of Gamma Decay Strengths in Scandium -41 and CARBON-11.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKamy, Jerry Neal

    1982-03-01

    Two different investigations were undertaken that involve the study of gamma decay from nuclei produced in nuclear reactions. In one experiment, the structure of an unusual intermediate structure state in ('41)Sc was investigated; the second experiment sought to determine the gamma decay strength of ('11)C at an excitation energy of astrophysical significance. A cluster of intermediate structure states is known to exist in ('41)Sc centered around an excitation energy of 7.2 MeV. These states are thought to be formed from the relatively pure coupling of a 2p(, 1/2) proton to the. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). excited state of the ('40)Ca core. If this interpretation is correct, there should be a reasonable probability for the 2p(, 1/2) proton dropping into the d(,3/2) hole with the emission of a 7.2 MeV E1 gamma ray leaving the ('41)Sc nucleus in its ground state. The study of the ('40)Ca(p,(gamma))('41)Sc reaction was undertaken to measure the anticipated enhancement of the gamma decay widths of these states. Seven states, including a state of ambiguous spin which is not a member of the intermediate structure, were examined for capture gamma ray decay to the ground state of ('41)Sc. The lowest of these states occurred at E(,p) = 6.035 MeV and the highest state occurred at 6.405 MeV. No gamma decay enhancement was observed. Indeed, only upper limits of (TURN)10(' -3) w.u. for the E1 transitions from the 5/2('+) states and (TURN)10('-2) w.u. for the expected M1 transitions from the intruder state were set. The lack of enhancement may arise either from a cancellation of the transition amplitude due to configuration mixing with collective states of the core or a radial wave function mismatch. The second experiment sought to measure the gamma decay width of the 8.105 MeV state in ('11)C. This state, if it has a sufficiently large gamma decay width, could influence the stellar nucleosynthesis of ('11)B and ('12)C. This state can be populated by

  7. Extended use of alanine irradiated in experimental reactor for combined gamma- and neutron-dose assessment by ESR spectroscopy and thermal neutron fluence assessment by measurement of (14)C by LSC.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, B; Kučera, J; Světlík, I; Viererbl, L; Lahodová, Z; Tomášková, L; Cabalka, M

    2014-11-01

    Gamma- and neutron doses in an experimental reactor were measured using alanine/electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. The absorbed dose in alanine was decomposed into contributions caused by gamma and neutron radiation using neutron kerma factors. To overcome a low sensitivity of the alanine/ESR response to thermal neutrons, a novel method has been proposed for the assessment of a thermal neutron flux using the (14)N(n,p) (14)C reaction on nitrogen present in alanine and subsequent measurement of (14)C by liquid scintillation counting (LSC).

  8. Measurement of the branching fraction and photon energy moments of B-->Xs gamma and A(CP)(B --> X(s+d gamma)).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Tinslay, J S; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-10-27

    The photon spectrum in B-->Xs gamma decay, where Xs is any strange hadronic state, is studied using a data sample of 88.5 x 10(6) e+ e- --> Upsilon(4S) --> BB decays collected by the BABAR experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The partial branching fraction, DeltaB(B --> Xs gamma) = (3.67+/-0.29(stat)+/-0.34(syst)+/-0.29(model)) x 10(-4), the first moment gamma> = 2.288+/-0.025+/-0.017+/-0.015 GeV, and the second moment E2(gamma) = 0.0328+/-0.0040+/-0.0023+/-0.0036 GeV2 are measured for the photon energy range 1.9 GeV < E gamma < 2.7 GeV. They are also measured for narrower E gamma ranges. The moments are then fit to recent theoretical calculations to extract the heavy quark expansion parameters m(b) and mu2(pi) and to extrapolate the partial branching fraction to E gamma > 1.6 GeV. In addition, the direct CP asymmetry A(CP)(B-->X(s+d gamma) is measured to be -0.110+/-0.115(stat)+/-0.017(syst).

  9. High background radiation investigated by gamma spectrometry of the soil in the southwestern region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ele Abiama, P; Owono Ateba, P; Ben-Bolie, G H; Ekobena, F H P; El Khoukhi, T

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the radioactivity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in sub-surface (0-5 cm) soil samples collected from Awanda, Bikoué, Ngombas in the southwestern region of Cameroon, to assess their contribution to the external dose exposure relative to the United Nation Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) data. An HPGe p-type detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer was used to perform measurements and data processing. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra varied from 0.06+/-0.01 to 0.27+/-0.02 kBq kg(-1) with a mean value of 0.13+/-0.01 kBq kg(-1) wet weight. The activity concentrations of (232)Th varied from 0.10+/-0.01 to 0.70+/-0.05 kBq kg(-1) with a mean value of 0.39+/-0.03 kBq kg(-1) wet weight, and (40)K concentrations varied from 0.37+/-0.02 to 1.53+/-0.11 kBq kg(-1) with a mean value of 0.85+/-0.07 kBq kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. The mean value of outdoor annual effective doses were estimated to be 0.48 mSv y(-1), 0.39 mSv y(-1) and 0.38 mSv y(-1) from Ngombas, Awanda and Bikoué, respectively. The studied areas can be said to have a high background radiation level.

  10. FFTF reactor-characterization program: gamma-ray measurements and shield characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, W.L.; Moore, F.S. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    A series of experiments is to be made during the acceptance test program of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to measure the gamma ray characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR) and to establish the performance characteristics of the reactor shield. These measurements are a part of the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program (RCP). Detailed plans have been developed for these experiments. During the initial phase of the Characteristics Program, which will be carried out in the In-Reactor Thimble (IRT), both active and passive measurement methods will be employed to obtain as much information concerning the gamma ray environment as is practical. More limited active gamma ray measurements also will be made in the Vibration Open Test Assembly (VOTA).

  11. Some correlations between measurements by the Apollo gamma-ray spectrometer and other lunar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trombka, J. I.; Arnold, J. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Peterson, L. E.; Metzger, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Observations by the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma-ray spectrometers are compared with those of a number of other experiments, both compositional and noncompositional. A general correspondence with topography is seen. The Van de Graaff area is a unique farside region with respect to observations by the laser altimeter, the subsatellite magnetometer, and the gamma-ray spectrometer. X-ray and alpha particle orbital measurements show a broad general agreement with gamma-ray data, although results from additional elements in the gamma-ray spectrum are needed to extend the comparison with X-ray data. A comparison of Th concentrations with those found at various landing sites shows generally good agreement, with the orbital values tending to be somewhat higher.

  12. Quantification of DNA strand breaks and abasic sites by oxime derivatization and accelerator mass spectrometry: application to gamma-radiation and peroxynitrite.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinfeng; Liberman, Rosa G; Skipper, Paul L; Margolin, Yelena; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Dedon, Peter C

    2005-08-01

    We report a highly sensitive method to quantify abasic sites and deoxyribose oxidation products arising in damaged DNA. The method exploits the reaction of aldehyde- and ketone-containing deoxyribose oxidation products and abasic sites with [(14)C]methoxyamine to form stable oxime derivatives, as originally described by Talpaert-Borle and Liuzzi [Reaction of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites with [(14)C]methoxyamine. A method for the quantitative assay of AP sites in DNA, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 740 (1983) 410-416]. The sensitivity of the method was dramatically improved by the application of accelerator mass spectrometry to quantify the (14)C, with a limit of detection of 1 lesion in 10(6) nucleotides in 1 microg of DNA. The method was validated using DNA containing a defined quantity of abasic sites, with a >0.95 correlation between the quantities of abasic sites and those of methoxyamine labels. The original applications of this and similar oxyamine derivatization methods have assumed that abasic sites are the only aldehyde-containing DNA damage products. However, deoxyribose oxidation produces strand breaks and abasic sites containing a variety of degradation products with aldehyde and ketone moieties. To assess the utility of methoxyamine labeling for quantifying strand breaks and abasic sites, the method was applied to plasmid DNA treated with gamma-radiation and peroxynitrite. For gamma-radiation, there was a 0.99 correlation between the quantity of methoxyamine labels and the quantity of strand breaks and abasic sites determined by a plasmid nicking assay; the abasic sites comprised less than 10% of the radiation-induced DNA damage. Studies with peroxynitrite demonstrate that the method, in conjunction with DNA repair enzymes that remove damaged bases to produce aldehydic sugar residues or abasic sites, is also applicable to quantifying nucleobase lesions in addition to strand break products. Compared to other abasic site quantification techniques, the modified

  13. Gamma-ray spectrometry method used for radioactive waste drums characterization for final disposal at National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste--Baita, Romania.

    PubMed

    Done, L; Tugulan, L C; Dragolici, F; Alexandru, C

    2014-05-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Department from IFIN-HH, Bucharest, performs the conditioning of the institutional radioactive waste in concrete matrix, in 200 l drums with concrete shield, for final disposal at DNDR - Baita, Bihor county, in an old exhausted uranium mine. This paper presents a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the characterization of the radioactive waste drums' radionuclides content, for final disposal. In order to study the accuracy of the method, a similar concrete matrix with Portland cement in a 200 l drum was used.

  14. Decay Heat Measurements Using Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, S.; Valencia, E.; Algora, A.; Taín, J. L.; Regan, P. H.; Podolyák, Z.; Agramunt, J.; Gelletly, W.; Nichols, A. L.

    2012-09-01

    A knowledge of the decay heat emitted by thermal neutron-irradiated nuclear fuel is an important factor in ensuring safe reactor design and operation, spent fuel removal from the core, and subsequent storage prior to and after reprocessing, and waste disposal. Decay heat can be readily calculated from the nuclear decay properties of the fission products, actinides and their decay products as generated within the irradiated fuel. Much of the information comes from experiments performed with HPGe detectors, which often underestimate the beta feeding to states at high excitation energies. This inability to detect high-energy gamma emissions effectively results in the derivation of decay schemes that suffer from the pandemonium effect, although such a serious problem can be avoided through application of total absorption γ-ray spectroscopy (TAS). The beta decay of key radionuclei produced as a consequence of the neutron-induced fission of 235U and 239Pu are being re-assessed by means of this spectroscopic technique. A brief synopsis is given of the Valencia-Surrey (BaF2) TAS detector, and their method of operation, calibration and spectral analysis.

  15. Extraction of full absorption peaks in airborne gamma-spectrometry by filtering techniques coupled with a study of the derivatives. Comparison with the window method.

    PubMed

    Guillot, L

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptation of a spectral profile analysis method, currently used in high-resolution spectrometry, to airborne gamma measurements is presented. A new algorithm has been developed for extraction of full absorption peaks by studying the variations in the spectral profile of data recorded with large-volume NaI detectors (16 l) with a short sampling time (2 s). The use of digital filters, taking into consideration the characteristics of the absorption peaks, significantly reduced the counting fluctuations, making detection possible based on study of the first and second derivatives. The absorption peaks are then obtained by modelling, followed by subtraction of the Compton continuum in the detection window. Compared to the conventional stripping ratio method, spectral profile analysis offers similar performance for the natural radioelements. The 137Cs 1SD detection limit is approximately 1200 Bq/m2 in a natural background of 200 Bq/kg 40K, 33 Bq/kg 238U and 33 Bq/kg 232Th. At low energy the very high continuum leads to detection limits similar to those obtained by the windows method, but the results obtained are more reliable. In the presence of peak overlaps, however, analysis of the spectral profile alone is not sufficient to separate the peaks, and further processing is necessary. Within the framework of environmental monitoring studies, spectral profile analysis is of great interest because it does not require any assumptions about the nature of the nuclides. The calculation of the concentrations from the results obtained is simple and reliable, since only the full absorption contributions are taken into consideration. A quantitative estimate of radioactive anomalies can thus be obtained rapidly.

  16. Snowpack snow water equivalent measurement using the attenuation of cosmic gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Osterhuber, R.; Fehrke, F.; Condreva, K.

    1998-05-01

    Incoming, background cosmic radiation constantly fluxes through the earth`s atmosphere. The high energy gamma portion of this radiation penetrates many terrestrial objects, including the winter snowpack. The attenuation of this radiation is exponentially related to the mass of the medium through which it penetrates. For the past three winters, a device measuring cosmic gamma radiation--and its attenuation through snow--has been installed at the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory, near Donner Pass, California. This gamma sensor, measuring energy levels between 5 and 15 MeV, has proved to be an accurate, reliable, non-invasive, non-mechanical instrument with which to measure the total snow water equivalent of a snowpack. This paper analyzes three winters` worth of data and discusses the physics and practical application of the sensor for the collection of snow water equivalent data from a remote location.

  17. Reliability of the peak-analysis results in gamma-ray spectrometry for high relative peak-area uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Korun, M; Vodenik, B; Zorko, B

    2015-11-01

    When measurement results with values near the decision threshold are being considered, a relative uncertainty of 60% is expected. Since such measurement results can be reported, the performance of the peak-analysing software for gamma-ray spectra needs to be examined for peaks that have a large relative uncertainty. The investigation was performed on a series of spectra measured with a HPGe detector under identical counting conditions. It was found that under a limit value of the relative peak area uncertainty the peak-analysis results are reliable with respect to both the peak location and the peak area evaluation. At relative uncertainties exceeding this uncertainty, the probability of type-II errors increases and a systematic influence on the peak area occurs, which originates in fluctuations of the continuous background in the vicinity of the peak. For the counting conditions used in this investigation, the limit relative uncertainty is about 35%, and whereas a systematic influence can be taken into account by a correction factor, the frequency of the type-II errors can only be reduced at the expense of increasing the frequency of the type-I errors.

  18. Accuracy of field spectrometry in estimating 137Cs contamination in high altitude alpine soils.

    PubMed

    Agnesod, G; Lazzaron, R; Operti, C; Zappa, C

    2001-01-01

    In situ gamma ray spectrometry is an attractive method for providing information on the concentrations of radionuclides in the soil. This method requires separate knowledge of the soil density and of the radioactivity distribution relative to soil depth. In-field gamma spectrometry measurements were performed together with sampling of the soil at the same site for subsequent gamma spectrometry analysis in the laboratory. Results of 137Cs concentration were compared in order to: (i) verify the effectiveness of in situ gamma spectrometry in averaging local inhomogeneties in the soil; and (ii) quantify the sensitivity of the gamma ray spectrometry soil radioactivity evaluation with respect to the variability of the depth profiles obtained from a single site sampling. The site of study is a high altitude pasture, in the Alpine environment.

  19. Measurement of oxidative damage at pyrimidine bases in gamma-irradiated DNA.

    PubMed

    Douki, T; Delatour, T; Paganon, F; Cadet, J

    1996-01-01

    Oxidized nucleobases represent one of the main classes of damage induced in DNA by ionizing radiation. Emphasis was placed in this work on the measurement of four oxidized pyrimidine bases, including 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil (5-HMUra), 5-formyluracil (5-ForUra), 5-hydroxycytosine (5-OHCyt), and 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHUra), in isolated DNA upon exposure to gamma radiation in aerated aqueous solution. For this purpose, both high performance liquid chromatography associated with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used. Conditions of hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond were carefully checked in order to achieve a quantitative release of the lesions. We showed that 60% formic acid treatment leads to the decomposition of the four lesions studied. On the other hand, hydrolysis based on the use of either 88% formic acid or 70% hydrogen fluoride in pyridine (HF/Pyr) allowed the quantitative release of the modified bases, with the exception of 5-HMUra when the latter reagent was utilized. A dose course study of the radiation-induced formation of 5-HMUra and 5-ForUra in DNA by using the GC-MS assay showed that the latter lesion was produced in a 2.1-fold higher yield than the former one. HF/Pyr and 88% formic acid hydrolysis provided similar results for 5-ForUra, indicating the reliability of both techniques for the measurement of this lesion. For 5-OHUra and 5-OHCyt, the level of modification determined by GC-MS analysis was higher after 88% formic acid treatment than upon HF/Pyr hydrolysis. When DNA was enzymatically digested and analyzed by HPLC-EC for 5-OHdCyd and 5-OHdUrd, the results were very close to those obtained by GC-MS following HF/Pyr treatment. It was concluded that additional amounts of both 5-OHUra and 5-OHCyt are produced during the 88% formic acid treatment from radiation-induced 5,6-saturated pyrimidine precursors. It is likely that cytosine and uracil diols are involved in this reaction. The

  20. Collimated prompt gamma TOF measurements with multi-slit multi-detector configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimmer, J.; Chevallier, M.; Constanzo, J.; Dauvergne, D.; De Rydt, M.; Dedes, G.; Freud, N.; Henriquet, P.; La Tessa, C.; Létang, J. M.; Pleskač, R.; Pinto, M.; Ray, C.; Reithinger, V.; Richard, M. H.; Rinaldi, I.; Roellinghoff, F.; Schuy, C.; Testa, E.; Testa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal prompt-gamma ray profiles have been measured with a multi-slit multi-detector configuration at a 75 MeV/u 13C beam and with a PMMA target. Selections in time-of-flight and energy have been applied in order to discriminate prompt-gamma rays produced in the target from background events. The ion ranges which have been extracted from each individual detector module agree amongst each other and are consistent with theoretical expectations. In a separate dedicated experiment with 200 MeV/u 12C ions the fraction of inter-detector scattering has been determined to be on the 10%-level via a combination of experimental results and simulations. At the same experiment different collimator configurations have been tested and the shielding properties of tungsten and lead for prompt-gamma rays have been measured.

  1. Evaluation of the measurement geometries and data processing algorithms for industrial gamma tomography technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, N Y; Jung, S H; Kim, J B

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluated the measurement geometries and data processing algorithms for industrial gamma tomography technology. Several phantoms simulating industrial objects were tested in various conditions with the gamma-ray CT system developed in KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Radiation was measured with lead shielded 24 1x1in Nal detectors. Regarding the parallel beam geometry, the EM algorithm showed the best resolution among the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), simultaneous iterative reconstructive technique (SIRT) and expectation maximization (EM). However, the fan beam scanning was more time efficient than the parallel projection for the similar quality of reconstructed image. Future developments of the industrial gamma ray CT will be focused on a large-scale application which is more practical for a diagnosis in the petrochemical industry.

  2. The Probing In-Situ With Neutron and Gamma Rays (PING) Instrument for Planetary Composition Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Bodnarik, J.; Evans, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Nowicki, S.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument (formerly named PNG-GRAND) [I] experiment is an innovative application of the active neutron-gamma ray technology successfully used in oil field well logging and mineral exploration on Earth over many decades. The objective of our active neutron-gamma ray technology program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is to bring PING to the point where it can be flown on a variety of surface lander or rover missions to the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, comets and the satellites of the outer planets and measure their bulk surface and subsurface elemental composition without the need to drill into the surface. Gamma-Ray Spectrometers (GRS) have been incorporated into numerous orbital planetary science missions. While orbital measurements can map a planet, they have low spatial and elemental sensitivity due to the low surface gamma ray emission rates reSUlting from using cosmic rays as an excitation source, PING overcomes this limitation in situ by incorporating a powerful neutron excitation source that permits significantly higher elemental sensitivity elemental composition measurements. PING combines a 14 MeV deuterium-tritium Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG) with a gamma ray spectrometer and two neutron detectors to produce a landed instrument that can determine the elemental composition of a planet down to 30 - 50 cm below the planet's surface, The penetrating nature of .5 - 10 MeV gamma rays and 14 MeV neutrons allows such sub-surface composition measurements to be made without the need to drill into or otherwise disturb the planetary surface, thus greatly simplifying the lander design, We are cun'ently testing a PING prototype at a unique outdoor neutron instrumentation test facility at NASA/GSFC that provides two large (1.8 m x 1.8 m x ,9 m) granite and basalt test formations placed outdoors in an empty field, Since an independent trace elemental analysis has been performed on both these

  3. Determination of activity of 51Cr on gamma radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A method of determining the activity of intensive distributed -sources on the measurement of the continuous spectrum of radiation, for example the internal bremsstrahlung, is developed. The recurrent formula for reconstructing of a continuous spectrum, registered in a Ge detector, at distorting it in the detector. The method of precise measurements of the spectrum of 51Cr internal bremsstrahlung using two point sources of low activity is described.

  4. On background radiation gradients--the use of airborne surveys when searching for orphan sources using mobile gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kock, Peder; Rääf, Christopher; Samuelsson, Christer

    2014-02-01

    Systematic background radiation variations can lead to both false positives and failures to detect an orphan source when searching using car-borne mobile gamma-ray spectrometry. The stochastic variation at each point is well described by Poisson statistics, but when moving in a background radiation gradient the mean count rate will continually change, leading to inaccurate background estimations. Airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) surveys conducted on the national level, usually in connection to mineral exploration, exist in many countries. These data hold information about the background radiation gradients which could be used at the ground level. This article describes a method that aims to incorporate the systematic as well as stochastic variations of the background radiation. We introduce a weighted moving average where the weights are calculated from existing AGS data, supplied by the Geological Survey of Sweden. To test the method we chose an area with strong background gradients, especially in the thorium component. Within the area we identified two roads which pass through the high-variability locations. The proposed method is compared with an unweighted moving average. The results show that the weighting reduces the excess false positives in the positive background gradients without introducing an excess of failures to detect a source during passage in negative gradients.

  5. High-precision gamma-ray total cross-section measurements between 3.45 and 12 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.; Moss, Calvin E.

    2008-12-01

    A Compton-backscatter capability has recently become available at the Duke University Free Electron Laser Laboratory. This capability allows one to produce high fluxes of tunable, nearly monoenergetic gamma rays. Using these gamma-ray beams, we have made high-precision (~0.5%) measurements of the gamma-ray total cross section at 3.45, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 MeV. The nuclei measured were Be, C, Cu, Ta, W, Pb, and U

  6. Gamma-Ray Attenuation Measurements as a Laboratory Experiment: Some Remarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamides, E.; Koutroubas, S. K.; Moshonas, N.; Yiasemides, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we make some significant remarks on the experimental study of the absorption of gamma radiation passing through matter. These remarks have to do with the seemingly unexpected trend of the measured intensity of radiation versus the thickness of the absorber, which puzzles students and its explanation eludes many laboratory…

  7. GeMini Plus: A Versatile Gamma-Ray Spectrometer for Planetary Composition Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, M. T.; Heffern, L. E.; Lawrence, D. J.; Goldsten, J. O.; Peplowski, P. N.

    2016-10-01

    GeMini Plus is a high-resolution, low-resource, gamma-ray spectrometer for planetary composition measurements. The core of the instrument has a mass of 3 kg and requires 10 watts power, making it well suited for both landed and orbital missions.

  8. Measurements of gamma-ray dose from a moderated /sup 252/Cf source

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.; Griffith, R.V.; Plato, P.; Miklos, J.

    1983-06-01

    The gamma-ray dose fraction from a moderated /sup 252/Cf source was determined by using three types of dosimetry systems. Measurements were carried out in air at a distance of 35 cm from the surface of the moderating sphere (50 cm from the source which is at the center of the sphere) to the geometrical center of each detector. The moderating sphere is 0.8-mm-thick stainless steel shell filled with D/sub 2/O and covered with 0.5 mm of cadmium. Measurements were also carried out with instruments and dosimeters positioned at the surface of a 40 cm x 40 cm x 15 cm plexiglass irradiation phantom whose front surface was also 35 cm from the surface of the moderating sphere. A-150 tissue-equivalent (TE) plastic ionization chambers and a TE proportional counter (TEPC) were used to measure tissue dose, from which the neutron dose equivalent was computed. The ratio of gamma-ray dose to the neutron dose equivalent was determined by using a relatively neutron-insensitive Geiger-Mueller (GM) counter and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In addition, the event-size spectrum measured by the TEPC was also used to compute the gamma-ray dose fraction. The average value for the ratio of gamma-ray dose to neutron dose equivalent was found to be 0.18 with an uncertainty of about +-18%.

  9. High-resolution gamma ray attenuation density measurements on mining exploration drill cores, including cut cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P.-S.; Bourke, A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical property measurements are increasingly important in mining exploration. For density determinations on rocks, one method applicable on exploration drill cores relies on gamma ray attenuation. This non-destructive method is ideal because each measurement takes only 10 s, making it suitable for high-resolution logging. However calibration has been problematic. In this paper we present new empirical, site-specific correction equations for whole NQ and BQ cores. The corrections force back the gamma densities to the "true" values established by the immersion method. For the NQ core caliber, the density range extends to high values (massive pyrite, 5 g/cm3) and the correction is thought to be very robust. We also present additional empirical correction factors for cut cores which take into account the missing material. These "cut core correction factors", which are not site-specific, were established by making gamma density measurements on truncated aluminum cylinders of various residual thicknesses. Finally we show two examples of application for the Abitibi Greenstone Belt in Canada. The gamma ray attenuation measurement system is part of a multi-sensor core logger which also determines magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and mineralogy on rock cores, and performs line-scan imaging.

  10. Determining the solar-flare photospheric scale height from SMM gamma-ray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A connected series of Monte Carlo programs was developed to make systematic calculations of the energy, temporal and angular dependences of the gamma-ray line and neutron emission resulting from such accelerated ion interactions. Comparing the results of these calculations with the Solar Maximum Mission/Gamma Ray Spectrometer (SMM/GRS) measurements of gamma-ray line and neutron fluxes, the total number and energy spectrum of the flare-accelerated ions trapped on magnetic loops at the Sun were determined and the angular distribution, pitch angle scattering, and mirroring of the ions on loop fields were constrained. Comparing the calculations with measurements of the time dependence of the neutron capture line emission, a determination of the He-3/H ratio in the photosphere was also made. The diagnostic capabilities of the SMM/GRS measurements were extended by developing a new technique to directly determine the effective photospheric scale height in solar flares from the neutron capture gamma-ray line measurements, and critically test current atmospheric models in the flare region.

  11. 10 CFR 35.635 - Full calibration measurements on gamma stereotactic radiosurgery units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radiosurgery units. 35.635 Section 35.635 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT... authorized to use a gamma stereotactic radiosurgery unit for medical use shall perform full calibration measurements on each unit— (1) Before the first medical use of the unit; (2) Before medical use under...

  12. Target asymmetry measurements of {gamma} p{r_arrow}{pi} {sup +}n with Phoenics at ELSA

    SciTech Connect

    Althoff, K.; Anton, G.; Arends, J.; Beulertz, W.; Bock, A.; Breuer, M.; Detemple, P.; Dutz, H.; Gehring, R.; Gemander, M.; Goertz, S.; Helbing, K.; Hey, J.; Kraemer, D.; Meyer, W.; Noeldeke, G.; Reicherz, G.; Thomas, A.; Zucht, B.

    1995-05-10

    The target asymmetry T of the reaction {gamma} p{r_arrow}{pi} {sup +}n has been measured with the Phoenics detector in combination with the Bonn frozen spin target at ELSA. For the first time the polarization observable T has been determined simultaneously over a large photon energy range (E{sub {gamma}}=220--800 MeV) and pion angles ({Theta}{sub {pi}}{sup m}=35{degree}--135{degree}) with a tagged photon facility. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Galileo infrared imaging spectrometry measurements at the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, T. B.; Soderblom, L. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Fanale, F. P.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Ocampo, A. C.; Forsythe, J.; Campell, B.; Granahan, J. C.; Smythe, W. D.; Weissmann, P. R.; Becker, K. J.; Edwards, K.; Kamp, L.; Lo, J.; Mehlman, R.; Torson, J.; Danielson, G. E.; Matson, D. L.; Kieffer, H. H.; Johnson, T. V.

    1994-03-01

    Imaging spectrometer observations were made of the surface of the Moon during the December 1990 flyby of the Earth-Moon system by the Galileo spacecraft. This article documents this data set and presents analyses of some of the data. The near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) investigation obtained 17 separate mosaics of the Moon in 408 spectral channels between about 0.7 and 5.2 micrometers. The instrument was originally designed to operate in orbit about Jupiter and therefore saturates at many spectral channels for most measurement situations at 1 AU. However, sufficient measurements were made of the Moon to verify the proper operation of the instrument and to demonstrate its capabilities. Analysis of these data show that the NIMS worked as expected and produced measurements consistent with previous ground-based telescopic studies. These are the first imaging spectrometer measurements of this type from space for the Moon, and they illustrate several major points concerning this type of observation and about the NIMS capabilities specifically. Of major importance are the difference between framing and scanning instruments and the effects of the spacecraft and the scan platform on the performance of such and experiment. The science return of subsequent NIMS and other investigation measurements will be significantly enhanced by the experience and results gained.

  14. Galileo infrared imaging spectrometry measurements at the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, Thomas B.; Soderblom, Larry A.; Carlson, Robert W.; Fanale, Fraser P.; Lopes-Gautier, Rosaly; Ocampo, Adriano; Forsythe, Jennifer; Campbell, Bruce; Granahan, James C.; Smythe, W. D.

    1994-01-01

    Imaging spectrometer observations were made of the surface of the Moon during the December 1990 flyby of the Earth-Moon system by the Galileo spacecraft. This article documents this data set and presents analyses of some of the data. The near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) investigation obtained 17 separate mosaics of the Moon in 408 spectral channels between about 0.7 and 5.2 micrometers. The instrument was originally designed to operate in orbit about Jupiter and therefore saturates at many spectral channels for most measurement situations at 1 AU. However, sufficient measurements were made of the Moon to verify the proper operation of the instrument and to demonstrate its capabilities. Analysis of these data show that the NIMS worked as expected and produced measurements consistent with previous ground-based telescopic studies. These are the first imaging spectrometer measurements of this type from space for the Moon, and they illustrate several major points concerning this type of observation and about the NIMS capabilities specifically. Of major importance are the difference between framing and scanning instruments and the effects of the spacecraft and the scan platform on the performance of such and experiment. The science return of subsequent NIMS and other investigation measurements will be significantly enhanced by the experience and results gained.

  15. Analyzing Space-Based Interferometric Measurements of Stars and Network Measurements of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taff, L. G.

    1998-01-01

    Since the announcement of the discovery of sources of bursts of gamma-ray radiation in 1973, hundreds more reports of such bursts have now been published. Numerous artificial satellites have been equipped with gamma-ray detectors including the very successful Compton Gamma Ray Observatory BATSE instrument. Unfortunately, we have made no progress in identifying the source(s) of this high energy radiation. We suspected that this was a consequence of the method used to define gamma-ray burst source "error boxes." An alternative procedure to compute gamma-ray burst source positions, with a purely physical underpinning, was proposed in 1988 by Taff. Since then we have also made significant progress in understanding the analytical nature of the triangulation problem and in computing actual gamma-ray burst positions and their corresponding error boxes. For the former, we can now mathematically illustrate the crucial role of the area occupied by the detectors, while for the latter, the Atteia et al. (1987) catalog has been completely re-reduced. There are very few discrepancies in locations between our results and those of the customary "time difference of arrival" procedure. Thus, we have numerically demonstrated that the end result, for the positions, of these two very different-looking procedures is the same. Finally, for the first time, we provide a sample of realistic "error boxes" whose non-simple shapes vividly portray the difficulty of burst source localization.

  16. 207Pb(n,2n{gamma})206Pb Cross-Section Measurements by In-Beam Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, P.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G.; Borcea, C.; Jericha, E.; Jokic, S.; Lukic, S.; Mihailescu, L. C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Pavlik, A.

    2006-03-13

    207Pb(n,2n{gamma})206Pb cross section were measured for incident neutron energies between 6 and 20 MeV with the white neutron beam produced at GELINA. The {gamma}-ray production cross section for the main transition (803 keV, 2+{yields} 0+) in 206Pb is compared to results obtained at Los Alamos and to the TALYS and EMPIRE-II code predictions.

  17. Properties of a large NaI(Tl) spectrometer for the energy measurement of high-energy gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, E. B.; Finman, L. C.; Hofstadter, R.; Lepetich, J. E.; Lin, Y. C.

    1986-01-01

    A large NaI(Tl) spectrometer is expected to play a crucial role in the measurement of the energy spectra from an all-sky survey of high-energy celestial gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory. The crystal size and requirements of space flight have resulted in a novel crystal-packaging and optics combination. The structure of this spectrometer and the operating characteristics determined in a test program using high energy positrons are described.

  18. Measurements of the Martian Gamma/Neutron Spectra with MSL/RAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Ehresmann, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Hassler, D.; Reitz, G.; Brinza, D.; Weigle, E.; Boettcher, S.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Boehm, E.; Posner, A.; Rafkin, S. C.; Kortmann, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) onboard Mars Science Laboratory's rover curiosity measures the energetic charged and neutral particle spectra and the radiation dose rate on the Martian surface. An important factor for determining the biological impact of the Martian surface radiation is the specific contribution of neutrons, which possess a high biological effectiveness. In contrast to charged particles, neutrons and gamma rays are generally only measured indirectly. Their measurement is the result of a complex convolution of the incident particle spectrum with the measurement process. We apply an inversion method to calculate the gamma/neutron spectra from the RAD neutral particle measurements. Here we show first measurements of the Martian gamma/neutron spectra and compare them to theoretical predictions. We find that the shape of the gamma spectrum is very similar to the predicted one, but with a ~50% higher intensity. The measured neutron spectrum agrees well with prediction up to ~100 MeV, but shows a considerably increased intensity for higher energies. The measured neutron spectrum translates into a radiation dose rate of 25 μGy/day and a dose equivalent rate of 106 μSv/day. This corresponds to 10% of the total surface dose rate, and 15% of the biological relevant surface dose equivalent rate on Mars. Measuring the Martian neutron spectra is an essential step for determining the mutagenic influences to past or present life at or beneath the Martian surface as well as the radiation hazard for future human exploration, including the shielding design of a potential habitat. The contribution of neutrons to the dose equivalent increases considerably with shielding thickness, so our measurements provide an important figure to mitigate cancer risk.

  19. Statistical Measurement of the Gamma-Ray Source-count Distribution as a Function of Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechlin, Hannes-S.; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Statistical properties of photon count maps have recently been proven as a new tool to study the composition of the gamma-ray sky with high precision. We employ the 1-point probability distribution function of six years of Fermi-LAT data to measure the source-count distribution dN/dS and the diffuse components of the high-latitude gamma-ray sky as a function of energy. To that aim, we analyze the gamma-ray emission in five adjacent energy bands between 1 and 171 GeV. It is demonstrated that the source-count distribution as a function of flux is compatible with a broken power law up to energies of ˜50 GeV. The index below the break is between 1.95 and 2.0. For higher energies, a simple power-law fits the data, with an index of {2.2}-0.3+0.7 in the energy band between 50 and 171 GeV. Upper limits on further possible breaks as well as the angular power of unresolved sources are derived. We find that point-source populations probed by this method can explain {83}-13+7% ({81}-19+52%) of the extragalactic gamma-ray background between 1.04 and 1.99 GeV (50 and 171 GeV). The method has excellent capabilities for constraining the gamma-ray luminosity function and the spectra of unresolved blazars.

  20. 232Th(n,{gamma})233Th Thermal Reaction Cross-Section Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Maidana, Nora L.; Vanin, Vito R.; Pascholati, Paulo R.; Helene, Otaviano; Castro, Ruy M.; Dias, Mauro S.; Koskinas, Marina F.

    2005-05-24

    The 232Th(n,{gamma})233Th thermal neutron-capture reaction cross section was measured using targets of {approx} 1.5 mg of high-purity metallic thorium irradiated in the IPEN IEA-R1m 5 MW pool research reactor. The 197Au(n,{gamma})198Au reaction was used to monitor the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes in the irradiation position, which was found using the Westcott formalism. The residual gamma-ray activity was followed with an HPGe detector. The detector efficiency curve was fitted by the least-squares method applying covariance analysis to all uncertainties involved. The experimental result is {sigma}0 =7.20{+-}0.20 b, in agreement with previous published values.

  1. Radiative Penguin Decays of B Mesons: Measurements of B to K* gamma, B to K2* gamma, and Search for B0 to phi gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, J.

    2005-01-03

    Electromagnetic radiative penguin decays of the B meson were studied with the BaBar detector at SLAC's PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory. Branching fractions and isospin asymmetry of the decay B {yields} K*{gamma}, branching fractions of B {yields} K*{sub 2}(1430){gamma}, and a search for B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{gamma} are presented. The decay rates may be enhanced by contributions from non-standard model processes.

  2. Measurement of U-235 Fission Neutron Spectra Using a Multiple Gamma Coincidence Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Chuncheng; Kegel, G.H.R.; Egan, J.J.; DeSimone, D.J.; Alimeti, A.; Roldan, C.F.; McKittrick, T.M.; Kim, D.-S.; Chen, X.; Tremblay, S.E.

    2005-05-24

    The Los Alamos Model of Madland and Nix predicts the shape of the fission neutron energy spectrum for incident primary neutrons of different energies. Verifications of the model normally are limited to measurements of the fission neutron spectra for energies higher than that of the primary neutrons because the low-energy spectrum is distorted by the admixture of elastically and inelastically scattered neutrons. This situation can be remedied by using a measuring technique that separates fission from scattering events. One solution consists of using a fissile sample so thin that fission fragments can be observed indicating the occurrence of a fission event. A different approach is considered in this paper. It has been established that a fission event is accompanied by the emission of between seven and eight gamma rays, while in a scattering interaction, between zero and two gammas are emitted, so that a gamma multiplicity detector should supply a datum to distinguish a fission event from a scattering event. We proceed as follows: A subnanosecond pulsed and bunched proton beam from the UML Van de Graaff generates nearly mono-energetic neutrons by irradiating a thin metallic lithium target. The neutrons irradiate a 235U sample. Emerging neutron energies are measured with a time-of-flight spectrometer. A set of four BaF2 detectors is located close to the 235U sample. These detectors together with their electronic components identify five different events for each neutron detected, i.e., whether four, three, two, one, or none of the BaF2 detectors received one (or more) gamma rays. We present work, preliminary to the final measurements, involving feasibility considerations based on gamma-ray coincidence measurements with four BaF2 detectors, and the design of a Fission-Scattering Discriminator under construction.

  3. Testing a Light-weight Compact Gamma Ray Detector for Measuring Snow Water Equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiet, E., II; Solie, D. J.; Sturm, M.

    2014-12-01

    The use of gamma ray to measure snow water equivalent (SWE) trace back to the 1970s during the Soviet Union hydrology program. Over the years research has shown that gamma detectors could be used to monitor SWE, and their use significantly expanded. In the 1980s several airborne campaigns were launched in North America to measure SWR; these gamma flights are still in use today. However, these airborne flights require a twin-engine aircraft and a detector with a computer that weighs 250 kg, which is unsuitable for use with unmanned airborne systems (UAS), our primary interest. Here we describe results of tests of a compact gamma detector weighing 2 kg. The envisioned deployment of this detector is on a small quad-copter UAS that can hover low over remote clearings in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Such a technique may allow SWE estimates in places that otherwise would be difficult to measure. We tested the detector over snow and water bodies and found for SWE between 0 and 50 cm a sensitivity of ± 2 cm SWE, which is sufficient to resolve any significant snowfall in the region. In this presentation we will discuss our preliminary results and our future strategy for deploying the sensor on a UAS.

  4. Anisotropies in the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Background Measured by the Fermi LAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, E. C.; McEnery, J. E.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of unresolved sources to the diffuse gamma-ray background could induce anisotropies in this emission on small angular scales. We analyze the angular power spectrum of the diffuse emission measured by the Fermi LAT at Galactic latitudes absolute value of b > 30 deg in four energy bins spanning 1 to 50 GeV. At multipoles l >= 155, corresponding to angular scales approx < 2 deg, angular power above the photon noise level is detected at > 99.99% CL in the 1-2 GeV, 2- 5 GeV, and 5- 10 GeV energy bins, and at > 99% CL at 10-50 GeV. Within each energy bin the measured angular power takes approximately the same value at all multipoles l >= 155, suggesting that it originates from the contribution of one or more unclustered source populations. The amplitude of the angular power normalized to the mean intensity in each energy bin is consistent with a constant value at all energies, C(sub p) / (I)(exp 2) = 9.05 +/- 0.84 x 10(exp -6) sr, while the energy dependence of C(sub p) is consistent with the anisotropy arising from one or more source populations with power-law photon spectra with spectral index Gamma (sub s) = 2.40 +/- 0.07. We discuss the implications of the measured angular power for gamma-ray source populations that may provide a contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray background.

  5. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 μSv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  6. Servo-amplifiers for ion current measurement in mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Russell, R.D.; Kollar, F.

    1965-01-01

    A servo-voltmeter can provide a useful alternative to the d.c. amplifier or vibrating reed electrometer for the accurate measurement of mass spectrometer ion currents, and has some advantages which recommend its use in certain applications. A generalized analysis based on servomechanism theory is presented as an aid for understanding the design criteria for this type of device. Two existing systems are described and their operation and performance are examined.

  7. First neutron spectrometry measurement at the HL-2A Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xi; Zhang, Xing; Xie, Xu-Fei; Chen, Zhong-Jing; Peng, Xing-Yu; Fan, Tie-Shuan; Chen, Jin-Xiang; Li, Xiang-Qing; Yuan, Guo-Liang; Yang, Qing-Wei; Yang, Jin-Wei

    2013-12-01

    A compact neutron spectrometer based on the liquid scintillator is presented for neutron energy spectrum measurements at the HL-2A Tokamak. The spectrometer was well characterized and a fast digital pulse shape discrimination software was developed using the charge comparison method. A digitizer data acquisition system with a maximum frequency of 1 MHz can work under an environment with a high count rate at HL-2A Tokamak. Specific radiation and magnetic shielding for the spectrometer were designed for the neutron spectrum measurement at the HL-2A Tokamak. For pulse height spectrum analysis, dedicated numerical simulation utilizing NUBEAM combined with GENESIS was performed to obtain the neutron energy spectrum. Subsequently, the transportation process from the plasma to the detector was evaluated with Monte Carlo calculations. The distorted neutron energy spectrum was folded with the response matrix of the liquid scintillation spectrometer, and good consistency was found between the simulated and measured pulse height spectra. This neutron spectrometer based on a digital acquisition system could be well adopted for the investigation of the auxiliary heating behavior and the fast-ion related phenomenon on different tokamak devices.

  8. Real-Time Measurement of Material Elastic Properties in a High Gamma Irradiation Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Telschow; Rob Schley; Dave Cottle

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the first noncontact elastic vibration measurements of an object in a high gamma radiation field. Using a laser-coupled resonant ultrasound technique, the vibration modes of an Inconel hollow capped cylinder were measured as the gamma radiation field was increased to 104 Gy/h. This measurement technique allowed shifts in the resonant frequency of the sample’s vibration modes to be tracked over a 170-h period. The vibration mode frequencies changed in a manner consistent with the temperature dependence of the elastic stiffness coefficients of the material. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the laser approach for real-time resonant ultrasound measurements in this severely hostile nuclear environment.

  9. A new natural gamma radiation measurement system for marine sediment and rock analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, M. A.; Blum, P.; Chubarian, G.; Olsen, R.; Bennight, C.; Cobine, T.; Fackler, D.; Hastedt, M.; Houpt, D.; Mateo, Z.; Vasilieva, Y. B.

    2011-11-01

    A new high-efficiency and low-background system for the measurement of natural gamma radioactivity in marine sediment and rock cores retrieved from beneath the seabed was designed, built, and installed on the JOIDES Resolution research vessel. The system includes eight large NaI(Tl) detectors that measure adjacent intervals of the core simultaneously, maximizing counting times and minimizing statistical error for the limited measurement times available during drilling expeditions. Effect to background ratio is maximized with passive lead shielding, including both ordinary and low-activity lead. Large-area plastic scintillator active shielding filters background associated with the high-energy part of cosmic radiation. The new system has at least an order of magnitude higher statistical reliability and significantly enhances data quality compared to other offshore natural gamma radiation (NGR) systems designed to measure geological core samples. Reliable correlations and interpretations of cored intervals are possible at rates of a few counts per second.

  10. Neutron and gamma-ray dose measurements at various distances from the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Huntzinger, C.J.; Hankins, D.E.

    1984-08-01

    We measured neutron and gamma-ray dose rates at various distances from the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in April of 1983. The Little Boy-Comet Assembly is a replica of the atomic weapon detonated over Hiroshima, designed to be operated at various steady-state power levels. The selected distances for measurement ranged from 107 m to 567 m. Gamma-ray measurements were made with a Reuter-Stokes environmental ionization chamber which has a sensitivity of 1.0 ..mu..R/hour. Neutron measurements were made with a pulsed-source remmeter which has a sensitivity of 0.1 ..mu..rem/hour, designed and built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). 12 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

  11. Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment (GAME) - Implementation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Mario; Gai, Mario; Vecchiato, Alberto; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Ligori, Sebastiano; Loreggia, Davide

    The GAME mission concept is aimed at test of the General Relativity, through very precise measurement of the gravitational deflection of light by the Sun, by means of an optimised telescope operating in the visible and launched in orbit on a small class satellite. We recall the science motivations, discussed in detail in a separate contribution by Vecchiato et al., and describe the mission requirements derivation, the proposed mission profile, the preliminary payload design and the expected performance. The targeted precision on the "γ" parameter of the Parametrised Post-Newtonian formulation of General Relativity is in the range 10-6 to 10-7 or better, with an improvement of one or two orders of magnitude with respect to the best currently available experimental results. Such precision is suitable to detect possible deviations of γ from the unity value, associated to generalised Einstein models for gravitation, with potentially huge impacts on the cosmological distribution of dark matter and dark energy. The measurement principle is based on the differential astrometric signature on the stellar positions, i.e. on the spatial component of the gravitational effect, rather than the temporal component as in the most recent experiments based on radio link delay timing. Calibration is based on frequent measurement of angular separation of bright sources in stellar fields affected by negligible deflection. The instrument concept is based on a dual field, multiple aperture Fizeau interferometer, observing simultaneously two sky regions close to the Solar limb. A split flat mirror is used to fold the telescope line of sight on two different directions on the sky, separated by a base angle of about 4 degrees, which represents the gauge applied on the sky to measure the desired angular value of deflection. Stability or calibration of the base angle is the key to fulfilling the GAME science goals. An internal laser metrology option is considered for both on ground

  12. MEASUREMENT OF THE EXPANSION RATE OF THE UNIVERSE FROM {gamma}-RAY ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, Alberto; Prada, Francisco

    2013-07-10

    A measurement of the expansion rate of the universe (that is, the Hubble constant, H{sub 0}) is derived here using the {gamma}-ray attenuation observed in the spectra of {gamma}-ray sources produced by the interaction of extragalactic {gamma}-ray photons with the photons of the extragalactic background light (EBL). The Hubble constant determined with our technique, for a {Lambda}CDM cosmology, is H{sub 0}=71.8{sub -5.6}{sup +4.6}(stat){sub -13.8}{sup +7.2}(syst) km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}. This value is compatible with present-day measurements using well-established methods such as local distance ladders and cosmological probes. The recent detection of the cosmic {gamma}-ray horizon (CGRH) from multiwavelength observations of blazars, together with the advances in the knowledge of the EBL, allow us to measure the expansion rate of the universe. This estimate of the Hubble constant shows that {gamma}-ray astronomy has reached a mature enough state to provide cosmological measurements, which may become more competitive in the future with the construction of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. We find that the maximum dependence of the CGRH on the Hubble constant is approximately between redshifts 0.04 and 0.1, thus this is a smoking gun for planning future observational efforts. Other cosmological parameters, such as the total dark matter density {Omega}{sub m} and the dark energy equation of state w, are explored as well.

  13. Boron concentration measurement in biological tissues by charged particle spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, S; Altieri, S

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of boron concentration in biological tissues is a fundamental aspect of boron neutron capture therapy, because the outcome of the therapy depends on the distribution of boron at a cellular level, besides on its overall concentration. This work describes a measurement technique based on the spectroscopy of the charged particles emitted in the reaction (10)B(n,α)(7)Li induced by thermal neutrons, allowing for a quantitative determination of the boron concentration in the different components that may be simultaneously present in a tissue sample, such as healthy cells, tumor cells and necrotic cells. Thin sections of tissue containing (10)B are cut at low temperatures and irradiated under vacuum in a thermal neutron field. The charged particles arising from the sample during the irradiation are collected by a thin silicon detector, and their spectrum is used to determine boron concentration through relatively easy calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of this technique are here described, and validation of the method using tissue standards with known boron concentrations is presented.

  14. Identification and Quantitative Measurements of Chemical Species by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zondlo, Mark A.; Bomse, David S.

    2005-01-01

    The development of a miniature gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system for the measurement of chemical species of interest to combustion is described. The completed system is a fully-contained, automated instrument consisting of a sampling inlet, a small-scale gas chromatograph, a miniature, quadrupole mass spectrometer, vacuum pumps, and software. A pair of computer-driven valves controls the gas sampling and introduction to the chromatographic column. The column has a stainless steel exterior and a silica interior, and contains an adsorbent of that is used to separate organic species. The detection system is based on a quadrupole mass spectrometer consisting of a micropole array, electrometer, and a computer interface. The vacuum system has two miniature pumps to maintain the low pressure needed for the mass spectrometer. A laptop computer uses custom software to control the entire system and collect the data. In a laboratory demonstration, the system separated calibration mixtures containing 1000 ppm of alkanes and alkenes.

  15. Using Solar Gamma Rays to Measure Heavy Accelerated Particles at the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Share, G. H.; Murphy, R. J.

    2008-05-01

    Solar flare gamma-ray spectra contain information on heavy (>He) accelerated particle spectra and composition through measurement of highly Doppler broadened (~10%) lines. These gamma-rays are emitted when the nuclei de-excite following their interaction with chromospheric H and He; these are called inverse reactions in contrast to the direct reactions from accelerated p and α-particles that produce narrower lines. The ability to distinguish and measure the broadened features is complicated by their large number, the narrow lines, the presence of strong solar bremsstrahlung and nuclear continua, as well as by instrumental effects. The instrumental continuum from Compton scattering is minimized when the gamma-ray detector has a high photopeak efficiency and is relatively well shielded, as was the case for the Solar Maximum Mission spectrometer (GRS). It is also important that the detector response be well determined. We have constructed a new GRS response matrix based on a Monte Carlo calculation and apply it to spectra from strong nuclear-line flares. We use new theoretical gamma-ray templates derived from nuclear physics calculations for elements such as C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe to fit the spectra and derive information on the heavy-accelerated ions. This technique can also be applied to data from the RHESSI spectrometer, with its larger Compton continuum, if the instrument response is well determined. This work was supported under NASA Grants NNX07AH81G, NNX07AO74G, and NNG06GG14G.

  16. Photon burst mass spectrometry for the measurement of {sup 85}Kr at ambient levels

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbank, W.M. Jr.; LaBelle, R.D.; Hansen, C.S.

    1998-12-01

    Photon Burst Mass Spectrometry has been used to measure {sup 85}Kr in a sample with an abundance of 6 x 10{sup {minus}9}. Improvements in detection efficiency by the use of avalanche photodiodes cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature are reported, which should make possible measurement of {sup 85}Kr at the ambient atmospheric abundance of 10{sup {minus}11}. Potential applications include nuclear monitoring, atmospheric transport, and dating young ground water up to 40 years.

  17. Attogram measurement of rare isotopes by CW resonance ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bushaw, B.A.

    1992-05-01

    Three-color double-resonance ionization mass spectrometry, using two single-frequency cw dye lasers and a cw carbon dioxide laser, has been applied to the detection of attogram quantities of rare radionuclides. {sup 210}Pb has been measured in human hair and brain tissue samples to assess indoor radon exposure. Measurements on {sup 90}Sr have shown overall isotopic selectivity of greater than 10{sup 9} despite unfavorable isotope shifts relative to the major stable isotope, {sup 88}Sr.

  18. The use of an active coded aperture for improved directional measurements in high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, A.; Beron, B. L.; Campbell, L.; Eichler, R.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Wilson, S.; Gorodetsky, P.

    1980-01-01

    The coded aperture, a refinement of the scatter-hole camera, offers a method for the improved measurement of gamma-ray direction in gamma-ray astronomy. Two prototype coded apertures have been built and tested. The more recent of these has 128 active elements of the heavy scintillator BGO. Results of tests for gamma-rays in the range 50-500 MeV are reported and future application in space discussed.

  19. Properties of accelerated particles at the Sun from gamma-ray and neutron measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Share, Gerald; Murphy, Ronald

    The properties of accelerated ions and electrons that interact in the solar atmosphere and photosphere can be revealed through measurements of the resulting hard X-ray and gamma-ray emissions. These properties provide information on the acceleration processes and particle transport. Comparison of these properties with those measured in solar energetic particles in space indicates whether the two particle populations have a common origin. These studies require both good spectral measurements and a sound theoretical basis for understanding the processes related to gamma-ray production. We discuss advances in the calculation of gamma-ray spectra from proton, alpha-particle and heavy-ion interactions that are used in determining the spectra and composition of the accelerated particles. We focus on intense flares observed by the Solar Maximum Mission gamma-ray spectrometer and on the remarkable 2005 January 20 flare and Ground Level Event observed by RHESSI and Coronas. Our studies suggest that in most of the flares the heavy interacting particles at the Sun have a composition that is similar to gradual SEP events (i.e. a coronal composition) but that in at least one flare they have a composition close to that observed in impulsive SEP events. We are also finding evidence that the interacting particles may be enhanced in alpha particles and heavier nuclei relative to protons. We discuss details of the 2005 January 20 flare in which we find clear evidence for two distinct acceleration processes occurring within two minutes that produce significantly different particle spectra. Gamma-ray emission from this event was evident up to 4 hours after flare onset. We discuss the implications of these observations. This work was supported by NASA under grants to the University of Maryland and DPRs to NRL.

  20. Properties of Accelerated Particles at the Sun from Gamma-Ray and Neutron Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Ronald; Share, G.; Kozlovsky, B.

    2010-05-01

    The properties of accelerated ions and electrons that interact in the solar atmosphere and photosphere can be revealed through measurements of the resulting hard X-ray and gamma-ray emissions. These properties provide information on the acceleration processes and particle transport. Comparison of these properties with those measured for solar energetic particles in space indicates whether the two particle populations have a common origin. These studies require both good spectral measurements and a sound theoretical basis for understanding the processes related to gamma-ray production. We discuss advances in the calculation of gamma-ray spectra from proton, alpha-particle and heavy-ion interactions that are used to determine the spectra and composition of the accelerated particles. We focus on intense flares observed by the Solar Maximum Mission gamma-ray spectrometer and on the remarkable 2005 January 20 flare and Ground Level Event observed by RHESSI and Coronas. Our studies suggest that in most of these flares the heavy interacting particles at the Sun have a composition that is similar to gradual SEP events (i.e. a coronal composition), but that in at least one flare they have a composition close to that observed in impulsive SEP events. We are also finding evidence that the interacting particles may be enhanced in alpha particles and heavier nuclei relative to protons. We discuss details of the 2005 January 20 flare in which we find clear evidence for two distinct acceleration processes occurring within two minutes that produce significantly different particle spectra. Gamma-ray emission from this event was evident for up to 4 hours after flare onset. We discuss the implications of these observations. This work was supported by NASA under DPRs to NRL and grants to the University of Maryland.

  1. Integral measurements of neutron and gamma-ray leakage fluxes from the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents integral measurements of neutron and gamma-ray leakage fluxes from a critical mockup of the Hiroshima bomb Little Boy at Los Alamos National Laobratory with detector systems developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Bonner ball detectors were used to map the neutron fluxes in the horizontal midplane at various distances from the mockup and for selected polar angles, keeping the source-detector separation constant. Gamma-ray energy deposition measurements were made with thermoluminescent detectors at several locations on the iron shell of the source mockup. The measurements were performed as part of a larger progam to provide benchmark data for testing the methods used to calculate the radiation released from the Little Boy bomb over Hiroshima. 3 references, 10 figures.

  2. Integrating ion mobility spectrometry into mass spectrometry-based exposome measurements: what can it add and how far can it go?

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Erin S.; Schymanski, Emma L.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Thomas, Dennis G.; Causon, Tim J.; Webb, Ian K.; Hann, Stephan; Smith, Richard D.; Teeguarden, Justin G.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the exposome remains a challenge due to the range and number of anthropogenic molecules that are encountered in our daily lives, as well as the complex systemic responses to these exposures. One option for improving the coverage, dynamic range and throughput of measurements is to incorporate ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) into current mass spectrometry (MS)-based analytical methods. In this perspective, we briefly review the state-of-the-art in measuring the exposome, and discuss the potential use for IMS-MS and the physico-chemical property of collisional cross section in both exposure assessment and molecular identification.

  3. A reanalysis of radioisotope measurements of the $^9$Be$(\\gamma,n)^8$Be cross-section

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alan E.

    2016-02-18

    The $^9$Be$(\\gamma,n)^8$Be reaction is enhanced by a near threshold $1/2^+$ state. Contradictions between existing measurements of this reaction cross-section affect calculations of astrophysical r-process yields, dark matter detector calibrations, and the theory of the nuclear structure of $^9$Be. Select well-documented radioisotope $^9$Be$(\\gamma,n)$ source yield measurements have been reanalyzed, providing a set of high-accuracy independently measured cross sections. A Breit-Wigner fit of these corrected measurements yields $E_R=1738.8\\pm1.9$ keV, $\\Gamma_\\gamma=0.771\\pm0.021$ eV, and $\\Gamma_n=268\\pm15$ keV for the $1/2^+$ state. A virtual $1/2^+$ state is excluded with 99.3\\% confidence.

  4. A reanalysis of radioisotope measurements of the $^9$Be$$(\\gamma,n)^8$$Be cross-section

    DOE PAGES

    Robinson, Alan E.

    2016-02-18

    Themore » $^9$Be$$(\\gamma,n)^8$$Be reaction is enhanced by a near threshold $1/2^+$ state. Contradictions between existing measurements of this reaction cross-section affect calculations of astrophysical r-process yields, dark matter detector calibrations, and the theory of the nuclear structure of $^9$Be. Select well-documented radioisotope $^9$Be$$(\\gamma,n)$$ source yield measurements have been reanalyzed, providing a set of high-accuracy independently measured cross sections. A Breit-Wigner fit of these corrected measurements yields $$E_R=1738.8\\pm1.9$$ keV, $$\\Gamma_\\gamma=0.771\\pm0.021$$ eV, and $$\\Gamma_n=268\\pm15$$ keV for the $1/2^+$ state. A virtual $1/2^+$ state is excluded with 99.3\\% confidence.« less

  5. PING Gamma Ray and Neutron Measurements of a Meter-Sized Carbonaceous Asteroid Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodnarik, J.; Burger, D.; Evans, L.; Floyd, S.; Lim, L.; McClanahan, T.; Namkung, M.; Nowicki, S.; Parsons, A.; Schweitzer, J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the elemental composition of carbonaceous (spectral type C) asteroids is still one of the basic problems when studying these objects. The only main source of elemental composition information for asteroids is from their optical, NIR and IR properties, which include their spectral reflectance characteristics, albedo, polarization, and the comparison of optical spectroscopy with meteorite groups corresponding to asteroids of every spectral type. Unfortunately, these sources reflect observations from widely contrasting spatial scales that presently yield a void in the continuum of microscopic and macroscopic evidence, a lack of in situ measurement confirmation, and require deeper sensing techniques to discern the nature of these asteroids. The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument is ideally suited to address this problem because it can be used to determine the bulk elemental composition, H and C content, the average atomic weight and density of the surface and subsurface layers of C-type asteroids, and can provide measurements used to determine the difference between and distinguish between different types of asteroids. We are currently developing the PING instrument that combines gamma ray and neutron detectors with a 14 Me V pulsed neutron generator to determine the in-situ bulk elemental abundances and geochemistry of C-type asteroids with a spatial resolution of 1 m down to depths of tens of cm to 1 m. One aspect of the current work includes experimentally testing and optimizing PING on a known meter-sized Columbia River basalt C-type asteroid analog sample that has a similar composition and the same neutron response as that of a C-type asteroid. An important part of this effort focuses on utilizing timing measurements to isolate gamma rays produced by neutron inelastic scattering, neutron capture and delayed activation processes. Separating the gamma ray spectra by nuclear processes results in higher precision and sensitivity

  6. Measurement of 151Sm with the HI-13 accelerator mass spectrometry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xinyi; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Wu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Jilong; Wang, Tongxin; Cui, Anzhi; Ouyang, Yinggen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Jian; Jiang, Shan

    2010-05-01

    151Sm is an interesting nuclide in many research fields. Measurement methods of the long-lived 151Sm with accelerator mass spectrometry have been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy. The chemical form of samples was Sm 2O 3 and the extracted ion was SmO -. To date, the sensitivity, that is, the isotopic ratio, of 151Sm measured using accelerator mass spectrometry is about 10 -8. This method was also used to measure the concentration of tracer 151Sm in biological samples for clarifying whether the rare earth elements can enter into the brain. It is not possible at present to determine whether the tracer has penetrated the blood-brain barrier into the brain.

  7. High sensitivity measurement of amino acid isotope enrichment using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Eijk, Hans M H; Wijnands, Karolina A P; Bessems, Babs A F M; Olde Damink, Steven W; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Poeze, Martijn

    2012-09-15

    Measurement of the incorporation or conversion of infused stable isotope enriched metabolites in vivo such as amino acids plays a key role in metabolic research. Specific routes are frequently probed in knockout mouse models limiting the available amount of sample. Although less precise as compared to combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (C-IRMS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques are therefore often the method of choice to measure isotopic enrichment of target metabolites. However, under conditions of metabolic depletion, the precision of these systems becomes limiting. In this paper, studies were performed to enhance the sensitivity and precision of isotope enrichment measurements using LC-MS. Ion-statistics and resolution were identified as critical factors for this application when using a linear trap mass spectrometer. The combination with an automated pre-column derivatization and a carefully selected solvent mix allowed us to measure isotopic enrichments down to 0.005% at plasma concentrations as low as 5 μmol/l, an improvement by a factor of 100 compared to alternative methods. The resulting method now allowed measurement of the in vivo conversion of the amino acid arginine into citrulline as a marker for the production of nitric oxide in an in vivo murine endotoxemia model with depleted plasma levels of arginine and citrulline.

  8. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography & gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-04-01

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil & gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil & gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 & 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 & 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  9. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography and gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    SciTech Connect

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-04-11

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil and gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil and gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 and 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 and 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  10. Action levels for automatic gamma-measurements based on probabilistic radionuclide transport calculations.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Bent; Hedemann-Jensen, Per

    2005-12-01

    In the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency resulting in an atmospheric release of radioactive materials, stationary gamma-measurements, for example obtained from distributed, automatic monitoring stations, may provide a first assessment of exposures resulting from airborne and deposited activity. Decisions on the introduction of countermeasures for the protection of the public can be based on such off-site gamma measurements. A methodology is presented for calculation of gamma-radiation action levels for the introduction of specific countermeasures, based on probabilistic modelling of the dispersion of radionuclides and the radiation exposure. The methodology is applied to a nuclear accident situation with long-range atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides, and action levels of dose rate measured by a network of monitoring stations are estimated for sheltering and foodstuff restrictions. It is concluded that the methodology is applicable to all emergency countermeasures following a nuclear accident but measurable quantities other than ambient dose equivalent rate are needed for decisions on the introduction of foodstuff countermeasures.

  11. Measurement and calculation of characteristic prompt gamma ray spectra emitted during proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Polf, J C; Peterson, S; McCleskey, M; Roeder, B T; Spiridon, A; Beddar, S; Trache, L

    2009-11-21

    In this paper, we present results of initial measurements and calculations of prompt gamma ray spectra (produced by proton-nucleus interactions) emitted from tissue equivalent phantoms during irradiations with proton beams. Measurements of prompt gamma ray spectra were made using a high-purity germanium detector shielded either with lead (passive shielding), or a Compton suppression system (active shielding). Calculations of the spectra were performed using a model of both the passive and active shielding experimental setups developed using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. From the measured spectra it was shown that it is possible to distinguish the characteristic emission lines from the major elemental constituent atoms (C, O, Ca) in the irradiated phantoms during delivery of proton doses similar to those delivered during patient treatment. Also, the Monte Carlo spectra were found to be in very good agreement with the measured spectra providing an initial validation of our model for use in further studies of prompt gamma ray emission during proton therapy.

  12. Exclusive Measurements of the b to s gamma Transition Rate and Photon Energy Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, David Nathan; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V.E.; Buzykaev, A.R.; /more authors..

    2012-08-30

    We use 429 fb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector to measure the radiative transition rate of b {yields} s{gamma} with a sum of 38 exclusive final states. The inclusive branching fraction with a minimum photon energy of 1.9 GeV is found to be {Beta}({bar B} {yields} Xs{gamma}) = (3.29 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.48) x 10{sup -4} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We also measure the first and second moments of the photon energy spectrum and extract the best fit values for the heavy-quark parameters, m{sub b} and {mu}{sub {pi}}{sup 2}, in the kinetic and shape function models.

  13. An industrial radiography exposure device based on measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polee, C.; Chankow, N.; Srisatit, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2015-05-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking information of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a small detector. Application software was developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display counting data via Bluetooth communication. Prior to film exposure, the device is placed behind a specimen to measure transmitted intensity which is inversely proportional to the exposure. Unlike in using the conventional exposure curve, correction factors for source decay, source-to- film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material are not needed. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable.

  14. Measurements of Differential Z/gamma*+jet+X Cross Sections with the D0 Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lammers, Sabine

    2009-11-01

    We present measurements of differential cross sections in inclusive Z/{gamma}* plus jet production in a data sample of 1 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector in proton antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Measured variables include the Z/{gamma}* transverse momentum (p{sub T}{sup Z}) and rapidity (y{sup Z}), the leading jet transverse momentum (p{sub T}{sup jet}) and rapidity (y{sup jet}), as well as various angles of the Z+jet system. We compare the results to different Monte Carlo event generators and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD (NLO pQCD) predictions, with non-perturbative corrections applied.

  15. Ultrahigh Energy Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometers for Precision Measurements of Uranium Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S; Hau, I D; Niedermayr, T R; Friedrich, S

    2006-06-09

    Superconducting Gamma-ray detectors offer an order of magnitude higher energy resolution than conventional high-purity germanium detectors. This can significantly increase the precision of non-destructive isotope analysis for nuclear samples where line overlap affects the errors of the measurement. We have developed Gamma-detectors based on superconducting molybdenum-copper sensors and bulk tin absorbers for nuclear science and national security applications. They have, depending on design, an energy resolution between {approx}50 and {approx}150 eV FWHM at {approx}100 keV. Here we apply this detector technology to the measurement of uranium isotope ratios, and discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and quantum efficiency involved in detector design.

  16. Gamma ray facilities at the University of Maryland cyclotron. [data acquisition and radiation measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornyak, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    A special beam line was set up in a separate shielded experimental room to provide a low background station for gamma-ray measurements at the University of Maryland cyclotron. The transmitted beam leaving the target is gathered in by a magnetic quadrupole lens located 1.8 m further downstream and focused on a Faraday cup located on the far side of the 2.5 m thick concrete shielding wall of the experimental room. A software computer program permits timing information ot be obtained using the cyclotron beam fine structure as a time reference for the observed gamma-ray events. Measurements indicate a beam fine structure width of less than 1.2 nanoseconds repeated, for example, in the case of 140 MeV alpha particles every 90 nanoseconds. Twelve contiguous time channels of adjustable width may be set as desired with reference to the RF signal. This allows the creation of 12 separate 8192 channel analyzers.

  17. Technical Note: PRESAGE three-dimensional dosimetry accurately measures Gamma Knife output factors

    PubMed Central

    Klawikowski, Slade J.; Yang, James N.; Adamovics, John; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Small-field output factor measurements are traditionally very difficult because of steep dose gradients, loss of lateral electronic equilibrium, and dose volume averaging in finitely sized detectors. Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry is ideal for measuring small output factors and avoids many of these potential challenges of point and two-dimensional detectors. PRESAGE 3D polymer dosimeters were used to measure the output factors for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators of the Leksell Perfexion Gamma Knife radiosurgery treatment system. Discrepancies between the planned and measured distance between shot centers were also investigated. A Gamma Knife head frame was mounted onto an anthropomorphic head phantom. Special inserts were machined to hold 60 mm diameter, 70 mm tall cylindrical PRESAGE dosimeters. The phantom was irradiated with one 16 mm shot and either one 4 mm or one 8 mm shot, to a prescribed dose of either 3 Gy or 4 Gy to the 50% isodose line. The two shots were spaced between 30 mm and 60 mm apart and aligned along the central axis of the cylinder. The Presage dosimeters were measured using the DMOS-RPC optical CT scanning system. Five independent 4 mm output factor measurements fell within 2% of the manufacturer’s Monte Carlo simulation-derived nominal value, as did two independent 8 mm output factor measurements. The measured distances between shot centers varied by ± 0.8 mm with respect to the planned shot displacements. On the basis of these results, we conclude that PRESAGE dosimetry is excellently suited to quantify the difficult-to-measure Gamma Knife output factors. PMID:25368961

  18. Development of a Portable Gamma-ray Survey System for the Measurement of Air Dose Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Jun; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kawano, Yoh; Amaya, Yoshihiro; Izumikawa, Takuji; Katsuragi, Yoshinori; Shiiya, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Tsubasa; Takahashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Hidenori; Naito, Makoto

    BIo-Safety Hybrid Automatic MOnitor-Niigata (BISHAMON), a portable gamma-ray survey system, was developed to support victims of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. BISHAMON is capable of constructing a map of the distribution of ambient dose equivalent rates using vehicle-mounted or on-foot survey methods. In this study, we give an overview of BISHAMON and its measurement results including a comparison with those of other systems such as KURAMA.

  19. Unveiling the Nature of Soft Gamma Repeaters and Magnetars: Scientists Measure the Most Powerful Magnet Known

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Jean (Technical Monitor); Parke, William

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) announces measurements of the magnetic field of a magnetar. The magnetic field was approx. 10(exp 15) gauss, up to 10 times more powerful than previous estimates. The newsletter also describes how the star's magnetic field slows its rotation, and how starquakes emit protons, which are trapped in this neutron star's magnetic field, and make it a soft gamma repeater (SGR).

  20. Gamma-ray measurements of a soviet cruise-missile warhead.

    PubMed

    Fetter, S; Cochran, T B; Grodzins, L; Lynch, H L; Zucker, M S

    1990-05-18

    A portable germanium detector was used to detect gamma-ray emissions from a nuclear warhead aboard the Soviet cruiser Slava. Measurements taken on the missile launch tube indicated the presence of uranium-235 and plutonium-239-the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons. With the use of this equipment, these isotopes probably could have been identified at a distance of 4 meters from the warhead. Such inspections do not reveal detailed information about the design of the warhead.

  1. Staying Alive: Measuring Intact Viable Microbes with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Erica; Fang, Mingliang; Siuzdak, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has traditionally been the technology of choice for small molecule analysis, making significant inroads into metabolism, clinical diagnostics, and pharmacodynamics since the 1960s. In the mid-1980s, with the discovery of electrospray ionization (ESI) for biomolecule analysis, a new door opened for applications beyond small molecules. Initially, proteins were widely examined, followed by oligonucleotides and other nonvolatile molecules. Then in 1991, three intriguing studies reported using mass spectrometry to examine noncovalent protein complexes, results that have been expanded on for the last 25 years. Those experiments also raised the questions: How soft is ESI, and can it be used to examine even more complex interactions? Our lab addressed these questions with the analyses of viruses, which were initially tested for viability following electrospray ionization and their passage through a quadrupole mass analyzer by placing them on an active medium that would allow them to propagate. This observation has been replicated on multiple different systems, including experiments on an even bigger microbe, a spore. The question of analysis was also addressed in the early 2000s with charge detection mass spectrometry. This unique technology could simultaneously measure mass-to-charge and charge, allowing for the direct determination of the mass of a virus. More recent experiments on spores and enveloped viruses have given us insight into the range of mass spectrometry's capabilities (reaching 100 trillion Da), beginning to answer fundamental questions regarding the complexity of these organisms beyond proteins and genes, and how small molecules are integral to these supramolecular living structures.

  2. Gamma radiation measurements and dose rates in commercially-used natural tiling rocks (granites).

    PubMed

    Tzortzis, Michalis; Tsertos, Haralabos; Christofides, Stelios; Christodoulides, George

    2003-01-01

    The gamma radiation in samples of a variety of natural tiling rocks (granites) imported in Cyprus for use in the building industry was measured, employing high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The rock samples were pulverised, sealed in 1-l plastic Marinelli beakers, and measured in the laboratory with an accumulating time between 10 and 14 h each. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for (232)Th (range from 1 to 906 Bq kg(-1)), (238)U (from 1 to 588 Bq kg(-1)) and (40)K (from 50 to 1606 Bq kg(-1)). The total absorbed dose rates in air calculated from the concentrations of the three radionuclides ranged from 7 to 1209 nGy h(-1) for full utilization of the materials, from 4 to 605 nGy h(-1) for half utilization and from 2 to 302 nGy h(-1) for one quarter utilization. The total effective dose rates per person indoors were determined to be between 0.02 and 2.97 mSv y(-1) for half utilization of the materials. Applying dose criteria recently recommended by the EU for superficial materials, 25 of the samples meet the exemption dose limit of 0.3 mSv y(-1), two of them meet the upper dose limit of 1 mSv y(-1) and only one clearly exceeds this limit.

  3. Advanced Scintillator-Based Compton Telescope for Solar Flare Gamma-Ray Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, James Michael; Bloser, Peter; McConnell, Mark; Legere, Jason; Bancroft, Christopher; Murphy, Ronald; de Nolfo, Georgia

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of future Solar and Heliospheric Physics missions is the understanding of the particle acceleration processes taking place on the Sun. Achieving this understanding will require detailed study of the gamma-ray emission lines generated by accelerated ions in solar flares. Specifically, it will be necessary to study gamma-ray line ratios over a wide range of flare intensities, down to small C-class flares. Making such measurements over such a wide dynamic range, however, is a serious challenge to gamma-ray instrumentation, which must deal with large backgrounds for faint flares and huge counting rates for bright flares. A fast scintillator-based Compton telescope is a promising solution to this instrumentation challenge. The sensitivity of Compton telescopes to solar flare gamma rays has already been demonstrated by COMPTEL, which was able to detect nuclear emission from a C4 flare, the faintest such detection to date. Modern fast scintillators, such as LaBr3, and CeBr3, are efficient at stopping MeV gamma rays, have sufficient energy resolution (4% or better above 0.5 MeV) to resolve nuclear lines, and are fast enough (~15 ns decay times) to record at very high rates. When configured as a Compton telescope in combination with a modern organic scintillator, such as p-terphenyl, sub-nanosecond coincidence resolving time allows dramatic suppression of background via time-of-flight (ToF) measurements, allowing both faint and bright gamma-ray line flares to be measured. The use of modern light readout devices, such as silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), eliminates passive mass and permits a more compact, efficient instrument. We have flown a prototype Compton telescope using modern fast scintillators with SiPM readouts on a balloon test flight, achieving good ToF and spectroscopy performance. A larger balloon-borne instrument is currently in development. We present our test results and estimates of the solar flare sensitivity of a possible full-scale instrument

  4. Analysis of gamma-irradiated melon, pumpkin, and sunflower seeds by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sin, Della W M; Wong, Yiu Chung; Yao, Wai Yin

    2006-09-20

    Seeds of melon (Citrullus lanatus var. sp.), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), and sunflower (Heliantus annus) were gamma-irradiated at 1, 3, 5, and 10 kGy and analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) according to EN1787:2000 and EN1785:2003, respectively. Distinguishable triplet signals due to the presence of induced cellulose radicals were found at 2.0010-2.0047 g in the EPR spectra. The gamma-irradiated radiolytic markers of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB) were identified in all irradiated seed samples. Both the free radicals and the alkylcyclobutanones were found to increase with irradiation dose. In general, linear relationships between the amount of radicals and irradiation dosage could be established. Studies at an ambient temperature (20-25 degrees C) in a humidity-controlled environment showed a complete disappearance of the cellulosic peaks for irradiated samples upon 60 days of storage. Such instability behavior was considered to render the usefulness of using EPR alone in the determination of irradiated seed samples. On the other hand, 2-DCB and 2-TCB were also found to decompose rapidly (>85% loss after 120 days of storage), but the radiolytic markers remained quantifiable after 120 days of postirradiation storage. These results suggest that GC-MS is a versatile and complimentary technique for the confirmation of irradiation treatment to seeds.

  5. Carbon isotopic ratio analysis by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) administration to humans.

    PubMed

    Saudan, Christophe; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice; Saugy, Martial

    2007-01-01

    Since GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) is naturally produced in the human body, clinical and forensic toxicologists must be able to discriminate between endogenous levels and a concentration resulting from exposure. To suggest an alternative to the use of interpretative concentration cut-offs, the detection of exogenous GHB in urine specimens was investigated by means of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). GHB was isolated from urinary matrix by successive purification on Oasis MCX and Bond Elute SAX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractioning using an Atlantis dC18 column eluted with a mixture of formic acid and methanol. Subsequent intramolecular esterification of GHB leading to the formation of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) was carried out to avoid introduction of additional carbon atoms for carbon isotopic ratio analysis. A precision of 0.3 per thousand was determined using this IRMS method for samples at GHB concentrations of 10 mg/L. The (13)C/(12)C ratios of GHB in samples of subjects exposed to the drug ranged from -32.1 to -42.1 per thousand, whereas the results obtained for samples containing GHB of endogenous origin at concentration levels less than 10 mg/L were in the range -23.5 to -27.0 per thousand. Therefore, these preliminary results show that a possible discrimination between endogenous and exogenous GHB can be made using carbon isotopic ratio analyses.

  6. High-resolution gamma-ray measurement systems using a compact electro- mechanically cooled detector system and intelligent software

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, W.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Neufeld, K.W.

    1995-09-27

    Obtaining high-resolution gamma-ray measurements using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in the field has been of limited practicality due to the need to use and maintain a supply of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}). This same constraint limits high-resolution gamma measurements in unattended safeguards or treaty Verification applications. We are developing detectors and software to greatly extend the applicability of high-resolution germanium-based measurements for these situations.

  7. Mapping the spatial distribution and activity of (226)Ra at legacy sites through Machine Learning interpretation of gamma-ray spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    Varley, Adam; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Leslie; Dale, Paul; Davies, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Radium ((226)Ra) contamination derived from military, industrial, and pharmaceutical products can be found at a number of historical sites across the world posing a risk to human health. The analysis of spectral data derived using gamma-ray spectrometry can offer a powerful tool to rapidly estimate and map the activity, depth, and lateral distribution of (226)Ra contamination covering an extensive area. Subsequently, reliable risk assessments can be developed for individual sites in a fraction of the timeframe compared to traditional labour-intensive sampling techniques: for example soil coring. However, local heterogeneity of the natural background, statistical counting uncertainty, and non-linear source response are confounding problems associated with gamma-ray spectral analysis. This is particularly challenging, when attempting to deal with enhanced concentrations of a naturally occurring radionuclide such as (226)Ra. As a result, conventional surveys tend to attribute the highest activities to the largest total signal received by a detector (Gross counts): an assumption that tends to neglect higher activities at depth. To overcome these limitations, a methodology was developed making use of Monte Carlo simulations, Principal Component Analysis and Machine Learning based algorithms to derive depth and activity estimates for (226)Ra contamination. The approach was applied on spectra taken using two gamma-ray detectors (Lanthanum Bromide and Sodium Iodide), with the aim of identifying an optimised combination of detector and spectral processing routine. It was confirmed that, through a combination of Neural Networks and Lanthanum Bromide, the most accurate depth and activity estimates could be found. The advantage of the method was demonstrated by mapping depth and activity estimates at a case study site in Scotland. There the method identified significantly higher activity (<3 Bq g(-1)) occurring at depth (>0.4m), that conventional gross counting algorithms

  8. Inference of total DT fusion neutron yield from prompt gamma-ray measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, J. A.; Herrmann, H. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Sayre, D.

    2014-10-01

    Prompt D-T fusion gamma-rays measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with the Gamma-ray Reaction History detector (GRH) have been used recently to infer the total DT fusion neutron yield of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. DT fusion produces energetic gamma-rays (16.75 MeV) with a small branching ratio of approximately (4.2 +/- 2.0)e-5 γ/n. While the large error bar precludes use of the branching ratio for an accurate yield determination, the gamma-rays themselves provide the most unperturbed measure of fusion burn and can be used for such a purpose. A cross-calibration for the DT fusion gamma-ray to neutron signal is obtained via low areal density exploding pusher implosions which have mostly unperturbed neutron and gamma-ray signals. The calibration is then used to infer total DT neutron yield from gamma-ray measurements on high areal-density, cryogenically layered implosions in which neutrons are heavily down-scattered (up to 30%). Furthermore, the difference between the gamma-ray inferred total DT yield and the primary neutron yield (unscattered neutrons) can be used to estimate the total down-scatter fraction. Error analysis and comparison of yield values will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL-ABS-657694.

  9. Gamma ray and fair weather electric field measurements during thunderstorms: indications for TGEs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Yuval; Yair, Yoav; Steinitz, Gideon; Price, Colin; Pustil'nik, Lev; Yaniv, Roy; Hamiel, Yariv; Katz, Evgeni

    2016-04-01

    We report coincidences of ground-level gamma-ray enhancements with strong electric fields typical of lightning discharges, measured at a mountainous site in northern Israel. High-energy emissions detected on the Earth's surface during thunderstorms supposedly initiate Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs) of fluxes of electrons, neutrons and gamma rays that can last tens of minutes. Such enhancements are thought to be related to Extensive Cloud Showers (ECSs) initiated between the main negative charge center and the lower positive charge pocket in mature thunderstorms (Chilingarian et al., 2015). The Cosmic Ray and Space Weather Center located at Mt. Hermon hosts a gamma ray detector alongside a continuous multi-parametric array consisting of a Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) geodetic receiver (for measuring Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC)), vertical atmospheric electric field (Ez) and current (Jz) and a neutron super monitor (for cosmic ray measurements). The diurnal variations in fair-weather conditions exhibit a clear 24-hour periodicity, related to the diurnal variation of atmospheric parameters. During several severe thunderstorms that occurred over Israel and near the Mt. Hermon station in October and November 2015, we recorded several instantaneous enhancements in the counts of Gamma rays, which lasted ten of minutes, and that coincided with peaks in the vertical electric field and current. Lightning data obtained from the Israeli Lightning Detection Network (ILDN) show that these peaks match the occurrences of close-by CG lightning discharges. This talk will present correlations between the properties of parent flashes and the observed peaks, and discuss possible mechanisms.

  10. Precision neutron flux measurements and applications using the Alpha Gamma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eamon; Alpha Gamma; BL2 Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Alpha Gamma device is a totally-absorbing 10 B neutron detector designed to measure the absolute detection efficiency of a thin-film lithium neutron monitor on a monoenergetic neutron beam. The detector has been shown to measure neutron fluence with an absolute accuracy of 0.06%. This capability has been used to perform the first direct, absolute measurement of the 6Li(n , t) 4He cross section at sub-thermal energy, improve the neutron fluence determination in a past beam neutron lifetime measurement by a factor of five, and is being used to calibrate the neutron monitors for use in the upcoming beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2 (NIST Beam Lifetime 2). The principle of the measurement method will presented and the applications will be discussed. We would like to acknowledge support of this research through the NSF-PHY-1068712 grant as well as the NIST Precision Measurement Grant program.

  11. Precision neutron flux measurements and applications using the Alpha Gamma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eamon

    2016-03-01

    The Alpha Gamma device is a totally-absorbing 10 B neutron detector designed to measure the absolute detection efficiency of a thin-film lithium neutron monitor on a monoenergetic neutron beam. The detector has been shown to measure neutron fluence with an absolute accuracy of 0.06%. This capability has been used to perform the first direct, absolute measurement of the 6Li(n,t) 4He cross section at sub-thermal energy, improve the neutron fluence determination in a past beam neutron lifetime measurement by a factor of five, and is being used to calibrate the neutron monitors for use in the upcoming beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2 (NIST Beam Lifetime 2). The principle of the measurement method will presented and the applications will be discussed. We would like to acknowledge support of this research through the NSF-PHY-1068712 Grant as well as the NIST Precision Measurement Grant program.

  12. Use of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry for environmental assessment of the rehabilitated nabarlek uranium mine, Australia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul; Tims, Stephen; McGill, Anthony; Ryan, Bruce; Pfitzner, Kirrilly

    2006-04-01

    This article describes an airborne gamma survey of a 7 x 5 km region around the rehabilitated Nabarlek uranium mine in northern Australia. An unusually tight line spacing (100 m) and low aircraft height (50 m) were used, enabling the survey to distinguish man-made structures such as ponds and accommodation areas, as well as creek lines. Positive correlations between airborne data and ground-based readings enabled an estimation of the average absorbed dose rate arising from terrestrial gamma radiation over large areas of the site to be derived. For the fenced minesite area this estimate was 0.31 micro Gy hr(- 1). The airborne survey data were found to be invaluable in helping to plan further ground-level investigations and showed promise as an assessment tool for rehabilitated minesites.

  13. Interpretation of Gravity and Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Data in Low Temperature Hydrothermal Systems, Southeastern Part of Fukuoka, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, Jun; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-01

    The Hakata hot springs area is located in Fukuoka City, which is in the southwestern part of Japan. Gamma-ray and gravity surveys were conducted to understand the relationship between the low-temperature hydrothermal systems and geophysical data of the area. The depth of the reservoir basement, which was derived from gravity data, gradually deepens toward the east; it includes some steep depth gradients in the Hakata hot springs area. High intensities of gamma-rays were detected around these gradients. In addition, higher hot spring temperatures and flow rates can be observed in this area. These results indicate that some part of the level of the basement where the hot springs are concentrated is a part of the Kego Fault and is similar to the fracture zone created by past activities of the fault. Moreover, these steep depth gradients act as a path for hot spring water from the deeper side of the granitic body to the surface.

  14. Measurement of the K{sup +{yields}{pi}0{mu}+{nu}}{sub {mu}{gamma}}branching ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, S.; Chiang, I-H.; Diwan, M. V.; Frank, J. S.; Haggerty, J. S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jain, V.; Kettell, S. H.; Li, K. K.; Littenberg, L. S.; Ng, C.; Strand, R. C.; Witzig, C.; Bazarko, A. O.; Ito, M. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Stone, J. R.; Bergbusch, P. C.; Bryman, D. A.

    2010-05-01

    A measurement of the decay K{sup +{yields}{pi}0{mu}+{nu}}{sub {mu}{gamma}}has been performed with the E787 detector at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Forty events were observed in the signal region with the background expectation of (16.5{+-}2.7) events. The branching ratio was measured to be (1.58{+-}0.46(stat.){+-}0.08(syst.))x10{sup -5} in the kinematic region E{sub {gamma}>}30 MeV and {theta}{sub {mu}{gamma}>}20 deg., where E{sub {gamma}}is the energy of the emitted photon and {theta}{sub {mu}{gamma}}is the angle between the muon and the photon in the K{sup +} rest frame. The results were consistent with theoretical predictions.

  15. An efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor for the Gamma Knife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Li, X. Allen; Yu, Cedric X.

    2000-03-01

    It is essential to have accurate measurements of the 4 mm helmet output factor in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia patients using the Gamma Knife. Because of the small collimator size and the sharp dose gradient at the beam focus, this measurement is generally tedious and difficult. We have developed an efficient method of measuring the 4 mm helmet output factor using regular radiographic films. The helmet output factor was measured by exposing a single Kodak XV film in the standard Leksell spherical phantom using the 18 mm helmet with 30-40 of its plug collimators replaced by the 4 mm plug collimators. The 4 mm helmet output factor was measured to be 0.876 ± 0.009. This is in excellent agreement with our EGS4 Monte Carlo simulated value of 0.876 ± 0.005. This helmet output factor value also agrees with more tedious TLD, diode and radiochromic film measurements that were each obtained using two separate measurements with the 18 mm helmet and the 4 mm helmet respectively. The 4 mm helmet output factor measured by the diode was 0.884 ± 0.016, and the TLD measurement was 0.890 ± 0.020. The radiochromic film measured value was 0.870 ± 0.018. Because a single-exposure measurement was performed instead of a double-exposure measurement, most of the systematic errors that appeared in the double-exposure measurements due to experimental setup variations were cancelled out. Consequently, the 4 mm helmet output factor is more precisely determined by the single-exposure approach. Therefore, routine measurement and quality assurance of the 4 mm helmet output factor of the Gamma Knife could be efficiently carried out using the proposed single-exposure technique.

  16. ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector for Gamma Ray Measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J. R.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Carpenter, A.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Shmayda, W. T.

    2015-11-01

    New requirements to improve reaction history and ablator areal density measurements at the NIF necessitate improvements in sensitivity, temporal and spectral response relative to the existing Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH-6m) located 6 meters from target chamber center (TCC). A new DIM-based ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) will ultimately provide ~ 200x more sensitivity to DT fusion gamma rays, reduce the effective temporal resolution from ~ 100 to ~ 10 ps and lower the energy threshold from 2.9 to 1.8 MeV, relative to GRH-6m. The first phase is to insert the existing coaxial GCD-3 detector into a reentrant well on the NIF chamber which will put it within 4 meters of TCC. This diagnostic platform will allow assessment of the x-ray radiation background environment within the well which will be fed into the shielding design for the follow-on ``Super'' GCD. It will also enable use of a pulse-dilation PMT which has the potential to improve the effective measurement bandwidth by ~ 10x relative to current PMT technology. GCD-3 has been thoroughly tested at the OMEGA Laser Facility and characterized at the High Intensity Gamma Ray Source (HIgS).

  17. Measurements of neutron distribution in neutrons-gamma-rays mixed field using imaging plate for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    The imaging plate (IP) technique is tried to be used as a handy method to measure the spatial neutron distribution via the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction for neutron capture therapy (NCT). For this purpose, IP is set in a water phantom and irradiated in a mixed field of neutrons and gamma-rays. The Hiroshima University Radiobiological Research Accelerator is utilized for this experiment. The neutrons are moderated with 20-cm-thick D(2)O to obtain suitable neutron field for NCT. The signal for IP doped with Gd as a neutron-response enhancer is subtracted with its contribution by gamma-rays, which was estimated using IP without Gd. The gamma-ray response of Gd-doped IP to non-Gd IP is set at 1.34, the value measured for (60)Co gamma-rays, in estimating the gamma-ray contribution to Gd-doped IP signal. Then measured distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate agrees within 10% with the calculated value based on the method that has already been validated for its reproducibility of Au activation. However, the evaluated distribution of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate is so sensitive to gamma-ray energy, e.g. the discrepancy of the (157)Gd(n,gamma)(158)Gd reaction rate between measurement and calculation becomes 30% for the photon energy change from 33keV to 1.253MeV.

  18. Measurements with Pinhole and Coded Aperture Gamma-Ray Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Solodov, Alexander A; Abdul-Jabbar, Najeb M; Hayward, Jason P; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    From a safeguards perspective, gamma-ray imaging has the potential to reduce manpower and cost for effectively locating and monitoring special nuclear material. The purpose of this project was to investigate the performance of pinhole and coded aperture gamma-ray imaging systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). With the aid of the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), radiometric data will be combined with scans from a three-dimensional design information verification (3D-DIV) system. Measurements were performed at the ORNL Safeguards Laboratory using sources that model holdup in radiological facilities. They showed that for situations with moderate amounts of solid or dense U sources, the coded aperture was able to predict source location and geometry within ~7% of actual values while the pinhole gave a broad representation of source distributions

  19. Stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis of 7Be: measurement of 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be.

    PubMed

    Di Leva, A; Gialanella, L; Kunz, R; Rogalla, D; Schürmann, D; Strieder, F; De Cesare, M; De Cesare, N; D'Onofrio, A; Fülöp, Z; Gyürky, G; Imbriani, G; Mangano, G; Ordine, A; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Romano, M; Somorjai, E; Terrasi, F

    2009-06-12

    The 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction presently represents the largest nuclear uncertainty in the predicted solar neutrino flux and has important implications on the big bang nucleosynthesis, i.e., the production of primordial 7Li. We present here the results of an experiment using the recoil separator ERNA (European Recoil separator for Nuclear Astrophysics) to detect directly the 7Be ejectiles. In addition, off-beam activation and coincidence gamma-ray measurements were performed at selected energies. At energies above 1 MeV a large discrepancy compared to previous results is observed both in the absolute value and in the energy dependence of the cross section. Based on the available data and models, a robust estimate of the cross section at the astrophysical relevant energies is proposed.

  20. Measurement of the branching fraction of Gamma(4S) --> B0B0.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Simi, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Christ, S; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Graziani, G; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Mohapatra, A K; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Thompson, J; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Ricca, G Della; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-07-22

    We report the first measurement of the branching fraction f(00) for Gamma(4S) --> B(0)B(0). The data sample consists of 81.7 fb(-1) collected at the Gamma(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e(+)e(-) storage ring. Using partial reconstruction of the decay B(0) --> D(*+) l(-)nu(l) in which only the charged lepton and the soft pion from the decay D(*+) --> D(0)pi(+) are reconstructed, we obtain f(00) = 0.487 +/- 0.010(stat) +/- 0.008(syst). Our result does not depend on the branching fractions of B(0) --> D(*+)l(-)nu(l) and D(*+) --> D(0)pi(+) decays, on the ratio of the charged and neutral B meson lifetimes, nor on the assumption of isospin symmetry.

  1. High-bandwidth multichannel fiber optic system for measuring gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, F.; Smith, D.E.; Pruett, B.L.; Reedy, R.P.

    1984-07-01

    We describe an analog fiber optic gamma-ray diagnostic system that can transmit signals through fiber cables 600 to 700 m long with a system bandwidth exceeding 1 GHz and measure the relative timing between signals to within 0.3 ns. Gamma rays are converted to visible light via the Cerenkov process in a short length of a radiation-resistant optical fiber. A graded-index optical fiber transmits this pulse to a recording station where the broadened pulse is compensated for material dispersion and recorded using a streak camera. The streak camera can simultaneously record 20 to 30 data channels on a single piece of film. The system has been calibrated using electron linear accelerators and fielded on two experiments.

  2. Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of hydrogen-alpha, -beta, and -gamma emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Parigger, Christian G.; Dackman, Matthew; Hornkohl, James O

    2008-11-01

    Hydrogen emission spectroscopy results are reported following laser-induced optical breakdown with infrared Nd:YAG laser radiation focused into a pulsed methane flow. Measurements of Stark-broadened atomic hydrogen-alpha, -beta, and -gamma lines show electron number densities of 0.3 to 4x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} for time delays of 2.1 to 0.4 {mu}s after laser-induced optical breakdown. In methane flow, recombination molecular spectra of the {delta}{nu}=+2 progression of the C2 Swan system are discernable in the H{beta} and H{gamma} plasma emissions within the first few microseconds. The recorded atomic spectra indicate the occurrence of hydrogen self-absorption for pulsed CH4 flow pressures of 2.7x10{sup 5} Pa (25 psig) and 6.5x10{sup 5} Pa (80 psig)

  3. Standardization and measurement of gamma-ray probability per decay of 177Lu.

    PubMed

    Dias, Mauro S; Silva, Fabrício F V; Koskinas, Marina F

    2010-01-01

    The procedure followed by the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN), at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), for the primary standardization of (177)Lu is described. This radionuclide is widely used in radiopharmacy due to its convenient half-life and emitted beta ray energies. The (177)Lu solution was supplied during an international comparison sponsored by BIPM in 2009 and the primary standardization has been accomplished by the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence method using a proportional counter in 4pi geometry coupled with two NaI(Tl) scintillation counters. The beta efficiency was varied by placing Collodion and aluminum absorbers over and under the radioactive source. The (177)Lu calibrated sources were also measured in a previously calibrated HPGe spectrometer, in order to obtain the emission probability per decay for the selected gamma-ray transitions. The experimental extrapolation curves were also compared with Monte Carlo simulations by means of code ESQUEMA developed at the LMN.

  4. Development and application of marine gamma-ray measurements: a review.

    PubMed

    Jones, D G

    2001-01-01

    The development of instruments to measure gamma radiation in the marine environment, particularly on the sea floor, and the range of uses to which they have been put is reviewed. Since the first steps in the late 1950s, systems have been developed in at least 10 countries with the main thrust occurring in the 1970s. Development has continued up to the present, primarily in Europe and the USA. Marine gamma-ray spectrometers have been used for a range of applications including the mapping of rocks and unconsolidated sediments, mineral exploration (mainly for heavy minerals and phosphorites), sediment transport studies and investigations in relation to discharged and dumped nuclear wastes and at nuclear weapon test sites.

  5. Radial Electron Temperature and Density Measurements Using Thomson Scattering System in GAMMA 10/PDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Ohta, K.; Wang, X.; Chikatsu, M.; Kohagura, J.; Shima, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Imai, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Minami, T.

    2015-11-01

    A Thomson scattering (TS) system in GAMMA 10/PDX has been developed for the measurement of radial profiles of electron temperature and density in a single plasma and laser shot. The TS system has a large solid angle optical collection system and high-sensitivity signal detection system. The TS signals are obtained using four-channel high-speed digital oscilloscopes controlled by a Windows PC. We designed the acquisition program for six oscilloscopes to obtain 10-Hz TS signals in a single plasma shot, following which the time-dependent electron temperatures and densities can be determined. Moreover, in order to obtain larger TS signal intensity in the edge region, we added a second collection mirror. The radial electron temperatures and densities at six radial positions in GAMMA 10/PDX were successfully obtained.

  6. Estimates of rates and errors for measurements of direct-{gamma} and direct-{gamma} + jet production by polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.G.

    1992-08-14

    Studies of inclusive direct-{gamma} production by pp interactions at RHIC energies were performed. Rates and the associated uncertainties on spin-spin observables for this process were computed for the planned PHENIX and STAR detectors at energies between {radical}s = 50 and 500 GeV. Also, rates were computed for direct-{gamma} + jet production for the STAR detector. The goal was to study the gluon spin distribution functions with such measurements. Recommendations concerning the electromagnetic calorimeter design and the need for an endcap calorimeter for STAR are made.

  7. Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

    2010-02-05

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg

  8. Measurements of {psi}(2S) decays into {gamma}KK{pi} and {gamma}{eta}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; Bai, J. Z.; Bian, J. G.; Cai, X.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. X.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, Jin; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, Y. P.; Cui, X. Z.; Deng, Z. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, C. S.; Gu, S. D.; Guo, Y. N.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, K. L.

    2006-10-01

    Radiative decays of the {psi}(2S) into {gamma}KK{pi} and {gamma}{eta}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} final states are studied using 14x10{sup 6} {psi}(2S) events collected with the BESII detector. Branching fractions or upper limits on the branching fractions of {psi}(2S) and {chi}{sub cJ} decays are reported. No significant signal for {eta}(1405)/{eta}(1475) is observed in the KK{pi} or {eta}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mass spectra, and upper limits on the branching fractions of {psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}{eta}(1405)/{eta}(1475), {eta}(1405)/{eta}(1475){yields}KK{pi}, and {eta}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} are determined.

  9. Isotopic ratio of 129I/127I in seaweed measured by neutron activation analysis with gamma-gamma coincidence.

    PubMed

    Toh, Y; Hatsukawa, Y; Oshima, M; Shinohara, N; Hayakawa, T; Kushita, K; Ueno, T

    2002-07-01

    129I is a long-lived (1.6 x 10(7) y) radionuclide that is produced in nature as the result of spontaneous fission of heavy elements and reaction of xenon with cosmic rays. Recently, however, artificial sources from nuclear power plants and nuclear test explosions have become a significant component of environmental radioactive iodine. Coincidence gamma-ray detection using Ge detectors makes it possible to simultaneously resolve the numerous gamma-rays produced by neutron activation. In this study, the coincidence gamma-ray detection technique was combined with neutron activation analysis to determine the radioactive iodine composition of seaweed. The ratio of 129I/127I in this common Japanese food item collected from the Ibaraki prefecture has been derived without the need for radiochemical purification. The isotopic ratio of 129I/127I in Kajime algae is 3.5(5) x 10(-10).

  10. Deconvolution of detector size effect for output factor measurement for narrow Gamma Knife radiosurgery beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, G.; Saiful Huq, M.; Rosenow, U. F.

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of output factors (OFs) for a model U Gamma Knife collimator, with special emphasis on the accurate determination of the OF for the 4 mm collimator (OF4). In the past, the OF4 was set to 0.800 relative to the 18 mm collimator. Recently, the manufacturer has recommended a new value of 0.870 for OF4. However, most centres still use the old value of the OF4. In the present study, the Gamma Knife OFs were measured using a commercially available miniature diamond detector and a miniature 0.006 cc ion chamber, which was especially designed for the task. The measured OF4 were corrected for spatial averaging effects by measuring dose profiles for the 4 mm collimator with the same detectors and deconvolving their response from the measured profiles. A Gaussian kernel was used to describe the detector response. The relative OFs measured with the diamond detector/ion chamber were 0.986/0.982, 0.953/0.935 and 0.812/0.765 for the 14, 8 and 4 mm collimators, respectively, as compared with the manufacturer's values of 0.984, 0.956 and 0.87. The corrected OF4 was 0.881 +/- 0.012 for the diamond detector and 0.851 +/- 0.012 for the ion chamber, supporting the manufacturer's revised value for this collimator.

  11. Direct measurement of 235U in spent fuel rods with Gamma-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, J.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Alameda, J. B.; Decker, T. A.; Descalle, M. A.; Fernandez-Perea, M.; Hill, R. M.; Kisner, R. A.; Melin, A. M.; Patton, B. W.; Soufli, R.; Ziock, K.; Pivovaroff, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Direct measurement of plutonium and uranium X-rays and gamma-rays is a highly desirable non-destructive analysis method for the use in reprocessing fuel environments. The high background and intense radiation from spent fuel make direct measurements difficult to implement since the relatively low activity of uranium and plutonium is masked by the high activity from fission products. To overcome this problem, we make use of a grazing incidence optic to selectively reflect Kα and Kβ fluorescence of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) into a high-purity position-sensitive germanium detector and obtain their relative ratios.

  12. Comparison of modeled and measured performance of a GSO crystal as gamma detector

    SciTech Connect

    Parno, Diana Syemour; Friend, Megan Lynn; Mamyan, Vahe; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Camsonne, Alexandre; Franklin, Gregg B.; Paschke, Kent D.; Quinn, Brian Patrick

    2013-11-01

    We have modeled, tested, and installed a large, cerium-activated Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal scintillator for use as a detector of gamma rays. We present the measured detector response to two types of incident photons: nearly monochromatic photons up to 40 MeV, and photons from a continuous Compton backscattering spectrum up to 200 MeV. Our GEANT4 simulations, developed to determine the analyzing power of the Compton polarimeter in Hall A of Jefferson Lab, reproduce the measured spectra well.

  13. Simulation and Measurement of Absorbed Dose from 137 Cs Gammas Using a Si Timepix Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Empl, Anton; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The TimePix readout chip is a hybrid pixel detector with over 65k independent pixel elements. Each pixel contains its own circuitry for charge collection, counting logic, and readout. When coupled with a Silicon detector layer, the Timepix chip is capable of measuring the charge, and thus energy, deposited in the Silicon. Measurements using a NIST traceable 137Cs gamma source have been made at Johnson Space Center using such a Si Timepix detector, and this data is compared to simulations of energy deposition in the Si layer carried out using FLUKA.

  14. Measurement of an upper limit of fission energy release in HOLOG using a germanium gamma ray detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.F.

    1998-01-01

    An upper limit of less than 4 mg TNT equivalent fission energy release from the HOLOG experiment was determined using a germanium {gamma}-ray detector to measure the ratio of selected fission-product and plutonium {gamma} rays. Only three hours of {gamma}-ray data collected immediately after the zero-time were analyzed to calculate the above limit. We found no peaks corresponding to the {sup 97} Zr - {sup 97} Nb fission product pair at the gamma-ray energies of E{sub {gamma}} = 743 keV and E{sub {gamma}} = 658 keV, respectively. No information on the plutonium isotopic ratios is revealed because {gamma}-ray peaks in the energy region below 100 keV are not observed due to the high absorption in the containment barrier. The measurement is relatively easy to perform and is not subject to false-positive results because specific fission product and plutonium {gamma} ray energies need to be detected.

  15. Application of nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques for the safeguarding of irradiated fuel materials

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.R.; Halbig, J.K.; Lee, D.M.; Beach, S.E.; Bement, T.R.; Dermendjiev, E.; Hatcher, C.R.; Kaieda, K.; Medina, E.G.

    1980-05-01

    Nondestructive gamma-ray and neutron techniques were used to characterize the irradiation exposures of irradiated fuel assemblies. Techniques for the rapid measurement of the axial-activity profiles of fuel assemblies have been developed using ion chambers and Be(..gamma..,n) detectors. Detailed measurements using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and passive neutron techniques were correlated with operator-declared values of cooling times and burnup.

  16. Gamma-ray thermoluminescence measurements: a record of fallout deposition in Hiroshima?

    PubMed

    Egbert, Stephen D; Kerr, George D

    2012-05-01

    In certain Hiroshima neighborhoods, radiation measurements using thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) exceed what can be explained by the initial gamma-ray doses and uncertainties from the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02). This problem was not previously recognized as being isolated to certain parts of that city. The ratio between TLD measurements and DS02 dose calculations for gamma rays appear to grow larger than unity up to more than three with increasing ground range, but closer examination shows the excess TLD dose (0.1, 0.2, or possibly up to 0.8 Gray) is correlated with certain neighborhoods and could be due to radioactive fallout. At Nagasaki, the TLD measurements do not show this same excess, probably because there were no TLD measurements taken more than 800 m downwind (eastward) from the Nagasaki hypocenter, so that any small excess TLD dose was masked by larger initial gamma-ray doses of 25-80 Gray in the few downwind samples. The DS02 Report had noted many measurements lower than the DS02 calculation for several Nagasaki TLD samples, independent of ground range. This was explained as being the result of previously unaccounted urban shielding which was observed from Nagasaki pre-bomb aerial photos. However, the Hiroshima excess TLD dose issue was not resolved. If the excess TLD doses at Hiroshima are an indication of fallout, it may be possible to use additional TLD studies to make better estimates of the locations and radiation doses to survivors from the fallout after the bombings at both cities.

  17. 209Tl half-life and gamma-ray measurements of radionuclides belonging to the (4 n + 1) decay chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardisson, G.; Barci, V.; El Samad, O.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra of radiochemically separated 221Fr, 213Bi and 209Tl sources were measured using coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. The energies and emission probabilities of eight new gamma-ray transitions were observed in the decay of 209Tl; a half-life of (2.161±0.007) min was measured. Twenty-two gamma-rays have been attributed to the β-decay of 213Bi, of which 17 are new with respect to previous studies. The 213Po level scheme was determined using γ-γ coincidence measurements: eight excited states are proposed of which six are new. Preliminary measurements of the α-decay of 221Fr revealed the existence of 18 gamma-ray transitions of which eight are reported for the first time.

  18. Measured Activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni) and gamma'-(Ni)3Al in the Ni-Al-Pt System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    Adding Pt to Ni-Al coatings is critical to achieving the required oxidation protection of Ni-based superalloys, but the nature of the Pt effect remains unresolved. This research provides a fundamental part of the answer by measuring the influence of Pt on the activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni), gamma prime-(Ni)3Al and liquid in the Ni-Al-Pt system. Measurements have been made at 25 compositions in the Ni-rich corner over the temperature range, T = 1400-1750 K, by the vapor pressure technique with a multiple effusion-cell mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). These measurements clearly show adding Pt (for X(sub Pt) less than 0.25) decreases a(Al) while increasing a(Ni). This solution behavior supports the idea that Pt increases Al transport to an alloy / Al2O3 interface and also limits the interaction between the coating and substrate alloys in the gamma-(Ni) + gamma prime-(Ni)3Al region. This presentation will review the progress of this study.

  19. Radionuclides in man and his environment measured by accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Erlandsson, Bengt; Kiisk, Madis; Persson, Per; Skog, Goeran; Stenstroem, Kristina; Mattsson, Soeren; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Olofsson, Mikael

    1999-06-10

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a highly sensitive analytical method for measuring very low concentrations of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. For radioanalytical purposes, the main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than one hour). In this report some current applications of the AMS technique at the Lund Pelletron accelerator are presented, in particular studies of {sup 14}C-labeled pharmaceuticals used in clinical nuclear medicine and biomedical research.

  20. Ultra-High Rate Measurements of Spent Fuel Gamma-Ray Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Douglas; Vandevender, Brent; Wood, Lynn; Glasgow, Brian; Taubman, Matthew; Wright, Michael; Dion, Michael; Pitts, Karl; Runkle, Robert; Campbell, Luke; Fast, James

    2014-03-01

    Presently there are over 200,000 irradiated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the world, each containing a concerning amount of weapons-usable material. Both facility operators and safeguards inspectors want to improve composition determination. Current measurements are expensive and difficult so new methods are developed through models. Passive measurements are limited since a few specific decay products and the associated down-scatter overwhelm the gamma rays of interest. Active interrogation methods produce gamma rays beyond 3 MeV, minimizing the impact of the passive emissions that drop off sharply above this energy. New devices like the Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) detector are being developed to advance these novel measurement methods. Designed for reasonable resolution at 106 s-1 output rates (compared to ~ 1 - 10 e 3 s-1 standards), SNF samples were directly measured using UHRGe and compared to models. Model verification further enables using Los Alamos National Laboratory SNF assembly models, developed under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, to determine emission and signal expectations. Measurement results and future application requirements for UHRGe will be discussed.

  1. Anatomy and histophysiology of the periosteum: quantification of the periosteal blood supply to the adjacent bone with 85Sr and gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chanavaz, M

    1995-01-01

    The periosteum or periosteal membrane is a continuous composite fibroelastic covering membrane of the bone to which it is intimately linked. Although the bone cortex is the main beneficiary of the principal anatomical and physiological functions of the periosteal membrane, the behavior of the entire bone remains closely influenced by periosteal activity. These principal functions are related to the cortical blood supply, osteogenesis, and muscle and ligament attachments. Through its elastic and contractile nature, it participates in the maintenance of bone shape, and plays an important role in metabolic ionic exchange and physiologic distribution of electro-chemical potential differences across its membranous structure. It has also been suggested that the periosteum may have its own specific proprioceptive property. This paper presents a study of the anatomy and histophysiology of the periosteum, and discusses in detail its main functions of cortical blood supply and osteogenesis. It also presents the third intermediary report on a current study of the quantification of cortical vascularization of femoral bone via the periosteum, using an isotonic salt solution containing 85 Strontium. The afferent-efferent (arterio-venous) flows of this solution in the thigh vascular system of guinea pigs were measured by gamma spectrometry after a series of selective macro- and micro-injections of radioactive salt into the femoral arterial system was carried out. Each vascular territory was meticulously selected and the injections were made according to size, starting with the larger vessels, with or without ligatures of neighboring vessels, going progressively to smaller and smaller vessels with diameters not exceeding 100 microns. The principal technical difficulty at this stage of experimentation was related to the identifying and acquiring of appropriate microcatheters. The study also includes a series of measurements after blockage of the transmuscular blood flow and the

  2. Measurements of gamma radiation levels and spectra in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, B. T.; Brozek, K. P.; Angell, C. T.; Norman, E. B.

    2011-10-01

    Much of the radiation received by an average person is emitted by naturally-occurring radioactive isotopes from the thorium, actinium, and uranium decay series, or potassium. In this study, we have measured gamma radiation levels at various locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and the UC Berkeley campus from spectra taken using an ORTEC NOMAD portable data acquisition system and a large-volume coaxial HPGe detector. We have identified a large number of gamma rays originating from natural sources. The most noticeable isotopes are 214Bi, 40K, and 208Tl. We have observed variations in counting rates by factors of two to five between different locations due to differences in local conditions - such as building, concrete, grass, and soil compositions. In addition, in a number of outdoor locations, we have observed 604-, 662-, and 795-keV gamma rays from 134,137Cs, which we attribute to fallout from the recent Fukushima reactor accident. The implications of these results will be discussed. This work was supported in part by a grant from the U. S. Dept. of Homeland Security.

  3. Large-scale radon hazard evaluation in the Oslofjord region of Norway utilizing indoor radon concentrations, airborne gamma ray spectrometry and geological mapping.

    PubMed

    Smethurst, Mark Andrew; Strand, Terje; Sundal, Aud Venke; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2008-12-15

    We test whether airborne gamma ray spectrometer measurements can be used to estimate levels of radon hazard in the Oslofjord region of Norway. We compile 43,000 line kilometres of gamma ray spectrometer data from 8 airborne surveys covering 10,000 km2 and compare them with 6326 indoor radon measurements. We find a clear spatial correlation between areas with elevated concentrations of uranium daughters in the near surface of the ground and regions with high incidence of elevated radon concentrations in dwellings. This correlation permits cautious use of the airborne data in radon hazard evaluation where direct measurements of indoor radon concentrations are few or absent. In radon hazard evaluation there is a natural synergy between the mapping of radon in indoor air, bedrock and drift geology mapping and airborne gamma ray surveying. We produce radon hazard forecast maps for the Oslofjord region based on a spatial union of hazard indicators from all four of these data sources. Indication of elevated radon hazard in any one of the data sets leads to the classification of a region as having an elevated radon hazard potential. This approach is inclusive in nature and we find that the majority of actual radon hazards lie in the assumed elevated risk regions.

  4. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-17

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

  5. Measuring Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys With Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) as it relates to thermodynamic measurements of metals and alloys. First, general aspects are reviewed, with emphasis on the Knudsen-cell vapor source and molecular beam formation, and mass spectrometry issues germane to this type of instrument are discussed briefly. The relationship between the vapor pressure inside the effusion cell and the measured ion intensity is the key to KEMS and is derived in detail. Then common methods used to determine thermodynamic quantities with KEMS are discussed. Enthalpies of vaporization, the fundamental measurement, are determined from the variation of relative partial pressure with temperature using the second-law method or by calculating a free energy of formation and subtracting the entropy contribution using the third-law method. For single-cell KEMS instruments, measurements can be used to determine the partial Gibbs free energy if the sensitivity factor remains constant over multiple experiments. The ion-current ratio method and dimer-monomer method are also viable in some systems. For a multiple-cell KEMS instrument, activities are obtained by direct comparison with a suitable component reference state or a secondary standard. Internal checks for correct instrument operation and general procedural guidelines also are discussed. Finally, general comments are made about future directions in measuring alloy thermodynamics with KEMS.

  6. The determination of the pulse pile-up reject (PUR) counting for X and gamma ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabıdak, S. M.; Kaya, S.

    2017-02-01

    The collection the charged particles produced by the incident radiation on a detector requires a time interval. If this time interval is not sufficiently short compared with the peaking time of the amplifier, a loss in the recovered signal amplitude occurs. Another major constraint on the throughput of modern x or gamma-ray spectrometers is the time required for the subsequent the pulse processing by the electronics. Two above-mentioned limitations are cause of counting losses resulting from the dead time and the pile-up. The pulse pile-up is a common problem in x and gamma ray radiation detection systems. The pulses pile-up in spectroscopic analysis can cause significant errors. Therefore, inhibition of these pulses is a vital step. A way to reduce errors due to the pulse pile-up is a pile-up inspection circuitry (PUR). Such a circuit rejects some of the pulse pile-up. Therefore, this circuit leads to counting losses. Determination of these counting losses is an important problem. In this work, a new method is suggested for the determination of the pulse pile-up reject.

  7. Investigating the Anisotropic Scintillation Response in Anthracene through Neutron, Gamma-Ray, and Muon Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Patricia; Brubaker, Erik

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a series of measurements that characterize the directional dependence of the scintillation response of crystalline anthracene to incident DT neutrons, DD neutrons, Cs-137 gamma rays, and, for the first time, cosmic ray muons. The neutron measurements give the amplitude and pulse shape dependence on the proton recoil direction over one hemisphere of the crystal, confirming and extending previous results in the literature. In similar measurements using incident gamma rays, no directional effect is evident, and any anisotropy with respect to the electron recoil direction is constrained to have a magnitude of less than a tenth of that present in the proton recoil events. Cosmic muons are measured at two directions, and no anisotropy is observed. This set of observations indicates that high dE/dx is necessary for an anisotropy to be present for a given type of scintillation event, which in turn could be used to discriminate among different hypotheses for the underlying causes of the anisotropy, which are not well understood.

  8. Investigating the anisotropic scintillation response in anthracene through neutron, gamma-ray, and muon measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Patricia; Brubaker, Erik

    2016-05-05

    Our paper reports a series of measurements that characterize the directional dependence of the scintillation response of crystalline anthracene to incident DT neutrons, DD neutrons, 137Cs gamma rays, and, for the first time, cosmic ray muons. Moreover, the neutron measurements give the amplitude and pulse shape dependence on the proton recoil direction over one hemisphere of the crystal, confirming and extending previous results in the literature. In similar measurements using incident gamma rays, no directional effect is evident, and any anisotropy with respect to the electron recoil direction is constrained to have a magnitude of less than a tenth of that present in the proton recoil events. Cosmic muons are measured at two directions, and no anisotropy is observed. Our set of observations indicates that high dE/dx is necessary for an anisotropy to be present for a given type of scintillation event, which in turn could be used to discriminate among different hypotheses for the underlying causes of the anisotropy, which are not well understood.

  9. Investigating the anisotropic scintillation response in anthracene through neutron, gamma-ray, and muon measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Schuster, Patricia; Brubaker, Erik

    2016-05-05

    Our paper reports a series of measurements that characterize the directional dependence of the scintillation response of crystalline anthracene to incident DT neutrons, DD neutrons, 137Cs gamma rays, and, for the first time, cosmic ray muons. Moreover, the neutron measurements give the amplitude and pulse shape dependence on the proton recoil direction over one hemisphere of the crystal, confirming and extending previous results in the literature. In similar measurements using incident gamma rays, no directional effect is evident, and any anisotropy with respect to the electron recoil direction is constrained to have a magnitude of less than a tenth ofmore » that present in the proton recoil events. Cosmic muons are measured at two directions, and no anisotropy is observed. Our set of observations indicates that high dE/dx is necessary for an anisotropy to be present for a given type of scintillation event, which in turn could be used to discriminate among different hypotheses for the underlying causes of the anisotropy, which are not well understood.« less

  10. Measurement of proton polarization in the d({gamma},p)n reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.F.; Jackson, H.E.; Jones, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    A proposal was approved by CEBAF PAC7 to measure angular distributions of the proton polarization for the d({gamma},p)n reaction in the GeV region. This proposed measurement will test the validity of extensions of conventional nuclear-physics theories to the higher energy regime. The results of the experiment will further constrain the evidence from SLAC experiments NE8 and NE17 that asymptotic scaling was observed above a photon energy of 1.3 GeV. Photoproton polarization measurements at lower energy indicate that the magnitude of the polarization increases with energy. This is consistent with the observation that polarizations are large in high-energy processes, e.g. A{sub nn} in pp {yields} pp scattering or A{sub y} in pp {yields} {pi}{sup 0}X. However, the polarizations in hadron-hadron scattering are believed to arise from Landshoff mechanisms. The higher energy photoproton experiment will permit the first measurements of polarization for a reaction, {gamma}d {yields} pn, where there are no Landshoff terms. The experiment would make use of a polarimeter installed in either the High Resolution Spectrometer in Hall A or the Short Orbit Spectrometer in Hall C at CEBAF.

  11. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-01

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to

  12. Neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements in the actinide region

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Lougheed, R.W.; Barreau, G.; Boerner, H.; Davidson, W.F.; Schreckenbach, K.; Warner, D.D.; von Egidy, T.; White, D.H.

    1981-09-01

    From recent neutron capture gamma-ray measurements, experimental data for states involving quasiparticle-vibrational admixtures in /sup 227/Ra, /sup 231/Th, /sup 233/Th, /sup 235/U, /sup 237/U, and /sup 239/U have been compared with theoretical calculations by Soloviev's group. This analysis shows the experimental level structure is more complex than that calculated. In the levels of /sup 250/Bk, four Gallagher-Moszkowski pairs are observed. The moment of inertia for each band with antiparallel alignment of odd-nucleon momenta is systematically larger than for its parallel-aligned mate.

  13. System of Programmed Modules for Measuring Photographs with a Gamma-Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averin, S. A.; Veselova, G. V.; Navasardyan, G. V.

    1978-01-01

    Physical experiments using tracking cameras resulted in hundreds of thousands of stereo photographs of events being received. To process such a large volume of information, automatic and semiautomatic measuring systems are required. At the Institute of Space Research of the Academy of Science of the USSR, a system for processing film information from the spark gamma-telescope was developed. The system is based on a BPS-75 projector in line with the minicomputer Elektronika 1001. The report describes this system. The various computer programs available to the operators are discussed.

  14. Measurement of gamma quantum interaction point in plastic scintillator with WLS strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrski, J.; Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Dulski, K.; Gajos, A.; Głowacz, B.; Gupta-Sharma, N.; Gorgol, M.; Jasińska, B.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kamińska, D.; Korcyl, G.; Kowalski, P.; Krzemień, W.; Krawczyk, N.; Kubicz, E.; Mohammed, M.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Silarski, M.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Wojnarska, J.; Zgardzińska, B.; Zieliński, M.; Moskal, P.

    2017-04-01

    The feasibility of measuring the aśxial coordinate of a gamma quantum interaction point in a plastic scintillator bar via the detection of scintillation photons escaping from the scintillator with an array of wavelength-shifting (WLS) strips is demonstrated. Using a test set-up comprising a BC-420 scintillator bar and an array of sixteen BC-482A WLS strips we achieved a spatial resolution of 5 mm (σ) for annihilation photons from a 22Na isotope. The studied method can be used to improve the spatial resolution of a plastic-scintillator-based PET scanner which is being developed by the J-PET collaboration.

  15. Neutron and gamma-ray measurements on the LANL Little Boy Comet Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.E.

    1983-09-01

    We measured the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates at various distances from the Little Boy Comet Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico on April 28 and 29, 1983. The distances selected varied from 350 ft to 1860 ft from the assembly, with the latter point being located at the edge of the mesa overlooking Pajarito Canyon. We varied the power levels for the various runs but we have normalized all of them to a single power-level. We also made corrections for the variations in the power-level indicators of the assembly using data provided by LANL.

  16. Measurements of B- to D(*)0 K(*)- Decays Related to gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Mancinelli, G.

    2004-11-30

    We present measurements of branching fractions and CP asymmetries of several B{sup -} {yields} D{sup (*)0} K{sup (*)-} decays, with the D{sup (*)0} decaying to CP-even, CP-odd, and flavor eigenstates, that can constrain the CP angle {gamma} as well as the amplitude ratio r{sub b} = A(B {yields} u)/A(B {yields} c), using methods proposed by Gronau, London and Wyler or Atwood, Dunietz and Sony[1]. We use data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC.

  17. Evidence for the decay Bs0-->Ds(*)Ds(*) and a measurement of DeltaGammasCP/Gammas.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-03-06

    We search for the semi-inclusive process Bs0-->Ds(*)Ds(*) using 2.8 fb(-1) of pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV recorded by the D0 detector operating at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We observe 26.6+/-8.4 signal events with a significance above background of 3.2 standard deviations yielding a branching ratio of B(Bs0-->Ds(*)Ds(*))=0.035+/-0.010(stat.)+/-0.011(syst.). Under certain theoretical assumptions, these double-charm final states saturate CP-even eigenstates in the Bs0 decays resulting in a width difference of DeltaGammasCP/Gammas=0.072+/-0.021(stat.)+/-0.022(syst.).

  18. Measurements of longitudinal gamma ray distribution using a multichannel fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, S. H.; Jeon, D.; Kim, J. S.; Jang, J. S.; Jang, K. W.; Yoo, W. J.; Moon, J. H.; Park, B. G.; Kim, S.; Lee, B.

    2014-11-01

    Cerenkov radiation occurs when charged particles are moving faster than the speed of light in a transparent dielectric medium. In optical fibers, Cerenkov radiation can also be generated due to the fiber’s dielectric components. Accordingly, the radiation-induced light signals can be obtained using the optical fibers without any scintillating material. In this study, we fabricated a multichannel, fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor (FOCRS) system using silica optical fibers (SOFs), plastic optical fibers (POFs), an optical spectrometer, multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MA-PMTs) and a scanning system to measure the light intensities of Cerenkov radiation induced by gamma rays. To evaluate the fading effects in optical fibers, the spectra of Cerenkov radiation generated in the SOFs and POFs were measured based on the irradiation time by using an optical spectrometer. In addition, we measured the longitudinal distribution of gamma rays emitted from the cylindrical type Co-60 source by using MA-PMTs. The result was also compared with the distribution of the electron flux calculated by using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code (MCNPX).

  19. Gas Cherenkov Detectors For Gamma Ray Measurements At The National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Kim, Y. H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Batha, S. H.; Carpenter, A.; Khater, H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Hares, J. D.; Milnes, J.; Shmayda, W. T.

    2016-10-01

    New requirements to improve reaction history and ablator areal density measurements at the NIF necessitate diagnostic capability improvements in sensitivity, temporal and spectral response relative to the existing Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH-6m) located 6 meters from target chamber center (TCC). Relative to GRH-6m, a new DIM-based ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) will ultimately provide 200x more sensitivity to DT fusion gamma rays, reduce the effective temporal resolution from 100 to 10 ps and lower the energy threshold from 2.9 to 1.8 MeV. Initially, the existing GCD-3 will be placed into a reentrant well, putting it within 4 meters of TCC. This diagnostic platform will allow assessment of the x-ray radiation background environment within the well which will be fed into the shielding design for the follow-on ``Super'' GCD. It will also enable use of a pulse-dilation PMT (PD-PMT) which has the potential to improve the effective measurement bandwidth by 10x relative to current PMT technology. Initial measurements of both GCD-3 on NIF and a PD-PMT prototype on ORION will be discussed.

  20. Systematic indoor radon and gamma-ray measurements in Slovenian schools

    SciTech Connect

    Vaupotic, J.; Sikovec, M.; Kobal, I.

    2000-05-01

    During the winter months of 1992/93 and 1993/94, instantaneous indoor radon concentrations and gamma dose rates were measured in 890 schools in Slovenia attended in total by about 280,000 pupils. Under closed conditions, the room to be surveyed was closed for more than 12 h prior to sampling, the air was sampled into alpha scintillation cells with a volume of 700 cm{sup 3}, and alpha activity was measured. An arithmetic mean of 168 Bq m{sup {minus}3} and a geometric mean of 82 Bq m{sup {minus}3} were obtained. In 67% of schools, indoor radon concentrations were below 100 Bq m{sup {minus}3}, and in 8.7% (77 schools with about 16,000 pupils) they exceeded 400 Bq m{sup {minus}3}, which is the proposed Slovene action level. In the majority of cases, radon concentrations were high due to the geological characteristics of the ground. Approximately 70% of schools with high radon levels were found in the Karst region. Gamma dose rates were measured using a portable scintillation counter. An arithmetic mean of 102 nGy h{sup {minus}1} and a geometric mean of 95 nGy h{sup {minus}1} were obtained. No extraordinarily high values were recorded.

  1. Determination of total fluorine in five coal reference materials by proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roelandts, I; Robaye, G; Delbrouck-Habaru, J M; Weber, G

    1996-03-01

    The direct non-destructive proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) technique with a germanium detector was applied to the determination of total fluorine concentration in five coal reference materials (BCR 40, NIST 1632b, NIST 1635, SARM 20 and USGS CLB-1). Duplicate analyses were made from five randomly selected bottles of each coal. Individual data are presented and some problems (calibration, proton stopping power, effects of sample heating by the proton beam, background estimation) which were encountered during this study are discussed. Sensitivity and reproducibility of the determinations, and homogeneity of the coal samples with respect to fluorine contents by analysis of variance were investigated. The present data are also compared with the few published values for these reference samples, including other PIGE data. The use of synthetic standards and spiked samples in the present study suggested that the PIGE method was more accurate than other techniques.

  2. Investigation of (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (137)Cs, and heavy metal concentrations in Anzali international wetland using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Mahdi; Fallahi Kapourchali, Maryam; Bagheri, Hashem; Khoram Bagheri, Mahdi; Abedini, Ali; Pakzad, Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in sediment and soil samples of the Anzali international wetland were carried out by two HPGe-gamma ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The concentrations of (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs in sediment samples ranged between 1.05 ± 0.51-5.81 ± 0.61, 18.06 ± 0.63-33.36 ± .0.34, 17.57 ± 0.38-45.84 ± 6.23, 371.88 ± 6.36-652.28 ± 11.60, and 0.43 ± 0.06-63.35 ± 0.94 Bq/kg, while in the soil samples they vary between 2.36-5.97, 22.71-38.37, 29.27-42.89, 472.66-533, and 1.05-9.60 Bq/kg for (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs, respectively. Present results are compared with the available literature data and also with the world average values. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370 Bq/kg. The external hazard indices were found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose. Heavy metal concentrations were found to decrease in order as Fe > Mn > Sr > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Co > Cd. These measurements will serve as background reference levels for the Anzali wetland.

  3. Measurement uncertainty of isotopologue fractions in fluxomics determined via mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guerrasio, R; Haberhauer-Troyer, C; Steiger, M; Sauer, M; Mattanovich, D; Koellensperger, G; Hann, S

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic flux analysis implies mass isotopomer distribution analysis and determination of mass isotopologue fractions (IFs) of proteinogenic amino acids of cell cultures. In this work, for the first time, this type of analysis is comprehensively investigated in terms of measurement uncertainty by calculating and comparing budgets for different mass spectrometric techniques. The calculations addressed amino acids of Pichia pastoris grown on 10% uniformly (13)C labeled glucose. Typically, such experiments revealed an enrichment of (13)C by at least one order of magnitude in all proteinogenic amino acids. Liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed. The samples were diluted to fit the linear dynamic range of the mass spectrometers used (10 μM amino acid concentration). The total combined uncertainties of IFs as well as the major uncertainty contributions affecting the IFs were determined for phenylalanine, which was selected as exemplary model compound. A bottom-up uncertainty propagation was performed according to Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement and using the Monte Carlo method by considering all factors leading to an IF, i.e., the process of measurement and the addition of (13)C-glucose. Excellent relative expanded uncertainties (k = 1) of 0.32, 0.75, and 0.96% were obtained for an IF value of 0.7 by LC-MS/MS, GC-MS, and LC-TOFMS, respectively. The major source of uncertainty, with a relative contribution of 20-80% of the total uncertainty, was attributed to the signal intensity (absolute counts) uncertainty calculated according to Poisson counting statistics, regardless which of the mass spectrometry platforms was used. Uncertainty due to measurement repeatability was of importance in LC-MS/MS, showing a relative contribution up to 47% of the total uncertainty, whereas for GC-MS and LC

  4. A Canadian high-energy neutron spectrometry system for measurements in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, G.; Andrews, H. R.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Frketich, G.; Ing, H.; Koslowsky, V. T.; Noulty, R. A.; Miller, R. C.; Zhou, Y.; Mortimer, A.; Peterson, D.; Wilkinson, R.

    2005-05-01

    Bubble Technology Industries Inc. (BTI), with the support of the Canadian Space Agency, has finished the construction of the Canadian High-Energy Neutron Spectrometry System (CHENSS). This spectrometer is intended to measure the high-energy neutron spectrum ( ˜1-100MeV) encountered in spacecraft in low earth orbit. CHENSS is designed to fly aboard a US space shuttle and its scientific results should facilitate the prediction of neutron dose to astronauts in space from readings of different types of radiation dosimeters that are being used in various missions.

  5. Measurement of beta-gamma coincidence with a multi-parameter analyzer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanpanah-Kejani, M.; Abbasi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Doost-Mohammadi, V.

    2017-01-01

    A new version of the Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System (INGAS) has been improved to facilitate measurement of beta-gamma coincidence events. It employs a new prototype list-mode multi-parameter data analyzer system, MPA4300. In order to test the new version performance, it has used to obtain energy spectra from radioxenon isotopes using the detector assembly of the Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System. The MPA4300 is able to set the coinciding parameters, extract the corresponding spectrum, and through the use of event by event list file, can replay the measurement in offline mode. A great novelty of this work is the use of internal timing circuit in MPA4300 instead of using standard pick up time modules to identify coincidence events of detectors. A detailed description of the measuring 222Rn and 131mXe is presented.

  6. Measuring Copper and Zinc Superoxide Dismutase from Spinal Cord Tissue using Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, Timothy W.; Lopez, Nathan I.; Zollinger, Daniel R.; Morre, Jeffrey T.; Arbogast, Brian L.; Maier, Claudia S.; DeNoyer, Linda; Beckman, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    Metals are key cofactors for many proteins, yet quantifying the metals bound to specific proteins is a persistent challenge in vivo. We have developed a rapid and sensitive method using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to measure Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) directly from the spinal cord of SOD1-overexpressing transgenic rats. Metal dyshomeostasis has been implicated in motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using the assay, SOD1 was directly measured from 100 μg of spinal cord, allowing for anatomical quantitation of apo, metal-deficient, and holo SOD1. SOD1 was bound on a C4 ZipTip® that served as a disposable column, removing interference by physiological salts and lipids. SOD1 was eluted with 30% acetonitrile plus 100 μM formic acid to provide sufficient hydrogen ions to ionize the protein without dislodging metals. SOD1 was quantified by including bovine SOD1 as an internal standard. SOD1 could be measured in subpicomole amounts and resolved to within two Daltons of the predicted parent mass. The methods can be adapted to quantify modifications to other proteins in vivo that can be resolved by mass spectrometry. PMID:21453670

  7. Venus Measurements by the MESSENGER Gamma-Ray and X-Ray Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. A.; Starr, R. D.; Goldsten, J. O.; Schlemm, C. E.; Boynton, W. V.

    2007-12-01

    The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS), which is a part of the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer Instrument, and the X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) on the MESSENGER spacecraft made calibration measurements during the Venus flyby on June 5, 2007. The purpose of these instruments is to determine elemental abundances on the surface of Mercury. The GRS measures gamma-rays emitted from element interactions with cosmic rays impinging on the surface, while the XRS measures X-ray emissions induced on the surface by the incident solar flux. The GRS sensor is a high-resolution high-purity Ge detector cooled by a Stirling cryocooler, surrounded by a borated-plastic anticoincidence shield. The GRS is sensitive to gamma-rays up to ~10 MeV and can identify most major elements, sampling down to depths of about ten centimeters. Only the shield was powered on for this flyby in order to conserve cooler lifetime. Gamma-rays were observed coming from Venus as well as from the spacecraft. Although the Venus gamma-rays originate from its thick atmosphere rather than its surface, the GRS data from this encounter will provide useful calibration data from a source of known composition. In particular, the data will be useful for determining GRS sensitivity and pointing options for the Mercury flybys, the first of which will be in January 2008. The X-ray spectrum of a planetary surface is dominated by a combination of the fluorescence and scattered solar X-rays. The most prominent fluorescent lines are the Kα lines from the major elements Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Ti, and Fe (1-10 keV). The sampling depth is less than 100 u m. The XRS is similar in design to experiments flown on Apollo 15 and 16 and the NEAR-Shoemaker mission. Three large-area gas-proportional counters view the planet, and a small Si-PIN detector mounted on the spacecraft sunshade monitors the Sun. The energy resolution of the gas proportional counters (~850 eV at 5.9 keV) is sufficient to resolve the X-ray lines above 2 keV, but Al and Mg

  8. Measurement of the PPN Parameter (gamma) with radio signals from the Cassini Spacecraft at X- and Ka-Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D.; Lau, Eunice L.; Giampieri, Giacomo

    2005-01-01

    Radio Doppler data from the Cassini spacecraft during its solar conjunction in June 2002 can be used to measure the bending of light by solar gravitation. In terms of the standard post-Newtonian parameter (gamma), we find that (gamma) - 1 = (-1.3 +/- 5.2)x10^-5 in agreement with the theory of General Relativity. This result implies that the parameter (omega) in the Brans-Dicke theory is greater than 9000 at a 95% confidence level.

  9. Measuring the activity of a {sup 51}Cr neutrino source based on the gamma-radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, V. V. Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2015-12-15

    A technique for the measurement of activities of intense β sources by measuring the continuous gamma-radiation (internal bremsstrahlung) spectra is developed. A method for reconstructing the spectrum recorded by a germanium semiconductor detector is described. A method for the absolute measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of {sup 51}Cr is presented.

  10. Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

  11. LAFARA: a new underground laboratory in the French Pyrénées for ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Lansard, B; Bourquin, M; Reyss, J-L; von Ballmoos, P; Jean, P

    2013-02-01

    We describe a new underground laboratory, namely LAFARA (for "LAboratoire de mesure des FAibles RAdioactivités"), that was recently created in the French Pyrénées. This laboratory is primarily designed to analyze environmental samples that display low radioactivity levels using gamma-ray spectrometry. Two high-purity germanium detectors were placed under 85 m of rock (ca. 215 m water equivalent) in the tunnel of Ferrières (Ariège, France). The background is thus reduced by a factor of ∼20 in comparison to above-ground laboratories. Both detectors are fully equipped so that the samples can be analyzed in an automatic mode without requiring permanent presence of a technician in the laboratory. Auto-samplers (twenty positions) and systems to fill liquid nitrogen automatically provide one month of autonomy to the spectrometers. The LAFARA facility allows us to develop new applications in the field of environmental sciences based on the use of natural radionuclides present at low levels in the environment. As an illustration, we present two of these applications: i) dating of marine sediments using the decay of (226)Ra in sedimentary barite (BaSO(4)), ii) determination of (227)Ac ((231)Pa) activities in marine sediment cores.

  12. Continuous measurement of radionuclide distribution off Fukushima using a towed sea-bed gamma ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Blair; Ohnishi, Seiki; Ura, Tamaki; Odano, Naoteru; Fujita, Tsuneo

    2013-09-01

    Instrumentation and data processing methods to continuously map the distribution of radionuclides on the seafloor have been developed and applied to survey radioactive discharge from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the M9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck the east coast of Japan on March 11 2011. The instrument consists of a flexible rubber hose with an integrated gamma ray spectrometer that measures the full gamma spectrum between 0.1 and 1.8 MeV while being towed along the seafloor by a ship. The data processing methods described allow for quantification of 137Cs and 134Cs concentration in marine sediments, and a technique has been developed to optimize the spatial resolution of the measurements for each radioactive species for a given level of statistical uncertainty. The system was deployed during August and November 2012 to measure the distribution of radionuclides along three transects within an 80 km radius of the plant. Increased levels of 137Cs and 134Cs were recorded and their distributions mapped continuously over distances of 1.6, 12.5 and 22 km respectively. The levels of 137Cs and 134Cs were found to vary significantly with location. The in situ measurements show good agreement with laboratory analyzed samples obtained during the surveys. The results demonstrate that the instrument and data processing techniques described enable high resolution, quantitative measurements of 137Cs and 134Cs in marine sediments, and provide an effective solution for rapid, low cost monitoring of radioactive material on the seafloor.

  13. Component Activity Measurements in the Ti-Al-O System by Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Titanium-aluminides (containing (alpha)2-Ti3Al and gamma-TiAl intermetallic phases) have received continued research focus due to their potential as low-density materials for structural applications at intermediate temperatures. However their application above about 850C is hindered by poor oxidation resistance, characterized by the formation of a non-protective TiO2+Al2O3 scale and an oxygen-enriched subsurface zone. Consistent with this are measured titanium and aluminum activities in "oxygen-free" titanium-aluminides, which indicate Al2O3 is only stable for aluminum concentrations greater then 54 atom percent at 1373 K. However, the inability to form a protective Al2O3 scale is in apparent conflict with phase diagram studies, as experimental isothermal sections of the Ti-Al-O system show gamma-TiAl + alpha2-Ti3Al structures are in equilibrium only with Al2O3. The apparent resolution to this conflict lies in the inclusion of oxygen effects in the thermodynamic measurements

  14. Bioactive compounds of fourth generation gamma-irradiated Typhoniumflagelliforme Lodd. mutants based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sianipar, N. F.; Purnamaningsih, R.; Rosaria

    2016-08-01

    Rodent tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd.) is an Indonesian anticancer medicinal plant. The natural genetic diversity of rodent tuber is low due to vegetative propagation. Plant's genetic diversity has to be increased for obtaining clones which contain a high amount of anticancer compounds. In vitro calli were irradiated with 6 Gy of gamma ray to produce in vitro mutant plantlets. Mutant plantlets were acclimated and propagated in a greenhouse. This research was aimed to identify the chemical compounds in the leaves and tubers ofthe fourth generation of rodent tuber's vegetative mutant clones (MV4) and control plantsby using GC- MS method. Leaves and tubers of MV4 each contained 2 and 5 anticancer compounds which quantities were higher compared to control plants. MV4 leaves contained 5 new anticancer compounds while its tubers contained 3 new anticancer compounds which were not found in control. The new anticancer compounds in leaves were hexadecanoic acid, stigmast-5-en-3-ol, ergost-5-en-3-ol, farnesol isomer a, and oleic acid while the new anticancer compounds in tubers were alpha tocopherol, ergost-5-en-3-ol, and beta-elemene. Rodent tuber mutant clones are very potential to be developed into anticancer drugs.

  15. Measurement of direct photon emission in the K(L) ---> pi+ pi- gamma decay mode

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzaid, E.; Arenton, M.; Barker, A.R.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Blucher, E.; Bock, G.J.; Cheu, E.; Coleman, R.; Corcoran, M.D.; Corti, G.; /Virginia U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the KTeV collaboration reports the analysis of 112.1 x 10{sup 3} candidate K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} decays including a background of 671 {+-} 41 events with the objective of determining the photon production mechanisms intrinsic to the decay process. These decays have been analyzed to extract the relative contributions of the Cp violating bremsstrahlung process and the CP conserving M1 and CP violating E1 direct photon emission processes. The M1 direct photon emission amplitude and its associated vector form factor parameterized as |{bar g}{sub M1}|(1 + a{sub 1}/a{sub 2}/(M{sub {rho}}{sup 2}-M{sub K}{sup 2}) + 2M{sub K}E{sub {gamma}}) have been measured to be |{bar g}{sub M1}| = 1.198 {+-} 0.035(stat) {+-} 0.086(syst) and a{sub 1}/a{sub 2} = =0.738 {+-} 0.007(stat) {+-} 0.018(syst) GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} respectively. An upper limit for the CP violating E1 direct emission amplitude |g{sub E1}| {le} 0.1 (90%CL) has been found. The overall ratio of direct photon emission (DE) to total photon emission including the bremsstrahlung process (IB) has been determined to be DE/(DE + IB) = 0.689 {+-} 0.021 for E{sub {gamma}} {ge} 20 MeV.

  16. Velocity measurements of the liquid - gas flow using gamma absorption and modified conditional averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, Robert; Zych, Marcin; Kowalczyk, Adam; Petryka, Leszek

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents idea and an exemplary application of gamma-absorption in the measurement of gas bubbles transportation in a gas-liquid mixture flow through a horizontal pipeline. In the tests on laboratory installation two 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl) scintillation crystals have been used. For analysis of electrical signals obtained from detectors the modified conditional averaging of the absolute value of delayed signal (CAAV) is proposed. The proposed method is based on the quotient of classical cross-correlation (CCF) and CAAV. Results of the time delay estimation and gas-phase velocity measurements are compared with one obtained using CCF. The combined uncertainties of the mean velocity of air bubbles evaluation in the presented experiment did not exceed 2.1% (CCF) and 1.7% (CCF/CAAV), which is a satisfactory result in industrial applications.

  17. Measurement of the CKM-Angle Gamma at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP

    2006-04-17

    The authors present the results of the measurements employed by the BABAR Collaboration, to determine the value of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) CP-violating phase {gamma} ({triple_bond} arg [-V{sub ud}V*{sub ub}/V{sub cd}V*{sub cb}]). These measurements are based on the studies performed with the charged B-decays B{sup -} {yields} {tilde D}{sup 0} K{sup -}, B{sup -} {yields} {tilde D}*{sup 0} K*{sup -}, where {tilde D}{sup 0} indicates either a D{sup 0} or a {bar D}{sup 0} meson. A sample of about 230 million B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector [1], at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC, is used.

  18. Assay reproducibility of serum androgen measurements using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Trabert, Britton; Xu, Xia; Falk, Roni T.; Guillemette, Chantal; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Valid and precise measures of androgen concentrations are needed for etiologic studies of hormonally-related cancers. We developed a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with two sample preparations to measure 11 androgens, including adrenal and gonadal androgenic precursors and their 5α-reduced metabolites. Methods Androgen levels were measured in serum from 20 healthy volunteers (5 men, 10 premenopausal women, 5 postmenopausal women). Two blinded, randomized aliquots per individual were assayed in each of three batches. A fourth batch of samples was measured at an external laboratory using comparable methodology to measure 9 of the 11 androgens. Coefficients of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated from the individual components of variance. Comparability of 9 androgens across laboratories was assessed using Spearman ranked correlations, Deming regression and bias plots. Results The laboratory CVs were <5% and ICCs were uniformly high (>95%) for all androgens measured across sex/menopausal status groups. Spearman ranked correlations for 9 hormones measured in the comparison laboratory were high (>0.85), suggesting good agreement. Conclusion Our high-performance LC-MS/MS assays of 11 androgens, including adrenal and gonadal androgenic precursors and their 5α-reduced metabolites demonstrated excellent laboratory reproducibility, and good comparability with an established method that measured 9 of the 11 hormones tested. The serum androgen metabolite assays are suitable for use in epidemiologic research. PMID:26416142

  19. Spatial mapping of soil and radioactivity redistribution at the hillslope scale using in-situ gamma spectrometry, terrestrial laser scanning and RFID tags after the Fukushima nuclear accident fallout.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patin, Jeremy; Onda, Yuichi; Noguchi, Takehiro; Parsons, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    In March 2011, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster, triggered by the Tohoku earthquake and the consequent tsunami, released a large amount of radionuclides in the environment. To provide a rapid assessment of the soil contamination and its potential redistribution, intensive scientific monitoring has been conducted since July 2011 in our study site, located in the Yamakiya district of Kawamata town, in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, about 37 km from the power plant. In this paper, we summarize and analyze a dataset combining multiple innovative methods deployed inside a 5m x 22m bounded hillslope plot. In addition to runoff volumes and sediments radiocesium concentrations, each major rainfall event was followed by in situ gamma spectrometry measurements. In 2012, to trace the complex behavior of sediments inside the plot, about 300 RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification) tags representing coarse sediments were scattered and their spatial position was periodically checked using a total station. Finally, several high resolutions Digital Elevation Models were acquired with a terrestrial laser scanner to assess the surface structure and changes. The observed processes at the event scale include interrill and rill erosion, as well as local deposition and remobilization phenomenon. Not only do they directly provide information on the erosion spatio-temporal variability and the associated radionuclides transfers, but combined together they can constitute a solid basis to improve and challenge process-based distributed erosion models.

  20. Identification of differentially expressed proteins of gamma-ray irradiated rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bo, Zhang; Yongping, Su; Fengchao, Wang; Guoping, Ai; Yongjiang, Wei

    2005-02-01

    To identify proteins involved in the processes of cellular and molecular response to radiation damage repair in intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells, we comparatively analyzed the proteome of irradiated IEC-6 cells with that of normal cells. A series of methods were used, including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (Z-DE), PDQuest software analysis of 2-DE gels, peptide mass fingerprinting based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and Swiss-Prot database searching, to separate and identify differentially expressed proteins. Western blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to validate the differentially expressed proteins. Image analysis revealed that averages of 608 +/- 39 and 595 +/- 31 protein spots were detected in normal and irradiated IEC-6 cells, respectively. Sixteen differential protein spots were isolated from gels, and measured with MALDI-TOF-MS. A total of 14 spots yielded good spectra, and 11 spots matched with known proteins after database searching. These proteins were mainly involved in anti-oxidation, metabolism, and protein post-translational processes. Western blotting confirmed that stress-70 protein was down-regulated by gamma-irradiation. Up-regulation of ERP29 was confirmed by RT-PCR, indicating that it is involved in ionizing radiation. The clues provided by the comparative proteome strategy utilized here will shed light on molecular mechanisms of radiation damage repair in intestinal epithelial cells.

  1. Measurement of (233)U/(234)U ratios in contaminated groundwater using alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jennifer J; Payne, Timothy E; Wilsher, Kerry L; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Child, David P; Johansen, Mathew P; Hotchkis, Michael A C

    2016-01-01

    The uranium isotope (233)U is not usually observed in alpha spectra from environmental samples due to its low natural and fallout abundance. It may be present in samples from sites in the vicinity of nuclear operations such as reactors or fuel reprocessing facilities, radioactive waste disposal sites or sites affected by clandestine nuclear operations. On an alpha spectrum, the two most abundant alpha emissions of (233)U (4.784 MeV, 13.2%; and 4.824 MeV, 84.3%) will overlap with the (234)U doublet peak (4.722 MeV, 28.4%; and 4.775 MeV, 71.4%), if present, resulting in a combined (233+234)U multiplet. A technique for quantifying both (233)U and (234)U from alpha spectra was investigated. A series of groundwater samples were measured both by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine (233)U/(234)U atom and activity ratios and by alpha spectrometry in order to establish a reliable (233)U estimation technique using alpha spectra. The Genie™ 2000 Alpha Analysis and Interactive Peak Fitting (IPF) software packages were used and it was found that IPF with identification of three peaks ((234)U minor, combined (234)U major and (233)U minor, and (233)U major) followed by interference correction on the combined peak and a weighted average activity calculation gave satisfactory agreement with the AMS data across the (233)U/(234)U activity ratio range (0.1-20) and (233)U activity range (2-300 mBq) investigated. Correlation between the AMS (233)U and alpha spectrometry (233)U was r(2) = 0.996 (n = 10).

  2. Measurement of Inclusive Radiative B -Meson Decay B -> X_s gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Ozcan, V.E.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2006-01-06

    Radiative decays of the B meson, B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}, proceed via virtual flavor changing neutral current processes that are sensitive to contributions from high mass scales, either within the Standard Model of electroweak interactions or beyond. In the Standard Model, these transitions are sensitive to the weak interactions of the top quark, and relatively robust predictions of the inclusive decay rate exist. Significant deviation from these predictions could be interpreted as indications for processes not included in the minimal Standard Model, like interactions of charged Higgs or SUSY particles. The analysis of the inclusive photon spectrum from B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma} decays is rather challenging due to high backgrounds from photons emitted in the decay of mesons in B decays as well as e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation to low mass quark and lepton pairs. Based on 88.5 million B{bar B} events collected by the BABAR detector, the photon spectrum above 1.9 GeV is presented. By comparison of the first and second moments of the photon spectrum with QCD predictions (calculated in the kinetic scheme), QCD parameters describing the bound state of the b quark in the B meson are extracted: m{sub b} = (4.45 {+-} 0.16) GeV/c{sup 2}; {mu}{sub {pi}}{sup 2} = (0.65 {+-} 0.29) GeV{sup 2}. These parameters are useful input to non-perturbative QCD corrections to the semileptonic B decay rate and the determination of the CKM parameter |V{sub ub}|. Based on these parameters and heavy quark expansion, the full branching fraction is obtained as: {Beta}(B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}){sup E{sub {gamma}}>1.6 GeV} = (4.05 {+-} 0.32(stat) {+-} 0.38(syst) {+-} 0.29(model)) x 10{sup -4}. This result is in good agreement with previous measurements, the statistical and systematic errors are comparable. It is also in good agreement with the theoretical Standard Model predictions, and thus within the present errors there is no indication of any interactions not accounted for in the

  3. A simple and effective method for validation and measurement of collimator output factors for Leksell Gamma Knife® Perfexion™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Kjäll, Per; Novotny, Josef Jr; Nordström, Håkan; Johansson, Jonas; Verhey, Lynn

    2009-06-01

    Accurate determination of collimator output factors is important for Leksell Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The new Leksell Gamma Knife® Perfexion™ system has a completely redesigned collimator system and the collimator output factors are different from the other Leksell Gamma Knife® models. In this study, a simple method was developed to validate the collimator output factors specifically for Leksell Gamma Knife® Perfexion™. The method uses double-shot exposures on a single film to eliminate repeated setups and the necessity to acquire dose calibration curves required for the traditional film exposure method. Using the method, the collimator output factors with respect to the 16 mm collimator were measured to be 0.929 ± 0.009 and 0.817 ± 0.012 for the 8 mm and the 4 mm collimator, respectively. These values are in agreement (within 2%) with the default values of 0.924 and 0.805 in the Leksell Gamma Plan® treatment planning system. These values also agree with recently published results of 0.917 (8 mm collimator) and 0.818 (4 mm collimator) obtained from the traditional methods. Given the efficiency of the method, measurement and validation of the collimator output factors can be readily adopted in commissioning and quality assurance of a Leksell Gamma Knife® Perfexion™ system.

  4. Application of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to Isotope Mass Spectrometry: Introduction, Implemention, and Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerger, S.; Essex, R. M.; Mathew, K. J.; Thomas, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    As the measured value and its unit are integral parts of a measurement, so is a statement of the associated measurement uncertainty. The importance of providing an uncertainty that can reasonably be attributed to the measured value is often underrated. An assessment of uncertainty provides confidence in the value of the measurement, judgement on significance of differences between measurement results, information regarding the capability of the measurement procedure, and quality assurance. The limitations of the classical error analysis were seen as a hindrance to communication of scientific and technical measurement results, initiating the development of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) in the late 1970s. Just as the use of the International System of Units brings coherence to measurements, the International Organization for Standardization Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement recommends a standardized way of expressing uncertainty in all kinds of measurements. Consequently, GUM has been adopted by most of the national metrology institutes in the world. A short introduction to GUM and the logical steps leading to its development will be presented, as well as a comparison between classical error analysis and GUM. Examples related to mass spectrometry for isotopic and elemental analysis will be discussed. The merits of GUM - transparency of the uncertainty evaluation, the treatment of uncertainties in a consistent logical way, and the presentation of an uncertainty budget resulting in a feedback to the analyst (i.e. identifies the dominant components of uncertainty and allows better understanding and improvement of the measurement process) - will be emphasised.

  5. Measurements of the reaction e/+/e/-/ yielding gamma-gamma at center-of-mass energies in the range 6.2-7.4 GeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilger, E.; Beron, B. L.; Carrington, R. L.; Ford, R. L.; Hill, W. T.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Liberman, A. D.; Martin, T. W.; Oneill, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    The cross section for the pair-annihilation reaction e(+)e(-) yields gamma-gamma were measured at center-of-mass energies in the range 6.2-7.4 GeV and at production angles close to 90 deg. The experimental apparatus consisted of two identical spectrometers which were set to view the luminous region at SPEAR-II from opposite directions at an azimuthal angle of 45 deg. In each spectrometer there was a NaI(TI) crystal 20 radiation lengths thick and 30 in. in diameter to measure the gamma-ray energies. Annihilation events were detected by an electronic trigger which required only the observation in coincidence of more than 0.2 GeV in each NaI(TI) crystal within + or - 15 nsec of the crossing beams. The observed rates of pair-annihilation events were found to be in agreement with those expected from quantum electrodynamics (QED) at all the center-of-mass energies used.

  6. Detecting and Removing Data Artifacts in Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, Spencer A.; Crowell, Kevin L.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Clowers, Brian H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Payne, Samuel H.

    2014-05-06

    Applying Hadamard transform multiplexing to ion mobility separations (IMS) can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and throughput for IMS coupled mass spectrometry (MS) measurements by increasing the ion utilization efficiency. However, it has been determined that both fluctuations in ion intensity as well as spatial shifts in the multiplexed data lower the signal-to-noise ratios and appear as noise in downstream processing of the data. To address this problem, we have developed a novel algorithm that discovers and eliminates data artifacts. The algorithm uses knowledge of the true signal peaks derived from the encoded data and allows for both artifacts and noise to be removed with high confidence, decreasing the likelihood of false identifications in subsequent data processing. The result is that IMS-MS can be applied to increase measurement sensitivity while avoiding artifacts that have previously limited its utility.

  7. Detecting and Removing Data Artifacts in Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Prost, Spencer A.; Crowell, Kevin L.; Baker, Erin Shammel; ...

    2014-05-06

    Applying Hadamard transform multiplexing to ion mobility separations (IMS) can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and throughput for IMS coupled mass spectrometry (MS) measurements by increasing the ion utilization efficiency. However, it has been determined that both fluctuations in ion intensity as well as spatial shifts in the multiplexed data lower the signal-to-noise ratios and appear as noise in downstream processing of the data. To address this problem, we have developed a novel algorithm that discovers and eliminates data artifacts. The algorithm uses knowledge of the true signal peaks derived from the encoded data and allows for both artifacts andmore » noise to be removed with high confidence, decreasing the likelihood of false identifications in subsequent data processing. The result is that IMS-MS can be applied to increase measurement sensitivity while avoiding artifacts that have previously limited its utility.« less

  8. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometry Analysis of Data from Measurements on Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Danon, Yaron; Weltz, Adam; Gavron, Victor A.; Harris, Jason; Stewart, Trevor N.

    2015-01-12

    Improved non-destructive assay of isotopic masses in used nuclear fuel would be valuable for nuclear safeguards operations associated with the transport, storage and reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. Our collaboration is examining the feasibility of using lead slowing down spectrometry techniques to assay the isotopic fissile masses in used nuclear fuel assemblies. We present the application of our analysis algorithms on measurements conducted with a lead spectrometer. The measurements involved a single fresh fuel pin and discrete 239Pu and 235U samples. We are able to describe the isotopic fissile masses with root mean square errors over seven different configurations to 6.35% for 239Pu and 2.7% for 235U over seven different configurations. Funding Source(s):

  9. Arcsec source location measurements in gamma-ray astronomy from a lunar observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David G.; Hughes, E. B.

    1990-01-01

    The physical processes typically used in the detection of high energy gamma-rays do not permit good angular resolution, which makes difficult the unambiguous association of discrete gamma-ray sources with objects emitting at other wavelengths. This problem can be overcome by placing gamma-ray detectors on the moon and using the horizon as an occulting edge to achieve arcsec resolution. For the purpose of discussion, this concept is examined for gamma rays above about 20 MeV for which pair production dominates the detection process and locally-generated nuclear gamma rays do not contribute to the background.

  10. Concentration of Uranium Radioisotopes in Albanian Drinking Waters Measured by Alpha Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylyku, Elida; Cfarku, Florinda; Deda, Antoneta; Bode, Kozeta; Fishka, Kujtim

    2010-01-01

    Uranium is a radioactive material that is frequently found in rocks and soil. When uranium decays, it changes into different elements that are also radioactive, including radon, a gas that is known to cause a lung cancer. The main concern with uranium in drinking water is harm to the kidneys. Public water systems are required to keep uranium levels at or below 500 mBq per liter to protect against kidney damage. Such an interest is needed due to safety, regulatory compliance and disposal issue for uranium in the environment since uranium is included as an obligatory controlled radionuclide in the European Legislation (Directive 98/83 CE of Council of 03.11.1998). The aim of this work is to measure the levels of uranium in drinking and drilled well waters in Albania. At first each sample was measured for total Alpha and total Beta activity. The samples with the highest levels of total alpha activity were chosen for the determination of uranium radioisotopes by alpha spectrometry. A radiochemical procedure using extraction with TBP (Tri-Butyl-Phosphate) is used in the presence of U232 as a yield tracer. Thin sources for alpha spectrometry are prepared by electrodepositing on to stainless steel discs. The results of the U238 activity measured in the different samples, depending from their geological origin range between 0.55-13.87 mBq/l. All samples measured results under the European Directive limits for U238 (5-500 mBq/1), Dose Coefficients according to Directive 96/29 EURATOM.

  11. Operation GREENHOUSE. Scientific Director's report. Annex 1. 1. Prompt-gamma-ray measurements. Part 4. Installation drawings. Nuclear explosions 1951

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.C.

    1984-10-31

    This report consists of drawings and tabular data pertinent to the various measurements performed in Operation GREENHOUSE. The drawings represent the plans for the cable installations, recorder stations, power and signal lines, and other equipment used in the measurement of prompt gamma rays, alpha, transit time, neutron intensity (Tenex), and thermal radiation.

  12. Absolute cross section for the reaction /sup 3/H(p,. gamma. /sub 0/)/sup 4/He and a review of /sup 4/He(. gamma. , p/sub 0/)/sup 3/H measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Calarco, J.R.; Hanna, S.S.; Chang, C.C.; Diener, E.M.; Kuhlmann, E.; Fisher, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    Accurate differential cross sections have been measured at 90/sup 0/ for the reaction /sup 3/H(p,..gamma..)/sup 4/He at E/sub p/ = 8.34 and 13.6 MeV. Previously published results for both /sup 3/H(p,..gamma..)/sup 4/He and /sup 4/He(..gamma..,p)/sup 3/H are reviewed and compared with the present data. The theoretical implications of the results are briefly discussed.

  13. Actinide Measurements by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Cox, C C; Knezovich, J P; Hamilton, T F

    2003-09-25

    We report on the development of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system for the measurement of actinides at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This AMS system is centered on a recently completed heavy isotope beam line that was designed particularly for high sensitivity, robust, high-throughput measurements of actinide concentrations and isotopic ratios. A fast isotope switching capability has been incorporated in the system, allowing flexibility in isotope selection and for the quasi-continuous normalization to a reference isotope spike. Initially, our utilization of the heavy isotope system has concentrated on the measurement of Pu isotopes. Under current operating conditions, background levels equivalent to {approx}1 x 10{sup 5} atoms are observed during routine {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu measurements. Measurements of samples containing {approx}10{sup 13} {sup 238}U atoms demonstrate that the system provides a {sup 238}U rejection factor during {sup 239}Pu measurements of {approx}10{sup 7}. Measurements of known materials, combined with results from an externally organized inter-comparison program, indicate that our {sup 239}Pu measurements are accurate and precise down to the {micro}Bq level ({approx}10{sup 6} atoms). Recently, we have investigated the performance of our heavy isotope AMS system in measurements of {sup 237}Np and {sup 236}U. Results of these investigations are discussed. The sensitivity shown by our Pu measurements, combined with the high throughput and interference rejection capabilities of our AMS system, demonstrate that AMS can provide a rapid and cost-effective measurement technique for actinides in a wide variety of studies.

  14. Yeast dynamic metabolic flux measurement in nutrient-rich media by HPLC and accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Benjamin J; Navid, Ali; Turteltaub, Kenneth W; Bench, Graham

    2010-12-01

    Metabolic flux, the flow of metabolites through networks of enzymes, represents the dynamic productive output of cells. Improved understanding of intracellular metabolic fluxes will enable targeted manipulation of metabolic pathways of medical and industrial importance to a greater degree than is currently possible. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is a constraint-based approach to modeling metabolic fluxes, but its utility is limited by a lack of experimental measurements. Incorporation of experimentally measured fluxes as system constraints will significantly improve the overall accuracy of FBA. We applied a novel, two-tiered approach in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to measure nutrient consumption rates (extracellular fluxes) and a targeted intracellular flux using a (14)C-labeled precursor with HPLC separation and flux quantitation by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The use of AMS to trace the intracellular fate of (14)C-glutamine allowed the calculation of intracellular metabolic flux through this pathway, with glutathione as the metabolic end point. Measured flux values provided global constraints for the yeast FBA model which reduced model uncertainty by more than 20%, proving the importance of additional constraints in improving the accuracy of model predictions and demonstrating the use of AMS to measure intracellular metabolic fluxes. Our results highlight the need to use intracellular fluxes to constrain the models. We show that inclusion of just one such measurement alone can reduce the average variability of model predicted fluxes by 10%.

  15. Hydrogen measurement during steam oxidation using coupled thermogravimetric analysis and quadrupole mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Parkison, Adam J.; Nelson, Andrew Thomas

    2016-01-11

    An analytical technique is presented with the goal of measuring reaction kinetics during steam oxidation reactions for three cases in which obtaining kinetics information often requires a prohibitive amount of time and cost. The technique presented relies on coupling thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a quantitative hydrogen measurement technique using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). The first case considered is in differentiating between the kinetics of steam oxidation reactions and those for simultaneously reacting gaseous impurities such as nitrogen or oxygen. The second case allows one to independently measure the kinetics of oxide and hydride formation for systems in which both of these reactions are known to take place during steam oxidation. The third case deals with measuring the kinetics of formation for competing volatile and non-volatile oxides during certain steam oxidation reactions. In order to meet the requirements of the coupled technique, a methodology is presented which attempts to provide quantitative measurement of hydrogen generation using QMS in the presence of an interfering fragmentation species, namely water vapor. This is achieved such that all calibrations and corrections are performed during the TGA baseline and steam oxidation programs, making system operation virtually identical to standard TGA. Benchmarking results showed a relative error in hydrogen measurement of 5.7–8.4% following the application of a correction factor. Lastly, suggestions are made for possible improvements to the presented technique so that it may be better applied to the three cases presented.

  16. Hydrogen measurement during steam oxidation using coupled thermogravimetric analysis and quadrupole mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Parkison, Adam J.; Nelson, Andrew Thomas

    2016-01-11

    An analytical technique is presented with the goal of measuring reaction kinetics during steam oxidation reactions for three cases in which obtaining kinetics information often requires a prohibitive amount of time and cost. The technique presented relies on coupling thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with a quantitative hydrogen measurement technique using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). The first case considered is in differentiating between the kinetics of steam oxidation reactions and those for simultaneously reacting gaseous impurities such as nitrogen or oxygen. The second case allows one to independently measure the kinetics of oxide and hydride formation for systems in which both ofmore » these reactions are known to take place during steam oxidation. The third case deals with measuring the kinetics of formation for competing volatile and non-volatile oxides during certain steam oxidation reactions. In order to meet the requirements of the coupled technique, a methodology is presented which attempts to provide quantitative measurement of hydrogen generation using QMS in the presence of an interfering fragmentation species, namely water vapor. This is achieved such that all calibrations and corrections are performed during the TGA baseline and steam oxidation programs, making system operation virtually identical to standard TGA. Benchmarking results showed a relative error in hydrogen measurement of 5.7–8.4% following the application of a correction factor. Lastly, suggestions are made for possible improvements to the presented technique so that it may be better applied to the three cases presented.« less

  17. Polyethylene-reflected plutonium metal sphere : subcritical neutron and gamma measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, John K.

    2009-11-01

    Numerous benchmark measurements have been performed to enable developers of neutron transport models and codes to evaluate the accuracy of their calculations. In particular, for criticality safety applications, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Program (ICSBEP) annually publishes a handbook of critical and subcritical benchmarks. Relatively fewer benchmark measurements have been performed to validate photon transport models and codes, and unlike the ICSBEP, there is no program dedicated to the evaluation and publication of photon benchmarks. Even fewer coupled neutron-photon benchmarks have been performed. This report documents a coupled neutron-photon benchmark for plutonium metal reflected by polyethylene. A 4.5-kg sphere of ?-phase, weapons-grade plutonium metal was measured in six reflected configurations: (1) Bare; (2) Reflected by 0.5 inch of high density polyethylene (HDPE); (3) Reflected by 1.0 inch of HDPE; (4) Reflected by 1.5 inches of HDPE; (5) Reflected by 3.0 inches of HDPE; and (6) Reflected by 6.0 inches of HDPE. Neutron and photon emissions from the plutonium sphere were measured using three instruments: (1) A gross neutron counter; (2) A neutron multiplicity counter; and (3) A high-resolution gamma spectrometer. This report documents the experimental conditions and results in detail sufficient to permit developers of radiation transport models and codes to construct models of the experiments and to compare their calculations to the measurements. All of the data acquired during this series of experiments are available upon request.

  18. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

    2015-02-01

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump.

  19. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS AROUND A CONCENTRATED SWINE PRODUCTION FACILITY USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FTIR) spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of ammonia, methane, and other atmospheric gasses around an integrated industrial swine production facility in eastern North Carolina. Several single-path measurements were made ove...

  20. Direct measurement of the nonlinear refractive-index coefficient gamma at 355 nm in fused silica and in BK-10 glass.

    PubMed

    Iii, W T; Smith, W L; Milam, D

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the nonlinear refractive-index coefficient gamma interferometrically at 355 nm in fused silica and in BK-10, a borosilicate crown glass. These measurements are the first reported direct ultraviolet measurements of the nonlinear index of refraction in any transparent glass. Our results are gamma = (2.5 +/- 1.2) x 10(-16) cm(2)/W and gamma = (1.7 +/- 0.8) x 10(-16) cm(2)/W, respectively, for fused silica and BK-10.

  1. Gamma-emitting radionuclide measurements at the US geological survey national water quality laboratory, Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    In, Che Yang; Ambats, E.

    1982-01-01

    Like sediment samples from Scofield Resevior in Utah were analyzed for 210Pb by the gamma-ray spectrometric method. The top 10 cm of surface sediment yielded excess 210Pb activity (excluding in situ 226Ra supported 210Pb) of 1.05 pCi/g dry weight and decreased to 0.25 pCi/g at a depth of 25 cm. Based on these data, sedimentation rate was approximately 0.49 cm/y for a total of 30 cm of lake sediment and a lake history of approximately 60 y. An alternative method of 210Pb measurements using wet chemical procedures followed by beta counting gave equivalent results. ?? 1982.

  2. A cosmic gamma ray burst measured by Apollo 16. [and correlated to Vela 6A data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J. L.; Arnold, J. R.; Metzger, A. E.; Parker, R. H.; Gilman, D. A.; Trombka, J. I.; Peterson, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    A cosmic gamma ray burst at about 1058:21 UT on April 27, 1972, was detected with an omnidirectional scintillation counter on Apollo 16. The event whose energy was approximately 0.0002 erg/sq cm, was pulse height analyzed in 512 channels over the 0.067 less than or equal to E less than or equal to 5 MeV range, and shows a complex, multipeak structure on a 300 msec time scale. The burst was also measured by a collimated X-ray detector on Apollo 16, giving spectral data in the 2 to 8 keV range which, together with a simultaneous observation by Vela 6A, allows a directional determination.

  3. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. General procedure for calibration and reduction of aerial gamma-ray measurements: specification BFEC 1250-B

    SciTech Connect

    Purvance, D.; Novak, E.

    1983-12-01

    The information contained in this specification was acquired over the course of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program during the period 1974 through 1982. NURE was a program of the DOE Grand Junction Area Office to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States. Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) has been the operating contractor for the DOE Grand Junction facility. The requirements stipulated herein had been incorporated as contractual specifications for the various subcontractors engaged in the aerial gamma-ray surveys, which were a major aspect of the NURE program. Although this phase of NURE activities has been completed, there exists valuable knowledge gained from these years of experience in the calibration of gamma-ray spectrometer systems and in the reduction of calibration data. Specification BFEC 1250-B is being open-filed by the US Department of Energy at this time to make this knowledge available to those desiring to apply gamma-ray spectrometry to other geophysical problems.

  4. Measurements of environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate in three mountainous locations in the western region of Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghorabie, Fayez H.H. . E-mail: alghorabie_f@hotmail.com

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes measurements of external gamma radiation dose rate from terrestrial gamma-rays 1 m above the ground in three different mountainous locations in the western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These locations are At-Taif city, Al-Hada village, and Ash-Shafa village. CaSO{sub 4}:Dy (TLD-900) thermoluminescent dosimeters were used for the detection of terrestrial gamma radiation at 40 different places in the three locations. The values of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate measured ranged between 14 and 279 nGy h{sup -1} for the time interval from June 2001 to June 2002. The measured dose rate varied with the season of the year. The average gamma radiation dose rates were 468, 541, and 781 {mu}Gy y{sup -1} for At-Taif city, Al-Hada village, and Ash-Shafa village, respectively. The corresponding average absorbed doses to the population of the three locations were 328, 379, and 547 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}, respectively. The quality factor of 0.7 Sv Gy{sup -1} was applied in the calculations of the absorbed dose to humans.

  5. First results of electron temperature measurements by the use of multi-pass Thomson scattering system in GAMMA 10

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M. Nagasu, K.; Shimamura, Y.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M.; Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Kawahata, K.; Minami, T.

    2014-11-15

    A multi-pass Thomson scattering (TS) has the advantage of enhancing scattered signals. We constructed a multi-pass TS system for a polarisation-based system and an image relaying system modelled on the GAMMA 10 TS system. We undertook Raman scattering experiments both for the multi-pass setting and for checking the optical components. Moreover, we applied the system to the electron temperature measurements in the GAMMA 10 plasma for the first time. The integrated scattering signal was magnified by approximately three times by using the multi-pass TS system with four passes. The electron temperature measurement accuracy is improved by using this multi-pass system.

  6. First results of electron temperature measurements by the use of multi-pass Thomson scattering system in GAMMA 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Yasuhara, R.; Nagasu, K.; Shimamura, Y.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Kawahata, K.; Minami, T.

    2014-11-01

    A multi-pass Thomson scattering (TS) has the advantage of enhancing scattered signals. We constructed a multi-pass TS system for a polarisation-based system and an image relaying system modelled on the GAMMA 10 TS system. We undertook Raman scattering experiments both for the multi-pass setting and for checking the optical components. Moreover, we applied the system to the electron temperature measurements in the GAMMA 10 plasma for the first time. The integrated scattering signal was magnified by approximately three times by using the multi-pass TS system with four passes. The electron temperature measurement accuracy is improved by using this multi-pass system.

  7. On-site gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements of fission gas release in irradiated nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Matsson, I; Grapengiesser, B; Andersson, B

    2007-01-01

    An experimental, non-destructive in-pool, method for measuring fission gas release (FGR) in irradiated nuclear fuel has been developed. Using the method, a significant number of experiments have been performed in-pool at several nuclear power plants of the BWR type. The method utilises the 514 keV gamma-radiation from the gaseous fission product (85)Kr captured in the fuel rod plenum volume. A submergible measuring device (LOKET) consisting of an HPGe-detector and a collimator system was utilised allowing for single rod measurements on virtually all types of BWR fuel. A FGR database covering a wide range of burn-ups (up to average rod burn-up well above 60 MWd/kgU), irradiation history, fuel rod position in cross section and fuel designs has been compiled and used for computer code benchmarking, fuel performance analysis and feedback to reactor operators. Measurements clearly indicate the low FGR in more modern fuel designs in comparison to older fuel types.

  8. Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry for quantitative measurement of quorum sensing inhibition.

    PubMed

    Todd, Daniel A; Zich, David B; Ettefagh, Keivan A; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S; Horswill, Alexander R; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-08-01

    Drug resistant bacterial infections cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and new strategies are needed for the treatment of these infections. The anti-virulence approach, which targets non-essential virulence factors in bacteria, has been proposed as one way to combat the problem of antibiotic resistance. Virulence in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and many other Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is controlled by the quorum sensing system. Thus, there is excellent therapeutic potential for compounds that target this system. With this project, we have developed and validated a novel approach for measuring quorum sensing inhibition in vitro. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was employed to directly measure one of the important outputs of the quorum sensing system in MRSA, auto-inducing peptide I (AIP I) in bacterial cultures. The method for AIP detection was validated and demonstrated limits of detection and quantification of range of 0.0035μM and 0.10μM, respectively. It was shown that the known quorum sensing inhibitor ambuic acid inhibited AIP I production by a clinically relevant strain of MRSA, with an IC50 value of 2.6±0.2μM. The new method performed similarly to previously published methods using GFP reporter assays, but has the advantage of being applicable without the need for engineering of a reporter strain. Additionally, the mass spectrometry-based method could be applicable in situations where interference by the inhibitor prevents the application of fluorescence-based methods.

  9. Biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry-isotope measurements at the level of the atom.

    PubMed

    Barker, J; Garner, R C

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a nuclear physics technique developed about twenty years ago, that uses the high energy (several MeV) of a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to measure very small quantities of rare and long-lived isotopes. Elements that are of interest in biomedicine and environmental sciences can be measured, often to parts per quadrillion sensitivity, i.e. zeptomole to attomole levels (10(-21)-10(-18) mole) from milligram samples. This is several orders of magnitude lower than that achievable by conventional decay counting techniques, such as liquid scintillation counting (LSC). AMS was first applied to geochemical, climatological and archaeological areas, such as for radiocarbon dating (Shroud of Turin), but more recently this technology has been used for bioanalytical applications. In this sphere, most work has been conducted using aluminium, calcium and carbon isotopes. The latter is of special interest in drug metabolism studies, where a Phase 1 adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) study can be conducted using only 10 nanoCurie (37 Bq or ca. 0.9 microSv) amounts or less of 14C-labelled drugs. In the UK, these amounts of radioactivity are below those necessary to request specific regulatory approval from the Department of Health's Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC), thus saving on valuable development time and resources. In addition, the disposal of these amounts is much less an environmental issue than that associated with microCurie quantities, which are currently used. Also, AMS should bring an opportunity to conduct "first into man" studies without the need for widespread use of animals. Centre for Biomedical Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CBAMS) Ltd. is the first fully commercial company in the world to offer analytical services using AMS. With its high throughput and relatively low costs per sample analysis, AMS should be of great benefit to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology

  10. Measuring Hordein (Gluten) in Beer – A Comparison of ELISA and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, Malcolm J.; Goswami, Hareshwar P.; Howitt, Crispin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Subjects suffering from coeliac disease, gluten allergy/intolerance must adopt a lifelong avoidance of gluten. Beer contains trace levels of hordeins (gluten) which are too high to be safely consumed by most coeliacs. Accurate measurement of trace hordeins by ELISA is problematic. Methods We have compared hordein levels in sixty beers, by sandwich ELISA, with the level determined using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS). Results Hordein levels measured by ELISA varied by four orders of magnitude, from zero (for known gluten-free beers) to 47,000 µg/mL (ppm; for a wheat-based beer). Half the commercial gluten-free beers were free of hordein by MS and ELISA. Two gluten-free and two low-gluten beers had zero ELISA readings, but contained significant hordein levels (p<0.05), or near average (60–140%) hordein levels, by MS, respectively. Six beers gave false negatives, with zero ELISA readings but near average hordein content by MS. Approximately 20% of commercial beers had ELISA readings less than 1 ppm, but a near average hordein content by MS. Several barley beers also contained undeclared wheat proteins. Conclusions ELISA results did not correlate with the relative content of hordein peptides determined by MS, with all barley based beers containing hordein. We suggest that mass spectrometry is more reliable than ELISA, as ELISA enumerates only the concentration of particular amino-acid epitopes; this may vary between different hordeins and may not be related to the absolute hordein concentration. MS quantification is undertaken using peptides that are specific and unique, enabling the quantification of individual hordein isoforms. This outlines the problem of relying solely on ELISA determination of gluten in beverages such as beer and highlights the need for the development of new sensitive and selective quantitative assay such as MS. PMID:23509606

  11. Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) data quality indexes as a support for analysing magnetospheric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandouras, Iannis; Barthe, Alain; Brunato, Sylvain; Rème, Henri; Laakso, Harri

    2016-04-01

    The Cluster Science Archive (CSA) aims at preserving the complete set of the measurements collected by the four Cluster spacecraft, so that they are usable in the long-term by the world-wide scientific community as well as by the instrument teams. This implies that the instrument data, properly calibrated, are filed together with the descriptive and documentary elements making it possible to select and interpret them. The CIS (Cluster Ion Spectrometry) experiment is a comprehensive ionic plasma spectrometry package onboard the Cluster spacecraft, capable of obtaining full three-dimensional ion distributions (about 0 to 40 keV/e) with a time resolution of one spacecraft spin (4 sec) and with mass-per-charge composition determination. For the archival of the CIS data a multi-level approach has been adopted. The CSA archival includes processed raw data, moments of the ion distribution functions, and calibrated high-resolution data in a variety of physical units. The latter are 3-D ion distribution functions, 2-D pitch-angle distributions and 1-D omni-directional fluxes. The CIS data archive includes also experiment documentation, graphical products for browsing through the data, data caveats and data quality indexes. The later constitute a novel product, which has been prepared in order to help the user asses the quality of the data acquired in different magnetospheric regions and during various operational modes. It provides information on which are in each case the issues that can affect the data quality, which are the data products affected, and gives a simple quantitative measurement of the severity of these issues. The principle of the CIS data quality indexes will be described and the various issues, that can under some conditions affect the data quality and are thus taken into account in generating the data quality indexes, will be discussed.

  12. Evaluating airborne and ground based gamma spectrometry methods for detecting particulate radioactivity in the environment: a case study of Irish Sea beaches.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, A J; Sanderson, D C W

    2012-10-15

    In several places, programmes are in place to locate and recover radioactive particles that have the potential to cause detrimental health effects in any member of the public who may encounter them. A model has been developed to evaluate the use of mobile gamma spectrometry systems within such programmes, with particular emphasis on large volume (16l) NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in low flying helicopters. This model uses a validated Monte Carlo code with assessment of local geochemistry and natural and anthropogenic background radiation concentrations and distributions. The results of the model, applied to the example of particles recovered from beaches in the vicinity of Sellafield, clearly show the ability of rapid airborne surveys conducted at 75 m ground clearance and 120 kph speeds to demonstrate the absence of sources greater than 5 MBq (137)Cs within large areas (10-20 km(2)h(-1)), and identify areas requiring further ground based investigation. Lowering ground clearance for airborne surveys to 15m whilst maintaining speeds covering 1-2 km(2) h(-1) can detect buried (137)Cs sources of 0.5MBq or greater activity. A survey design to detect 100 kBq (137)Cs sources at 10 cm depth has also been defined, requiring surveys at <15m ground clearance and <2 ms(-1) ground speed. The response of airborne systems to the Sellafield particles recovered to date has also been simulated, and the proportion of the existing radiocaesium background in the vicinity of the nuclear site has been established. Finally the rates of area coverage and sensitivities of both airborne and ground based approaches are compared, demonstrating the ability of airborne systems to increase the rate of particle recovery in a cost effective manner. The potential for equipment and methodological developments to improve performance are discussed.

  13. Measurement of low levels of 26Al from meteorite samples.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter N; Hult, Mikael; Altzitzoglo, Timotheos

    2002-01-01

    As part of an intercomparison to resolve discrepancies between accelerator mass spectrometry results and radiometric results, the 26Al activity in four meteorite samples was measured using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in the underground laboratory HADES. Although reference sources were used, extensive use was made of computer modelling to determine corrections for absorption, coincidence summing between gamma rays in the decays and annihilation radiation following positron emission. Directional correlation corrections were also taken into account. The limiting uncertainties in these measurements arose from counting statistics of 5-9%. Some computer modelling was undertaken to determine optimum geometry for this type of intercomparison involving gamma-ray spectrometry.

  14. Lead shielding efficiency from the gamma background measurements in the salt cavern of the Polkowice-Sieroszowice copper mine.

    PubMed

    Polaczek-Grelik, Kinga; Kisiel, Jan; Walencik-Łata, Agata; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Janowski, Paweł; Harańczyk, Małgorzata; Jurkowski, Jan; Zalewska, Agnieszka; Kobziński, Jan; Markowski, Paweł; Sadowski, Andrzej

    The studies of lead shielding efficiency from the gamma background measurements were performed in the salt cavern of the copper mine - a site considered for an underground laboratory. Within the energy range of 50-2700 keV, the measured gamma-ray count rates normalized to the mass of the high-purity detectors germanium crystal are 5.93 and 6.32 s(-1)kg(-1) for the used low-background and portable spectrometers, respectively. The gamma-ray flux of 0.124 (2) cm(-2)s(-1) connected with the natural radioisotopes was observed by the portable HPGe, including 0.026 (1) cm(-2)s(-1) contribution of radon decay products, whereas the photon flux at the spectrum continuum was 0.18 (5) cm(-2)s(-1).

  15. {sup 57}Co(n,{gamma}){sup 58}Co reaction cross section: Thermal and resonance integral measurements and energy dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Maidana, Nora L.; Mesa, Joel; Vanin, Vito R.; Castro, Ruy M.; Dias, Mauro S.; Koskinas, Marina F.

    2004-07-01

    The {sup 57}Co(n,{gamma}){sup 58}Co thermal and resonance integral cross section were measured as 51(5) b and 20.0(19) b, respectively, by irradiating aliquots of {sup 57}Co solution sealed inside quartz bottles near the core of the IEA-R1 IPEN research reactor and counting the gamma-ray residual activity. The irradiations were monitored using Au-Al alloy foils, with and without Cd cover. The gamma-ray measurements were performed with a shielded HPGe detector. Westcott formalism was applied for the average neutron flux determination. The cross section energy dependence was evaluated using the multilevel Breit-Wigner expression considering the first two resonances and the statistical model for energies above the second resonance. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross section with neutron temperatures between 5 and 100 keV were also evaluated.

  16. First half-life measurement of 60Fe using the direct decay of 60mCo and Acceleratory Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostdiek, Karen; Anderson, Tyler; Bauder, William; Bowers, Matthew; Collon, Philippe; Lu, Wenting; Robertson, Daniel; Skulski, Michael; Dressler, Rugard; Schumann, Dorothea; Greene, John; Kutschera, Walter; Paul, Michael; Wallner, Anton

    2016-03-01

    Radioisotopes, produced in stars and ejected through core collapse supernovae (SNe), are important for constraining stellar and early Solar System (ESS) models. The presence of these isotopes, specifically 60Fe , can identify progenitors of SN types, give evidence for nearby SN, and can be a chronometer for ESS events. The 60Fe half-life, which has been in dispute, can have an impact on calculations for the timing for ESS events, the distance to nearby SN, and the brightness of 60Fe gamma ray sources in the Galaxy. To measure such a long half life, one needs to simultaneously determine the number of atoms in and the activity of an 60Fe sample. We have undertaken a half-life measurement at Notre Dame and have successfully measured the activity of our 60Fe sample using the isomeric decay in 60Co rather than the traditional 60Co grow-in decay. This will then be coupled with the results of the 60Fe concentration measurement of our sample using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The most recent results of both will be presented.

  17. Protein turnover measurement using selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SRM-MS).

    PubMed

    Holman, Stephen W; Hammond, Dean E; Simpson, Deborah M; Waters, John; Hurst, Jane L; Beynon, Robert J

    2016-10-28

    Protein turnover represents an important mechanism in the functioning of cells, with deregulated synthesis and degradation of proteins implicated in many diseased states. Therefore, proteomics strategies to measure turnover rates with high confidence are of vital importance to understanding many biological processes. In this study, the more widely used approach of non-targeted precursor ion signal intensity (MS1) quantification is compared with selected reaction monitoring (SRM), a data acquisition strategy that records data for specific peptides, to determine if improved quantitative data would be obtained using a targeted quantification approach. Using mouse liver as a model system, turnover measurement of four tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins was performed using both MS1 and SRM quantification strategies. SRM outperformed MS1 in terms of sensitivity and selectivity of measurement, allowing more confident determination of protein turnover rates. SRM data are acquired using cheaper and more widely available tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, making the approach accessible to a larger number of researchers than MS1 quantification, which is best performed on high mass resolution instruments. SRM acquisition is ideally suited to focused studies where the turnover of tens of proteins is measured, making it applicable in determining the dynamics of proteins complexes and complete metabolic pathways.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  18. Measurements and Characterization of Neutron and Gamma Dose Quantities in the Vicinity of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Darois, E.L.; Keefer, D.G.; Plazeski, P.E.; Connell, J.

    2006-07-01

    As part of the decommissioning of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (MYAPCo) nuclear power plant, the spent nuclear fuel is being temporarily stored in a dry cask storage facility on a portion of the original licensed property. Each of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage casks hold approximately 25 spent fuel assemblies. Additional storage casks for the greater-than-Class C waste (GTCC) are also used. This waste is contained in 64 casks (60 SNF, 4 GTCC), each of which contain a substantial amount of concrete for shielding and structural purposes. The vertical concrete casks (VCCs) are typically separated by a distance of 4 and 6 feet. The storage casks are effective personnel radiation shields for most of the gamma and neutron radiation emitted from the fuel. However measurable gamma and neutron radiation levels are present in the vicinity of the casks. In order to establish a controlled area boundary around the facility such that a member of the public annual dose level of 0.25-mSv could be demonstrated, measurements of gamma and neutron dose equivalents were conducted. External gamma exposure rates were measured with a Pressurized Ion Chamber (PIC). Neutron absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates were measured with a Rossi-type tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). Both gamma and neutron measurements were made at increasing distances from the facility as well as at a background location. The results of the measurements show that the distance to the 0.25-mSv per year boundary for 100% occupancy conditions varies from 321 feet to 441 feet from the geometric center of the storage pads, depending on the direction from the pad. For the TEPC neutron measurements, the average quality factor from the facilities was approximately 7.4. This quality factor compares well with the average quality factor of 7.6 that was measured during a calibration performed with a bare Cf-252 source. (authors)

  19. Using gamma-ray emission to measure ablator areal density of imploded capsules at the Omega laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, N.; Rubery, M.; Herrmann, H.; Kim, Y.; Young, C.; Mack, J.; Wilson, D.; McEvoy, A.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C.; Glebov, V.

    2010-11-01

    We have measured the ablator areal density of plastic-shell implosions at the Omega laser, using gamma-ray emission from the capsules detected by the prototype Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic. The intensity of 4.44-MeV gamma emission from ^12C nuclei in the ablator is proportional to the product of ablator areal density and yield of fusion neutrons, so by detecting the gammas we can infer the ablator areal density, provided we also have a measurement of total neutron yield. Neutron yield is determined from the nTOF experiment at Omega in our approach; alternatively one could use 16.7-MeV gammas from DT fusion. Inferred values of time-averaged carbon areal density are in the range 10-30 mg/cm^2, for a range of implosions. These values are smaller than predicted values based on 1D simulations, which are typically in the range 30-40 mg/cm^2. We discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy, primarily related to mixing.

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion alpha-heating signatures in prompt gamma-ray measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Jennifer; Herrmann, Hans; Cerjan, Charlie; Sayre, Daniel; Carpenter, Arthur; Liebman, Judy; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Kim, Yongho

    2015-11-01

    Prompt gamma-rays measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with the Gamma-ray Reaction History detector (GRH) supply vital diagnostic information, such as the peak burn time, burn width, and total neutron yield, from prompt DT-fusion gamma-ray emission during high convergence implosion experiments. Additionally, the stagnated cold shell density distribution may be inferred from the time-integrated, calibrated 12C (n,n' γ) signal, thus providing estimates of remaining ablator carbon areal density. Furthermore, simulations suggest that alpha heating signatures might be accessible using more highly resolved temporal gamma-ray emission. Correlation of these signatures with time-dependent neutron emission will constrain the implosion dynamics immediately prior to thermonuclear burn. Measurement of these gamma-ray signatures will be discussed along with updates on our work toward inferred total DT yield and 12C areal density. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07-NA27344, LLNL-ABS-670282.

  1. Analysis and recent advances in gamma heating measurements in MINERVE facility by using TLD and OSLD techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Amharrak, H.; Di Salvo, J.; Lyoussi, A.; Roche, A.; Masson-Fauchier, M.; Bosq, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop nuclear heating measurement methods in Zero Power experimental reactors. This paper presents the analysis of Thermo-Luminescent Detector (TLD) and Optically Stimulated Luminescent Detectors (OSLD) experiments in the UO{sub 2} core of the MINERVE research reactor at the CEA Cadarache. The experimental sources of uncertainties on the gamma dose have been reduced by improving the conditions, as well as the repeatability, of the calibration step for each individual TLD. The interpretation of these measurements needs to take into account calculation of cavity correction factors, related to calibration and irradiation configurations, as well as neutron corrections calculations. These calculations are based on Monte Carlo simulations of neutron-gamma and gamma-electron transport coupled particles. TLD and OSLD are positioned inside aluminum pillboxes. The comparison between calculated and measured integral gamma-ray absorbed doses using TLD, shows that calculation slightly overestimates the measurement with a C/E value equal to 1.05 {+-} 5.3 % (k = 2). By using OSLD, the calculation slightly underestimates the measurement with a C/E value equal to 0.96 {+-} 7.0% (k = 2. (authors)

  2. Comparison of measured and calculated neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra behind an in-line shielded duct

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Chapman, G.T.; Tang, J.S.

    1982-05-01

    Integral experiments that measure the transport of approx. 14 MeV neutrons through a 0.30-m-diameter duct having a length-to-diameter ratio of 2.83 that is partially plugged with a 0.15 m diameter, 0.51 m long shield comprised of alternating layers of stainless steel type 304 and borated polyethylene have been carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measured and calculated neutron and gamma ray energy spectra are compared at several locations relative to the mouth of the duct. The measured spectra were obtained using an NE-213 liquid scintillator detector with pulse shape discrimination methods used to simultaneously resolve neutron and gamma ray events. The calculated spectra were obtained using a computer code network that incorporates two radiation transport methods: discrete ordinates (with P/sub 3/ multigroup cross sections) and Monte Carlo (with continuous point cross sections). The two radiation transport methods are required to account for neutrons that singly scatter from the duct to the detectors. The calculated and measured neutron energy spectra above 850 keV agree with 5 to 50% depending on detector location and neutron energy. The calculated and measured gamma ray energy spectra above 750 keV are also in favorable agreement, approx. 5 to 50%, depending on detector location and gamma ray energy.

  3. Diffuse Galactic Continuum Gamma Rays. A Model Compatible with EGRET Data and Cosmic-ray Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Andrew W.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Reimer, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the compatibility of some current models of the diffuse Galactic continuum gamma-rays with EGRET data. A set of regions sampling the whole sky is chosen to provide a comprehensive range of tests. The range of EGRET data used is extended to 100 GeV. The models are computed with our GALPROP cosmic-ray propagation and gamma-ray production code. We confirm that the "conventional model" based on the locally observed electron and nucleon spectra is inadequate, for all sky regions. A conventional model plus hard sources in the inner Galaxy is also inadequate, since this cannot explain the GeV excess away from the Galactic plane. Models with a hard electron injection spectrum are inconsistent with the local spectrum even considering the expected fluctuations; they are also inconsistent with the EGRET data above 10 GeV. We present a new model which fits the spectrum in all sky regions adequately. Secondary antiproton data were used to fix the Galactic average proton spectrum, while the electron spectrum is adjusted using the spectrum of diffuse emission it- self. The derived electron and proton spectra are compatible with those measured locally considering fluctuations due to energy losses, propagation, or possibly de- tails of Galactic structure. This model requires a much less dramatic variation in the electron spectrum than models with a hard electron injection spectrum, and moreover it fits the y-ray spectrum better and to the highest EGRET energies. It gives a good representation of the latitude distribution of the y-ray emission from the plane to the poles, and of the longitude distribution. We show that secondary positrons and electrons make an essential contribution to Galactic diffuse y-ray emission.

  4. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Plutonium in Sediment and Seawater from the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Leisvik, Mathias

    2001-08-01

    During the summer 2000, I was given the opportunity to work for about three months as a technical trainee at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, or LLNL as I will refer to it hereafter. University of California runs this Department of Energy laboratory, which is located 70 km east of San Francisco, in the small city of Livermore. This master thesis in Radioecology is based on the work I did here. LLNL, as a second U.S.-facility for development of nuclear weapons, was built in Livermore in the beginning of the 1950's (Los Alamos in New Mexico was the other one). It has since then also become a 'science center' for a number of areas like magnetic and laser fusion energy, non-nuclear energy, biomedicine, and environmental science. The Laboratory's mission has changed over the years to meet new national needs. The following two statements were found on the homepage of LLNL (http://www.llnl.gov), at 2001-03-05, where also information about the laboratory and the scientific projects that takes place there, can be found. 'Our primary mission is to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide'. 'Our goal is to apply the best science and technology to enhance the security and well-being of the nation and to make the world a safer place.' The Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology group at the Health and Ecological Assessments division employed me, and I also worked to some extent with the Centre for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) group. The work I did at LLNL can be divided into two parts. In the first part Plutonium (Pu) measurements in sediments from the Rongelap atoll in Marshall Islands, using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) were done. The method for measuring these kinds of samples is well understood at LLNL since soil samples have been measured with AMS for Pu in the past. Therefore it was the results that were of main interest and not the technique

  5. Emission rate estimation through data assimilation of gamma dose measurements in a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model.

    PubMed

    Tsiouri, V; Kovalets, I; Andronopoulos, S; Bartzis, J G

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm for estimating the unknown emission rate of radionuclides in the atmosphere following a nuclear accident. The algorithm is based on assimilation of gamma dose rate measured data in a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model. Such models are used in the framework of nuclear emergency response systems (ERSs). It is shown that the algorithm is applicable in both deterministic and stochastic modes of operation of the dispersion model. The method is evaluated by computational simulations of a 3-d field experiment on atmospheric dispersion of ⁴¹Ar emitted routinely from a research reactor. Available measurements of fluence rate (photons flux) in air are assimilated in the Lagrangian dispersion model DIPCOT and the ⁴¹Ar emission rate is estimated. The statistical analysis shows that the model-calculated emission rates agree well with the real ones. In addition the model-predicted fluence rates at the locations of the sensors, which were not used in the data assimilation procedure are in better agreement with the measurements. The first evaluation results of the method presented in this study show that the method performs satisfactorily and therefore it is applicable in nuclear ERSs provided that more comprehensive validation studies will be performed.

  6. Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R. A.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Grissom, C.; Aloiz, E.; Paul, R.

    2014-02-18

    The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 10–20. The H count rates were roughly 1–3 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field.

  7. Development of the new gamma-ray calorimeter for the measurement of Pigmy Dipole Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikata, Mizuki; Nakamura, Takashi; Togano, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Yosuke

    2014-09-01

    A new γ-ray calorimeter CATANA (CAlorimeter for gamma γ-ray Transition in Atomic Nuclei at high isospin Asynmetry) has been developed to measure highly excited states like the pygmy dipole resonance and the giant dipole resonance. CATANA will be used with the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The excitation energy spectrum will be reconstructed combining the invariant mass of the reaction products measured by SAMURAI and γ-ray energies from CATANA. CATANA has focused on achieving a high detection efficiency. It is calculated as 56% for 1 MeV γ-rays from beam with a velocity of β = 0.6. The CATANA array consists of 200 CsI(Na) crystals and covers angles from 10 to 120 degrees along the beam axis. In this study, we have tested prototype crystals of CATANA to evaluate their performance. A position dependence of the light input have been measured and compared with a Monte-Carlo simulation based on GEANT4. In this talk, we will report the design of CATANA and the result of the tests and the simulation.

  8. Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x ray fluxes with CCD cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, G. J.; Smith, G. W.; Zagarino, P.; Thomas, M. C.

    The capability to measure bursts of neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes directly with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras while being able to distinguish between the video signals produced by these two types of radiation, even when they occur simultaneously, has been demonstrated. Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCD's) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (4-12 MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate approx. = .05 V/rad responsivity with greater than or = 1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or 'peaks' binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 105 to 107 n/cc range indicate smearing over approx. 1 to 10 percent of the CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels.

  9. SU-E-I-79: Source Geometry Dependence of Gamma Well-Counter Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M; Belanger, A; Kijewski, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of liquid sample volume and geometry on counting efficiency in a gamma well-counter, and to assess the relative contributions of sample geometry and self-attenuation. Gamma wellcounters are standard equipment in clinical and preclinical studies, for measuring patient blo